Sample records for mcg oral misoprostol

  1. Misoprostol for labor induction in term pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel V. Surbek

    2007-01-01

    Misoprostol has been used off-label for labor induction for many years. A large number of randomized controlled studies have\\u000a assessed the efficacy and safety of misoprostol in different dose ranges between 10 and 100 mcg, with different dose intervals\\u000a and different administration routes including oral, intravaginal, rectal, sublingual, and buccal administration. Currently,\\u000a registration trials are underway, and misoprostol for registered indication

  2. A randomized clinical trial comparing vaginal misoprostol versus cervical Foley plus oral misoprostol for cervical ripening and labor induction.

    PubMed

    Hill, James B; Thigpen, Brad D; Bofill, James A; Magann, Everett; Moore, Lisa E; Martin, James N

    2009-01-01

    We compared labor induced by vaginal misoprostol versus a supracervical Foley catheter and oral misoprostol. Singleton pregnancies at > or = 24 weeks' gestation were randomized to either an initial 25-microg dose of intravaginal misoprostol, followed by 50-microg intravaginal doses at 3- to 6-hour intervals, or a supracervical Foley balloon and 100 microg of oral misoprostol at 4- to 6-hour intervals. Primary outcome was time from induction to delivery. One hundred twenty-six women were randomized to vaginal misoprostol alone (group I) and 106 women to Foley and oral misoprostol (group II). The groups were similar in age, weight, gestational age, parity, indication for induction of labor, and oxytocin use. Cesarean delivery rates at 37% and cesarean indications were similar ( P = 0.25). The time from induction to delivery in group II (12.9 hours) was significantly shorter than that in group I (17.8 hours, P < 0.001). Uterine tachysystole occurred less often in the vaginal misoprostol group (21% versus 39%, P = 0.015). Compared with vaginal misoprostol, delivery within 24 hours was significantly more likely with a Foley balloon and oral misoprostol. The use of terbutaline and peripartum outcomes were similar in the two groups. PMID:18850516

  3. Misoprostol for induction of labour: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyr, G J; Gülmezoglu, A M; Alfirevic, Z

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness and safety of misoprostol administered vaginally or orally for cervical ripening and labor induction in the third trimester of pregnancy were reviewed. Trials were identified from the register of randomized trials maintained by the Cochrane pregnancy and childbirth group. Findings showed that misoprostol doses ranging from 25 mcg 3-hourly to 50 mcg 4-hourly and 100 mcg 6- 12-hourly were more effective than oxytocin or dinoprostone recommended doses. The rate of cesarian section varied following vaginal misoprostol. However, there were increased rates of uterine hyperstimulation both with and without associated fetal heart rate changes. A lower dosage of vaginal misoprostol (25 mcg 6-hourly) was less effective than a higher one (25 mcg 3-hourly), with reduced rates of uterine hyperstimulation. Findings suggest that vaginal doses of 25 mcg misoprostol 3-hourly are more effective than conventional methods of cervical ripening and labor induction. The increase in uterine hyperstimulation with fetal heart rate changes following administration of misoprostol is a matter of concern. There is a possibility that an unacceptably high number of serious adverse events such as uterine rupture and asphyxial fetal deaths may occur if sufficient numbers are studied. Though misoprostol may show some promise as an effective agent for labor induction, it cannot be recommended for routine use. Lower-dose misoprostol regimens should be investigated further. PMID:10453829

  4. High-Dose Oral Misoprostol for Mid-Trimester Pregnancy Interruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk D. Ramin; Paul L. Ogburn; Diana R. Danilenko; Patrick S. Ramsey

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of high-dose oral misoprostol for mid-trimester pregnancy interruption. Methods: We reviewed our experience with high-dose oral misoprostol for mid-trimester pregnancy interruption from November 1995 to May 1999. Patients undergoing labor induction for intrauterine fetal demise or medically indicated pregnancy termination at 13–32 weeks of gestation with a non-dilated cervix were evaluated. Patients received 400 ?g

  5. Comparison between oral and vaginal administration of misoprostol on uterine contractility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gemzell Danielsson; L Marions; A Rodriguez; B. W Spur; P. Y. K Wong; M Bygdeman

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To compare the degree of absorption and the effect on uterine contractility of the prostaglandin E1 analogue misoprostol after vaginal and oral administration.Methods: Thirty women with a normal intrauterine pregnancy between 8 and 11 weeks’ gestation who requested termination of pregnancy were given either 0.2 mg (orally n = 5; vaginally n = 6) or 0.4 mg (orally n

  6. A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial of Oral Misoprostol and Intramuscular Syntometrine in the Management of the Third Stage of Labor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Ng; C. Y. Lai; D. S. Sahota; P. M. Yuen

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of oral misoprostol 400 ?g with intramuscular syntometrine in the management of the third stage of labor. Material and Methods: This was a double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Three hundred and fifty-five women randomized to receive either oral misoprostol 400 ?g or

  7. Randomized Trial of Oral Misoprostol Treatment for Cervical Ripening Before Tandem Application in Cervix Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cepni, Kimia; Gul, Sule [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ministry of Health, Dr. Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Cepni, Ismail [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Gueralp, Onur, E-mail: dronur@hotmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Sal, Veysel [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Mayadagli, Alpaslan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ministry of Health, Dr. Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of oral misoprostol administered to facilitate tandem application to the cervix as a part of brachytherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty patients with cervical cancer who had been planned to undergo brachytherapy at Dr. Luetfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital were evaluated in a double-blind, prospective, randomized trial. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of 40 patients. The first and second groups received 400 {mu}g of misoprostol orally and placebo, respectively, 3 h before tandem application. The two groups were compared in terms of age, diameter of tumor, parity, age at first intercourse, amount of bleeding and pain at first tandem application, length of endometrial cavity measured by hysterometer, and size of Hegar dilators used for cervical dilatation. Results: Of all cases, 63.6%, 16.3%, 10%, 6.3%, 2.5%, and 1.3% were Stage IIB, IIIB, IIIA, IVA, IIA and IIC, respectively. Mean ({+-}SD) age (range) was 49.3 {+-} 13.1 (25-83) years and 56.6 {+-} 13.2 (30-78) years in the study and control groups, respectively (p = 0.015). Age at first intercourse, diameter of tumor, parity, amount of bleeding at first tandem application, and length of endometrial cavity measured by hysterometer were not significantly different between the two groups. Pain score was significantly higher in the control group (p < 0.001). Application was significantly easier in the study group compared with controls (p < 0.001). Average size of initial Hegar dilators used for cervical dilatation was significantly higher in the study group compared with controls (p = 0.017). Conclusion: Administration of misoprostol 400 {mu}g orally for cervical ripening before tandem application facilitates the procedure, increases patient tolerability and comfort, and may decrease complication rates.

  8. Oral toxicity of isotretinoin, misoprostol, methotrexate, mifepristone and levonorgestrel as pregnancy category X medications in female mice

    PubMed Central

    KIM, SEONG-KWAN; SHIN, SOO-JEONG; YOO, YOHAN; KIM, NA-HYUN; KIM, DONG-SOON; ZHANG, DAN; PARK, JIN-A; YI, HEE; KIM, JIN-SUK; SHIN, HO-CHUL

    2015-01-01

    An oral toxicity study of several pregnancy category X drugs was performed in female ICR mice. The drugs were administered orally once daily for 3 days at doses of 1, 10 and 100 ?g/kg for isotretinoin; 6.7, 67 and 670 ?g/kg for misoprostol; 83, 830 and 8,300 ?g/kg for methotrexate; 3.3, 33 and 330 ?g/kg for mifepristone; and 25, 250 and 2,500 ?g/kg for levonorgestrel. During the test period, clinical signs, mortality, body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry and necropsy findings were examined. Following administration of methotrexate at 8,300 ?g/kg, a number of animals exhibited decreased spontaneous activity, and one animal died. In the hematological analysis, compared with those treated with the control, the animals treated with the drugs exhibited similar significant decreases in the number of granulocytes and granulocyte differentiation, and increases in lymphocyte differentiation. In the serum biochemical analysis, animals receiving high doses of the five drugs demonstrated significant changes in uric acid, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, lipase, total cholesterol and calcium. At necropsy, intestinal redness was frequently observed in animals that received the high dose of methotrexate. Uterus enlargement and ovary dropsy were also detected in the groups receiving mifepristone and levonorgestrel. Despite the short-term exposure, these drugs exhibited significant side effects, including white blood cell toxicity, in the mouse model. Category X drugs can be traded illegally via the internet for the purpose of early pregnancy termination. Thus, illegal abuse of the drugs should be further discouraged to protect mothers. PMID:25667641

  9. Comparison of vaginal misoprostol and gemeprost as pre-treatment in first trimester pregnancy interruption.

    PubMed

    Henry, A M; Haukkamaa, M

    1999-06-01

    The effectiveness of vaginal misoprostol pretreatment in first-trimester abortion was compared with that of the standard gemeprost pretreatment regimen in a prospective randomized study conducted at Helsinki City Maternity Hospital (Finland) during 1996-97. 188 women scheduled for vacuum aspiration abortion were assigned to undergo cervical priming with a vaginally applied 200 mcg tablet of misoprostol for at least 4 hours (n = 95) or a 1 mg gemeprost vaginal suppository for at least 3 hours (n = 93). The mean duration of prostaglandin pretreatment was 221 minutes in the gemeprost group and 288 minutes in the misoprostol group. 14% of women in the gemeprost group and 5% in the misoprostol group needed pain medication. There were no uterine perforations, cervical ruptures, or incomplete evacuations in either group. Nausea and diarrhea were significantly more frequent in the gemeprost group. The effects of the two analogues were similar in terms of cervical softening, as determined by baseline cervical dilatation, and the presence of blood in the vagina. Overall, the misoprostol treatment was found to be as effective as the more costly gemeprost regimen, with even fewer side effects. Use of a 400 mcg vaginal dose of misoprostol could be considered to reduce the time required to reach peak plasma concentrations. PMID:10426610

  10. A combined oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 3.0 mg drospirenone does not impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation

    PubMed Central

    Meendering, Jessica R.; Torgrimson, Britta N.; Miller, Nicole P.; Kaplan, Paul F.; Minson, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ethinyl estradiol (EE) increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation in young women, but certain progestins paired with EE in combination OCPs have been shown to antagonize the vasodilatory effects of EE. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how endothelial function, serum biomarkers, and resting blood pressures change across an OCP cycle in women using a monophasic OCP formulation containing the progestin drospirenone. Study Design Twelve women were studied during two hormone phases of their OCP cycle; once at the end of three weeks of active pills (30 mcg EE and 3.0 mg drospirenone), and once at the end of a week of placebo pills (no exogenous hormones). Results Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was greater during the active phase compared to the placebo phase (p < 0.001). In contrast, there was no difference in endothelium-independent dilation between hormone phases. Conclusion These data suggest that the combination of 30 mcg EE and 3.0 mg drospirenone used in the active phase of this OCP increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation compared to a placebo phase. PMID:20851231

  11. Exacerbation of Celecoxib-Induced Renal Injury by Concomitant Administration of Misoprostol in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Dustin L.; Murrell, Derek E.; Conder, Christopher M.; Palau, Victoria E.; Campbell, Grace E.; Lynch, Shaun P.; Denham, James W.; Hanley, Angela V.; Bullins, Kenny W.; Panus, Peter C.; Singh, Krishna; Harirforoosh, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can produce adverse effects by inhibiting prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. A PGE1 analogue, misoprostol, is often utilized to alleviate NSAID-related gastrointestinal side effects. This study examined the effect of misoprostol on celecoxib renal toxicity. Additionally, the effects of these drugs on cardiovascular parameters were evaluated. Four randomized rat groups were orally gavaged for 9 days, two groups receiving vehicle and two groups receiving misoprostol (100 µg/kg) twice daily. Celecoxib (40 mg/kg) was co-administered once daily to one vehicle and one misoprostol group from days 3 to 9. Urine and blood samples were collected and blood pressure parameters were measured during the study period. Hearts and kidneys were harvested on final day. Day 2 urinary electrolyte samples revealed significant reductions in sodium excretion in misoprostol (0.12±0.05 µmol/min/100 g) and misoprostol+celecoxib groups (0.07±0.02 µmol/min/100 g). At day 3, all treatment groups showed significantly reduced sodium excretion. Potassium excretion diminished significantly in vehicle+celecoxib and misoprostol+celecoxib groups from day 3 onward. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 levels were significantly increased in vehicle+celecoxib (0.65±0.02 vs. 0.35±0.07 ng/mL, p?=?0.0002) and misoprostol+celecoxib (0.61±0.06 vs. 0.37±0.06 ng/mL, p?=?0.0015) groups when compared to baseline; while plasma levels of cardiac troponin I increased significantly in vehicle+celecoxib (p?=?0.0040) and misoprostol+misoprostol (p?=?0.0078) groups when compared to vehicle+vehicle. Blood pressure parameters increased significantly in all misoprostol treated groups. Significant elevation in diastolic (p?=?0.0071) and mean blood pressure (p?=?0.0153) was noted in misoprostol+celecoxib compared to vehicle+celecoxib. All treatments produced significant tubular dilatation/necrosis compared to control. No significant myocardial changes were noticed; however, three animals presented with pericarditis. Kidney, heart, and plasma celecoxib levels revealed no significant change between vehicle+celecoxib and misoprostol+celecoxib. Concomitant misoprostol administration did not prevent celecoxib renal toxicity, and instead exacerbated renal side effects. Misoprostol did not alter plasma or tissue celecoxib concentrations suggesting no pharmacokinetic interaction between celecoxib and misoprostol. PMID:24586517

  12. Ethynilestradiol 20?mcg plus Levonorgestrel 100?mcg: Clinical Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Estroprogestins (EPs) are combinations of estrogen and progestin with several actions on women's health. The different pharmacological composition of EPs is responsible for different clinical effects. One of the most used low-dose EP associations is ethinylestradiol 20?mcg plus levonorgestrel 100?mcg in monophasic regimen (EE20/LNG100). This review summarizes clinical pharmacology, cycle control, and effects on lipid and glucose metabolism, coagulation, body weight/body composition, acne, and sexuality of EE20/LNG100. Overall, EE20/LNG100 combination is safe and well tolerated, and in several studies the incidence of adverse events in the treated group was comparable to that of the placebo group. Cycle control was effective and body weight/body composition did not vary among treated and untreated groups in most studies. The EE20/LNG100 combination shows mild or no effect on lipid and glucose metabolism. Lastly, EE20/LNG100 is associated with a low risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). In conclusion, in the process of decision making for the individualization of EPs choice, EE20/LNG100 should be considered for its favorable clinical profile. PMID:25477960

  13. Medical management of early fetal demise using a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. T. Wagaarachchi; P. W. Ashok; N. Narvekar; N. C. Smith; A. Templeton

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the efficacy of a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol in the management of missed miscarriage and anembryonic pregnancy. METHODS: Data of 220 consecutive women with miscarriage, undergoing medical evacuation of the uterus were collected prospectively at an early pregnancy assessment unit in a tertiary referral hospital. Each woman received a single oral dose of

  14. Cervical ripening and induction of labor with misoprostol, dinoprostone gel, and a foley catheter: A randomized trial of 3 techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Scott Barrilleaux; James A. Bofill; Dom A. Terrone; Everett F. Magann; Warren L. May; John C. Morrison

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of 3 different techniques of cervical ripening and induction. Study Design: Patients who required cervical ripening and induction were randomized to one of 3 groups: (1) supracervical Foley catheter and intravaginal dinoprostone gel, (2) supracervical Foley catheter and 100 ?g oral doses of misoprostol, or (3) serial 100-?g oral

  15. Misoprostol for preventing and treating postpartum hemorrhage in the community: a closer look at the evidence.

    PubMed

    Oladapo, Olufemi T

    2012-11-01

    The lack of clear interpretation of clinical and operational evidence on misoprostol use for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in the community may jeopardize the realization of its full potential for improving women's survival. This paper highlights the usefulness of misoprostol in addressing PPH in the community within the limits of available research evidence. There is now substantial evidence to support the beneficial effects of 600 ?g of oral misoprostol for PPH prevention in the community, with a trend toward better protection against severe PPH morbidity, and particularly when administered by less skilled or lay caregivers. Although there is tangible evidence to show that 800 ?g of sublingual misoprostol has important benefits for PPH treatment where there is no access to oxytocin, there is presently no direct evidence to indicate that less skilled or lay caregivers can safely use it to treat PPH in the community. Operational research evidence indicates that advance community distribution of misoprostol to pregnant women for postpartum self-use is a feasible strategy to ensure availability of the drug at the time of birth. The evidence is, however, limited by its quality to establish whether the benefits of such a strategy truly outweigh the potential harms. It is time for the international community to focus on improving PPH-related outcomes by scaling up what is currently guided by hard evidence and join forces to address unanswered questions through high-quality research. PMID:22968139

  16. Overview and expert assessment of off-label use of misoprostol in obstetrics and gynaecology: review and report by the Collège national des gynécologues obstétriciens français.

    PubMed

    Marret, H; Simon, E; Beucher, G; Dreyfus, M; Gaudineau, A; Vayssière, C; Lesavre, M; Pluchon, M; Winer, N; Fernandez, H; Aubert, J; Bejan-Angoulvant, T; Jonville-Bera, A P; Clouqueur, E; Houfflin-Debarge, V; Garrigue, A; Pierre, F

    2015-04-01

    The literature suggests that misoprostol can be offered to patients for off-label use as it has reasonable efficacy, risk/benefit ratio, tolerance and patient satisfaction, according to the criteria for evidence-based medicine. Both the vaginal and sublingual routes are more effective than the oral route for first-trimester cervical dilatation. Vaginal misoprostol 800?g, repeated if necessary after 24 or 48h, is a possible alternative for management after early pregnancy failure. However, misoprostol has not been demonstrated to be useful for the evacuation of an incomplete miscarriage, except for cervical dilatation before vacuum aspiration. Oral mifepristone 200mg, followed 24-48h later by vaginal, sublingual or buccal misoprostol 800?g (followed 3-4h later, if necessary, by misoprostol 400?g) is a less efficacious but less aggressive alternative to vacuum aspiration for elective or medically-indicated first-trimester terminations; this alternative becomes increasingly less effective as gestational age increases. In the second trimester, vaginal misoprostol 800-2400?g in 24h, 24-48h after at least 200mg of mifepristone, is an alternative to surgery, sulprostone and gemeprost. Data for the third trimester are sparse. For women with an unripe cervix and an unscarred uterus, vaginal misoprostol 25?g every 3-6h is an alternative to prostaglandin E2 for cervical ripening at term for a live fetus. When oxytocin is unavailable, misoprostol can be used after delivery for prevention (sublingual misoprostol 600?g) and treatment (sublingual misoprostol 800?g) of postpartum haemorrhage. The use of misoprostol to promote cervical dilatation before diagnostic hysteroscopy or surgical procedures is beneficial for premenopausal women but not for postmenopausal women. Nonetheless, in view of the side effects of misoprostol, its use as a first-line treatment is not indicated, and it should be reserved for difficult cases. Misoprostol is not useful for placing or removing the types of intra-uterine devices used in Europe, regardless of parity. PMID:25701235

  17. The Prostaglandin E1 Analog Misoprostol Reduces Symptoms and Microvascular Arteriovenous Shunting in Erythromelalgia—A Double-Blind, Crossover, Placebo-Compared Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cato Mørk; E. Goran Salerud; Claes L. Asker; Knut Kvernebo

    2004-01-01

    Based on previous experience with parenteral prostanoids, we studied the effect of misoprostol treatment, an orally administered prostaglandin E1 analog, in patients with erythromelalgia. Treatment with placebo was followed by treatment with misoprostol (0.4–0.8 mg per d), both for 6 wk. The patients (n=21) and a study nurse who administered the trial were blinded. The endpoints were change in pain

  18. Misoprostol in second trimester termination of pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra L. Wright-Francis; B. Denise Raynor; Gilbert W. Webb

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare misoprostol to oxytocin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in second trimester termination of pregnancy.Methods: Patients between 14 and 24 weeks gestation scheduled for induction were asked to enroll in the study using misoprostol. Comparison was made with historical controls delivered over the last 3 years who received medical induction with (PGE2) suppositories

  19. Low-dose mifepristone 200 mg and vaginal misoprostol for abortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A Schaff; Steven H Eisinger; Lisa S Stadalius; Peter Franks; Bernard Z Gore; Suzanne Poppema

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness, side effects, and acceptability of one-third the standard 600 mg dose of mifepristone (200 mg) to induce abortion.A prospective trial at seven sites enrolled women ?18 years, up to 8 weeks pregnant, and wanting an abortion. The women received 200 mg mifepristone orally, self-administered 800 ?g misoprostol vaginally at home

  20. Termination of 2nd and 3rd trimester pregnancies with mifepristone and misoprostol.

    PubMed

    Jannet, D; Aflak, N; Abankwa, A; Carbonne, B; Marpeau, L; Milliez, J

    1996-12-27

    A clinical study of 106 second- and third-trimester induced abortions conducted at a hospital in Paris, France, confirmed the feasibility of a combined mifepristone-misoprostol regimen. All women were hospitalized and administered 600 mg of mifepristone, followed 24 hours later by 400 mcg of misoprostol every 6 hours until fetal expulsion. Medical reasons for pregnancy termination included fetal morphological abnormalities (34.9%), intrauterine death (26.4%), chromosome anomalies (16.9%), and maternal indications (19%). The average gestational age was 22.1 weeks (range, 15-41 weeks). The average expulsion interval was 12.5 +or- 7.5 hours (range, 30 minutes-38 hours). This interval was significantly shorter in multiparas, second-trimester pregnancies, and cases of fetal death. Mild side effects (e.g., vomiting, hyperthermia, and diarrhea) were noted in 34 patients (32%); there were no major complications. The mean length of hospital stay was 4.1 +or- 2.5 days. The efficacy of this regimen is comparable to that of regimens involving other abortifacient agents, but with the added advantages of greater ease of utilization and lower costs. PMID:9119097

  1. The effect of contraceptive pills on the measured blood loss in medical termination of pregnancy by mifepristone and misoprostol: a randomized placebo controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oi Shan Tang; Jieshuang Xu; Linan Cheng; Sharon W. H. Lee; Pak Chung Ho

    BACKGROUND: A prospective randomized placebo controlled trial was performed to assess the immediate use of oral contraceptive (OC) on the amount of blood loss in the post-abortion period in women undergoing medical abortion by mifepristone and misoprostol. METHODS: One hundred women were randomized by computer to receive either OC pills or placebo, immediately after medical abortion. RESULTS: There was no

  2. Safety, efficacy, and acceptability of medical abortion in China, Cuba, and India: A comparative trial of mifepristone-misoprostol versus surgical abortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly Winikoff; Irving Sivin; Kurus J. Coyaji; Evelio Cabezas; Xiao Bilian; Gu Sujuan; Du Ming-kun; Usha R. Krishna; Andrea Eschen; Charlotte Ellertson

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated safety, efficacy, and acceptability of an oral regimen of medical abortion compared with surgical abortion in three developing countries.STUDY DESIGN: Women (n = 1373) with amenorrhea ?56 days chose either surgical abortion (as provided routinely) or 600 mg of mifepristone followed after 48 hours by 400 ?g of misoprostol. This is the appropriate design for studying safety,

  3. Management of third stage of labor with misoprostol: A comparison of three routes of administration

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Kaur, Harpreet; Goraya, S. P. S.; Singh, Anita; KaurIshar, Harpreet

    2012-01-01

    Background and Context: Misoprostol is a versatile drug with an effective uterotonic effect on the postpartum uterine tissue and is used through various routes during the third stage of labor. Aims and Objectives: A randomized prospective study was carried out to analyze the most effective route for misoprostol administration, with an emphasis on parturients’ acceptability and compliance, a possible shortening of the duration of the third stage of labor, minimization of blood loss and possibly reducing the incidence of potential side effects. Materials and Methods: The study groups comprised of 300 healthy parturients, divided randomly into three groups of 100 parturients each, who were administered misoprostol 400 ?g through the oral (O), rectal (R), and sublingual (S) routes, respectively, during the third stage of labor. Estimation of blood loss was measured in terms of fall in hemoglobin, hematocrit, and packed cell volume (PCV) levels, and duration of the third stage of labor was also compared. Results: The mean duration for the third stage of labor was significantly shorter in group S (3.62 minutes) as compared to R (4.12 minutes), and O (4.94 minutes) (P = 0.02). The average blood loss was observed to be the least in the group S (210 ml) as compared to group R (230 ml), and group O. The incidence of shivering and fever was observed to be significantly higher (25 and 15%) in the parturients of group S (P < 0.05). Conclusions: All routes were equally effective in managing the third stage of labor, but administration of misoprostol through the rectal route evoked better acceptability, comparable efficacy, and had an incidence of minimal side effects. PMID:23125961

  4. Commercial availability of misoprostol and induced abortion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, S H

    1998-12-01

    In Brazil, abortion is only permitted to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. The principal effect of legal restrictions is not to make induced abortion practice less prevalent but to force poor women to resort to abortions performed under unhygienic conditions or attempt self-induced abortion. Within this context, misoprostol, a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1, was introduced in the country in 1986. Purchased over the counter in pharmacies, misoprostol has became a popular abortifacient method among Brazilian women. By 1990, about 70% of women hospitalized with abortion-related diagnoses reported use of the drug. In 1991, the Ministry of Health restricted the sale of misoprostol, and in some states its use was totally banned. While the proportion of abortions induced with misoprostol has decreased, the drug continues to be sold on the black market at an inflated value. Research indicates that women have acquired more experience with the drug over time, resulting in lower doses and more effective administration. Several studies show that the rate and severity of complications are significantly less among women who used misoprostol compared with women who used invasive methods. Research also suggests that about half of the women have complete abortion with misoprostol, but seek medical care as soon as they have vaginal bleeding. The experience of Brazilian women with misoprostol is an example of how women when faced with unwanted pregnancy will resort to illegal abortion whatever the costs are to their health. PMID:10075223

  5. Misoprostol for induction of labor with a live fetus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Alfirevic; A. Faúndes; G. J. Hofmeyr; P. Safar; D. Wing

    2007-01-01

    Induction of labor is common in clinical practice. Many different medical and mechanical methods have been used, but the current gold standard is vaginal dinoprostone. Misoprostol has been used for the induction of labor since 1987. In early studies with large misoprostol doses (e.g. 200 ?g) there were high rates of uterine hyperstimulation. Cochrane meta-analysis, however, shows that when used in

  6. Post-abortion complications after interruption of pregnancy with misoprostol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Faúndes; L. C. Santos; M. Carvalho; C. Gras

    1996-01-01

    The high incidence of abortion in Brazil and the increased use of misoprostol among women having clandestine\\/unsafe abortions has led to an interest in evaluating whether there is an association between the use of misoprostol and the incidence of septic complications post-abortion. To test this association, a retrospective cohort study was conducted with 1840 women treated post-abortion at the Instituto

  7. A randomized trial of saline solution–moistened misoprostol versus dry misoprostol for first-trimester pregnancy failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry M Gilles; Mitchell D Creinin; Kurt Barnhart; Carolyn Westhoff; Margaret M Frederick; Jun Zhang

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to estimate whether the efficacy of treatment with intravaginal misoprostol for first-trimester pregnancy failure is enhanced by the addition of saline solution.

  8. Misoprostol 50 ?g Sublingually versus Vaginally for Labor Induction at Term: A Randomized Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eray Caliskan; Harika Bodur; Semih Ozeren; Aydin Corakci; Sabiha Ozkan; Izzet Yucesoy

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of misoprostol 50 ?g vaginally and 50 ?g sublingually for labor induction at term. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty women were randomized to receive misoprostol 50 ?g vaginally (n = 80) or 50 ?g sublingually misoprostol (n = 80). The doses were given every 4 h (maximum 6 doses). Primary outcome measure was

  9. A COMPARISON OF VAGINAL MISOPROSTOL WITH INTRAVENOUS OXYTOCIN FOR CERVICAL RIPENING AND LABOR INDUCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Eftekhari; B. Motamedi; H. Said

    Labor induction despite an unriped cervix is one of the most common indications of the use of prostoglandines. This clinical trial was performed to compare the effectiveness of oxytocin with misoprostol for induction of labor in Bahonar Hospital, Kerman\\/lran from 1999 to 2000. Sixty pregnant women with indication for labor induction were randomly assigned to receive misoprostol or oxytocin. Misoprostol

  10. Randomized trial to determine optimal dose of vaginal misoprostol for preabortion cervical priming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuldip Singh; Y. F Fong; R. N. V Prasad; F Dong

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the optimal dosage of vaginal misoprostol for cervical priming before vacuum aspiration abortion.Methods: One hundred twenty women were assigned randomly to receive 200, 400, 600, or 800 ?g of misoprostol given vaginally. Vacuum aspiration was performed 3–4 hours after the insertion of misoprostol tablets. The degree of cervical dilation before operation was measured with a Hegar dilator.

  11. Methotrexate and misoprostol for early abortion: A multicenter trial. I. Safety and efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitchell D. Creinin; Eric Vittinghoff; Lisa Keder; Philip D. Darney; George Tiller

    1996-01-01

    A prospective trial was conducted including 300 pregant women seeking elective abortion to evaluate the safety and efficacy of methotrexate and misoprostol for abortion at ?56 days gestation. Subjects received methotrexate 50 mg\\/m2 intramuscularly followed 7 days later by misoprostol 800 ?g vaginally. The misoprostol dose was repeated the next day if the abortion did not occur. Outcome measures included

  12. An investigation of misoprostol in the promotion of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Vandervoort, J M; Nieves, M A; Fales-Williams, A; Evans, R; Mason, D R

    2006-01-01

    Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1 that is known to attenuate the inflammatory process and promote collagen formation by inhibiting IL-1 and TNF. The objective of this study was to determine if the application of misoprostol wound powder to open wounds in dogs would modulate inflammation and decrease wound healing time. This prospective randomized study included 20 dogs with 281 surgically created 8 mm open wounds over the dorsum. The wounds were assigned to one of three treatments: control (no treatment), treatment (misoprostol powder with 'avicel'), or vehicle ('avicel' alone). Open wounds were digitally photographed on days zero, one, three, seven, 10, and 15 to measure wound size. All wounds were harvested at day 15 and evaluated histologically for evidence of edema, inflammation, necrosis, and collagen characteristics. Amount of epithelialization of open wounds was not significantly different among the groups at days three, seven, 10, and 15. The vehicle treated wounds were found to have a significantly higher degree of necrosis in comparison to control and treatment wounds. The control wounds had significantly lower scores for deep inflammation. All of the other parameters evaluated including location of wound, oedema, and characteristics of collagen fibres in the wound showed no significance among groups. However, the total wound score for the misoprostol was statistically higher than that for the control wounds. Therefore the value of using misoprostol wound powder with 'avicel' as the vehicle to enhance wound healing cannot be substantiated by the results of this study. PMID:17143390

  13. Frequency of various galaxy morphological types in the MCG catalog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Dostal

    1979-01-01

    The frequencies of galaxies of different morphological types among the 28,296 galaxies listed in Vols. I-IV of the Morphological Catalog of Galaxies (MCG) compiled by Vorontsov-Vel'iaminov et al. (1962, 1964-68) are computed. The galaxy forms described in the catalog are divided into 10 types, and five groups are established for the degrees of patchiness. It is found that spirals account

  14. Genetic and functional properties of uncultivated MCG archaea assessed by metagenome and gene expression analyses.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jun; Xu, Jun; Qin, Dan; He, Ying; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Fengping

    2014-03-01

    The Miscellaneous Crenarchaeota group (MCG) Archaea is one of the predominant archaeal groups in anoxic environments and may have significant roles in the global biogeochemical cycles. However, no isolate of MCG has been cultivated or characterized to date. In this study, we investigated the genetic organization, ecophysiological properties and evolutionary relationships of MCG archaea with other archaeal members using metagenome information and the result of gene expression experiments. A comparison of the gene organizations and similarities around the 16S rRNA genes from all available MCG fosmid and cosmid clones revealed no significant synteny among genomic fragments, demonstrating that there are large genetic variations within members of the MCG. Phylogenetic analyses of large-subunit+small-subunit rRNA, concatenated ribosomal protein genes and topoisomerases IB gene (TopoIB) all demonstrate that MCG constituted a sister lineage to the newly proposed archaeal phylum Aigarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Genes involved in protocatechuate degradation and chemotaxis were found in a MCG fosmid 75G8 genome fragment, suggesting that this MCG member may have a role in the degradation of aromatic compounds. Moreover, the expression of a putative 4-carboxymuconolactone decarboxylase was observed when the sediment was supplemented with protocatechuate, further supporting the hypothesis that this MCG member degrades aromatic compounds. PMID:24108328

  15. Moderately shielded high-Tc SQUID system for rat MCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechstein, S.; Kim, I.-S.; Drung, D.; Novikov, I.; Schurig, Th

    2010-06-01

    Recently, we have developed a 5-channel high-Tc SQUID system with one signal channel intended for rat magnetocardiography (MCG) in moderately shielded or "quiet" real environment. This system is an adapted version of a human MCG system which has been improved with respect to user-friendliness and stability. A dewar with a cold-warm distance of 7 mm and a refill cycle time of up to one week is utilized. The implemented high-Tc SQUIDs are single-layer devices with grain boundary junctions fabricated at KRISS with laser ablation on 10 mm × 10 mm STO substrates. In order to cancel environmental magnetic noise, three of the five SQUIDs are arranged to build an axial software first-order or second-order gradiometer with a base line of 35 mm. The other two SQUIDs are used for balancing. To overcome previous system instabilities, we have implemented an Earth field compensation for each SQUID. For this, the SQUIDs were mounted in capsules containing integrated field compensation coils. The three Earth field components are measured with an additional triaxial fluxgate, and compensated at the SQUID locations using the low-noise current source of the SQUID readout electronics. This way, the SQUIDs can be cooled and operated in a low residual field that improves system stability and reduces low-frequency SQUID noise. It is even possible to slowly move the dewar in the Earth field (dynamic field compensation). Different noise cancellation procedures were optimized and compared employing a periodic signal source.

  16. Misoprostol use in obstetrics and gynecology in Brazil, Jamaica, and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Clark; J. Blum; K. Blanchard; L. Galvão; H. Fletcher; B. Winikoff

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate current clinical use of misoprostol for the treatment of a range of reproductive health indications by providers in Brazil, Jamaica, and the United States. Methods: Using a ‘snowball’ sampling technique, we surveyed 228 gynecologists and obstetricians in Brazil (n=123), Jamaica (n=52), and the United States (n=53). Results: Providers use misoprostol for labor induction (46%), postpartum hemorrhage (8%),

  17. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF MISOPROSTOL AND OXYTOCIN AS LABOR PREINDUCTION AGENTS: A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Abedi-Asl; M. Farrokhi; M. Rajaee

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of misoprostol and oxytocin for induction of labor. In this prospective and randomized controlled trial one hundred twenty women with an unfavorable cervix who underwent labor induction were assigned to receive either intravenous high dose oxytocin (6 mIu\\/min) or intravaginal misoprostol 50 +g every 6 hours for two

  18. COMPARISON OF PROSTAGLANDIN E2 WITH MISOPROSTOL FOR INDUCTION OF LABOUR AT TERM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAYYIBA WASIM; SAQIB SIDDIQ

    Objective: To evaluate the use of vaginal misoprostol compared with vaginal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) for labour induction at term. Design: Experimental. Setting: Gynae Unit III, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology SIMS \\/ Services Hospital Lahore. Methods: Patients were randomized to two groups with 100 patients in each group. One group received 50?g of misoprostol vaginally every four hours up till

  19. Fabrication of the refined MEMS-based compound grating (MCG) based on silicon micromachining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yahong Yao; Bai Xu; James Castracane

    2001-01-01

    The MEMS-based Micrograting (MCG) is a basic building component in many optical systems. This paper presents the fabrication technique of a custom MCG whose optical surface can be reconfigured electrostatically. The ruling is made of SiO2 and both the top and the bottom electrodes are made of Cr\\/Au. A robust three-mask process was designed and developed. The reduced ruling width

  20. Investigations of sensitivity and resolution of ECG and MCG in a realistically shaped thorax model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäntynen, Ville; Konttila, Teijo; Stenroos, Matti

    2014-12-01

    Solving the inverse problem of electrocardiography (ECG) and magnetocardiography (MCG) is often referred to as cardiac source imaging. Spatial properties of ECG and MCG as imaging systems are, however, not well known. In this modelling study, we investigate the sensitivity and point-spread function (PSF) of ECG, MCG, and combined ECG+MCG as a function of source position and orientation, globally around the ventricles: signal topographies are modelled using a realistically-shaped volume conductor model, and the inverse problem is solved using a distributed source model and linear source estimation with minimal use of prior information. The results show that the sensitivity depends not only on the modality but also on the location and orientation of the source and that the sensitivity distribution is clearly reflected in the PSF. MCG can better characterize tangential anterior sources (with respect to the heart surface), while ECG excels with normally-oriented and posterior sources. Compared to either modality used alone, the sensitivity of combined ECG+MCG is less dependent on source orientation per source location, leading to better source estimates. Thus, for maximal sensitivity and optimal source estimation, the electric and magnetic measurements should be combined.

  1. Vaginal Misoprostol versus high dose of oxytocin for labor induction: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Tabasi, Z; Behrashi, M; Mahdian, M

    2007-03-15

    To compare the efficacy and complications of intravaginal Misoprostol with oxytocin for induction of labor this study was carried out. One hundred and ten term pregnant women with Bishop score of < or = 4 were randomized into two groups. Fifty five patients received 50 microg intravaginal Misoprostol 2 times at 6 h intervals (Misoprostol group), the second group received oxytocin infusion (6 mu min(-1)) for induction of labor (oxytocin group n = 55). The time from induction to delivery, the route of delivery, fetal outcome and maternal complications were recorded. There was no statistically significant difference regarding demographic or clinical characteristics between two groups. Induction success within the first 12 h were 80 and 33.3% for Misoprostol and oxytocin groups respectively (p<0.05). The average time from induction to delivery was 10. 6 +/- 3.7 and 17 +/- 7.2 h in the Misoprostol and oxytocin administered groups, respectively (p<0.05). The rate of vaginal delivery was significantly higher in misoprostol group (72.7%) when compared with oxytocin group (45.5%). Low Apgar score, meconium stain amniotic fluid, abnormal FHR and precipitating labor was similar in both groups (p>0.05). We concluded misoprostol 50 microg vaginally (every 6 h, up to 100 microg) safely and effectively induces labor and it is recommended for parturient women with Bishop score < or = 4 and the use of this drug could produce several beneficial effects, particularly a decrease in the incidence of cesarean delivery. PMID:19069889

  2. Effects of strontium ranelate, raloxifene and misoprostol on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nefise Ahmet-Camcioglu; Tulay Okman-Kilic; Gulay Durmus-Altun; Galip Ekuklu; Mustafa Kucuk

    2009-01-01

    ObjectivesTo investigate the effects of strontium ranelate, raloxifene and misoprostol on bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized rats to contribute to the individualization of the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  3. Mifepristone and Misoprostol Administered Simultaneously Versus 24 Hours Apart for Abortion

    E-print Network

    Creinin, Mitchell David

    2007-01-01

    The complete abortion rate in the standard care group (groupabortion rates in women who received mifepristone followed by vaginal misoprostol within 15 minutes (experimental group) and 24 hours later (standard care

  4. A randomised comparison of three doses of sublingual misoprostol on postpartum myometrial contractility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AA Elati

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesTo compare the postpartum uterine activity and side effects of various doses of sublingual misoprostol with intramuscular oxytocin.Methods35 women who did not require augmentation and who delivered vaginally were randomised to receive 200, 400 or 600 ?g of sublingual misoprostol Postpartum haemorrhage prophylaxis. These were compared with 14 women given 10 IU of intramuscular oxytocin. Immediately after placental delivery, a

  5. Vaginal misoprostol compared with vaginal gemeprost in termination of second trimester pregnancy. A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Wong, K S; Ngai, C S; Wong, A Y; Tang, L C; Ho, P C

    1998-10-01

    A prospective randomized trial was conducted in 140 women to compare the efficacy of vaginal gemeprost with vaginal misoprostol for termination of second trimester pregnancy. Women requesting termination of second trimester pregnancy were randomized into two groups. Group A women were given 1 mg vaginal gemeprost every 3 h for a maximum of five doses in the first 24 h, whereas group B women were given 400 micrograms vaginal misoprostol every 3 h for a maximum of five doses in 24 h. The median induction-abortion interval in the vaginal misoprostol group (14.1 h) was significantly shorter than that in the gemeprost group (19.5 h). The percentage of women who achieved successful abortion within 24 h in the misoprostol group (80.0%) was significantly higher than that in the gemeprost group (58.6%). There was no significant difference in the incidence of side effects between the two groups except for diarrhea, which was more common in the gemeprost group. The incidence of fever was more common in the misoprostol group. It is concluded that vaginal misoprostol is more effective than gemeprost in termination of second trimester pregnancy. PMID:9866000

  6. MCG 06-45-001 - A possible new member of the Local Group?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Sara; Brosch, Noah

    1988-06-01

    Observations of the IRAS source MCG 06-45-001 have been obtained in 1987 with the CCD camera, CCD grating spectrograph, and two-star photometer of the 1-m Wise Observatory telescope. Results suggest that MCG 06-45-001 is probably a late-type galaxy within 2-5 Mpc, and posssibly a new member of the Local Group. It is noted that the question as to whether the source is a normal small extragalactic source or a very abnormal Herbig-Haro object or H II region may be resolved by radio continuum and molecular line observations.

  7. MASTER-SAAO: PSN in MCG +00-22-003 and dwarf nova outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Balanutsa, P.; Antipin, S.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Chazov, V.; Vladimirov, V.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.; Kotze, M.; Budnev, N.; Ivanov, K.; Yazev, S.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Senik, V.; Krushinsky, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Sergienko, Yu.; Yurkov, V.; Gabovich, A.; Shumkov, V.; Shurpakov, S.

    2015-06-01

    MASTER OT J082039.64-012423.4 discovery - bright PSN in MCG +00-22-003 MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., Advances in Astronomy, MASTER Global Robotic Net, 2010 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 08h 20m 39.64s -01d 24m 23.4s on 2015-06-12.69218 UT.

  8. Oral contraceptives after myomectomy: a short term trial.

    PubMed

    Luisi, Stefano; Ciani, Valentina; Gabbanini, Massimo; Sollazzi, Sofia; Torricelli, Michela; Calonaci, Francesco; Petraglia, Felice

    2009-01-01

    Following myomectomy the rate of fertility is restored and pregnancy may be attempted with a good outcome. In the present study a 3 month treatment with OCs in a group of women after a myomectomy was evaluated. The drug compliance and side effects, the benefits of OC in order to reduce symptoms, to increase post-surgical hemoglobin levels and to avoid an early pregnancy after myomectomy were analyzed. A group of women (n = 55) each with myoma >/=5 cm was recruited: they presented menorrhagia, pelvic pain, dyspareunia and dysmenorrhae. After laparotomic myomectomy the women were divided into 3 groups. Group 1: women (n = 16) treated with pill A (15 mcg of ethynilestradiol + 60 mcg of gestodene); group 2: women (n = 23) treated with pill B (20 mcg of ethynilestradiol + 100 mcg of levonorgestrel); group 3: women (n = 16) treated with a placebo (oral calcium). After three months from myomectomy and treatment patients in each group reported a reduced menorrhagia, dismenorrhea and pelvic pain. Serum haemoglobin levels increased in all women (P < .05). No pregnancy occurred in any group and the compliance was good. A post surgery treatment by using oral contraceptives guarentees pregnancy prevention, associated with reduction of pain, and improvement of haematologic conditions. PMID:19946429

  9. Lack of Evidence for Neonatal Misoprostol Neurodevelopmental Toxicity in C57BL6/J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Claire M.; Walker, Cheryl K.; Qi, Lihong; Pessah, Isaac N.; Berman, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1 that is administered to women at high doses to induce uterine contractions for early pregnancy termination and at low doses to aid in cervical priming during labor. Because of the known teratogenic effects of misoprostol when given during gestation and its effects on axonal growth in vitro, we examined misoprostol for its potential as a neurodevelopmental toxicant when administered to neonatal C57BL6/J mice. Mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 0.4, 4 or 40 µg/kg misoprostol on postnatal day 7, the approximate developmental stage in mice of human birth, after which neonatal somatic growth, and sensory and motor system development were assessed. These doses were selected to span the range of human exposure used to induce labor. In addition, adult mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism including tests for anxiety, stereotyped behaviors, social communication and interactions, and learning and memory. No significant effects of exposure were found for any measure of development or behavioral endpoints. In conclusion, the results of the present study in C57BL/6J mice do not provide support for neurodevelopmental toxicity after misoprostol administration approximating human doses and timed to coincide with the developmental stage of human birth. PMID:22719983

  10. A 3-D model-based registration approach for the PET, MR and MCG cardiac data fusion.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Timo; Pham, Quoc Cuong; Clarysse, Patrick; Nenonen, Jukka; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Sipilä, Outi; Hänninen, Helena; Lauerma, Kirsi; Knuuti, Juhani; Katila, Toivo; Magnin, Isabelle E

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, a new approach is presented for the assessment of a 3-D anatomical and functional model of the heart including structural information from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional information from positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetocardiography (MCG). The method uses model-based co-registration of MR and PET images and marker-based registration for MRI and MCG. Model-based segmentation of MR anatomical images results in an individualized 3-D biventricular model of the heart including functional parameters from PET and MCG in an easily interpretable 3-D form. PMID:12946476

  11. Serum biomarkers may help predict successful misoprostol management of early pregnancy failure.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Courtney A; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Quinley, Kelly E; Miller, Carrie; Sammel, Mary D

    2015-06-01

    In order to simplify management of early pregnancy loss, our goal was to elucidate predictors of successful medical management of miscarriage with a single dose of misoprostol. In this secondary analysis of data from a multicenter randomized controlled trial, candidate biomarkers were compared between 49 women with missed abortion who succeeded in passing their pregnancy with a single dose of misoprostol and 46 women who did not pass their pregnancy with a misoprostol single dose. We computed the precision of trophoblastic protein and hormone concentrations to discriminate between women who succeed or fail single dose misoprostol management. We also included demographic factors in our analyses. We found overlap in the concentrations of the individual markers between women who succeeded and failed single-dose misoprostol. However, hCG levels ?4000mIU/mL and ADAM-12 levels ?2500pg/mL were independently associated with complete uterine expulsion after one dose of misoprostol in our population. A multivariable logistic model for success included non-Hispanic ethnicity and parity <2 in addition to hCG ?4000mIU/mL and ADAM-12 ?2500pg/mL and had an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 72-90%). Categorizing women with a predicted probability of ?0.65 resulted in a sensitivity of 75.0%, specificity 77.1% and positive predictive value of 81.8%. While preliminary, our data suggest that serum biomarkers, especially when combined with demographic characteristics, may be helpful in guiding patient decision-making regarding the management of early pregnancy failure (EPF). Further study is warranted. PMID:26051455

  12. Comparative evaluation of 25 ?g and 50 ?g of intravaginal misoprostol for induction of labor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Gupta; Urmila Singh; Seema Mehrotra

    2010-01-01

    Objectives  To compare the efficacy and safety of 25 ?g vs 50 ?g of intravaginal misoprostol for induction of labor\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One hundred forty eight pregnant females requiring induction were randomly assigned to receive either 25 ?g (80 cases-group\\u000a A) or 50 ?g (68 cases — group B) of intravaginal misoprostol every 4 hours till adequate contractions were achieved or maximum\\u000a dose

  13. Severe morbidities associated with induced abortions among misoprostol users and non-users in a tertiary public hospital in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Misoprostol has become a popular over the counter self-administered abortifacient in Ghana. This study aimed to compare the socio-demographic characteristics and clinical complications associated with misoprostol and non-misoprostol induced abortions among patients admitted to a tertiary public health facility in Ghana. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted at the gynaecological ward of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), over a four-month period using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analysed using Chi-square, Fisher’s exact and student t-tests. Factors associated with severe morbidity were examined using Poisson regression with robust error variance to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Overall, 126 misoprostol users and 126 misoprostol non-users were recruited into the study. About 71% of the clients had self-induced abortions. Misoprostol users were more likely to be younger (p < 0.001), single (p < 0.001), nulliparous (p = 0.001), of higher educational background (p = 0.001), and unemployed (p < 0.001), than misoprostol non-users. Misoprostol users were more likely than non-users to undergo termination of pregnancy because they wanted to continue schooling (p < 0.001) or were not earning regular income to support a family (p = 0.001). Overall, 182 (72.2%) of the women (79.4% misoprostol users vs. 65.1% misoprostol non-users; p = 0.01) suffered severe morbidity. Nulliparous women (adjusted RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.52) and those who had induced abortion after 12 weeks’ gestation (adjusted RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.18-1.57) were at increased risks of experiencing severe morbidity. The association between mode of abortion induction and severe morbidity was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Conclusion Self-induced abortions using misoprostol is a common practice among women in this study; nearly three quarters of them suffered severe morbidity. Nonetheless, severe morbidity among misoprostol users and non-users did not differ significantly but was directly related to the gestational age at which the induced abortions occurred. Health education on the dangers of self-induced abortions and appropriate use of medication abortion could help reduce complications associated with induced abortions in Ghana. PMID:25074294

  14. No benefit, but increased harm from high dose (100 microg) misoprostol for induction of labour: a randomised trial of high vs. low (50 microg) dose misoprostol.

    PubMed

    Majoko, F; Nystrom, L; Lindmark, G

    2002-11-01

    Misoprostrol, a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E(1), has been used for cervical preparation. Its ideal dose, route and frequency of administration are still under investigation. We conducted a randomised controlled trial, in a tertiary hospital in a developing country, to compare misoprostol 50 microg (low) and 100 microg (high) for effectiveness and safety in induction of labour at term. Women admitted for induction of labour with a singleton live fetus in cephalic presentation after 37 weeks' gestation were recruited. A misoprostol tablet was inserted in the posterior vaginal fornix at 8-hour intervals. Main outcomes were duration of induction, maternal and fetal complications. The mean duration of induction was 15.4 (SD 10.6) and 14.2 (SD 13.6) h in the low- and high-groups respectively (P = 0.095). There was no difference in need for augmentation with oxytocin (OR 0.82; 95% Cl 0.36-1.86) or operative delivery (OR 1.29; 95% CI 0.26-6.84). There were two uterine ruptures and four intrapartum stillbirths in the high misoprostol group. There was no difference in postpartum haemorrhage, 9.5% vs. 7.9% (P = 1.00) and admissions to the neonatal unit 18.8% vs. 17.0% (P = 0.980) in the 1ow- and high-groups) respectively. Misoprostol 50 microg was as effective as the 100 microg dose for induction of labour whereas the higher dose had an increased risk of serious complications. PMID:12554247

  15. Early pregnancy termination with vaginal misoprostol combined with loperamide and acetaminophen prophylaxis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K. Jain; Bryna Harwood; Karen R. Meckstroth; Daniel R. Mishell

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this prospective non-concurrent cohort study were to confirm the efficacy of vaginal misoprostol for early pregnancy termination and to determine whether the incidence of side effects is lower with prophylactic loperamide and acetaminophen. Two-hundred women with an intrauterine pregnancy ?56 days gestational age seeking medical pregnancy termination in an ambulatory research clinic were enrolled in the study.

  16. Misoprostol but not antacid prevents endotoxin-induced gastric mucosal injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahendra Mahatma; Naurang Agrawal; Esam Z. Dajani; Steve Nelson; Chester nakamura; John Sitton

    1991-01-01

    Many of the complications of septic shock are believed to be a consequence of elevated circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is an important mediator of tissue injury. Prostaglandins (PGs) of the E series have recently been reported to inhibit TNF productionin vitro. We investigated thein vivo effect of misoprostol, a PGE1 analog, on endotoxin-induced gastric mucosal injury

  17. Termination of 2nd and 3rd trimester pregnancies with mifepristone and misoprostol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Jannet; Nisard Aflak; Alexandre Abankwa; Bruno Carbonne; Loïc Marpeau; Jacques Milliez

    1996-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate our use of the association of mifepristone and misoprostol for terminating second and third trimester pregnancies. Study design: One hundred and six patients undergoing termination of pregnancy between January 1993 and June 1995 in our center were studied. Each patient received 600 mg of mifepristone followed 24 h later by 400

  18. Evaluation of the effectiveness of vaginal misoprostol to induce first trimester abortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bugalho; A. Faúndes; L. Jamisse; M. Usfá; E. Maria; C. Bique

    1996-01-01

    Two doses, 200 and 400 ?g, of misoprostol, administered vaginally every 12 hours, up to four times, were tested in 101 and 133 healthy women, respectively, for interruption of pregnancies with 35 through 77 days of amenorrhea. The proportion of women who aborted increased with longer duration of treatment and was significantly higher with 400 than with 200 ?g (66

  19. A Randomized Trial of Misoprostol and Extra-amniotic Saline Infusion for Cervical Ripening and Labor Induction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyla R Vengalil; Debra A Guinn; Nizar F Olabi; Lawrence I Burd; John Owen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cesarean rates in women undergoing induction of labor with unfavorable cervices who receive either misoprostol or extra-amniotic saline infusion.Methods: We assigned 250 women undergoing indicated induction of labor randomly to misoprostol (50 ?g every 4 hours for three doses with or without oxytocin) or extra-amniotic saline infusion and oxytocin. Each eligible subject had a singleton gestation,

  20. Civil Society Organizations and medicines policy change: a case study of registration, procurement, distribution and use of misoprostol in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Atukunda, Esther Cathyln; Brhlikova, Petra; Agaba, Amon Ganafa; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-04-01

    Misoprostol use for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) has been promoted by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) since the early 2000s. Yet, CSOs' role in improving access to misoprostol and shaping health policy at global and national levels is not well understood. We document the introduction of misoprostol in Uganda in 2008 from its registration, addition to treatment guidelines and national Essential Medicines List (EML), to its distribution and use. We then analyse the contribution of CSOs to this health policy change and service provision. Policy documents, procurement data and 82 key informant interviews with government officials, healthcare providers, and CSOs in four Ugandan districts of Kampala, Mbarara, Apac, Bundibugyo were collected between 2010 and 2013. Five key CSOs promoted and accelerated the rollout of misoprostol in Uganda. They supported the registration of misoprostol with the National Drug Authority, the development of clinical guidelines, and the piloting and training of health care providers. CSOs and National Medical Stores were procuring and distributing misoprostol country-wide to health centres two years before it was added to the clinical guidelines and EML of Uganda and in the absence of good evidence. The evidence suggests an increasing trend of misoprostol procurement and availability over the medicine of choice, oxytocin. This shift in national priorities has serious ramifications for maternal health care that need urgent evaluation. The absence of clinical guidelines in health centres and the lack of training preclude rational use of misoprostol. CSOs shifted their focus from the public to the private sector, where some of them continue to promote its use for off-label indications including induction of labour and abortion. There is an urgent need to build capacity to improve the robustness of the national and local institutions in assessing the safety and effectiveness of all medicines and their indications in Uganda. PMID:25728484

  1. Measuring the amount of Compton Reflection in MCG-2-58-22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Kimberly

    A 50 ksec RXTE observation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-2-58-22 is proposed with the primary aim of determining the amount of Compton reflection and the secondary aim of using RXTE in conjunction with ASCA to measure the profile of the Fe K line. ASCA alone cannot constrain the amount of reflection and hence cannot determine the width of the Fe K line in this galaxy. In order to understand the origins of the reprocessed flux, the higher bandpass of RXTE is required. This proposal is part of a long-term investigation of the broad-band X-ray properties of Seyfert galaxies in the ASCA archive.

  2. Safety and tolerability of once-daily umeclidinium/vilanterol 125/25 mcg and umeclidinium 125 mcg in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from a 52-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) umeclidinium (UMEC) and the combination of UMEC with the long-acting ?2-agonist (LABA) vilanterol (UMEC/VI) are approved maintenance treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the US and EU. They are not indicated for the treatment of asthma. Methods In this 52-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group safety study (GSK study DB2113359; NCT01316887), patients were randomized 2:2:1 to UMEC/VI 125/25 mcg, UMEC 125 mcg, or placebo. Study endpoints included adverse events (AEs), clinical chemistry and hematology parameters, vital signs, 12-lead, and 24-hour Holter electrocardiograms. COPD exacerbations and rescue medication use were assessed as safety parameters; lung function was also evaluated. Results The incidence of on-treatment AEs, serious AEs (SAEs), and drug-related AEs was similar between treatment groups (AEs: 52–58%; SAEs: 6–7%; drug-related AEs: 12–13%). Headache was the most common AE in each treatment group (8–11%). AEs associated with the LAMA and LABA pharmacologic classes occurred at a low incidence across treatment groups. No clinically meaningful effects on vital signs or laboratory assessments were reported for active treatments versus placebo. The incidences of atrial arrhythmias with UMEC/VI 125/25 mcg were similar to placebo; for UMEC 125 mcg, the incidences of ectopic supraventricular beats, sustained supraventricular tachycardia, and ectopic supraventricular rhythm were ?2% greater than placebo. With active treatments, COPD exacerbations were fewer (13–15% of patients reporting ?1 exacerbation) and on average less rescue medication was required (1.6–2.2 puffs/day) versus placebo (24% reporting ?1 exacerbation, 2.6 puffs/day). Both active treatments improved lung function versus placebo. Conclusion UMEC/VI 125/25 mcg and UMEC 125 mcg were well tolerated over 12 months in patients with COPD. PMID:25015176

  3. Soft gamma-ray emission from the region of MCG8-11-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, F.; Delle Ventura, A.; Villa, G.; di Cocco, G.; Butler, R. C.; Carter, J. N.; Dean, A. J.

    1981-07-01

    The detection of soft gamma-ray emission from the region containing the Type I Seyfert galaxy MCG8-11-11 is reported. Observations were made with the Milan/Southampton (MISO) low energy gamma-ray telescope, which consists of a Compton-coincidence detection system inside a semiactive shield, during a balloon flight from Palestine, Texas in September, 1979. A significant gamma-ray counting-rate excess was observed within an error box containing MCG8-11-11 as the only known X-ray source apart from the OSO 7 source 1M0600+46, for which the error box is not available. Evaluation of the emission spectrum in the energy range 0.02-19 MeV reveals it to be similar to that of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151, in which a spectral cutoff close to 3 MeV was observed. The spectral feature may be explained by the stochastic generation of gamma-ray bursts by the Penrose-Compton scattering mechanism in active galactic nuclei. Gamma-ray emission from Seyfert galaxies is also suggested to be capable of accounting for a large portion of the observed low-energy diffuse gamma-ray background, which is noted to exhibit a 3-MeV cutoff.

  4. Misoprostol versus low-dose oxytocin for cervical ripening: A prospective, randomized, double-masked trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Ferguson; Barbara H. Head; Fred H. Frank; Margaret L. Frank; Jeremy S. Singer; Theodor Stefos; Giancarlo Mari

    2002-01-01

    Objective: A variety of cervical ripening agents exist, yet none is ideal. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-masked comparison of low-dose minimal-escalation oxytocin to misoprostol in a predominantly high-risk population. Study Design: Patients were allocated prospectively in a double-masked, randomized, stratified basis by an investigational pharmacist between December 1996 and December 2000 to receive either active intravenous oxytocin and placebo

  5. Efficacy of misoprostol in the treatment of tinnitus in patients with diabetes and\\/or hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babur Akkuzu; Ismail Yilmaz; Ozcan Cakmak; Levent N. Ozluoglu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of the prostaglandin E1 analogue misoprostol in the treatment of tinnitus in diabetic and\\/or hypertensive patients. Design: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Settings: Tertiary care referral center. Methods: The subjects were 42 patients with hypertension and\\/or diabetes mellitus who had chronic tinnitus and had experienced tinnitus symptoms for a minimum of 6 months. Twenty-eight patients were

  6. Effect of vaginal pH on efficacy of misoprostol for cervical ripening and labor induction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick S Ramsey; Paul L Ogburn; Denise Y Harris; Robert H Heise; Kirk D Ramin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: We sought to evaluate whether vaginal pH has an effect on the relative efficacy of misoprostol for cervical ripening and labor induction. Study Design: Thirty-seven gravid women with an unfavorable cervix and indication for labor induction were enrolled in this prospective, double-blind, observational study. Baseline assessments of cervicovaginal pH and Bishop score were made at the time of enrollment

  7. The prostaglandin E{sub 1} analog, misoprostol, a normal tissue protector, does not protect four murine tumors in vivo from radiation injury

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, W.R.; Zhen, W.; Geng, L. [Loyola Univ. Chicago and Hines Veterans Administration Medical Centers, Hines, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    The clinical development of radioprotectors, such as misoprostol, to protect normal tissue during cancer treatment must proceed with the assurance that tumors are not protected similarly or significantly. To provide data on this critical question, radiation-induced growth delay with or without the presence of misoprostol was measured in four murine tumors grown in the flanks of mice: the Lewis lung carcinoma, M-5076 ovarian sarcoma, FSA and NFSA. The effect of misoprostol on the tumor control dose (TCD{sub 50}) of radiation was measured in FSA-bearing mice with or without prior treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Misoprostol did not influence the in vivo growth of any of the four tumors, nor did it protect any of the tumors from radiation-induced growth delay. Likewise, there was no increase in the radiation TCD{sub 50} to treat the FSA in vivo in control or indomethacin-treated tumor-bearing mice. To measure any possible influence of tumor burden on the protective effect of miso-prostol on normal tissue in mice, the protective effect of misoprostol on the survival of intestinal clonogenic cells was measured in M-5076-bearing mice and found to be the same as in non-tumor-bearing mice. These data suggest that misoprostol protects normal tissue in mice without protecting at least four experimental murine tumors. The data support the contention that misoprostol can achieve therapeutic gain by protecting normal tissues without protecting tumors. 44 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. A novel misoprostol delivery system for induction of labor: clinical utility and patient considerations

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Megan L; Wing, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    Induction of labor is one of the most commonly performed obstetric procedures and will likely become more common as the reproductive population in developed nations changes. As the proportion of women undergoing induction grows, there is a constant search for more efficacious ways to induce labor while maintaining fetal and maternal safety as well as patient satisfaction. With almost half of induced labors requiring cervical ripening, methods for achieving active labor and vaginal delivery are constantly being investigated. Prostaglandins have been shown to be effective induction agents, and specifically vaginal misoprostol, used off-label, have been widely utilized to initiate cervical ripening and active labor. The challenge is to administer this medication accurately while maintaining the ability to discontinue the medication when needed. The misoprostol vaginal insert initiates cervical ripening utilizing a delivery system that controls medication release and can be rapidly removed. This paper reviews the design, development, and clinical utility of the misoprostol vaginal insert for induction of labor as well as patient considerations related to the delivery system. PMID:25960635

  9. Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of Syrian hamster embryo cells in utero from cell death and oncogenic transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.C.; LaNasa, P.; Hanson, W.R. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Misoprostol, a PGE analog, is an effective radioprotector of murine intestine and hematopoietic and hair cell renewal systems. The radioprotective nature of misoprostol was extended to examine its ability to influence clonogenic cell survival and induction of oncogenic transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to X rays in utero and assayed in vitro. Hamsters in their 12th day of pregnancy were injected subcutaneously with misoprostal, and 2 h later the pregnant hamsters were exposed to graded doses of X rays. Immediately after irradiation, hamsters were euthanized and embryonic tissue was explanted into culture dishes containing complete growth medium. After a 2-week incubation period, clongenic cell survival and morphologically transformed foci were determined. Survival of misoprostol-treated SHE cells was increased and yielded a dose reduction factor of 1.5 compared to SHE cells treated with X rays alone. In contrast, radiation-induced oncogenic transformation of misoprostol-treated cells was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to cells treated with X rays alone. These studies suggest that misoprostol not only protects normal tissues in vivo from acute radiation injury, but also protects cells, to a large extent, from injury leading to transforming events. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. An Extended Multi-Zone Model for the MCG-6-30-15 Warm Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, R.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2000-01-01

    The variable warm absorber seen with ASCA in the X-ray spectrum of MCG 6-30-15 shows complex time behaviour in which the optical depth of O VIII anticorrelates with the flux whereas that of O VII is unchanging. The explanation in terms of a two zone absorber has since been challenged by BeppoSAX observations. These present a more complicated behaviour for the O VII edge. The explanation we offer for both ASCA and BeppoSAX observations requires a very simple photoionization model together with the presence of a third, intermediate, zone and a period of very low luminosity. In practice warm absorbers are likely to be extended, multi-zone regions of which only part causes directly observable absorption edges at any given time depending on the value of the luminosity.

  11. Oral myiasis.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  12. Implementation of misoprostol for postabortion care in Kenya and Uganda: a qualitative evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Osur, Joachim; Baird, Traci L.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Jackson, Emily; Murokora, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate implementation of misoprostol for postabortion care (MPAC) in two African countries. Design Qualitative, program evaluation. Setting Twenty-five public and private health facilities in Rift Valley Province, Kenya, and Kampala Province, Uganda. Sample Forty-five MPAC providers, health facility managers, Ministry of Health officials, and non-governmental (NGO) staff involved in program implementation. Methods and main outcome measures In both countries, the Ministry of Health, local health centers and hospitals, and NGO staff developed evidence-based service delivery protocols to introduce MPAC in selected facilities; implementation extended from January 2009 to October 2010. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews evaluated the implementation process, identified supportive and inhibitive policies for implementation, elicited lessons learned during the process, and assessed provider satisfaction and providers’ impressions of client satisfaction with MPAC. Project reports were also reviewed. Results In both countries, MPAC was easy to use, and freed up provider time and health facility resources traditionally necessary for provision of PAC with uterine aspiration. On-going support of providers following training ensured high quality of care. Providers perceived that many women preferred MPAC, as they avoided instrumentation of the uterus, hospital admission, cost, and stigma associated with abortion. Appropriate registration of misoprostol for use in the pilot, and maintaining supplies of misoprostol, were significant challenges to service provision. Support from the Ministry of Health was necessary for successful implementation; lack of country-based standards and guidelines for MPAC created challenges. Conclusions MPAC is simple, cost-effective and can be readily implemented in settings with high rates of abortion-related mortality. PMID:23618341

  13. Misoprostol inhibits gastric mucosal release of endogenous prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Eskerod, O; Bukhave, K; Rask-Madsen, J

    1995-01-01

    Prostaglandin analogues of the E-series theoretically offer the ideal antiulcer drugs. Peptic ulcer healing with prostaglandin analogues is, however, no better than would be predicted from their ability to inhibit gastric acid secretion and they are less effective than histamine H2 receptor antagonists in preventing ulcer relapse. It could be that prostaglandin analogues inhibit gastric mucosal synthesis or release of endogenous eicosanoids, thereby abrogating their own effects. This study, therefore, examined how a single therapeutic dose (200 micrograms) of misoprostol, a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1, influences gastric mucosal release of endogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and chemotactic leukotriene B4 (LTB4) during basal conditions and in response to gastric luminal acidification (0.1 M HCl; 5 ml/min for 10 minutes). Nine healthy volunteers were studied in a single blind, cross over design. In each subject misoprostol or placebo was instilled in randomised order into the stomach, which was subsequently perfused with isotonic mannitol. Misoprostol significantly decreased basal as well as acid stimulated output of PGE2 and TXB2, without affecting output of LTB4. These data show that misoprostol inhibits gastric mucosal synthesis of prostanoids. Decreased concentrations, or even a changed profile, of native eicosanoids modulating the release of inflammatory mediators from immune cells might explain why prostaglandin analogues have a comparatively poor clinical performance in ulcer healing and prevention. PMID:7737555

  14. Low-dose mifepristone followed by vaginal misoprostol at 48 hours for abortion up to 63 days

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A Schaff; Stephen L Fielding; Steven H Eisinger; Lisa S Stadalius; Lisa Fuller

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness, side effects, and acceptability of one-third the standard dose of mifepristone, ie, 200 mg, and vaginal misoprostol 800 ?g to induce abortion in subjects ?56 days pregnant with subjects 57–63 days pregnant. A prospective multicenter trial enrolled healthy women ?18 years, ?63 days pregnant, and wanting an abortion. Women received

  15. Detection of iron features in the X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert I galaxy MCG6-30-15

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Nandra; K. A. Pounds; G. C. Stewart; A. C. Fabian; M. J. Rees

    1989-01-01

    The spectral analysis of an extended Exosat observation of the Seyfert I galaxy MCG-6-30-15 has revealed significant differences from the previous simple power-law description. In particular, evidence is found for both emission and absorption features from cold iron, indicating a large column density of material possibly located close to the central energy source. The underlying continuum spectrum is best described

  16. Receptor binding characteristics of tritiated misoprostol free acid in enriched canine parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, B.S.; Kessler, L.K.; Conway, R.G.; Schoenhard, G.; Stolzenbach, J.; Collins, P.; Kramer, S.; Butchko, G.M.; Bauer, R.F.

    1986-03-01

    Misoprostol (MISO) is a synthetic prostaglandin (PG) E/sub 1/ methyl ester with gastric antisecretory and mucosal protective properties. MISO is rapidly de-esterified to misoprostol free acid (MISO-FA) in enriched (65-80%) canine parietal cell preparations. Both forms appear to possess equivalent antisecretory potency and (/sup 3/H) MISO-FA is stable in these preparations. (/sup 3/H) MISO-FA binding was reversible and saturable with a maximal number of binding sites estimated at 8138 +/- 1893 per cell. The scatchard plot was linear, indicating a single, high affinity receptor population with a dissociation constant of 11 +/- 2.6 x 10/sup -9/ M. Unlabeled MISO-FA and MISO were equally potent inhibitors (IC/sub 50/, approx. 10/sup -8/M) of (/sup 3/H) MISO-FA binding. At 10/sup -5/ M, the dinor and tetranor ..beta..-oxidation metabolites of MISO were weak binding inhibitors. Strict stereospecific binding was shown by MISO stereoisomers, and the 11R, 16S isomer was most active. Both PGE/sub 1/ and 16,16 dimethyl PGE/sub 2/ were potent binding inhibitors, but PGF/sub 1/..cap alpha.. (10/sup -6/ M) and Hoe 892 (10/sup -5/ M), a stable PGI/sub 2/ analog, were weak inhibitors. Neither histamine or cimetidine competed for binding sites. These data indicate the presence of stereospecific E-type prostaglandin receptors in enriched canine parietal cell preparations.

  17. Comparison of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus placebo for cervical ripening prior to operative hysteroscopy using a sequential trial design*

    PubMed Central

    Oppegaard, KS; Nesheim, B-I; Istre, O; Qvigstad, E

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the impact of 1000 micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus self-administered vaginal placebo at home on preoperative cervical ripening in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women before operative hysteroscopy. Design Two separate but identical parallel, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled sequential trials, one in premenopausal women and one in postmenopausal women. The boundaries for the sequential trials were calculated on the primary outcomes of a difference of cervical dilatation ?1 mm, with the assumption of a type 1 error of 0.05 and a power of 0.95. Setting Norwegian university teaching hospital. Sample Eighty-six women referred to outpatient operative hysteroscopy. Methods The women were randomised to either 1000 micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol or self-administered vaginal placebo the evening before outpatient operative hysteroscopy. Main outcome measures Preoperative cervical dilatation (primary outcome), number of women who achieve a preoperative cervical dilatation ?5 mm, acceptability, complications and adverse effects (secondary outcomes). Results In premenopausal women, the mean cervical dilatation was 6.4 mm (SD 2.4) in the misoprostol group and 4.8 mm (SD 2.0) in the placebo group, the mean difference in cervical dilatation being 1.6 mm (95% CI 0.5–2.7). Among the premenopausal women receiving misoprostol, 88% achieved a cervical dilatation of ?5 mm compared with 65% in the placebo group. Twelve percent of the women who received misoprostol were difficult to dilate compared with 32% who received placebo. Dilatation was also quicker in the misoprostol group. Misoprostol had no effect on cervical ripening in postmenopausal women compared with placebo, and 43% of the women were difficult to dilate. The trials were terminated after analysis of 21 postmenopausal women and 65 premenopausal women after reaching a conclusion on the primary outcome with only 28% of the number of women needed in a fixed sample size trial. Three of 45 women who received misoprostol experienced severe lower abdominal pain, and there was an increased occurrence of light preoperative bleeding in the misoprostol group. Most women did not experience misoprostol-related adverse effects. The majority (83% of premenopausal and 76% of postmenopausal women) found self-administered vaginal misoprostol at home to be acceptable. There were two serious complications in the premenopausal misoprostol group: uterine perforation with subsequent peritonitis and heavy postoperative bleeding requiring blood transfusion, but these were not judged to be misoprostol related. Complications were otherwise comparatively minor and distributed equally between the two dosage groups. Conclusions One thousand micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol 12 hours prior to operative hysteroscopy has a significant cervical ripening effect compared with placebo in premenopausal but not in postmenopausal women. Self-administered vaginal misoprostol of 1000 micrograms at home the evening before operative hysteroscopy is safe and highly acceptable, although a small proportion of women experienced severe lower abdominal pain. There is a risk of lower abdominal pain and light preoperative bleeding with this regimen, which is very cheap and easy to use. Please cite this paper as: Oppegaard K, Nesheim B, Istre O, Qvigstad E. Comparison of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus placebo for cervical ripening prior to operative hysteroscopy using a sequential trial design. BJOG 2008;115:663–e9. PMID:18201279

  18. Revealing the Dusty Warm Absorber in MCG--6-30-15 with the Chandra HETG

    E-print Network

    J. C. Lee; P. M. Ogle; C. R. Canizares; H. L. Marshall; N. S. Schulz; R. Morales; A. C. Fabian; K. Iwasawa

    2001-04-13

    We present detailed evidence for a warm absorber in the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG--6-30-15 and dispute earlier claims for relativistic O line emission. The HETG spectra show numerous narrow, unresolved (FWHM 5) O VII resonance lines, and a neutral Fe L absorption complex. The shape of the Fe L feature is nearly identical to that seen in the spectra of several X-ray binaries, and in laboratory data. The implied dust column density agrees with that obtained from reddening studies, and gives the first direct X-ray evidence for dust embedded in a warm absorber. The O VIII resonance lines and weak edge are also detected, and the spectral rollover below 2 keV is explained by the superposition of numerous absorption lines and edges. We identify, for the first time, a KLL resonance in the O VI photoabsorption cross section, giving a measure of the O VI column density. The O VII (f) emission detected at the systemic velocity implies a covering fraction of ~5% (depending on the observed vs. time-averaged ionizing flux). Our observations show that a dusty warm absorber model is not only adequate to explain all the spectral features > 0.48 keV (< 26 \\AA) the data REQUIRE it. This contradicts the interpretation of Branduardi-Raymont et al. (2001) that this spectral region is dominated by highly relativistic line emission from the vicinity of the black hole.

  19. A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of misoprostol rectal suppositories to prevent acute radiation proctitis in patients with prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hille, Andrea [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany)]. E-mail: ahille@med.uni-goettingen.de; Schmidberger, Heinz [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Hermann, Robert M. [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Saile, Bernhard [Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Pradier, Olivier [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Hess, Clemens F. [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis is the most relevant complication of pelvic radiation and is still mainly treated supportively. Considering the negative impact of acute proctitis symptoms on patients' daily activities and the potential relationship between the severity of acute radiation injury and late damage, misoprostol was tested in the prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 patients who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer were entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. Radiation-induced toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy using the Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Between the placebo and the misoprostol groups, no significant differences in proctitis symptoms occurred: 76% of patients in each group had Grade 1 toxicity, and 26% in the placebo group and 36% in the misoprostol group had Grade 2 toxicity. No differences were found in onset or symptom duration. Comparing the peak incidence of patients' toxicity symptoms, significantly more patients experienced rectal bleeding in the misoprostol group (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Misoprostol given as a once-daily suppository did not decrease the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis and may increase the incidence of acute bleeding.

  20. Oral electricity.

    PubMed

    Certosimo, A J; O'Connor, R P

    1996-01-01

    "Oral electricity," "electrogalvanism," or "galvanic currents" has long been recognized as a potential source of oral pain and discomfort. This phenomenon of oral galvanism results from the difference in electrical potential between dissimilar restorative metals located in the mouth. In this case report, the literature is reviewed, and an interesting case study'is presented. The patient's clinical presentation, and the duration and constancy of the oral symptoms, pose diagnostic challenges. A simple, yet effective treatment regimen is proposed. PMID:8957826

  1. Once-daily fluticasone furoate 50 mcg in mild-to-moderate asthma: a 24-week placebo-controlled randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Busse, W W; Bateman, E D; O'Byrne, P M; Lötvall, J; Woodcock, A; Medley, H; Forth, R; Jacques, L

    2014-01-01

    Background Inhaled glucocorticosteroids (ICS) are the mainstay of treatment in asthma. Fluticasone furoate (FF) is a novel, once-daily ICS asthma therapy. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of FF 50 mcg in patients with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma. Methods A 24-week, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group phase III study. Three hundred and fifty-one patients (aged ?12 years; uncontrolled by non-ICS therapy) were randomized to treatment (1 : 1 : 1) with once-daily FF 50 mcg dosed in the evening, twice-daily fluticasone propionate (FP) 100 mcg or placebo. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in evening trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at Week 24. Secondary endpoints were change from baseline in the percentage of rescue-free 24-h periods (powered endpoint), change from baseline in evening and morning peak expiratory flow, change from baseline in the percentage of symptom-free 24-h periods and number of withdrawals due to lack of efficacy. Results Evening trough FEV1 at Week 24 was not statistically significantly increased with FF 50 mcg once-daily (37 ml [95% CI: ?55, 128]; P = 0.430), but was with FP 100 mcg twice daily (102 ml [10, 194]; P = 0.030), vs placebo. No consistent trends were observed across other endpoints, including the powered secondary endpoint. No safety concerns were raised for either active treatment. Conclusions FP 100 mcg twice daily improved evening trough FEV1 in patients with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma, but FF 50 mcg once daily did not demonstrate a significant effect. Secondary endpoints showed variable results. No safety concerns were identified for FF or FP. PMID:25040613

  2. A SUZAKU OBSERVATION OF MCG -2-58-22: CONSTRAINING THE GEOMETRY OF THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard, E-mail: erivers@ucsd.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    We have analyzed a long-look Suzaku observation of the active galactic nucleus MCG -2-58-22, a type 1.5 Seyfert with very little X-ray absorption in the line of sight and prominent features arising from reflection off circumnuclear material: the Fe line and Compton reflection hump. We place tight constraints on the power-law photon index ({Gamma} = 1.80 {+-} 0.02), the Compton reflection strength (R = 0.69 {+-} 0.05), and the Fe K emission line energy centroid and width (E = 6.40 {+-} 0.02 keV, v{sub FWHM} < 7100 km s{sup -1}). We find no significant evidence either for emission from strongly ionized Fe, or for a strong, relativistically broadened Fe line, indicating that perhaps there is no radiatively efficient accretion disk very close in to the central black hole. In addition, we test a new self-consistent physical model from Murphy and Yaqoob, the 'MYTORUS' model, consisting of a donut-shaped torus of material surrounding the central illuminating source and producing both the Compton hump and the Fe K line emission. From the application of this model we find that the observed spectrum is consistent with a Compton-thick torus of material (column density N{sub H} = 3.6{sup +1.3}{sub -0.8} x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}) lying outside of the line of sight to the nucleus, leaving it bare of X-ray absorption in excess of the Galactic column. We calculate that this material is sufficient to produce all of the Fe line flux without the need for any flux contribution from additional Compton-thin circumnuclear material.

  3. Soft X-Ray Emission Lines from a Relativistic Accretion Disk in MCG -6-30-15 and Mrk 766

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Sako, M.; Kahn, S. M.; Brinkman, A. C.; Kaastra, J. S.; Page, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectra of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies MCG -6-30-15 and Mrk 766 are physically and spectroscopically inconsistent with standard models comprising a power-law continuum absorbed by either cold or ionized matter. We propose that the remarkably similar features detected in both objects in the 5 - 35 A band are H-like oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon emission lines, gravitation- ally redshifted and broadened by relativistic effects in the vicinity of a Kerr black hole. We discuss the implications of our interpretation, and demonstrate that the derived parameters can be physically self-consistent.

  4. Autonomous Energy Source on the Basis of Helical MCG with Simultaneous He-Charge Initiation on the Axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, A. S.; Vilkov, Yu. V.; Yuryzhev, A. S.; Saitkulov, M. M.; Brusnigin, I. M.

    2004-11-01

    The description of a helical magnetocumulative generator with simultaneous HE-charge initiation on the axis, powered from a helical MCG with transformer energy bending is given in this paper. Experimental results, obtained when testing this generator with an inductive load are presented. The experimental results are compared to the numerical simulation of the generator. Numerical calculations show that at the initial energy of 1 kJ, the formation of a voltage pulse of approximately 1 MV on an active load of 10 ? can be achieved. It requires that the generator have a fuse made from electrically exploded copper wires located in an arc-suppressing medium.

  5. RXTE and BeppoSAX Observations of MCG-5-23-16: Reflection From Distant Cold Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, B. J.; Weaver, K. A.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the spectral variability of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-5-23-16 using RXTE and BeppoSAX observations spanning 2 years from April 1996 to April 1998. During the first year the X-ray source brightens by a factor of approximately 25% on timescales of days to months. During this time, the reprocessed continuum emission seen with RXTE does not respond measurably to the continuum increase. However, by the end of the second year during the BeppoSAX epoch the X-ray source has faded again. This time, the reprocessed emission has also faded, indicating that the reprocessed flux has responded to the continuum. If these effects are caused by time delays due to the distance between the X-ray source and the reprocessing region, we derive a light crossing time of between approximately 1 light day and approximately 1.5 light years. This corresponds to a distance of 0.001 pc to 0.55 pc, which implies that the reprocessed emission originates between 3 x 10(exp 15) cm and 1.6 x 10(exp l8) cm from the X-ray source. In other words, the reprocessing in MCG-5-23-16 is not dominated by the inner regions of a standard accretion disk.

  6. Modeling time delays in the X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6-30-15

    E-print Network

    R. W. Goosmann; B. Czerny; V. Karas; G. Ponti

    2007-02-26

    We propose a reflection model of the time delays detected during an exceptionally bright, single flare in MCG-6-30-15. We consider a scenario in which the delays of the hard X-rays with respect to the soft X-rays are caused by the presence of the delayed reflection component. We employ a model of the flare, which is accompanied by reprocessed emission. We consider two geometries/thermal states of the reprocessing medium: a partially ionized accretion disk surface and a distribution of magnetically confined, cold blobs. The reprocessing by cold blobs predicts positive time delays and a saturation in the time delay -- energy relation, which is likely present in the data. The model requires a strong reflection component and relies on the apparent pivoting of the combined primary and reflected spectrum. The reflection by the ionized disk surface does not reproduce the observed delays. We discuss the relation between the two reflection scenarios and argue that they are both present in MCG-6-30-15.

  7. The effect of Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analog, on apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury.

    PubMed

    Topcu, Ismet; Vatansever, Seda; Var, Ahmet; Cavus, Zuhal; Cilaker, Serap; Sakarya, Melek

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin (PG) E1 analog, has any effect on the prevention of apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced intestinal injury. Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: group I=sham operated+saline; group II=I/R+saline; and group III=I/R+Misoprostol. Misoprostol (50microg/kg/d) was administered as an intragastric meal for 3 days. The terminal ileum was collected for histological and biochemical investigations. Apoptotic cells were detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelled (TUNEL) reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to determine the distribution of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). Samples were also analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). The number of TUNEL-positive cells was higher in group II when compared to the other two groups (p<0.05). In group III this value was higher when compared to group I, but lower than group II (p<0.05). iNOS immunoreactivity was not detected in ileum sections of group I animals, but moderate immunoreactivity was seen in group II and mild immunoreactivity in group III. The immunoreactivity of eNOS was moderate in ileum sections of all three groups. In ileum tissue, MDA was found to be higher in group II compared to group I (p<0.05), but there was no difference in group III. SOD was not different between groups I and III, but was significantly higher in group II (p<0.05). In our experimental model of I/R-induced intestinal injury, apoptosis is induced in enterocytes, whereas Misoprostol decreases enterocyte apoptosis in this experimental model. Our results indicate that Misoprostol may play a key role in the pathophysiologic events leading to failure of the intrinsic gut barrier defense mechanisms of intestinal epithelium. PMID:17433419

  8. Oral Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be caused by several things, including: Poor oral hygiene Some foods Dentures Gum disease Dry mouth Tobacco use Respiratory, ... other health problems Some medicines Practicing good oral hygiene and avoiding tobacco and some foods often helps people with bad-smelling breath. You ...

  9. MCG+00-32-16: An Irregular Galaxy Close to the Lowest Redshift Absorber on the 3C 273 Line of Sight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, G. L.; Lu, N. Y.; Salpeter, E. E.; Connell, B. M.; Fromhold-Treu, R.

    1998-01-01

    We present H I synthesis array mapping and CCD photometry in B and R for MCG+00-32-16. The H I disk is rotating in such a way that the side of the galaxy closer to the sight-line to the quasar has the larger velocity difference from the absorber.

  10. Nateglinide Oral

    MedlinePLUS

    Nateglinide comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken three times daily. Take ... that contain alcohol or sugar; mesoridazine (Serentil); niacin; oral contraceptives (birth control pills); perphenazine (Trilafon); phenelzine (Nardil); ...

  11. Ampicillin Oral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... capsule, liquid, and pediatric drops to take by mouth. It is usually taken every 6 hours (four ... blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin), atenolol (Tenormin), oral contraceptives, probenecid (Benemid), rifampin, sulfasalazine, and vitamins.tell ...

  12. Oral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    Oral vaccines are safe and easy to administer and convenient for all ages. They have been successfully developed to protect from many infectious diseases acquired through oral transmission. We recently found in animal models that formulation of oral vaccines in a nanoparticle-releasing microparticle delivery system is a viable approach for selectively inducing large intestinal protective immunity against infections at rectal and genital mucosae. These large-intestine targeted oral vaccines are a potential substitute for the intracolorectal immunization, which has been found to be effective against rectogenital infections but is not feasible for mass vaccination. Moreover, the newly developed delivery system can be modified to selectively target either the small or large intestine for immunization and accordingly revealed a regionalized immune system in the gut. Future applications and research endeavors suggested by the findings are discussed. PMID:23493163

  13. Oral Warts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care ...

  14. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care ...

  15. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care ...

  16. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePLUS

    ... virus type 2 (HSV-2) most often causes genital herpes . However, sometimes HSV-2 is spread to the ... the virus to the genitals. Both oral and genital herpes viruses can sometimes be spread, even when you ...

  17. ASCA observations of the warm absorber in MCG-6-30-15: The discovery of a change in column density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabian, Andrew C.; Kunieda, Hideyo; Inoue, Shigeru; Matsuoka, Masaru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Miyamoto, Sigenori; Otani, Chiko; Ricker, George; Tanaka, Yasuo; Yamauchi, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    We report the first X-ray observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15 obtained at medium spectral resolution. The partially-ionized, 'warm' absorber is resolved and shown to be due to O VII and O VIII. The main absorption edge agrees with that of O VII at the redshift of the galaxy to within 1%. The column density of the absorbing material is greater by a factor of 2 in the first of our two obsevations, which were 3 weeks apart, while the mean flux is slightly lower and the ionization parameter slightly higher. We also discuss the flourescent iron emssion line seen in the source, which is at 6.40 keV. The line is significantly broadened, with a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of about 0.4 keV.

  18. Morphological Findings in Trophozoites during Amoebic Abscess Development in Misoprostol-Treated BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aceves-Cano, Andrés; Gaytán-Ochoa, Rocío; Ramos-Martínez, Ernesto; Erosa de la Vega, Gilberto; González-Horta, Carmen; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca

    2015-01-01

    During amoebic liver abscess (ALA) formation in susceptible animals, immune response is regulated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) dependent mechanisms. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of misoprostol (MPL), a PGE1 analogue, on ALA formation in BALB/c mice. Male mice from BALB/c strain were intrahepatically infected with 7.5 × 105 trophozoites of E. histolytica strain HM1:IMSS and treated with 10?4?M of MPL daily until sacrifice at 2, 4, and 7 days postinfection (p.i.). ALA formation was evaluated at 2, 4, and 7 days postinfection; trophozoite morphology was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Results showed an increase in frequency of ALA formation in infected and MPL-treated mice only at 2 days p.i. (P = 0.03). A significant diminution in the size of trophozoites was detected in abscesses from mice independently of MPL treatment (from 5.8 ± 1.1?µm at 2 days p.i. to 2.7 ± 1.9?µm at 7 days p.i.) compared with trophozoites dimensions observed in susceptible hamsters (9.6 ± 2.7?µm) (P < 0.01). These results suggest that MPL treatment may modify the adequate control of inflammatory process to allow the persistence of trophozoites in the liver; however, natural resistance mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  19. Oral feeding.

    PubMed

    Alvárez-Falcón, Ana; Ruiz-Santana, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Early nutrition can help to improve energy and protein intake and decrease the negative impact of the metabolic response to surgery. A key goal is to identify patients who exhibit increased respiration risk before beginning oral alimentation. Once a simple bedside 3-oz (90 ml) challenge, or early intervention in the oral care, administered by a trained provider is passed, specific diet recommendations can be made safely and confidently without the need for further objective dysphagia testing. Gastrointestinal motility disorders occur as part of the pathophysiology of diseases and critical illness, or are a result of medication therapies or enteral feeding complications. Inadequate energy intake in the first 7 days following extubation have recently been described. It would be highly beneficial to determine when it is best to initiate timely oral alimentation for recovering extubated intensive care unit (ICU) and more specifically surgical ICU patients to support the maintenance and rebuilding of lean body mass, maintain hydration, and permit the ingestion of oral medications. In a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 18 Spanish ICUs, within the scope of the 2007 European Nutrition Day, only 95 of 348 investigated patients (27.3%) received oral nutritional support. Constipation and diarrhea were common adverse effects. Unexpectedly, however, constipation episodes were more frequent than diarrhea in the patients not receiving oral nutritional support. PMID:23075585

  20. Relativistic Iron K Emission and Absorption in the Seyfert 1.9 Galaxy MCG-05-23-16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braito, V.; Reeves, J. N.; Dewangan, G. C.; George, I.; Griffiths, R.; Markowitz, A.; Nandra, K.; Porquet, D.; Ptak, A.; Turner, T. J.; Yaqoob, T.; Weaver, K.

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of the simultaneous deep XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the bright Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-5-23-16, which is thought to have one of the best known examples of a relativistically broadened iron Kalpha line. We detected a narrow sporadic absorption line at 7.7 keV which appears to be variable on a time-scale of 20 ksec. If associated with FeXXVI this absorption is indicative of a possible variable high ionization, high velocity outflow. The time averaged spectral analysis shows that the iron K-shell complex is best modeled with an unresolved narrow emission component (FWHM less than 5000 kilometers per second, EW approx. 60 eV) plus a broad component. This latter component has FWHM approx. 44000 kilometers per second, an EW approx. 50 eV and its profile is well described with an emission line originating from the accretion disk viewed with an inclination angle approx. 40 deg. and with the emission arising from within a few tens of gravitational radii of the central black hole. The time-resolved spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton EPIC-pn spectrum shows that both the narrow and broad components of the Fe K emission line appear to be constant within the errors. The analysis of the XMM-Newton/RGS spectrum reveals that the soft X-ray emission of MCG-5-23-16 is likely dominated by several emission lines superimposed on an unabsorbed scattered power-law continuum. The lack of strong Fe L shell emission together with the detection of a strong forbidden line in the O VII triplet supports a scenario where the soft X ray emission lines are produced in a plasma photoionized by the nuclear emission.

  1. Small-angle neutron scattering study of Bence-Jones protein Mcg: comparison of structures in solution and in crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, M. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Stevens, F.J.; Westholm, F.A.; Kim, S.S.; Carlson, R.D.

    1982-06-08

    Small-angle neutron scattering measurements in dilute solution were performed on the Mcg Bence-Jones protein dimer, for which accurate atomic coordinates have been determined by crystallographic methods. The measured radius of gyration (R/sub g/) in H/sub 2/O buffer is 24.0 +/- 0.4 angstrom and in D/sub 2/O buffer is 23.3 +/- O.1 angstrom; the calculated value of R/sub v/ (R/sub g/ in vacuo) is 24.0 angstrom. On the basis of a match point of 44.2% D/sub 2/O concentration, the experimental partial specific volume is 0.74 cm/sup 3//g. The experimentally derived molecular weight of 47 000 is in very good agreement with that (45 500) calculated from the amino acid composition. For comparisons with different Fab's (antigen binding fragments) exhibiting various ''elbow bends'' due to the flexibility of the switch peptide between variable and constant domains of the immunoglobulin chains, calculation of the R/sub g/ value of the Mcg dimer was performed as a function of the elbow bend. The R/sub g/ varied from 22.8 to 26.0 angstrom as the elbow bend was opened from 100/sup 0/ to 180/sup 0/; the maximum radius of gyration of the particle was 26.5 angstrom with the switch peptide stretched by separating the variable and constant domains by an additional 1.5 angstrom at an elbow bend of 180/sup 0/.

  2. Abortion after deliberate Arthrotec(®) addition to food. Mass spectrometric detection of diclofenac, misoprostol acid, and their urinary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Watzer, Bernhard; Lusthof, Klaas J; Schweer, Horst

    2015-07-01

    Arthrotec(®) (AT) is a combination of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and misoprostol (MP), a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). MP is a lipophilic methyl ester prodrug. It is readily metabolized to the biologically active misoprostol acid (MPA). During the last few years, medical studies exhibited MP to be an excellent abortive. In this paper, we describe a rare criminal case of MP abortion, initiated by the expectant father. After the abortion, samples of vomit and urine were collected. Systemic exposure to MP is difficult to prove, because both MP and the active metabolite MPA are hardly excreted in urine. Therefore, in addition to routine toxicological analysis, we used slightly modified, well-established liquid and gas chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS) methods, for the direct and the indirect detection of MPA and its metabolites. In this case, we were able to demonstrate the presence of the major MP metabolites 2,3-dinor-MPA and 2,3,4,5-tetranor-MPA in the urine of the victim. We also detected paracetamol, 3-methoxyparacetamol and diclofenac-glucuronide in the urine. In the vomit of the victim, we detected diclofenac and MPA. These results, combined with the criminal investigations, showed that the accused had mixed MP into the food of his pregnant girlfriend. Finally, these investigations contributed to a confession of the accused. PMID:25524762

  3. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What are the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size ... movement. This could result in unclear production of speech sounds made with the lips such as /p/, / ...

  4. Oral Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irène Hitz Lindenmüller; J. Thomas Lambrecht

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing\\/recovering from chemo-\\/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases.

  5. EXTENDED NEUTRAL HYDROGEN IN THE ALIGNED SHELL GALAXIES Arp 230 AND MCG -5-7-1: FORMATION OF DISKS IN MERGING GALAXIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Schiminovich, David; Van Gorkom, J. H. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Van der Hulst, J. M. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-02-01

    As part of an ongoing study of the neutral hydrogen (H I) morphology and kinematics of 'shell' elliptical galaxies, we present Very Large Array observations of two shell galaxies with aligned shells, Arp 230 and MCG -5-7-1. Our data provide the first H I images of Arp 230 and deeper images of MCG -5-7-1 than previously reported. Optical images of Arp 230 reveal a bright, aligned, interleaved shell system, making it an ideal candidate for 'phase-wrapped' shell formation following a radial encounter with a smaller companion. The fainter, non-interleaved shells of MCG -5-7-1 do not clearly favor a particular formation scenario. The H I we detect in both galaxies extends to nearly the same projected distance as the optical shells. In Arp 230 this gas appears to be anti-correlated with the aligned shells, consistent with our expectations for phase-wrapped shells produced in a radial encounter. In MCG -5-7-1, we observe gas associated with the shells making a 'spatial wrapping' or looping scenario more plausible. Although the extended gas component in both galaxies is unevenly distributed, the gas kinematics are surprisingly regular, looking almost like complete disks in rotation. We use the H I kinematics and optical data to determine mass-to-light ratios M/L{sub B} of 2.4{sup +3.0}{sub -0.5} (at 13.5 kpc, 4.5 R{sub e} ) for Arp 230 and M/L{sub B} of 30 {+-} 7 (at 40 kpc, 7 R{sub e} ) in MCG -5-7-1. In both systems we find that this ratio changes as a function of radius, indicating the presence of a dark halo. By comparing orbital and precession timescales, we conclude that the potentials are slightly flattened. We infer a 5%-10% flattening for Arp 230 and less flattening in the case of MCG -5-7-1. Finally, we present images of the H I associated with the inner disk or (polar) ring of each galaxy and discuss possible explanations for their different present-day star formation rates. We detect total H I masses of 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} in Arp 230 and 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} in MCG -5-7-1. Both systems have H I masses, scale sizes, and regular kinematics similar to those of non-aligned shell galaxies we have previously studied (Cen A and NGC 2865). Furthermore, we (re-)emphasize in this paper that shell galaxies such as MCG -5-7-1, along with previously studied galaxies NGC 5128 (Cen A) and NGC 2865, are unique in that they provide evidence of recent accretion with gas and collisionless stars showing clear association, though the displacement suggests the presence of significant gas-dynamical interaction.

  6. Oral sedation.

    PubMed

    Dionne, R

    1998-09-01

    "I fear a trip to the dentist more than I fear death" is the response one person gave in a national survey recently cited in USA Today. While clearly representing an extreme, the results of many surveys suggest that fear of dentistry is still prevalent and is a measure of the failure of current therapeutic approaches to reduce pain and anxiety sufficiently to enable people, especially those with special needs, to visit the dentist. Patients who are fearful would likely seek oral health care more regularly if anesthesia and sedation were more readily available. Taking into consideration that the safety of anxiolytic drugs is highly dependent on the drug, dose, and route of administration used, oral premedication should be the sedative technique used by most dentists because it is efficacious, requires little monitoring when appropriate doses are used, and is unlikely to result in serious morbidity. PMID:9852800

  7. Oral infection of mice with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes meningitis and infection of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Mark E; Brown, Nat F; Provias, John; Finlay, B Brett; Coombes, Brian K

    2007-01-01

    Background Salmonella meningitis is a rare and serious infection of the central nervous system following acute Salmonella enterica sepsis. For this pathogen, no appropriate model has been reported in which to examine infection kinetics and natural dissemination to the brain. Methods Five mouse lines including C57BL/6, Balb/c, 129S6-Slc11a1tm1Mcg, 129S1/SvImJ, B6.129-Inpp5dtm1Rkh were used in the murine typhoid model to examine the dissemination of systemic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium following oral infection. Results We report data on spontaneous meningitis and brain infection following oral infection of mice with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Conclusion This model may provide a system in which dissemination of bacteria through the central nervous system and the influence of host and bacterial genetics can be queried. PMID:17597539

  8. Oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ginger; Sutton, Eliza L

    2015-05-01

    Oral contraception (OC) remains a popular noninvasive, readily reversible approach for pregnancy prevention and, largely off label, for control of acne, hirsutism, dysmenorrhea, irregular menstruation, menorrhagia, and other menstrual-related symptoms. Many OC formulations exist, with generics offering lower cost and comparable efficacy. Certain medical conditions, including hypertension, migraine, breast cancer, and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), present contraindications. Blood pressure measurement is the only physical examination or testing needed before prescription. Although no OC is clearly superior to others, OCs containing the second-generation progestin levonorgestrel have been associated with lower VTE risk than those containing other progestins. PMID:25841596

  9. First Constraints on Iron Abundance versus Reflection Fraction from the Seyfert~1 Galaxy MCG--6-30-15

    E-print Network

    J. C. Lee; A. C. Fabian; W. N. Brandt; C. S. Reynolds; K. Iwasawa

    1999-07-26

    We report on a joint ASCA and RXTE observation spanning an $\\sim$ 400~ks time interval of the bright Seyfert~1 galaxy MCG--6-30-15. The data clearly confirm the presence of a broad skewed iron line ($W_{K\\alpha} \\sim$ 266 eV) and Compton reflection continuum at higher energies reported in our previous paper. We also investigate whether the gravitational and Doppler effects that affect the iron line may also be manifest in the reflected continuum. The uniqueness of this data set is underlined by the extremely good statistics that we obtain from the approximately four million photons that make up the 2-20 keV RXTE PCA spectrum alone. This, coupled with the high energy coverage of HEXTE and the spectral resolution of ASCA in the iron line regime has allowed us to constrain the relationship between abundance and reflection fraction for the first time at the 99 per cent confidence level. The reflection fraction is entirely consistent with a flat disk, i.e. the cold material subtends $\\rm 2 \\pi$ sr at the source, to an accuracy of 20 per cent. Monte Carlo simulations show that the observed strong iron line intensity is explained by an overabundance of iron by a factor of $\\sim$ 2 and an underabundance of the lower-Z elements by a similar factor. By considering non-standard abundances, a clear and consistent picture can be made in which both the iron line and reflection continuum come from the same material such as e.g. an accretion disk.

  10. The prostaglandin E1 analogue, misoprostol, regulates inflammatory cytokines and immune functions in vitro like the natural prostaglandins E1, E2 and E3.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, D R; Whitehouse, M W; Vernon-Roberts, B

    1992-01-01

    We examined whether some immune functions related to the action and production of cytokines could be regulated by the natural prostaglandins E (PGE) and the PGE1 (ester) analogue, Misoprostol. PGE1,2,3 and Misoprostol inhibited: (1) the mitogenic activity of interleukin-1 (IL-1) for mouse thymocytes; (2) spreading of mouse macrophages on glass; (3) tumour necrosis factor (TNF) (alpha and beta) production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and rat macrophages; (4) IL-1 production by rat and mouse peritoneal macrophages; and (5) interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These PGE had little effect on IL-1 production by human monocytes. By contrast, they all enhanced IL-6 production by rat and mouse macrophages and human monocytes. These effects were noted at concentrations below 500 nM (even as low as 10 nM). The relative potency of the prostanoids tested for both inhibitory and stimulatory effects was PGE1 = PGE2 = or greater than PGE3 greater than Misoprostol greater than PGA2 much greater than PGF1-alpha = PGF2-alpha = PGD2 (no effect). There is strong evidence that PGE1,2,3 and Misoprostol bind to the same receptor(s) and trigger the second messenger, cAMP, since dibutyryl cAMP (a lipophilic analogue of cAMP) had the same effects as the PGE. These PGE also induced elevated intracellular cAMP levels in and competed with [3H]PGE2 for binding to human and rat cells with the same relative potencies as described above. PMID:1321792

  11. Nicotine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with a smoking ... Nicotine oral inhalation comes as a cartridge to inhale by mouth using a special inhaler. Follow the directions on ...

  12. Oral muscosal melanomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce F Barker; William M Carpenter; Troy E Daniels; Michael A Kahn; Alan S Leider; Francina Lozada-Nur; Denis P Lynch; Raymond Melrose; Philip Merrell; Thomas Morton; Edmund Peters; Joseph A Regezi; Susan D Richards; Gordon M Rick; Michael D Rohrer; Lee Slater; Jeffery C. B Stewart; Charles E Tomich; Robert A Vickers; Norman K Wood; Stephen K Young

    1997-01-01

    A workshop to discuss primary oral melanomas was convened at the annual Western Society of Teachers of Oral Pathology meeting in Bannf, Alberta, Canada. Fifty oral melanomas, identified from the files of the participants, were reviewed in order to better understand the clinical features, histologic spectrum, and natural history of these perplexing lesions. Results confirmed that oral melanomas occur in

  13. Nutrition and oral cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Marshall; Peter Boyle

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between nutrition and oral cancer is reviewed. Ecologic and case-control studies provide most of the evidence regarding the nutritional epidemiology of oral cancer. The ecologic evidence is that the considerable geographic variation in the incidence of oral cancer is consistent with variation in nutrition. Because incipient oral cancer is likely to affect the diets of

  14. Types of combined oral contraceptives used by U.S. women

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kelli Stidham; Trussell, James

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to estimate the prevalence of types of combined oral contraceptives (COC) used among U.S. women. Study Design We analyzed interview-collected data from 12,279 women ages 15–44 years participating in the National Survey of Family Growth, 2006–2010. Analyses focused on COC use overall, by pill type, across sociodemographics and health factors. Results The prevalence of current COC use (88 different brands) was 17%. The majority of COC-users used earlier formulation COCs: ?30 mcg (67%) versus <30 mcg estrogen (33%), monophasic (67%) versus multiphasic (33%) dosages, and traditional 21/7 (88%) versus extended/other cycle regimens (12%) regimens; Norgestimate (32%) and norethindrone (20%) were the most commonly used progestins. Sociodemographic, gynecological and health risk factors were associated with type of COC use. Conclusion Further investigation of specific COC use and of the factors associated with types of pills used among U.S. women at the population level is needed. PMID:22770787

  15. DISCOVERY OF Fe K{alpha} X-RAY REVERBERATION AROUND THE BLACK HOLES IN MCG-5-23-16 AND NGC 7314

    SciTech Connect

    Zoghbi, A.; Reynolds, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Cackett, E. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock St, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Miniutti, G. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Dep. de Astrosica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Kara, E.; Fabian, A. C., E-mail: azoghbi@astro.umd.edu [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-20

    Several X-ray observations have recently revealed the presence of reverberation time delays between spectral components in active galactic nuclei. Most of the observed lags are between the power-law Comptonization component, seen directly, and the soft excess produced by reflection in the vicinity of the black hole. NGC 4151 was the first object to show these lags in the iron K band. Here, we report the discovery of reverberation lags in the Fe K band in two other sources: MCG-5-23-16 and NGC 7314. In both objects, the 6-7 keV band, where the Fe K{alpha} line peaks, lags the bands at lower and higher energies with a time delay of {approx}1 ks. These lags are unlikely to be due to the narrow Fe K{alpha} line. They are fully consistent with reverberation of the relativistically broadened iron K{alpha} line. The measured lags, their time scale, and spectral modeling indicate that most of the radiation is emitted at {approx}5 and 24 gravitational radii for MCG-5-23-16 and NGC 7314, respectively.

  16. The Use of Single Versus Double Dose of Intra-vaginal Prostaglandin E2 “Misoprostol” prior to Abdominal Myomectomy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ragab, Ahmed; Khaiary, Moustafa; Badawy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a single versus double dose of prostaglandin E2 “misoprostol, 400 microgram” prior to myomectomy for multiple uterine fibroids. Methods This was a prospective randomized controlled trial comprised of 69 patients with multiple myomas undergoing myomectomy. Patients received either an intra-vaginal single dose of 400 microgram misoprostol 1 hr pre-operatively (group A, 34 cases) or 2 doses, 3 and 1 hr prior to surgery (group B, 35 cases). Operation time, intra and post-operative blood loss, hemoglobin concentration, blood pressure and body's temperature were estimated and compared in both groups. The data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. The p<0.05 was considered significant. Results In group B, the mean operative time was significantly (p<0.001) shorter than in group A (25.8±4.14 vs. 35.4±5.6 min respectively). The mean value for operative blood loss was significantly (p<0.001) smaller in group B (101.4±25.5 vs. 200.16±18.8 ml). There was a significant (p<0.01) rise of the body temperature in group B (38.5±0.7 vs. 37.18±0.84°C). There were no differences between the two groups regarding hemoglobin levels, post-operative febrile morbidity or length of hospital stay. Conclusion In this study, two doses of pre-operative intra-vaginal misoprostol were more effective than one dose in reducing intra and post-operative blood loss and shortening of operation time during abdominal myomectomy. PMID:25202673

  17. Does Adding Misoprostol to Standard Intravenous Proton Pump Inhibitor Protocol Improve the Outcome of Aspirin\\/NSAID-Induced Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?erif Y?lmaz; Kadim Bayan; Mehmet Dursun; Fikri Canoruç; Nihal K?l?nç; Yekta Tüzün; Ramazan Dan??; Meliksah Ertem

    2007-01-01

    Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastrointestinal bleeding is recognized as an important health\\u000a problem. We performed a single-center randomized clinical trial to compare the effect of high-dose intravenous proton pump\\u000a inhibitor (omeprazole) alone (group 1) with omeprazole in combination with a low-dose prostaglandin analog (misoprostol; group\\u000a 2) on clinical outcomes in patients with aspirin\\/NSAID-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Additionally, we

  18. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  19. XMM-EPIC observation of MCG-6-30-15: Direct evidence for the extraction of energy from aspinning black hole?

    E-print Network

    Joern Wilms; Christopher S. Reynolds; Mitchell C. Begelman; James Reeves; Silvano Molendi; Ruediger Stuabert; Eckhard Kendziorra

    2001-10-23

    We present XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) observations of the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15, focusing on the broad Fe K$\\alpha$ line at ~6keV and the associated reflection continuum, which is believed to originate from the inner accretion disk. We find these reflection features to be extremely broad and red-shifted, indicating its origin from the very most central regions of the accretion disk. It seems likely that we have caught this source in the ``deep minimum'' state first observed by Iwasawa et al. (1996). The implied central concentration of X-ray illumination is difficult to understand in any pure accretion disk model. We suggest that we are witnessing the extraction and dissipation of rotational energy from a spinning black hole by magnetic fields connecting the black hole or plunging region to the disk.

  20. Observations of MCG-5-23-16 with Suzaku, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR: Disk Tomography and Compton Hump Reverberation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoghbi, A.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C.; Kara, E.; Harrison, F. A.; Fabian, A. C.; Lohfink, A.; Matt, G.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    MCG-5-23-16 is one of the first active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where relativistic reverberation in the iron K line originating in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole was found, based on a short XMM-Newton observation. In this work, we present the results from long X-ray observations using Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR designed to map the emission region using X-ray reverberation. A relativistic iron line is detected in the lag spectra on three different timescales, allowing the emission from different regions around the black hole to be separated. Using NuSTAR coverage of energies above 10 keV reveals a lag between these energies and the primary continuum, which is detected for the first time in an AGN. This lag is a result of the Compton reflection hump responding to changes in the primary source in a manner similar to the response of the relativistic iron K line.

  1. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floyd E. Dewhirst; Erin A. Klein; Emily C. Thompson; Jessica M. Blanton; Tsute Chen; Lisa Milella; Catherine M. F. Buckley; Ian J. Davis; Marie-Lousie Bennett; Zoe V. Marshall-Jones

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S

  2. DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 is involved in (m)CG and (m)CCG DNA methylation and is essential for sporophyte development in Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Yaari, Rafael; Noy-Malka, Chen; Wiedemann, Gertrud; Auerbach Gershovitz, Nitzan; Reski, Ralf; Katz, Aviva; Ohad, Nir

    2015-07-01

    DNA methylation has a crucial role in plant development regulating gene expression and silencing of transposable elements. Maintenance DNA methylation in plants occurs at symmetrical (m)CG and (m)CHG contexts ((m) = methylated) and is maintained by DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1) and CHROMOMETHYLASE (CMT) DNA methyltransferase protein families, respectively. While angiosperm genomes encode for several members of MET1 and CMT families, the moss Physcomitrella patens, serving as a model for early divergent land plants, carries a single member of each family. To determine the function of P. patens PpMET we generated ?Ppmet deletion mutant which lost (m)CG and unexpectedly (m)CCG methylation at loci tested. In order to evaluate the extent of (m)CCG methylation by MET1, we reexamined the Arabidopsis thaliana Atmet1 mutant methylome and found a similar pattern of methylation loss, suggesting that maintenance of DNA methylation by MET1 is conserved through land plant evolution. While ?Ppmet displayed no phenotypic alterations during its gametophytic phase, it failed to develop sporophytes, indicating that PpMET plays a role in gametogenesis or early sporophyte development. Expression array analysis revealed that the deletion of PpMET resulted in upregulation of two genes and multiple repetitive sequences. In parallel, expression analysis of the previously reported ?Ppcmt mutant showed that lack of PpCMT triggers overexpression of genes. This overexpression combined with loss of (m)CHG and its pleiotropic phenotype, implies that PpCMT has an essential evolutionary conserved role in the epigenetic control of gene expression. Collectively, our results suggest functional conservation of MET1 and CMT families during land plant evolution. A model describing the relationship between MET1 and CMT in CCG methylation is presented. PMID:25944663

  3. Successful oral acyclovir desensitization.

    PubMed

    Henry, R E; Wegmann, J A; Hartle, J E; Christopher, G W

    1993-05-01

    A 65-year-old woman with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) complicated by recurrent mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection developed angioedema on the initiation of her second course of oral acyclovir therapy. Oral rechallenge in hospital three days later confirmed acyclovir hypersensitivity. Vidarabine and foscarnet therapies were abandoned after treatment failure and unacceptable toxicity. Acyclovir desensitization was accomplished using a protocol derived from oral penicillin desensitization regimens. Mucocutaneous HSV infection responded to intravenous acyclovir followed by chronic oral suppression without recurrences of HSV or hypersensitivity. This report is an example of acyclovir hypersensitivity and successful oral desensitization. PMID:8498729

  4. A double-blind placebo-controlled comparison of the efficacy and safety of 50, 100, and 200 micrograms of misoprostol QID in the prevention of ibuprofen-induced gastric and duodenal mucosal lesions and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lanza, F L; Fakouhi, D; Rubin, A; Davis, R E; Rack, M F; Nissen, C; Geis, S

    1989-06-01

    Ibuprofen, a commonly proscribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is also available in many countries, including the United States, without a prescription, is known to cause hemorrhage and erosion of the gastroduodenal mucosa. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of 200, 100, and 50 micrograms of misoprostol and placebo administered qid for 6 days, with a final dose on the morning of the 7th day, in the prevention of gastric and duodenal lesions induced by the concurrent administration of 800 mg of ibuprofen qid. A total of 120 healthy subjects with endoscopically normal gastric and duodenal mucosae were enrolled in the study. The endoscopic examination was repeated 2 h after the final dose on day 7, and the mucosae were graded on a 0 to 4+ scale. In the stomach, all three misoprostol groups were significantly more protective than placebo and did not differ significantly from each other. In the duodenum, the endoscopic scores of the 200- and 100-micrograms misoprostol groups, but not the 50-micrograms group differed significantly from placebo. The 200- and 100-microgram groups did not differ significantly from each other, but both differed from the 50-micrograms group for duodenal mucosal injury. Subjective symptoms thought to be primarily attributable to the NSAID (e.g., pain, indigestion/heartburn and nausea) were recorded by each subject in a diary. Subjects in the 200-micrograms misoprostol group attained the greatest degree of mucosal protection and had a significantly higher incidence of indigestion/heartburn and abdominal pain than the placebo group. One can conclude that misoprostol in both antisecretory (200- and 100-micrograms) and non-antisecretory (50-micrograms) doses protects the gastric mucosa from injury from high anti-inflammatory doses of ibuprofen (3200 mg/day). Only the antisecretory doses (100 and 200 micrograms qid) were effective in the duodenum, suggesting that acid suppression is necessary for mucosal protection to occur in the duodenum. PMID:2499187

  5. Oralidad, narración oral y narración oral escénica

    E-print Network

    Garzó n Cé spedes, Francisco

    1995-10-01

    narrador oral escénico y del público como interlocutores. También analizan la narración oral como una de las formas de hipnosis alternativa. Y se detienen en la Técnica: Cómo seleccionar el cuento, Cómo analizarlo, Cómo interiorizarlo y apropiárselo para..., sabiduría, estimulación, provocación, humildad, indefensión, transparencia; un acto de hipnosis alternativa, de belleza, audacia, pureza, indagación, lealtad, justicia, libertad, dignificación, solidaridad, amistad y amor. La oralidad, por tanto...

  6. Effect of oral glucose on serum zinc in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.L.; Kohrs, M.B.; Horwitz, D.L.; Cyborski, C.K.; Czajka-Narins, D.M.; Kamath, S.

    1986-03-05

    To determine the effect of glucose loading on serum zinc concentrations, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-86 y were studied. Anthropometric data, medical and dietary histories were obtained. Serum zinc and glucose concentrations were obtained fasting and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2 and 3 h after 75 g oral glucose load; glycohemoglobin and fasting serum lipids were also determined. For comparison, the subjects were categorized as: normal or low serum zinc concentrations; normal or high body mass index BMI; normal or high sum of skinfolds and normal or high serum cholesterol. Results showed that low serum zinc concentrations increased significantly over baseline values after the glucose load and did not return to fasting levels. On the other hand, mean serum zinc concentrations significantly declined without recovery for those with normal zinc values. For the total group, no significant differences were noted between fasting values and subsequent time periods. No correlations were noted between fasting serum zinc and area under the curve for zinc except in the high BMI group (positive correlation observed). For the high BMI group, fasting serum zinc differed significantly from the succeeding measurements except for 30 min. For the group as a whole, mean serum zinc concentration was within normal limits (76.9 +/- 2.8 mcg/ml): mean zinc intake was less than 2/3rds the RDA. They conclude that glucose ingestion may alter serum zinc and should be considered in interpreting these levels.

  7. Primary oral health care.

    PubMed

    Honkala, Eino

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the background and evolution of primary oral health care (POHC), including the development of an oral health policy, by identifying the resources necessary for oral health services, reviewing the evidence of the effectiveness of oral health promotion and education, providing essential oral health care, and establishing evidence of the benefits of regular dental visits for effective POHC. At present, evidence for the effectiveness of oral health education and regular dental visits is very weak. Nevertheless, POHC needs to be developed as an integral part of primary health care (PHC). Therefore, a need exists to increase financial investment, resources and workforce in PHC to lower the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease in the Middle-East using the POHC approach. PMID:24503932

  8. Non-oral contraception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsten I. Black; Ali Kubba

    2008-01-01

    Non-oral contraception is increasingly being promoted by contraceptive experts as a more convenient and, in many cases, safer and more efficacious alternative to oral contraception. Injectables, implants and intrauterine methods offer the advantage of being long-acting and less user dependent, factors which may potentially improve contraceptive compliance. Combined contraceptive methods in non-oral delivery forms offer a choice for women who

  9. Christopher Draven Oral History

    E-print Network

    Draven, Christopher; Albin, Tami

    2010-01-12

    Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Christopher Draven Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin February 9, 2008 http...://hdl.handle.net/1808/5684 This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual...

  10. Oral microbiota and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion. PMID:21523227

  11. On the Lack of X-Ray Iron Line Reverberation in MCG -6-30-15: Implications for the Black Hole Mass and Accretion Disk Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2000-04-01

    We use the method of Press, Rybicki, & Hewitt to search for time lags and time leads between different energy bands of the RXTE data for MCG -6-30-15. We tailor our search in order to probe any reverberation signatures of the fluorescent iron K? line that is thought to arise from the inner regions of the black hole accretion disk. In essence, an optimal reconstruction algorithm is applied to the continuum band (2-4 keV) light curve that smooths out noise and interpolates across the data gaps. The reconstructed continuum band light curve can then be folded through trial transfer functions in an attempt to find lags or leads between the continuum band and the iron line band (5-7 keV). We find reduced fractional variability in the line band. The spectral analysis of Lee et al. reveals this to be due to a combination of an apparently constant iron line flux (at least on timescales of few×104 s) and flux-correlated changes in the photon index. We also find no evidence for iron line reverberation and exclude reverberation delays in the range 0.5-50 ks. This extends the conclusions of Lee et al. and suggests that the iron line flux remains constant on timescales as short as 0.5 ks. The large black hole mass (>108 Msolar) naively suggested by the constancy of the iron line flux is rejected on other grounds. We suggest that the black hole in MCG -6-30-15 has a mass of MBH~106-107 Msolar and that changes in the ionization state of the disk may produce the puzzling spectral variability. Finally, it is found that the 8-15 keV band lags the 2-4 keV band by 50-100 s. This result is used to place constraints on the size and geometry of the Comptonizing medium responsible for the hard X-ray power law in this AGN.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate 50/250 mcg combination therapy in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Kazuhisa; Kobayashi, Akihiro; Makihara, Yukio; Johnson, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Using sputum neutrophils as the primary measure, and other inflammation biomarkers, this study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of the combination salmeterol 50 mcg and fluticasone propionate 250 mcg (SFC 250) in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients and methods Patients were treated in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled trial with SFC 250 twice daily (n=26) or placebo (n=26) for 12 weeks. At the start and end of treatment, inflammation biomarkers (sputum and serum), lung function, and health status (COPD Assessment Test [CAT] questionnaire) were measured. Results Although a numerical decrease in differential neutrophil count was observed from baseline, SFC 250 did not significantly reduce sputum neutrophils compared with placebo, nor were there significant changes from baseline in the other biomarkers (sputum or serum), lung function, or CAT, versus placebo. Squamous epithelial cell contamination in some sputum samples rendered them unacceptable for analysis, which reduced the sample size to n=19 (SFC 250) and n=10 (placebo). However, inclusion of contaminated samples did not affect the overall trend of the outcome. Ad hoc bootstrap statistical analysis showed a 27.9% (SFC 250) and 1.3% (placebo) decrease in sputum neutrophils. Sputum IL-8 decreased by 43.2% after SFC 250 but increased by 48.3% with placebo. Responder analyses showed 42% of patients had ?20% decrease in neutrophils from baseline; and 47% of patients had a ?200 pg/mL change in sputum IL-8 following SFC 250 versus 20% after placebo; both changes are considered clinically relevant. Conclusion This study provides additional information about inflammation in Japanese COPD patients and is the first to study the anti-inflammatory effects of SFC 250 in this context and population. In the primary analysis, SFC 250 did not produce significant changes from baseline in sputum neutrophil levels or other sputum or serum inflammatory markers compared with placebo. Secondary ad hoc statistical analysis showed that SFC 250 reduced the number of sputum neutrophils and IL-8 compared with placebo. PMID:25945045

  13. Does self-administered vaginal misoprostol result in cervical ripening in postmenopausal women after 14 days of pre-treatment with estradiol? Trial protocol for a randomised, placebo-controlled sequential trial*

    PubMed Central

    Oppegaard, KS; Lieng, M; Berg, A; Istre, O; Qvigstad, E; Nesheim, B-I

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the impact of 1000 micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus self-administered vaginal placebo on preoperative cervical ripening after pre-treatment with estradiol vaginal tablets at home in postmenopausal women prior to day-care operative hysteroscopy. Design Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled sequential trial. The boundaries for the sequential trial were calculated on the primary outcomes of a difference of cervical dilatation ?1 millimetre, with the assumption of a type 1 error of 0.05 and a power of 0.95. Setting Norwegian university teaching hospital. Population Postmenopausal women referred for day-care operative hysteroscopy. Methods The women were randomised to either 1000 micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol or self-administered vaginal placebo the evening before day-care operative hysteroscopy. All women had administered a 25-microgram vaginal estradiol tablet daily for 14 days prior to the operation. Main outcome measures Preoperative cervical dilatation (difference between misoprostol and placebo group, primary outcome), difference in dilatation before and after administration of misoprostol or placebo, number of women who achieve a preoperative cervical dilatation ?5 millimetres, acceptability, complications and side effects (secondary outcomes). Results Intra-operative findings and distribution of cervical dilatation in the two treatment groups: values are given as median (range) or n(%). Difference in dilatation before and after administration of misoprostol and placebo: values are given as median (range) of intraindividual differences. Percentage of women who achieve a cervical dilatation of ?5 mm, percentage of women who were difficult to dilate. Acceptability in the two treatment groups: values are given as completely acceptable n(%), fairly acceptable n(%), fairly unacceptable n(%), completely unacceptable n(%). Pain in the two treatment groups: pain was measured with a visual analogue scale ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (unbearable pain): values are given as median (range). Occurrence of side effects in the two treatment groups. Values are given as n(%). Complications given as n(%). Funding sources No pharmaceutical company was involved in this study. A research grant from the regional research board of Northern Norway has been awarded to finance Dr K.S.O.'s leave from Hammerfest hospital as well as travel expenses between Hammerfest and Oslo, and research courses. The research grant from Prof B.I.N. (Helse Øst) funded the purchase of estradiol tablets, the manufacturing costs of misoprostol and placebo capsules from the hospital pharmacy, as well as the costs incurred for preparing the randomisation schedule and distribution of containers containing capsules to hospital. Prof B.I.N.'s research grant also funded insurance for the study participants. Conclusions Estimated completion date 31 December 2008. PMID:18485172

  14. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fall Meeting AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

  15. signal processing and oral communication

    E-print Network

    Penn, Gerald

    SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Computational Linguistics, 5 December 2012 Frank University of Toronto #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication An introduction to SPOClab · SPOClab (Signal Processing and Oral Communication) is a new lab intersecting Computer Science

  16. GRADUATE COLLEGE ORAL DEFENSE RESULTS

    E-print Network

    Cho, Hokwon

    GRADUATE COLLEGE ORAL DEFENSE RESULTS THESIS, DISSERTATION/MUSIC DOCUMENT, PROFESSIONAL: Phone: MEANS OF PUBLICIZING ORAL DEFENSE Department email Posted flyer UNLV Today Department website GPSA/GPSA Lounge Other (specify): Date: ORAL DEFENSE

  17. Oral amelanotic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Adisa, A O; Olawole, W O; Sigbeku, O F

    2012-06-01

    Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic. No etiologic factors or risk factors have been recognized for oral melanomas. Some authors have suggested that oral habits and selfmedication may be of etiological significance. Oral melanoma is rare but it is relatively frequent in countries like Japan, Uganda, and India. It is rarely identified under the age of 20 years. In Australia where cutaneous melanomas are relatively common primary melanoma of the oral mucosa is rare. The surface architecture of oral melanomas ranges from macular to ulcerated and nodular. The lesion is said to be asymptomatic in the early stages but may become ulcerated and painful in advanced lesions. The diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma is more difficult than that of pigmented lesions. The neoplasm consists of spindle-shaped cells with many mitotic figures and no cytoplasmic melanin pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry using S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and MART-1 will help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Radical surgery with ample margins and adjuvant chemotherapy are appropriate management protocol for malignant melanoma. Oral melanoma is associated with poor prognosis but its amelanotic variant has even worse prognosis because it exhibits a more aggressive biology and because of difficulty in diagnosis which leads to delayed treatment. PMID:25161399

  18. Extreme oral myiasis.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Benny; Vyloppilli, Suresh; Ahsan, Auswaf; Anirudhan, Anroop

    2014-09-01

    Extreme oral myiasis is a rare condition, mostly affecting bedridden patients whose oral health care measures are neglected. Single stage manual removal of the maggots along with the necrotic tissue, debridement, and suturing under general anesthesia is the most effective way to treat the condition. Preventive measures are also equally important to eliminate the cause and recurrence.  PMID:25228190

  19. Scoring oral mucositis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Parulekar; R Mackenzie; G Bjarnason; R. C. K Jordan

    1998-01-01

    Oral mucositis is a common, dose limiting and potentially serious complication of both radiation and chemotherapy. Both these therapies are non-specific, interfering with the cellular homeostasis of both malignant and normal host cells. An important effect is the loss of the rapidly proliferating epithelial cells in the oral cavity, gut and in the bone marrow. Within the mouth, the loss

  20. Genes and oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jurel, Sunit Kumar; Gupta, Durga Shanker; Singh, Raghuwar D.; Singh, Mrinalini; Srivastava, Shilpi

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers have been one of the leading causes of deaths particularly in the developing countries. Prime reason for this high mortality and morbidity is attributed to the delay in diagnosis and prompt treatment. Relentless research in the field of oncology has led to the advent of novel procedures for the early detection of oral cancers. Molecular biology is highly promising in this regard. It is a procedure that detects alterations at a molecular level much before they are seen under a microscope and much before clinical changes occur. Molecular studies serve as the basis by which we will eventually be able not only to augment clinical assessment and classification of oral lesions but also predict malignant potential of oral lesions, thus reducing the incidence and increasing the scope for early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancers. However, making such sophisticated tools available for the common man in developing countries is one of the most important challenges faced today. PMID:24959008

  1. The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer probes the dusty warm absorber in the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG--6-30-15

    E-print Network

    J. C. Lee; C. R. Canizares; H. L. Marshall; A. C. Fabian; R. Morales; N. S. Schulz; K. Iwasawa

    2001-10-29

    The Chandra HETGS spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG--6-30-15 show numerous narrow, unresolved (FWHM 0.48 keV (< 26 A). We attribute previous reports of an apparently highly redshifted O VII edge to the neutral Fe L absorption complex and the O VII resonance series (by transitions higher than He $\\gamma$; He $\\alpha,\\beta,\\gamma$ are also seen at lower energies). The implied dust column density needed to explain the FeI L edge feature agrees with that obtained from earlier reddening studies, which had already concluded that the dust should be associated with the ionized absorber (given the relatively lower observed X-ray absorption by cold gas). Our findings contradict the interpretation of Branduardi-Raymont et al. (2001), based on XMM-Newton RGS spectra, that this spectral region is dominated by highly relativistic soft X-ray line emission originating near the central black hole. Here we review these issues pertaining to the soft X-ray spectral features as addressed by Lee et al., (2001). (Details found in Lee et al., 2001, ApJ., 554, L13)

  2. Training Traditional Birth Attendants on the Use of Misoprostol and a Blood Measurement Tool to Prevent Postpartum Haemorrhage: Lessons Learnt from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Passano, Paige; Bohl, Daniel D.; Islam, Arshadul; Prata, Ndola

    2014-01-01

    A consensus emerged in the late 1990s among leaders in global maternal health that traditional birth attendants (TBAs) should no longer be trained in delivery skills and should instead be trained as promoters of facility-based care. Many TBAs continue to be trained in places where home deliveries are the norm and the potential impacts of this training are important to understand. The primary objective of this study was to gain a more nuanced understanding of the full impact of training TBAs to use misoprostol and a blood measurement tool (mat) for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at home deliveries through the perspective of those involved in the project. This qualitative study, conducted between July 2009 and July 2010 in Bangladesh, was nested within larger operations research, testing the feasibility and acceptability of scaling up community-based provision of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool for prevention of PPH. A total of 87 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with TBAs, community health workers (CHWs), managers, and government-employed family welfare visitors (FWVs) at three time points during the study. Computer-assisted thematic data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti (version 5.2). Four primary themes emerged during the data analysis, which all highlight changes that occurred following the training. The first theme describes the perceived direct changes linked to the two new interventions. The following three themes describe the indirect changes that interviewees perceived: strengthened linkages between TBAs and the formal healthcare system; strengthened linkages between TBAs and the communities they serve; and improved quality of services/service utilization. The data indicate that training TBAs and CHW supervisors resulted in perceived broader and more nuanced changes than simply improvements in TBAs’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Acknowledgeing TBAs’ important role in the community and in home deliveries and integrating them into the formal healthcare system has the potential to result in changes similar to those seen in this study. PMID:24847601

  3. Oral Lactoferrin Treatment of Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natsuko Takakura; Hiroyuki Wakabayashi; Hiroko Ishibashi; Susumu Teraguchi; Yoshitaka Tamura; Hideyo Yamaguchi; Shigeru Abe

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the potential of lactoferrin (LF), a multifunctional milk protein, for treatment of oral candi- diasis with immunosuppressed mice, which have local symptoms characteristic of oral thrush. Oral adminis- tration of bovine LF in drinking water starting 1 day before the infection significantly reduced the number of Candida albicans in the oral cavity and the score of lesions on

  4. Oral yeast carriage correlates with presence of oral epithelial dysplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M McCullough; M Jaber; A. W Barrett; L Bain; P. M Speight; S. R Porter

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between the presence of Candida albicans and the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of the present study was to assess the presence and level of colonisation of oral yeast in patients undergoing an incisional oral mucosal biopsy in order to assess whether the amount of oral yeast present correlated with

  5. Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know Oral chemo is any drug you take by mouth to treat cancer. ... be ready for oral chemo. What is oral chemotherapy? There are many types of chemotherapy (chemo). Oral ...

  6. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth. It is usually inhaled twice daily or once ... doctor about how you should use your other oral and inhaled medications for asthma during your treatment ...

  7. Umeclidinium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    Umeclidinium oral inhalation is used in adults to control wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by ... Umeclidinium comes as a powder to inhale by mouth using a special inhaler. It is usually inhaled ...

  8. Salmeterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... comes as a dry powder to inhale by mouth using a specially designed inhaler. When salmeterol is ... doctor about how you should take your other oral or inhaled medications for asthma during your treatment ...

  9. Triamcinolone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    Triamcinolone comes as an aerosol to use by oral inhalation. It usually is inhaled three or four ... as possible through your nose while keeping your mouth shut. Open Mouth Technique: Open your mouth wide, ...

  10. Pentobarbital Oral and Rectal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as a capsule and liquid to take by mouth and as a suppository to be used rectally. ... Grisactin), medications for depression or seizures, metronidazole (Flagyl), oral contraceptives, propranolol (Inderal), quinidine, rifampin, sedatives, sleeping pills, ...

  11. Beclomethasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    QVAR® Oral Inhaler ... Beclomethasone comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth. It usually is inhaled three or four times ... as possible through your nose while keeping your mouth shut. Open Mouth Technique: Open your mouth wide, ...

  12. Oral Melanotic Macule

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Oral melanotic macule is a non-cancerous (benign), dark spot found on the lips or inside the ... are more common in middle-aged people, in dark-skinned people, and in females. Signs and Symptoms ...

  13. Oral compound nevus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Lyzete Berriel; Consalaro, Alberto; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Sampieri, Marcelo Bonifácio; Tinoco-Araújo, José Endrigo

    2014-02-01

    The melanocytic nevus is a benign and focal proliferation of nevus cells that can be congenital or acquired. Intraoral lesions are uncommon, and the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The occurrence rate of oral compound nevus is about 5.9% to 16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a dark brown macule on the buccal mucosa of the maxilla in the region of tooth 26. The lesion was elliptical, 0.7 x 0.5 cm, well circumscribed, asymptomatic, and the evolution time was unknown. An excisional biopsy was performed and microscopic analysis revealed nests of nevus cells in the epithelium and underlying connective tissue that were compatible with melanocytic compound nevus. Owing to the clinical similarity between oral melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma, a histopathological analysis is mandatory for definitive diagnosis. PMID:24612575

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care ...

  15. Orality, History, and \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis Carl Seifert

    2002-01-01

    Patrick Chamoiseau's Creole Folktales (1988) makes a concerted effort to reproduce the oral storytelling of the Creole slaves of the French Antilles in order to explore and promote the cultural and literary notion of \\

  16. Naomi Nelson Oral History

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Naomi; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

    2009-09-18

    Oral history interview with Naomi Nelson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Kansas City, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Naomi Nelson describes her early childhood experiences attending church in Wilsey, Kansas. After marriage, she...

  17. Oral Health Presentation Objectives

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    and mouth care we can develop dental caries or tooth decay. This is caused by bacteria in our mouths, increase calcium intake, tobacco prevention (chew r/t oral cancer and dental decay). 4. Dental Decay

  18. Karen Cooksey Oral History

    E-print Network

    Cooksey, Karen; Heidrick, Sarah

    2009-11-09

    Oral history interview with Karen Cooksey conducted by Sarah Heidrick in Salina, Kansas, on November 9, 2009. In this interview, Karen Cooksey describes her experiences belonging to the congregations of the Methodist ...

  19. Extended Abstracts Oral Presentations,

    E-print Network

    Extended Abstracts Oral Presentations, Sessions & Workshops United Nations Convention to Combat Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) 2nd Scientific Conference and are strengthening our scientific to the well) Stafford Odengo (Child carry water) Dibyendu Dey Choudhury (Women transporting water) Citation

  20. Dan Chaverin Oral History

    E-print Network

    Chaverin, Dan; Shriner, Clint

    2009-12-06

    Oral history interview with Dan Chaverin conducted by Clint Shriner in Lenexa, Kansas, on December 6, 2009. In this interview, Dan Chaverin, executive pastor of Westside Family Church in Lenexa, Kansas, discusses the operations, missions...

  1. Glenn Lindell Oral History

    E-print Network

    Lindell, Glenn; Caton, Jeffrey

    2009-10-24

    Oral history interview with Glenn Lindell conducted by Jeffrey Caton in Johnson County, Kansas, on October 24, 2009. In this interview, Glen Lindell, pastor emeritus of the Hillcrest Covenant Church in Prairie Village, Kansas, discusses his training...

  2. Terry Koenig Oral History

    E-print Network

    Koenig, Terry L.; Helmer, Lauren

    2010-11-16

    Oral history interview with Terry Koenig conducted by Lauren Helmer in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 16, 2010. In this interview, Terry Koenig discusses her childhood growing up as a member of the Missouri Synod Lutheran Church, the importance...

  3. Janice Bryant Oral History

    E-print Network

    Bryant, Janice; Helmer, Lauren

    2010-12-29

    Oral history interview with Janice Bryant conducted by Lauren Helmer in Marion, Kansas, on December 29, 2010. In this interview, Janice Bryant, a former church secretary for Valley Methodist Church, discusses the history, organization, and programs...

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers ... Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health ...

  5. Beverly Boyd Oral History

    E-print Network

    Boyd, Beverly; Teichgraeber, Steve

    2010-11-12

    Oral history interview with Beverly Boyd conducted by Steve Teichgraeber in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 12, 2010. In this interview, Beverly Boyd discusses the life of Saint Rose-Phillippine Duchesne (1769-1852), a Catholic nun of the Society...

  6. Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of substances. The most common causes are food, food additives, drugs, oral hygiene products, and dental materials. Q: Are there any specific foods that are more commonly implicated in intraoral hypersensitivity ...

  7. Edith Bogart Oral History

    E-print Network

    Bogart, Edith; Miller, Timothy

    2010-09-14

    Oral history interview with Edith Bogart conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on September 14, 2010. In this interview, Edith Bogart discusses her experiences with a variety of denominations, including Episcopalian, Jehovah's Witnesses...

  8. Oral Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV

    2014-01-01

    ’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

  9. The Human Oral Metagenome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Mullany; Philip Warburton; Elaine Allan

    \\u000a The human oral cavity is estimated to contain more than 750 bacterial species (Jenkinson and Lamont, 2005; Paster et al.,\\u000a 2006). Although this figure is controversial, the fact remains that up to half of the species in the oral microbiota cannot\\u000a yet be cultivated in the laboratory. Therefore, metagenomics is a powerful way of accessing these unculturable bacteria in\\u000a order

  10. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

  11. Oral Leukoplakia – an Update

    PubMed Central

    PARLATESCU, Ioanina; GHEORGHE, Carmen; COCULESCU, Elena; TOVARU, Serban

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to assess the current state of science on oral leukoplakia. Although it is considered a potentially malignant disorder the overall malignant progression of oral leukoplakia is of the order of 5% and even more. Nowadays there are no currently accepted markers to distinguish those that may progress to cancer from those that may not. The current golden standard is considered the presence of epithelial dysplasia on the tissue biopsy of the lesion. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is a rare form of OL which has multiple recurrences, is refractory to treatment and has malignant transformation in a short period. It is considered a true premalignant lesion. The management of oral leukoplakia varies from a "wait and see" attitude and topical chemopreventive agents to complete surgical removal. PMID:25553134

  12. Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How can the Hmong history of Minnnesota be best understood? One good place to start is with oral histories of their own experiences. Various Hmong experiences, along with other ethnic groups, are told with a flourish on the Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories site. Created by the Minnesota Historical Society, this site contains over 360 oral history interviews conducted between 1967 and 2012. Visitors can click on any of the groups listed to get started, then find detailed transcripts, streaming audio, and thumbnail sketches of participants. The Tibetan collection is quite a gem as visitors can learn about the U.S. Tibetan Resettlement Project from 1990. Overall, it's a wonderful way to learn about the diversity of the people who have come to call Minnesota home.

  13. The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the oral microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease. PMID:20656903

  14. Oral and perioral candidosis.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Ray, T L

    1994-06-01

    The following article has been assembled from the current literature and our clinical experience to provide a comprehensive review of oral and perioral candidal infections. A brief review of the epidemiology and pathogenesis is followed by a description of the various clinical signs and symptoms associated with oral candidosis. Methods useful in arriving at a diagnosis of candidal infection as well as a number of effective therapeutic modalities are discussed. In addition, special considerations relating to the treatment of patients with other concurrent mucosal diseases and long-term antifungal maintenance regimes are addressed. PMID:8060823

  15. Oral myiasis: case report.

    PubMed

    Jimson, S; Prakash, C A; Balachandran, C; Raman, M

    2013-01-01

    Oral myiasis is a rare disease caused by larvae of dipteran flies. Houseflies are strongly suspected of transmitting at least 65 diseases to humans, including typhoid fever, dysentery and cholera. Flies regurgitate and excrete wherever they come to rest and thereby mechanically are the root cause for disease organisms. A case of oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana in the maxillary anterior region in a 40-year-old patient is presented. Manual removal of maggots, and surgical debridement of wound was done followed by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic medications. A note on the identification of the larva and histopathology of the tissue is also highlighted here. PMID:24552939

  16. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  17. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PCOS is healthy nutrition, exercise, and medications. Adolescent girls and young women are frequently prescribed oral contraceptive ... endometriosis. Oral contraceptive pills lower hormone levels in girls with PCOS and regulate their menstrual periods. Hormone ...

  18. Tips for Good Oral Health during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pregnant. Getting oral health care, practicing good oral hygiene, eating healthy foods, and practicing other healthy behaviors will help keep ... Keep getting oral health care, practicing good oral hygiene, eating healthy foods, and practicing other healthy behaviors. ? Take care of ...

  19. GENOMICS OF ORAL BACTERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret J. Duncan

    Advances in bacterial genetics came with the discovery of the genetic code, followed by the development of recombinant DNA technologies. Now the field is undergoing a new revolution because of investigators' ability to sequence and assemble complete bacterial genomes. Over 200 genome projects have been completed or are in progress, and the oral microbi- ology research community has benefited through

  20. Genomics of Oral Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret J. Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Advances in bacterial genetics came with the discovery of the genetic code, followed by the development of recombinant DNA technologies. Now the field is undergoing a new revolution because of investigators’ ability to sequence and assemble complete bacterial genomes. Over 200 genome projects have been completed or are in progress, and the oral microbiology research community has benefited through projects

  1. Oral Communication in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Noting that oral communication skills need continuous refinement, this document outlines various methods of practicing these skills, such as literature circles in reading; a reader's theater; presentations of book reports; story telling; a poetry reading club; and choral reading. The document describes literature circles as small groups of readers…

  2. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  3. CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HENRY, MABEL WRIGHT, ED.

    IDEAS FOR THE CREATIVE USE OF ORAL LANGUAGE IN THE ELEMENTARY CLASSROOM ARE PRESENTED IN THIS SYMPOSIUM. PART 1, "THE NEED FOR CREATIVE EXPERIENCES IN ORAL LANGUAGE" BY M.W. HENRY, IS CONCERNED WITH THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREATIVE ORAL LANGUAGE ACTIVITIES AND THE ACQUISITION OF READING AND WRITING SKILLS. PART 2, "CHORIC INTERPRETATION" BY…

  4. Oral Manifestations of Viral Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis P. Lynch

    other chapters dealing with specific viruses. Second, the clinical oral manifestations of such infections are described, with an emphasis on the differential diagnosis of specific oral viral lesions. Third, the methods used in the diagno- sis of oral viral lesions are presented. Fourth, a summary of current therapeutic management strategies is presented, along with their relation- ship to long-term prognosis.

  5. Damaging Oral Habits

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results. PMID:25954079

  6. Immunologically mediated oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N; Anita, N; Babu, R

    2015-04-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient. PMID:26015713

  7. Damaging oral habits.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results. PMID:25954079

  8. [Oral candidiasis and dentures].

    PubMed

    Ahariz, M; Loeb, I; Courtois, P

    2010-04-01

    Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus usually colonize the human oral cavity. Immunocompromised patients or individuals with an imbalance of their oral microflora can develop yeast infections from this reservoir. However, saliva protects oral mucosa against candidosis; in turn, dry mouth is associated with increased yeast counts and candidosis risk. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown Candida incorporation into biofilms covering different biomaterials such as dentures: these biofilms may be an increased risk factor for invasive candidosis when the host immune system is compromised. Daily denture brushing is recommended to all wearers. Family or healthcare workers must take over this task when there is autonomy loss, especially in the elderly. In case of candidosis in denture wearers, decontamination of dentures is mandatory. Antimycotics (azoles, nystatin) must be kept for curative treatments of infected patients; they are less active against Candida biofilms on dentures and could lead to emergent resistance if applied daily to dentures against yeast colonization. There are several antiphlogistic solutions with antifungal properties. Nevertheless, literature data does not integrate all aspects of denture care: welfare of denture wearers, prevention of candidosis, biomaterial defects after decontamination processing, and taking into account possible Candida biofilm development. Daily brushing of dentures remains the key recommendation. PMID:20347465

  9. Global Oral Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, N.; Amaechi, B.; Niederman, R.; Acevedo, A.-M.; Vianna, R.; Ganss, C.; Ismail, A.; Honkala, E.

    2011-01-01

    The IADR Global Oral Health Inequalities Task Group on Dental Caries has synthesized current evidence and opinion to identify a five-year implementation and research agenda which should lead to improvements in global oral health, with particular reference to the implementation of current best evidence as well as integrated action to reduce caries and health inequalities between and within countries. The Group determined that research should: integrate health and oral health wherever possible, using common risk factors; be able to respond to and influence international developments in health, healthcare, and health payment systems as well as dental prevention and materials; and exploit the potential for novel funding partnerships with industry and foundations. More effective communication between and among the basic science, clinical science, and health promotion/public health research communities is needed. Translation of research into policy and practice should be a priority for all. Both community and individual interventions need tailoring to achieve a more equal and person-centered preventive focus and reduce any social gradient in health. Recommendations are made for both clinical and public health implementation of existing research and for caries-related research agendas in clinical science, health promotion/public health, and basic science. PMID:21490233

  10. Continuous Compared With Cyclic Oral Contraceptives for the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrovic, Romana; Kunselman, Allen R.; Legro, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate whether continuous OCP (oral contraceptive pills) will result in more pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea patients than cyclic OCP, which induces withdrawal bleeding with associated pain and symptoms. Material and Methods We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing continuous to a cyclic 21/7 OCP regimen (gestodene 0.075 mg and ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg) for 6 months in 38 primary dysmenorrhea patients. The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) over the period of 6 months. Results Twenty-nine patients completed the study. In both groups, pain reduction measured by VAS declined over time and was significant at 6 months compared to baseline with no difference between groups. Continuous regimen was superior to cyclic regimen after one month (mean difference: -27.3; 95% CI: (-40.5,-14.2); p<0.001) and 3 months (mean difference: -17.8; 95% CI: (-33.4,-2.1); p=0.03) of treatment. Secondary outcomes noted no difference between groups in terms of menstrual distress as measured by the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. After 6 months, there was an increase in weight and decrease in systolic blood pressure in continuous compared with the cyclic group. Conclusions Both regimens of OCP are effective in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Continuous OCP outperforms cyclic OCP in the short term, but this difference is lost after 6 months. PMID:22617578

  11. Oral manifestations in transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458

  12. Oral manifestations in transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458

  13. Diseases of the Oral Cavity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zohra Zaidi; Sean W. Lanigan

    \\u000a The oral cavity can provide valuable clues to cutaneous disorders, and should be included in every skin examination. A number\\u000a of skin diseases have oral manifestations, such as pemphigus, erythema multiforme, SLE, lichen planus, psoriasis, viral infections,\\u000a etc. Most of the lesions are in the form of ulcers or white patches.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The mucous membrane of the oral cavity is covered

  14. Oral complications in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, W.

    1983-02-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

  15. [Off-label drug use of the misoprostol in gynecology & obstetrics: From a medico-economics benefit to a potential legal risk].

    PubMed

    Decamps-Mini, D; Pelofi, J; Treisser, A

    2015-06-01

    The scandal of the Mediator(®) case led the legislature to take measures in order to regulate off-label drugs prescriptions. Indeed the law issued in December 29th, 2011 on strengthening the safety of drugs and all derivative health products came to pave the way for an "over-cautious" practice of medicine in line with the precautionary principle erected as a constitutional principle. The supervision of off-label prescribing has had a direct impact on the exercise of the medical profession and has resurrected the issues related to the freedom of prescription, the obligation to provide information to patients and in general their whole responsibility. It is important to mention that the prescribing act is part of the freedom and the strict prerogative of those skilled in the art: the physician in this case. The off-label prescription is commonly accepted in certain specialties, such as anesthesia and intensive care, oncology or pediatrics where it is even subject of a memorandum of use because of concerns regarding the availability of forms adapted to children. However, the physician must ensure that no appropriate therapeutic alternative is available and inform the patient, fundamental principle of the right to respect for the will of the person. Off-label use of the prostaglandin-E1 analogue misoprostol in obstetrics and gynecology is a good example. In fact, this drug obtained a marketing authorization for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcers and other stomach disorders, is commonly used off-label when inducing labour or intrauterine device insertion. These are the issues that need to be clarify and carefully assessed in order to help physicians to understand the impact of the law and the state of the jurisprudence on the exercise of their profession. PMID:26032707

  16. Immune Disorders (and Oral Health)

    MedlinePLUS

    Immune Disorders Rheumatoid Arthritis Lupus Erythematosus Scleroderma (Progressive Systemic Sclerosis) Selective Immunoglobulin Deficiencies Thymic Hypoplasia Dermatomyositis X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia Ataxia Telangiectasia Rheumatoid Arthritis Oral Effects ...

  17. Allison Oral History

    E-print Network

    Albin, Tami; Allison

    2014-03-13

    date of publication Citing Under the Rainbow Oral History Interviews Your citation should include information that will allow people to find this transcript. Please consult a citation guide (Chicago, MLA, ALA) for the correct citation style for audio/video interviews...—I lost it on the meth. And in 2001 I was raped by three men and the doctor gave me all kinds of pills. I mean, I think he felt sorry for me and he just—(laugh) he gave me Percocet, Lortab. There was a lot of physical damage from the rape...

  18. Training in oral medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewska, J M

    2001-01-01

    88 members of the UK specialty society of oral medicine were asked about career satisfaction and their views on training programmes. 70% responded (79% of consultants and all accredited trainees). Men work longer hours than women, report less control over their work and experience more stress. Although high work satisfaction is reported, nearly one-third regret their choice of specialty. Men more than women do locum work while training. Most respondents would welcome flexible training, job shares, financial support during training and a mentoring scheme. PMID:11234205

  19. Michael Johnson Oral History

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Michael; Albin, Tami

    2009-12-16

    ) for the correct citation style for audio/video interviews or transcripts. Please be sure to include: Narrator’s name e.g. Bill Smith Interviewer’s Name e.g. Tami Albin Date of interview e.g. March 26, 2009 Name of project and location e.g. Under... support groups or whatever like that and then it just turned into, Well there's Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 5 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas porn online too. (laugh) So it's like—it's like you just kind...

  20. Oral Conversations Online: Redefining Oral Competence in Synchronous Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamy, Marie-Noelle

    2004-01-01

    In this article the focus is on methodology for analysing learner-learner oral conversations mediated by computers. With the increasing availability of synchronous voice-based groupware and the additional facilities offered by audio-graphic tools, language learners have opportunities for collaborating on oral tasks, supported by visual and textual…

  1. [Oral form of fibrolipoma].

    PubMed

    Despotov, O; Ficheva, M; Avramov, T

    2003-01-01

    The pleomorphism of the tussies taking part in the formation of oral cavity is basis for the great majority of benign and malignant tumors. They often have similar clinical manifestations macroscopic view. Histological investigations help us for exact diagnosis and adequate treatment. Authors present a clinical case of 67 years old female treated in II ORL clinic of a tumour, originating from the floor of oral cavity, displacing tongue to the left. First complaints of the pathient a dating from 23 years. During that period the tumour gradually increased its dimensions and obstructed swallowing. The weight of the pathient of the time of the admitance at the hospital was 47 Kg. After operative removal of the tumour, the woman was in very good condition. The histological result--fibrolipoma. At the control examination (3 and 6 months after operation) she had increase her weight by 17 and 21 Kg respectively. This case present the conclusion that even benign tumours should be removed in shortes possible terms after the diagnoses. PMID:15587749

  2. Why Is Oral Health Important for Women?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... changing. Reviewed: January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Women's Oral Health Burning Mouth Syndrome in Middle-aged Women Dentists ... May Decrease Chances of Oral Cancer Important Oral Health Considerations for Women at All Life Stages Is Kissing Dangerous to ...

  3. 37 CFR 41.73 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Appeals § 41.73 Oral hearing. (a) An oral hearing should be...desirable for a proper presentation of the appeal. An...the briefs without an oral hearing will receive...Upon a showing of good cause,...

  4. Why Is Oral Health Important for Men?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... desktop! more... Why is Oral Health Important for Men? Article Chapters Why is Oral Health Important for ... then the other. Updated: February 2007 Related Articles: Men's Oral Health Is Kissing Dangerous to Your Health? ...

  5. 43 CFR 4.1608 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 4.1608 Section 4.1608...Circular A-76 § 4.1608 Oral presentations. (a) Upon request of the...appellant, an opportunity for an oral presentation to the appeals official...

  6. 12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Oral presentations. 1102.36 Section 1102...Proceedings § 1102.36 Oral presentations. (a) In general. A party does not have a right to an oral presentation. Under this section, a...

  7. 48 CFR 570.107 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 570.107 Section 570.107 Federal...REAL PROPERTY General 570.107 Oral presentations. You may use oral presentations for acquisitions of leasehold interests...

  8. Oral lichen planus: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Mollaoglu

    2000-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a disease that can persist in some patients for a long time. The buccal mucosa, tongue and gingiva are the most common sites, whereas palatal lesions are uncommon. Oral lichen planus affects women more often than men in a ratio of 2:3. It can present in a number of forms: reticular, papular, plaque-like, erosive, atrophic and

  9. Oral lichen planus: An overview.

    PubMed

    Krupaa, R Jayasri; Sankari, S Leena; Masthan, K M K; Rajesh, E

    2015-04-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  10. Changeability of Oral Cavity Environment

    PubMed Central

    Surdacka, Anna; Strzyka³a, Krystyna; Rydzewska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Objectives In dentistry, the results of in vivo studies on drugs, dental fillings or prostheses are routinely evaluated based on selected oral cavity environment parameters at specific time points. Such evaluation may be confounded by ongoing changes in the oral cavity environment induced by diet, drug use, stress and other factors. The study aimed to confirm oral cavity environment changeability. Methods 24 healthy individuals aged 20–30 had their oral cavity environment prepared by having professional hygiene procedures performed and caries lesions filled. Baseline examination and the examination two years afterwards, evaluated clinical and laboratory parameters of oral cavity environment. Caries incidence was determined based on DMFT and DMFS values, oral cavity hygiene on Plaque Index (acc. Silness & Loe) and Hygiene Index (acc. O’Leary), and the gingival status on Gingival Index (acc. Loe & Silness) and Gingival Bleeding Index (acc. Ainamo & Bay). Saliva osmolarity, pH and concentrations of Ca2+, Pi, Na+, Cl?, total protein, albumins, F? and Sr2+ were determined. Results The results confirmed ongoing changeability of the oral cavity environment. After 2 years of the study reduction in oral cavity hygiene parameters PLI and HI (P<0.1), and gingival indices as well as lower saliva concentration of Ca2+ (P<.001), Pi (P<.06), K+ (P<.04), Sr2+ (P<.03), Na+ (P<.1), against the baseline values, were observed. Total protein and albumin saliva concentrations were also significantly lower. Conclusion Physiological oral cavity environment is subject to constant, individually different, changes which should be considered when analysing studies that employ oral cavity environment parameters. PMID:19212491

  11. Oral hyaline ring granuloma.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Gallesio, Cesare; Campisi, Paola; Roccia, Fabio; Berrone, Sid

    2013-01-01

    Hyaline ring granuloma is a rare oral lesion with an unclear and controversial etiology, characterized by the presence of rings of palely eosinophilic structureless material (the so-called hyaline rings) with multinucleated giant cells around and within the very same rings.Various theories have been proposed about the pathogenesis of hyaline ring granulomas. Many authors consider a vegetable origin, suggesting that it may represent a reaction to foreign material such as food (and in particular pulses). Instead, other authors deny this possibility, proposing that the hyaline rings might represent degenerated blood vessels, degenerated collagen, or fibrosed extravasated serum proteins.The aim of this article is to present a case of hyaline ring granuloma and to briefly review the literature. PMID:23348341

  12. Oral and sublingual immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases have continued to increase throughout the developed world. Subcutaneous immunotherapy has been a mainstay of treatment for allergic rhinitis and asthma, however, some patients are precluded from treatment. On the other hand, in the case of food allergy, treatments simply do not exist. Oral and sublingual immunotherapy, with its superior safety and ease of administration, offers an alternative for patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and has also been promising as a potential treatment for food allergy. The review summarizes significant advances from the past year including further data on the effectiveness of existing treatments, preliminary data on novel treatments, and further understanding of the mechanisms of these new therapies. PMID:25133094

  13. Oral melanoacanthoma: A rare case of diffuse oral pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anish Ashok; Nainani, Purshotam; Upadhyay, Bipin; Kavle, Pratibha

    2012-01-01

    The clinical presentation of diffuse pigmentation can be alarming to the patient as well as the clinician. A histopathologic examination of a pigmented lesion is necessary in most of the cases in the oral cavity. Oral melanoacanthoma is a very rare diffuse pigmentation with no specific treatment required. It shows increased number of dendritic melanocytes in an acanthotic epithelium. We present a rare case of diffuse pigmentation in the oral cavity whose diagnosis was done on the basis of clinical presentation and histopathology. Also immunohistochemistry was done. PMID:23248484

  14. Elite athletes and oral health.

    PubMed

    Bryant, S; McLaughlin, K; Morgaine, K; Drummond, B

    2011-09-01

    Elite athletes follow demanding training regimes to achieve optimal performance. Training incorporates strategies which coincide with risk factors for dental caries and erosion. The important role of a disease-free oral cavity for peak performance is often overlooked and oral health may be compromised. This initial exploratory study aimed to identify risk factors for dental caries and erosion in elite triathletes. Questionnaires regarding training, diet and oral health were distributed to a sample of elite triathletes in New Zealand. A further sample of 10 athletes was randomly selected from the Dunedin triathlon club to participate in a clinical oral examination. Sports drinks were consumed by 83.9% of the triathletes while training; for 48.4% consumption of both sports drinks and water was described as 'little sips often, from a bottle'. Eating during training sessions was reported by 93.5% of participants; of those 62.1% ate only during cycling training. Only 3.2% perceived training as high risk to oral health. All clinical examination cases were assessed as high risk for developing caries. The diet of elite triathletes is consistent with a high risk profile for caries and erosion. Future research should be aimed at oral health promotion programs for the athletes, coaches and oral-health providers. PMID:21590645

  15. Oral focal mucinosis: case report

    PubMed Central

    GERMANO, F.; ABATE, R.; SANTINI, F.; DRI, M.; ARCURI, C.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral focal mucinosis (OFM) is an uncommon disease of unknown aetiology. It is considered to be the oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis and cutaneous myxoid cyst and it is characterized by a focal myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue. A preoperative diagnosis is almost impossible, and the clinical suspicion, usually made by exclusion, must be confirmed by a bioptic examination followed by histological observations. The Authors report a case of focal oral mucinosis diagnosed and treated in a male adult patient. PMID:23285343

  16. Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

  17. Elements in oral health programs.

    PubMed

    Lam, Anty

    2014-03-01

    Demographically, dental caries remains the single most common disease of childhood. Various campaigns have been carried out to promote and to improve the oral health of children. However, the prevalence of dental caries was still more than 50% in many communities. This article reviews different approaches used in dental health programs in industrialized and developing countries. To build a comprehensive oral health preventive program, three elements are essential. They are oral health education/instruction, primary prevention measures and secondary prevention measures. PMID:24851389

  18. Smart Talk: Improving Children's Oral Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Janie F.; Perkins, J. Helen

    2003-01-01

    Encourages caregivers to engage children in oral language activities that will help children develop skills necessary for reading and writing. Examines: (1) oral language as a predecessor to reading; (2) talking leading to learning; and (3) rich oral environment as a scaffold. Concludes with examples of oral-language activities for infants,…

  19. Teaching Oral Communication in Grades K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Ann L.; Burk, Tamara L.

    Focusing exclusively on the art and science of oral communication for grades K-8, this book explains fundamental concepts in contemporary oral communication instruction and suggests practical strategies for implementing a competency-based approach to oral communication in an integrated classroom setting. The book also emphasizes oral communication…

  20. Older Adults (and Oral Health)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care ...

  1. Nutrition, diet and oral health.

    PubMed

    Rugg-Gunn, A J

    2001-12-01

    Teeth are valued, not least for their contribution to appearance and social acceptability. The cost of treating oral disease, though, is high--about 2.2 billion pounds in the UK in 1999-2000. Nutrition and diet are major determinants of oral health or disease and the purpose of this lecture was to review their impact on the more important oral diseases: defects in the structure and appearance of teeth, dental caries, dental erosion, periodontal disease, noma, and oral cancer. There is growing realisation of the detrimental impact of dental impairment on food choice, nutrient intake and nutritional status. A common feature of many of these diseases is that the causes are well known. However, they are not yet preventable because their aetiology (and prevention) is intimately involved with lifestyle. Nevertheless, there are some hopeful signs of progress being made in several areas. PMID:11768570

  2. Oral dependence and dependent behavior.

    PubMed

    Shilkret, C J; Masling, J

    1981-04-01

    Eighty undergraduates were asked to solve a series of difficult puzzles, with the instructions that they could ask for help as often as necessary. Half the subjects had an experimenter of the same sex and half of the opposite sex. The subjects were categorized as high or low dependent based on the percentage of oral dependent responses they gave on the Rorschach test. The results indicated that while the male subjects generally performed as predicted (with high oral dependent males asking for help more than low oral dependent males), the opposite results were obtained for females. Additional analyses suggested that what has been called oral dependence consists of at least two factors that relate in different ways to other variables. PMID:16370730

  3. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    MedlinePLUS

    ... oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent the spread of ... on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/or a spermicide) ...

  4. Social Capital and Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Tangade, Pradeep; Rajwar, Yogesh Chand; Dany, Subha Soumya; Rajput, Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Social determinants have always been an important element of the oral health. It has been seen that social aspects like the organizations and relations influence the health of population. A new domain named social capital has come up into limelight which refers to “features of social organization, such as trust, norms and networks that can improve the efficacy of society by facilitating coordinated actions”. The bonds between individuals, both in intimate relationships and in voluntary associations have been claimed to have health promoting effects. Oral health can never be segregated from general health as they are bidirectional in their relationship. Therefore determinants of general health and its promotion are interlinked with that of oral health. So, this review tries to figure out the effects of social capital on various aspects of oral health. PMID:25386549

  5. [Oral hygiene with tongue cleaners].

    PubMed

    Neander, Klaus-Dieter

    2004-04-01

    The investigation presented here is part of a series of studies on oral hygiene that deal with a very common problem occurring in everyday practice. Two different methods of mouth cleaning were tested in a comparative study on 150 subjects. At least in German-speaking countries, our methodology was groundbreaking in that measuring tools for evaluation of the oral hygiene measures implemented had not been available thus far. The results of this study clearly showed that the typical method of oral hygiene (gauze wrapped around a wooden spatula and toothbrush) produces much poorer cleaning results than the method using tongue cleaners. Surprisingly, we also observed that the eating habits of the participants "treated" with tongue cleaners improved markedly. Thus, we were able to conclusively demonstrate a connection between oral hygiene and nutritional deficiency. PMID:15137672

  6. Oral agents in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Diseasemodifying drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression. The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under development for the selective treatment of MS. PMID:25924620

  7. The Importance of Oral Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetherington, M. Sue

    1982-01-01

    Offers the results of a survey taken at the College of Charleston in South Carolina indicating that faculty members, recent graduates, and employers all feel that college education in communication should stress training in oral communication skills. (JL)

  8. Tigemonam, an oral monobactam.

    PubMed

    Chin, N X; Neu, H C

    1988-01-01

    Tigemonam is an orally administered monobactam. At less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml it inhibited the majority of strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter diversus, Proteus spp., Providencia spp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Serratia marcescens, and Yersinia enterocolitica. At less than or equal to 0.25 microgram/ml it inhibited Haemophilus spp., Neisseria spp., and Branhamella catarrhalis. It did not inhibit Pseudomonas spp. or Acinetobacter spp. Tigemonam was more active than cephalexin and amoxicillin-clavulanate and inhibited many members of the family Enterobacteriaceae resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and gentamicin. Some Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii strains resistant to aminothiazole iminomethoxy cephalosporins and aztreonam were resistant to tigemonam. The MIC for 90% of hemolytic streptococci of groups A, B, and C and for Streptococcus pneumoniae was 16 micrograms/ml, but the MIC for 90% of enterococci, Listeria spp., Bacteroides spp., and viridans group streptococci was greater than 64 micrograms/ml. Tigemonam was not hydrolyzed by the common plasmid beta-lactamases such as TEM-1 and SHV-1 or by the chromosomal beta-lactamases of Enterobacter, Morganella, Pseudomonas, and Bacteroides spp. Tigemonam inhibited beta-lactamases of E. cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa but did not induce beta-lactamases. The growth medium had a minimal effect on the in vitro activity of tigemonam, and there was a close agreement between the MICs and MBCs. PMID:3279906

  9. Southern Oral History Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Since the rise of interest in social history in the United States, a number of academics and public citizens have remained committed to preserving the voices and perspectives of everyday people. The Southern Oral History Program (SOHP) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a rather fine example of such a commitment. Founded in 1973, the SOHP has recorded over 2900 interviews with people from all walks of life, and their website contains a generous sampling of this material. First-time visitors may wish to start by watching "Spoken Memories", which provides a nice introduction to the history and work of SOHP. Afterwards, they can sample some of the online audio archives, or listen to the "Interview of the Month" feature. For those who wish to read as they listen, the interviews are complemented by transcripts in several different file formats. Visitors should also feel welcome to browse through the online finding aid to the SOHP's collection and offer their own feedback or inquiries.

  10. Menopause and the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Mutneja, Puneet; Dhawan, Pankaj; Raina, Anudeep; Sharma, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    Menopause is associated with a large number of symptoms ranging from physical to psychological. These symptoms may unfavorably affect oral health and treatment needs requiring dentists to be aware of the symptoms and health care needs of peri-menopausal/menopausal/postmenopausal women. This article attempts to provide an insight into the multifarious oral manifestations at menopause along with the relevant prosthodontic implications. PMID:22837914

  11. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poul Erik Petersen; Denis Bourgeois; Hiroshi Ogawa; Saskia Estupinan-Day; Charlotte Ndiaye

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases

  12. Communication in the Oral History Interview: Investigating Problems of Interpreting Oral Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, E. Culpepper; And Others

    The application of hermeneutic theory to the study of the oral history interview is proposed in this paper. The first section of the paper indicates why the oral interview is central to the approach of the oral historian; it then defines oral history as a communicative process and suggests an approach to investigating the oral interview that uses…

  13. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  14. Oral health as a predictive factor for oral mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Coracin, Fabio Luiz; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sergio; Gallottini, Marina H. C.; Saboya, Rosaura; Musqueira, Priscila Tavares; Barban, Alessandra; de Alencar Fischer Chamone, Dalton; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; Nunes, Fabio Daumas

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Oral mucositis is a complication frequently associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, decreasing a patient's quality of life and increasing the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and to assess the correlation of this disease with the oral health of an individual at the time of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: Before transplantation, patients' oral health and inflammatory conditions were determined using the gingival index and the plaque index, which are based on gingival bleeding and the presence of dental plaque, respectively. Additionally, the dental health status was determined using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. The monitoring of oral mucositis was based on the World Health Organization grading system and was performed for five periods: from Day 0 to D+5, from D+6 to D+10, from D+11 to D+15, from D+16 to D+20, and from D+21 to D+30. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients (56% male and 44% female) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo between January 2008 and July 2009 were prospectively examined. The incidence of ulcerative mucositis was highest from days +6 to +10 and from days +11 to +15 in the patients who underwent autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data, including the dental plaque and periodontal status data, showed that these oral health factors were predictive of the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in a cohort of patients with similar conditioning regimens before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:23778491

  15. Antifungal drug resistance of oral fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masakazu Niimi; Norman A. Firth; Richard D. Cannon

    2010-01-01

    Fungi comprise a minor component of the oral microbiota but give rise to oral disease in a significant proportion of the population.\\u000a The most common form of oral fungal disease is oral candidiasis, which has a number of presentations. The mainstay for the\\u000a treatment of oral candidiasis is the use of polyenes, such as nystatin and amphotericin B, and azoles

  16. Oral manifestations associated with HIV infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mostafa Nokta

    2008-01-01

    Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict progression to AIDS. The lesions commonly associated\\u000a with the infection include oral candidiasis, herpes simplex infection, oral Kaposi’s sarcoma, oral hairy leukoplakia, parotid\\u000a gland enlargement, gingival diseases, xerostomia, and recurrent oral ulcerations. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral\\u000a therapy has changed the epidemiology of some of the

  17. Clinical guidelines. Labor induction abortion in the second trimester.

    PubMed

    Borgatta, Lynn; Kapp, Nathalie

    2011-07-01

    Labor induction abortion is effective throughout the second trimester. Patterns of use and gestational age limits vary by locality. Earlier gestations (typically 12 to 20 weeks) have shorter abortion times than later gestational ages, but differences in complication rates within the second trimester according to gestational age have not been demonstrated. The combination of mifepristone and misoprostol is the most effective and fastest regimen. Typically, mifepristone 200 mg is followed by use of misoprostol 24-48 h later. Ninety-five percent of abortions are complete within 24 h of misoprostol administration. Compared with misoprostol alone, the combined regimen results in a clinically significant reduction of 40% to 50% in time to abortion and can be used at all gestational ages. However, mifepristone is not widely available. Accordingly, prostaglandin analogues without mifepristone (most commonly misoprostol or gemeprost) or high-dose oxytocin are used. Misoprostol is more widely used because it is inexpensive and stable at room temperature. Misoprostol alone is best used vaginally or sublingually, and doses of 400 mcg are generally superior to 200 mcg or less. Dosing every 3 h is superior to less frequent dosing, although intervals of up to 12 h are effective when using higher doses (600 or 800 mcg) of misoprostol. Abortion rates at 24 h are approximately 80%-85%. Although gemeprost has similar outcomes as compared to misoprostol, it has higher cost, requires refrigeration, and can only be used vaginally. High-dose oxytocin can be used in circumstances when prostaglandins are not available or are contraindicated. Osmotic dilators do not shorten induction times when inserted at the same time as misoprostol; however, their use prior to induction using misoprostol has not been studied. Preprocedure-induced fetal demise has not been studied systematically for possible effects on time to abortion. While isolated case reports and retrospective reviews document uterine rupture during second-trimester induction with misoprostol, the magnitude of the risk is not known. The relationship of individual uterotonic agents to uterine rupture is not clear. Based on existing evidence, the Society of Family Planning recommends that, when labor induction abortion is performed in the second trimester, combined use of mifepristone and misoprostol is the ideal regimen to effect abortion quickly and completely. The Society of Family Planning further recommends that alternative regimens, primarily misoprostol alone, should only be used when mifepristone is not available. PMID:21664506

  18. Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.

    2014-01-01

    Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

  19. Drug Testing in Oral Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in oral fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of oral fluid testing for specific drugs. PMID:17268583

  20. [Oral candidiasis: clinical features and control].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-10-01

    Candidiasis is the most commonly encountered fungal infection, and oral candidiasis is often observed as a local opportunistic infection. Oral candidiasis is clinically divided into three types: acute forms, chronic forms, and Candida-associated lesions. Candida adhesion and multiplication are largely regulated by the local and systemic factors of the host. The local factors include impairment of the oral mucosal integrity, which is usually impaired by hyposalivation, anticancer drugs/radiation for head and neck cancers, denture wearing, a decrease in the oral bacterial population, and poor oral hygiene. Among Candida species, oral candidiasis is mostly caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, or C. tropicalis. Oral Candida induces a variety of symptoms, such as oral mucosal inflammation manifesting as an uncomfortable feeling, pain, erythema, erosion, taste abnormalities, and hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Candida overgrowth in the oral cavity may disseminate to distant organs. Therefore, in order to avoid the sequelae of systemic candidiasis, oral candidiasis should be rapidly controlled. Oral candidiasis is usually treated by the local application of antifungal drugs. However, oral candidiasis occasionally escapes the control of such local treatment due to the development of multi-drug resistant Candida strains and species or due to the suppression of salivation or cellular immune activity. When drug-resistant strains are suspected as the pathogens and when the host is generally compromised, the oral administration of combinations of antifungal drugs, enhancement of cellular immune activity, and improvement of the nutritional condition are recommended. PMID:21077293

  1. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development (autonomy, self-esteem, locus of control), life expectations (marriage, college, career), dating behavior, age at 1st intercourse, perceived risk for becoming pregnant, personal attributes (sex, birth control, acquisition of birth control, pregnancy, parents' and peers' feelings toward sex and birth control), and previous experiences with birth control. PMID:1679420

  2. Partnerships for better oral health.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, E

    2003-05-01

    Improving oral health in populations who do not easily access the private dental office or the available community care site is a challenge to dental hygienists and others concerned with the health and well-being of all. Partnerships for improved oral health have been part of the community health efforts for many years and in many countries. With the knowledge, skills, and resources that are held by specific groups and organisations combined into a larger entity of a partnership or coalition, greater impact on oral health issue may be possible. Agencies and individuals interested in making improvements in oral health status in any particular target group may begin a process of working with others who have an interest in improving the health and well being of that target group. In a world that is increasingly synergistic and mutually dependent, improvements in oral health can be advanced by considering the elements of successful coalition building and forming partnerships with multiple organisations and individuals. PMID:16451530

  3. Oral immunotherapy for allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Waka; Fukuda, Ken; Harada, Yosuke; Yagita, Hideo; Fukushima, Atsuki

    2014-11-01

    Antigen-specific immunotherapy is expected to be a desirable treatment for allergic diseases. Currently, antigen-specific immunotherapy is performed by administering disease-causing antigens subcutaneously or sublingually. These approaches induce long-term remission in patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma. The oral route is an alternative to subcutaneous and sublingual routes, and can also induce long-term remission, a phenomenon known as "oral tolerance." The effectiveness of oral tolerance has been reported in the context of autoimmune diseases, food allergies, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in both human patients and animal models. However, few studies have examined its efficacy in animal models of allergic conjunctivitis. Previously, we showed that ovalbumin feeding suppressed ovalbumin-induced experimental allergic conjunctivitis, indicating the induction of oral tolerance is effective in treating experimental allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years, transgenic rice has been developed that can induce oral tolerance and reduce the severity of anaphylaxis. The major Japanese cedar pollen antigens in transgenic rice, Cryptomeria japonica 1 and C. japonica 2, were deconstructed by molecular shuffling, fragmentation, and changes in the oligomeric structure. Thus, transgenic rice may be an effective treatment for allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:25289722

  4. Prolonged monitoring of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel levels confirms an altered pharmacokinetic profile in obese oral contraceptives users

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Alison B; Cherala, Ganesh; Munar, Myrna Y.; DuBois, Barent; McInnis, Martha; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Background Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters based on short sampling times (48 h or less) may contain inaccuracies due to their dependency on extrapolated values. This study was designed to measure PK parameters with greater accuracy in obese users of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC), and to correlate drug levels with assessments of end-organ activity. Study design Obese (BMI ?30 kg/m2), ovulatory, otherwise healthy, women (n = 32) received an OC containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/100 mcg levonorgestrel (LNG) for two cycles. EE and LNG PK parameters were characterized for 168 h at the end of Cycle 1. During Cycle 2, biweekly outpatient visits were performed to assess cervical mucus, monitor ovarian activity with transvaginal ultrasound, and obtain serum samples to measure EE, LNG, estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P) levels. PK parameters were calculated and correlated with end-organ activity and compared against control samples obtained from normal and obese women sampled up to 48 h in a previous study. Standard determination of PK accuracy was performed; defined by the dependency on extrapolated values (‘excess’ area under the curve of 25% or less). Results The mean BMI was 39.4 kg/m2 (SD 6.6) with a range of 30–64 kg/m2. Key LNG PK parameters were as follows: clearance 0.52 L/h (SD 0.24), half-life 65 h (SD 40), AUC 232 h*ng/mL (SD 102) and time to reach steady-state 13.6 days (SD 8.4). The majority of subjects had increased ovarian activity with diameter of follicles ?8 mm (n = 25) but only seven women had follicles ?10 mm plus cervical mucus scores ?5. Evidence of poor end-organ suppression did not correlate with the severity of the alterations in PK. As compared to historical normal and obese controls (48 h PK sampling), clearance, half-life, area under the curve (AUC) and time to reach steady-state were found to be significantly different (p ? 0.05) in obese women undergoing a longer duration of PK sampling (168 h). Longer sampling also improved PK accuracy for obese women (excess AUC 20%) as compared to both normal and obese controls undergoing shorter sampling times (48 h) with excess AUCs of 25% and 50%, respectively. Conclusions Obesity results in significant alterations in OC steroid PK parameters but the severity of these alterations did not correlate with end-organ suppression. A longer PK sampling interval (168 h vs. 48 h) improved the accuracy of PK testing. PMID:23153898

  5. [Contemplations on responsibility for oral healthcare].

    PubMed

    Slootweg, P J; de Baat, C

    2012-05-01

    The academic dental education in The Netherlands has been extended to 6 years, among other reasons in order to make it possible for responsibility for oral healthcare to be borne in a wide medical context. It is the job of the 3 national dental schools to make this happen. The new dentist should know and recognize all (peri-)oral disorders and oral symptoms of systemic diseases, and he should be able to deliver oral healthcare to medically compromised patients. Accepting this responsibility is required for dentistry to be transformed into medical oral healthcare and for dentists to be upgraded to oral physicians. PMID:22667192

  6. The application of vizilite in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Sambandham, Thirugnana; Masthan, K M K; Kumar, M Sathish; Jha, Abhinav

    2013-01-01

    This article depicts the various applications of Vizilite plus in oral cancer. The oral cavity demonstrates a variety of red and white, pigmented and vesiculo- bullous lesions. Oral cancer still happens to carry the highest mortality worldwide, especially in India. In India, the prime focus is on the downstreaming of oral cancer from an advanced stage to an early diseased state. The techniques that are promoted to facilitate an earlier detection and diagnosis of an oral malignancy include Toluidine blue, ViziLite Plus with TBlue, ViziLite, Microlux DL, Orascoptic DK, VEL scope, Oral CDx and brush biopsy. PMID:23450083

  7. The Application of Vizilite in Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sambandham, Thirugnana; Masthan, K. M. K.; Kumar, M. Sathish; Jha, Abhinav

    2013-01-01

    This article depicts the various applications of Vizilite plus in oral cancer. The oral cavity demonstrates a variety of red and white, pigmented and vesiculo- bullous lesions. Oral cancer still happens to carry the highest mortality worldwide, especially in India. In India, the prime focus is on the downstreaming of oral cancer from an advanced stage to an early diseased state. The techniques that are promoted to facilitate an earlier detection and diagnosis of an oral malignancy include Toluidine blue, ViziLite Plus with TBlue, ViziLite, Microlux DL, Orascoptic DK, VEL scope, Oral CDx and brush biopsy. PMID:23450083

  8. Florida Citrus Industry Oral Histories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What's so special about oranges? They are a major cash crop for Florida and other warm weather places, and this fascinating oral history project from the University of South Florida (USF) explores the very nature of this industry. Working together with the USF's Patel Center for Global Studies, oral historian William Mansfield conducted 20 interviews regarding the impact of globalization on the Florida citrus industry. Visitors can listen to or read the interviews, as well as look over the online exhibition, "Selling Sunshine: Florida's Citrus Industry." The exhibition details Florida's unique relationship with the citrus industry, incorporating documents, promotional material, and post cards with its information. The website hosts a remarkable collection that will be of interest to oral historians, folks with an interest in Florida, and many others.

  9. [Pollinosis and oral allergy syndrome].

    PubMed

    Glück, U

    1990-05-01

    Allergic diseases are frequent, affecting 10%-15% of the population. The atopic symptoms manifest mainly as pollinosis or bronchial asthma. Many of the atopic patients have an additional food-related allergy, often due to a cross-reactivity between pollen allergens (birch, hazelnut, alder, mugwort) and food allergens. The foods which most frequently elicit oral, gastro-intestinal or anaphylactic symptoms are fruits such as apples, peaches, cherries or apricots, but also nuts and vegetables from the botanic group of the compositae (celery, carrots, fennel, sunflower kernels, camomile, parsley, etc.). While fruits mainly cause oral symptoms (aphthae, stomatitis, swelling of the lips or tongue, pharyngitis, hoarseness and laryngeal oedema), nuts and celery can often also induce acute generalized symptoms, such as severe laryngeal oedema, bronchial asthma, urticaria or allergic shock. In our experience these patients tend to minimize their oral symptoms and the practitioner has often to ask about them specifically. PMID:2373647

  10. Modified oral metronidazole desensitization protocol.

    PubMed

    Gendelman, Samantha R; Pien, Lily C; Gutta, Ravi C; Abouhassan, Susan R

    2014-03-01

    The Center for Disease Control guidelines recommend desensitization to metronidazole in patients with trichomoniasis and hypersensitivity to metronidazole. There is only one published oral metronidazole desensitization protocol. The purpose of this study was to design a new, more gradual oral desensitization protocol to decrease systemic reactions that may occur when using the previously published protocol. We present two patients with presumed IgE-mediated allergy to metronidazole who underwent oral desensitization using our modified protocol. Case 1 was a 65-year-old woman with trichomoniasis who presented for metronidazole desensitization with a history of intraoperative anaphylaxis and positive skin tests to metronidazole. The patient tolerated six doses of the modified desensitization but developed systemic symptoms of nasal congestion and diffuse pruritus after the 25- and 100-mg doses. Both reactions were treated with intravenous (i.v.) antihistamines. Because of gastrointestinal irritation, the desensitization was completed at a dose of 250 mg orally every 6 hours. Case 2 was a 42-year-old woman with trichomoniasis and a history of hives immediately after administration of i.v. metronidazole who presented for desensitization. The patient had negative skin-prick and intradermal testing to metronidazole. She developed lip tingling and pruritus on her arms 15 minutes after the 10-mg dose. Fexofenadine at 180 mg was given orally and symptoms resolved. She tolerated the rest of the protocol without reaction and received a total dose of 2 g of metronidazole. Our oral metronidazole desensitization for presumed IgE-mediated reactions offers a second option for physicians wishing to use a more gradual escalation in dose. PMID:24612959

  11. Oral contraceptives and liver function

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Tom

    1969-01-01

    Oral contraceptives can cause liver damage and jaundice but this is very rare in women in the United Kingdom. The drugs are contraindicated where there is a history of recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and acute or chronic disturbance of liver function which can be congenital or acquired. It is not yet known whether the oestrogenic or progestogenic components of oral contraceptives cause the hepatic abnormalities. The available data suggest that neither oestrogens nor progestogens in low doses impair hepatic excretory processes. The full implications of the continued administration of oestrogens and progestogens for many years on liver proteins are not yet known.

  12. Oral Complications of HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leao, Jair C.; Ribeiro, Camila M. B.; Carvalho, Alessandra A. T.; Frezzini, Cristina; Porter, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS. PMID:19488613

  13. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease and in health promotion may assist countries to implement effective public health programmes to the benefit of the poor and disadvantaged population groups worldwide. PMID:16211160

  14. Curriculum Guidelines for Postdoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' Curriculum Guidelines for oral diagnosis and medicine include a definition of the discipline, its interrelationships with other disciplines, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, and notes on sequencing, faculty, and…

  15. Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site . Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Key Points After lip and oral cavity cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells ...

  16. 14 CFR 314.15 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Determination of Qualifying Dislocation § 314.15 Oral proceedings. The Department will provide for an oral evidentiary hearing, with notice published...

  17. 20 CFR 802.308 - Conduct of oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...802.308 Conduct of oral argument. (a) Oral argument shall be...to the parties. For good cause shown, the...discretion, postpone an oral argument to a more convenient...authorized attorney. Presentation of oral argument...

  18. 42 CFR 8.27 - Opportunity for oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Opportunity for oral presentation. 8.27 Section 8.27 Public Health...Accreditation Body § 8.27 Opportunity for oral presentation. (a) Electing oral presentation. If an opportunity for an oral...

  19. The Greenhouse Culture Oral History

    E-print Network

    Scholz, Jared; Sipp, Kalah; Stratton, Emily

    2013-06-26

    Oral history interview with Jared Scholz and Kalah Sipp conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 26, 2013. Jared Scholz is the founder and Senior Pastor of The Greenhouse Culture; Kalah Sipp is The Greenhouse Culture’s Administrative...

  20. Comprehending Oral and Written Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Rosalind, Ed.; Samuels, S. Jay, Ed.

    Written for researchers and graduate students, this book--a collection of essays by cognitive scientists, socio- and psycholinguists, and English, reading, and language arts educators--explores theoretical and research questions associated with the relationships among oral and written language, listening and reading, and speaking and writing. The…

  1. Video in Oral Proficiency Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Michael

    1975-01-01

    Video programs have proven more successful for oral proficiency than traditional conversation in English language courses at Stockholm University. Video provides verbal and non-verbal forms of communication and a variety of life-like situations. It also raises students' attention and provides a model for students to imitate. (SC)

  2. Pollen grains for oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2014-11-28

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

  3. Oral contraception: risks and benefits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Steinberg

    1989-01-01

    Summary Data on the risks and benefits of using the oral contraceptive continue to accumulate. Because of continuing changes in the formulation and dosage of both the estrogens and progestins, the medical community must constantly re-evaluate all older data when considering current risk\\/benefit ratios. The changes in pill formulation have led to increased acceptability with a reduction of both nuisance

  4. Africanisms in Gullah Oral Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Joseph E.

    1989-01-01

    The Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina, Georgia, and Northern Florida retain almost every element of African culture, including language, oral tradition, folklore, and aesthetics. Examines the African influence in the lifestyle of the Gullah people of the Sea Islands, especially in terms of their concept of time. (AF)

  5. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  6. Oral Communication across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Proficiency in oral communication is necessary in school and in society. To do well in the different curriculum areas, pupils must speak with clarity and understanding. For example, in a discussion group in the social studies involving the topic "the pros and cons of raising taxes," pupils need to express knowledgeable ideas with appropriate voice…

  7. Changing oral care needs in the United States: The continuing need for oral medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig S. Miller; Joel B. Epstein; Ellis H. Hall; David Sirois

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to provide oral care providers evidence of oral conditions and medical compromise that is impacting the oral health and oral health needs of the public. Design: Data were analyzed based on current epidemiologic data, derived in large part from the Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, the National Center for Health Statistics, National Health

  8. Efficacy of fibrin sealant in patients on various levels of oral anticoagulant undergoing oral surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lipa Bodner; Jean Marc Weinstein; Amalia Kleiner Baumgarten

    1998-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of fibrin sealant in patients on oral anticoagulant therapy undergoing oral surgery with varying degrees of surgical trauma and various intensities of anticoagulation.Study design. A consecutive series of 69 subjects on oral anticoagulant therapy undergoing oral surgery without changing anticoagulation intensity is presented. For each subject, indication for anticoagulation,

  9. Assessing Clinical Judgment Using Standardized Oral Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashook, Philip

    This paper describes the use of oral examinations to assess the clinical judgment of aspiring physicians. Oral examinations have been used in U.S. medicine since 1917. Currently, 15 member boards of the American Board of Medical Specialties administer 17 different standardized oral examinations to approximately 10,000 physician candidates…

  10. Bionutrition and Oral Cancer in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. O. Enwonwu; V. I. Meeks

    1995-01-01

    Tobacco (smoking and smokeless) use and excessive consumption of alcohol are considered the main risk factors for oral cancer (ICD9 140-149). Conspicuous national and international variations in oral cancer incidence and mortality rates, as well as observations in migrant populations, raise the possibility that diet and nutritional status could be an important etiologic factor in oral carcinogenesis. As shown in

  11. NATIONAL ORAL HEALTH SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NOHSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS) is a collaborative effort between CDC's Division of Oral Health and The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD). NOHSS is designed to help public health programs monitor the burden of oral disease, use of the ...

  12. HIV Trainings and Preceptorships for Oral Health

    E-print Network

    Garfunkel, Eric

    . Topics Include: · Medical Overview and Update on HIV Disease · HIV Co-Morbidities and the Impact on OralHIV Trainings and Preceptorships for Oral Health Practitioners State of New York Department schools and hospitals where they will observe faculty providing direct oral health care and/or HIV primary

  13. The oral metagenome in health and disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Belda-Ferre; Luis David Alcaraz; Ra'ul Cabrera-Rubio; H'ector Romero; Aurea Sim'on-Soro; Miguel Pignatelli; Alex Mira

    2011-01-01

    The oral cavity of humans is inhabited by hundreds of bacterial species and some of them have a key role in the development of oral diseases, mainly dental caries and periodontitis. We describe for the first time the metagenome of the human oral cavity under health and diseased conditions, with a focus on supragingival dental plaque and cavities. Direct pyrosequencing

  14. 10 CFR 590.312 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentations. 590.312 Section 590.312...GAS Procedures § 590.312 Oral presentations. (a) Any party may file a motion...requesting an opportunity to make an oral presentation of views, arguments,...

  15. 7 CFR 2901.3 - Oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentation. 2901.3 Section 2901.3 Agriculture...CURTAILMENT PRIORITY § 2901.3 Oral presentation. Any person seeking an adjustment...given an opportunity to make an oral presentation of data, views and arguments...

  16. Salivary mucins in oral mucosal defense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Slomiany; V. L. N. Murty; J. Piotrowski; A. Slomiany

    1996-01-01

    1.1. Salivary mucins are well recognized as an important factor in the preservation of the health of the oral cavity. These large glycoproteins play a major role in the formation of protective coatings covering tooth enamel and oral mucosa, which act as a dynamic functional barrier capable of modulating the untoward effects of oral environment, and are of significance to

  17. Association of oral candidiasis with diabetic control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L V Hill; M H Tan; L H Pereira; J A Embil

    1989-01-01

    Factors associated with oral candidiasis in 51 diabetics were examined. The prevalence of oral yeast infection was 49 (n = 25)%. The association with diabetic control, as measured by fasting blood glucose concentration, urinary glucose concentration, and glycosylated haemoglobin, with the presence of yeast was analysed in the 51 diabetic patients. Glycosylated haemoglobin above 12% was strongly associated with oral

  18. Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis. PMID:22930665

  19. Oral symptoms and functional outcome related to oral and oropharyngeal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolanda I. Kamstra; Harriet Jager-Wittenaar; Pieter U. Dijkstra; Paulien M. Huisman; Rob P. van Oort; Bernard F. A. M. van der Laan; Jan L. N. Roodenburg

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  This study aimed to assess: (1) oral symptoms of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer; (2) how patients rank\\u000a the burden of oral symptoms; (3) the impact of the tumor, the treatment, and oral symptoms on functional outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eighty-nine patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer were asked about their oral symptoms related to mouth opening,\\u000a dental status, oral

  20. A phase I and pharmacokinetics study of intravenous calcitriol in combination with oral dexamethasone and gefitinib in patients with advanced solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Muindi, Josephia R.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.; Christy, Renee; Engler, Kristie L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of intravenously (i.v.) calcitriol administered in combination with a fixed oral dose of dexamethasone and gefitinib in patients with refractory solid tumors. Methods A fixed oral dose of dexamethasone of 4 mg/day was given every 12 h × 3 doses starting 12 h prior to i.v. calcitriol administration. Calcitriol was administered i.v. over 1 h on weeks 1, 3, and weekly thereafter. The starting calcitriol dose level was 57 ?g and escalation occurred in cohorts of three patients until the MTD was defined. Gefitinib was given at a fixed oral daily dose of 250 mg starting at week 2 (day 8). Serum calcitriol PK studies were performed on day 1 (calcitriol + dexamethasone) and on day 15 (calcitriol + dexamethasone + gefitinib). Results A total of 20 patients were treated. Dose-limiting hypercalcemia was observed in two out of the four patients receiving 163 mcg/week of calcitriol. Mean (±SE) peak serum calcitriol concentration (Cmax) at the MTD (125 ?g/week calcitriol) was 11.17 ± 2.62 ng/ml and the systemic exposure (AUC0–72 h) of 53.30 ± 10.49 ng h/ml. The relationship between calcitriol dose and either Cmax or AUC was linear over the 57–163 ?g dose range. Conclusions The addition of a low dose of dexamethasone allowed the safe escalation of calcitriol to the MTD of 125 ?g/week. This dose level resulted in serum calcitriol concentrations that are associated with pre-clinical antitumor activity. However, no antitumor activity was noted clinically in patients with solid tumors. PMID:19396601

  1. Mast cells and oral pathologies: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Reet; Dahiya, Parveen; Goyal, Niti; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Neeta; Saini, Hans Raj

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are resident cells of several types of tissues and contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. They are distributed preferentially about the micro-vascular endothelial cells in the oral mucosa. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and thus their number has been found to be altered in various oral pathological conditions such as oral pyogenic granuloma, oral lichen planus, leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, periapical cysts etc. The present review article is aimed to describe the alteration in the number of MCs along with their probable roles in these pathological conditions. PMID:25810632

  2. Oral health in China – trends and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hu, De-yu; Hong, Xiao; Li, Xue

    2011-01-01

    For a long time, oral disease is one of the major problems of the public health for its high prevalence and incidence throughout the world, which is especially true for low-income populations. Since China's economic reform in 1978, great changes have taken place in China. These changes have significant impact on and have been reflected in oral disease trends in China. This paper provides an overview and assessment of the oral health status in China. It focuses on changes in the nation's demographic profile, in the marketplace, the oral disease status and trends. The paper also suggests some possible measures and strategies for bettering oral health in future China. PMID:21449210

  3. [Oral medicine 10. Pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    de Visscher, J G A M; van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P

    2013-10-01

    Pigmented oral lesions may be due to the most diverse disorders. A distinction can be made between non-melanin-associated and melanin-associated pigmentations. Some lesions may be diagnosed on the basis of medical history and clinical research. In focal pigmented lesions, histological examination is necessary to establish a definitive diagnosis. Most disorders are benign but some may be malignant melanomas. PMID:25026743

  4. Expression of Ki-67 in normal oral epithelium, leukoplakic oral epithelium and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Radhika, MB; Paremala, K; Sudhakara, M; Soumya, M; Gadivan, Mohsin

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objective: To demonstrate the presence, location and pattern of cell proliferation in different histological grades of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal oral epithelium (NOE) using an antibody directed against the Ki-67 antigen and its intensity of staining evaluated respectively. Materials and Methods: A total number of 100 archival paraffin embedded blocks obtained from Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology were studied. The case details were retrieved which consisted of histopathologically diagnosed cases of OSCC (n = 20), low risk OED (n = 30), high risk OED (n = 30) and normal appearing mucosa (n = 20) were taken as standard for comparison. Ki-67 immunostaining was detected. Ki-67 positive cells were counted in the five random high power fields in each case. Results: Ki-67 labeling Index (LI) was restricted to the basal and parabasal layers of the normal oral epithelium irrespective of age, sex and site whereas it was seen in the basal, suprabasal and spinous layers in OED. Ki-67 LI is increased in high risk cases than the low risk cases of OED. Ki-67 positive cells in OSCC were located in the periphery of the tumor nests than the center, where frequent mitoses were observed. Conclusion: The architectural alteration evaluated by Ki-67 antibody in proliferating cell distribution in the layers of epithelial dysplasias may provide useful information to evaluate the grading of OED. Ki-67 LI increased in high risk cases than low risk cases of OED. This study showed that over expression of Ki-67 antigen between well-differentiated and poorly differentiated OSCC was in accordance with histologic grade of malignancy but not in accordance with moderately differentiated OSCC. PMID:25328294

  5. Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains. PMID:25625069

  6. Oral microbiota and systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Purnima S

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that bacteria are the primary cause of infectious diseases, however, evidence is emerging that these organisms are also indirectly responsible for several diseases including cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. The oral cavity is home to several million bacteria that can cause two major diseases-periodontitis and caries. The relationship between periodontopathic bacteria and systemic diseases has been explored for several years. The concept of the oral cavity as a source of distant infection has been debated for at least a century. This review will discuss the historic aspects of the development of the focal infection theory, the reasons for its demise, its re-emergence and current status. PMID:24128801

  7. Recent innovations in oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Miriam; Phan-Weston, Scarlett; Jacobs, Adam

    2010-03-01

    Traditional forms of oral contraception contain 21 days of hormone-containing pills and 7 days of placebo during the hormone-free interval (HFI). Since 2003, the Food and Drug Administration has approved 24/4, 84/7, and 365-day regimens. These regimens shorten the HFI in an attempt to decrease bleeding and menstrual-associated side effects. Safety and efficacy of these regimens is comparable with traditional 21/7 dosing. Extended regimens are associated with high patient satisfaction. Bleeding patterns are similar or shorter in women using extended regimens, along with improvement in menstrual symptoms. One of the new formulations contains the new progestin drospirenone, which has antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic properties. This review summarizes the data about new formulations of oral contraception available in the United Sates and also provides a summary of the current literature on drospirenone. PMID:20391327

  8. Harvard Iranian Oral History Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Oral histories can be quite fascinating, and a number of significant collections have been placed online as of late. One of the best-known projects might be Harvard University's own Iranian Oral History Project (IOHP). The collection consists of the personal accounts of over 150 individuals who were eyewitnesses (or active participants) to a range of crucial political events in Iran from the 1920s to the 1980s. Visitors can start their journey through this site by going to the "About" section, where they can learn about the history of the IHOP and the interviewing process. After that, visitors can go the actual "Transcripts" area, where they can view an index of interviews, and in certain cases, they can listen to audio recordings of these conversations.

  9. Medieval orality, mothers, and bonding.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Scott C

    2004-01-01

    The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism. PMID:15132195

  10. Oral contraceptives in adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Bitzer, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Taking into account the biological and psychosocial changes during the transition from childhood to adulthood adolescents would need a contraceptive method which ideally would be very effective, independent of compliance, without major health risks during use and no negative impact on the future health of the adolescent, protective against STI, favorable for bone development, with no or only few side effects and having some preventive and therapeutic potential with respect to frequent health problems of adolescent girls. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) used regularly and consistently have a more than 99% efficacy to prevent a pregnancy. COCs have a very low health risk (almost exclusively thromboembolic disease) which seems to differ marginally with respect to dosage and type of the components. Progestogen only oral contraceptives do not have any major negative health impact. The leading side effect is irregular bleeding which in COC users is mainly during the first 3 months and in progestogen only users during the period of use. Other side effects are reported but their frequency is similar to placebo. COC protect against endometrial and ovarian cancer and they may have beneficial effects on a variety of menstrual complaints and acne, which are frequent problems during adolescence. To be effective COCs have to be taken regularly which is frequently not the case. This diminishes considerably their effectiveness depending on the individual compliance. They do not protect against STI and may even have an inhibitory effect on the use of condoms. For most adolescents the risk benefit profile of oral contraceptives is favorable and makes this method valuable. At the same time the prescription of oral contraceptives for adolescents need to be individualized by taking into account the individual risk/benefit profile. Specialized counseling with a high degree of confidentiality adapted to the knowledge and needs of the individual adolescent is desirable. PMID:23384748

  11. Urban legends series: oral leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Arduino, P G; Bagan, J; El-Naggar, A K; Carrozzo, M

    2013-10-01

    To date, the term oral leukoplakia (OL) should be used to recognize 'predominantly white plaques of questionable risk, having excluded (other) known diseases or disorders that carry no increased risk of cancer'. In this review, we addressed four controversial topics regarding oral leukoplakias (OLs): (i) Do tobacco and alcohol cause OLs?, (ii) What percentage of OLs transform into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)?, (iii) Can we distinguish between premalignant and innocent OLs?, and (iv) Is proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) a specific entity or just a form of multifocal leukoplakia? Results of extensive literature search suggest that (i) no definitive evidence for direct causal relationship between smoked tobacco and alcohol as causative factors of OLs, (ii and iii) the vast majority of OLs follow a benign course and do not progress into a cancer, and no widely accepted and/or validated clinical and/or biological factors can predict malignant transformation, and (iv) the distinction between multifocal/multiple leukoplakias and PVL in their early presentation is impossible; the temporal clinical progression and the high rate of recurrences and development of cancer of PVL are the most reliable features for diagnosis. PMID:23379968

  12. The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157

  13. HIV antibody detection in oral fluids.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Oral fluids are a mixture of saliva and oral mucosal transudates (OMT). Saliva is a product of the salivary glands and contains mostly IgA, while OMT is mostly fluid in the subgingival space derived from the passive transport of plasma and contains mostly IgG. The IgG concentration, however, is much lower than that in serum. Testing for antibodies to HIV in oral fluids has been proposed as an alternative to antibody testing in blood. The fluids may be collected directly by dribbling into a receptacle and via absorption onto pads using specially designed collection devices. Only one commercially available HIV antibody test is, however, specifically designed for use with oral fluid samples. Some existing commercial tests designed to detect antibody to HIV in blood samples have been modified for use with oral fluids, but only limited information is available on their performance. Several studies suggest that using tests to detect HIV antibodies in oral fluids may be adequate for some situations, but a number of issues remain to be addressed. WHO therefore recommends that a full evaluation of the detection of HIV antibody in oral fluids be undertaken to address the issues before recommendations on HIV antibody testing using oral fluids are made. Such evaluation would gather information on the accuracy and cost-effectiveness of testing oral fluids. Ethical considerations when performing HIV testing using oral fluids would be the same as those for blood: non-coercion, informed consent, counseling, and confidentiality. PMID:8261568

  14. Evaluating awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Mohanty, Vikrant; Mahajan, Ananya; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene is intimated in health of all parts of the body including oral cavity. The understanding of actual practices in keeping the oral heath at standard based on patient's perceptions of oral health care is vital. Understanding the effect of gender on oral health would facilitate the development of successful attitude and behavior modification approach towards sustainable oral health. Purpose of Study: To evaluate awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 250 patients attending the department of periodontology, Maulana Azad institute of dental sciences for oral prophylaxis. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding practices and perception about oral hygiene. Results: Majority of the patients (60.4%) felt that oral hygiene is mandatory for overall health of the body. The use of toothpaste and toothbrush (83.6%) was the most preferred cleaning aid among the study population in the present study. The major constraint for avoiding dental examination was no felt need (41.2%) followed by cost of dental treatment (26.8%) and time constraints (24.0%). Conclusions: Professional plaque removal and regular follow-up combined with oral hygiene instructions to the patients can minimize the level of gingival inflammation and swelling. The poor resources for dental care, common malpractices and nonavailability of professional care are the main barriers in seeking optimum oral hygiene. PMID:25024553

  15. Oral Health and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Renata S.; Marlow, Nicole M.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been described as a new epidemic. Approximately 285 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, and this number is predicted to increase by about 50% by year 2030.This article will review oral health manifestations of diabetes, and discuss associations between periodontal disease and diabetes. Although there is a strong body of evidence that supports the relationship between oral health and T2DM, oral health awareness is lacking among patients with diabetes and other health professionals. There is a need for the treating physician to be educated about the various oral manifestations of diabetes so that they can be diagnosed early and timely referrals to oral health specialists can be made. The established link between periodontitis and diabetes calls for an increased need to study ways to control both diseases, particularly among populations with health disparities and limited access to oral and health care. PMID:23531957

  16. Oral medicine and the ageing population.

    PubMed

    Yap, T; McCullough, M

    2015-03-01

    The oral cavity is subject to age related processes such as cellular ageing and immunosenescence. The ageing population bears an increased burden of intraoral pathology. In oral medicine, the majority of presenting patients are in their fifth to seventh decade of life. In this review, we discuss the ageing population's susceptibility to mucosal disorders and the increased prevalence of potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma, as well as dermatoses including oral lichen planus and immunobullous conditions. We also address the ageing population's susceptibility to oral discomfort and explore salivary secretion, ulceration and the symptoms of oral burning. Finally, we will describe orofacial pain conditions which are more likely encountered in an older population. This update highlights clinical presentations which are more likely to be encountered in the ageing population in a general practice setting and the importance of screening both new and long-term patients. PMID:25762041

  17. The Bila Muuji oral health promotion partnership.

    PubMed

    Meihubers, Sandra

    2013-12-01

    In western NSW in 2006, a group of Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations identified oral health as a priority need in their regions, considering the lack of regular dental services, poor access to oral health information, and high dental disease rates. A regional oral health promotion program was developed and implemented under the guidance of a regional coordinator who supports local staff in oral health promotion activities such as school-based toothbrushing and the provision of oral health information to targeted groups (e.g. young mothers and carers) and staff of chronic disease programs. The program's strength in its planning and continuity is due to many factors, one of the main being the active involvement of local Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation staff in its genesis, planning and implementation. Combined with strong management support, local partnerships and regional coordination, the program continues to provide collaborative approaches to community-based oral health promotion programs. PMID:24360210

  18. Promoting oral health through community engagement.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Paul; Harrington, Maureen; Namakian, Maysa

    2014-07-01

    Persistent health disparities still exist in the U.S. despite decades of focus on the importance of prevention. Individual behaviors are the major contributor to oral health. By partnering and linking with community organizations, oral health professionals can expand their reach, overcome the obstacles to delivering effective prevention activities in dental offices and improve the oral health of the most underserved and vulnerable populations, who bear the greatest burden of dental disease. PMID:25076629

  19. Oral myiasis in a captive hippopotamus.

    PubMed

    Rossi Júnior, João Luiz; Guião-Leite, Flaviana L; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Falqueiro, Léslie M Domingues; Fecchio, Roberto Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Causes of dental infections can be related to failed dental eruption, malocclusion, abrasion, fractures with or without exposure of the dental pulp, and periodontal disease. Reports of oral myiasis in megavertebrates in captivity are infrequent, perhaps due to the difficulty in observing the oral cavity in such species. This report describes a case of oral myiasis in an adult male hippopotamus in the gingival area and alveolar mucosa of the left mandibular canine tooth. PMID:19950517

  20. Oral diseases in HIV1 infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles E. Barr

    1992-01-01

    HIV-associated oral lesions have been reported since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, be they fungal, viral, bacterial,\\u000a neoplastic, or non-specific in origin. The most common lesions are oral candidiasis (OC; noted in several forms) and oral\\u000a hairy leukoplakia (OHL). OC appears to be directly related to levels of immunosuppression while OHL, a newly described lesion,\\u000a is associated with the

  1. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

    PubMed

    Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

    2013-07-01

    To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions. PMID:23912870

  2. Oral Anticoagulation in Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Julia G; Garcha, Gurkaran S; Lakkis, Nasser

    2014-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation affects approximately 5 million patients in the United States. The rate of stroke in adults with atrial fibrillation depending on their risk factors varies between 1-20% annually. Anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin has been the mainstay therapy but it is cumbersome and requires close follow-up. Since 2010, three new oral anticoagulants have received Food and Drug Administration approval for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. This review summarizes data from three landmark trials: RE-LY, ROCKET-AF, and ARISTOTLE. In addition, issues relating to cost, reversal, drug interactions, and perioperative discontinuation are discussed. Compared to Warfarin, Dabigatran 150mg twice daily lowered the primary outcome of stroke/systemic embolism by 34% (number needed to treat/yr 169) and had similar incidence of major bleeding. Rivaroxaban demonstrated non inferiority compared to the warfarin group for the primary outcome of stroke and systemic embolism and major bleeding. Apixaban showed a relative risk reduction for the primary outcome of 21% (number needed to treat300), and lowered major bleeding down by 31% (number needed to treat/yr 104). Apixaban also showed a mortality benefit compared to warfarin (3.52 vs. 3.94%/year, p 0.047). All 3 oral anticoagulants lowered rates of intracranial hemorrhage. The use of Rivaroxaban and Apixaban has been projected to reduce medical costs when compared to warfarin, and Dabigatran is projected to have similar costs. All the 3 oral anticoagulants have robust randomized controlled trials supporting their comparability to warfarin therapy for stroke prevention in non valvular atrial fibrillation, with Apixaban showing superiority in incidence of strokes, major bleeding, and mortality. PMID:25277117

  3. Commensal Oral Candida in Asian Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Samaranayake, Lakshman

    2009-01-01

    The oral carriage rate of Candida in healthy humans ranges from 40% to 60%. However for a prolonged period, the oral candidal prevalence in humans was documented essentially using data from studies in the West as their prevalence in inhabitants in different regions of the world, including Asia was not known. Yet, recent reports from a number of studies indicate the quality, quantity and prevalence of oral yeasts differ between Asia and other regions for reason that are still unclear. This mini review on such data from Asian studies on oral carriage of Candida provides another intriguing facet of the behavior of this ubiquitous yeast. PMID:20690497

  4. A computer-aided oral implantology system.

    PubMed

    Xiaojun, Chen; Chengtao, Wang; Yanping, Lin

    2005-01-01

    In order to optimize the position of oral implants and make the best possible use of the available bone volume in the oral implant therapy, a computer-aided oral implantology system including the framework, modeling, preoperative 3D planning, registration method, optical tracking systems and real-time navigation is introduced in this study. With the support of this system, the precision achieved in the planning phase can be transferred to the patient so that the accuracy of the oral implant surgery is improved. PMID:17282954

  5. Oral metastases from carcinoma of cervix

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Hari; Kumar, Manoj; Bhatt, M L B; Shadab, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic tumours of the oral cavity are uncommon, they may occur in soft tissue as well as in bone in the oropharyngeal region. Owing to its rarity, metastatic tumours of the oral regions are a challenge to diagnose. We report a case of metastasis of the oral cavity, arising from uterine cervix mimicking as mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The metastatic lesions were noticed in the soft tissue of the lower buccal and gingival side of a oral cavity, in a 40-year-old woman with history of an adenosquamous carcinoma of uterine cervix treated by panhysterectomy. PMID:23771978

  6. Alcohol and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Chandran, R; Khammissa, R A G; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma. It enhances the permeability of the oral epithelium, acts as a solvent for tobacco carcinogens, induces basal-cell proliferation, and generates free radicals and acetaldehyde, which have the capacity to cause DNA damage. Alcohol-associated malnutrition and immune suppression may further promote carcinogenesis. However, acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is the critical agent by which prolonged and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages increases the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Alcohol also acts synergistically with the products of tobacco combustion in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23971298

  7. Hypocalcaemia following thyroidectomy unresponsive to oral therapy.

    PubMed

    Etheridge, Zac C; Schofield, Christopher; Prinsloo, Peter J J; Sturrock, Nigel D C

    2014-01-01

    Hypocalcaemia due to hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy is a relatively common occurrence. Standard treatment is with oral calcium and vitamin D replacement therapy; lack of response to oral therapy is rare. Herein we describe a case of hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy unresponsive to oral therapy in a patient with a complex medical history. We consider the potential causes in the context of calcium metabolism including: poor adherence, hungry bone syndrome, malabsorption, vitamin D resistance, bisphosphonate use and functional hypoparathyroidism secondary to magnesium deficiency. Malabsorption due to intestinal hurry was likely to be a contributory factor in this case and very large doses of oral therapy were required to avoid symptomatic hypocalcaemia. PMID:24776629

  8. Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P), on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P) randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg) to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees) of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for huge savings in not only money but the overall quality of life. This may help establish more specific clinical guidelines for oral cleft prevention so that the intervention can be better tailored for at-risk women. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397917 PMID:23181832

  9. Comparison of peptidase, glycosidase and esterase activities of oral and non-oral Treponema species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. H. M. Mikx

    1991-01-01

    The enzyme profiles of 20 oral and non-oral Treponema strains were investigated using an API ZYM Complete Research kit. The test included 10 2-naphthyl derivatives of fatty acids, 20 p-nitrophenol derivatives of carbohydrates and 60 2-naphthylamide derivatives of amino acids and peptides. The oral Treponema species investigated were T. denticola, T. vincentii and T. pectinovorum. The non-oral species examined were

  10. Candidal colonization and oral candidiasis in patients undergoing oral and pharyngeal radiation therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Velia Ramirez-Amador; Sol Silverman; Priscilla Mayer; Martin Tyler; Jeanne Quivey

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. Radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation encourages oral candidal colonization that often leads to oral\\/pharyngeal candidiasis. The purpose of this study was to quantitate oral candidal colonization, assess signs, symptoms, and response to antifungal management, speciate Candida, and evaluate the influence of smoking and dentures.Study design. Forty-six patients undergoing radiation therapy for oral\\/pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were evaluated clinically and by Candidal cultures

  11. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 63:529-535, 2005

    E-print Network

    Lu, Helen H.

    -rich plasma (PRP) as an adjunct to bone grafting procedures in oral and maxillofa- cial surgery has seen *Assistant Professor, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental and Oral Surgery, Columbia. ¶Professor and Chair, Hospital Dentistry/Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental and Oral Surgery

  12. Scripting Oral History: An Examination of Structural Differences between Oral and Written Narratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Gail

    The availability of both oral and written historical narratives provides the Readers Theater adapter with a rich opportunity to experiment with mixing oral and written narrative styles in documentary form. Those who plan to use such mixing must consider the differences between oral and written narratives. Writers and readers have almost unlimited…

  13. Technology Development to Explore the Relationship Between Oral Health and the Oral Microbial Community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Michelle L Starke; James C Smoot; Laura M Smoot; Wen-Tso Liu; Darrell P Chandler; Hyun H Lee; David A Stahl

    2006-01-01

    The human oral cavity contains a complex microbial community that, until recently, has not been well characterized. Studies using molecular tools have begun to enumerate and quantify the species residing in various niches of the oral cavity; yet, virtually every study has revealed additional new species, and little is known about the structural dynamics of the oral microbial community or

  14. Oral hygiene evaluation for effective oral care in preventing pneumonia in dentate elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu Abe; Kazuyuki Ishihara; Mieko Adachi; Katsuji Okuda

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish criteria for the visual evaluation of oral hygiene by analyzing the relationship between status of oral hygiene and number of oral bacteria in saliva for use in predicting the development of pneumonia. A total of 145 Japanese people of advanced age living in nursing homes were enrolled in the study. We evaluated

  15. Developing a Pediatric Oral Health Therapist to Help Address Oral Health Disparities Among Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Nash

    Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General documented the profound and significant disparities that exist in the oral health of children in the United States. Recently, the country has been issued a National Call to Action to Promote Oral Health, under the leadership of the Office of the Surgeon General. Among the significant factors contributing to the

  16. Prevalence of oral pain and barriers to use of emergency oral care facilities among adult Tanzanians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emil Namakuka Kikwilu; Joyce Rose Masalu; Febronia Kokulengya Kahabuka; Ahadieli Raphael Senkoro

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oral pain has been the major cause of the attendances in the dental clinics in Tanzania. Some patients postpone seeing the dentist for as long as two to five days. This study determines the prevalence of oral pain and barriers to use of emergency oral care in Tanzania. METHODS: Questionnaire data were collected from 1,759 adult respondents aged 18

  17. Oral submucous fibrosis: an update

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe; Verma, Shyam B; Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Patil, Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant condition caused by betel chewing. It is very common in Southeast Asia but has started to spread to Europe and North America. OSF can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, a risk that is further increased by concomitant tobacco consumption. OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology. Hypovascularity leading to blanching of the oral mucosa, staining of teeth and gingiva, and trismus are major symptoms. Major constituents of betel quid are arecoline from betel nuts and copper, which are responsible for fibroblast dysfunction and fibrosis. A variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways might be involved. Treatment of OSF is difficult, as not many large, randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The principal actions of drug therapy include antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxygen radical mechanisms. Potential new drugs are on the horizon. Surgery may be necessary in advanced cases of trismus. Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments. PMID:25914554

  18. Individual differences in oral thermosensation.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Suzanna; Zald, David H

    2006-07-30

    Although oral thermosensation is critical to the perception of food and drinks, little information is available on the organization of individual differences in these abilities. We examined the relationship between measures of cooling and warming on the tongue and lip and the association of these measures to taste sensitivity in a sample of 76 healthy subjects. Thermal abilities were assessed with a computer-controlled, 1.5 cm2 peltier plate that was placed on the anterior dorsal surface of the tongue or the lower lip. Thermal testing consisted of both cooling and warming threshold detection, and intensity ratings of warm and cool suprathreshold temperatures. Intensity ratings of different temperatures were highly correlated, especially for temperatures in the same class. Similarly, warming and cooling thresholds were highly correlated. In contrast, thermal detection abilities were largely dissociable from suprathreshold intensity ratings, especially in the cooling direction. Suprathreshold ratings of cooling on the tongue were also modestly associated with ratings of the taste intensity of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). However, a similar association was observed for the lower lip, indicating that the effect does not reflect an isolated characteristic of lingual physiology. Unexpectedly, two subjects with no history of oral trauma demonstrated abnormally deficient (4 S.D. below the mean) cool threshold detection abilities for the tongue, suggesting that there may exist subjects in the population who have profoundly poor lingual temperature processing. PMID:16733061

  19. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  20. 21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510 Section 872.6510...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is an AC-powered device...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510 Section 872.6510...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is an AC-powered device...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510 Section 872.6510...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is an AC-powered device...

  3. Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Radiation (PDQ®) General Information About Oral Complications Key Points Oral complications are common in cancer patients, especially ... and malnutrition . Oral Complications and Their Causes Key Points Cancer treatment can cause mouth and throat problems. ...

  4. 47 CFR 1.277 - Exceptions; oral arguments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...discretion, will grant oral argument by order only in cases where such oral presentations will assist in the resolution...an initial decision for oral argument, as provided in...in its discretion, upon good cause shown, an...

  5. 21 CFR 520.530 - Cythioate oral liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.530 Cythioate oral liquid. (a) Specifications... (3) Limitations. For oral use in dogs only. Do not...stress, or recovering from surgery. Federal law restricts...

  6. 21 CFR 520.530 - Cythioate oral liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.530 Cythioate oral liquid. (a) Specifications... (3) Limitations. For oral use in dogs only. Do not...stress, or recovering from surgery. Federal law restricts...

  7. 21 CFR 520.530 - Cythioate oral liquid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.530 Cythioate oral liquid. (a) Specifications... (3) Limitations. For oral use in dogs only. Do not...stress, or recovering from surgery. Federal law restricts...

  8. Harvard Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Associates OMS Care Center @ Mass General

    E-print Network

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    Harvard Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Associates OMS Care Center @ Mass General OMS Care Center/Physician's Phone: _____________________ Harvard Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Associates Patient Referral to or physician for oral and maxillofacial surgery treatment or consultation. The information below will help you

  9. 28 CFR 80.9 - No oral opinion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false No oral opinion. 80.9 Section 80.9 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.9 No oral opinion. No oral clearance, release or other statement purporting...

  10. 48 CFR 1352.215-71 - Instructions for oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Instructions for oral presentations. 1352.215-71 Section 1352...215-71 Instructions for oral presentations. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1315...provision: Instructions for Oral Presentations (APR 2010) The Government...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  12. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

  15. Prebiotics and Probiotics and Oral Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Meurman

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this chapter describes the unique characteristics of the mouth with special emphasis on the oral microbiota. Next, the highly prevalent dental diseases are briefly described together with more rare but still important diseases and symptoms of the mouth. Prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases are also discussed focusing on aspects considered important with respect

  16. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  17. Validation of Automated Scoring of Oral Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Jennifer; Bernstein, Jared; Cheng, Jian; Van Moere, Alistair; Townshend, Brent; Suzuki, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    A two-part experiment is presented that validates a new measurement tool for scoring oral reading ability. Data collected by the U.S. government in a large-scale literacy assessment of adults were analyzed by a system called VersaReader that uses automatic speech recognition and speech processing technologies to score oral reading fluency. In the…

  18. Oral Skills Testing: A Rhetorical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaraton, Anne; Riggenbach, Heidi

    1990-01-01

    The development, implementation, and evaluation of a semidirect test of oral proficiency, the Rhetorical Task Examination (RTE), is reported. The RTE proposes a compromise approach to rating oral skills by having two scales: one for the functional ability for accomplishing rhetorical tasks and one for linguistic competence. (34 references)…

  19. Oral rehabilitation and management of mentally retarded.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Jitender; Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today's world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals. PMID:25738098

  20. Oral Composition in the Classroom (Handicapped Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Carol S.

    A teacher of hearing impaired students describes an approach to oral composition in which a student's sign language telling of a story was videotaped and then students were asked to write a draft on their topic. Results demonstrated the need to focus on coherence through the use of transitions. She suggests that benefits of the video-oral drafting…

  1. Midwestern Rural Adolescents' Oral Sex Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Ward, Britney L.; Welch, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined the prevalence of oral sexual activity in rural Midwestern adolescents. We also examined the correlates of a series of risk behaviors with oral sexual activity. Methods: A questionnaire based on the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System was distributed to 2121 rural middle and high school students in grades 6-12…

  2. Oral History: A Bridge to Thinking Historically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Clifford; Forney, LeAnne

    1997-01-01

    Provides a concise introduction to the integration of oral history projects into the social studies classroom. Identifies five goals for student use of oral history: content acquisition, skill development, affective growth, historical understanding, and content production. Includes interviewing techniques, related web sites, and teaching…

  3. Application of Laser in Oral Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Asnaashari, Mohammad; Zadsirjan, Saeede

    2014-01-01

    In this review collected from the literature on usage of laser in oral minor surgery based on a Medline search in the time period between the years: 2008 and 2013, the most current evidence on laser-assisted oral minor surgery is going to be surveyed. PMID:25653807

  4. Clinical management of oral lichen planus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. McCreary; B. E. McCartan

    1999-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a relatively common chronic disease of the mucous membranes which may have more transient cutaneous manifestations. It has a number of well-recognized clinical signs and a wide range of symptoms from none through mild discomfort to severe debilitating intra-oral erosions and ulceration. It often does not respond to treatment and, in a small proportion of cases,

  5. Auditory-Oral Matching Behavior in Newborns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xin; Striano, Tricia; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five newborn infants were tested for auditory-oral matching behavior when presented with the consonant sound /m/ and the vowel sound /a/--a precursor behavior to vocal imitation. Auditory-oral matching behavior by the infant was operationally defined as showing the mouth movement appropriate for producing the model sound just heard (mouth…

  6. Teaching the Past through Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Pattie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses oral history as a means to connect national events with the lives of individual people. Relates the information from student oral term paper interviews, focusing on topics such as the Vietnam War, the Great Depression, civil rights and school integration, and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. (CMK)

  7. Chronic oral etoposide in advanced breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Palombo; J. Estapé; N. Viñolas; J. J. Grau; J. M. Mañé; M. Daniels; B. Mellado

    1994-01-01

    Chronic oral etoposide has shown activity in some metastatic refractory tumors. To test its activity in previously treated metastatic breast cancer patients, we started a study in 18 consecutive patients given etoposide orally at 50 mg\\/m 2 daily for 21 days. A partial response was observed in 4 of 18 patients (22%); of the responding patients, 3 had visceral metastases

  8. Chronic oral etoposide in advanced breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Palombo; J. Estapé; N. Viñolas; J. J. Grau; J. M. Mañé; M. Daniels; B. Mellado

    1994-01-01

    Chronic oral etoposide has shown activity in some metastatic refractory tumors. To test its activity in previously treated metastatic breast cancer patients, we started a study in 18 consecutive patients given etoposide orally at 50 mg\\/m2 daily for 21 days. A partial response was observed in 4 of 18 patients (22%); of the responding patients, 3 had visceral metastases and

  9. The microflora associated with human oral carcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Nagy; I. Sonkodi; I. Szöke; E. Nagy; H. N. Newman

    1998-01-01

    Both local and systemic infections may complicate the morbidity of patients with oral malignant neoplasms, particularly those presenting intraorally. This study investigated the microbial contents of the biofilms present on the surfaces of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Biofilm samples were obtained from the central surface of the lesions in 21 patients (20 male, 1 female) aged 52.8 (± 8.2) years,

  10. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes. PMID:25173643

  11. Oral contraceptives and the risk of cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selvaraj S; Angus V; Iversen L

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the risk of cancer associated with the use of oral contraceptives. It is based on the results of follow up of the Royal College of General Practitioners' (GPs') oral contraceptive study. The outcome of interest in this prospective cohort study was the incidence of some selected cancers. The study was started in mid-1968 and recruited about 46

  12. Aplicaciones de la citologia oral por raspado (exfoliativa) en el cáncer y precáncer oral Applications of the oral scraped (exfoliative) cytology in oral cancer and precancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Acha A; Ruesga MT; Rodríguez MJ; Martínez de Pancorbo

    Scraped (exfoliative) cytology is a simple and harmless proce- dure, which has been a controversial technique according to its real validity in oral pathology. Lately it has re-emerged due to its application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. New diag- nostic techniques have been developed, such as \\

  13. Oral Hygiene for the Orthodontic Patient

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to be even more dedicated to good oral hygiene. "Braces trap food very easily, which contributes to plaque formation," says ... teeth at high pressure to remove bits of food. "They can be used as an aid in your oral hygiene practice, but not in place of brushing and ...

  14. Chapter Oral Health Advocates: A Nationwide Model for Pediatrician Peer Education and Advocacy about Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Charlotte W.; Barone, Lauren; Quinonez, Rocio B.; Boulter, Suzanne; Mouradian, Wendy E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. (1) To describe an innovative program training US pediatricians to be Chapter Oral Health Advocates (COHAs). (2) To provide insight into COHAs' experiences disseminating oral health knowledge to fellow pediatricians. Patients and Methods. Interviews with 40 COHAs who responded to an email request, from a total of 64 (62% response). Transcripts were analyzed for common themes about COHA activities, facilitators, and barriers. Results. COHAs reported positive experiences at the AAP oral health training program. A subset of academic COHAs focused on legislative activity and another on resident education about oral health. Residents had an easier time adopting oral health activities while practicing pediatricians cited time constraints. COHAs provided insights into policy, barriers, and facilitators for incorporating oral health into practice. Conclusions. This report identifies factors influencing pediatricians' adoption of oral health care into practice. COHAs reported successes in training peers on integrating oral health into pediatric practice, identified opportunities and challenges to oral health implementation in primary care, and reported issues about the state of children's oral health in their communities. With ongoing support, the COHA program has a potential to improve access to preventive oral health services in the Medical Home and to increase referrals to a Dental Home. PMID:24228032

  15. Association of oral candidiasis with diabetic control.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, L V; Tan, M H; Pereira, L H; Embil, J A

    1989-01-01

    Factors associated with oral candidiasis in 51 diabetics were examined. The prevalence of oral yeast infection was 49 (n = 25)%. The association with diabetic control, as measured by fasting blood glucose concentration, urinary glucose concentration, and glycosylated haemoglobin, with the presence of yeast was analysed in the 51 diabetic patients. Glycosylated haemoglobin above 12% was strongly associated with oral yeast infection (odds ratio = 13.00) (p less than 0.001), while fasting blood and urinary glucose concentrations were not. The risk of oral candidiasis among diabetics wearing dentures was significantly higher than among dentate diabetics (odds ratio = 4.78). After controlling for the effect of denture wearing, glycosylated haemoglobin greater than 12% remained highly predictive of oral yeast infection, particularly among diabetics without dentures. PMID:2732344

  16. Maryland dentists' knowledge of oral cancer prevention and early detection.

    PubMed

    Maybury, Catherine; Horowitz, Alice M; Yan, Alice F; Green, Kerry M; Wang, Min Qi

    2012-04-01

    To reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with oral cancers, dentists must have accurate knowledge and skills to detect and diagnose oral cancers at early stages. The authors' study found gaps in dentists' knowledge of risk factors and procedures for diagnosing oral cancers. Increasing health literacy for oral cancers among dental professionals may lead to increased health literacy for oral cancers among the public because dental professionals are a key source of oral health information for the public. PMID:22679674

  17. Oral Manifestations in the American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Daniel Cesar Silva; Palmeiro, Mariana Reuter; Moreira, João Soares; Martins, Ana Cristina da Costa; da Silva, Aline Fagundes; de Fátima Madeira, Maria; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Confort, Eliame Mouta; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; da Conceição Silva, Fátima; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) can affect the skin or mucosa (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis – MCL) including the oral cavity. MCL oral lesions are often confused with other oral diseases, delaying diagnosis and specific treatment, and increasing the likelihood of sequelae. Thus, increasing the knowledge of the evolution of ATL oral lesions can facilitate its early diagnosis improving the prognosis of healing. Objectives Evaluate the frequency of ATL oral lesion and describe its clinical, laboratory and therapeutic peculiarities. Methods A descriptive transversal study was carried out, using data from medical records of 206 patients with MCL examined at the outpatient clinics-IPEC-Fiocruz between 1989 and 2013. Proportions were calculated for the categorical variables and the association among them was assessed by the Pearson's chi-square test. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used for the continuous variables and their differences were assessed by both parametric (t test) and non parametric (Mann-Whitney) tests. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant. Results The most affected site was the nose, followed by the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Seventy eight (37.9%) have oral lesions and the disease presented a lower median of the evolution time than in other mucous sites as well as an increased time to heal. The presence of oral lesion was associated with: the presence of lesions in the other three mucosal sites; a smaller median of the leishmanin skin test values; a longer healing time of the mucosal lesions; a higher recurrence frequency; and a smaller frequency of treatment finishing and healing. When the oral lesion was isolated, it was associated with an age 20 years lower than when the oral lesion was associated with other mucosal sites. Conclusion Considering the worst therapy results associated with the presence of oral lesions, we suggest that lesions in this location represent a factor of worse prognosis for MCL. PMID:25386857

  18. Clinical and microbiological diagnosis of oral candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Soriano, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Candidiasis or oral candidiasis is the most frequent mucocutaneous mycosis of the oral cavity. It is produced by the genus Candida, which is found in the oral cavity of 53% of the general population as a common commensal organism. One hundred and fifty species have been isolated in the oral cavity, and 80% of the isolates correspond to Candida albicans, which can colonize the oral cavity alone or in combination with other species. Transformation from commensal organism to pathogen depends on the intervention of different predisposing factors that modify the microenvironment of the oral cavity and favor the appearance of opportunistic infection. The present study offers a literature review on the diagnosis of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establishing when complementary microbiological techniques for the diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be used, and which techniques are most commonly employed in routine clinical practice in order to establish a definitive diagnosis. Materials and methods: A Medline-PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane search was made covering the last 10 years. Results: The diagnosis of oral candidiasis is fundamentally clinical. Microbiological techniques are used when the clinical diagnosis needs to be confirmed, for establishing a differential diagnosis with other diseases, and in cases characterized by resistance to antifungal drugs. Biopsies in turn are indicated in patients with hyperplastic candidiasis. Staining (10% KOH) and culture (Sabouraud dextrose agar) are the methods most commonly used for diagnosing primary candidiasis. Identification of the individual species of Candida is usually carried out with CHROMagar Candida®. For the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis, and in cases requiring differentiation between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, use is made of immunological and genetic techniques such as ELISA and PCR. Key words:Clinical, oral candidiasis, microbiology. PMID:24455095

  19. Oral Tolerance: Therapeutic Implications for Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Ana M. C.; Weiner, Howard L.

    2006-01-01

    Oral tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag) that have been administered previously by the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10) and Th3 (TGF-?) regulatory T cells (Tregs) plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-?, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to oral tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory conditions with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. Oral and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy. PMID:17162357

  20. Chicago Architects Oral History Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the artistic statements of Louis Sullivan to the brutally Modern statements of Walter Netsch, architecture in Chicago is nothing if not eclectic. Given the important legacy of those architects practicing in and around Chicago, it is refreshing to note that the Art Institute of Chicago has been collecting the oral histories of these men and women since 1983. With substantial financial support from the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts and the Illinois Humanities Council, the Art Institute of Chicago has placed complete transcripts for over fifty of these interviews online here for access by architectural historians and the general public. Here visitors will find the recollections of Stanley Tigerman, Harry Weese, Bertrand Goldberg, and Carter Manny. Visitors will also be glad to find that female architects are well-represented here, and include such individuals as Gertrude Lempp Kerbis and Natalie De Blois.

  1. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  2. Oral therapy for Pruritus Ani

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Griffin Bodkin

    1945-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a 42 Cases of Pruritus Ani were treated, with oral medication and local applications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a History of the duration of symptoms varied from 1 to 30 years. Three cases also had Pruritus Vulvae.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a A formula containing Takadiastase and Sodium Dilantin made an effective combination. Dilantin alone did not control the condition.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Soap and water are avoided at

  3. Mobile microbiome: oral bacteria in extra-oral infections and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Han, Y W; Wang, X

    2013-06-01

    The link between oral infections and adverse systemic conditions has attracted much attention in the research community. Several mechanisms have been proposed, including spread of the oral infection due to transient bacteremia resulting in bacterial colonization in extra-oral sites, systemic injury by free toxins of oral pathogens, and systemic inflammation caused by soluble antigens of oral pathogens. Mounting evidence supports a major role of the systemic spread of oral commensals and pathogens to distant body sites causing extra-oral infections and inflammation. We review here the most recent findings on systemic infections and inflammation complicated by oral bacteria, including cardiovascular disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer, respiratory tract infections, and organ inflammations and abscesses. The recently identified virulence mechanisms of oral species Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Campylobacter rectus are also reviewed. A pattern emerges indicating that only select subtype(s) of a given species, e.g., F. nucleatum subspecies animalis and polymorphum and S. mutans non-c serotypes, are prone to extra-oral translocation. These findings advocate the importance of identification and quantification of potential pathogens at the subtype levels for accurate prediction of disease potential. PMID:23625375

  4. Oral mucosa lesions and oral symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    PubMed

    Laranjeira, Nuno; Fonseca, Jorge; Meira, Tânia; Freitas, João; Valido, Sara; Leitão, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammatory Bowel Disease is known for its extra intestinal manifestations, the oral cavity is no exception. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Inflammatory Bowel Disease and oral mucosa lesions and symptoms, and complementary to evaluate their possible relation with oral hygiene, smoking habits, drug therapy, duration and activity of the disease. Methods Patients were selected from the Gastroenterology Clinic of a Portuguese tertiary referral hospital. This sample consisted of 113 patients previously diagnosed with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease along with a control group of 58 healthy individuals that were accompanying the study group patients to their appointments. Clinical interviews and clinical examinations were performed for data collection. Results The patients in the study group were more affected by oral symptoms (P=0.011), and showed a trend towards a higher incidence of oral mucosal lesions, even though statistical significance was not reached (8.8% versus 3.4% in the control group; P=0.159). Patients in active phase were the most affected. No differences were detected between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, or concerning smoking habits. The corticosteroid and immunosuppressant therapy seemed to increase the incidence of oral symptoms (P=0.052). The oral mucosa lesions increased and the oral symptoms decreased over the course of the disease, however without statistical significance. Conclusion Oral mucosa's lesions and oral symptoms were positively associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease, mainly during disease activity periods and conceivably, associated with corticosteroid and immunosuppressant therapy. PMID:26039827

  5. Protein and Peptide Drug Delivery: Oral Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Shaji, Jessy; Patole, V.

    2008-01-01

    Till recent, injections remained the most common means for administering therapeutic proteins and peptides because of their poor oral bioavailability. However, oral route would be preferred to any other route because of its high levels of patient acceptance and long term compliance, which increases the therapeutic value of the drug. Designing and formulating a polypeptide drug delivery through the gastro intestinal tract has been a persistent challenge because of their unfavorable physicochemical properties, which includes enzymatic degradation, poor membrane permeability and large molecular size. The main challenge is to improve the oral bioavailability from less than 1% to at least 30-50%. Consequently, efforts have intensified over the past few decades, where every oral dosage form used for the conventional small molecule drugs has been used to explore oral protein and peptide delivery. Various strategies currently under investigation include chemical modification, formulation vehicles and use of enzyme inhibitors, absorption enhancers and mucoadhesive polymers. This review summarizes different pharmaceutical approaches which overcome various physiological barriers that help to improve oral bioavailability that ultimately achieve formulation goals for oral delivery. PMID:20046732

  6. Oral health and elite sport performance.

    PubMed

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

  7. Oral myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Jayavelu, Perumal; Shrutha, Santhebachali Prakasha

    2013-07-01

    Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. Oral myiasis is still more "rare" and "unique" owing to the fact that oral cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor oral hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged conditions. Oral myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the oral cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent oral myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of oral myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly) in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture. PMID:23956607

  8. Oral health and elite sport performance

    PubMed Central

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

  9. Ventilator-associated pneumonia risk decreased by use of oral moisture gel in oral health care.

    PubMed

    Takeyasu, Yoshihiro; Yamane, Gen-Yuki; Tonogi, Morio; Watanabe, Yutaka; Nishikubo, Shuichi; Serita, Ryohei; Imura, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    Although oral health care has a preventive effect against ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the most effective method of oral health care in this respect remains to be established. The objective of this single-center, randomized, controlled trial was to investigate the relationship between VAP and various methods of oral health care. All patients included in the study (n=142) were on mechanical ventilation with oral intubation at the intensive care unit of the Tokyo Dental College Ichikawa General Hospital. They were divided into two groups, one receiving standard oral health care (Standard group), and the other receiving oral health care using an oral moisture gel instead of water (Gel group). After removal of the intubation tube, biofilm on cuff of the tube was stained with a disclosing agent to determine the contamination level. Factors investigated included sex, age, number of remaining teeth, intubation time, fever ?38.5°C, VAP, cuff contamination level, and time required for one oral health care session. No VAP occurred in either group during the study period. The level of cuff contamination was significantly lower in the Gel group than the Standard group, and the time required for one session of oral health care was shorter (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed use of the oral moisture gel as a factor affecting cuff contamination level. Use of an oral moisture gel decreased invasion of the pharynx by bacteria and contaminants together with biofilm formation on the intubation tube cuff. These results suggest that oral health care using an oral moisture gel is effective in preventing cuff contamination. PMID:24965954

  10. Pathogenesis of postoperative oral surgical pain.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Cliff K. S.; Seymour, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Pain is a major postoperative symptom in many oral surgical procedures. It is a complex and variable phenomenon that can be influenced by many factors. Good management of oral surgical pain requires a detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of surgical pain. This article aims at reviewing postoperative pain from a broad perspective by looking into the nociception, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropharmacology of pain. Therapeutic recommendations are made after reviewing the evidence from the literature for maximizing the efficacy of pain management techniques for oral surgical pain. PMID:12722900

  11. Prebiotics and Probiotics and Oral Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurman, J. H.

    The first part of this chapter describes the unique characteristics of the mouth with special emphasis on the oral microbiota. Next, the highly prevalent dental diseases are briefly described together with more rare but still important diseases and symptoms of the mouth. Prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases are also discussed focusing on aspects considered important with respect to the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics. The second part of the chapter then concentrates on research data on prebiotics and probiotics in the oral health perspective, ending up with conclusions and visions for future research.

  12. Oral leiomyoma extending in retromolar region.

    PubMed

    Goel, A; Goel, H

    2011-12-01

    Leiomyoma is a benign smooth muscle tumor that rarely affects children and occurs most frequently in the uterine myometrium and gastrointestinal tract. Its occurrence in the oral cavity is considered rare probably because of the scarcity of smooth muscle tissue in the oral cavity. The most common intraoral sites for leiomyoma are lips, palate and tongue. The purpose of this case report is to present the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of a rare case of oral leiomyoma in a 13-year-old girl with a 4-month history of a swelling in her left mandibular area extending from first molar to retromolar region. PMID:22169840

  13. Shortening the induction delivery interval with prostaglandins: a randomized controlled trial of solo or in combination

    PubMed Central

    Mahendru, Rajiv; Yadav, Shweta

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of misoprostol alone with dinoprostone followed by misoprostol, all inserted intravaginally in induction of labor at term and the obstetrical outcome. Material and Methods A pilot study comprising 111 primigravidae, >37 gestational weeks with singleton pregnancy in cephalic presentation having an unfavorable Bishop score admitted for labor induction, were considered and randomly allocated into two groups. In group I (n=55) with intravaginal 25mcg misoprostol 4 hourly (six doses at the most) and and group II (n=56), with dinoprostone 0.5mg followed eight hours later by 25mcg misoprostol induction to vaginal delivery time was found to be significantly different, being 14.8 h in group-I and shorter in group-II with a mean of 11.6 h. Vaginal delivery rates within 12 h (groups-I and ?II: 47.2%, as compared to 60.7%, respectively) were found to be higher with dinoprostone-misoprostol induction, as well as vaginal delivery rates in 24 h, 80.0% and 91.1%. The need for oxytocin augmentation was more frequent in the misoprostol than in the dinoprostone-misoprostol group, (61.8%, and 39.3%), and all these observations were statistically significant. Abnormal foetal heart rate pattern occurred more frequently (18.2%) in group-I in contrast to 5.3% in group-II, as was the incidence rate of (18.2%) who had passage of meconium in group-I, this rate being significantly different from group-II having meconium passage in 3 cases, a rate of 5.3%. Conclusion Using dinoprostone followed by vaginal misoprostol is safe and effective for induction of labor with less need for oxytocin augmentation and shorter induction delivery interval. PMID:24591967

  14. The oral environment: the challenge for antimicrobials in oral care products.

    PubMed

    Brading, M G; Marsh, P D

    2003-12-01

    For any antibacterial/ anti-plaque system from an oral care product to be effective, it must firstly be delivered and retained at relevant sites in the oral cavity and secondly, remain active within the chosen formulation to successfully target the biofilm cells within dental plaque. This must include inhibition of the growth and metabolism of relevant organisms associated with disease. This review will concentrate on understanding the environmental conditions in which such oral care products must work and summarise the activity within the oral cavity of the main antibacterial and anti-plaque agents in common oral care products, namely chlorhexidine, essential oils, metal salts and Triclosan. Routes to further enhance the activity of these products, together with the use of relatively novel formats such as confectionery products to provide added consumer oral health benefits will be considered. PMID:14725379

  15. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Oral complications in the pediatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Leggott, P.J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-01-01

    A number of acute oral complications may be associated with cancer therapy in children, but the extent and duration of these complications, and the most effective management techniques. have not been well described. The few studies differ in design, making comparisons difficult. Well-controlled, prospective clinical studies are needed to define the most effective strategies for the management of acute oral complications in children. However, it is clear that dental intervention prior to cancer therapy is an important factor in the optimal preparation of the patient. During cancer therapy, intensive supervised oral preventive protocols appear to be of benefit to the child's oral health, overall comfort, and well-being. Furthermore, the prevention of oral infection may significantly reduce the morbidity associated with cancer therapy. Long-term preventive oral care may help prevent dental disease and infection in medically compromised children and contribute to improving the quality of life. 41 references.

  16. Nanoparticles for oral delivery: Targeted nanoparticles with peptidic ligands for oral protein delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeonhee; Cho, Yong Woo; Park, Kinam

    2012-01-01

    As the field of biotechnology has advanced, oral protein delivery has also made significant progress. Oral delivery is the most common method of drug administration with high levels of patient acceptance. Despite the preference of oral delivery, administration of therapeutic proteins has been extremely difficult. Increasing the bioavailability of oral protein drugs to the therapeutically acceptable level is still a challenging goal. Poor membrane permeability, high molecular weight, and enzymatic degradation of protein drugs have remained unsolved issues. Among diverse strategies, nanotechnology has provided a glimpse of hope in oral delivery of protein drugs. Nanoparticles have advantages, such as small size, high surface area, and modification using functional groups for high capacity or selectivity. Nanoparticles with peptidic ligands are especially worthy of notice because they can be used for specific targeting in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This article reviews the transport mechanism of the GI tract, barriers to protein absorption, current status and limitations of nanotechnology for oral protein delivery system. PMID:23123292

  17. Pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen following single oral, intramuscular and rectal doses and after repeated oral administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ishizaki; T. Sasaki; T. Suganuma; Y. Horail; K. Chiba; M. Watanabe; W. Asuke; H. Hoshi

    1980-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen was studied in the same healthy subjects after single oral, intramuscular and rectal doses, and after repeated oral administration. No significant difference in the mean t1\\/2 (1.13–1.27 h) was observed after the different modes of administration. The mean [AUC]08 after rectal administration of a suppository showed the minimum significant difference (p<0.05) from that after oral administration

  18. Comparison of sublingually and orally administered triazolam for premedication before oral surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles W Berthold; Raymond A Dionne; Sharon E Corey

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated sublingual administration of triazolam for preoperative sedation in dental outpatients.Study design. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared 0.25 mg sublingual triazolam, 0.25 mg oral triazolam, and placebo administered 1 hour before oral surgery.Results. Sublingual triazolam resulted in significantly less anxiety and pain at 15 minutes intraoperatively than both oral triazolam and placebo (p < 0.05). Patients' global

  19. Oral candidiasis and oral yeast carriage among institutionalised South African paediatric HIV\\/AIDS patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine Blignaut

    2007-01-01

    South Africa currently has an estimated 500,000 AIDS orphans, many of whom are HIV-positive. Oral candidiasis commonly occurs\\u000a in both adult and paediatric HIV\\/AIDS patients. Published information on HIV-positive children in Africa mainly concerns hospitalised\\u000a patients. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral candidiasis and oral yeast carriage among paediatric\\u000a HIV\\/AIDS patients residing in orphanages

  20. Adherence of oral streptococci to keratinized and nonkeratinized human oral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sklavounou, A; Germaine, G R

    1980-02-01

    The ability of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus salivarius to adhere to keratinized versus nonkeratinized human oral epithelial cells was compared. S. mitis and S. salivarius exhibited significantly greater adherence to keratinized cells than to nonkeratinized cells. S. mutans and S. sanguis adhered equally well to either epithelial cell type. It is concluded that keratinization of epithelial cells may be a significant factor in the adherence of certain oral streptococci to the oral mucosa. PMID:6155336

  1. Differential Injury Responses in Oral Mucosal and Cutaneous Wounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Szpaderska; J. D. Zuckerman; L. A. DiPietro

    2003-01-01

    Oral mucosa heals faster than does skin, yet few studies have compared the repair at oral mucosal and cutaneous sites. To determine whether the privileged healing of oral injuries involves a differential inflammatory phase, we compared the inflammatory cell infiltrate and cytokine production in wounds of equivalent size in oral mucosa and skin. Significantly lower levels of macrophage, neutrophil, and

  2. Oral delivery of nanoparticle-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Marasini, Nirmal; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan

    2014-11-01

    Most infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic infiltrations from the mucosal tract. Therefore, vaccines delivered to the mucosal tissues can mimic natural infections and provide protection at the first site of infection. Thus, mucosal, especially, oral delivery is becoming the most preferred mode of vaccination. However, oral vaccines have to overcome several barriers such as the extremely low pH of the stomach, the presence of proteolytic enzymes and bile salts as well as low permeability in the intestine. Several formulations based on nanoparticle strategies are currently being explored to prepare stable oral vaccine formulations. This review briefly discusses several molecular mechanisms involved in intestinal immune cell activation and various aspects of oral nanoparticle-based vaccine design that should be considered for improved mucosal and systemic immune responses. PMID:25155636

  3. Oral malignant melanoma--an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Priya Sara; Babu, Gogineni Subhas; Anusha, Rangare Laxman; Shetty, Shishir

    2012-06-01

    Malignant melanoma is the least common but most deadly of all primary skin cancers. Oral malignant melanoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm usually seen in middle aged persons. This malignancy is more frequently seen on the hard palate and gingiva. Oral melanomas are associated with very poor prognosis because of the tendency to metastasise or invade tissues locally more readily than other malignant tumours of the oral cavity especially in the case of a geriatric patient. The surgical approach, combined with the chemotherapy, is the first choice treatment. This report highlights a case report of 71-year-old female patient diagnosed and treated surgically for an oral malignant melanoma of the pedunculated variety affecting the hard palate and gingiva with review of literature. PMID:22612841

  4. Impact of inhalation therapy on oral health

    PubMed Central

    Godara, Navneet; Godara, Ramya; Khullar, Megha

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation therapy has been employed as the mainstay of the treatment in chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Beta-2 agonists, anticholinergic bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and sodium cromoglycate are often used alone or in combination in an inhaled form. Studies have shown that inhaled drugs used in the treatment have some adverse effects on the oral health based on their dosage, frequency, and duration of use. Several oral conditions such as xerostomia, dental caries, candidiasis, ulceration, gingivitis, periodontitis, and taste changes have been associated with inhalation therapy. Since the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is rising, it is important to provide optimal oral care to the individuals receiving inhalation therapy. This article will review the influence of inhaled drugs on the oral health of individuals and adequate management and prevention of the same. PMID:22084541

  5. Efficacy of Miswak on Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sukkarwalla, Adnan; Ali, Salima Mehboob; Lundberg, Pranee; Tanwir, Farzeen

    2013-01-01

    The oral cavity harbors a diverse and abundant number of complex oral pathogens causing different oral diseases. The development of dental caries and periodontal diseases has been found to be closely associated with various gram positive and gram negative microrganisms. Miswak, a natural toothbrush, has been documented as a potent antibacterial aid and its use is encouraged in different countries because of its good taste, texture, availability, cost and beneficial effect on teeth and supporting tissues. Different researches have been carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Miswak. This review encompasses the efficacy of Miswak on suppression of oral pathogens with respect to conducted on fungi as well as cariogenic, periodontal and endodontic bacteria. PMID:24019798

  6. 21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...or dissolving in 2 to 4 pints of water and administering by stomach tube. The drug is compatible with carbon disulfide, which... (c ) Oral suspension. The drug is administered by stomach tube. Not for horses intended for food use. Federal...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...or dissolving in 2 to 4 pints of water and administering by stomach tube. The drug is compatible with carbon disulfide, which... (c ) Oral suspension. The drug is administered by stomach tube. Not for horses intended for food use. Federal...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...or dissolving in 2 to 4 pints of water and administering by stomach tube. The drug is compatible with carbon disulfide, which... (c ) Oral suspension. The drug is administered by stomach tube. Not for horses intended for food use. Federal...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...or dissolving in 2 to 4 pints of water and administering by stomach tube. The drug is compatible with carbon disulfide, which... (c ) Oral suspension. The drug is administered by stomach tube. Not for horses intended for food use. Federal...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...or dissolving in 2 to 4 pints of water and administering by stomach tube. The drug is compatible with carbon disulfide, which... (c ) Oral suspension. The drug is administered by stomach tube. Not for horses intended for food use. Federal...

  11. Oral drug delivery research in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mrsny, Randall J

    2012-07-20

    The oral delivery of drugs is considered by decision-makers in the pharmaceutical industry to be the most appealing route of administration. This belief has led to the identification of many very successful drugs, but also to the downfall of some promising therapeutics that failed to meet criteria required for sufficient oral bioavailability. Efforts to correct these deficiencies have led to a plethora of creative strategies to overcome the physical, chemical, and biological barriers that limit the efficient and consistent delivery of drugs that are not readily absorbed following oral administration. The goal of this perspective is to describe these barriers to oral drug delivery in relation to some of the work currently being undertaken by the community of European scientists. This perspective is not intended to be inclusive and the author apologizes in advance to the many scientists working in Europe whose recent work was not included. PMID:22342473

  12. Oral Care 2025 Innovation/Finance/Delivery

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yiling

    %) Enhanced benefits for related medical conditions (75%) Adult orthodontics (73%) Dental Implants (72 of Contents Dental Insurance Market Trends Dental Insurance Benefit Trends Value Proposition Differentiation Evidence Based Dental Benefits Oral Health and Overall Health Integration · BCBSMA Total Health Program

  13. 48 CFR 15.102 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...presentations provide an opportunity for dialogue among the parties. Pre-recorded videotaped presentations that lack real-time interactive dialogue are not considered oral presentations for the purposes of this section, although they may be...

  14. 48 CFR 15.102 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...presentations provide an opportunity for dialogue among the parties. Pre-recorded videotaped presentations that lack real-time interactive dialogue are not considered oral presentations for the purposes of this section, although they may be...

  15. 10 CFR 2.1507 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...forth the grouping and order of appearance of the witnesses at the oral hearing. The order shall be filed upon all participants by email or facsimile transmission if possible, otherwise by overnight mail. (b) The Commission or presiding officer...

  16. Ron Channell and Vickie Channell Oral History

    E-print Network

    Channell, Ron; Stratton, Emily; Channell, Vickie

    2010-11-13

    Oral history interview with Ron Channell and Vickie Channell conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 13, 2010. In this interview, Ron Channell, pastor of Family Church of Lawrence, discusses his ...

  17. Malignant tumors of the oral cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Henk, J.M.; Langdon, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses carcinomas of the oral cavity including the lymph nodes and salivary glands. Topics include; Epidemiology and etiology; Immunolgical and virological aspects; Basic principles of management; Surgery; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; and Cryosurgery.

  18. Legal issues in oral fluid testing.

    PubMed

    Kadehjian, Leo

    2005-06-10

    The use of oral fluid for drugs of abuse testing has received increased attention with the availability of accurate methods for the collection and analysis of drugs in oral fluid specimens. Already used in the transportation and insurance industries, there is increasing interest in oral fluid drug testing in the workplace, schools, roadside driving under the influence of drugs, and criminal justice. Given that sanctions may accrue from positive test results, legal challenges are to be expected. However, with its established scientific base, demonstrated accuracy and reliability of collection and test methods, and current positive regulatory developments, it seems clear that the use of oral fluid as a specimen for drugs of abuse testing will be able to withstand judicial scrutiny. PMID:15944055

  19. 10 CFR 2.1113 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF...Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1113 Oral...

  20. 10 CFR 2.1113 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE...Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1113 Oral...

  1. 10 CFR 2.1113 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE...Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1113 Oral...

  2. 10 CFR 2.1113 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE...Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1113 Oral...

  3. 10 CFR 2.1113 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF...Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1113 Oral...

  4. Bill and Karen Vogler Oral History

    E-print Network

    Vogler, Bill; Vogler, Karen; Roane, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Oral history interview of Bill and Karen Vogler conducted by Jordan Roane on November 14, 2014 in Lawrence, Kansas. Bill is the pastor of Grace Evangelical Presbyterian Church in Lawrence, Kansas. He began pastoring the ...

  5. Oral verrucous carcinoma. Treatment with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, M.K.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Padmanabhan, T.K.; Madhu, C.S.

    1988-02-01

    Fifty-two cases of oral verrucous carcinoma treated with radiotherapy at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, India in 1982 were evaluated to determine the distribution within the oral cavity, clinical extent, and effectiveness of radiotherapy in controlling the disease. The most common site was the buccal mucosa. Fifty percent of the patients had clinically negative regional lymph nodes and 33% were in earlier stages (T1, T2, N0, and M0). The overall 3-year no evidence of disease (NED) survival rate was 44%. The 3-year NED survival rate with radium implant was 86%. We cannot comment on anaplastic transformation after radiotherapy because our treatment failures have not been subjected for biopsy concerning this matter. Because the results are comparable with those of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, we think that the treatment policies advocated for oral squamous cell carcinoma are also applicable to oral verrucous carcinoma.

  6. Rebekah Foster-Terry Oral History

    E-print Network

    Foster-Terry, Rebekah; Meador, Stephanie Rae

    2009-01-01

    Oral history interview with Reverend Rebekah Foster-Terry conducted by Stephanie Meador in 2009. In this interview, Rev. Foster-Terry, pastor of the Victory Tabernacle Church in Topeka, Kansas, discusses the history of the church and her family...

  7. Chem I Supplement: Chemistry in Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents chemical information related to dental health: (1) the composition of toothpaste, (2) dental diseases, (3) the role of fluoride, (4) proper oral health care, (5) mouthwashes, and (6) adhesive sealants. (MA)

  8. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases > Long-Term Control Medications > About Steroids About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids) What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’) ... considerations when your dosage changes? What are corticosteroids (‘steroids’)? Corticosteroids (steroids) are medicines that are used to ...

  9. Oral manifestations of hematologic and nutritional diseases.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Bethanee J; Pirigyi, Megan; Mirowski, Ginat W

    2011-02-01

    Oral manifestations of hematologic and nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissues, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This article reviews common oral manifestations of hematologic conditions starting with disorders of the white blood cells including cyclic hematopoiesis (cyclic neutropenia), leukemias, lymphomas, plasma cell dyscrasias, and mast cell disorders; this is followed by a discussion of the impact of red blood cell disorders including anemias and less common red blood cell dyscrasias (sickle cell disease, hemochromatosis, and congenital erythropoietic porphyria) as well as thrombocytopenia. Several nutritional deficiencies exhibit oral manifestations. The authors specifically discuss the impact of water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B9, B12, and C), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and K) and the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa on the oral mucosa. PMID:21093629

  10. Wound biofilms: lessons learned from oral biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Mancl, Kimberly A.; Kirsner, Robert S.; Ajdic, Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many chronic infections. Oral biofilms, more commonly known as dental plaque,are a primary cause of oral diseases including caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. Oral biofilms are commonly studied as model biofilm systems as they are easily accessible, thus biofilm research in oral diseases is advanced with details of biofilm formation and bacterial interactions being well-elucidated. In contrast, wound research has relatively recently directed attentionto the role biofilms have in chronic wounds. This review discusses the biofilms in periodontal disease and chronic wounds with comparisons focusing on biofilm detection, biofilm formation, the immune response to biofilms, bacterial interaction and quorum sensing. Current treatment modalities used by both fields as well as future therapies are also discussed. PMID:23551419

  11. Oral masses in two cats.

    PubMed

    Bock, P; Hach, V; Baumgärtner, W

    2011-07-01

    Incisional biopsies from the oral cavity of 2 adult cats were submitted for histological investigation. Cat No. 1 showed a solitary well-circumscribed neoplasm in the left mandible. Cat No. 2 demonstrated a diffusely infiltrating neoplasm in the left maxilla. Both tumors consisted of medium-size epithelial cells embedded in a fibrovascular stroma. The mitotic index was 0 to 1 mitosis per high-power field. The epithelial cells showed an irregular arrangement forming nests or streams in cat No. 1, whereas a palisading growth was noted in cat No. 2. Both tumors, especially that of cat No. 1, showed multifocal accumulations of amyloid as confirmed by Congo red staining and a distinct green birefringence under polarized light, which lacked cytokeratin immunoreactivity as well as and AL and AA amyloid immunoreactivity. In addition, the amyloid in cat No. 2 was positive for the odontogenic ameloblast-associated protein, formerly termed APin. In sum, both cats suffered from an amyloid-producing odontogenic tumor, but their tumors varied with respect to morphology and type of amyloid produced. PMID:21285384

  12. Oral allergy syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Ivkovi?-Jurekovi?, Irena

    2015-06-01

    Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is an allergic reaction that occurs after consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in patients with allergy to pollen. It is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and symptoms arise as a result of cross-reactivity between pollen and plant-derived food. OAS is rarely seen in young children, but the prevalence increases with age. The objectives of the study were to identify the prevalence of OAS and probable risk factors in children and adolescents with seasonal allergic rhinitis (AR). One-hundred and twenty patients with seasonal AR were included. Patients were diagnosed based on their clinical history, skin prick test outcome and specific IgE. In patients describing OAS, prick-by-prick tests with fresh fruit or vegetables were carried out. Thirty-two patients had OAS and it was more frequent in female patients than in male patients. OAS was more frequent in adolescents than in small children and in patients with higher total IgE. OAS was significantly more prevalent in patients with AR and asthma (P = 0.0016), as was the case in patients with AR and atopic dermatitis (P = 0.0004). OAS is rarely diagnosed in small children, partly because of an inadequate clinical history. Patients with OAS may have some risk factors in addition to pollen allergy, and those with more severe atopy are more likely to develop OAS. PMID:25819922

  13. Oral Sex and HPV: Population Based Indications.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anupam; Verma, Veerendra

    2015-03-01

    Human pappilloma virus (HPV) is well established in etiology of uterine cervical cancers, but its role in head and neck cancer is strongly suggested through many epidemiological and laboratory studies. Although HPV-16 induced oropharyngeal cancer is a distinct molecular entity, its role at other sub-sites (oral cavity, larynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx) is less well established. Oral sex is supposedly the most commonly practiced unnatural sex across the globe and may prove to be a potential transmitting link between cancers of the uterine cervix and the oropharynx in males particularly in those 10-15% non-smokers. In India with the second largest population (higher population density than China) the oral sex is likely to be a common 'recreation-tool' amongst the majority (poor) and with the concurrent highly prevalent bad cervical/oral hygiene the HPV is likely to synergize other carcinogens. Hence in accordance (or coincidently), in India the cervical cancer happens to be the commonest cancer amongst females while oral/oropharyngeal cancer amongst males. Oral sex as a link between these two cancer types, can largely be argued considering a poor level of evidence in the existing literature. The modern world has even commercialized oral sex in the form of flavored condoms. The inadequate world literature currently is of a low level of evidence to conclude such a relationship because no such specific prospective study has been carried out and also due to wide (and unpredictable) variety of sexual practices, such a relationship can only be speculated. This article briefly reviews the existing literature on various modes and population based indications for HPV to be implicated in head and neck cancer with reference to oral sexual practice. PMID:25621245

  14. Oral Rivaroxaban for Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Bauersachs; S. D. Berkowitz; B. Brenner; H. R. Büller; H. Decousus; A. S. Gallus; A. W. Lensing; F. Misselwitz; M. H. Prins; G. E. Raskob; A. Segers; P. Verhamme; P. Wells; G. Agnelli; H. Bounameaux; A. Cohen; B. L. Davidson; F. Piovella; S. Schellong

    2010-01-01

    Background: Rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, may provide a simple, fixed-dose regimen for treating acute deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and for continued treatment, without the need for laboratory monitoring. Methods: We conducted an open-label, randomized, event-driven, noninferiority study that compared oral rivaroxaban alone (15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks, followed by 20 mg once daily) with subcutaneous enoxaparin followed

  15. Oral premalignant lesions: from the pathological viewpoint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Izumo

    2011-01-01

    Under the widely used World Health Organization (WHO) classification for the pathological diagnosis of oral premalignant lesions,\\u000a dysplasia, which is graded as mild, moderate or severe, and carcinoma in situ (CIS), which is a non-invasive carcinoma, are\\u000a classified as precursor lesions of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Since the first edition (Wahi et al. International histological\\u000a classification of tumours no. 4,

  16. Charles McVey Oral History

    E-print Network

    McVey, Charles; Albin, Tami

    2009-12-17

    , ALA) for the correct citation style for audio/video interviews or transcripts. Please be sure to include: Narrator’s name e.g. Bill Smith Interviewer’s Name e.g. Tami Albin Date of interview e.g. March 26, 2009 Name of project... Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Charles McVey Oral History Part 1 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 2 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player...

  17. Oral Premalignancy: New Methods of Detection and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gillenwater, Ann; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vali; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Oral carcinogenesis proceeds through a stepwise accumulation of genetic damage over time. Because the oral cavity is easy to examine and risk factors for oral cancer are known, there is great opportunity to improve patient outcomes through diagnosis and treatment of premalignant lesions before the development of invasive oral carcinoma. This review provides a summary of developments in detection and diagnosis of oral premalignant lesions and innovative approaches to management of early oral neoplasia. These technological and therapeutic advances are much needed to improve the poor outcomes associated with oral cancer due to our inability to diagnose and treat this disease at an early, curable stage. PMID:16507225

  18. Pharmacogenetic aspects of coumarinic oral anticoagulant therapies.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Saurabh Singh; Agarwal, Surendra Kumar; Pande, Shantanu; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Mittal, Tulika; Mittal, Balraj

    2011-07-01

    Coumarinic oral-anticoagulants (COAs) are commonly used for treatment of thromboembolic events. However, these medications have a narrow therapeutic range and there are large inter-individual variations in drug response. This is especially important in the initial phases of oral-anticoagulant therapy. Recent advancements in pharmacogenetics have established that clinical outcomes in oral-anticoagulant therapy are affected by genetic factors. The allelic variants of genes like cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) are closely associated with maintenance dose of oral anti-coagulants. In addition, GGCX (Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase) polymorphism at position 12970 (rs11676382), CYP4F2 (rs2108622; V433M; 1347 C > T) and Apolipoprotein E (APOE) variants have been shown to explain a small but significant influence on dose requirements. There are large differences in the frequencies of these polymorphisms between different world populations which are also related to the requirements of oral anticoagulants. However, the final drug dosage in an individual is determined by complex sets of genetic and environmental factors and several dosing algorithms which combine clinical and genetic parameters to predict therapeutic COA doses have also been developed. The algorithm based dose prediction shows the importance of pharmacogenetic testing in patients undergoing oral anticoagulant therapies. PMID:22754184

  19. Pathogenesis and treatment of oral candidosis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David; Lewis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Oral infections caused by yeast of the genus Candida and particularly Candida albicans (oral candidoses) have been recognised throughout recorded history. However, since the 1980s a clear surge of interest and associated research into these infections have occurred. This has largely been due to an increased incidence of oral candidosis over this period, primarily because of the escalation in HIV-infection and the AIDS epidemic. In addition, changes in medical practice leading to a greater use of invasive clinical procedures and a more widespread use of immunosuppressive therapies have also contributed to the problem. Whilst oral candidosis has previously been considered to be a disease mainly of the elderly and very young, its occurrence throughout the general population is now recognised. Candida are true ‘opportunistic pathogens’ and only instigate oral infection when there is an underlying predisposing condition in the host. Treatment of these infections has continued (and in some regards continues) to be problematic because of the potential toxicity of traditional antifungal agents against host cells. The problem has been compounded by the emergence of Candida species other than C. albicans that have inherent resistance against traditional antifungals. The aim of this review is to give the reader a contemporary overview of oral candidosis, the organisms involved, and the management strategies that are currently employed or could be utilised in the future. PMID:21547018

  20. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  1. Desipramine changes salivary gland function, oral microbiota, and oral health in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus M Koller; Nobuko Maeda; Philip J Scarpace; Michael G Humphreys-Beher

    2000-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants are still a dominating group of psychotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of depression. Oral dryness is one of their major side-effects, leading in humans to increased oral disease and dysfunction of speech, chewing, swallowing and taste. We previously reported that the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine desensitizes ?-adrenergic signal transduction in salivary glands. In this study, we evaluated the

  2. Oral Reading Skills of Children with Oral Language (Word-Finding) Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Diane J.; Newman, Rochelle S.

    2007-01-01

    We examined how children with and without oral language (word-finding) difficulties (WFD) perform on oral reading (OR) versus silent reading recognition (SRR) tasks when reading the same words and how lexical factors influenced OR accuracy, error patterns, and nature of miscues. Primary-grade students were administered an experimental reading…

  3. Parental perceptions of children's oral health: The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhavna Talekar Pahel; R Gary Rozier; Gary D Slade

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dental disease and treatment experience can negatively affect the oral health related quality of life (OHRQL) of preschool aged children and their caregivers. Currently no valid and reliable instrument is available to measure these negative influences in very young children. The objective of this research was to develop the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) to measure the

  4. Oral glutamine to alleviate radiation-induced oral mucositis: a pilot randomized trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eng-Yen Huang; Stephen Wan Leung; Chong-Jong Wang; Hui-Chun Chen; Li-Min Sun; Fu-Min Fang; Shyh-An Yeh; Hsuan-Chih Hsu; Ching-Yeh Hsiung

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of oral glutamine on radiation-induced oral mucositis in the radiotherapy of head and neck cancer.Methods and Materials: From July 1997 through June 1998, 17 patients with head and neck cancer receiving primary or adjuvant irradiation were randomized to either glutamine suspension (16 g in 240 ml normal saline) (n = 8) or placebo (normal saline)

  5. Case report: Oral pemphigus vulgaris with multiple oral polyps in a young patient.

    PubMed

    Burgan, Samar Z; Sawair, Faleh A; Napier, Séamus S

    2003-02-01

    A rare case of oral pemphigus vulgaris is presented, which developed initially in a 9-year old Jordanian male. The disease was not well controlled with immunosuppressive therapy and was complicated by the development of multiple oral polyps approximately one year after the onset of symptoms. These lesions were smooth, painless and located particularly on the upper labial gingiva, the labial and buccal mucosae and the tongue. Disease activity continued for approximately nine years until the patient was referred to an oral medicine specialist. Histological examination of the polyps revealed exuberant granulation tissue. Adjustment of the steroid dosage lead to resolution of the oral symptoms and the polyps reduced in number and in size. This case highlights the occurrence of pemphigus vulgaris in young patients, illustrates a rare complication of persistent ulcero-inflammatory disease and emphasises the importance of specialist referral in the management of oral disease. PMID:12653338

  6. Identification of Gene and MicroRNA Signatures for Oral Cancer Developed from Oral Leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Xu, Xin-Jian

    2015-01-01

    In clinic, oral leukoplakia (OLK) may develop into oral cancer. However, the mechanism underlying this transformation is still unclear. In this work, we present a new pipeline to identify oral cancer related genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) by integrating both gene and miRNA expression profiles. In particular, we find some network modules as well as their miRNA regulators that play important roles in the development of OLK to oral cancer. Among these network modules, 91.67% of genes and 37.5% of miRNAs have been previously reported to be related to oral cancer in literature. The promising results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed approach.

  7. Oral health care after the National Policy on Oral Health - "Smiling Brazil": a case study.

    PubMed

    Aquilante, Aline Guerra; Aciole, Geovani Gurgel

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, the National Oral Health Policy (PNSB) - Smiling Brazil was launched. Its guidelines seek to qualify Primary Health Care, ensure comprehensive actions, work on the basis of health surveillance, plan actions in accordance with the epidemiology and information available on the territory, financing and scheduling the research agenda so that the work can be based on scientific evidence. The purpose of this case study was to investigate the perspectives of health care professionals and managers on oral health care after launching the PNSB. For the gathering of information, an oral interview was conducted with health care professionals and managers and direct observation of oral health services. The interpretation of meaning method was used for analysis of the interviews. Approximately 10 years after launching the PNSB, even though the care and the oral health actions have been amplified and qualified, the cities still find it difficult to implement their basic premises. PMID:25650618

  8. Integration of non-oral bacteria into in vitro oral biofilms.

    PubMed

    Thurnheer, Thomas; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are polymicrobial communities that grow on surfaces in nature. Oral bacteria can spontaneously form biofilms on the surface of teeth, which may compromise the health of the teeth, or their surrounding (periodontal) tissues. While the oral bacteria exhibit high tropism for their specialized ecological niche, it is not clear if bacteria that are not part of the normal oral microbiota can efficiently colonize and grow within oral biofilms. By using an in vitro "supragingival" biofilm model of 6 oral species, this study aimed to investigate if 3 individual bacterial species that are not part of the normal oral microbiota (Eschericia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecails) and one not previously tested oral species (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) can be incorporated into this established supragingival biofilm model. Staphylococcus aureus and A. actinomycetemcomitans were able to grow efficiently in the biofilm, without disrupting the growth of the remaining species. They localized in sparse small aggregates within the biofilm mass. Enterococcus faecalis and E. coli were both able to populate the biofilm at high numbers, and suppressed the growth of A. oris and S. mutants. Enterococcus faecalis was arranged in a chain-like conformation, whereas E. coli was densely and evenly spread throughout the biofilm mass. In conclusion, it is possible for selected species that are not part of the normal oral microbiota to be introduced into an oral biofilm, under the given experimental micro-environmental conditions. Moreover, the equilibrated incorporation of A. actinomycetemcomitans and S. aureus in this oral biofilm model could be a useful tool in the study of aggressive periodontitis and peri-implantitis, in which these organisms are involved, respectively. PMID:25483866

  9. Clinical diagnosis of oral erosive lichen planus by direct oral microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Drogoszewska, Barbara; Polcyn, Adam; Michcik, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Direct oral microscopy is a novel, non-invasive diagnostic technique that aids clinical examination of the oral cavity. The basic principles of this method derive from colposcopy and dermoscopy. The principle is to reveal precancerous lesions of oral mucosae in their subclinical phase in order to begin their treatment as early as possible and prevent malignant transformation. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an autoimmune, inflammatory, chronic disease affecting oral mucous membranes. Buccal mucosae are most often affected. Aim To describe the in vivo picture of erosive OLP in direct oral microscopy in terms of the pattern and density of subepithelial blood vessels, surface texture, color, transparency and borders of the lesions. The study also demonstrates the utility of the method in the selection of the most appropriate biopsy site. Material and methods A total of 30 patients with erosive OLP were examined. Clinical examination of the oral cavity with the naked eye was performed, followed by direct oral microscopy. The most appropriate biopsy sites based on both examinations were chosen for every individual and biopsies were taken for histopathological evaluation. Results Biopsies obtained based on direct oral microscopy revealed dysplasia in 16 patients (53.3%). Biopsies obtained based on clinical examination with the naked eye revealed dysplasia in 3 cases (10%). Conclusions Direct oral microscopy makes it possible to obtain a repeated picture of erosive OLP and constitutes an alternative to the clinical examination with the naked eye in election of the most appropriate biopsy site. Thus, introduction of the most accurate and early therapy is possible. PMID:25254007

  10. [Health risks of oral contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Meier, Christoph R

    2011-06-01

    Oral contraceptives (OC) are either composed of a combination of an estrogen derivative (usually ethinly estradiol) and a progestogen, or they contain a progestogen only. OC are characterized by a high effectiveness and have a low failure rate if taken correctly. Most women tolerate OC relatively well, but adverse effects do occur which are driven by the estrogen dose as well as by the type of progestogen. The most frequently reported adverse effects are nausea or vomiting, breast tenderness, headache or inbalanced mood, but these unwanted side effects are often transient. The fear of weight gain of many OC users is not necessarily supported by data from studies which report relatively little differences in body mass index on average during OC use. Nevertheless, substantial weight gain can occur in individual women. The widely discussed fear of breast cancer is also not justified, and the risk of developing ovarian or endometrial cancer is reduced for women who use OC on a regular basis. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the adverse effect with the greatest potential for serious harm if pulmonary embolism develops. This rare, but potentially dangerous adverse effect of OC has been discussed emotionally for many years and keeps attracting a lot of public interest. VTE is rare in young women, but the VTE risk is increased two- to sixfold for OC users as compared to non-users. The VTE risk increases with increasing estrogen dose, is highest in the first year of use, and is higher for OC from the third generation (containing desogestrel, gestodene or norgestimate) than for OC from the second generation (containing levonorgestrel) or than for the progestogen-only pill. According to most studies, OC containing the progestogens drospirenone or cyproterone acetate are similar with regard to VTE risks than OC from the third generation. Individual genetic susceptibility affecting the clotting system plays a major role in the risk of developing VTE in combination with OC, and smoking is also an important contributing factor to an increased VTE risk for women using OC. It is important that doctors and pharmacists inform new users of OC about potential health risks of OC use, and that the personal and family history of previous health risks is assessed thoroughly in order to rule out that important and relevant contraindications are present when a women starts taking OC. PMID:21656494

  11. Oral Health-related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Sischo, L.; Broder, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite its relatively recent emergence over the past few decades, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) has important implications for the clinical practice of dentistry and dental research. OHRQoL is a multidimensional construct that includes a subjective evaluation of the individual’s oral health, functional well-being, emotional well-being, expectations and satisfaction with care, and sense of self. It has wide-reaching applications in survey and clinical research. OHRQoL is an integral part of general health and well-being. In fact, it is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an important segment of the Global Oral Health Program (2003). This paper identifies the what, why, and how of OHRQoL and presents an oral health theoretical model. The relevance of OHRQoL for dental practitioners and patients in community-based dental practices is presented. Implications for health policy and related oral health disparities are also discussed. A supplemental Appendix contains a Medline and ProQuest literature search regarding OHRQoL research from 1990-2010 by discipline and research design (e.g., descriptive, longitudinal, clinical trial, etc.). The search identified 300 articles with a notable surge in OHRQoL research in pediatrics and orthodontics in recent years. PMID:21422477

  12. Cone beam computed tomography in oral implants.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Jyoti; Ali, Syed Parveez

    2013-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners for the oral and maxillofacial region were pioneered in the late 1990s independently by Arai et al. in Japan and Mozzo et al. CBCT has a lower dose of radiation, minimal metal artifacts, reduced costs, easier accessibility, and easier handling than multislice computed tomography (MSCT); however, the latter is still considered a better choice for the analysis of bone density using a Hounsfield unit (HU) scale. Oral implants require localized area of oral and maxillofacial area for radiation exposure; so, CBCT is an ideal choice. CBCT scans help in the planning of oral implants; they enable measurement of the distance between the alveolar crest and mandibular canal to avoid impingement of inferior alveolar nerve, avoid perforation of the mandibular posterior lingual undercut, and assess the density and quality of bone, and help in planning of the oral implant in the maxilla with special attention to the nasopalatine canal and maxillary sinus. Hence, CBCT reduces the overall exposure to radiation. PMID:24163545

  13. Novel colorimetric sensor for oral malodour.

    PubMed

    Alagirisamy, Nethaji; Hardas, Sarita S; Jayaraman, Sujatha

    2010-02-19

    Volatile sulphur compounds are the primary constituents of oral malodour. Quantitative tools for the detection of oral malodour are beneficial to evaluate the intensity of malodour, analyse its causes and monitor the effectiveness of customized treatments. We have developed an objective, cost effective, do-it-yourself colorimetric sensor for oral malodour quantification. The sensor consisted of a sensing solution, a gas sampling unit for collecting a known volume of mouth air and a photometric detector. The sensing solution was iodine and the depletion of iodine on reaction with hydrogen sulphide was detected colorimetrically using starch. The detection limit of the sensor is 0.05 microg L(-1) of hydrogen sulphide, which is fit-for-purpose for oral malodour detection in healthy subjects as well as halitosis patients. Volatile sulphur compounds in mouth air were quantified in healthy human volunteers using this portable sensor and the detected levels were in the range of 0.2-0.4 microg L(-1). There was a good correlation between the VSC levels detected by the colorimetric sensor and halimeter (R(2)=0.934). The developed sensor can be easily fabricated in the laboratory, and it shows high potential to be used as a clinical evaluation tool for oral malodour assessments. PMID:20113721

  14. Dexmedetomidine decreases the oral mucosal blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Togami, Kohei; Tada, Hitoshi; Ganzberg, Steven; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    There is an abundance of blood vessels in the oral cavity, and intraoperative bleeding can disrupt operations. There have been some interesting reports about constriction of vessels in the oral cavity, one of which reported that gingival blood flow in cats is controlled by sympathetic ?-adrenergic fibres that are involved with vasoconstriction. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative and analgesic agent that acts through the ?-2 adrenoceptor, and is expected to have a vasoconstrictive action in the oral cavity. We have focused on the relation between the effects of ?-adrenoceptors by dexmedetomidine and vasoconstriction in oral tissues, and assessed the oral mucosal blood flow during sedation with dexmedetomidine. The subjects comprised 13 healthy male volunteers, sedated with dexmedetomidine in a loading dose of 6 ?g/kg/h for 10 min and a continuous infusion of 0.7 ?g/kg/h for 32 min. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and palatal mucosal blood flow (PMBF) were measured at 0, 5, 10, 12, 22, and 32 min after the start of the infusion. The HR, CO, and PBMF decreased significantly during the infusion even though there were no differences in the SV. The SVR increased significantly but the PMBF decreased significantly. In conclusion, PMBF was reduced by the mediating effect of dexmedetomidine on ?-2 adrenoceptors. PMID:23958351

  15. Composition and development of oral bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The oral bacterial microbiome encompasses ca. 700 commonly occurring phylotypes, approximately half of which can be present at any time in any individual. These bacteria are largely indigenous to the oral cavity; this limited range suggests that interactions between the various phylotypes, and between the phylotypes and their environment, are crucial for their existence. Molecular cataloging has confirmed many basic observations on the composition of the oral microbiome that were formulated well before ribosomal RNA-based systematics, but the power and the scope of molecular taxonomy has resulted in the discovery of new phylotypes and, more importantly, the speed and detail of molecular analyses are impossible to achieve through classical approaches. Community structure varies with location within the mouth, and changes in community structure are related to disease initiation and disease progression. Factors that influence the formation and the evolution of communities include selective adherence to epithelial or tooth surfaces, specific cell-to-cell binding as a driver of early community composition, and interorganismal interaction leading to alteration of the local environment, which represents the first step on the road to oral disease. A comprehensive understanding of how these factors interact to drive changes in the composition of the oral microbial community can lead to new strategies for the inhibition of periodontal diseases and dental caries. PMID:24320954

  16. Oral Lichenoid Lesions - A Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Venkatesh Vishwanath; Setlur, Krishnanand; Yerlagudda, Komali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral lichenoid lesions or reactions (OLLs/OLRs) are clinical and histological contemporaries of the classical oral lichen planus (OLP) that have generated a lot of debate in literature. In contrast to the idiopathic nature of OLP, OLLs are often associated with a known identifiable inciting factor. A superficial examination of these lesions clinically and histologically often reveals many similarities with OLP, but recent data indicate that distinguishable features do exist and form the basis of most classifications. Aims and Objectives: This paper attempts to collate available data in English literature on OLLs, highlight distinguishing features clinically and histologically and reflect on the malignant transformation potential and treatment modalities of the condition. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search of medical and dental databases including PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, Pubget, Researchgate, and non-medical search engines were utilized for the review. The search words included “oral lichen planus”, “oral lichenoid lesions”, “oral drug reactions”, “lichenoid dysplasia”, and “adverse effects of dental materials”. Review Results: OLLs seem to grossly underrated and most cases were clubbed as OLP. Definite clinical and histological features were uncovered to establish the identity of this lesion. Associations with dental restorative materials, drugs, and medications have been conclusively proven in the etiology of this condition. Specific markers are being utilized to diagnose the condition and monitor its progress. Conclusion: Substantial differentiating features were uncovered to delineate OLLs as a separate entity with definite etiology, pathogenesis, and a high malignant transformation rate compared with OLP. PMID:25657414

  17. Oral lesions associated with human immunodeficiency virus disease.

    PubMed

    Patton, Lauren L

    2013-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated oral disease among people living with HIV infection includes oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, oral warts, herpes simplex virus ulcers, major aphthous ulcers or ulcers not otherwise specified, HIV salivary gland disease, and atypical gingival and periodontal diseases. Diagnosis of some oral lesions is based on clinical appearance and behavior, whereas others require biopsy, culture, or imaging for definitive diagnosis. Management strategies including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches are discussed in this article. Dentists also need to be cognizant of the potential oral side effects of HIV antiretroviral medications. PMID:24034072

  18. UC Berkeley: Regional Oral History Office

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Online Archive of California

    Since its creation in 1954, the Regional Oral History Office at the Bancroft Library has carried out hundreds of interviews in a wide variety of subject areas, including arts and letters, business and labor, University of California history, and the environment. As part of a vast digitization project, a number of these interviews have been placed online for consultation and research purposes. The thematic topics covered here include oral histories of the California wine industry, California government and politics, Earl Warren, Jewish community leaders of the Bay Area, Western mining in the twentieth century, and ten others. The oral histories dealing with the life of Earl Warren are particularly fascinating as they deal with his role in the Japanese-American relocation during World War II, his various political campaigns, and the reflections of labor leaders on the Warren era.

  19. HPV and cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Hübbers, Christian U; Akgül, Baki

    2015-04-01

    Increased awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased the interest in analysis of distinct oral sub-sites. It is currently under debate, whether HPV plays a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). The weakness in most published studies is the lack of performing different HPV detection tests combined with analysis for biological activity of the virus. In addition, different sub-sites of the oral cavity had been combined to a single entity, which retrospectively leads to a highly heterogeneous basis of data. In this review we mainly discuss the unclear role of HPV in OSCC development. PMID:25654476

  20. Candida in potentially malignant oral disorders.

    PubMed

    Sankari, S Leena; Gayathri, K; Balachander, N; Malathi, L

    2015-04-01

    Oro-pharyngeal cancer is a significant component in the global burden of cancer. A considerable proportion of oral squamous carcinomas develop from preexsiting potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. The term potentially malignant oral disorders (PMD) were proposed for the precancerous lesions and conditions by World Health Organization in 2007. PMD are considered an in-between clinical state, which showed increased risk for cancer development. Etiology of PMD is multifactorial. Tobacco and alcohol are the major risk factors. In recent years, role of candidal infection is recognized as a significant factor in the development of PMD. There is an enduring discussion whether Candida infection can be a cause of PMD or a superimposed infection in a preexisting lesion. This article highlights the association between Candida and PMD. PMID:26015698

  1. Role of bacteria in oral carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Nidhi; Metgud, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer appears to be increasing in incidence, and mortality has hardly improved over the past 25 years. Better understanding of the etiopathogenesis should lead to more accurate and earlier diagnosis and more effective treatments with fewer adverse effects. Despite increasing interest in the possible relationships between bacteria and the different stages of cancer development, the association of bacteria with cancer of the oral cavity has yet to be adequately examined. Different bacteria have been proposed to induce carcinogenesis, either through induction of chronic inflammation or by interference, either directly or indirectly, with eukaryotic cell cycle and signaling pathways or by metabolism of potentially carcinogenic substances like acetaldehyde, causing mutagenesis. This review presents the possible carcinogenesis pathway involved in bacterial carcinogenesis, commonly implicated bacteria in oral carcinogenesis and their role in cancer therapeutics as well. PMID:25767359

  2. Propolis in dentistry and oral cancer management.

    PubMed

    S, Vagish Kumar L

    2014-06-01

    Propolis, known as bee glue, is a wax-cum-resin substance, which is created out of a mix of buds from some trees with the substance secreted from the bee's glands. Its diverse chemical content is responsible for many valuable properties. Multiple applications of propolis have been studied and described in detail for centuries. However, currently available information on propolis is scarce. A literature search in the PubMed database was performed for English language articles, using the search terms propolis, oral health, dentistry, and oral cancer; no restrictions were used for publication dates. The aim of the article was to review propolis and its applications in dentistry including oral cancer. PMID:25006559

  3. Cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx

    PubMed Central

    Zbaeren, Peter; Thoeny, Harriet C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Tumours in the oral cavity and oropharynx differ in presentation and prognosis and the detection of spread of tumour from one subsite to another is essential for the T-staging. This article reviews the anatomy and describes the pattern of spread of different cancers arising in the oral cavity and oropharynx; the imaging findings on computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are also described. Brief mention is made on the role of newer imaging modalities such as [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography, perfusion studies and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:20233682

  4. Comparative oral bioavailability advantage from curcumin formulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhushan Munjal; Yogesh Bapurao Pawar; Sarsvatkumar Babulal Patel; Arvind Kumar Bansal

    The aim of the present study was to study the oral bioavailability of seven different formulations of curcumin (CRM). CRM\\u000a formulations viz. aqueous suspension, micronized suspension, nanosuspension, amorphous solid dispersion, hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin\\u000a (HP-?-CD) inclusion complex, combination with piperine, and spray-dried CRM–milk composite were compared for oral bioavailability\\u000a in male Sprague–Dawley rats at a CRM dose of 250 mg\\/kg body weight using a

  5. Oral clonidine reduces postoperative PCA morphine requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Park; Jay Forrest; Rick Kolesar; Dolly Bhola; Scott Beattie; Chris Chu

    1996-01-01

    Purpose  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of perioperative oral clonidine on postoperative analgesia and PCA morphine\\u000a requirements in adult patients after major orthopaedic knee surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled study 44 patients undergoing either total knee replacement or hemiarthroplasty\\u000a of the knee were randomly assigned to receive oral placebo or clonidine (5 ?g ·

  6. Oral History Index. Washington State Oral/Aural History Program, 1974-1977 [And] Oral History Microfiche Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rune, Ann, Comp.

    This is the index to and transcripts of interviews from the Washington State Oral/Aural History Program. The intention of the program was to pay tribute to the national Bicentennial by celebrating the life and community histories of 'common' men, women, and ethnic minorities. The transcripts are available on 297 microfiche. Immigrants, migrants,…

  7. Oral Health Knowledge, Past Oral Health Behaviors, and Barriers to Preventive Oral Care of Head Start Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay remains the most common chronic disease of childhood. The CincySmiles Foundation (CSF) developed an instrument to evaluate Head Start parents' knowledge of oral health care practices and to identify barriers Head Start parents face when seeking dental treatment for their children. Data from Head Start parents (n = 675) across 3…

  8. Tissue engineering of oral mucosa: a shared concept with skin.

    PubMed

    Kinikoglu, Beste; Damour, Odile; Hasirci, Vasif

    2015-03-01

    Tissue-engineered oral mucosa, in the form of epithelial cell sheets or full-thickness oral mucosa equivalents, is a potential solution for many patients with congenital defects or with tissue loss due to diseases or tumor excision following a craniofacial cancer diagnosis. In the laboratory, it further serves as an in vitro model, alternative to in vivo testing of oral care products, and provides insight into the behavior of the oral mucosal cells in healthy and pathological tissues. This review covers the old and new generation scaffold types and materials used in oral mucosa engineering; discusses similarities and differences between oral mucosa and skin, the methods developed to reconstruct oral mucosal defects; and ends with future perspectives on oral mucosa engineering. PMID:25326194

  9. 21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. 520.2612 Section...DRUGS § 520.2612 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. (a) Specifications...of trimethoprim and 50 milligrams of sulfadiazine). (b) Sponsor. See No....

  10. 21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. 520.2612 Section...DRUGS § 520.2612 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. (a) Specifications...of trimethoprim and 50 milligrams of sulfadiazine). (b) Sponsor. See No....

  11. 21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. 520.2612 Section...DRUGS § 520.2612 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. (a) Specifications...of trimethoprim and 50 milligrams of sulfadiazine). (b) Sponsor. See No....

  12. 21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. 520.2612 Section...DRUGS § 520.2612 Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. (a) Specifications...of trimethoprim and 50 milligrams of sulfadiazine). (b) Sponsor. See No....

  13. No more periods? Oral contraception and menstrual suppression 

    E-print Network

    Gunson, Dr Jessie

    Oral contraception, or ‘The Pill’, is widely used by women to control how often they have a period. In many countries using oral contraception in this way has remained unofficial practice. However, in 2003 the first FDA ...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. 520.1044a Section 520.1044a...520.1044a Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution contains gentamicin sulfate...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. 520.1044a Section 520.1044a...520.1044a Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution contains gentamicin sulfate...

  16. Clinical Reflectance Confocal Microscope for Imaging of Oral Cancer 

    E-print Network

    Jabbour, Joey

    2014-08-05

    Biopsy and histopathology remain the standard method for diagnosis of oral cancer in the clinic today. Early detection of oral cancer is fundamental to a higher survival rate, and a non-invasive method is preferred. This ...

  17. Implementing an oral health program in a group prenatal practice.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Joanne; Iida, Hiroko; Ingersoll, Gail

    2007-01-01

    The Rochester Adolescent Maternity Program (RAMP) has incorporated evidence-based oral health guidelines into its prenatal care. These guidelines focus on tracking oral health services, screening and triaging prenatal patients, and providing patient and staff with the education needed to decrease oral health risks to mother, fetus, and baby. The RAMP process serves as a model for promoting quality oral health practices in pregnant teenagers and their babies. PMID:17973702

  18. Characterization of the Oral Fungal Microbiome (Mycobiome) in Healthy Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud A. Ghannoum; Richard J. Jurevic; Pranab K. Mukherjee; Fan Cui; Masoumeh Sikaroodi; Ammar Naqvi; Patrick M. Gillevet

    2010-01-01

    The oral microbiome–organisms residing in the oral cavity and their collective genome–are critical components of health and disease. The fungal component of the oral microbiota has not been characterized. In this study, we used a novel multitag pyrosequencing approach to characterize fungi present in the oral cavity of 20 healthy individuals, using the pan-fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) primers. Our

  19. Ex vivo development of a composite human oral mucosal equivalent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Izumi; Gyula Takacs; Hiroto Terashi; Stephen E Feinberg

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was the ex vivo development of a composite oral mucosal equivalent composed of a continuous stratified layer of human oral keratinocytes grown on a cadaveric human dermal matrix in a defined medium without a feeder layer.Materials and Methods: Enzymatically dissociated human oral keratinocytes from keratinized oral mucosa were cultured, submerged in a serum-free, low-calcium

  20. Non-conventional therapeutics for oral infections.

    PubMed

    Allaker, Robert P; Ian Douglas, C W

    2015-01-01

    As our knowledge of host-microbial interactions within the oral cavity increases, future treatments are likely to be more targeted. For example, efforts to target a single species or key virulence factors that they produce, while maintaining the natural balance of the resident oral microbiota that acts to modulate the host immune response would be an advantage. Targeted approaches may be directed at the black-pigmented anaerobes, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, associated with periodontitis. Such pigments provide an opportunity for targeted phototherapy with high-intensity monochromatic light. Functional inhibition approaches, including the use of enzyme inhibitors, are also being explored to control periodontitis. More general disruption of dental plaque through the use of enzymes and detergents, alone and in combination, shows much promise. The use of probiotics and prebiotics to improve gastrointestinal health has now led to an interest in using these approaches to control oral disease. More recently the potential of antimicrobial peptides and nanotechnology, through the application of nanoparticles with biocidal, anti-adhesive and delivery capabilities, has been explored. The aim of this review is to consider the current status as regards non-conventional treatment approaches for oral infections with particular emphasis on the plaque-related diseases. PMID:25668296

  1. Correlates of Oral Participation in Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Ellen F.

    The purpose of this study was to identify child characteristics associated with varying rates of oral participation in classrooms. The study also attempted to determine why some children seek social approval through an approach strategy while others use an avoidance strategy. Anxiety, defensiveness, self-concept of school ability, sociometric…

  2. Oral mucosal melanoma: a malignant trap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmanouil K Symvoulakis; Dionysios E Kyrmizakis; Emmanouil I Drivas; Anastassios V Koutsopoulos; Stylianos G Malandrakis; Charalambos E Skoulakis; John G Bizakis

    2006-01-01

    Oral mucosal melanomas are highly malignant tumors. The 'chameleonic' presentation of a mainly asymptomatic condition, the rarity of these lesions, the poor prognosis and the necessity of a highly specialized treatment are factors that should be seriously considered by the involved health provider. We present the case of a 75-year-old man who was referred to the Ear, Nose and Throat

  3. Nociception et douleur chronique orale et cervicofaciale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Woda; P. Pionchon

    2007-01-01

    This short review focuses on the main properties of the nervous system responsible for pain originating from oral, nasal and pharyngeal cavities. First, the major roles of the somatic sensationscoming from the orofacial and pharyngeal areas are emphasized. Then, the description of the respective peripheral fields of the different cranial nerves involved in these somatic sensations is followed by the

  4. The Case for Fundamentals of Oral Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emanuel, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Dozens of studies support the fact that communication skills are essential for success in a number of areas. After citing a sampling of these studies, a survey of the communication course offerings in Alabama's 2-year-college system reveals that most students are required to take only one communication course-either Fundamentals of Oral

  5. Lexicalized Aspectual Usage in Oral Proficiency Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This study suggests that Intermediate High and Advanced speakers produce aspectually valid constructions in Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPIs) in large part because they are doing more than assigning aspect to lexical categories (Lexical aspect hypothesis), but because they are assigning lexicalized meaning to discrete verbs, for example "govorit"…

  6. ORAL QUAL SYLLABUS: SET THEORY; ERGODIC THEORY

    E-print Network

    ORAL QUAL SYLLABUS: SET THEORY; ERGODIC THEORY SAMUEL COSKEY Set Theory. #15; Basic set theory's theorem { there exists an Aronsajn tree { Shanin's root system lemma (#2;2) #15; Descriptive set theory of set theory (Jech 12,13) { Mostowski's collapsing theorem { relativization and absolute formulas { re

  7. Alternative Method of Oral Dosing for Rats

    PubMed Central

    Atcha, Zeenat; Rourke, Claire; Neo, Aveline HP; Goh, Catherine WH; Lim, Jean SK; Aw, Chiu-Cheong; Browne, Edward R; Pemberton, Darrel J

    2010-01-01

    Oral administration of drugs to laboratory rodents typically is achieved by using the gavage technique. Although highly effective, this method occasionally can cause esophageal injury as well as restraint-associated distress, particularly with repeated use. The aim of this study was to assess an alternative oral dosing method that could reduce the distress and morbidity associated with standard gavage techniques. The palatability and pharmacokinetic profile of 2 medicines approved for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, donepezil and galantamine, were investigated in male Lister hooded rats by using a syringe-feeding method and compared with results from traditional gavage administration. In addition, the stimulant nicotine was tested by using the syringe-feeding method in a separate series of experiments. Animals reliably learned to drink voluntarily from the syringe, and latency to drink decreased rapidly. The addition of donepezil, galantamine, or nicotine to sucrose had no apparent effect on the palatability of the solution, although nicotine produced aversive effects that inhibited subsequent voluntary intake. Oral bioavailability was improved by using syringe feeding with donepezil but not galantamine. Both drugs improved cognitive performance in the novel object recognition test, with similar behavioral profiles between the 2 methods of administration. Our results suggest that the syringe-feeding technique is an effective alternative oral dosing method in rats. PMID:20587166

  8. Relationship between Oral Sensitivity and Masticatory Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Engelen; A. van der Bilt; F. Bosman

    2004-01-01

    The size of a bolus determines how it will be manipulated in the mouth and swallowed. We hypothesized that mucosal sensitivity would be important for masticatory function. The accuracy of solid object size perception, spatial acuity, and food particle size reduction during mastication were measured in 22 healthy adults with\\/without topical anesthesia of their oral mucosa. Topical anesthesia had no

  9. Occurrence of oral deformities in larval anurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, D.L.; Altig, R.; Grace, J.B.; Walls, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    We quantified deformities in the marginal papillae, tooth rows, and jaw sheaths of tadpoles from 13 population samples representing three families and 11 sites in the southeastern United States. Oral deformities were observed in all samples and in 13.5-98% of the specimens per sample. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (chytrid) infections were detected in three samples. There was high variability among samples in the pattern and number of discovered deformities. Pairwise associations between oral structures containing deformities were nonrandom for several populations, especially those with B. dendrobatidis infections or high total numbers of deformities. Comparisons of deformities among samples using multivariate analyses revealed that tadpole samples grouped together by family. Analyses of ordination indicated that three variables, the number of deformities, the number of significant associations among deformity types within populations, and whether populations were infected with B. dendrobatidis, were significantly correlated with the pattern of deformities. Our data indicate that the incidence of oral deformities can be high in natural populations and that phylogeny and B. dendrobatidis infection exert a strong influence on the occurrence and type of oral deformities in tadpoles. ?? by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herperologists.

  10. Spindle cell lipoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Billings, Steven D; Henley, John D; Summerlin, Don-John; Vakili, Saeed; Tomich, Charles E

    2006-02-01

    Spindle cell lipoma is typically seen in the neck/trunk region of middle-aged and older men. Rare cases of oral spindle cell lipoma have been reported. An entity described as myxoid lipoma of the oral cavity has rarely been reported but appears to be more properly classified as spindle cell lipoma. We describe the largest series yet of oral spindle cell lipoma involving the tongue (4), buccal mucosa (1), floor of mouth (1), and lip (1). The patients (3M; 4F) ranged from 31 to 88 years old. All presented with mass lesions. All were circumscribed and composed of mature adipocytes admixed with bland spindled cells. In two cases the adipocytes appeared atrophic, imparting a pseudo-lipoblastic appearance. No true lipoblasts were seen and none had the characteristic vasculature of a myxoid liposarcoma or the characteristic hyperchromatic cells of well-differentiated liposarcoma. The stromal background of all cases contained characteristic wiry collagen and myxoid ground substance. The myxoid ground substance was prominent in four cases. Immunohistochemical stains for CD34 highlighted the bland spindle cells in all cases. The combination of the histologic features and the immunoreactivity for CD34 confirmed the diagnosis. Spindle cell lipoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of oral cavity mesenchymal tumors. PMID:16456321

  11. Oral activated charcoal and dapsone elimination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Periti J Neuvonen; Erkki Elonen; Mauri J Mattila

    1980-01-01

    The effect of orally given activated charcoal on the elimination of therapeutic and toxic doses of dapsone was studied in 5 healthy subjects and in 2 intoxicated patients. In a randomized crossover study the subjects took a total dose of 500 mg dapsone over 4 days; 10 hr after the last 100-mg dose of dapsone 50 gm activated charcoal as

  12. Interkingdom networking within the oral microbiome.

    PubMed

    Nobbs, Angela H; Jenkinson, Howard F

    2015-07-01

    Different sites within the oropharynx harbour unique microbial communities. Co-evolution of microbes and host has resulted in complex interkingdom circuitries. Metabolic signalling is crucial to these processes, and novel microbial communication factors are progressively being discovered. Resolving interkingdom networks will lead to better understanding of oral health or disease aetiology. PMID:25805401

  13. Malignant transformation of oral lichen planus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rajentheran; N. R. McLean; C. G. Kelly; M. F. Reed; A. Nolan

    1999-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the malignant potential of oral lichen planus (OLP), a common mucocutaneous disease of unknown aetiology. The malignant potential of OLP is still controversial, with studies reporting malignant transformation rates of between 0 and 5.6%. We also aimed to identify factors that might be associated with malignant transformation. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 832 patients with

  14. Oral Assessment: The Views of Language Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Francine; Richards, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Presents the results of a study of the reliability of teacher assessment of the oral examination at General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) for Modern Languages. Teachers' opinions of different types of marking criteria were collected through semistructured interviews after each teacher had assessed a tape-recorded free conversation task…

  15. Oral Health Behavior: Acquisition and Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Frank D.

    1976-01-01

    The author (1) presents data drawn from a fourteen-week program on oral health care involving second-grade students; (2) concludes that such a program is successful in promoting short-term behavioral change; and (3) stresses the need for periodic reinforcement and repetition to assure behavior maintenance over time. (MB)

  16. Erosive Potential of Oral Care Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lussi; E. Hellwig

    2001-01-01

    Seven oral care products and orange juice as a positive control were tested for the erosive potential by immersing each enamel specimen (10 per group) into solutions of the various products for 10 and 20 min. Before and after the experiment Knoop surface hardness (SMH) was measured. The enamel microstructure before and after immersion was assessed by scanning electron microscopy

  17. Orthographic Learning during Oral and Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Peter F.; Share, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined orthographic learning in oral and silent reading conditions. Dutch third graders read, either aloud or silently, short texts containing novel target (pseudo) words. The acquisition of new word-specific orthographic knowledge was assessed several days later by comparing target spellings with homophonic spellings in tasks…

  18. Characteristics of Oral-Digital Habits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick C. Friman; Michelle R. Byrd; Erin M. Oksol

    This chapter will discuss the two predominant forms of oral-digital habits, thumb\\/finger sucking (finger sucking hereafter) and onychophagia (nail biting hereafter) in terms of their demographics, phenomenology, causes, functions, and clinical associations. The two habits are obviously similar topographically. The extent to which this similarity extends to these other topics will be explored, but only briefly. The differential size and

  19. Dimensions in the Acquisition of Oral Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bygate, Martin; Porter, Don

    A small-scale study at a British university investigated two issues: the effect of task familiarity on language production; and the effects of the task on oral production. Three university students of differing language backgrounds, all non-native speakers of English, were interviewed in autumn and again 3 months later. On both occasions they were…

  20. Dental Medi-cine's Department of Oral

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    the presence of the bacteria that causes periodontal disease. Scannapieco is a student of the department helped open this field with his studies of the links between perio- dontitis and heart disease are microbiology; host-response mechanisms as they relate to oral diseases; tissue engineering, especially

  1. Poor Oral Health and Coronary Heart Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Joshipura; E. B. Rimm; C. W. Douglass; D. Trichopoulos; A. Ascherio; W. C. Willett

    1996-01-01

    A few recent studies have shown associations between poor oral health and coronary heart disease (CHD). The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of CHD in relation to number of teeth present and periodontal disease, and to explore potential mediators of this association, in a prospective cohort study. This study is a part of the ongoing Health

  2. The Therapy of Oral Lichen Planus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Drore Eisen

    1993-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a chronic mucocutaneous disease that is relatively common. Although many patients are asymptomatic and require no therapy, those who exhibit atrophic and erosive lesions are often a challenge to treat. All therapies are palliative, and none is effective universally. Currently employed treatment modalities include corticosteroids administered topically, intralesionally, or systemically. Alternative therapies include topical and systemic

  3. Citraturic response to oral citric acid load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Alpern, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    It is possible that some orally administered citrate may appear in urine by escaping oxidation in vivo. To determine whether this mechanism contributes to the citraturic response to potassium citrate, we measured serum and urinary citrate for 4 hours after a single oral load of citric acid (40 mEq.) in 6 normal subjects. Since citric acid does not alter acid-base balance, the effect of absorbed citrate could be isolated from that of alkali load. Serum citrate concentration increased significantly (p less than 0.05) 30 minutes after a single oral dose of citric acid and remained significantly elevated for 3 hours after citric acid load. Commensurate with this change, urinary citrate excretion peaked at 2 hours and gradually decreased during the next 2 hours after citric acid load. In contrast, serum and urinary citrate remained unaltered following the control load (no drug). Differences of the citratemic and citraturic effects between phases were significant (p less than 0.05) at 2 and 3 hours. Urinary pH, carbon dioxide pressure, bicarbonate, total carbon dioxide and ammonium did not change at any time after citric acid load, and did not differ between the 2 phases. No significant difference was noted in serum electrolytes, arterialized venous pH and carbon dioxide pressure at any time after citric acid load and between the 2 phases. Thus, the citraturic and citratemic effects of oral citric acid are largely accountable by provision of absorbed citrate, which has escaped in vivo degradation.

  4. Chemoprevention of Oral Cancer by Lyophilized Strawberries

    PubMed Central

    Casto, Bruce C.; Knobloch, Thomas J.; Galioto, Rebecca L.; Yu, Zhangsheng; Accurso, Brent T.; Warner, Blake M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Oral cancer represents approximately 2.5% of all cancer in the United States, with five- and 10-year survival rates of 62% and 51%. In the present study, lyophilized strawberries (LS) were evaluated for their potential to inhibit tumorigenesis in the hamster cheek pouch (HCP) model of oral cancer and for their ability to modify expression of several genes relevant to oral cancer development. Materials and Methods HCPs were painted three times a week for six weeks with 0.2% 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Hamsters were given 5% LS or 10% LS in their diet prior to, during, and after, or only after carcinogen treatment. Animals were sacrificed 12 weeks from the beginning of DMBA treatment and the number of total lesions and tumors determined. Results A significant difference (p-value <0.01–0.04) in the number of tumors was found between the LS-treated groups and the carcinogen controls. Histological examination of HCPs revealed a significant reduction in mild and severe dysplasia following 12 weeks of treatment with LS. Molecular analysis revealed that genes related to tumor development were modulated by LS. Conclusions These experiments support previous studies in HCPs that demonstrated a chemopreventive activity by black raspberries and show, to our knowledge for the first time, that strawberries can inhibit tumor formation in an animal model of oral cancer. PMID:24222110

  5. Task Difficulty in Oral Speech Act Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2007-01-01

    This study took a pragmatic approach to examining the effects of task difficulty on L2 oral output. Twenty native English speakers and 59 Japanese students of English at two different proficiency levels produced speech acts of requests and refusals in a role play task. The task had two situation types based on three social variables:…

  6. Oral Biofilm Architecture on Natural Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Zijnge, Vincent; van Leeuwen, M. Barbara M.; Degener, John E.; Abbas, Frank; Thurnheer, Thomas; Gmür, Rudolf; M. Harmsen, Hermie J.

    2010-01-01

    Periodontitis and caries are infectious diseases of the oral cavity in which oral biofilms play a causative role. Moreover, oral biofilms are widely studied as model systems for bacterial adhesion, biofilm development, and biofilm resistance to antibiotics, due to their widespread presence and accessibility. Despite descriptions of initial plaque formation on the tooth surface, studies on mature plaque and plaque structure below the gum are limited to landmark studies from the 1970s, without appreciating the breadth of microbial diversity in the plaque. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization to localize in vivo the most abundant species from different phyla and species associated with periodontitis on seven embedded teeth obtained from four different subjects. The data showed convincingly the dominance of Actinomyces sp., Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Spirochaetes, and Synergistetes in subgingival plaque. The latter proved to be new with a possibly important role in host-pathogen interaction due to its localization in close proximity to immune cells. The present study identified for the first time in vivo that Lactobacillus sp. are the central cells of bacterial aggregates in subgingival plaque, and that Streptococcus sp. and the yeast Candida albicans form corncob structures in supragingival plaque. Finally, periodontal pathogens colonize already formed biofilms and form microcolonies therein. These in vivo observations on oral biofilms provide a clear vision on biofilm architecture and the spatial distribution of predominant species. PMID:20195365

  7. Assessing Paired Orals: Raters' Orientation to Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducasse, Ana Maria; Brown, Annie

    2009-01-01

    Speaking tasks involving peer-to-peer candidate interaction are increasingly being incorporated into language proficiency assessments, in both large-scale international testing contexts, and in smaller-scale, for example course-related, ones. This growth in the popularity and use of paired and group orals has stimulated research, particularly into…

  8. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  9. Oral surgery in patients on anticoagulant therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Crispian Scully; Andy Wolff

    2002-01-01

    Objective. Surgery is the main oral healthcare hazard to the patient with a bleeding tendency, which is mostly caused by the use of anticoagulants. The traditional management entails the interruption of anticoagulant therapy for dental surgery to prevent hemorrhage. However, this practice may increase the risk of a potentially life-threatening thromboembolism. Because this issue is still controversial, it is the

  10. Oral Qualifying Exam Syllabus Amit Priyadarshi

    E-print Network

    Oral Qualifying Exam Syllabus Amit Priyadarshi December 4, 2006 Committee: Roger Nussbaum, Richard Bumby, Michael Vogelius, Richard Wheeden I. Major Topic: Fractal Sets and Dimensions 1. Introduction References [F] Falconer, K.J., The Geometry of Fractal Sets, Cambridge University Press, 1985. [B] Boyd, D

  11. Bioengineering in the oral cavity: our experience

    PubMed Central

    Catalfamo, L; Belli, E; Nava, C; Mici, E; Calvo, A; D’Alessandro, B; De Ponte, FS

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, there are no studies reported in the literature on the possible use of bovine collagen, oxidized regenerated cellulose, or synthetic hyaluronic acid medications in the oral cavity. The aim of this paper is to report the use of bovine collagen, oxidized regenerated cellulose, and synthetic hyaluronic acid medications to improve wound healing in the oral cavity by stimulating granulomatous tissue. Methods From 2007 to 2011, 80 patients (median age 67 years) suffering from oral mucosal lesions participated in this double-blind study. The patients were divided into two groups, each consisting of 40 patients. One group received conventional medications, while the other group of patients were treated with the advanced medications. Results Advanced medications allowed re-epithelialization of the wound margin in 2–20 days, whereas patients receiving conventional medication showed a median healing duration of 45 days. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that treating oral mucosal wounds with advanced medication has an advantage with regard to wound healing time, allowing patients to have a rapid, functional, and esthetic recovery. PMID:24143092

  12. Success with oral contraceptives: a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa Gilliam; Sara Knight; Martin McCarthy

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a postpartum educational intervention aimed at increasing compliance with oral contraception (OCs) and decreasing repeat pregnancies in young, African American women in the year following an unplanned pregnancy. In this longitudinal study, 43 young, pregnant women attending Prentice Ambulatory Care, Northwestern Hospital, were enrolled and 33 were randomized

  13. Oral Mucositis: understanding the pathology and management

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, M; Patapatiou, G; Domoxoudis, S; Pistevou-Gompaki, K; Papanikolaou, A

    2012-01-01

    Oral Mucositis is a common complication of cancer therapy which may limit the completion of treatment and affect the quality of life of the patient. As we have come to understand its pathogenesis new developments in its management and prevention have allowed us minimize this side effect. PMID:23935285

  14. Oral Interpretation of Literature: Readers' Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The pedagogical principle of experiential learning embodied in the oral interpretation of literature through Readers' Theater provides an avenue to accomplish a seemingly daunting task. Students' participation in reading, interpreting, discussing, writing, assessing, and performing their own creative responses to a literary work promotes a…

  15. Consensus Modeling of Oral Rat Acute Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    An acute toxicity dataset (oral rat LD50) with about 7400 compounds was compiled from the ChemIDplus database. This dataset was divided into a modeling set and a prediction set. The compounds in the prediction set were selected so that they were present in the modeling set used...

  16. An Oral Contraceptive Drug Interaction Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradstreet, Thomas E.; Panebianco, Deborah L.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on a two treatment, two period, two treatment sequence crossover drug interaction study of a new drug and a standard oral contraceptive therapy. Both normal theory and distribution-free statistical analyses are provided along with a notable amount of graphical insight into the dataset. For one of the variables, the decision on…

  17. Oral-Motor Function and Feeding Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, June

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the elements of the Oral Motor Intervention section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy interventions presented in this path are evidence based as well as infant driven and family focused. In the context of anticipated maturation of…

  18. Canine oral mucosal mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J W; Cripps, P; Blackwood, L; Berlato, D; Murphy, S; Grant, I A

    2013-11-11

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are the most common cutaneous tumours of dogs, however rarely they can arise from the oral mucosa. This subset of MCT is reported to demonstrate a more aggressive clinical course than those tumours on the haired skin and the authors hypothesised that dogs with oral, mucosal MCT would have a high incidence of local lymph node metastasis at presentation and that this would be a negative prognostic factor. An additional hypothesis was that mitotic index (MI) would be prognostic. This retrospective study examines 33 dogs with MCTs arising from the oral mucosa. The results suggest that oral mucosal MCTs in the dog have a high incidence of lymph node metastasis at diagnosis (55%) which results in a poor prognosis. MI and nodal metastasis is highly prognostic. Loco-regional progression is common in these patients and dogs with adequate local control of their tumour had an improved outcome. Despite a more aggressive clinical course, treatment can result in protracted survivals, even when metastasis is present. PMID:24215587

  19. Orality, Classical Rhetoric, and the New Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Kathleen E.

    There is no escaping the oral, but many people believe that it is detachable and not central. A dominant, assumed belief conveys the idea that spoken words (like knowledge in writing) are escapable. This belief is held by people who tacitly view speaking as a convenient tool that can be applied as necessary. Scholar-teachers know that it is not…

  20. Subchronic oral toxicity of silver nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Soon Kim; Moon Yong Song; Jung Duck Park; Kyung Seuk Song; Hyeon Ryol Ryu; Yong Hyun Chung; Hee Kyung Chang; Ji Hyun Lee; Kyung Hui Oh; Bruce J Kelman; In Koo Hwang; Il Je Yu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles has resulted in their extensive application in health, electronic, consumer, medicinal, pesticide, and home products; however, silver nanoparticles remain a controversial area of research with respect to their toxicity in biological and ecological systems. RESULTS: This study tested the oral toxicity of silver nanoparticles (56 nm) over a period of 13 weeks (90