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1

A comparison of orally administered misoprostol with vaginally administered misoprostol for cervical ripening and labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to compare orally administered with vaginally administered misoprostol for cervical ripening and labor induction. Material And Methods: Two hundred twenty subjects with medical or obstetric indications for labor induction and undilated, uneffaced cervices were randomly assigned to receive orally administered or vaginally administered misoprostol. Fifty micrograms of oral misoprostol or 25 ?g of vaginal misoprostol was

Deborah A. Wing; Debby Ham; Richard H. Paul

1999-01-01

2

Oral misoprostol use in early complicated pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-four patients with early complicated pregnancies such as intrauterine death, blighted ovum pregnancy and missed abortion were treated with oral misoprostol. If abortion did not occur, 200 µg misoprostol was given once an hour, with an average dose of 1000 µg (min 200 µg, max 1200 µg). Complete or partial abortion took place within 7.0±5.1 h in 92.5% of patients.

A. Haberal; H. Celikkanat; S. Batioglu

1996-01-01

3

Oral or vaginal misoprostol for induction of labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare vaginal versus oral misoprostol for induction of labor. Method: Induction of labor was carried out in 40 women near term in two equal and randomized groups (according to a computer generated table) using misoprostol. Group I received vaginal misoprostol (100 ?g) every 3 h while group II patients were given the same dose via the oral route.

M. K. Toppozada; M. Y. M. Anwar; H. A. Hassan; W. S. El-Gazaerly

1997-01-01

4

Oral misoprostol use in early complicated pregnancy.  

PubMed

Eighty-four patients with early complicated pregnancies such as intrauterine death, blighted ovum pregnancy and missed abortion were treated with oral misoprostol. If abortion did not occur, 200 micrograms misoprostol was given once an hour, with an average dose of 1000 micrograms (min 200 micrograms, max 1200 micrograms). Complete or partial abortion took place within 7.0 +/- 5.1 h in 92.5% of patients. Of the patients, 11.9% and 83.3% had complete and partial abortion, respectively, without major complications. We observed only minor side-effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hypotension, fever, headache and abdominal pain. This study demonstrates that the use of oral misoprostol is a simple, inexpensive and easy procedure for terminating early complicated pregnancies, although additional surgical evacuation of the uterus was required in the large majority of patients. PMID:8863909

Haberal, A; Celikkanat, H; Batioglu, S

1996-06-01

5

Oral methotrexate and vaginal misoprostol for early abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intramuscular methotrexate followed by vaginal misoprostol has been shown to be effective for abortion at ?49 days gestation. Oral dosing of the methotrexate may offer advantages over parenteral dosing. This pilot study was performed to evaluate if oral methotrexate would be effective when combined with vaginal misoprostol to effect abortion at ?49 days gestation. Twenty pregnant women were randomized to

Mitchell D. Creinin

1996-01-01

6

Misoprostol  

MedlinePLUS

Misoprostol is used to prevent ulcers in people who take certain arthritis or pain medicines, including aspirin, ... Misoprostol comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken 4 times a day, ...

7

Comparative Study of Oral and Vaginal Misoprostol for Induction of Labour, Maternal and Foetal Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: Misoprostol is a new promising agent for cervical ripening and induction of labour .The ideal dose, route and frequency of administration of misoprostol are still under investigation. Although, vaginal application of misoprostol has been validated as a reasonable mean of induction, there is a patient resistance to digital examination and there is a risk of ascending infection. For this reason, oral administration of misoprostol for cervical ripening and labour induction has been tried. Aims and Objectives: To compare 50?g of oral misoprostol versus 25?g of intravaginal misoprostol for induction of labour at term and maternal, foetal outcomes. Methods: Two hundred women who were at term, with indication for induction of labour and Bishop scores of ?5 were randomly assigned to receive misoprostol 50?g or 25?g intravaginal, every 4-6 hours, for a maximum of 5 doses. In either group, pregnant females with inadequate uterine contractions despite being given maximum 5 doses of misoprostol, were augmented using oxytocin. The primary outcome measure was time-interval from induction to vaginal delivery and vaginal delivery rate within 24 hours. Results: The median induction to vaginal delivery time in oral group (12.92h) and vaginal group (14.04 h) was not significant. Oral misoprostol resulted in more number of vaginal deliveries as compared to vaginal misoprostol (94% as compared to 86%), which was not significant. There was a significantly higher incidence of uterine tachysystole in the vaginal group, as compared to oral group. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to oxytocin augmentation, caesarean section rate, analgesic requirement and neonatal outcome. Conclusion: Oral misoprostol is as efficacious as vaginal misoprostol because of shorter induction delivery interval, lower caesarean section rates, and lower incidence of failed induction rates. Lower incidence of foetal distress and easy intake are observed if the drug is administered orally.

Komala, Kambhampati; Reddy, Meherlatha; Quadri, Iqbal Jehan; B., Suneetha; V., Ramya

2013-01-01

8

Oral misoprostol for third stage of labor: a randomized placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate whether orally administered misoprostol during the third stage of labor is efficient in reducing postpartum blood loss.Methods: In a double-masked trial, during vaginal delivery women were randomly assigned to receive a single oral dose of misoprostol (600 ?g) or placebo in third stage of labor, immediately after cord clamping. The third stage of labor was managed routinely

Daniel V Surbek; Peter M Fehr; Irene Hösli; Wolfgang Holzgreve

1999-01-01

9

A masked randomized comparison of oral and vaginal administration of misoprostol for labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To test the null hypothesis that administering misoprostol orally or vaginally will result in no difference in time to vaginal birth, and to determine whether different frequencies of tachysystole and hyperstimulation are associated with route of administration.Methods: Two hundred six women after 37 completed weeks’ gestation who presented with an indication for induction were randomly assigned to receive misoprostol

Kelly A. Bennett; Kimberly Butt; Joan M. G. Crane; Donna Hutchens; David C. Young

1998-01-01

10

Randomized trial of oral versus vaginal misoprostol at one day after mifepristone for early medical abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mifepristone was recently approved in the United States. Regimens with shorter intervals may be more acceptable. The objective of this study was to determine whether the oral route of misoprostol was as effective as the vaginal route of misoprostol 1 day after mifepristone. A prospective, open-labeled, randomized trial of healthy adult women up to 63 days pregnant and wanting a

Eric A. Schaff; Stephen L. Fielding; Carolyn Westhoff

2001-01-01

11

Orally administered misoprostol for induction of labor with prelabor rupture of membranes at term.  

PubMed

Prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM) occurs in approximately 8% to 10% of women with term pregnancies. The management of PROM continues to be controversial. Approaches include expectant management and immediate induction of labor. The use of orally administered misoprostol for the management of women with PROM may provide significant advantages when they choose immediate induction of labor. This literature review presents current evidence that supports the use of oral misoprostol for women with PROM, including the benefits of a decreased interval time from PROM to vaginal birth, good safety profile, and reductions in the use of oxytocin augmentation and epidural anesthesia. In addition to clinically proven benefits to women of oral misoprostol for PROM, it also has the potential to reduce chorioamnionitis by reducing the number of sterile vaginal examinations performed thereby reducing the risk of ascending bacteria. Women have also reported acceptability and satisfaction when using oral misoprostol for immediate induction of labor. This review of literature discusses what is known about the use of orally administered misoprostol for the management of term PROM and makes recommendations for clinical use. PMID:24773622

Radoff, Kari A

2014-05-01

12

Comparison between oral and vaginal administration of misoprostol on uterine contractility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the degree of absorption and the effect on uterine contractility of the prostaglandin E1 analogue misoprostol after vaginal and oral administration.Methods: Thirty women with a normal intrauterine pregnancy between 8 and 11 weeks’ gestation who requested termination of pregnancy were given either 0.2 mg (orally n = 5; vaginally n = 6) or 0.4 mg (orally n

K. Gemzell Danielsson; L Marions; A Rodriguez; B. W Spur; P. Y. K Wong; M Bygdeman

1999-01-01

13

Comparison of sublingual, vaginal, and oral misoprostol in cervical ripening for first trimester abortion  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness and tolerability of misoprostol as a cervical ripening agent in first trimester abortion through three different routes of administration before surgical evacuation (SE). Materials and Methods: It was a hospital based prospective randomized open labeled parallel study. A total of 150 randomly selected married women were divided in three groups for sublingual (S/L), vaginal and oral 400 ?g of misoprostol single dose administration. The drug was administered 3-4 h before SE in the S/L and vaginal groups and 12 h before the procedure in the oral group. Efficacy was assessed on the basis of time taken for ripening, dilatation achieved, duration of the procedure, intra-operative blood loss, and pain score. The tolerability was noted on the basis of side effects. Results: The mean time taken for cervical ripening was less in sublingual administration (3.7±1.2 hr) as compared to the vaginal and oral routes. The S/L group had significant cervical dilatation (P<0.001) and the duration of SE was less as compared to the vaginal and oral routes. However, the mean intraoperative blood loss was more in sublingual as compared to the vaginal and oral groups. The intra-operative pain score of the S/L group was significantly lower (1.9±1.1, P<0.05) as compared to the vaginal (2.6±1.7) or oral route (3.3±1.7). Loose motions and nausea/vomiting were more with the S/L and oral routes while blood loss was more in the vaginal route. Conclusion: Administration of misoprostol by the sublingual route is better than the oral and vaginal routes for cervical ripening.

Parveen, Shagufta; Khateeb, Zaffar Abbas; Mufti, S.M.; Shah, M.A.; Tandon, Vishal R.; Hakak, S.; Singh, Z.; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Mir, Shakeel A.; Tabasum, Rehana; Jan, Nasreen

2011-01-01

14

Effect of orally administered misoprostol and cimetidine on the steady state pharmacokinetics of diazepam and nordiazepam in human volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effects of misoprostol and Cimetidine on diazepam pharmacokinetics were evaluated in order to determine whether the kinetic\\u000a variables for diazepam and nordiazepam alone differ with the repeated oral administration of misoprostol and Cimetidine to\\u000a healthy adult volunteers. The trial was conducted as an open crossover study in 12 normal subjects, divided into two groups\\u000a with all subjects receiving both

D. R. Lima; R. M. Santos; E. Werneck; G. N. Andrade

1991-01-01

15

Randomized Trial of Oral Misoprostol Treatment for Cervical Ripening Before Tandem Application in Cervix Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of oral misoprostol administered to facilitate tandem application to the cervix as a part of brachytherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty patients with cervical cancer who had been planned to undergo brachytherapy at Dr. Luetfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital were evaluated in a double-blind, prospective, randomized trial. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of 40 patients. The first and second groups received 400 {mu}g of misoprostol orally and placebo, respectively, 3 h before tandem application. The two groups were compared in terms of age, diameter of tumor, parity, age at first intercourse, amount of bleeding and pain at first tandem application, length of endometrial cavity measured by hysterometer, and size of Hegar dilators used for cervical dilatation. Results: Of all cases, 63.6%, 16.3%, 10%, 6.3%, 2.5%, and 1.3% were Stage IIB, IIIB, IIIA, IVA, IIA and IIC, respectively. Mean ({+-}SD) age (range) was 49.3 {+-} 13.1 (25-83) years and 56.6 {+-} 13.2 (30-78) years in the study and control groups, respectively (p = 0.015). Age at first intercourse, diameter of tumor, parity, amount of bleeding at first tandem application, and length of endometrial cavity measured by hysterometer were not significantly different between the two groups. Pain score was significantly higher in the control group (p < 0.001). Application was significantly easier in the study group compared with controls (p < 0.001). Average size of initial Hegar dilators used for cervical dilatation was significantly higher in the study group compared with controls (p = 0.017). Conclusion: Administration of misoprostol 400 {mu}g orally for cervical ripening before tandem application facilitates the procedure, increases patient tolerability and comfort, and may decrease complication rates.

Cepni, Kimia; Gul, Sule [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ministry of Health, Dr. Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Cepni, Ismail [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Gueralp, Onur, E-mail: dronur@hotmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Sal, Veysel [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Mayadagli, Alpaslan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ministry of Health, Dr. Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

2011-11-01

16

A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study to assess the effect of oral contraceptive pills on the outcome of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) pills taken immediately after medical abortion on the duration of bleeding and complete abortion rate. Two hundred women in the first 49 days of pregnancy were given 200 mg mifepristone orally followed by 400 mg misoprostol vaginally 48 h later. One day later, they were

Oi Shan Tang; Pei Pei Gao; Linan Cheng; Sharon W. H. Lee; Pak Chung Ho

1999-01-01

17

Cervical Priming Before Diagnostic Operative Hysteroscopy in Infertile Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Comparison of 2 Vaginal Misoprostol Doses  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vaginal misoprostol for cervical priming at doses of 200 mcg and 400 mcg, 12 to 15 hours before diagnostic office hysteroscopy (OH) without anesthesia in patients with infertility. Sixty infertile patients requiring a diagnostic office hysteroscopy for investigation of infertility were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated into 3 vaginally administered misoprostol groups: (1) control group, (2) 200-mcg dose group, and (3) 400-mcg dose group. Misoprostol significantly facilitated the procedure of OH: cervical entry was easier; procedural time was shorter; baseline cervical width was larger; and pain scoring was lower in the misoprostol groups compared with the control group. Increasing the dose of misoprostol from 200 mcg to 400 mcg did not improve the effect on cervical dilation. Misoprostol is a promising analog to use for cervical priming before OH. Since doses of 200 mcg and 400 mcg vaginal misoprostol 12 hours before the OH both have proven to be effective regimens, 200 mcg may be preferred. However, before routine clinical usage, further research is needed through large, randomized, controlled trials powered to detect a difference in complications to determine whether misoprostol reduces complications in OH.

Bastu, Ercan; Celik, Cem; Nehir, Asli; Dogan, Murat; Yuksel, Bahar; Ergun, Bulent

2013-01-01

18

Safety and Efficacy of Misoprostol versus Oxytocin for the Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the commonest cause of maternal death worldwide. Studies suggest that the use of misoprostol may be beneficial in clinical settings where oxytocin is unavailable. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of oxytocin and misoprostol when used in the prevention of PPH. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, 400 pregnant women who had a vaginal delivery were assigned into two groups: to receive either 20 IU of oxytocin in 1000?mL Ringer's solution and two placebo tablets or 400?mcg oral misoprostol (as two tablets) and 2?mL normal saline in 1000?mL Ringer's solution. The quantity of blood loss was higher in the oxytocin group in comparison to the misoprostol group. There was no significant difference in the decrease in hematocrit and hemoglobin between the two groups. Although there was no significant difference in the need for transfusions between the two groups, the patients in the oxytocin group had greater need for additional oxytocin. Results from this study indicate that it may be considered as an alternative for oxytocin in low resource clinical settings. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01863706. PMID:24734184

Rajaei, Minoo; Karimi, Samieh; Shahboodaghi, Zohreh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Khorgoei, Tahereh; Rajaei, Farzam

2014-01-01

19

The use of oral misoprostol as a cervical ripening agent in operative hysteroscopy: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of oral misoprostol as a cervical ripening agent when used in operative hysteroscopy. Study Design: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Any patient undergoing an operative hysteroscopy (with a 9-mm to 10-mm hysteroscope) was considered eligible for the trial. Patients were randomly allocated, by means of computer-generated numbers, to

Jackie A. Thomas; Nicholas Leyland; Nancy Durand; Rory C. Windrim

2002-01-01

20

Misoprostol for the treatment of early pregnancy failure.  

PubMed

Nearly 20% of all pregnancies end in early pregnancy failure, and surgical evacuation of retained products of conception is often used to manage this failure. Misoprostol is an inexpensive, stable analog of prostaglandin E(1), and is powerful at contracting the uterus. With intravaginal misoprostol, the peak plasma levels are lower, but the levels after 4 hours are higher, than after oral or sublingual administration. With oral misoprostol, the evacuation rates in early pregnancy varied from about 50% up to 96%. Similar variation in evacuation rates were obtained from small trials with intravaginal misoprostol. To date, only small studies have used sublingual misoprostol, and there has been no direct comparison to oral or intravaginal misoprostol. A recent large clinical trial has shown, that with intravaginal misoprostol 800 microg, an expulsion rate of 84% can be achieved by 8 days. This large trial also established that women prefer misoprostol to surgical evacuation. Two economic evaluations have shown that misoprostol treatment is less costly than surgical intervention. On the basis of recent findings, it seems likely that misoprostol treatment will become a standard or preferred treatment for early pregnancy failure. PMID:18690850

Doggrell, Sheila A

2007-01-01

21

Pharmacokinetics of different routes of administration of misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The pharmacokinetic parameters of four different routes of administration of a single dose of 400 µg of misoprostol were studied. METHODS: A total of 40 women undergoing termination of pregnancy by suction evacuation was randomized by computer model to receive 400 µg of misoprostol by one of four routes: (i) sublingual (ii) oral (iii) vaginal and (iv) vaginal with

Oi Shan Tang; Horst Schweer; H. W. Seyberth; Sharon W. H. Lee; Pak Chung Ho

22

A combined oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 3.0 mg drospirenone does not impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation  

PubMed Central

Background Ethinyl estradiol (EE) increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation in young women, but certain progestins paired with EE in combination OCPs have been shown to antagonize the vasodilatory effects of EE. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how endothelial function, serum biomarkers, and resting blood pressures change across an OCP cycle in women using a monophasic OCP formulation containing the progestin drospirenone. Study Design Twelve women were studied during two hormone phases of their OCP cycle; once at the end of three weeks of active pills (30 mcg EE and 3.0 mg drospirenone), and once at the end of a week of placebo pills (no exogenous hormones). Results Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was greater during the active phase compared to the placebo phase (p < 0.001). In contrast, there was no difference in endothelium-independent dilation between hormone phases. Conclusion These data suggest that the combination of 30 mcg EE and 3.0 mg drospirenone used in the active phase of this OCP increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation compared to a placebo phase.

Meendering, Jessica R.; Torgrimson, Britta N.; Miller, Nicole P.; Kaplan, Paul F.; Minson, Christopher T.

2010-01-01

23

Role of Combination OF Mifepristone and Misoprostol Verses Misoprostol alone in Induction of Labour in Late Intrauterin Fetal Death: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare efficacy, safety and tolerance of combination of mifepristone and misoprostol versus misoprostol-only in induction of late intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). Materials and methods This prospective study included a consecutive series of 52 women gravid up to fourth with IUFD after 28 weeks of gestation between January 2008 and June 2011. Women were divided into two groups. First group of women received a single oral dose of 200mg mifepristone, and after 24 hours, 100ug of intravaginal misoprostol was administered, followed by intravaginal 100µg misoprostol at four hourly intervals if required. Second group of women received 100 µg misoprostol at four hourly interval per vaginally (maximum 600µg in 24 hours). Oxytocin was given for augmentation if needed. Results The induction-to-delivery time was shorter with the combination regimen (p < 0.001) group. The total dose of misoprostol needed was lower in the group pre-treated with mifepristone (p < 0.001). Oxytocin was required only in misoprostol group. The two groups did not differ as regards complications experienced during labor and delivery significantly. Conclusion Both regimens, misoprostol-only and the combination of mifepristone and misoprostol are safe in induction of labor after intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). Pre-treatment with mifepristone is more effective in terms of reducing of induction delivery interval, requirement of lesser dose of misoprostol and no need of augmentation with oxytocin.

Jha, Vandana; Singh, Santa

2013-01-01

24

A double-blind study of prophylactic effect of misoprostol on lesions of gastric and duodenal mucosa induced by oral administration of tolmetin in healthy subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolmetin, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, is known to induce edema, submucosal hemorrhage, and erosions of the gastrointestinal tract when administered at recommended doses. The purpose of our study was to determine whether misoprostol prevented or reduced the severity of duodenal and gastric mucosal injury induced by tolmetin. Following endoscopic screening, 60 healthy male and female subjects were assigned at random

Frank L. Lanza

1986-01-01

25

Misoprostol therapeutics revisited.  

PubMed

Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analog, is a racemate of four stereoisomers. On administration it rapidly de-esterifies to its active form, misoprostolic acid. Misoprostolic acid is 85% albumin bound and has a half-life of approximately 30 minutes. It is excreted in urine as inactive metabolites. No significant drug interactions have been reported. Besides its gastrointestinal protective and uterotonic activities, misoprostol regulates various immunologic cascades. It inhibits platelet-activating factor and leukocyte adherence, and modulates adhesion molecule expression. It protects against gut irradiation injury, experimental gastric cancer, enteropathy, and constipation. It improves nutrient absorption in cystic fibrosis. Misoprostol has utility in acetaminophen and ethanol hepatotoxicity, hepatitis, and fibrosis. It is effective in asthmatics and aspirin-sensitive asthmatic and allergic patients. It lowers cholesterol and severity of peripheral vascular diseases, prolongs survival of cardiac and kidney transplantation, synergizes cyclosporine, and protects against cyclosporine-induced renal damage. It works against drug-induced renal damage, interstitial cystitis, lupus nephritis, and hepatorenal syndrome. It is useful in periodontal disease and dental repair. Misoprostol enhances glycosoaminoglycan synthesis in cartilage after injury. It prevents ultraviolet-induced cataracts and reduces intraocular pressure in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. It synergizes antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of diclofenac or colchicine and has been administered to treat trigeminal neuralgic pain. It reduces chemotherapy-induced hair loss and recovery time from burn injury, and is effective in treating sepsis, multiple sclerosis, and pancreatitis. PMID:11191738

Davies, N M; Longstreth, J; Jamali, F

2001-01-01

26

Exacerbation of celecoxib-induced renal injury by concomitant administration of misoprostol in rats.  

PubMed

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can produce adverse effects by inhibiting prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. A PGE1 analogue, misoprostol, is often utilized to alleviate NSAID-related gastrointestinal side effects. This study examined the effect of misoprostol on celecoxib renal toxicity. Additionally, the effects of these drugs on cardiovascular parameters were evaluated. Four randomized rat groups were orally gavaged for 9 days, two groups receiving vehicle and two groups receiving misoprostol (100 µg/kg) twice daily. Celecoxib (40 mg/kg) was co-administered once daily to one vehicle and one misoprostol group from days 3 to 9. Urine and blood samples were collected and blood pressure parameters were measured during the study period. Hearts and kidneys were harvested on final day. Day 2 urinary electrolyte samples revealed significant reductions in sodium excretion in misoprostol (0.12 ± 0.05 µmol/min/100 g) and misoprostol+celecoxib groups (0.07 ± 0.02 µmol/min/100 g). At day 3, all treatment groups showed significantly reduced sodium excretion. Potassium excretion diminished significantly in vehicle+celecoxib and misoprostol+celecoxib groups from day 3 onward. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 levels were significantly increased in vehicle+celecoxib (0.65 ± 0.02 vs. 0.35 ± 0.07 ng/mL, p = 0.0002) and misoprostol+celecoxib (0.61 ± 0.06 vs. 0.37 ± 0.06 ng/mL, p = 0.0015) groups when compared to baseline; while plasma levels of cardiac troponin I increased significantly in vehicle+celecoxib (p = 0.0040) and misoprostol+misoprostol (p = 0.0078) groups when compared to vehicle+vehicle. Blood pressure parameters increased significantly in all misoprostol treated groups. Significant elevation in diastolic (p = 0.0071) and mean blood pressure (p = 0.0153) was noted in misoprostol+celecoxib compared to vehicle+celecoxib. All treatments produced significant tubular dilatation/necrosis compared to control. No significant myocardial changes were noticed; however, three animals presented with pericarditis. Kidney, heart, and plasma celecoxib levels revealed no significant change between vehicle+celecoxib and misoprostol+celecoxib. Concomitant misoprostol administration did not prevent celecoxib renal toxicity, and instead exacerbated renal side effects. Misoprostol did not alter plasma or tissue celecoxib concentrations suggesting no pharmacokinetic interaction between celecoxib and misoprostol. PMID:24586517

Cooper, Dustin L; Murrell, Derek E; Conder, Christopher M; Palau, Victoria E; Campbell, Grace E; Lynch, Shaun P; Denham, James W; Hanley, Angela V; Bullins, Kenny W; Panus, Peter C; Singh, Krishna; Harirforoosh, Sam

2014-01-01

27

Labor induction with misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analog, is widely used in the United States for cervical ripening and labor induction. Its use for these indications is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The only Food and Drug Administration–approved indication in the product labeling is the treatment and prevention of intestinal ulcer disease resulting from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory use. Multiple trials

Deborah A. Wing

1999-01-01

28

Indices and Detectors for Fetal MCG Actography  

PubMed Central

Several recent studies have demonstrated the usefulness of fetal magnetocardiogram (fMCG) actography, a relatively new method of detecting fetal movement that can be performed in conjunction with fMCG assessment of fetal heart rate and rhythm. In this work, we formulate indices of fetal activity that incorporate information from all channels to achieve improved sensitivity. We also utilize statistical detection to provide an objective means of inferring significant fetal activity.

Lutter, William J.

2011-01-01

29

MISOPROSTOL TO REDUCE INTRAOPERATIVE AND POSTOPERATIVE HEMORRHAGE DURING CESAREAN DELIVERY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic misoprostol use at cesarean delivery for reducing intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. RESULTS Seventeen studies (3174 women) were included of which 7 evaluated misoprostol versus oxytocin and 8 evaluated misoprostol plus oxytocin versus oxytocin. Overall, there were no significant differences in intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage between sublingual or oral misoprostol and oxytocin. Rectal misoprostol, compared with oxytocin, was associated with a significant reduction in intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage. The combined use of sublingual misoprostol and oxytocin, compared with the use of oxytocin alone, was associated with a significant reduction in the mean decrease in hematocrit (mean difference, ?2.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], ?3.4 to ?0.8) and use of additional uterotonic agents (relative risk, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.18-0.62). Compared with oxytocin alone, buccal misoprostol plus oxytocin reduced the use of additional uterotonic agents; rectal misoprostol plus oxytocin decreased intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, mean fall in hematocrit, and use of additional uterotonic agents; and intrauterine misoprostol plus oxytocin reduced the mean fall in hemoglobin and hematocrit. Women receiving misoprostol, alone or combined with oxytocin, had a higher risk of shivering and pyrexia. CONCLUSION Misoprostol combined with oxytocin appears to be more effective than oxytocin alone in reducing intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage during caesarean section. There were no significant differences in intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage when misoprostol was compared to oxytocin. However, these findings were based on a few trials with methodological limitations.

CONDE-AGUDELO, Agustin; NIETO, Anibal; ROSAS-BERMUDEZ, Anyeli; ROMERO, Roberto

2013-01-01

30

A prospective randomized study on the measured blood loss in medical termination of early pregnancy by three different misoprostol regimens after pretreatment with mifepristone  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prolonged vaginal bleeding is a common complaint after medical abortion. The effect of a 1 week course of daily oral misoprostol after medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol on the amount of post- abortal blood loss was studied. METHODS: A total of 150 women (gestation ?63 days) were randomized to three groups using computer-generated tables. They received 200 mg

Oi Shan Tang; Sharon W. H. Lee; Pak Chung Ho

31

Pilot study on the use of sublingual misoprostol with mifepristone in termination of first trimester pregnancy up to 9 weeks gestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A combination of mifepristone and misoprostol provides an effective method of medical abortion for early pregnancy. A new route of administration of misoprostol, the sublingual route, was investigated in this study. METHODS: One hundred women who requested legal termination of pregnancy up to 63 days were given 200 mg of oral mifepristone followed 48 h later by 800 µ

Oi Shan Tang; Jieshuang Xu; Linan Cheng; Sharon W. H. Lee; Pak Chung Ho

32

Abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol: Regimens, efficacy, acceptability and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mifepristone at a dose of 600 mg followed by 400 ?g misoprostol orally has been used for early abortion by hundreds of thousands of women with success rates at ?49 days’ gestation ranging from 92% to 97%. Newer regimens may prove simpler than this standard regimen and may serve a larger number of patients. Vaginal rather than oral administration of

Elizabeth Pirruccello Newhall; Beverly Winikoff

2000-01-01

33

Reduction of aspirin-induced fecal blood loss with low-dose misoprostol tablets in man  

SciTech Connect

Misoprostol (SC-29333), a synthetic prostaglandin E1 methyl ester analog, was given simultaneously with acetylsalicylic acid in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized prospective study of 32 healthy human male subjects. Fecal blood loss was measured for eight days using the /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cell technique. Aspirin (650 mg qid) and misoprostol (25 micrograms qid) or placebo were given during days 3, 4, and 5. There was a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in median blood loss (modified Friedman test) from 0.81 to 6.05 ml/day in the aspirin with placebo group (N = 16). Median blood loss was increased (from 0.75 to 3.75 ml/day) in the aspirin with misoprostol group (N = 16), but this was significantly less (Mann-Whitney U test, P less than 0.01) than the placebo group. Mean serum salicylate concentrations in the placebo and misoprostol groups were similar (7.8 and 6.8 micrograms/ml, respectively). There were no significant changes in laboratory values in any of the subjects studied, nor were any major side-effects encountered. This study demonstrates that oral misoprostol reduces aspirin-induced gastrointestinal bleeding even when administered simultaneously and at a dose level below its threshold for significant acid inhibition. This indicates a potential role for misoprostol in the prevention of gastric mucosal damage in selected patients.

Cohen, M.M.; Clark, L.; Armstrong, L.; D'Souza, J.

1985-07-01

34

Which route of misoprostol application is more advantageous prior to fractional curettage in postmenopausal patients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine the effectiveness and potential side effects of oral, vaginal, and sublingual intake of misoprostol on cervical\\u000a dilatation prior to fractional curettage in patients with postmenopausal bleeding.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Seventy-six patients with postmenopausal bleeding during a period of 18 months were included in this randomized controlled\\u000a trial. Patients were given 400 µg of misoprostol through the vaginal, oral, and sublingual routes, 12 h

Muge Temel; Fikret Gokhan Goynumer; Lale Wetherilt; Birol Durukan

2009-01-01

35

Umbilical vein injection of misoprostol versus normal saline for the treatment of retained placenta: intrapartum placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The third stage of labour may be complicated by retained placenta, which should be managed promptly because it may cause severe bleeding and infection, with a potentially fatal outcome. This study evaluated the effectiveness of umbilical vein injection of misoprostol for the treatment of retained placenta in a hospital setting. Methods This hospital-based placebo-controlled trial was conducted at the Maternity Teaching Hospital, Erbil City, Kurdistan region, Northern Iraq from April 2011 to February 2012. The inclusion criteria were: gestational age of at least 28 weeks, vaginal delivery, and failure of the placenta to separate within 30 minutes after delivery of the infant despite active management of the third stage of labour. Forty-six women with retained placentas were eligible for inclusion. After informed consent was obtained, the women were alternately allocated to receive umbilical vein injection of either 800 mcg misoprostol dissolved in 20 mL of normal saline (misoprostol group) or 20 mL of normal saline only (saline group). The women were blinded to the group allocation, but the investigator who administered the injection was not. The trial was registered by the Research Ethics Committee of Hawler Medical University. Results After umbilical vein injection, delivery of the placenta occurred in 91.3% of women in the misoprostol group and 69.5% of women in the saline group, which was not a significant difference between the two groups. The median vaginal blood loss from the time of injection until delivery of the placenta was significantly less in the misoprostol group (100 mL) than in the saline group (210 mL) (p value?misoprostol is an effective treatment for retained placenta, and reduces the volume of vaginal blood loss with few adverse effects. Clinical Trial Registration Current Controlled Trial HMU: N252.1.2011

2014-01-01

36

The Analgesic Interaction of Misoprostol with Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.  

PubMed

The purpose of this project was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of misoprostol when combined with ibuprofen or diclofenac Na. Animal experiments using the inflamed rat paw formalin model suggested that misoprostol potentiates the analgesic effect of some NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) including diclofenac Na but not propionic acid derivatives or opiates. The dental pain model was used to evaluate the clinical relevance of this interaction. Patients received a single oral dose of study medication following surgical removal of impacted teeth. Patients were medicated for moderate to severe postsurgical pain and then filled in an analgesic diary for a 6-h observation period. Several blood samples were taken over the observation period. In addition, microdialysis samples were taken directly from the extraction socket and were analyzed for immunoreactive prostaglandin E(2) levels. The studies were single-dose, parallel group and double-blind assays. In the first study, 70 patients received an oral dose of either placebo (n = 13), misoprostol 200 &mgr;g (n = 18), ibuprofen 200 mg (n = 19), or the combination of misoprostol + ibuprofen (n = 20). Misoprostol alone demonstrated a small analgesic effect compared to placebo. Both the ibuprofen and combination groups were substantially more effective than placebo but not different from each other. The combination group had higher ibuprofen blood levels during the first 45 min but had a lower C(max) and longer time to T(max). The second study evaluated oral doses of placebo (n = 11), misoprostol 200 &mgr;g (n = 21), diclofenac Na 50 mg (n = 18), and the combination of misoprostol + diclofenac Na (n = 20). Relative to placebo, misoprostol performance was similar to the first study. When the results of the two studies were combined, there was a small, but statistically significant, analgesic effect for misoprostol. Diclofenac Na was superior to both placebo and to misoprostol alone. The combination was the most effective treatment, and for hours 4--6 it was significantly better than diclofenac Na alone. Analysis of the blood samples showed an earlier and higher peak effect for the diclofenac Na group compared to the combination, and the combination again had a lower C(max). The microdialysis probe assays demonstrated that misoprostol depressed PGE(2) levels at the peripheral site of trauma over the first 2 h after surgery. These pilot studies used small samples, and the results only suggest trend effects. Both studies demonstrated that misoprostol 200 &mgr;g, a prostaglandin analog, does have an analgesic effect. When combined with ibuprofen, there was no potentiation of analgesia. In contrast, the combination of misoprostol + diclofenac Na demonstrated an enhanced peak effect, total effect for pain intensity difference and pain relief (sum pain intensity difference [SPID] and total pain relief [TOTPAR]), and PMID:11862259

Cooper, Stephen A.; Cowan, Alan; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Hargreaves, Kenneth; Roszkowski, Mark; Jamali, Fakhreddin; Borenstein, Michael; Lucyk, Dan; Fielding, Allen F.; Smith, Brian; Feng, Dan

1996-04-01

37

Misoprostol for preventing and treating postpartum hemorrhage in the community: a closer look at the evidence.  

PubMed

The lack of clear interpretation of clinical and operational evidence on misoprostol use for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in the community may jeopardize the realization of its full potential for improving women's survival. This paper highlights the usefulness of misoprostol in addressing PPH in the community within the limits of available research evidence. There is now substantial evidence to support the beneficial effects of 600 ?g of oral misoprostol for PPH prevention in the community, with a trend toward better protection against severe PPH morbidity, and particularly when administered by less skilled or lay caregivers. Although there is tangible evidence to show that 800 ?g of sublingual misoprostol has important benefits for PPH treatment where there is no access to oxytocin, there is presently no direct evidence to indicate that less skilled or lay caregivers can safely use it to treat PPH in the community. Operational research evidence indicates that advance community distribution of misoprostol to pregnant women for postpartum self-use is a feasible strategy to ensure availability of the drug at the time of birth. The evidence is, however, limited by its quality to establish whether the benefits of such a strategy truly outweigh the potential harms. It is time for the international community to focus on improving PPH-related outcomes by scaling up what is currently guided by hard evidence and join forces to address unanswered questions through high-quality research. PMID:22968139

Oladapo, Olufemi T

2012-11-01

38

Pregnancy Interruption by Vaginal Misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 132 pregnant women with average gestational age of 14.2 weeks (range 11–22 weeks) undergoing legal abortion volunteered for a trial utilizing vaginal administration of misoprostol. In 106 women a dose of 800 ?g was utilized, whilst in 26 women 1,200-1,600 ?g were given. Nonsurgical expulsion of the fetus was successful in 117 cases (88.6%). Four cases had

Antonio Bugalho; Cassimo Bique; Luisa Almeida; Staffan Bergström

1993-01-01

39

Pregnancy interruption by vaginal misoprostol.  

PubMed

A total of 132 pregnant women with average gestational age of 14.2 weeks (range 11-22 weeks) undergoing legal abortion volunteered for a trial utilizing vaginal administration of misoprostol. In 106 women a dose of 800 micrograms was utilized, whilst in 26 women 1,200-1,600 micrograms were given. Nonsurgical expulsion of the fetus was successful in 117 cases (88.6%). Four cases had to be excluded for various social reasons. A total of 11 did not achieve fetal expulsion within 56 h after application of misoprostol. These cases (11/132; 8.3%) were considered failures. Previous reports in the literature of toxicity trials on animals reporting no fetotoxic nor teratogenic effects of misoprostol at doses up to 10,000 micrograms/kg body weight seem to be of no validity in the human since we could demonstrate that almost 80% of pregnancies were interrupted at a dose of 10-15 micrograms/kg body weight. The conclusion is that vaginal administration of this prostaglandin analogue, not requiring cool temperature for storage, is remarkably effective in achieving safe interruption of pregnancy without any significant complications. PMID:8300007

Bugalho, A; Bique, C; Almeida, L; Bergström, S

1993-01-01

40

[Misoprostol in case of termination of pregnancy in the second and third trimesters. Trials].  

PubMed

Termination of pregnancies (TOP), in the second and third trimesters, require feasibility to induce labour with unfavorable cervix. Combination therapy is then usually necessary. Misoprostol use is out of marketing authorization in obstetrics but is widely used for many years in TOP in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy. Most randomized trials comparing misoprostol to other molecules available for TOP (gemeprost, dinoprostone, sulprostone) show that misoprostol is at least as effective with fewer side effects often especially if using adapted doses and routes of administration. Sometimes, products with a marketing authorization have been used with caution due to adverse effects more or less reported with misoprostol. There is, however, no conclusive evidence in the literature showing the superiority of a dose or route of administration of misoprostol compared to another. However, sublingual and oral seem to be preferred by patients than the vaginal route which remains the most evaluated and effective route. In summary, the use of vaginal misoprostol is the first-line treatment in medical abortion in the 2nd and third trimester, in combination with at least 200mg of mifepristone 36 to 48 hours before, at a dose of 400 ?g every 4 to 6 hours. However, its use must be given with caution in cases of uterine scar, but cannot be forbidden for the sole justification of not having a marketing authorization. It will nevertheless warrant information to patients and allow a reduction at least half doses. The multi-scarred uterus still justifies a lower starting dose in the minimum effective doses (100 ?g or less) as a corollary, increased induction-expulsion delay. The risk-benefit balance must be discussed with the patient. The agent without any pharmacological action solely or in combination (laminar dilapans, Foley catheter or double balloon) is particularly interesting in the case of uterine scar or maternal vascular risk but requires further evaluation by other research with adequate power and methodology before recommending for systematic routine use. PMID:24440001

Pluchon, M; Winer, N

2014-02-01

41

Stakeholder perceptions of misoprostol: a qualitative investigation.  

PubMed

The study aimed to explore perceptions of stakeholders regarding misoprostol use in Cambodia, a setting with high maternal mortality. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 21 participants in the capital, Phnom Penh. The sample included participants involved in providing reproductive health services through international and local health agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. A theme of controversy over the role of misoprostol in the context of reproductive health services emerged, along with a need to reconcile legitimate viewpoints in order to understand the place of misoprostol in the Cambodian reproductive health setting. Understanding stakeholder perspectives on misoprostol can shed light on the drug's role in reproductive health programming where maternal mortality is high and health facilities are still improving. PMID:24748820

Bazzano, Alessandra N; Jones, Lea; Ngo, Thoai D

2014-01-01

42

Stakeholder perceptions of misoprostol: a qualitative investigation  

PubMed Central

The study aimed to explore perceptions of stakeholders regarding misoprostol use in Cambodia, a setting with high maternal mortality. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 21 participants in the capital, Phnom Penh. The sample included participants involved in providing reproductive health services through international and local health agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. A theme of controversy over the role of misoprostol in the context of reproductive health services emerged, along with a need to reconcile legitimate viewpoints in order to understand the place of misoprostol in the Cambodian reproductive health setting. Understanding stakeholder perspectives on misoprostol can shed light on the drug’s role in reproductive health programming where maternal mortality is high and health facilities are still improving.

Bazzano, Alessandra N; Jones, Lea; Ngo, Thoai D

2014-01-01

43

Diclofenac\\/Misoprostol: Pharmacoeconomic Implications of Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

_ The combined formulation of diclofenac\\/misoprostol provides effective relief of pain and inflammation, with a 2- to 3-fold lower incidence of NSAID-associated gastroduodenal ulcers than diclofenac monotherapy. _ Both components of the combined formulation have been widely used and have well documented efficacy and tolerability profiles. Compared with other agents used as prophylaxis for NSAID-induced gastropathies, misoprostol is generally considered

Greg L. Plosker; Harriet M. Lamb

1999-01-01

44

Misoprostol in the management of missed abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the effect of vaginal misoprostol with that of placebo when used prior to dilatation and aspiration in women with a missed abortion. Method: Eighty-four pregnant women with a missed abortion were randomized to receive either vaginal misoprostol (200 ?g) or placebo the day before the planned dilatation and aspiration under inhalation anesthesia. Result: Thirty-five women (83.33%) in

Y. Herabutya; P. O-Prasertsawat

1997-01-01

45

Second trimester abortion using intravaginal misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To find the effective dose of intravaginal misoprostol to induce second trimester abortion. Methods: Intravaginal misoprostol in 200-?g, 400-?g and 600-?g doses were applied at 12-h intervals in 150 consecutive pregnancies. Results: The 48-h successful abortion rate was 70.6%, 82% and 96%, respectively, and these rates were unaffected by parity. The mean induction to abortion interval was 45.0±41.5, 33.4±34.9

Y Herabutya; P O-Prasertsawat

1998-01-01

46

Introduction of misoprostol for the treatment of incomplete abortion beyond 12weeks of pregnancy in Benin.  

PubMed

Improving the care of women who have undergone a spontaneous or induced abortion is an important step in reducing abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Both the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) and the World Health Organization recommend the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and misoprostol rather than sharp curettage to treat incomplete abortion. MVA was introduced into the public healthcare service in Benin in 2006 and since 2008 misoprostol has been available in 3 large maternity hospitals. The present study opted to use an oral dose of 800?g and not to limit to pregnancies of up to 12weeks, but to include women with second trimester abortions. After 5years, results show that around three-quarters of the women treated with misoprostol at 13-18weeks of pregnancy required MVA to complete uterine evacuation and approximately one-quarter had severe bleeding, confirming that the indication of misoprostol for incomplete abortion should be limited to pregnancies of up to 12weeks. PMID:24800660

Adisso, Sosthène; Hounkpatin, Benjamin I B; Komongui, Gounnou D; Sambieni, Olivier; Perrin, René X

2014-07-01

47

The use of misoprostol for termination of early pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misoprostol is a prostaglandin analogue which has uterotonic properties. Administered vaginally, it is an effective agent for induction of second trimester abortions. This study was undertaken to determine if the vaginal administration of misoprostol is effective for inducing first trimester abortions. Fifty-eight women with pregnancies less than 10 weeks gestation who desired pregnancy termination received varying dosages of vaginal misoprostol,

Tina B. Koopersmith; Daniel R. Mishell

1996-01-01

48

Randomized Double Masked Trial of Zhi Byed 11, a Tibetan Traditional Medicine, Versus Misoprostol to Prevent Postpartum Hemorrhage in Lhasa, Tibet  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare a Tibetan traditional medicine (the uterotonic Zhi Byed 11 [ZB11]) to oral misoprostol for prophylaxis of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled trial at three hospitals in Lhasa, Tibet, People’s Republic of China. Women (N = 967) were randomized to either ZB11 or misoprostol groups. Postpartum blood loss was measured in a calibrated blood collection drape. The primary combined outcome was incidence of PPH, defined as measured blood loss (MBL) ? 500 mL, administration of open label uterotonics, or maternal death. We found that the rate of the combined outcome was lower among the misoprostol group (16.1% versus 21.8% for ZB11; P = .02). Frequency of PPH was lower with misoprostol (12.4% versus 17.4%; P = .02). There were no significant differences in MBL > 1000 mL or mean or median MBL. Fever was significantly more common in the misoprostol group (P = .03). The rate of combined outcome was significantly lower among women receiving misoprostol. However, other indices of obstetric hemorrhage were not significantly different.

Miller, Suellen; Tudor, Carrie; Thorsten, Vanessa; Nyima; Kalyang; Sonam; Lhakpen; Droyoung; Quzong, Karma; Dekyi, Tsering; Hartwell, Ty; Wright, Linda L.; Varner, Michael W.

2009-01-01

49

Energy Conversion Efficiency of Mcg-Based Lightning Simulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of HE mass gain minimization is extremely important due to environmental and safety considerations of MCG application to mobile simulators of lightning current (MSLC). There are several methods of increasing the efficiency of MSLC with an electrical explosive opening switch (EEOS) in the circuit of the secondary winding of a conventional transformer (CT) with inductance L2. One may use the battery of fast-run MCGs of a small diameter, or increase both the magnitude of L2 and the energy of power supply bank of capacitors, or use larger diameter wires with solid insulation. Results of experiments using spiral-coaxial MCG, 36 mm in diameter, have produced an acceptable efficiency of 12%. When the wires were insulated with polyethylene, energy absorption was high. Analysis of alternatives to open switches (OS) in the MCG circuit has shown their competitiveness. They allow reduction of the optimum L2 magnitude, use of a modular device design, and shaping of the waveform and of the lightning current pulse duration during its droop by introducing one additional MCG module into the circuit.

Chernykh, E. V.; Fortov, V. E.; Gorbachev, K. V.; Kujekin, I. P.; Nesterov, E. V.; Stroganov, V. A.; Karpoushin, Yu. A.; Shourupov, A. V.

2004-11-01

50

Vaginal misoprostol for late first trimester abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of 120 women with gestations from 64 to 84 days received 800 ?g of vaginal misoprostol every 24 h for a maximum of three doses without performing postexpulsion systematic preventive curettage. Outcome measures included successful abortion (complete abortion without requiring a surgical procedure), side effects, and mean time of expulsion and vaginal bleeding. Complete abortion occurred in 104

J. L Carbonell Esteve; L Varela; A Velazco; E Cabezas; R Tanda; C Sánchez

1998-01-01

51

Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of oncogenic transformation  

SciTech Connect

Prostaglandins are associated with a variety of both pathologic and normal physiological effects in mammals. Among this broad array of effects, prostaglandins have been shown to provide protection of tissues from a variety of injurious agents including ionizing radiation. Of the prostaglandins tested to date, an analogue of prostaglandins E[sub 1], misoprostol (cytotec[sup [trademark

LaNasa, P. (St. Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ (United States)); Miller, R.C. (St. Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ (United States) Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hanson, W.R. (Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States)); Hall, E.J. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States))

1994-05-15

52

Comparative mucosal protective properties of misoprostol, cimetidine, and sucralfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misoprostol, a PGE1 derivative that inhibits gastric acid secretion in rats, was compared with cimetidine and sucralfate in several rat experimental ulcer models. Gastric lesions were produced by aspirin, indomethacin, stress, sodium taurocholate, and ethanol. In all tests, misoprostol (50, 100, and 200 µg\\/kg) and cimetidine and sucralfate (50, 100, and 200 mg\\/kg) were administered intragastrically. Misoprostol protected against gastric

R. F. Bauer; R. G. Bianchi; J. Casler; B. Goldstin

1986-01-01

53

Misoprostol: An effective agent for cervical ripening and labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to compare the safety and efficacy of intravaginal misoprostol versus intracervical prostaglandin E2 gel (dinoprostone) for preinduction cervical ripening and induction of labor.Study design: Two hundred seventy-six patients with indications for induction of labor and unfavorable cervices were randomly assigned to receive either intravaginal misoprostol or intracervical dinoprostone. Twenty-five micrograms of misoprostol were placed in the

Deborah A. Wing; Ann Rahall; Margaret M. Jones; T. Murphy Goodwin; Richard H. Paul

1995-01-01

54

A medical approach to management of spontaneous abortion using misoprostol. Extending misoprostol treatment to a maximum of 48 hours can further improve evacuation of retained products of conception in spontaneous abortion.  

PubMed

A prospective, observational study of 354 women admitted to a Hong Kong hospital with a confirmed diagnosis of spontaneous abortion confirmed the effectiveness of a non-surgical 48-hour regimen using transvaginal ultrasound and misoprostol administration. 101 women were excluded because they had an empty uterus on transvaginal scan and another 28 were considered unsuitable for conservative management. The 225 remaining women were treated with up to 1200 mcgs of misoprostol administered orally in 3 divided doses per day for up to 48 hours; a comparison group of 137 women underwent surgical evacuation of retained products of conception. Evacuation of the uterus occurred within 24 hours of misoprostol administration in 107 women and by 48 hours after misoprostol administration in 148 women. The cumulative success rate was 69.6%. There were 3 uterine curettages for persistent bleeding up to 14 days after discharge, 2 cases of pelvic infection, and 1 ectopic pregnancy. In the reference group, 4 women required a repeat evacuation and 5 had infection. The overall complication rate in up to 3 weeks of follow-up was 6.6% in the surgical reference group and 1.7% in the medical treatment group. PMID:9093140

Chung, T; Leung, P; Cheung, L P; Haines, C; Chang, A M

1997-03-01

55

MCG measurement in the environment of active magnetic shield.  

PubMed

MCG (Magnetocardiography) measurement by a SQUID gradiometer was attempted with only active magnetic shielding (active shielding). A three-axis-canceling-coil active shielding system, where three 16-10-16 turns-coil sets were put in the orthogonal directions, produces a homogeneous magnetic field in a considerable volume surrounding the center. Fluxgate sensors were used as the reference sensors of the system. The system can reduce environmental magnetic noise at low frequencies of less than a few Hz, at 50 Hz and at 150 Hz. Reducing such disturbances stabilizes biomagnetic measurement conditions for SQUIDs in the absence of magnetically shielded rooms (MSR). After filtering and averaging the measured MCG data by a first-order SQUID gradiometer with only the active shielding during the daytime, the QRS complex and T wave was clearly presented. PMID:16012640

Yamazaki, K; Kato, K; Kobayashi, K; Igarashi, A; Sato, T; Haga, A; Kasai, N

2004-01-01

56

Discussion of Source Reconstruction Models Using 3D MCG Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we performed the source reconstruction of magnetocardiographic signals generated by the human heart activity to localize the site of origin of the heart activation. The localizations were performed in a four compartment model of the human volume conductor. The analyses were conducted on normal subjects and on a subject affected by the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Different models of the source activation were used to evaluate whether a general model of the current source can be applied in the study of the cardiac inverse problem. The data analyses were repeated using normal and vector component data of the MCG. The results show that a distributed source model has the better accuracy in performing the source reconstructions, and that 3D MCG data allow finding smaller differences between the different source models.

Melis, Massimo De; Uchikawa, Yoshinori

57

Prostaglandins and the gastric epithelium: effects of misoprostol on gastric epithelial cell proliferation in the dog.  

PubMed Central

The effects of the methyl ester analogue of prostaglandin E1, misoprostol, on gastric epithelial cell proliferation were investigated in six dogs given 300 micrograms/kg/day of misoprostol orally for 11 weeks and in six control dogs given placebo for 11 weeks. Misoprostol treatment resulted in a 36% increase in stomach weight (p less than 0.01) and a 30% increase in the length (measured as the cell column count from the base/neck junction to the surface) of the fundic gastric glands (p less than 0.01). This mucosal hyperplasia was predominantly caused by enlargement of the foveolar region of the gland, with little change occurring in the neck or in the isthmus. The hyperplasia was the result of an increased number of mitotic (p less than 0.01) and DNA synthesising cells (p less than 0.05) in each gastric gland, which resulted in a significant increase in the gland cell production rate, from 22.5 to 42.6 cells per gland per day (p less than 0.05). Images Fig. 1

Goodlad, R A; Madgwick, A J; Moffatt, M R; Levin, S; Allen, J L; Wright, N A

1989-01-01

58

Effects of misoprostol on cell migration and transit in the dog stomach  

SciTech Connect

Prostaglandins of the E series increase stomach mucosal mass by inducing hyperplasia, which could be the result either of increased cell production or of decreased cell loss. This report describes an investigation of the effect of the prostaglandin E1 analogue, misoprostol, on cell migration and transit. 3H-thymidine was used to label those cells synthesizing deoxyribonucleic acid in dogs that had been given an oral dose of 300 micrograms/kg per day misoprostol for 11 weeks. The animals were killed at timed intervals, and tissue from the gastric fundus was prepared for autoradiography. The distribution of labeled cells at various times after labeling was used to follow the movement of the wave of label and to calculate median cell migration rates and transit times. The migration rate of cells toward the gastric lumen was significantly increased from 1.4 +/- 0.3 to 3.6 +/- 0.6 cell positions per day in the misoprostol-treated group (p less than 0.001); however, the gland length (from the most basal mucous neck cell to the luminal surface) was also increased (from 52.1 +/- 1.1 to 74.0 +/- 1.6; p less than 0.001), thus there was no significant difference in the (transit) time taken for cells to reach the top of the gland (control, 17.5 +/- 9.8 days; test, 12.2 +/- 7.1 days).

Goodlad, R.A.; Madgwick, A.J.; Moffatt, M.R.; Levin, S.; Allen, J.L.; Wright, N.A. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (England))

1990-01-01

59

Visualization of results of mathematical simulations: The contribution of MCG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An abstract on the contribution of MCG to the visualization of results of mathematical simulations is presented. MCG, which is a Belgian company dealing with synthesis three dimensional animation, became aware of a need which was the result of the increasing power of the hardware and software tools used by the engineers today: the visualization of the results of mathematical simulations. The design of a program including various visualization tools adapted to software like SAMCEF in the field of system dynamics and ECRIN Principia and SDRC in the field of fluid dynamics was undertaken by MCG. In fluid dynamics, the program which associates color with the relative values of variables in scalar fields, enables the calculation of iso-value surfaces, cuts in the mesh, and in the case of vector fields, offers colored arrow representation and animated particle paths in the velocity field. The system dynamics program reads the files generated by SAMCEF and allows complex periodic or transient movements on a reactor blade. simulated opening of a structure in space to be represented.

60

Vaginal misoprostol as medical treatment for first trimester spontaneous miscarriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Misoprostol is effective for cervical priming prior to suction evacuation in first trimester pregnancy termination. This is the first randomized study to compare vaginal misoprostol versus expectant treatment in women presenting with spontaneous miscarriage. METHODS: Sixty women presenting with spontaneous miscarriage were recruited to the study at the Queen Mary Hospital between 1998 and 1999. They were randomized to

Suk Wai Ngai; Yik Ming Chan; Oi Shan Tang; Pak Chung Ho

61

Buccal misoprostol as cervical preparation for second trimester pregnancy termination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy of cervical preparation with misoprostol or laminaria suction abortion up to 18 weeks gestation. The study was conducted among a consecutive case series of patients presenting for dilatation and evacuation at a single center. Cervical preparation was effected by either 600 mg buccal misoprostol (n = 32) or laminaria (n

Catherine S. Todd; Maria Soler; Laura Castleman; M. Katherine Rogers; Paul D. Blumenthal

2002-01-01

62

Misoprostol for the Treatment of Early Pregnancy Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 20% of all pregnancies end in early pregnancy failure, and surgical evacuation of retained products of conception is often used to manage this failure. Misoprostol is an inexpensive, stable analog of prostaglandin E1, and is powerful at contracting the uterus. With intravaginal misoprostol, the peak plasma levels are lower, but the levels after 4 hours are higher, than after

Sheila A. Doggrell

63

Novel Cultivation-Based Approach To Understanding the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG) Archaea from Sedimentary Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

The uncultured miscellaneous crenarchaeotic group (MCG) archaea comprise one of the most abundant microbial groups in the Earth's subsurface environment. However, very little information is available regarding the lifestyle, physiology, and factors controlling the distribution of members of this group. We established a novel method using both cultivation and molecular techniques, including a pre-PCR propidium monoazide treatment, to investigate viable members of the MCG in vitro. Enrichment cultures prepared from estuarine sediment were provided with one of a variety of carbon substrates or cultivation conditions and incubated for 3 weeks. Compared with the samples from time zero, there was an order-of-magnitude increase in the number of MCG 16S rRNA genes in almost all cultures, indicating that MCG archaea are amenable to in vitro cultivation. None of the tested substrates or conditions significantly stimulated growth of MCG archaea more than the basal medium alone; however, glycerol (0.02%) had a significantly inhibitory effect (P < 0.05). Diversity analysis of populations resulting from four culture treatments (basal medium, addition of amino acids, H2-CO2 as the gas phase, or initial aerobic conditions) revealed that the majority of viable MCG archaea were affiliated with the MCG-8 and MCG-4 clusters. There were no significant differences in MCG diversity between these treatments, also indicating that some members of MCG-4 and MCG-8 are tolerant of initially oxic conditions. The methods outlined here will be useful for further investigation of MCG archaea and comparison of substrates and cultivation conditions that influence their growth in vitro.

Huber, Harald; Meador, Travis; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Thomm, Michael

2013-01-01

64

Computing data cubes using exact sub-graph matching: the sequential MCG approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a novel full cube computation and representation approach, named MCG. In a data cube, each cuboid can be viewed as a set of sub-graphs. In general, redundant sub-graphs are quite common in a data cube, but their elimination is a hard problem as some previous cube approaches demonstrate. The MCG approach differentiates significantly from previous

Joubert De Castro Lima; Celso Massaki Hirata

2009-01-01

65

Vaginal Misoprostol versus Vaginal Estradiol in Overcoming Unsatisfactory Colposcopy.  

PubMed

Background: Unsatisfactory colposcopy, an inability to visualize the entire transformation zone, is found in about 10-20% of the patients undergoing the procedure. These patients usually require conization for a comprehensive evaluation of the cervix. Our study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of vaginal misoprostol versus vaginal estradiol in overcoming unsatisfactory colposcopy. Methods: We studied 48 women with unsatisfactory colposcopy. They were randomized into two groups: group I (n = 24) received 200 µg misoprostol vaginally and colposcopy was repeated after 6 h, while the subjects in group II (n = 24) were prescribed a 7-day course of 50 µg estradiol for vaginal insertion followed by a repeat colposcopy. The efficacy and safety of these two drugs were compared. Results: Repeat colposcopy was satisfactory in 70.8% of the women given vaginal misoprostol compared to 82.6% of the women who used vaginal estradiol. The difference was not statistically significant. The adverse effects were reported more often by the women in the misoprostol group (41.6%) as compared to those in estradiol group (13%) (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Both estradiol and misoprostol were comparable in overcoming unsatisfactory colposcopy. However, a higher incidence of adverse effects was noted with misoprostol as compared to estradiol. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24642984

Makkar, Binni; Batra, Swaraj; Gandhi, Gauri; Zutshi, Vijay; Goswami, Deepti

2014-01-01

66

Labor induction with prostaglandin E 1 misoprostol compared with dinoprostone vaginal insert: A randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the safety, efficacy, and costs of intravaginal misoprostol versus dinoprostone vaginal inserts for cervical ripening and labor induction.Methods: Two hundred twenty-three labor induction patients were assigned randomly to one of two treatment groups: 1) intravaginal misoprostol or 2) dinoprostone vaginal inserts. Fifty micrograms of misoprostol were placed in the posterior vaginal fornix every 3 hours for a

Luis Sanchez-Ramos; Dirk E. Peterson; Isaac Delke; Francisco L. Gaudier; Andrew M. Kaunitz

1998-01-01

67

The optimization of intravaginal misoprostol dosing schedules in second-trimester pregnancy termination  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and side effects of 3 doses of intravaginal misoprostol for second-trimester pregnancy termination. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trial of 150 women who underwent pregnancy termination between 14 and 30 weeks of gestation. Three intravaginal misoprostol regimens were compared: 200 ?g misoprostol at

Jan E. Dickinson; Sharon F. Evans

2002-01-01

68

Misoprostol to treat missed abortion in the first trimester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missed abortion in the first trimester is characterized by the arrest of embryonic or fetal development. The cervix is closed and there is no or only slight bleeding. Ultrasound examination shows an empty gestational sac or an embryo\\/fetus without cardiac activity. Based on a review of the published literature a single dose of 800 ?g vaginal misoprostol may be offered as

K. Gemzell-Danielsson; P. C. Ho; R. Gómez Ponce de León; B. Winikoff

2007-01-01

69

Misoprostol reduces indomethacin-induced changes in human small intestinal permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether indomethacin-induced increases in small intestinal permeability in man are prevented by concomitant administration of a prostaglandin analog (misoprostol). Twelve male volunteers were tested as baseline, following misoprostol alone (200 ?g, at -16, -12, -8.5, -4, -1.5, and +4 hr); following indomethacin alone (75 mg, at -8; 50 mg, -1 hr); and following coadministration of misoprostol and

Ingvar Bjarnason; Paul Smethurst; Christopher G. Fenn; Carole E. Lee; Ian S. Menzies; A. Jonathan Levi

1989-01-01

70

Recommendations for scale-up of community-based misoprostol distribution programs.  

PubMed

Community-based distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in resource-poor settings has been shown to be safe and effective. However, global recommendations for prenatal distribution and monitoring within a community setting are not yet available. In order to successfully translate misoprostol and PPH research into policy and practice, several critical points must be considered. A focus on engaging the community, emphasizing the safe nature of community-based misoprostol distribution, supply chain management, effective distribution, coverage, and monitoring plans are essential elements to community-based misoprostol program introduction, expansion, or scale-up. PMID:24680582

Robinson, Nuriya; Kapungu, Chisina; Carnahan, Leslie; Geller, Stacie

2014-06-01

71

A comparison of differing dosing regimens of vaginally administered misoprostol for preinduction cervical ripening and labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare two dosing regimens of vaginally administered misoprostol for preinduction cervical ripening and induction of labor. STUDY DESIGN: Five hundred twenty-two patients with indications for induction of labor and unfavorable cervices were randomly assigned to one of two dosing regimens of vaginally administered misoprostol. Twenty-five microgram tablets of misoprostol were placed in the posterior vaginal

Deborah A. Wing; Richard H. Paul

1996-01-01

72

Fast coupled noise estimation for crosstalk avoidance in the MCG multichip module autorouter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multilayer, multichip module (MCM) router, called MCG, is introduced for x-y routing. An efficient method has been derived to allow candidate routes for the nets to be considered simultaneously for compatibility rather than incrementally extending routes or routing one net at a time as in many other techniques. This allows incorporation of accurate models for determining the potential for

Tom Hameenanttila; Jo Dale Carothers; Donghui Li

1996-01-01

73

Effects of misoprostol and omeprazole on basal gastric pH and free acid content in horses.  

PubMed

The basal gastric pH and free acid contents from five young adult healthy horses were determined at one hour intervals for eight hours. The basal gastric pH and free acid contents varied from 1.63 +/- 0.06 to 1.97 +/- 0.11 and 26.42 +/- 4.14 to 17.92 +/- 5.28 mmol litre-1, respectively. Misoprostol, a methylester analogue of prostaglandin (5 micrograms kg-1, orally) produced a time-dependent increase in the basal gastric pH to above 3.5 (P less than 0.05) at three, four and five hours after administration with a concomitant reduction of 80 to 90 per cent in the basal gastric free acid contents throughout the eight hour period monitored. Omeprazole, a benzimidazole derivative (0.5 mg kg-1, intravenously) increased the basal gastric pH to above 3.5 at two and three hours after administration with a concomitant reduction of 65 to 90 per cent in the basal gastric free acid contents for seven of the eight hour periods monitored. These results confirm that the horse is a basal acid secretor, and both misoprostol and omeprazole are effective inhibitors of the basal gastric acid secretion, thus establishing that both prostaglandins and H+/K+-ATPase play an important role in controlling parietal cell function of the equine gastric mucosa. PMID:2512598

Sangiah, S; MacAllister, C C; Amouzadeh, H R

1989-11-01

74

Moebius syndrome and holoprosencephaly following exposure to misoprostol.  

PubMed

Moebius syndrome is a rare disease characterized by congenital facial paralysis and abducens palsy. Involvement of other cranial nerves, orofacial dysmorphism, and limb abnormalities are frequently associated. Reported here is the case of a 10-month-old child born with Moebius syndrome and presenting with holoprosencephaly, following exposure in utero to misoprostol. To our knowledge, this is the first published case report describing this association. The etiologic hypotheses of Moebius syndrome are also discussed. PMID:20933185

Pirmez, Rodrigo; Freitas, Maria Eliza T; Gasparetto, Emerson L; Araújo, Alexandra P Q C

2010-11-01

75

Uterine rupture during second-trimester abortion associated with misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:Misoprostol use is contraindicated in women at term with a history of a uterine scar. There are limited data regarding the use of this drug in the midtrimester.CASE:A 23-year-old woman with two prior cesareans presented at 23 weeks’ gestation for pregnancy termination by dilation and evacuation. She had laminariae placed the day before and was instructed to take 400 ?g

Laura Berghahn; Dennis Christensen; Sabine Droste

2001-01-01

76

Randomized trial of isosorbide mononitrate versus misoprostol for cervical ripening at term  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the adverse effects of isosorbide mononitrate (IMN) compared with misoprostol for cervical ripening at term. Methods: One hundred and seven women with term pregnancies referred for induction of labor with Bishop scores of 6 or less were randomly allocated to receive either a 40-mg IMN tablet vaginally (n=55) or 50 ?g misoprostol vaginally (n=52) every 6 h

B. Chanrachakul; Y. Herabutya; P. Punyavachira

2002-01-01

77

High-dose misoprostol used in outpatient management of first trimester spontaneous abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of a high dose of vaginal misoprostol for outpatient medical management of missed abortion. Methods: Three doses of 400 lg misoprostol were administered intravaginally every 4 h daily, for a maximum period of 3 days, to 108 women with uneventful first trimester pregnancy failure. Results: A total

Stavros Sifakis; Emmanuel Angelakis; Elpida Vardaki; Yvoni Fragouli; Eugenios Koumantakis

2005-01-01

78

Vaginal versus sublingual misoprostol for labor induction at term and post term: a randomized prospective study.  

PubMed

We want to compare the efficacy and safety of vaginal versus sublingual misoprostol for cervical ripening and induction of labor. This randomized clinical trial was performed on 140 women with medical or obstetric indications for labor induction. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: vaginal and sublingual administration of misoprostol. In first group, 25 µg misoprostol was placed in the posterior fornix of the vagina and second group received 25 µg misoprostol sublingually, every 6 hours for 24 h. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. There was no significant difference in the demographic characteristics between two groups. The main indication for cesarean section in both groups was fetal distress, followed by absence of active labor progress. Evaluation of cesarean indication was not significantly different in two groups; including fetal distress, absence of active labor, uterine over activity and failure to progress. The maternal complication in sublingual group included residual placenta (2%), tachysystole (2%), vomiting (12%), atoni (3.3%) and abdominal pain (5.5%), although there was no significant difference between two groups. Sublingual misoprostol is as effective as vaginal misoprostol for induction of labor at term. However, sublingual misoprostol has the advantage of easy administration and may be more suitable than vaginal misoprostol. PMID:24734084

Ayati, Sedigheh; Vahidroodsari, Fatemeh; Farshidi, Farnoosh; Shahabian, Masoud; Afzal Aghaee, Monavar

2014-01-01

79

Rectal misoprostol in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage: A placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigated the effectiveness of rectal misoprostol in preventing postpartum hemorrhage. Study Design: In a randomized, placebo-controlled study, 550 women were randomly allocated to rectally receive 400 ?g misoprostol or nonidentical placebo after normal vaginal delivery. Any excessive bleeding was actively managed with conventional oxytocic agents. Blood loss was measured directly. Results: The baseline variables were similar. Blood

Anthony A. Bamigboye; G. Justus Hofmeyr; Derek A. Merrell

1998-01-01

80

Disruption of Prior Uterine Incision following Misoprostol for Labor Induction in Women with Previous Cesarean Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although induction of labor in women with prior cesareans is controversial, we compared misoprostol to oxytocin in such women in a randomized trial. The investigation was terminated prematurely because of safety concerns.Cases: Disruption of the prior uterine incision was found in two of 17 misoprostol-treated women. The first woman underwent repeat cesarean delivery at 42 weeks because of fetal

Deborah A Wing; Karla Lovett; Richard H Paul

1998-01-01

81

Early abortion with 800 ?g of misoprostol by the vaginal route  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to confirm the effectiveness and safety of self-administration of misoprostol every 24 h, for abortion up to 9 weeks of gestation. A group of 720 volunteer subjects with gestations from 35 to 63 days received 800 ?g of vaginal misoprostol every 24 h up to a maximum of three main doses for abortion. Outcome

J. L. L Carbonell Esteve; L Varela; A Velazco; R Tanda; E Cabezas; C Sánchez

1999-01-01

82

Randomized trial of two doses of the prostaglandin E 1 analog misoprostol for labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare the safety and effectiveness of intravaginally administered misoprostol at doses of 25 ?g and 50 ?g for indicated labor induction in patients with an unfavorable cervix. STUDY DESIGN: Three hundred ninety-nine patients received either 25 ?g or 50 ?g of misoprostol, placed intravaginally in the posterior fornix, in this randomized double-blind trial. The dose

Lisa A. Farah; Luis Sanchez-Ramos; Cesar Rosa; Gerardo Del Valle; Francisco L. Gaudier; Isaac Delke; Andrew M. Kaunitz

1997-01-01

83

Use of misoprostol for the termination of second trimester pregnancies.  

PubMed

Surgical termination of pregnancy is of high risk for the woman's health and safe medical ways are required. The use of prostaglandins may substantially reduce this risk. The efficacy and safety of misoprostol as a medication for the termination of the second trimester pregnancies were studied. During a 15-month period ninety-eight healthy pregnant women (13-24 weeks) wishing to terminate their pregnancy due to medical reasons participated voluntarily in this study. Misoprostol was administered 400 microg per os and 400 microg vaginally. Dose was repeated every 6 hours until adequate contractions and cervical ripening were achieved. Outcome measures included successful termination rates, mean expulsion time and side effects of the medication. The efficacy of the method was as high as 91.8% (90/98 cases 95%, CI 86-97%). Mean expulsion time was 10.2 h (range 3-23.4 h) for primigravida and 9.2 h (range 2.5-22.2 h) for multigravida. In 9 cases (9.2%) placenta remnants and in 8 (8.2%) placenta retention were found. Most common side effect was shivering in 17.3% of cases, vomiting and nausea (10.2%), headache and dizziness (7.1%), abdominal pain (79.6%), while diarrhea was noticed in 4.1%. The high efficacy and low incidence of side effects make misoprostol a useful alternative method for medical termination of second trimester pregnancies. PMID:11789746

Elsheikh, A; Antsaklis, A; Mesogitis, S; Papantoniou, N; Rodolakis, A; Vogas, E; Michalas, S

2001-11-01

84

Acute coronary artery vasospasm associated with misoprostol for termination of pregnancy.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin E(1) analogues, gemeprost and misoprostol, are the most widely used drugs for medical termination of pregnancy within the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Gemeprost has been reported to be associated with acute cardiovascular accidents in a few cases, but no adverse cardiovascular events have been reported with misoprostol. For this reason, misoprostol has been considered a potentially safer drug and is widely recommended as a first-choice drug in combination with mifepristone. We report a case of a 32-year-old woman with active smoking and obesity, who developed an episode of transient acute coronary artery vasospasm following the administration of intravaginal misoprostol. This report illustrates that misoprostol can also be associated with acute coronary events, although it remains to be evaluated whether the risk is similar or lower to gemeprost. PMID:20224253

Illa, Miriam; Bennasar, Mar; Eixarch, Elisenda; Berge, Raquel; Font, Carme; Palacio, Montse

2010-01-01

85

Misoprostol in the intestinal lumen protects against radiation injury of the mucosa of the small bowel  

SciTech Connect

Systemically administered misoprostol, a PGE analog, has been shown to be an intestinal radioprotector. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of misoprostol into the intestinal lumen can also reduce the severity of acute radiation enteritis. The rat small bowel was operatively exteriorized and segmented by means of suture ties. The remainder of the intestine and the rat were shielded in a lead box. Misoprostol was introduced into the lumen in various doses. After 30 min exposure to misoprostol, the isolated, exteriorized, segmented bowel was subjected to 11 Gy X irradiation. Five days later the animals were sacrificed and the intestines harvested for evaluation. Surviving crypt numbers per circumference and mucosal height were the criteria used for quantification of damage. Mucosa exposed to misoprostol at the time of radiation delivery showed significantly increased crypt numbers and mucosal height compared to adjacent saline-filled intestine. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Delaney, J.P.; Bonsack, M.E.; Felemovicius, I. (Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States))

1994-03-01

86

NOTE: Entropy-based automated classification of independent components separated from fMCG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is a noninvasive technique suitable for the prenatal diagnosis of the fetal heart function. Reliable fetal cardiac signals can be reconstructed from multi-channel fMCG recordings by means of independent component analysis (ICA). However, the identification of the separated components is usually accomplished by visual inspection. This paper discusses a novel automated system based on entropy estimators, namely approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn), for the classification of independent components (ICs). The system was validated on 40 fMCG datasets of normal fetuses with the gestational age ranging from 22 to 37 weeks. Both ApEn and SampEn were able to measure the stability and predictability of the physiological signals separated with ICA, and the entropy values of the three categories were significantly different at p <0.01. The system performances were compared with those of a method based on the analysis of the time and frequency content of the components. The outcomes of this study showed a superior performance of the entropy-based system, in particular for early gestation, with an overall ICs detection rate of 98.75% and 97.92% for ApEn and SampEn respectively, as against a value of 94.50% obtained with the time-frequency-based system.

Comani, S.; Srinivasan, V.; Alleva, G.; Romani, G. L.

2007-03-01

87

Misoprostol vaginal insert for induction of labor: a delivery system with accurate dosing and rapid discontinuation.  

PubMed

Labor induction and cervical ripening are widely utilized and new methods are constantly being investigated. Prostaglandins have been shown to be effective labor induction agents and, in particular, were compared with other prostaglandin preparations; vaginal misoprostol used off-label was associated with reduced failure to achieve vaginal delivery. The challenge is to provide this medication with the correct dosing for this indication and with the ability to discontinue the medication if needed, all while ensuring essential maternal and neonatal safety. The misoprostol vaginal insert initiates cervical ripening using a delivery system that controls misoprostol release and can be rapidly removed. This article reviews the development, safety and efficacy of the misoprostol vaginal insert for induction of labor and cervical ripening, and will focus on vaginally administered prostaglandins. PMID:24328596

Stephenson, Megan L; Hawkins, J Seth; Powers, Barbara L; Wing, Deborah A

2014-01-01

88

Spontaneous abortion: a randomized, controlled trial comparing surgical evacuation with conservative management using misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the efficacy of surgical evacuation of the uterus with medical evacuation using misoprostol in cases of spontaneous abortion.Design: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial.Setting: A university teaching hospital.Patient(s): Six hundred thirty-five women who aborted spontaneously and who consented to pretreatment randomization.Intervention(s): Routine surgical evacuation or medical evacuation of the uterus using misoprostol.Main Outcome Measure(s): Immediate, short-term (2–3 weeks),

Tony Kwok Hung Chung; Dominic Tak Sing Lee; Lai Ping Cheung; Christopher John Haines; Allan Mang Zing Chang

1999-01-01

89

Vaginal misoprostol in the management of first-trimester missed abortions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a regimen of vaginal misoprostol in causing the complete expulsion of first-trimester missed abortions, or alternatively dilating the cervix for surgical evacuation. Method: Seventy-four women with a transvaginal ultrasound diagnosis of a first-trimester missed abortion and no more than slight vaginal bleeding were consecutively enrolled. Misoprostol (600 ?g) was administered vaginally and repeated 4

D Ayres-de-Campos; J Teixeira-da-Silva; I Campos; B Patr??cio

2000-01-01

90

The efficacy of a 600-microgram misoprostol regimen for the evacuation of missed abortions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a 600-?g misoprostol regimen for the evacuation of first-trimester missed abortions.Materials and Methods: Stable patients with missed abortion diagnosed between 6 and 14 weeks of gestation were given three treatment options. Patients in Group I chose misoprostol, 600 ?g, intravaginally; Group II chose surgical dilation and curettage (D&C), and group III choose spontaneous resolution.

Wayne A. McCreath; Julie Kang; Jorge R. Martin; Makbib Diro; Jerry M. Gilles

2001-01-01

91

Pilot study on the use of sublingual misoprostol for medical abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new route of sublingual administration of misoprostol was used by 25 women with first trimester, non-viable intrauterine gestation and by 18 women requesting mid-trimester termination of pregnancy. Twenty-three women (92%, 95% CI 75, 98) with first trimester, non-viable gestation had complete abortion after sublingual misoprostol. All women (100%, 95% CI 82, 100) requesting second trimester abortion aborted, and the

O. S. Tang; P. C. Ho

2001-01-01

92

A comparison of misoprostol and prostaglandin E 2 gel for preinduction cervical ripening and labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to compare the safety ad efficacy of intravaginal misoprostal versus intracervical prostaglandin E2 (dinoprostone) gel for preinduction cervical ripening and induction of labor.Study design: One hundred thirty-five patients with indications for induction of labor and unfavorable cercices were randomly assigned to receive either intravaginal misoprostol or intracervical dinoprostate. Fifty microgram tablets of misoprostol were placed in

Deborah A. Wing; Margaret M. Jones; Ann Rahall; T. Murphy Goodwin; Richard H. Paul

1995-01-01

93

Human MCG measurements with a high-sensitivity potassium atomic magnetometer.  

PubMed

Measuring biomagnetic fields, such as magnetocardiograms (MCGs), is important for investigating biological functions. To address to this need, we developed an optically pumped atomic magnetometer. In this study, human MCGs were acquired using a potassium atomic magnetometer without any modulating systems. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is comparable to that of high-T(c) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) and is sufficient for acquiring human MCGs. The activity of a human heart estimated from the MCG maps agrees well with that measured with SQUID magnetometers. Thus, our magnetometer produces reliable results, which demonstrate the potential of our atomic magnetometer for biomagnetic measurements. PMID:22621881

Kamada, K; Ito, Y; Kobayashi, T

2012-06-01

94

Stability of nitroglycerin 110 mcg/mL stored in polypropylene syringes.  

PubMed

Various angiography procedures at Mayo Clinic (Rochester campus) require small bolus doses of injectable nitroglycerin. Commercially acquired containers of injectable nitroglycerin provide excessive amounts of drug for these procedural needs, so syringes were chosen as a container for dispensing of the dose needed. Due to nitroglycerin's known chemical attributes of volatility and sorption to plastic surfaces, careful consideration of the stability needs to be taken into account when storing in a syringe. Since there is a lack of stability information in the literature, we studied the stability of nitroglycerin in polypropylene syringes over 90 days. Methods used for this study consisted of a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay, visual appearance, and pH. Samples were stored protected from light at ambient controlled temperature and consisted of nitroglycerin 110 mcg/mL in 5% dextrose injection 10.1 mL in 12 mL Terumo polypropylene syringes. Samples were tested at intervals up to 90 days. Results from the visual portion of the study showed clear, colorless, and particulate-free solutions throughout the 90-day study period. The pH results started at 4.27 +/- 0.13 (day 0) and ranged from 4.19 +/- 0.17 to 4.92 +/- 0.43 throughout the study period. Potency test results revealed a day 0 concentration of 104.242 +/- 0.193 mcg/mL (batch 1) and 122.483 +/- 0.168 mcg/mL (batch 2). Results trended downward with percentage of day 0 concentration of 92.2% +/- 2.4% at day 14 and of 81.4% +/- 4.9% at day 90. Chromatographic profiles of the samples exhibited insignificant changes over the study period. The nitroglycerin peak was spectrally pure based on peak-purity analysis, suggesting that sorption to the polypropylene syringe is one possible reason for the concentration decline over time, but nitroglycerin is a volatile compound and loss through vaporization cannot be ruled out. Nitroglycerin 110 mcg/mL in 5% dextrose injection, packaged in Terumo polypropylene syringes with 10.1 mL aliquots, maintained 90% of syringe potency for 24 days when stored protected from light under controlled ambient conditions. PMID:24579303

McCluskey, Susan V; Vu, Nicole; Rueter, John

2013-01-01

95

A randomized trial to compare the use of sublingual misoprostol with or without an additional 1 week course for the management of first trimester silent miscarriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This randomized controlled trial compared the use of sublingual misoprostol with or without an additional 1 week course of sublingual misoprostol for the medical management of silent miscarriage. METHODS: A total of 180 women who had silent miscarriage (<13 weeks) was given 600 g of misoprostol every 3 h for a maximum of three doses. These women were randomized

Oi Shan Tang; Charas Y. T. Ong; Ka Yu Tse; Ernest H. Y. Ng; Sharon W. H. Lee

96

Safety and tolerability of once-daily umeclidinium/vilanterol 125/25 mcg and umeclidinium 125 mcg in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from a 52-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background The long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) umeclidinium (UMEC) and the combination of UMEC with the long-acting ?2-agonist (LABA) vilanterol (UMEC/VI) are approved maintenance treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the US and EU. They are not indicated for the treatment of asthma. Methods In this 52-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group safety study (GSK study DB2113359; NCT01316887), patients were randomized 2:2:1 to UMEC/VI 125/25 mcg, UMEC 125 mcg, or placebo. Study endpoints included adverse events (AEs), clinical chemistry and hematology parameters, vital signs, 12-lead, and 24-hour Holter electrocardiograms. COPD exacerbations and rescue medication use were assessed as safety parameters; lung function was also evaluated. Results The incidence of on-treatment AEs, serious AEs (SAEs), and drug-related AEs was similar between treatment groups (AEs: 52–58%; SAEs: 6–7%; drug-related AEs: 12–13%). Headache was the most common AE in each treatment group (8–11%). AEs associated with the LAMA and LABA pharmacologic classes occurred at a low incidence across treatment groups. No clinically meaningful effects on vital signs or laboratory assessments were reported for active treatments versus placebo. The incidences of atrial arrhythmias with UMEC/VI 125/25 mcg were similar to placebo; for UMEC 125 mcg, the incidences of ectopic supraventricular beats, sustained supraventricular tachycardia, and ectopic supraventricular rhythm were ?2% greater than placebo. With active treatments, COPD exacerbations were fewer (13–15% of patients reporting ?1 exacerbation) and on average less rescue medication was required (1.6–2.2 puffs/day) versus placebo (24% reporting ?1 exacerbation, 2.6 puffs/day). Both active treatments improved lung function versus placebo. Conclusion UMEC/VI 125/25 mcg and UMEC 125 mcg were well tolerated over 12 months in patients with COPD.

2014-01-01

97

Revealing the Relativistic Iron line in the Seyfert 1.9 Galaxy, MCG-5-23-16  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a 130ks observation of the X-ray bright Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG -5-23-16 with XMM-Newton. Our present analysis of the short XMM observations of MCG-5-23-16 reveals one the best known examples of a relativistically broadened iron K line, with the red-wing of the line extending down to 5keV in the EPIC data. Indeed MCG-5-23-16 is one of only a handful of objects that clearly show a broad iron line with XMM-Newton. Therefore it is imperative that we study the iron K line emission in this Seyfert galaxy in much greater detail. We also propose for a simultaneous 50ks Chandra/HETGS observation, to constrain the narrow core of the line. These observations will not only confirm the existence of the broad disk line, but also enable us to determine the accretion disk geometry.

Reeves, James

2004-09-01

98

Misoprostol for prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal mortality especially in the developing world. Misoprostol, a highly effective drug is highly effective in inducing uterine contractions and has been proposed as a low-cost, easy-to-use intervention for PPH.Objective: This study assessed evidence of the effectiveness of misoprostol for the prevention and treatment of PPH.Method: Databases searched included MEDLINE, PUBMED, CINHAL, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and EMBASE. Reference lists and conference proceedings were also searched for more studies. Three studies included in the meta-analysis were limited to randomised controlled trials (RCT). Two reviewers independently screened all articles for methodological quality using a standardised instrument adapted from the Cochrane Collaboration website. Data were entered in Review Manager 5.1 software for analysis.Results: Three trials (n = 2346) compared misoprostol to a placebo. Misoprostol was shown not to be effective in reducing PPH (risk ratios [RR] 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-1.06). Only one trial reported on the need for a blood transfusion (RR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-1.15). Shivering (RR 2.75; 95% CI 2.26-3.34) and pyrexia (RR 5.34; 95% CI 2.86-9.96) were significantly more common with misoprostol than with a placebo.Conclusion: The use of misoprostol was not associated with any significant reduction in the incidence of PPH. Therefore, in order to verify the efficacious use of misoprostol in the treatment of PPH, specialised investigations of its dose and routes of administration for clinically significant effects and acceptable side effects are warranted. PMID:23718882

Olefile, Kabelo M; Khondowe, Oswell; M'rithaa, Doreen

2013-01-01

99

Misoprostol Alone or in Combination with Methotrexate for Termination of Pregnancy at First Trimester  

PubMed Central

Abortion is an important problem in obstetrics throughout the world. The common and standard method for pregnancy termination at first trimester is surgery (curettage). Nowadays, an effective method of pregnancy termination at first trimester is medical treatments. The aim of this study is to compare misoprostol alone or in combination with methotrexate for pregnancy termination at first trimester. This study is a randomized clinical trial. A total of 200 pregnant women at first trimester were randomizedly divided into two groups for termination of pregnancy. The first group received 800 ?g vaginal misoprostol. If conceptus residual remained, the same dose of misoprostol was repeated. The second group received 50 mg/m² intramuscular methotrexate, and then 800 ?g vaginal misoprostol was administered after 72 h. If conceptus residual remained, the same dose of misoprostol was repeated after 24 h. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed at seventh day for both groups. Should conceptus residual remained or if pregnancy continued, curettage was performed. The results were analyzed statistically in terms of chi-square, and student’s t-test, using the SPSS software. A P-value equal or smaller than 0.05, was considered statistically significant. In this study, 83% of the first group and 81% of the second group had successful abortion. There was a significant correlation between the dose of misoprostol and abortion (P = 0.001) and between type of pregnancy and need for curettage (P < 0.000) in both groups, but there was no significant correlation between gestational age and the numberof doses administered (P = 0.932).In conclusion it seems that pregnancy termination by misoprostol alone or in combination with methotrexate is a safe and cost-effective method.

Vahid Roudsari, Fatemeh; Ayati, Sedigheh; Saghafy, Nafiseh; Shakeri, Mohamadtaghi

2010-01-01

100

Rectally administered misoprostol for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage unresponsive to oxytocin and ergometrine: a descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate whether rectally administered misoprostol is an effective treatment for postpartum hemorrhage unresponsive to conventional first-line management.Methods: We studied 14 women with postpartum hemorrhage unresponsive to oxytocin and ergometrine (n = 10) or, when ergometrine was contraindicated, oxytocin alone (n = 4). While awaiting carboprost, misoprostol 1000 ?g (five tablets) was administered rectally.Results: In all 14 women, the

Patrick O’Brien; Hazem El-Refaey; Alasdair Gordon; Michael Geary; Charles H. Rodeck

1998-01-01

101

A comparison of intermittent vaginal administration of misoprostol with continuous dinoprostone for cervical ripening and labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to compare the effect of vaginal administration of misoprostol (Cytotec) with that of dinoprostone (Cervidil) on cervical ripening and labor induction. Study design: Two hundred patients with indications for induction of labor and unfavorable cervical examinations were randomly assigned to receive vaginally administered misoprostol (prostaglandin E1) or the dinoprostone (prostaglandin E2) vaginal insert. Twenty-five microgram tablets

Deborah A. Wing; Gabriela Ortiz-Omphroy; Richard H. Paul

1997-01-01

102

Uterine rupture associated with the use of misoprostol in the gravid patient with a previous cesarean section  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose is to report our experience with uterine rupture in patients undergoing a trial of labor after previous cesarean delivery in which labor was induced with misoprostol. The literature on the use of misoprostol in the setting of previous cesarean section is reviewed. Study Design: This report was based on case reports, a computerized search of medical records,

Melanie M. Plaut; Martin L. Schwartz; Suzanne L. Lubarsky

1999-01-01

103

A double-blind comparison of the safety and efficacy of intravaginal misoprostol and prostaglandin E 2 to induce labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to compare the safety and efficacy of intravaginally administered misoprostol versus prostaglandin E2 for labor induction in a double-blind, randomized trial. Study Design: One hundred three patients with indications for labor induction (including prelabor rupture of membranes) were randomized and received either misoprostol 50 ?g or prostaglandin E2 (dinoprostone) 3 mg intravaginally. The dose was repeated

Daniel V. Surbek; Helene Boesiger; Irene Hoesli; Nenad Pavic; Wolfgang Holzgreve

1997-01-01

104

An Extended Multi-Zone Model for the MCG-6-30-15 Warm Absorber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The variable warm absorber seen with ASCA in the X-ray spectrum of MCG 6-30-15 shows complex time behaviour in which the optical depth of O VIII anticorrelates with the flux whereas that of O VII is unchanging. The explanation in terms of a two zone absorber has since been challenged by BeppoSAX observations. These present a more complicated behaviour for the O VII edge. The explanation we offer for both ASCA and BeppoSAX observations requires a very simple photoionization model together with the presence of a third, intermediate, zone and a period of very low luminosity. In practice warm absorbers are likely to be extended, multi-zone regions of which only part causes directly observable absorption edges at any given time depending on the value of the luminosity.

Morales, R.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.

2000-01-01

105

Comparison of Sublingual and Vaginal Misoprostol for Second-Trimester Pregnancy Terminations  

PubMed Central

Objective Comparing sublingual and vaginal misoprostol in second trimester pregnancy termination. Materials and methods In this study 268 women at 12-24 weeks of gestation candidate for pregnancy termination were enrolled. Women were randomly divided in two groups. The first group received 400 µg sublingual misoprostol and vaginal placebo and the second group received 400 µg vaginal misoprostol and sublingual placebo every 4 hours for a maximum of five doses. The course of misoprostol was repeated if the women did not abort within 24 hours. Results The median induction-to-abortion interval was shorter in sublingual group (12/72 hours in sublingual and 14/67 hours in vaginal). There was no significant difference in the success rate at 24 and 48 hours and in side effects. The preference for the sublingual route of administration was higher. Conclusion Both vaginal and sublingual misoprostol are effective for medical abortion in second trimester termination. But it appears from shorter induction interval in sublingual and higher acceptability that sublingual route is a better choice.

Milani, Forozan; Sharami, Seyede Hajar

2014-01-01

106

X-RAY ABSORPTION ANALYSIS OF MCG -6-30-15: DISCERNING THREE KINEMATIC SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

By analyzing the X-ray spectrum of MCG -6-30-15 obtained with the High Energy Transmission Grating (HETGS) spectrometer on board the Chandra observatory, we identify three kinematically distinct absorption systems; two outflow components intrinsic to MCG -6-30-15, and one local at z = 0. The slow outflow at -100 +- 50 km s{sup -1} has a large range of ionization manifested by absorption from 24 different charge states of Fe, which enables a detailed reconstruction of the absorption measure distribution (AMD). This AMD spans 5 orders of magnitude in ionization parameter: -1.5 < log xi < 3.5 (erg s{sup -1} cm), with a total column density of N{sub H} = (5.3 +- 0.7) x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}. The fast outflow at -1900 +- 150 km s{sup -1} has a well-defined ionization parameter with log xi = 3.82 +- 0.03 (erg s{sup -1} cm) and column density N{sub H} = 8.1 +- 0.7 x 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. Assuming this component is a thin, uniform, spherical shell, it can be estimated to lie within 11 light days of the active galactic nucleus center. The third component, most clearly detected in the lower oxygen charge states O{sup +1}-O{sup +6}, has been confused in the past with the fast outflow, but is identified here with local gas (z = 0) and a total column density N{sub H} of a few 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}. Finally, we exploit the excellent spectral resolution of the HETGS and use the present spectrum to determine the rest-frame wavelengths of oxygen inner-shell lines that were previously uncertain.

Holczer, Tomer [Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Behar, Ehud [Code 662, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Arav, Nahum, E-mail: tomer@physics.technion.ac.i, E-mail: behar@physics.technion.ac.i, E-mail: arav@vt.ed [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

2010-01-10

107

Performance comparison of independent component analysis algorithms for fetal cardiac signal reconstruction: a study on synthetic fMCG data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms have been successfully used for signal extraction tasks in the field of biomedical signal processing. We studied the performances of six algorithms (FastICA, CubICA, JADE, Infomax, TDSEP and MRMI-SIG) for fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). Synthetic datasets were used to check the quality of the separated components against the original traces. Real fMCG recordings were simulated with linear combinations of typical fMCG source signals: maternal and fetal cardiac activity, ambient noise, maternal respiration, sensor spikes and thermal noise. Clusters of different dimensions (19, 36 and 55 sensors) were prepared to represent different MCG systems. Two types of signal-to-interference ratios (SIR) were measured. The first involves averaging over all estimated components and the second is based solely on the fetal trace. The computation time to reach a minimum of 20 dB SIR was measured for all six algorithms. No significant dependency on gestational age or cluster dimension was observed. Infomax performed poorly when a sub-Gaussian source was included; TDSEP and MRMI-SIG were sensitive to additive noise, whereas FastICA, CubICA and JADE showed the best performances. Of all six methods considered, FastICA had the best overall performance in terms of both separation quality and computation times.

Mantini, D.; Hild, K. E., II; Alleva, G.; Comani, S.

2006-02-01

108

Advance distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) at home births in two districts of Liberia  

PubMed Central

Background A postpartum hemorrhage prevention program to increase uterotonic coverage for home and facility births was introduced in two districts of Liberia. Advance distribution of misoprostol was offered during antenatal care (ANC) and home visits. Feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness of distribution mechanisms and uterotonic coverage were evaluated. Methods Eight facilities were strengthened to provide PPH prevention with oxytocin, PPH management and advance distribution of misoprostol during ANC. Trained traditional midwives (TTMs) as volunteer community health workers (CHWs) provided education to pregnant women, and district reproductive health supervisors (DRHSs) distributed misoprostol during home visits. Data were collected through facility and DRHS registers. Postpartum interviews were conducted with a sample of 550 women who received advance distribution of misoprostol on place of delivery, knowledge, misoprostol use, and satisfaction. Results There were 1826 estimated deliveries during the seven-month implementation period. A total of 980 women (53.7%) were enrolled and provided misoprostol, primarily through ANC (78.2%). Uterotonic coverage rate of all deliveries was 53.5%, based on 97.7% oxytocin use at recorded facility vaginal births and 24.9% misoprostol use at home births. Among 550 women interviewed postpartum, 87.7% of those who received misoprostol and had a home birth took the drug. Sixty-three percent (63.0%) took it at the correct time, and 54.0% experienced at least one minor side effect. No serious adverse events reported among enrolled women. Facility-based deliveries appeared to increase during the program. Conclusions The program was moderately effective at achieving high uterotonic coverage of all births. Coverage of home births was low despite the use of two channels of advance distribution of misoprostol. Although ANC reached a greater proportion of women in late pregnancy than home visits, 46.3% of expected deliveries did not receive education or advance distribution of misoprostol. A revised community-based strategy is needed to increase advance distribution rates and misoprostol coverage rates for home births. Misoprostol for PPH prevention appears acceptable to women in Liberia. Correct timing of misoprostol self-administration needs improved emphasis during counseling and education.

2014-01-01

109

Oral contraceptives after myomectomy: a short term trial.  

PubMed

Following myomectomy the rate of fertility is restored and pregnancy may be attempted with a good outcome. In the present study a 3 month treatment with OCs in a group of women after a myomectomy was evaluated. The drug compliance and side effects, the benefits of OC in order to reduce symptoms, to increase post-surgical hemoglobin levels and to avoid an early pregnancy after myomectomy were analyzed. A group of women (n = 55) each with myoma >/=5 cm was recruited: they presented menorrhagia, pelvic pain, dyspareunia and dysmenorrhae. After laparotomic myomectomy the women were divided into 3 groups. Group 1: women (n = 16) treated with pill A (15 mcg of ethynilestradiol + 60 mcg of gestodene); group 2: women (n = 23) treated with pill B (20 mcg of ethynilestradiol + 100 mcg of levonorgestrel); group 3: women (n = 16) treated with a placebo (oral calcium). After three months from myomectomy and treatment patients in each group reported a reduced menorrhagia, dismenorrhea and pelvic pain. Serum haemoglobin levels increased in all women (P < .05). No pregnancy occurred in any group and the compliance was good. A post surgery treatment by using oral contraceptives guarentees pregnancy prevention, associated with reduction of pain, and improvement of haematologic conditions. PMID:19946429

Luisi, Stefano; Ciani, Valentina; Gabbanini, Massimo; Sollazzi, Sofia; Torricelli, Michela; Calonaci, Francesco; Petraglia, Felice

2009-01-01

110

Severe morbidities associated with induced abortions among misoprostol users and non-users in a tertiary public hospital in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Misoprostol has become a popular over the counter self-administered abortifacient in Ghana. This study aimed to compare the socio-demographic characteristics and clinical complications associated with misoprostol and non-misoprostol induced abortions among patients admitted to a tertiary public health facility in Ghana. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted at the gynaecological ward of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), over a four-month period using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analysed using Chi-square, Fisher’s exact and student t-tests. Factors associated with severe morbidity were examined using Poisson regression with robust error variance to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Overall, 126 misoprostol users and 126 misoprostol non-users were recruited into the study. About 71% of the clients had self-induced abortions. Misoprostol users were more likely to be younger (p < 0.001), single (p < 0.001), nulliparous (p = 0.001), of higher educational background (p = 0.001), and unemployed (p < 0.001), than misoprostol non-users. Misoprostol users were more likely than non-users to undergo termination of pregnancy because they wanted to continue schooling (p < 0.001) or were not earning regular income to support a family (p = 0.001). Overall, 182 (72.2%) of the women (79.4% misoprostol users vs. 65.1% misoprostol non-users; p = 0.01) suffered severe morbidity. Nulliparous women (adjusted RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.52) and those who had induced abortion after 12 weeks’ gestation (adjusted RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.18-1.57) were at increased risks of experiencing severe morbidity. The association between mode of abortion induction and severe morbidity was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Conclusion Self-induced abortions using misoprostol is a common practice among women in this study; nearly three quarters of them suffered severe morbidity. Nonetheless, severe morbidity among misoprostol users and non-users did not differ significantly but was directly related to the gestational age at which the induced abortions occurred. Health education on the dangers of self-induced abortions and appropriate use of medication abortion could help reduce complications associated with induced abortions in Ghana.

2014-01-01

111

Supernova 2011at = PSN J09285756-1448206 in MCG -02-24-27  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Announces the discovery of SN 2011at = PSN J09285756-1448206 in MCG -02-24-27 by Lou Cox, Jack Newton, and Tim Puckett (Ellijay, GA, in the course of the Puckett Observatory Supernova Search) on 2011 March 10.214 UT at unfiltered CCD magnitude 14.5. Spectra obtained March 11.81 UT with the Swift satellite (+UVOT) by F. Bufano (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Osservatorio Astronomico di Catania), S. Benetti (INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova), and A. Pastorello (Queen's University, Belfast, et al.); and on March 12 UT with the F. L. Whipple Observatory 1.5-m telescope (+FAST) by M. Calkins (reported by G. H. Marion, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), on behalf of the CfA Supernova Group) show SN 2011at to be a type-Ia supernova a few days before/around maximum. The object was designated PSN J09285756-1448206 when posted on the Central Bureau's Transient Objects Confirmation Page (TOCP) webpage. Initially announced in CBET 2676 (Daniel W. ! E. Green, ed.). Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

Waagen, Elizabeth O.

2011-03-01

112

The black hole and central stellar population of MCG-6-30-15  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first near-IR integral field spectroscopy observations of the galaxy MCG-6-30-15. The H-band data studied in this paper cover the central 500 pc of the galaxy at the best resolution (0.1 arcsec) so far. The spectra of the innermost regions are dominated by broad Brackett series emission lines and non-stellar continuum, under which we are able to trace the distribution and kinematics of the stars and also the [Fe II] line emission. We find that there is a counter-rotating stellar core extending out to 125 pc, which appears to be associated with the [Fe II] emission. Based on the mass-to-light ratio, and the presence of this emission line, we estimate the age of the central stellar population to be of the order of 65 Myr. We show that the gas needed to fuel the black hole is, at most, only 1 per cent of that needed to form these stars. We derive independent constraints on the black hole mass using the dynamical information and determine an upper limit for the black hole mass, MBH < 6 × 107 M?, that is consistent with other estimates.

Raimundo, S. I.; Davies, R. I.; Gandhi, P.; Fabian, A. C.; Canning, R. E. A.; Ivanov, V. D.

2013-05-01

113

Off-label use of misoprostol for labor induction: a nation-wide survey in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveOff-label use of drugs is frequent in obstetrical practice. No data however are available about nation-wide off-label use in obstetrics regarding frequency and patient information. The objective of our study was to assess the clinical practice of off-label use of misoprostol for labor induction.

Elke Krause; Simona Malorgio; Annette Kuhn; Corina Schmid; Marc Baumann; Daniel Surbek

114

The effect of prostaglandin E1 analog misoprostol on chronic cyclosporin nephrotoxicity.  

PubMed

Cyclosporin A has markedly improved graft survival in transplant patients but its side effects, such as renal toxicity and hypertension, pose management problems in transplant recipients. This toxicity has been attributed to prostaglandin inhibition. Concurrent administration of misoprostol (a prostaglandin E1 analog) prevents chronic cyclosporin A-induced nephrotoxicity but not hypertension in rats. PMID:8301454

John, E G; Fornell, L C; Radhakrishnan, J; Anutrakulchai, S; Jonasson, O

1993-11-01

115

A comparison of misoprostol with and without laminaria tents for induction of second-trimester abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether intracervical placement of laminaria tents would improve the effectiveness of the prostaglandin analog misoprostol for the elective termination of pregnancies in the second trimester. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-eight women between 12 and 22 weeks of gestation with either an intrauterine fetal death (n = 40) or medical or genetic indications for pregnancy termination (n

John K. Jain; Daniel R. Mishell

1996-01-01

116

Community-level distribution of misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage at home births in northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria, most deaths due to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) occur in the absence of skilled birth attendants. A study using community mobilization and the training of community drug keepers to increase access to misoprostol for PPH prevention was conducted in five communities around Zaria in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Community-oriented resource persons (CORPs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) recruited and counseled pregnant women on bleeding after delivery, the importance of delivery at a health facility, and the role of misoprostol. Drug keepers stored and dispensed misoprostol during a woman's third trimester of pregnancy. TBAs and CORPs enrolled 1,875 women from January through December 2009. These results are based on 1,577 completed postpartum interviews. Almost all women delivered at home (95%) and skilled attendance at delivery was low (7%). The availability of misoprostol protected 83% of women who delivered at home against PPH who otherwise would not have been protected. Policymakers working in similar contexts should consider utilizing commuity-level distribution models to reach women with this life-saving intervention. PMID:25022154

Ejembi, Clara; Shittu, Oladapo; Moran, Molly; Adiri, Faraouk; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Saadatu, Babalafia; Aku-Akai, Larai; Abdul, Mohammed A; Ajayi, Victor; Williams, Natalie; Prata, Ndola

2014-06-01

117

Influence of clinical and ultrasound factors on the efficacy of misoprostol in first trimester pregnancy failure.  

PubMed

An observational study including 276 patients with early pregnancy failure was performed to evaluate the clinical and ultrasound factors influencing the efficacy of misoprostol in the treatment of first trimester pregnancy failure. Gestational age did not influence the efficacy of this treatment and the success rate was inversely proportional to parity. PMID:16213867

Agostini, Aubert; Ronda, Isabelle; Capelle, Mariane; Romain, Fanny; Bretelle, Florence; Blanc, Bernard

2005-10-01

118

Different Doses of Sublingual Misoprostol versus Methylergometrine for the Prevention of Atonic Postpartum Haemorrhage.  

PubMed Central

Objective: In the poor underdeveloped countries, anaemia is very common in pregnant women. Maternal mortality is four times higher in severely anaemic women than non-anaemic ones and postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the most common cause of death. Its main cause is uterine atony, which accounts for more than 70%. The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of sublingual misoprostol in different doses of 600, 800 and1000?g in management of the third stage of labor, with regards to blood loss and incidence of atonic postpartum haemorrhag (APPH). Study Design: Double blind randomized controlled study Methods : One thousand and two hundred parturient were studied in a control and three study groups, each composed of 300 women. Methylergometrine 0.2 mg IM injection and sublingual misoprostol 600, 800 and 1000 ?g tablets were given to women in control and the three study groups respectively, immediately after delivery. Outcome Measures: Duration of the third stage of labour, Blood loss in the third stage of labour, Outcomes in anaemic compared to non-anaemic women, Incidance of atonic postpartum haemorrhage in different groups, Haemoglobin deficit after 24 hrs of delivery, Changes in the women’s blood pressure during the study, Side effects of the drug, and, Women’s acceptability of sublingual misoprostol administration. Results : Only significant reduction in blood loss and haemoglobin deficits were seen in the third stage of labour and after delivery in women used misoprostol doses of 800 ?g and 1000 ?g. The incidences of PPH in studied women and controls were almost similar, ranging between 2 and 3%. Similar results were seen in anaemic and non-anaemic women with a higher incidence of APPH in the non-misoprostol user anaemic women. Side effects of the drug were dose related. Conclusion : Misoprostol in high dose may be used for managing third stage of labour to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality due to APPH particularly, in the poor underdeveloped countries where, facilities to deliver in health centers, purchase and store the oxytocic ampoules or medically trained persons are not readily available in all places. Benefits of large dose misoprostol outweigh its side effects.

Soltan, M.H.; El-Gendi, E.; Imam, H. H.; Fathi, O

2007-01-01

119

A thin film magnetic field sensor of sub-pT resolution and magnetocardiogram (MCG) measurement at room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a very sensitive high-frequency carrier-type thin film sensor with a sub-pT resolution using a transmission line. The sensor element consists of Cu conductor with a meander pattern (20 mm in length, 0.8 mm in width, and 18 ?m in thickness), a ground plane, and amorphous CoNbZr film (4 ?m in thickness). The amplitude modulation technique was employed to enhance the magnetic field resolution for measurement of the high-frequency field (499 kHz), a resolution of 7.10×10 -13 T/Hz 1/2 being achieved, when we applied an AC magnetic field at 499 kHz. The phase detection technique was applied for measurement of the low frequency field (around 1 Hz). A small phase change was detected using a dual mixer time difference method. A high phase change of 130°/Oe was observed. A magnetic field resolution of 1.35×10 -12 T/Hz 1/2 was obtained when a small AC field at 1 Hz was applied. We applied the sensor for magnetocardiogram (MCG) measurement using the phase detection technique. We succeeded in measuring the MCG signal including typical QRS and T waves, and compared the MCG with a simultaneously obtained conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) signal.

Yabukami, S.; Kato, K.; Ohtomo, Y.; Ozawa, T.; Arai, K. I.

2009-04-01

120

Modelling the broad-band spectra of MCG-6-30-15 with a relativistic reflection model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectrum of the bright Seyfert I galaxy MCG-6-30-15 shows a broad Fe K? emission line, generally interpreted to originate very close to the central black hole which must then have a high spin. The observed X-ray variability is driven by a power-law component, with little variability found in the iron line energy band. The disconnection of continuum and line variability may be a consequence of strong gravitational light bending. The X-ray spectrum of MCG-6-30-15 is however complex, strongly modified at soft X-ray energies by warm absorbers, which some workers have extended to build an absorption-dominated model of the whole source behaviour. The absorption model interprets the whole X-ray spectrum without a relativistic reflection component and attributes most variability to the warm absorbers. We re-examine the XMM-Newton, Chandra and Suzaku data taken in 2001, 2004 and 2006, respectively, and construct a model consisting of several warm absorbers confirmed by spectral analysis, together with a relativistically blurred reflection component that explains both the soft and hard excesses as well. The model works well on data from all epochs, demonstrating that the reflection model provides a consistent interpretation of the broad-band spectrum of MCG-6-30-15.

Chiang, Chia-Ying; Fabian, A. C.

2011-07-01

121

Performance comparison of six independent components analysis algorithms for fetal signal extraction from real fMCG data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we compare the performance of six independent components analysis (ICA) algorithms on 16 real fetal magnetocardiographic (fMCG) datasets for the application of extracting the fetal cardiac signal. We also compare the extraction results for real data with the results previously obtained for synthetic data. The six ICA algorithms are FastICA, CubICA, JADE, Infomax, MRMI-SIG and TDSEP. The results obtained using real fMCG data indicate that the FastICA method consistently outperforms the others in regard to separation quality and that the performance of an ICA method that uses temporal information suffers in the presence of noise. These two results confirm the previous results obtained using synthetic fMCG data. There were also two notable differences between the studies based on real and synthetic data. The differences are that all six ICA algorithms are independent of gestational age and sensor dimensionality for synthetic data, but depend on gestational age and sensor dimensionality for real data. It is possible to explain these differences by assuming that the number of point sources needed to completely explain the data is larger than the dimensionality used in the ICA extraction.

Hild, Kenneth E.; Alleva, Giovanna; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Comani, Silvia

2007-01-01

122

Comparative effectiveness of Glycyrrhiza glabra vs. omeprazole and misoprostol for the treatment of aspirin-induced gastric ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) root decoction vs. omeprazole and misoprostol for the treatment of aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Animals were randomly assigned first to the \\

Mesut Sancar; Thaer Hantash; Betul Okuyan; Sule Apikoglu-Rabus; Zeynep Cirakli; Mine G. Gulluoglu; Fikret Vehbi Izzettin

123

A SUZAKU OBSERVATION OF MCG -2-58-22: CONSTRAINING THE GEOMETRY OF THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR MATERIAL  

SciTech Connect

We have analyzed a long-look Suzaku observation of the active galactic nucleus MCG -2-58-22, a type 1.5 Seyfert with very little X-ray absorption in the line of sight and prominent features arising from reflection off circumnuclear material: the Fe line and Compton reflection hump. We place tight constraints on the power-law photon index ({Gamma} = 1.80 {+-} 0.02), the Compton reflection strength (R = 0.69 {+-} 0.05), and the Fe K emission line energy centroid and width (E = 6.40 {+-} 0.02 keV, v{sub FWHM} < 7100 km s{sup -1}). We find no significant evidence either for emission from strongly ionized Fe, or for a strong, relativistically broadened Fe line, indicating that perhaps there is no radiatively efficient accretion disk very close in to the central black hole. In addition, we test a new self-consistent physical model from Murphy and Yaqoob, the 'MYTORUS' model, consisting of a donut-shaped torus of material surrounding the central illuminating source and producing both the Compton hump and the Fe K line emission. From the application of this model we find that the observed spectrum is consistent with a Compton-thick torus of material (column density N{sub H} = 3.6{sup +1.3}{sub -0.8} x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}) lying outside of the line of sight to the nucleus, leaving it bare of X-ray absorption in excess of the Galactic column. We calculate that this material is sufficient to produce all of the Fe line flux without the need for any flux contribution from additional Compton-thin circumnuclear material.

Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard, E-mail: erivers@ucsd.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States)

2011-05-01

124

The binding of opioid peptides to the Mcg light chain dimer: flexible keys and adjustable locks.  

PubMed

Enkephalins and beta-casomorphins (opioid peptides) were found to bind in a variety of conformations to a human light chain (Bence-Jones) dimer from a patient (Mcg) with amyloidosis. The peptides were diffused into crystals of the protein and their positions, relative occupancies and modes of binding were determined at 2.7 A resolution by difference Fourier analyses. Collectively, the opioid peptides occupied practically all of the available space in the concave, internal parts of the binding region, as well as flat or convex external surfaces around the rim of the binding cavity. Suitable ligands ranged in size from four to seven residues. As many as five residues could be accommodated inside the binding region, and there was space for at least four residues on the external surfaces. External binding was influenced by solvent effects and local packing interactions among adjacent protein molecules in the crystal lattice. In the enkephalin series the presence of amino-terminal tyrosine was necessary, but not sufficient for binding. [Met]-enkephalin, a pentapeptide, showed two different modes of binding in overlapping subsites. In one subsite, preferred over the second in a ratio of 1.3:1.0, the side chain of amino-terminal tyrosine penetrated through the floor of the main cavity to lodge in the deep binding pocket about 20 A from the entrance. The remainder of the peptide spanned the length of the main cavity in an extended conformation. In the second subsite the amino end was restricted to the main cavity and the peptide backbone turned abruptly upward at residue 3 to interact with external surfaces. An (Arg-6, Phe-7) heptapeptide extension of [Met]-enkephalin entered the deep pocket and assumed an extended conformation in the main cavity like the pentapeptide. Its last two residues flattened against the external surfaces. [Leu]-enkephalin and its analogues displayed a combination of internal and external binding like [Met]-enkephalin in its secondary subsite. Enkephalin analogues with D-amino acids in position 2 generally adopted conformations which were more convoluted than those in the L-isomers. Moreover, external interactions tended to be more prominent in the D-derivatives. The beta-casomorphin-7 heptapeptide penetrated into the deep pocket and traversed the main cavity in as extended a conformation as the presence of two proline residues would permit. On removal of the ligand there was an unexpected hysteresis effect involving permanent structural alterations in the walls of the binding region. beta-casomorphins-4 and -5 were bound in the main cavity with the carboxyl ends protruding from the entrance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3116411

Edmundson, A B; Ely, K R; Herron, J N; Cheson, B D

1987-09-01

125

Soft X-Ray Emission Lines from a Relativistic Accretion Disk in MCG -6-30-15 and Mrk 766  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectra of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies MCG -6-30-15 and Mrk 766 are physically and spectroscopically inconsistent with standard models comprising a power-law continuum absorbed by either cold or ionized matter. We propose that the remarkably similar features detected in both objects in the 5 - 35 A band are H-like oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon emission lines, gravitation- ally redshifted and broadened by relativistic effects in the vicinity of a Kerr black hole. We discuss the implications of our interpretation, and demonstrate that the derived parameters can be physically self-consistent.

Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Sako, M.; Kahn, S. M.; Brinkman, A. C.; Kaastra, J. S.; Page, M. J.

2000-01-01

126

Ulcerating and stenosing enteropathy treated with misoprostol: a case report with analysis of prostaglandin metabolism.  

PubMed

A case of a 40-year-old man with chronic anaemia because of nonspecific ulcerating and stenosing enteropathy is presented. The diagnosis was made on the basis of capsule endoscopy, histology of resected ileum and no use of NSAIDs. He showed a clinical response to treatment with misoprostol, and therefore, he was investigated for a possible impairment in eicosanoid biosynthesis compared with healthy controls. No deficient synthesis of prostacyclin, prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane was found on examination of metabolites in blood and urine. This suggests a normal release of arachidonic acid from phospholipids. Ex-vivo cyclooxygenase (COX) assays showed normal COX-1 and COX-2 activities. The clinical response to treatment with the prostaglandin E1 analogue misoprostol suggests a defective prostaglandin E synthesis in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:22786573

Havelund, Troels; Jensen, Boye L; Vinholt, Pernille J; Engvad, Birte; Stubbe, Jane

2012-10-01

127

Could American women use mifepristone-misoprostol pills safely with less medical supervision?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical methods of early abortion differ from surgical methods in that women themselves can potentially administer the regimens. As currently researched and offered, however, the main regimen used for medical abortion, mifepristone-misoprostol, is highly medicalized, involving several clinic visits and extensive physician involvement.We re-examined the role of clinical supervision in each step of the abortion process, using data collected during

Cynthia Harper; Charlotte Ellertson; Beverly Winikoff

2002-01-01

128

Chronic effects of misoprostol in combination with the NSAID, diclofenac, on gastrointestinal tract of pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the mode of protective effects of misoprostol against the chronic gastrointestinal ulceration from the NSAID, diclofenac, studies were undertaken in domestic pigs, a model of human gastrointestinal ulceration, to determine (1) the effects of repeated daily dosing for 10 days of diclofenac 5 mg\\/kg\\/day twice a day (as Voltaren tablets) on the gastrointestinal morphology,59Fe-red blood loss, mucosal myeloperoxidase

K. D. Rainsford; W. E. Perkins; P. I. Stetsko

1995-01-01

129

Labor induction with intravaginal misoprostol versus intracervical prostaglandin E 2 gel (Prepidil gel): Randomized comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare the safety and efficacy of intravaginal prostaglandin E1, misoprostol, with that of intracervical prostaglandin E2 (Prepidil gel) for labor induction.STUDY DESIGN: One hundred three patients with an indication for induction of labor were randomly assigned to induction with prostaglandin E1, 50 ?g intravaginally, or with Prepidil gel, 0.5 mg intracervically, every 4 hours until

Frank J. Chuck; B. Joyce Huffaker

1995-01-01

130

The prostaglandin E{sub 1} analog, misoprostol, a normal tissue protector, does not protect four murine tumors in vivo from radiation injury  

SciTech Connect

The clinical development of radioprotectors, such as misoprostol, to protect normal tissue during cancer treatment must proceed with the assurance that tumors are not protected similarly or significantly. To provide data on this critical question, radiation-induced growth delay with or without the presence of misoprostol was measured in four murine tumors grown in the flanks of mice: the Lewis lung carcinoma, M-5076 ovarian sarcoma, FSA and NFSA. The effect of misoprostol on the tumor control dose (TCD{sub 50}) of radiation was measured in FSA-bearing mice with or without prior treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, indomethacin. Misoprostol did not influence the in vivo growth of any of the four tumors, nor did it protect any of the tumors from radiation-induced growth delay. Likewise, there was no increase in the radiation TCD{sub 50} to treat the FSA in vivo in control or indomethacin-treated tumor-bearing mice. To measure any possible influence of tumor burden on the protective effect of miso-prostol on normal tissue in mice, the protective effect of misoprostol on the survival of intestinal clonogenic cells was measured in M-5076-bearing mice and found to be the same as in non-tumor-bearing mice. These data suggest that misoprostol protects normal tissue in mice without protecting at least four experimental murine tumors. The data support the contention that misoprostol can achieve therapeutic gain by protecting normal tissues without protecting tumors. 44 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Hanson, W.R.; Zhen, W.; Geng, L. [Loyola Univ. Chicago and Hines Veterans Administration Medical Centers, Hines, IL (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

131

Pharmacokinetics and safety of a 270 mcg kg-1 dose of room temperature stable recombinant activated factor VII in patients with haemophilia.  

PubMed

Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa), a haemostatic bypassing agent, has been shown to be effective and well-tolerated in patients with haemophilia at standard doses of 90 and 270 mcg kg(-1). A new room temperature stable formulation of rFVIIa was recently developed that was shown to be bioequivalent to and maintain the safety and efficacy profiles of the original formulation at a dose of 90 mcg kg(-1). The aim of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics and safety of rFVIIa-RT at a 270 mcg kg(-1) dose. The pharmacokinetics and safety of a 270 mcg kg(-1) dose of the newly formulated room-temperature stable recombinant activated factor VII (BHK-rFVIIa-RT) was evaluated in 23 subjects with congenital haemophilia A or B. The pharmacokinetic profile for the 270 mcg kg(-1) dose of BHK-rFVIIa-RT was in line with what was previously observed for the 90 mcg kg(-1) dose. The AUC(last) and C(max) of BHK-rFVIIa-RT at 270 mcg kg(-1) (346.65 h IU mL(-1) and 146.12 IU mL(-1) respectively) were proportionally higher than those observed at the lower 90 mcg kg(-1) dose of BHK-rFVIIa-RT (113.26 h IU mL(-1) and 52.83 IU mL(-1)) demonstrating the dose-dependent nature of BHK-rFVIIa-RT activity. There were no thromboembolic events or related serious adverse events reported with the increased dose of BHK-rFVIIa-RT, and no patients withdrew because of adverse events. This indicates that BHK-rFVIIa-RT was well tolerated at a higher dosage and maintains the favourable safety profile established by rFVIIa. Therefore, the 270 mcg kg(-1) dose of BHK-rFVIIa-RT shows dose-dependent pharmacokinetic effects that do not appear to increase the risk of serious adverse events. PMID:21371194

Morfini, M; Bjerre, J

2011-11-01

132

Sublingual misoprostol to decrease blood loss after caesarean delivery: A randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of sublingual misoprostol in addition to intravenous oxytocin, with oxytocin alone, in reducing blood loss during and following caesarean section. A total of 120 women undergoing caesarean delivery at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, were randomised into two equal groups. In Group A, 20 IU of intravenous oxytocin was given after umbilical cord clamping, while in Group B, the women received 400 ?g misoprostol sublingually and 20 IU oxytocin intravenously. The outcome measures were blood loss, additional uterotonics, change in packed cell volume and side-effect profile. Associations between variables were determined by the ?(2) and Student's t-test. Relative risks were calculated for side-effects; the level of significance was p < 0.05. Intraoperative and postoperative blood loss were significantly lower in Group B (451.3 ml vs 551.2 ml, p = 0.007; 22.7 vs 42.2 ml, p < 0.001, respectively). In Group B, women were 7.4 (p < 0.001) and 9.0 (p = 0.008) times more likely to experience shivering and fever, respectively. The need for additional uterotonics was greater in the oxytocin group (66.7% vs 27.6%, p < 0.001). The addition of sublingual misoprostol to intravenous oxytocin reduces postpartum blood loss and the need for additional uterotonics. There is however, an increased risk of shivering and fever with this combination. PMID:24724983

Ugwu, I A; Enabor, O O; Adeyemi, A B; Lawal, O O; Oladokun, A; Olayemi, O

2014-07-01

133

Herpes - oral  

MedlinePLUS

... HSV-2 is spread to the mouth during oral sex, causing oral herpes. Herpes viruses spread easily. You ... if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...

134

RXTE and BeppoSAX Observations of MCG-5-23-16: Reflection From Distant Cold Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine the spectral variability of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-5-23-16 using RXTE and BeppoSAX observations spanning 2 years from April 1996 to April 1998. During the first year the X-ray source brightens by a factor of approximately 25% on timescales of days to months. During this time, the reprocessed continuum emission seen with RXTE does not respond measurably to the continuum increase. However, by the end of the second year during the BeppoSAX epoch the X-ray source has faded again. This time, the reprocessed emission has also faded, indicating that the reprocessed flux has responded to the continuum. If these effects are caused by time delays due to the distance between the X-ray source and the reprocessing region, we derive a light crossing time of between approximately 1 light day and approximately 1.5 light years. This corresponds to a distance of 0.001 pc to 0.55 pc, which implies that the reprocessed emission originates between 3 x 10(exp 15) cm and 1.6 x 10(exp l8) cm from the X-ray source. In other words, the reprocessing in MCG-5-23-16 is not dominated by the inner regions of a standard accretion disk.

Mattson, B. J.; Weaver, K. A.

2003-01-01

135

Effect of misoprostol and indomethacin on cyclooxygenase induction and eicosanoid production in carrageenan-induced air pouch inflammation in rats.  

PubMed

Effects of misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) analogue, on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein level and exudate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) level were investigated in acute carrageenan-induced air pouch inflammation in rats. Treatment with misoprostol (12.5, 25, and 50 microg/kg) has been started in separated groups, 30 min and 2 days before carrageenan injection and it was given twice a day (total of five doses) by orogastric route. Indomethacin, in doses of 0.5 and 5 mg/kg, and specific COX-2 inhibitor SC-58236, in doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg were given 1 h before carrageenan injection by the orogastric route. Misoprostol increased the levels of PGE2 and COX-2 protein at all doses applied. Despite indomethacin and SC-58236 increased the level of COX-2 protein when they used alone, these drugs partially inhibited misoprostol-induced increase in the level of COX-2 protein. Partial inhibition of misoprostol-induced increase in the level of COX-2 protein by indomethacin or SC-58236 may indicate the modulatory roles of endogenous prostaglandins (PGs, especially, PGE2) on the COX-2 expression. PMID:12428691

Buluç, Mesut; Gürdal, Hakan; Melli, Mehmet

2002-09-01

136

Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of Syrian hamster embryo cells in utero from cell death and oncogenic transformation  

SciTech Connect

Misoprostol, a PGE analog, is an effective radioprotector of murine intestine and hematopoietic and hair cell renewal systems. The radioprotective nature of misoprostol was extended to examine its ability to influence clonogenic cell survival and induction of oncogenic transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to X rays in utero and assayed in vitro. Hamsters in their 12th day of pregnancy were injected subcutaneously with misoprostal, and 2 h later the pregnant hamsters were exposed to graded doses of X rays. Immediately after irradiation, hamsters were euthanized and embryonic tissue was explanted into culture dishes containing complete growth medium. After a 2-week incubation period, clongenic cell survival and morphologically transformed foci were determined. Survival of misoprostol-treated SHE cells was increased and yielded a dose reduction factor of 1.5 compared to SHE cells treated with X rays alone. In contrast, radiation-induced oncogenic transformation of misoprostol-treated cells was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to cells treated with X rays alone. These studies suggest that misoprostol not only protects normal tissues in vivo from acute radiation injury, but also protects cells, to a large extent, from injury leading to transforming events. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Miller, R.C.; LaNasa, P.; Hanson, W.R. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States)

1994-07-01

137

ASCA observations of the warm absorber in MCG-6-30-15: The discovery of a change in column density  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the first X-ray observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15 obtained at medium spectral resolution. The partially-ionized, 'warm' absorber is resolved and shown to be due to O VII and O VIII. The main absorption edge agrees with that of O VII at the redshift of the galaxy to within 1%. The column density of the absorbing material is greater by a factor of 2 in the first of our two obsevations, which were 3 weeks apart, while the mean flux is slightly lower and the ionization parameter slightly higher. We also discuss the flourescent iron emssion line seen in the source, which is at 6.40 keV. The line is significantly broadened, with a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of about 0.4 keV.

Fabian, Andrew C.; Kunieda, Hideyo; Inoue, Shigeru; Matsuoka, Masaru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Miyamoto, Sigenori; Otani, Chiko; Ricker, George; Tanaka, Yasuo; Yamauchi, Makoto

1994-01-01

138

Implementation of misoprostol for postabortion care in Kenya and Uganda: a qualitative evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate implementation of misoprostol for postabortion care (MPAC) in two African countries. Design Qualitative, program evaluation. Setting Twenty-five public and private health facilities in Rift Valley Province, Kenya, and Kampala Province, Uganda. Sample Forty-five MPAC providers, health facility managers, Ministry of Health officials, and non-governmental (NGO) staff involved in program implementation. Methods and main outcome measures In both countries, the Ministry of Health, local health centers and hospitals, and NGO staff developed evidence-based service delivery protocols to introduce MPAC in selected facilities; implementation extended from January 2009 to October 2010. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews evaluated the implementation process, identified supportive and inhibitive policies for implementation, elicited lessons learned during the process, and assessed provider satisfaction and providers’ impressions of client satisfaction with MPAC. Project reports were also reviewed. Results In both countries, MPAC was easy to use, and freed up provider time and health facility resources traditionally necessary for provision of PAC with uterine aspiration. On-going support of providers following training ensured high quality of care. Providers perceived that many women preferred MPAC, as they avoided instrumentation of the uterus, hospital admission, cost, and stigma associated with abortion. Appropriate registration of misoprostol for use in the pilot, and maintaining supplies of misoprostol, were significant challenges to service provision. Support from the Ministry of Health was necessary for successful implementation; lack of country-based standards and guidelines for MPAC created challenges. Conclusions MPAC is simple, cost-effective and can be readily implemented in settings with high rates of abortion-related mortality.

Osur, Joachim; Baird, Traci L.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Jackson, Emily; Murokora, Daniel

2013-01-01

139

Demonstration of specific E-type prostaglandin receptors using enriched preparations of canine parietal cells and (/sup 3/H)misoprostol free acid  

SciTech Connect

High-affinity, E-type prostaglandin binding sites in enriched canine parietal cell preparations were identified with (/sup 3/H) misoprostol free acid, a prostaglandin E1 analogue. Saturable, reversible, and highly stereospecific binding was identified, with approximately 8000 binding sites per cell. Prostaglandin I and F bound weakly, and cimetidine and histamine did not bind. The results indicate that (/sup 3/H) misoprostol free acid binds to E-type prostaglandin receptors, which suggests that the ulcer-healing inhibition of gastric acid secretion by misoprostol results from its interaction with a specific E-type prostaglandin receptor.

Tsai, B.S.; Kessler, L.K.; Schoenhard, G.; Collins, P.W.; Bauer, R.F.

1987-07-27

140

Comparison of isosorbide mononitrate (Mono Mack) and misoprostol (Cytotec) for cervical ripening in the first trimester missed abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare NO-donor isosorbide mononitrate to misoprostol, both applied as vaginal tablets for cervical ripening prior to first trimester curettage in patients with missed abortion. Materials and methods: Thirty women with missed abortion were assigned after a random list to be treated either with 200 ?g gemeprost (Cytotec, Pfizer, Germany) or with 40 mg isosorbide

Matthias David; Frank C.-K. Chen

2005-01-01

141

Intracervical sodium nitroprusside versus vaginal misoprostol in first trimester surgical termination of pregnancy: a randomized double-blinded controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Results from small-scale randomized studies on the effectiveness of different preparations of nitric oxide donors in cervical priming before first trimester termination of pregnancies are not consistent. We compared sodium nitroprusside gel to misoprostol, the standard agent for cervical priming in this randomized double-blinded controlled trial. METHODS: Two hundred pregnant patients between 8 to 12 weeks admitted for surgical

C. C. W. Chan; O. S. Tang; E. H. Y. Ng; C. F. Li; P. C. Ho

2005-01-01

142

Misoprostol in addition to routine treatment of postpartum hemorrhage: A hospital-based randomized-controlled trial in Karachi, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) remains a major killer of women worldwide. Standard uterotonic treatments used to control postpartum bleeding do not always work and are not always available. Misoprostol's potential as a treatment option for PPH is increasingly known, but its use remains ad hoc and available evidence does not support the safety or efficacy of one particular regimen. This

Nadeem F Zuberi; Jill Durocher; Rozina Sikander; Neelofur Baber; Jennifer Blum; Gijs Walraven

2008-01-01

143

Misoprostol inhibits gastric mucosal release of endogenous prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin analogues of the E-series theoretically offer the ideal antiulcer drugs. Peptic ulcer healing with prostaglandin analogues is, however, no better than would be predicted from their ability to inhibit gastric acid secretion and they are less effective than histamine H2 receptor antagonists in preventing ulcer relapse. It could be that prostaglandin analogues inhibit gastric mucosal synthesis or release of endogenous eicosanoids, thereby abrogating their own effects. This study, therefore, examined how a single therapeutic dose (200 micrograms) of misoprostol, a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1, influences gastric mucosal release of endogenous prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and chemotactic leukotriene B4 (LTB4) during basal conditions and in response to gastric luminal acidification (0.1 M HCl; 5 ml/min for 10 minutes). Nine healthy volunteers were studied in a single blind, cross over design. In each subject misoprostol or placebo was instilled in randomised order into the stomach, which was subsequently perfused with isotonic mannitol. Misoprostol significantly decreased basal as well as acid stimulated output of PGE2 and TXB2, without affecting output of LTB4. These data show that misoprostol inhibits gastric mucosal synthesis of prostanoids. Decreased concentrations, or even a changed profile, of native eicosanoids modulating the release of inflammatory mediators from immune cells might explain why prostaglandin analogues have a comparatively poor clinical performance in ulcer healing and prevention.

Mertz-Nielsen, A; Eskerod, O; Bukhave, K; Rask-Madsen, J

1995-01-01

144

Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol  

SciTech Connect

Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of {sup 51}Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in {sup 51}Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal {sup 51}Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol.

Miller, M.J.; Zhang, x.J.; Gu, x.A.; Clark, D.A. (Department of Pediatrics, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans (USA))

1991-07-01

145

Receptor binding characteristics of tritiated misoprostol free acid in enriched canine parietal cells  

SciTech Connect

Misoprostol (MISO) is a synthetic prostaglandin (PG) E/sub 1/ methyl ester with gastric antisecretory and mucosal protective properties. MISO is rapidly de-esterified to misoprostol free acid (MISO-FA) in enriched (65-80%) canine parietal cell preparations. Both forms appear to possess equivalent antisecretory potency and (/sup 3/H) MISO-FA is stable in these preparations. (/sup 3/H) MISO-FA binding was reversible and saturable with a maximal number of binding sites estimated at 8138 +/- 1893 per cell. The scatchard plot was linear, indicating a single, high affinity receptor population with a dissociation constant of 11 +/- 2.6 x 10/sup -9/ M. Unlabeled MISO-FA and MISO were equally potent inhibitors (IC/sub 50/, approx. 10/sup -8/M) of (/sup 3/H) MISO-FA binding. At 10/sup -5/ M, the dinor and tetranor ..beta..-oxidation metabolites of MISO were weak binding inhibitors. Strict stereospecific binding was shown by MISO stereoisomers, and the 11R, 16S isomer was most active. Both PGE/sub 1/ and 16,16 dimethyl PGE/sub 2/ were potent binding inhibitors, but PGF/sub 1/..cap alpha.. (10/sup -6/ M) and Hoe 892 (10/sup -5/ M), a stable PGI/sub 2/ analog, were weak inhibitors. Neither histamine or cimetidine competed for binding sites. These data indicate the presence of stereospecific E-type prostaglandin receptors in enriched canine parietal cell preparations.

Tsai, B.S.; Kessler, L.K.; Conway, R.G.; Schoenhard, G.; Stolzenbach, J.; Collins, P.; Kramer, S.; Butchko, G.M.; Bauer, R.F.

1986-03-01

146

Second-trimester uterine evacuation: A comparison of intra-amniotic (15S)-15-methyl-prostaglandin F2? and intravaginal misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to compare the efficacy, safety, and adverse effects of intra-amniotically administered (15S)-15-methyl-prostaglandin F2? and intravaginally administered misoprostol for second-trimester uterine evacuation. Study Design: Fifty-one patients were randomly assigned to receive either a single 2.5-mg intra-amniotic injection of (15S)-15-methyl-prostaglandin F2? (n = 26) or two 200-?g intravaginal doses of misoprostol (n = 25) at 12-hour intervals. The

Kenneth G. Perry; Brian K. Rinehart; Dom A. Terrone; Rick W. Martin; Warren L. May; William E. Roberts

1999-01-01

147

Prevention of NSAID-Associated Gastroduodenal Injury in Healthy Volunteers-A Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Study Comparing DA-9601 with Misoprostol  

PubMed Central

In addition to inhibiting cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may cause gastroduodenal injuries due to reactive oxygen species produced by recruited inflammatory cells. DA-9601 is a novel antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and cyto-protective effects. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of DA-9601 with misoprostol for preventing NSAID-associated gastroduodenal injury. In this randomized, double-blind, multicenter, noninferiority trial we compared the extents of protection of gastric and duodenal mucosae by endoscopy after 4 weeks of treatment with DA-9601 60 mg or misoprostol 200 µg three times daily, in subjects with normal baseline endoscopic findings who received an NSAID twice daily for 4 weeks. A total of 266 subjects were randomized to treatment. At week 4, the gastric protection rates with DA-9601 and misoprostol were 85.1% and 95.2%, respectively; the difference between the groups was -10.1% (var = 0.001), which was shown to indicate noninferiority of DA-9601 compared to misoprostol. Adverse events were lower in the DA-9601 group, 56.4% (95% CI, 48.0%-64.8%) than in the misoprostol group, 69.2% (95% CI, 61.3%-77.0%) (P = 0.031). DA-9601 is not inferior to misoprostol for preventing NSAID-associated gastroduodenal injury, and superior to it with respect to treatment-related side effects.

Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Choi, Seok Reyol; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Choi, Suck Chei; Rew, Jong Sun

2011-01-01

148

The Broadband Spectral Variability of MCG–6-30-15 Observed by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MCG–6-30-15, at a distance of 37 Mpc (z = 0.008), is the archetypical Seyfert 1 galaxy showing very broad Fe K? emission. We present results from a joint NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observational campaign that, for the first time, allows a sensitive, time-resolved spectral analysis from 0.35 keV up to 80 keV. The strong variability of the source is best explained in terms of intrinsic X-ray flux variations and in the context of the light-bending model: the primary, variable emission is reprocessed by the accretion disk, which produces secondary, less variable, reflected emission. The broad Fe K? profile is, as usual for this source, well explained by relativistic effects occurring in the innermost regions of the accretion disk around a rapidly rotating black hole. We also discuss the alternative model in which the broadening of the Fe K? is due to the complex nature of the circumnuclear absorbing structure. Even if this model cannot be ruled out, it is disfavored on statistical grounds. We also detected an occultation event likely caused by broad-line region clouds crossing the line of sight.

Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Miniutti, G.; Guainazzi, M.; Parker, M. L.; Brenneman, L.; Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E.; Arevalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boggs, S. E.; Cappi, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Elvis, M.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Reynolds, C. S.; Risaliti, G.; Stern, D. K.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W.

2014-05-01

149

EXTENDED NEUTRAL HYDROGEN IN THE ALIGNED SHELL GALAXIES Arp 230 AND MCG -5-7-1: FORMATION OF DISKS IN MERGING GALAXIES?  

SciTech Connect

As part of an ongoing study of the neutral hydrogen (H I) morphology and kinematics of 'shell' elliptical galaxies, we present Very Large Array observations of two shell galaxies with aligned shells, Arp 230 and MCG -5-7-1. Our data provide the first H I images of Arp 230 and deeper images of MCG -5-7-1 than previously reported. Optical images of Arp 230 reveal a bright, aligned, interleaved shell system, making it an ideal candidate for 'phase-wrapped' shell formation following a radial encounter with a smaller companion. The fainter, non-interleaved shells of MCG -5-7-1 do not clearly favor a particular formation scenario. The H I we detect in both galaxies extends to nearly the same projected distance as the optical shells. In Arp 230 this gas appears to be anti-correlated with the aligned shells, consistent with our expectations for phase-wrapped shells produced in a radial encounter. In MCG -5-7-1, we observe gas associated with the shells making a 'spatial wrapping' or looping scenario more plausible. Although the extended gas component in both galaxies is unevenly distributed, the gas kinematics are surprisingly regular, looking almost like complete disks in rotation. We use the H I kinematics and optical data to determine mass-to-light ratios M/L{sub B} of 2.4{sup +3.0}{sub -0.5} (at 13.5 kpc, 4.5 R{sub e} ) for Arp 230 and M/L{sub B} of 30 {+-} 7 (at 40 kpc, 7 R{sub e} ) in MCG -5-7-1. In both systems we find that this ratio changes as a function of radius, indicating the presence of a dark halo. By comparing orbital and precession timescales, we conclude that the potentials are slightly flattened. We infer a 5%-10% flattening for Arp 230 and less flattening in the case of MCG -5-7-1. Finally, we present images of the H I associated with the inner disk or (polar) ring of each galaxy and discuss possible explanations for their different present-day star formation rates. We detect total H I masses of 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} in Arp 230 and 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} in MCG -5-7-1. Both systems have H I masses, scale sizes, and regular kinematics similar to those of non-aligned shell galaxies we have previously studied (Cen A and NGC 2865). Furthermore, we (re-)emphasize in this paper that shell galaxies such as MCG -5-7-1, along with previously studied galaxies NGC 5128 (Cen A) and NGC 2865, are unique in that they provide evidence of recent accretion with gas and collisionless stars showing clear association, though the displacement suggests the presence of significant gas-dynamical interaction.

Schiminovich, David; Van Gorkom, J. H. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Van der Hulst, J. M. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands)

2013-02-01

150

Extended Neutral Hydrogen in the Aligned Shell Galaxies Arp 230 and MCG -5-7-1: Formation of Disks in Merging Galaxies?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an ongoing study of the neutral hydrogen (H I) morphology and kinematics of "shell" elliptical galaxies, we present Very Large Array observations of two shell galaxies with aligned shells, Arp 230 and MCG -5-7-1. Our data provide the first H I images of Arp 230 and deeper images of MCG -5-7-1 than previously reported. Optical images of Arp 230 reveal a bright, aligned, interleaved shell system, making it an ideal candidate for "phase-wrapped" shell formation following a radial encounter with a smaller companion. The fainter, non-interleaved shells of MCG -5-7-1 do not clearly favor a particular formation scenario. The H I we detect in both galaxies extends to nearly the same projected distance as the optical shells. In Arp 230 this gas appears to be anti-correlated with the aligned shells, consistent with our expectations for phase-wrapped shells produced in a radial encounter. In MCG -5-7-1, we observe gas associated with the shells making a "spatial wrapping" or looping scenario more plausible. Although the extended gas component in both galaxies is unevenly distributed, the gas kinematics are surprisingly regular, looking almost like complete disks in rotation. We use the H I kinematics and optical data to determine mass-to-light ratios M/LB of 2.4+3.0 -0.5 (at 13.5 kpc, 4.5 Re ) for Arp 230 and M/LB of 30 ± 7 (at 40 kpc, 7 Re ) in MCG -5-7-1. In both systems we find that this ratio changes as a function of radius, indicating the presence of a dark halo. By comparing orbital and precession timescales, we conclude that the potentials are slightly flattened. We infer a 5%-10% flattening for Arp 230 and less flattening in the case of MCG -5-7-1. Finally, we present images of the H I associated with the inner disk or (polar) ring of each galaxy and discuss possible explanations for their different present-day star formation rates. We detect total H I masses of 1.1 × 109 M ? in Arp 230 and 3.7 × 109 M ? in MCG -5-7-1. Both systems have H I masses, scale sizes, and regular kinematics similar to those of non-aligned shell galaxies we have previously studied (Cen A and NGC 2865). Furthermore, we (re-)emphasize in this paper that shell galaxies such as MCG -5-7-1, along with previously studied galaxies NGC 5128 (Cen A) and NGC 2865, are unique in that they provide evidence of recent accretion with gas and collisionless stars showing clear association, though the displacement suggests the presence of significant gas-dynamical interaction.

Schiminovich, David; van Gorkom, J. H.; van der Hulst, J. M.

2013-02-01

151

A Chandra HETGS Spectral Study of the Iron K Bandpass in MCG -6-30-15: A Narrow View of the Broad Iron Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the iron K bandpass in MCG -6-30-15 based on a 522 ks observation with Chandra's High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). The Chandra spectrum is consistent with the presence of a relativistically broadened, highly redshifted iron Kalpha emission line with a profile similar to previous observations. A number of narrow features are detected

A. J. Young; J. C. Lee; A. C. Fabian; C. S. Reynolds; R. R. Gibson; C. R. Canizares

2005-01-01

152

Improving manual vacuum aspiration service delivery, introducing misoprostol for cases of incomplete abortion, and strengthening postabortion contraception in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society of Bangladesh was an important advocate in mobilizing government authorities to adopt new techniques for postabortion care and provide long-acting contraceptives post abortion. With the support of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), the Society provided commodities and training to increase the use of these techniques in 7 private and public hospitals and clinics. Data from two of these institutes for the January 2012 to June 2013 period showed a rapid decrease in the use of dilation and curettage, an increase in the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and misoprostol, and the progressive adoption of long-acting reversible contraceptives, permanent contraception, and injectable contraceptives in one of these two hospitals. The Directorates General of Health and Family Planning incorporated training in the use of MVA and misoprostol in their national operation plans. The success in these hospitals shows that the proposed changes have been well accepted by providers and clients. PMID:24792403

Begum, Ferdousi; Zaidi, Shahida; Fatima, Parveen; Shamsuddin, Latifa; Anowar-Ul-Azim, A K M; Begum, Rowshan Ara

2014-07-01

153

Efficacy of vaginal misoprostol before hysteroscopy for cervical priming in patients who have undergone cesarean section and no vaginal deliveries.  

PubMed

We wanted to investigate the effect of misoprostol administered vaginally before operative hysteroscopy on cervical dilation, complications, and failure rates in patients who have undergone cesarean section and who have never delivered vaginally. Sixty patients who had undergone cesarean section, who had never delivered vaginally before, and were about to undergo hysteroscopy for various intrauterine lesions were included in this randomized controlled study. Thirty-two patients in the study group were given misoprostol 400 microg, and 28 patients in the control group were given placebo (hexetidine pill) vaginally twice, 6 and 12 hours before the procedure. Primary endpoints were cervical width detected with Hegar dilators and complication and failure rates. Mean cervical width was greater in patients in the study group (6.5 +/- 0.8) than it was in patients in the control group (3.0 +/- 0.6), (p = .0001). Complication and failure rates were lower in patients in the study group (p = .01). Administration of vaginal misoprostol before hysteroscopy proved to be effective in cervical ripening and in reducing complication and failure rates. PMID:18588848

Uckuyu, Ayla; Ozcimen, Emel Ebru; Sevinc, Faika Ceylan; Zeyneloglu, Hulusi Bulent

2008-01-01

154

A Chandra HETGS Spectral Study of the Iron K Bandpass in MCG6-30-15: A Narrow View of the Broad Iron Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a high resolution X-ray spectrum of the iron K bandpass in\\u000aMCG-6-30-15 based on a 522 ksec observation with Chandra's High Energy\\u000aTransmission Grating Spectrometer. The Chandra spectrum is consistent with the\\u000apresence of a relativistically broadened, highly redshifted iron K alpha\\u000aemission line with a similar profile to previous observations. A number of\\u000anarrow features are detected

A. J. Young; J. C. Lee; A. C. Fabian; C. S. Reynolds; R. R. Gibson; C. R. Canizares

2005-01-01

155

Matched-pairs analysis of ovarian suppression during oral versus vaginal hormonal contraceptive use  

PubMed Central

Background This study was conducted to compare ovarian suppression during oral versus vaginal hormonal contraceptive use. Secondary aims included comparison of endometrial thickness and bleeding patterns. Methods In two open-label trials assessing ovarian suppression, 33 compliant women completed both studies. They first used OCs [randomized to either 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/100 mcg levonorgestrel (LNG) or 30 mcg EE/150 mcg LNG] and subsequently used contraceptive vaginal rings (CVR) (daily release of 15 mcg EE/120 mcg etonogestrel), all 21/7 day regimens. Participants had at least one run-in cycle using each contraceptive method prior to evaluation. During one cycle of each method, women underwent bi-weekly transvaginal sonography to measure ovarian follicular diameters and endometrial thickness. We also noted presence of a corpus luteum or a ruptured follicle as a marker of ovulation. Participants recorded bleeding days on paper calendars. We used matched pairs analyses as appropriate. Results During follow-up, we identified at least one ovarian follicle ?8 mm in 20/33 (61%) OC users and 12/33 (36%) CVR users (matched pairs analysis, p=0.02). Similar trends were seen for larger follicles; however we had limited statistical power to evaluate these differences. Median follicular diameter among OC users was larger than median follicular diameter among CVR users (p=0.01). We did not observe a corpus luteum or ruptured follicle in any participant during either study. Endometrial thickness was similar during OC and CVR use (mean 4.1 ± 1.4 mm versus 4.1 ± 1.6 mm, p=0.9) as was the number of bleeding or spotting days (mean 2.1 ± 2.4 versus 1.9 ± 2.1, p=0.8). OC dose was unrelated to follicle diameter, endometrial thickness, or bleeding. Conclusions Ovarian follicles ?8 mm were more common in 33 compliant women during OC use than during CVR use indicating CVR use results in greater ovarian suppression than OC use.

Petrie, Kelsey A.; Torgal, Anu H.; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

2011-01-01

156

Misoprostol Abortion: Ultrasonography versus Beta-hCG Testing for Verification of Effectiveness.  

PubMed

Background and Objective: Miscarriage is a common complication of early pregnancy with medical and psychological consequences. Dilation and Curettage are considered as two standard caring ways for early pregnancy failure. Alternatively misoprostol has been used as a single agent for termination of early pregnancy. Aim of the present study was to compare the usefulness of serum ?-hCG measurement and ultrasound examination to predict complete abortion after medical induction. Methods: There were one hundred and thirty three patients experiencing missed abortion or blighted ovum. Ultrasound examination and serum ?-hCG test were performed before treatment and during follow-up in all these patients. Results: Treatment was successful without any need for surgical intervention in 92.4% of the cases. Both methods could verify the complete abortion among all the patients at the end of the study (4(th) week). Kappa agreement coefficient for the two methods of diagnosis was 0.327 (P < 0.5). Conclusion: Based on our results, ?- hCG is as effective as ultrasound in confirming a successful medically induced abortion in early pregnancy, but it should be used as supplements to clinical assessments. PMID:24550955

Behnamfar, Fariba; Mahdian, Mehrdad; Rahimi, Fereshteh; Samimi, Mansoureh

2013-11-01

157

Oral tolerance.  

PubMed

Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral antigen. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral antigen induces T-helper 2 [interleukin (IL)-4/IL-10] and Th3 [transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta] T cells plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and latency-associated peptide+ T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-beta, cholera toxin B subunit, Flt-3 ligand, and anti-CD40 ligand. Oral (and nasal) antigen administration suppresses animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental autoimmune encephalitis, uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis, and diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, graft rejection, allergy, colitis, stroke, and models of Alzheimer's disease. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), arthritis, uveitis, and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and nickel allergy. Although positive results have been observed in phase II trials, no effect was observed in phase III trials of CII in rheumatoid arthritis or oral myelin and glatiramer acetate (GA) in MS. Large placebo effects were observed, and new trials of oral GA are underway. Oral insulin has recently been shown to delay onset of diabetes in at-risk populations, and confirmatory trials of oral insulin are being planned. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time, and antigen-specific mechanisms of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy, and early therapy. PMID:16048553

Faria, Ana M C; Weiner, Howard L

2005-08-01

158

Misoprostol to treat missed abortion in the first trimester K. Gemzell-Danielssona,?, P.C. Hob, R. Gómez Ponce de Leónc, A. Weeks d  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missed abortion in the first trimester is characterized by the arrest of embryonic or fetal development. The cervix is closed and there is no or only slight bleeding. Ultrasound examination shows an empty gestational sac or an embryo\\/fetus without cardiac activity. Based on a review of the published literature a single dose of 800 ?g vaginal misoprostol may be offered

B. Winikoff

159

Observations of MCG-5-23-16 with Suzaku, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR: Disk Tomography and Compton Hump Reverberation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MCG-5-23-16 is one of the first active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where relativistic reverberation in the iron K line originating in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole was found, based on a short XMM-Newton observation. In this work, we present the results from long X-ray observations using Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR designed to map the emission region using X-ray reverberation. A relativistic iron line is detected in the lag spectra on three different timescales, allowing the emission from different regions around the black hole to be separated. Using NuSTAR coverage of energies above 10 keV reveals a lag between these energies and the primary continuum, which is detected for the first time in an AGN. This lag is a result of the Compton reflection hump responding to changes in the primary source in a manner similar to the response of the relativistic iron K line.

Zoghbi, A.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C.; Kara, E.; Harrison, F. A.; Fabian, A. C.; Lohfink, A.; Matt, G.; Balokovic, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W.; Hailey, C. J.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

2014-07-01

160

Ferritin above 100 mcg/L could rule out colon cancer, but not gastric or rectal cancer in patients with involuntary weight loss  

PubMed Central

Background A tenth of patients with involuntary weight loss (IWL) have gastrointestinal cancer. Ferritin is the first parameter to be modified during the process leading to iron deficiency anaemia, therefore it should be the most sensitive. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of ferritin to rule out gastrointestinal cancer in patients with involuntary weight loss. Methods All consecutive patients with IWL admitted in a secondary care university hospital were prospectively studied. Ferritin, haemoglobin with erythrocyte indices and serum iron were recorded for all patients. The reference standard was bidirectional endoscopy and/or 6 months follow-up. Results 290 patients were included, a quarter had cancer, of which 22 (7.6%) had gastrointestinal cancer (8 gastric cancer, 1 ileum cancer, 13 colorectal cancer). Ferritin had the best area under the curve (AUC), both for gastrointestinal cancer (0.746, CI: 0.691-0.794), and colorectal cancer (0.765, CI: 0.713-0.813), compared to the other parameters of iron deficiency. In the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, ferritin with a cut-off value of 100 mcg/L had a sensitivity of 93% (CI: 69-100%), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.13, with a negative predictive value of 99% (96-100%), while for gastrointestinal cancer, the sensitivity was lower (89%, CI: 67-95%), with a negative likelihood ratio of 0.24. There were three false negative patients, two with gastric cancer, and one with rectal cancer. Conclusion In patients with involuntary weight loss, a ferritin above 100mcg/L could rule out colon cancer, but not gastric or rectal cancer.

2012-01-01

161

Oral feeding.  

PubMed

Early nutrition can help to improve energy and protein intake and decrease the negative impact of the metabolic response to surgery. A key goal is to identify patients who exhibit increased respiration risk before beginning oral alimentation. Once a simple bedside 3-oz (90 ml) challenge, or early intervention in the oral care, administered by a trained provider is passed, specific diet recommendations can be made safely and confidently without the need for further objective dysphagia testing. Gastrointestinal motility disorders occur as part of the pathophysiology of diseases and critical illness, or are a result of medication therapies or enteral feeding complications. Inadequate energy intake in the first 7 days following extubation have recently been described. It would be highly beneficial to determine when it is best to initiate timely oral alimentation for recovering extubated intensive care unit (ICU) and more specifically surgical ICU patients to support the maintenance and rebuilding of lean body mass, maintain hydration, and permit the ingestion of oral medications. In a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 18 Spanish ICUs, within the scope of the 2007 European Nutrition Day, only 95 of 348 investigated patients (27.3%) received oral nutritional support. Constipation and diarrhea were common adverse effects. Unexpectedly, however, constipation episodes were more frequent than diarrhea in the patients not receiving oral nutritional support. PMID:23075585

Alvárez-Falcón, Ana; Ruiz-Santana, Sergio

2013-01-01

162

Oral Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing\\/recovering from chemo-\\/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases.

Irène Hitz Lindenmüller; J. Thomas Lambrecht

2011-01-01

163

Oral Warts  

MedlinePLUS

... Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts are small, white, gray, or pinkish rough bumps that look like cauliflower. They can appear inside the lips and on other parts of the mouth. Credit: NIDCR publication: Mouth Problems + HIV Download: Low-Resolution Image High- ...

164

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... t heal Bleeding in your mouth Loose teeth Problems or pain with swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

165

Oral Tumours  

PubMed Central

The authors of this article review briefly the anatomy of the oral soft tissues and describe the more common benign and malignant tumours of the mouth, giving emphasis to their clinical features. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8

Lecavalier, D.R.; Main, J.H.P.

1988-01-01

166

Oral Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Summary The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is the largest immune organ in the body and is the primary route by which we are exposed to antigens. Tolerance induction is the default immune pathway in the gut, and the type of tolerance induced relates to the dose of antigen fed: anergy/deletion (high dose) or regulatory T-cell (Treg) induction (low dose). Conditioning of gut dendritic cells by gut epithelial cells and the gut flora, which itself has a major influence on gut immunity, induces a CD103+ retinoic acid-dependent dendritic cell that induces Tregs. A number of Tregs are induced at mucosal surfaces. Th3 type Tregs are transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) dependent and express latency-associated peptide (LAP) on their surface and were discovered in the context of oral tolerance. Tr1 type Tregs (interleukin-10 dependent) are induced by nasal antigen and Foxp3 iTregs are induced by oral antigen and by oral administration of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. Oral or nasal antigen ameliorates autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in animal models by inducing Tregs. Furthermore, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody is active at mucosal surfaces and oral or nasal anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody induces a LAP+ Tregs that suppresses animal models (experimental autoimmune encephalitis, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, lupus, arthritis, atherosclerosis) and is being tested in humans. Although there is a large literature on treatment of animal models by mucosal tolerance and some positive results in humans, this approach has yet to be translated to the clinic. The successful translation will require defining responsive patient populations, validating biomarkers to measure immunologic effects, and using combination therapy and immune adjuvants to enhance Treg induction. A major avenue being investigated for the treatment of autoimmunity is the induction of Tregs and mucosal tolerance represents a non-toxic, physiologic approach to reach this goal.

Weiner, Howard L.; Cunha, Andre Pires da; Quintana, Francisco; Wu, Henry

2011-01-01

167

Measuring Supermassive Black Hole Spins in NGC 1365 and MCG--6-30-15 Using XMM-Newton and NuSTAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on detailed spectral modeling of the Seyfert 1 AGN NGC 1365 and MCG--6-30-15 using simultaneous, broadband X-ray spectra from XMM-Newton and NuSTAR. Both of these galaxies show evidence for relativistic reflection from the inner accretion disk in addition to complex, variable absorption. The high signal-to-noise across the 0.2-79 keV energy band enabled by these observations allows us to definitively disentangle the spectral signatures of the continuum, warm and cold absorption, and reflection from the torus and the inner disk in both sources. These deep pointings also enable the use of time-resolved spectral fitting in order to assess the role of each component in driving the spectral and temporal variability of the AGN. This type of analysis allows us to isolate the relativistic reflection signatures in each object, facilitating the most accurate, precise constrains ever obtained on the spins of their supermassive black holes.

Brenneman, Laura; Marinucci, Andrea; Walton, Dom; Risaliti, Guido; Matt, Giorgio; Harrison, Fiona; Stern, Daniel

2014-06-01

168

Disparities in Oral Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Site Index Share Compartir Disparities in Oral Health Oral health disparities are profound in the United ... individual's ability to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

169

Oral Haemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female.

Gill, Jaspreet Singh; Gill, Sharanjeet; Bhardwaj, Amit; Grover, Harpreet Singh

2012-01-01

170

Oral contraceptive use and bone density in adolescent and young adult women  

PubMed Central

Background Most of the millions of oral contraceptive (OC) users are under age 30 years and in the critical period for bone mass accrual. Study Design This cross-sectional study of 606 women aged 14–30 years examined both OC duration and estrogen dose and their association with bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip, spine, and whole-body (DEXA). Results Of 389 OC users and 217 nonusers enrolled, 50% were adolescents (14–18 years). Of OC users, 38% used “low-dose” OCs [<30 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE)]. In adolescents, mean BMD differed by neither OC duration nor EE dose. However, 19–30 year-old women’s mean BMD was lower with longer OC use for spine and whole-body (p=0.004, p=0.02, respectively) and lowest for >12 months of low-dose OCs for the hip, spine and whole-body (p=0.02, 0.003 and 0.002, respectively). Conclusions Prolonged use of today’s OCs, particularly <30 mcg EE, may adversely impact young adult women’s bone density while ingesting these agents.

Scholes, Delia; Ichikawa, Laura; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Spangler, Leslie; Beasley, Jeannette M.; Reed, Susan; Ott, Susan M.

2009-01-01

171

Oral contraceptives did not affect biochemical folate indexes and homocysteine concentrations in adolescent females.  

PubMed

The impact of oral contraceptive (OC) use, smoking, and alcohol drinking on biochemical indexes of folate and vitamin B-12 was investigated in 229 adolescents 14-20 years old recruited from advertisements in Ontario, Canada. Subjects completed a life-style questionnaire and a 3-day, weighed food record, followed by overnight fasting and the collection of blood samples. Of the 48 participants (21%) who were OC users, 30 had used the pill for more than 12 months. Only 37 adolescents (16%) smoked, but 94 (60%) had consumed alcohol in the month preceding the study. Median daily intake of folate and vitamin B-12 (including intake from supplements) was 215 mcg and 1.9 mcg, respectively. OC use, smoking, and alcohol consumption were not significantly associated with lower serum or red blood cell folate levels, after controlling for folate intake. Serum homocysteine levels were not correlated with smoking or OC use, but were 13% higher among alcohol drinkers than nondrinkers. Finally, although smoking and alcohol use were not associated with serum B-12 levels, OC use was linked with an estimated 33% lower serum B-12 level than was nonuse. These findings fail to validate concerns that OC use has a negative impact on the folate status of adolescent females, but suggest a need to improve the dietary folate intake of young women who smoke. PMID:9434651

Green, T J; Houghton, L A; Donovan, U; Gibson, R S; O'Connor, D L

1998-01-01

172

Comparison of isosorbide mononitrate and misoprostol for cervical ripening in termination of pregnancy between 8 and 12 weeks: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The present study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of isosorbide mononitrate (IMN) and misoprostol for cervical ripening\\u000a in termination of pregnancy between 8 and 12 weeks.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  This prospective randomized single blind study enrolled 40 women with singleton pregnancy seeking surgical termination of\\u000a pregnancy between 8 and 12 weeks of gestation. They were divided into two groups—group I received IMN

Nirmala Duhan; Sonam Gupta; Krishna Dahiya; Daya Sirohiwal; Seema Rohilla

2011-01-01

173

Oral leukoplakia.  

PubMed

Leukoplakia has evolved as a clinico-pathologic concept over many years, with the current clinical designation being accepted worldwide. Reflective of the biology of leukoplakia is the concept of cellular atypia and epithelial dysplasia. Adding to a better understanding of leukoplakia in general has been the definition of relevant clinical subsets which, in some cases, includes etiology (snuff), while in other cases a verrucous clinical appearance will suggest a more aggressive anticipated behavior pattern. Tobacco usage, in many of its forms, remains the prime etiologic factor; however, other considerations also apply. More recently, the potential etiologic role of Candida albicans has been stressed, as well as its possible role in carcinogenesis. So-called oral hairy leukoplakia has been defined in relation to a possible Epstein-Barr viral infection, usually in the immunosuppressed patient. Other viruses, human papilloma virus in particular, have been implicated in leukoplakia, while genetic alterations involving tumor suppressor elements (p53) have also been investigated. Finally, the management of this common condition remains a variable and includes local, topical, and systemic therapies such as anti-oxidants, carotenoids, and retinoids. PMID:7548621

Sciubba, J J

1995-01-01

174

Understanding Oral Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral

Moon, W. Jay

2012-01-01

175

Nicotine Oral Inhalation  

MedlinePLUS

Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine inhalation is in a class of medications called ...

176

Oral Cancer Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Support - Advocacy Research... and Hope About About The Foundation About Us Bruce Paltrow Fund Press Releases TV ... Videos & Images OCF YouTube Channel | The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public ...

177

Oral Cancer Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... in a localized intra oral area. Besides the metastasis, at these later stages, the primary tumor has ... oral cancers. Added to decrease the possibility of metastasis, to sensitize the malignant cells to radiation, to ...

178

What Is an Oral Piercing?  

MedlinePLUS

... to your desktop! more... What Is an Oral Piercing? Article Chapters What Is an Oral Piercing? Oral ... strenuous activity. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Oral Piercings A Fatal Fad? Tongue Studs Cause More Problems ...

179

Effect of oral glucose on serum zinc in the elderly  

SciTech Connect

To determine the effect of glucose loading on serum zinc concentrations, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-86 y were studied. Anthropometric data, medical and dietary histories were obtained. Serum zinc and glucose concentrations were obtained fasting and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2 and 3 h after 75 g oral glucose load; glycohemoglobin and fasting serum lipids were also determined. For comparison, the subjects were categorized as: normal or low serum zinc concentrations; normal or high body mass index BMI; normal or high sum of skinfolds and normal or high serum cholesterol. Results showed that low serum zinc concentrations increased significantly over baseline values after the glucose load and did not return to fasting levels. On the other hand, mean serum zinc concentrations significantly declined without recovery for those with normal zinc values. For the total group, no significant differences were noted between fasting values and subsequent time periods. No correlations were noted between fasting serum zinc and area under the curve for zinc except in the high BMI group (positive correlation observed). For the high BMI group, fasting serum zinc differed significantly from the succeeding measurements except for 30 min. For the group as a whole, mean serum zinc concentration was within normal limits (76.9 +/- 2.8 mcg/ml): mean zinc intake was less than 2/3rds the RDA. They conclude that glucose ingestion may alter serum zinc and should be considered in interpreting these levels.

Lopez, A.L.; Kohrs, M.B.; Horwitz, D.L.; Cyborski, C.K.; Czajka-Narins, D.M.; Kamath, S.

1986-03-05

180

The effect of oral contraceptives on orthodontic tooth movement in rat  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ethinyl estradiol/norgestrel ? used in some oral contraceptives- on orthodontic tooth movement in Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Forty eight female three-month old Wistar rats with an average weight of 250?25gr were divided into two experimental and control groups. One week prior to appliance insertion and during the appliance therapy period, 100 mcg/kg/day of ethinyl estradiol and 1mg/kg/days of norgestrel were administered to the experimental group by gavage; meanwhile the control group received an equivalent volume of Sodium Chloride 0.9 % (Saline). Maxillary central incisors were tipped distally by insertion of springs exerting 30g force. Two, seven and fourteen days after spring insertion animals were sacrificed. The mesioincisal distance between maxillary incisors were measured. Subsequently, histological sections were prepared for histomorphometric studies. Results: 14 days after force application the orthodontic tooth movement was significantly lower in the experimental group (p<0.05). The number of osteoclasts were significantly lower in the experimental group 2, 7 and 14 days after spring insertion (p<0.05). Conclusion: Ethinyl estradiol/norgestrel (oral contraceptives) can significantly decrease the amount of tooth movement in the linear phase. Key words:Oral contraceptives, orthodontic tooth movement, ethinyl estradiol, norgestrel.

Mirzakouchaki, Behnam; Ghajar, Kavoos; Seyyedi, Seyyed A.; Shalchi, Majid; Garjani, Alireza; Dadgar, Esmaeil

2013-01-01

181

Training traditional birth attendants on the use of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool to prevent postpartum haemorrhage: lessons learnt from Bangladesh.  

PubMed

A consensus emerged in the late 1990s among leaders in global maternal health that traditional birth attendants (TBAs) should no longer be trained in delivery skills and should instead be trained as promoters of facility-based care. Many TBAs continue to be trained in places where home deliveries are the norm and the potential impacts of this training are important to understand. The primary objective of this study was to gain a more nuanced understanding of the full impact of training TBAs to use misoprostol and a blood measurement tool (mat) for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at home deliveries through the perspective of those involved in the project. This qualitative study, conducted between July 2009 and July 2010 in Bangladesh, was nested within larger operations research, testing the feasibility and acceptability of scaling up community-based provision of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool for prevention of PPH. A total of 87 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with TBAs, community health workers (CHWs), managers, and government-employed family welfare visitors (FWVs) at three time points during the study. Computer-assisted thematic data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti (version 5.2). Four primary themes emerged during the data analysis, which all highlight changes that occurred following the training. The first theme describes the perceived direct changes linked to the two new interventions. The following three themes describe the indirect changes that interviewees perceived: strengthened linkages between TBAs and the formal healthcare system; strengthened linkages between TBAs and the communities they serve; and improved quality of services/service utilization. The data indicate that training TBAs and CHW supervisors resulted in perceived broader and more nuanced changes than simply improvements in TBAs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Acknowledgeing TBAs' important role in the community and in home deliveries and integrating them into the formal healthcare system has the potential to result in changes similar to those seen in this study. PMID:24847601

Bell, Suzanne; Passano, Paige; Bohl, Daniel D; Islam, Arshadul; Prata, Ndola

2014-03-01

182

Ulcer Prevention in Long-term Users of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs: Results of a Double-blind, Randomized, Multicenter, Active and Placebo-Controlled Study of Misoprostol vs Lansoprazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

(95% confidence interval (CI), 41.1%-61.3%); misopros- tol, 93% (95% CI, 87.2%-97.9%); 15-mg lansoprazole, 80% (95% CI, 72.5%-87.3%); and 30-mg lansoprazole, 82% (95% CI, 75.0%-89.6%). A significantly higher proportion of patients in the misoprostol group re- ported treatment-related adverse events and early with- drawal from the study. When the impact of withdrawals on ulcer development was considered (as failures), therapy was

David Y. Graham; Naurang M. Agrawal; Donald R. Campbell; Marian M. Haber; Cyndy Collis; Nancy L. Lukasik; Bidan Huang

2002-01-01

183

Divergent Effects of a Combined Hormonal Oral Contraceptive on Insulin Sensitivity in Lean versus Obese Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effects of a commonly used combined hormonal oral contraceptive (OC) on carbohydrate metabolism in obese as compared with obese women. Design 6-month prospective study. Setting Clinical Research Center at an academic medical center. Patients Premenopausal non-diabetic women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 (n=15) or > 30 kg/m2 (n=14). Intervention Ethinyl estradiol 35mcg and norgestimate 0.18/0.215/0.25 mg for 6 cycles. Main Outcome Measures Insulin sensitivity (Si) by frequent sampling intravenous glucose tolerance test; other indices of insulin sensitivity (ISI HOMA, Matsuda index); fasting lipid panel. Results Si changed from 6.62±3.69 min?1/mu/L (baseline) to 8.23±3.30 min?1/mu/L (6 months) in lean women, and from 4.36±2.32 to 3.82±2.32 min?1/mu/L in obese women (p for interaction=0.0494). Divergent effects on insulin sensitivity were also observed with ISI HOMA (p=0.0128) and Matsuda index (p=0.0227). LDL increased by approximately 20 mg/dL in both groups (p<0.005 [lean]; p<0.01 [obese]). Conclusions Lean and obese women exhibit differential changes in insulin sensitivity when given 6 months of a commonly used OC. The mechanisms of these differences, and whether these divergent effects persist long-term, require further investigations. Capsule Lean and obese non-diabetic women exhibit differential changes in insulin sensitivity when given 6 months of a commonly used OC (ethinyl estradiol 35mcg and norgestimate 0.18/0.215/0.25 mg)

Cheang, Kai I.; Essah, Paulina A.; Sharma, Susmeeta; Wickham, Edmond P.; Nestler, John E.

2011-01-01

184

Use of Simulated Patients to Evaluate Combined Oral Contraceptive Dispensing Practices of Community Pharmacists  

PubMed Central

Background Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use is the most commonly used reversible method of birth control. The incorrect use of COCs is frequent and one of the most common causes of unintended pregnancies. Community pharmacists (CPs) are in a strategic position to improve COC use because they are the last health professional to interact with patients before drug use. Objective To evaluate the COC dispensing practices of CPs in a developing country. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies of Assis and Ourinhos microregions, Brazil, between June 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012. Four simulated patients (SPs) (with counseled audio recording) visited community pharmacies with a prescription for Ciclo 21® (a COC containing ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg + levonorgestrel 15 mcg). The audio recording of every SP visit was listened to independently by 3 researchers to evaluate the COC dispensing practice. The percentage of CPs who performed a screening for safe use of COCs (i.e., taking of patients’ medical and family history, and measuring of blood pressure) and provided counseling, as well as the quality of the screening and counseling, were evaluated. Results Of the 185 CPs contacted, 41 (22.2%) agreed to participate in the study and finished the study protocol. Only 3 CPs asked the SP a question (1 question asked by each professional), and all of the questions were closed-ended, viz., “do you smoke?” (n = 2) and “what is your age?” (n = 1). None of the CPs measured the patient’s blood pressure. Six CPs provided counseling when dispensing COCs (drug dosing, 5 CPs; possible adverse effects, 2 CPs), and one CP provided counseling regarding both aspects. Conclusion The CPs evaluated did not dispense COC appropriately and could influence in the occurrence of negatives therapeutic outcomes such as adverse effects and treatment failure.

Obreli-Neto, Paulo Roque; Pereira, Leonardo Regis Leira; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Baldoni, Andre de Oliveira; Marusic, Srecko; de Lyra-Junior, Divaldo Pereira; de Almeida, Kelsen Luis; Pazete, Ana Claudia Montolezi; do Nascimento, Janaina Dutra; Kos, Mitja; Girotto, Edmarlon; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

2013-01-01

185

Oral Delivery of Taxanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral treatment with cytotoxic agents is tobe preferred as this administration routeis convenient to patients, reducesadministration costs and facilitates theuse of more chronic treatment regimens. Forthe taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel,however, low oral bioavailability haslimited development of treatment by theoral route. Preclinical studies with mdr1aP-glycoprotein knock-out mice, which lackfunctional P-glycoprotein activity in thegut, have shown significant bioavailabilityof orally administered paclitaxel.Additional studies

Mirte M. Malingré; Jos H. Beijnen; Jan H. M. Schellens

2001-01-01

186

Materiality and oral documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information professionals focus on artifacts. This focus shows the value information science has placed on materiality or physicality in its efforts to preserve and make artifacts in specific media accessible. But this focus has proven less useful when dealing with information that becomes available orally. As a strategy to increase understanding of oral information, Turner asserted that it can emerge

Deborah Turner; Warren Allen

2011-01-01

187

Genes and oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancers have been one of the leading causes of deaths particularly in the developing countries. Prime reason for this high mortality and morbidity is attributed to the delay in diagnosis and prompt treatment. Relentless research in the field of oncology has led to the advent of novel procedures for the early detection of oral cancers. Molecular biology is highly promising in this regard. It is a procedure that detects alterations at a molecular level much before they are seen under a microscope and much before clinical changes occur. Molecular studies serve as the basis by which we will eventually be able not only to augment clinical assessment and classification of oral lesions but also predict malignant potential of oral lesions, thus reducing the incidence and increasing the scope for early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancers. However, making such sophisticated tools available for the common man in developing countries is one of the most important challenges faced today.

Jurel, Sunit Kumar; Gupta, Durga Shanker; Singh, Raghuwar D.; Singh, Mrinalini; Srivastava, Shilpi

2014-01-01

188

75 FR 62591 - Oral Argument  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Oral Argument AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board...hereby given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of: Hyginus U. Aguzie...or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of Hyginus U....

2010-10-12

189

75 FR 56146 - Oral Argument  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Oral Argument AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board...hereby given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers...or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K....

2010-09-15

190

American Academy of Oral Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... the Date! AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

191

Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.  

PubMed

Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers. PMID:23966202

Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

2013-09-01

192

Huli oral health.  

PubMed

The Tari oral health study was conducted in 1985 and aimed to provide an oral health profile of a rural highlands community. The sample was selected from the database of the Tari Research Unit, Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea and consisted of 815 Huli people aged from 3 to 64 years, in seven age groups, who were examined for oral health status and had completed an interview-questionnaire. A wide range of oral health status was seen, ranging from excellent to very poor. Dental caries and periodontal disease were common in the population. Oral habits such as smoking and betelnut chewing were associated with an increase in leukoplakia, which may lead to oral cancer in some people. Dental caries varied in prevalence and severity. Higher decayed, missing and filled teeth scores in the primary teeth of young children were associated with defective tooth formation (hypoplasia) linked to maternal and childhood illnesses and nutritional deficiencies. Older adults had the worst oral health, with the 45-64 year old group having a caries prevalence of 95% and a decayed, missing and filled teeth score of 14.7. Root surface caries, seen as a consequence of poor oral hygiene and gum recession, was the major site of caries attack in the older Hull. The public oral health services are unable to reach a large proportion of the rural population, and people continue to use traditional herbal and folk remedies. Many seek the skills of local tooth extractors who use six-inch nails with no anaesthetic. PMID:14658829

Newell, Paul L

2002-01-01

193

What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?  

MedlinePLUS

... oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? Oral cavity cancer, or just ... parts of the mouth and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes ...

194

Comparison of a Two-Lead, Computerized, Resting ECG Signal Analysis De vice, the MultiFunction-CardioGramsm or MCG (a.k.a. 3DMP), to Quantitative Coronary Angiography for the Detection of Relevant Coronary Artery Stenosis (>70%) - A Meta-Analysis of all Published Trials Performed and Analyzed in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Accurate, non-invasive diagnosis of, and screening for, coronary artery disease (CAD) and restenosis after coronary revascularization has been a challenge due to either low sensitivity\\/specificity or relevant morbidity associated with current diagnostic modalities. Methods: To assess sensitivity and specificity of a new computerized, multiphase, resting electrocardiogram analysis device (MultiFunction-CardioGramsm or MCG a.k.a. 3DMP) for the detection of relevant coronary

John E. Strobeck; Joseph T. Shen; Binoy Singh; Kotaro Obunai; Charles Miceli; Howard Sacher; Franz Ritucci; Michael Imhoff

195

Oral Thrush (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... of the yeast (a type of fungus) called Candida albicans . Candida overgrowth can lead to vaginal (yeast) infections, diaper ... oral thrush. Most people (including infants) naturally have Candida in their mouths and digestive tracts, which is ...

196

Dehydration and Oral Rehydration  

MedlinePLUS

... v Oral rehydration fluids. These are also called electrolyte solutions. These fluids are made for situations when ... diarrhea. These fluids provide water as well as electrolytes (like salt), which the body loses during vomiting ...

197

Oral Cancer Exam  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes HIV/AIDS Order Free Publications English and Spanish brochures available free of charge. ... early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide ...

198

Epilepsy and Oral Contraception  

PubMed Central

A controlled cross-over trial in 20 epileptic women, receiving regular anticonvulsant therapy showed that an oral contraceptive with a low oestrogen/ progestogen content had no significant effect on the average frequency of fits compared with identical dummy tablets.

Espir, Michael; Walker, M. E.; Lawson, June P.

1969-01-01

199

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

200

Oral and systemic photoprotection.  

PubMed

Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

2014-01-01

201

Communication among Oral Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities.

Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.

2002-01-01

202

Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can the Hmong history of Minnnesota be best understood? One good place to start is with oral histories of their own experiences. Various Hmong experiences, along with other ethnic groups, are told with a flourish on the Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories site. Created by the Minnesota Historical Society, this site contains over 360 oral history interviews conducted between 1967 and 2012. Visitors can click on any of the groups listed to get started, then find detailed transcripts, streaming audio, and thumbnail sketches of participants. The Tibetan collection is quite a gem as visitors can learn about the U.S. Tibetan Resettlement Project from 1990. Overall, it's a wonderful way to learn about the diversity of the people who have come to call Minnesota home.

203

Oral heparin: status review.  

PubMed

Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. Extended out-of-hospital treatment is inconvenient in that these agents must be administered parenterally. Current research is directed at development of a safe and effective oral antithrombotic agent as an alternative for the effective, yet difficult to use vitamin K antagonists. A novel drug delivery technology that facilitates transport of drugs across the gastrointestinal epithelium has been harnessed to develop an oral dosage form of unfractionated heparin. Combining unfractionated heparin with the carrier molecule, sodium N-(8 [2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino) caprylate, or SNAC has markedly increased the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Preclinical and clinical studies to-date suggests that oral heparin-SNAC can confer a clinical efficacious effect; further confirmation is sought in planned clinical trials. PMID:16686945

Arbit, Ehud; Goldberg, Michael; Gomez-Orellana, Isabel; Majuru, Shingai

2006-01-01

204

Oral heparin: status review  

PubMed Central

Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. Extended out-of-hospital treatment is inconvenient in that these agents must be administered parenterally. Current research is directed at development of a safe and effective oral antithrombotic agent as an alternative for the effective, yet difficult to use vitamin K antagonists. A novel drug delivery technology that facilitates transport of drugs across the gastrointestinal epithelium has been harnessed to develop an oral dosage form of unfractionated heparin. Combining unfractionated heparin with the carrier molecule, sodium N-(8 [2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino) caprylate, or SNAC has markedly increased the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Preclinical and clinical studies to-date suggests that oral heparin-SNAC can confer a clinical efficacious effect; further confirmation is sought in planned clinical trials.

Arbit, Ehud; Goldberg, Michael; Gomez-Orellana, Isabel; Majuru, Shingai

2006-01-01

205

The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?  

PubMed Central

The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the oral microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease.

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

2010-01-01

206

Oral myiasis in children  

PubMed Central

Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed.

Reddy, M. H. Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M. R.

2012-01-01

207

Oral myiasis: case report.  

PubMed

Oral myiasis is a rare disease caused by larvae of dipteran flies. Houseflies are strongly suspected of transmitting at least 65 diseases to humans, including typhoid fever, dysentery and cholera. Flies regurgitate and excrete wherever they come to rest and thereby mechanically are the root cause for disease organisms. A case of oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana in the maxillary anterior region in a 40-year-old patient is presented. Manual removal of maggots, and surgical debridement of wound was done followed by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic medications. A note on the identification of the larva and histopathology of the tissue is also highlighted here. PMID:24552939

Jimson, S; Prakash, C A; Balachandran, C; Raman, M

2013-01-01

208

Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy.

Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

2011-01-01

209

Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

Journal of Dental Education, 1987

1987-01-01

210

Global Oral Health Inequalities: Oral Infections–Challenges and Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four oral mucosal infections were identified as Global Oral Health Priorities: (a) HIV and associated viral, bacterial, and fungal infections; (b) tuberculosis; (c) NOMA; and (d) sexually transmitted diseases. Huge global inequalities exist in all four. HIV-associated infections constitute the major challenge. Oral manifestations of AIDS can be specifically diagnostic, indicating a significant role for dentists within health teams. The

S. Challacombe; M. Chidzonga; M. Glick; T. Hodgson; M. Magalhães; C. Shiboski; F. Owotade; R. Ranganathan; S. Naidoo

2011-01-01

211

Oral biofilms, oral and periodontal infections, and systemic disease.  

PubMed

Purpose: Oral biofilms harbor several hundreds of species of bacteria as well as spirochetes, protozoa, fungi and viruses. The composition of the oral biofilm varies from health to disease. It is the source of microorganisms that cause dental and periodontal infections. Oral infections and periodontal disease have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of several important chronic systemic diseases. PMID:24479275

Maddi, Abhiram; Scannapieco, Frank A

2013-10-01

212

Vietnam: An Oral History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a writing assignment in which students collected oral histories from Vietnam veterans in their community, edited the transcripts of their interviews, prepared manuscripts for a booklet of ten interviews, and composed cover letters for the final product. Notes positive effects of both the revision work and the primary research. (JG)

Cussler, Elizabeth

1987-01-01

213

Oral Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... The following is a protective factor for oral cancer: Quitting smoking Studies have shown that when people stop smoking ... find out whether actions people take can prevent cancer. These may include eating fruits ... or taking certain medicines , vitamins, minerals , or food ...

214

WRITING ORAL DRILLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

NEY, JAMES W.

215

Imaging in oral cancers  

PubMed Central

Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist.

Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

2012-01-01

216

Oral cysticercosis: case report.  

PubMed

Frequent in developing countries, cysticercosis is a parasitic infection that rarely involves the mouth. This study reports a case of oral cysticercosis in a 13-year-old female patient who had an asymptomatic nodule in the right labial mucosa. An excisional biopsy was carried out and the histopathologic examination revealed a cystic space containing a Taenia solium larva. PMID:17706437

Ribeiro, Ana Carolina Prado; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília; Soubhia, Ana Maria Pires; de Castro, Alvimar Lima

2007-10-01

217

Oral heparin: status review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. Extended out-of-hospital treatment is inconvenient in that these agents must be administered parenterally. Current research is directed at development of a safe and effective oral antithrombotic agent as an alternative for the effective, yet difficult to use vitamin K antagonists. A

Ehud Arbit; Michael Goldberg; Isabel Gomez-Orellana; Shingai Majuru

2006-01-01

218

Oral History Online!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bancroft Library at the University of California-Berkeley has recently begun a project to place portions of its oral history collection online in full text. The transcripts will be marked up in SGML using the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), which will allow complex searches of the entire text. In addition to the transcripts themselves, the remainder (photos, prefaces, contents pages) of the published volumes will also be encoded to provide complete access. At this stage, the Suffragists Oral History Project, which offers the text of interviews with twelve suffragists and women's activists for searching or browsing, is the only project available online in complete form. Projects under construction include the Disabled Persons Independence Movement and the BioTech Project. Among the future planned additions are oral histories of the Free Speech Movement at Berkeley, the Earl Warren gubernatorial era, and African-American Alumni at the University of California. Historians of California and oral historians will want to monitor the site as it develops.

219

Lakota Oral Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course objectives for the three credit hour Lakota Oral Literature (college level English) course presented in this publication are to: perceive through the reading and hearing of Lakota legends a better understanding of the known world of the Lakota people which existed prior to white contact; understand the origin of the laws which the Lakota…

One Feather, Vivian

220

Oral complications of Sjögren's syndrome.  

PubMed

Numerous oral manifestations associated with salivary gland dysfunction, and particularly Sjögren's syndrome, have been reported in the literature. This article discusses the evidence on a wide range of oral manifestations associated with Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:24287193

Napeñas, Joel J; Rouleau, Tanya S

2014-02-01

221

Tissue-engineered oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as cancer, Candida, and bacterial invasion have been developed as alternatives to animal models for investigation of disease phenomena, their progression, and treatment, including evaluation of drug delivery systems. The introduction of 3D oral mucosal reconstructs has had a significant impact on the approaches to biocompatibility evaluation of dental materials and oral healthcare products as well as the study of implant-soft tissue interfaces. This review article discusses the recent advances in tissue engineering and applications of tissue-engineered human oral mucosa. PMID:22266525

Moharamzadeh, K; Colley, H; Murdoch, C; Hearnden, V; Chai, W L; Brook, I M; Thornhill, M H; Macneil, S

2012-07-01

222

Probiotics and oral health.  

PubMed

Probiotics are living microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that are either the same as or similar to organisms found naturally in the human body and may be beneficial to health. Current researches have shown that the balance between beneficial and pathogenic bacteria is essential in order to maintain the oral health. Therefore, oral cavity has recently been suggested as a relevant target for probiotic applications. Dental caries can be seen as a microbial imbalance where the oral microbiota shift towards community dominance which produces acidogenic and acid-tolerant gram positive bacteria. Similarly, the accumulation of bacteria within the biofilm, facilitated by poor oral hygiene, predisposes to allogenic shifts in the microbial community, leading to the onset of periodontal inflammation. Probiotic bacteria belonging to the genus of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus have been proven effective for preventing caries by reducing the number of cariogenic bacteria in saliva after a short period of consuming the probiotic. In contrast, the effect of probiotics on improving gingivitis and periodontitis has been less investigated. The currently available studies on the effect of probiotics on periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters showed differing results depending on the strains used and the endpoints analyzed. Many of the clinical studies are pilot in nature and with low quality, therefore, properly conducted clinical trials, using probiotic strains with in vitro proven periodontal probiotic effects, are needed. The putative beneficial effects of probiotics on oral malodour have also been evaluated, but further evidence is needed to fully explore the potential of probiotics for preventing malodour. PMID:22632388

Bizzini, Bernard; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nuzzo, Domenico; Vasto, Sonya

2012-01-01

223

Mast Cells and Oral Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mast cells are mobile granule-containing secretory cells that are distributed preferentially about the microvascular endothelium in oral mucosa and dental pulp. The enzyme profile of mast cells in oral tissues resembles that of skin, with most mast cells expressing the serine proteases tryptase and chymase. Mast cells in oral tissues contain the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-? in their granules,

Laurence J. Walsh

2003-01-01

224

Oral and Perioral Piercing Complications  

PubMed Central

Background. The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing Methods. A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ``oral and perioral, piercing ´´, ``oral, piercing and disease”, ``recessions and oral piercing´´. It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series Results. A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. Conclusion. Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. Clinical implications. Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures.

Escudero-Castano, N; Perea-Garcia, M.A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sanchez; Bascones-Martinez, A

2008-01-01

225

46 CFR 201.166 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 201.166 Section 201.166...RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submittal for Final Decision (Rule 17) § 201.166 Oral argument. If oral argument...

2010-10-01

226

46 CFR 201.166 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Oral argument. 201.166 Section 201.166...RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submittal for Final Decision (Rule 17) § 201.166 Oral argument. If oral argument...

2009-10-01

227

Determinants of Oral Health: Does Oral Health Literacy Matter?  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate oral health literacy, independent of other oral health determinants, as a risk indicator for self-reported oral health. Methods. A cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Tehran, Iran. Multiple logistic regression analysis served to estimate the predictive effect of oral health literacy on self-reported oral health status (good versus poor) controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors and tooth-brushing behavior. Results. In all, among 1031 participants (mean age 36.3 (SD 12.9); 51% female), women reported brushing their teeth more frequently (P < 0.001) and scored higher for oral health literacy (mean 10.9 versus 10.2, P < 0.001). In the adjusted model, high age (OR = 1.01, 95% CI 1.003–1.034), low education (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.23–2.87), small living area in square meters per person (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.003–3.423), poor tooth brushing behavior (OR = 3.35, 95% CI 2.02–5.57), and low oral health literacy scores (OR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.02–2.45) were significant risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health. Conclusions. Low oral health literacy level, independent of education and other socioeconomic determinants, was a predictor for poor self-reported oral health and should be considered a vital determinant of oral health in countries with developing health care systems.

Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad Mehdi; Yazdani, Reza; Pakdaman, Afsaneh

2013-01-01

228

Continuous Compared With Cyclic Oral Contraceptives for the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate whether continuous OCP (oral contraceptive pills) will result in more pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea patients than cyclic OCP, which induces withdrawal bleeding with associated pain and symptoms. Material and Methods We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing continuous to a cyclic 21/7 OCP regimen (gestodene 0.075 mg and ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg) for 6 months in 38 primary dysmenorrhea patients. The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) over the period of 6 months. Results Twenty-nine patients completed the study. In both groups, pain reduction measured by VAS declined over time and was significant at 6 months compared to baseline with no difference between groups. Continuous regimen was superior to cyclic regimen after one month (mean difference: -27.3; 95% CI: (-40.5,-14.2); p<0.001) and 3 months (mean difference: -17.8; 95% CI: (-33.4,-2.1); p=0.03) of treatment. Secondary outcomes noted no difference between groups in terms of menstrual distress as measured by the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. After 6 months, there was an increase in weight and decrease in systolic blood pressure in continuous compared with the cyclic group. Conclusions Both regimens of OCP are effective in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Continuous OCP outperforms cyclic OCP in the short term, but this difference is lost after 6 months.

Dmitrovic, Romana; Kunselman, Allen R.; Legro, Richard S.

2013-01-01

229

Oral health & HIV/AIDS.  

PubMed

Oral lesions are common in women and children with HIV/AIDS and may decrease the overall quality of life in these patients because of pain, dry mouth, and difficulty in eating. An oral cavity screening is an easy, noninvasive, quick, and inexpensive procedure that provides nurses with invaluable information about the need for referral, treatment, and health education. Nurses can use the information obtained from a careful oral screening to decrease the symptoms experienced with oral lesions and optimize a patient's ability to chew and enjoy food. Common oral manifestations of HIV infection include fungal, viral, and bacterial infections, although neoplasms, periodontal disease, salivary gland disease, and lesions of uncertain origin are also seen. Oral lesions such as candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, herpetic ulcers, and Kaposi's sarcoma are often among the first symptoms of HIV infection. PMID:18158528

Gennaro, Susan; Naidoo, Sudeshi; Berthold, Peter

2008-01-01

230

Good Oral Health and Diet  

PubMed Central

An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited.

Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

2012-01-01

231

Raisins and oral health.  

PubMed

Traditionally, raisins have been thought to promote dental caries due to their suspected "stickiness" and sugar content. Current research identifies some evidence contrary to traditional thought, suggesting that raisins may not contribute to dental caries. This article reviews new findings with regards to raisins and the 3 conditions that are thought to contribute to the formation of dental caries; low oral pH, adherence of food to teeth, and biofilm (bacterial) behavior. The studies reviewed concluded that raisin: consumption alone does not drop oral pH below the threshold that contributes to enamel dissolution, do not remain on the teeth longer than other foods, and contain a variety of antioxidants that inhibit Streptococcus Mutans, bacteria that is a primary cause of dental caries. Further research in this area should be considered. PMID:23789933

Wong, Allen; Young, Douglas A; Emmanouil, Dimitris E; Wong, Lynne M; Waters, Ashley R; Booth, Mark T

2013-06-01

232

Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria.  

PubMed

Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare, inherited autosomal recessive disease caused by defects in the metabolism of glyoxylate. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria are rare. However, bone and tooth resorption may be the result of chronic inflammation and the presence of osteoclastic cells surrounding the oxalate crystal deposit. A deposit of calcium oxalate in the periodontium was identified in a patient with end-stage renal disease. Dental radiographs indicated bone loss and external tooth resorption. Radiolucent image in the inferior incisor region was observed and removed. The tissue showed granulomatous inflammation with foreign body reaction and associated crystalline deposits. When viewed in polarized light, these deposits are green and presented a birefringent aspect, which were interpreted as calcium oxalate crystals compatible with oxaluria. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria are of particular interest because of the unusual location of the oxalate crystal deposition, resulting in aggressive tooth resorption and alveolar bone loss, which may be misdiagnosed. PMID:22075817

Guerra, Eliete Neves da Silva; Vianna, Leonora; Sobreira, Maria Nazareth; de Araújo, Flavio Nader Gross; de Melo, Nilce Santos

2011-11-01

233

Letter: Sequential oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

Lyon, Silverberg, and Makowski published papers showing that young women taking long-term sequential oral contraceptives, especially Oracon, may develop adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Other reports have shown that sequentials may cause adenomatous hyperplasia accompanied by severe degrees of anaplasia. All patients studied were asymptomatic, and the majority were oligomenorrheic prior to using sequentials. Patients who choose to continue with these agents should be closely observed and subjected to office endometrial aspirations at 6-month intervals. If adenomatous hyperplasia is diagnosed, patients should be encouraged to use nonsteroid forms of contraception. Repeat aspiration should be performed in 3-6 months; the patients should keep basal body temperature records. If situation persists and the adenomatous hyperplasia persists for 3-6 months, oral or parenteral progesterone therapy is indicated. It is believed that progestins will reverse the adenomatous hyperplasia. If it does not revert to secretory endometrium and severe, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia is found, hysterectomy may be indicated. PMID:1254031

Lyon, F A

1976-03-01

234

Oral cavity and pharynx.  

PubMed

Imaging of the oral cavity and pharynx often is required in three settings: assessment of an inflammatory mass in association with odontogenic, tonsillar, or pharyngeal infections; determination of the cause of a submucosal mass; and staging of squamous-cell carcinomas. Spread of infection from the oral cavity and pharynx can lead to abscesses in the masticatory space, the retropharyngeal compartment, and in a parapharyngeal location. Submucosal masses include congenital cysts (thyroglossal and dermoid), benign neoplasms (hemangioma, schwannomas, pleomorphic adenomas juvenile angiofibromas), inflammatory cysts (mucous retention cysts, ranulas), and pseudotumors (osteophytes, carotid arteries). Staging of squamous-cell carcinomas must focus on deep invasion, spread to the brain, nerves, mandible, prevertebral muscle, and pre-epiglottic fat. PMID:9747196

Yousem, D M; Chalian, A A

1998-09-01

235

Foie et contraception orale  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a La contraception orale (CO) est utilisée par plus de 100 millions de femmes [1]. La teneur en éthinylestradiol, initialement de 150 ?g au début des années 1960 a rapidement été réduite en raison des complications\\u000a cardiaques et thrombo-emboliques pour atteindre 15 à 20 ?g dans les pilules de dernière génération, et une pilule combinée\\u000a associant un progestatif de synthèse à

A. Mallat

236

Oral Cavity Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Oral Cavity Lip C000–C009, Base of Tongue C019, Other Parts of Tongue C020–C029, Gum C030–C039, Floor of Mouth C040–C049, Palate C050–C059, Other Parts of Mouth C060–C069 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,

237

Skylab oral health studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

1977-01-01

238

Nutrition and oral health.  

PubMed

The link between nutrition and oral health can be overt (vitamin B deficiency) or subtle (exacerbation of already existing periodontal disease). Medical, social, and clinical examinations can be useful tools for uncovering those patients at risk for nutrition deficiencies and can be used to guide these patients to healthy eating. Along with routine home care instruction, the practicing dentist and hygienist can provide a service for patients through nutrition counseling and by pointing out reputable sources of nutrient supplements. PMID:12024745

Dorsky, R

2001-01-01

239

New oral anticoagulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new oral anticoagulants may prove to be one of the most significant innovations in clinical practice in the past 60 years.\\u000a Apixaban and rivaroxaban are specific inhibitors of Factor Xa while dabigatran inhibits Factor IIa. The predictable pharmacological\\u000a profile of these new agents will allow physicians to use these drugs without the need for routine coagulation monitoring which\\u000a is the

Taki Galanis; Lynda Thomson; Michael Palladino; Geno J. Merli

2011-01-01

240

Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, in the year 2000, there were approx 450,000 new cases of and 240,000 deaths attributable to cancer of the lip,\\u000a oral cavity, pharynx, and salivary glands (ICD-9 140–149) (1). A diagnosis of cancer at these sites is important because it can result in facial disfigurement, speech impairment, chewing\\u000a and\\/or swallowing difficulties, mental anguish, a decreased quality of life, and

Douglas E. Morse

241

Strategies in Oral Immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of mucosal vaccine delivery system is an important area for improving public health. Oral vaccines have large\\u000a implications for rural and remote populations since the access to trained medical staff to administer vaccines by injection\\u000a is limited. New mucosal vaccine strategies are focused on development of non-replicating subunit vaccines, DNA, plant, and\\u000a other types of recombinant vaccines. The conjugation

Pavla Simerska; Peter Moyle; Colleen Olive; Istvan Toth

242

Oral rehydration therapy.  

PubMed

The management of diarrhea is mostly dependent on parenteral administration of fluids and electrolytes, yet for the majority of India's population such facilities are practically unavailable. In addition there are several serious limitations to the use of this technique. These include prohibitive cost, the fact that it can only be administered by trained personnel, and that it brings undue distress to both patients and parents. Such procedures should be reserved only for those patients who have severe dehydration, impending shock, electrolyte imbalance, or persistent vomiting. For the others, the majority, oral rehydration therapy should be the treatment of choice. The implementation of oral rehydration therapy in the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Calcutta alone, has resulted in an annual saving of much money. Another benefit is that the family members can participate in the therapy and can continue it at home. The process of water and solute absorption is accelerated in the presence of glucose and sodium, and its effectiveness has been proven and documented. There are various types of oral multi-electrolyte-glucose powders available in India. The mixture recommended by the World Health Organization seems to be the most suitable, and this mixture can be prepared at home by the addition of 3-1/2 grams of common salt, 2-1/2 grams of baking soda, 1-1/2 grams of potassium chloride, and 20 grams of glucose in 1 liter of water. Instructions for the use of oral rehydration therapy are outlined, and other types of rehydration therapy are described. PMID:7229409

Jain, A; Khatri, P C; Jain, S; Yadav, S P

1980-09-16

243

Oral health problems and mortality  

PubMed Central

Background/purpose Previous studies have shown the relationship between individual oral health conditions and mortality; however, the relationship between mortality and multiple oral health conditions has not been examined. This study investigates the link between individual oral health problems and oral comorbidity and mortality risk. Materials and methods Data are derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004, which is linked to the National Death Index for mortality follow-up through 2006. We estimated the risk of mortality among people with three individual oral health conditions—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontitis as well as with oral comorbidity—or having all three conditions. Results Significant tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease were associated with increased odds of dying. The relationship between oral health conditions and mortality disappeared when controlling for sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral indicators. Having multiple oral health problems was associated with an even higher rate of mortality. Conclusion Individual oral health conditions—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease—were not related to mortality when sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral factors were considered, and there was no differential pattern between the three conditions. Multiple oral health problems were associated with a higher risk of dying.

Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A.; Davarian, Shieva; Crimmins, Eileen

2013-01-01

244

The relevance of the pharmacologic properties of a progestational agent to its clinical effects as a combination oral contraceptive.  

PubMed Central

Levonorgestrel (LNg) is known for its marked progestational/contraceptive activity. As shown in animal experiments, however, high doses of LNg are required to elicit an androgenic response; in contrast, considerably lower doses of LNg are required for antiovulatory (contraceptive) action. Thus, a large dose separation exists between androgenic and contraceptive activity. When LNg is combined with an estrogen, as in the contraceptive formulations, the androgenic response is attenuated or negated. The results of recent clinical trials have demonstrated that the androgenic activity of LNg is not expressed at contraceptive doses, particularly when LNg is combined with ethinyl estradiol (EE), as in the low-dose monophasic/triphasic formulations (monophasic [Nordette]: 150 mcg LNg/30 mcg EE; triphasic [Triphasil/Trinordiol]: six days, 50 mcg LNg/30 mcg EE; five days, 75 mcg LNg/40 mcg EE; ten days, 125 mcg LNg/30 mcg EE). Clinical evidence from several trials confirms that sex hormone-binding globulin levels are increased, plasma androgen levels are decreased, and acne is markedly improved with the use of Triphasil and Nordette, suggesting a non-androgenic profile. Images FIG. 4

Upton, G. V.; Corbin, A.

1989-01-01

245

Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders  

PubMed Central

Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients.

Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.

2010-01-01

246

Route 66 Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The folks at Missouri State University have interviewed a range of business owners along the celebrated Route 66 to tell the amazing story of what life was like living along this American landmark. Visitors can read through interviews with a variety of people, including the long-time owner of the Boots Motel in Carthage, Missouri and Sheldon and Julia Chaney, owner of a popular gas station. It's the type of popular oral history that makes for excellent reading and contemplation. They plan on adding more material in the future, so curious visitors would do well to make return visits to see what's added next.

247

Toxicités des chimiothérapies orales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Les effets secondaires toxiques sont indissociables de la chimiothérapie anticancéreuse. Mais aujourd’hui, nous nous trouvons\\u000a devant un phénomène nouveauqui est l’administration orale de ces médicaments anticancéreux. Des effets secondaires qui pouvaient\\u000a passer pour anodins lors de l’administration intraveineuse de ces produits, nausées-vomissements de grades 1 ou 2 par exemple,\\u000a donc non susceptibles d’arrêter le traitement, deviennent, avec la multiplication des

F. Lokiec

2007-01-01

248

Oral complications in cancer patients  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

Carl, W.

1983-02-01

249

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-02-01

250

Immune Disorders (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

Immune Disorders Rheumatoid Arthritis Lupus Erythematosus Scleroderma (Progressive Systemic Sclerosis) Selective Immunoglobulin Deficiencies Thymic Hypoplasia Dermatomyositis X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia Ataxia Telangiectasia Rheumatoid Arthritis Oral Effects ...

251

Oral contraception: a review.  

PubMed

This review of the development of oral contraceptives (OCs) begins with a summary of research between 1920 and 1950 that led to the first highly effective, orally active progestogen for human use. Enovid by Searle, the first marketed OC, began being distributed in 1960; it was combination of 9.85 mg of norethynodrel and .150 mg of mestranol. Research on combination norethynodrel-containing products revealed that the dosage was too high. Discussion focuses on preparations containing norethisterone, norethisterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone diacetate, norgestrel, other Norgestrel products available outside the US, progestogen, as well as the sequentials and the multiphasics. The active phase of clinical development was during 1950s and 1960s. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had an active role in regulating OCs; OCs with more than .05 mg of estrogen were removed from the market; FDA permitted ethinyl estradiol as a substitute for mestranol. Pregnancy rates appear lower in clinical trials than among the general population. 3% during the first year is considered more characteristics of the failure rate among the general population. It appears that intermenstrual bleeding (IMB) has decreased as doses have been decreased, but strict comparison between studies and over time is not possible. There is valid documentation of the rate of IMB with low-dose OCs, or of differences between new OC users and prior OC users, or of the impact of the strength of OC components. PMID:1687400

Edgren, R A

1991-01-01

252

Oral Conversations Online: Redefining Oral Competence in Synchronous Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the focus is on methodology for analysing learner-learner oral conversations mediated by computers. With the increasing availability of synchronous voice-based groupware and the additional facilities offered by audio-graphic tools, language learners have opportunities for collaborating on oral tasks, supported by visual and textual…

Lamy, Marie-Noelle

2004-01-01

253

3. Brain Millfield MD Timothy E. Morey focuser inking 2003 conducted randomized double blinded controlled study continuous infer-clavicular infusion Gleneden ropivacaine ropivacaine alone 34 patients undergoing moderately painful upper extremity orthopedic surgeries concluded adding 1mcg per ml Gleneden ropivacaine continuous per-neural infusion AND -provide OR clinically OR relevant OR improvement OR analgesia OR sleep OR quality OR analgesic OR requirements OR ambulatory OR patients OR moderately OR painful OR upper OR extremity OR surgeries  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: 3. Brain Millfield MD Timothy E. Morey focuser inking 2003 conducted randomized double blinded controlled study continuous infer-clavicular infusion Gleneden ropivacaine ropivacaine alone 34 patients undergoing moderately painful upper extremity orthopedic surgeries concluded adding 1mcg per ml Gleneden ropivacaine continuous per-neural infusion AND -provide OR clinically OR relevant OR improvement OR analgesia OR sleep OR quality OR analgesic OR requirements OR ambulatory OR patients OR moderately OR painful OR upper OR extremity OR surgeries ?

254

Compounded oral ketamine.  

PubMed

The nonnarcotic nonaddictive neuropathic pain reliever ketamine, which was synthesized in the early 1960s by Parke-Davis, was first administered to human patients in 1965. Used by the U. S. military as a field anesthetic during the Vietnam War, it slowly became popular as both an induction and maintenance agent for the general anesthesia required during brief surgical procedures. The use of ketamine in the past has been limited primarily to intravenous administration in hospitalized patients. Very recently, several published reports have described the use of low-dose ketamine for the relief of pain, refractory depression, and anxiety in patients with or without cancer. Because chronic pain, depression, and anxiety often occur in hospice patients with or without cancer and in palliative care patients who are not eligible for hospice, the discovery of new and effective uses for an established drug to treat those conditions has excited interest in the palliative care community. We support that interest with this case report, which describes our experience in treating a 44-year-old male hospice patient with severe constant anxiety, fear, and depression in addition to multiple near-terminal comorbid physical conditions that produce chronic pain. Prior treatments prescribed to resolve this patient's pain, anxiety, and depression had proven ineffective. However, a single low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) subcutaneous test injection of ketamine provided dramatic relief from those symptoms for 80 hours, although the anesthetic effects of that drug are not of long duration. This good outcome has been sustained to date by daily treatment with a compounded flavored oral ketamine solution (40 mg/5 mL) that is not commercially available. Flavoring the solution masks the bitter taste of ketamine and renders the treatment palatable. We found ketamine to be a well-tolerated and effective treatment for the triad of severe anxiety, chronic pain, and severe depression in a hospice patient with multiple comorbid conditions. To our knowledge, this report chronicles the first use of compounded oral ketamine for home-based palliative or hospice care in Louisiana. A formulation for a flavored oral ketamine solution is provided for easy reference. PMID:23072195

McNulty, Jack P; Hahn, Kristian

2012-01-01

255

Chitosan microparticles for oral vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although oral vaccination has numerous advantages over parenteral injection, degradation of the vaccine in the gut and low uptake in the lymphoid tissue of the gastrointestinal tract still complicate the development of oral vaccines. In this study chitosan microparticles were prepared and characterized with respect to size, zeta potential, morphology and ovalbumin-loading and -release. Furthermore, the in vivo uptake of

I. M van der Lubben; J. C Verhoef; A. C van Aelst; G Borchard; H. E Junginger

2001-01-01

256

Oral myiasis in two children.  

PubMed

The term myiasis refers to growth of parasitic diptera in the living or dead tissue of vertebrate animal. Most cases of myiasis in humans are mild and rarely present in the mouth. We describe 2 children with severe oral myiasis that evolved to oral and maxillofacial mutilations. We discuss preventive measures. PMID:23271445

Daltoé, Felipe P; Nosé, André Ricardo; Nosé, Fábio Roberto; Vanti, Luiz Augusto; Mosca, Rodrigo C; Mantesso, Andrea

2013-05-01

257

ANGIOSARCOMA OF THE ORAL CAVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An angiosarcoma is described, localized in the oral cavity and diagnosed rather late after its marked manifes- tation. The authors focus on the differential diagnosis of he- mangioendothelioma and hemangiopericytoma, recom- mending early and relevant studies in cases of tumour in- vasion in the oral cavity. shadows in the pulmonary areas, which were likely to be related to the principal

Emil Sarachev; G. Mateeva

258

Tobacco Use and Oral Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

1982-01-01

259

[Hexetidine--an oral antiseptic].  

PubMed

Hexetidine is very safe oral antiseptic with broad antibacterial and antifungal activity in vivo and in vitro. It has local-anesthetics, astringent and deodorant activity. Also, it has very strong antiplac effects. Resistention of microorganisms on hexetidine is short and transient. These characteristics give important therapeutic role in treatment of oral infections. PMID:11917691

Kapi?, Elvedina; Beci?, Fahir; Beci?, Ervina

2002-01-01

260

Acquired feline oral cavity disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

FIGURES quoted in the literature over the past 30 years indicate that oral cavity disease occurs very commonly in cats as well as in dogs. Unless severe, disease often goes unnoticed or may even be ignored by owner and veterinary surgeon alike. In addition, it is clear that few animals with oral cavity disease actually present with a history from

Norman Johnston

1998-01-01

261

[Oral ecosystem in elderly people].  

PubMed

The mouth is a complex natural cavity which constitutes the initial segment of the digestive tract. It is an essential actor of the vital functions as nutrition, language, communication. The whole mouth (teeth, periodontium, mucous membranes, tongue) is constantly hydrated and lubricated by the saliva. At any age, a balance becomes established between the bacterial proliferations, the salivary flow, the adapted tissular answer: it is the oral ecosystem. The regulation of this ecosystem participates in the protection of the oral complex against current inflammatory and infectious pathologies (caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, candidiasis). In elderly, the modification of the salivary flow, the appearance of specific pathologies (root caries, edentulism, periodontitis), the local conditions (removable dentures), the development of general pathologies, the development of general pathologies (diabetes, hypertension, immunosuppression, the insufficient oral care are so many elements which are going to destabilize the oral ecosystem, to favor the formation of the dental plaque and to weaken oral tissues. The preservation of this ecosystem is essential for elderly: it allows to eat in good conditions and so to prevent the risks of undernutrition. The authors describe the oral physiopathology (oral microflora, salivary secretion) and the strategies to be adopted to protect the balance of the oral ecosystem in geriatric population. PMID:23803630

Lacoste-Ferré, Marie-Hélène; Hermabessière, Sophie; Jézéquel, Fabienne; Rolland, Yves

2013-06-01

262

Menopause and the oral cavity  

PubMed Central

Menopause is associated with a large number of symptoms ranging from physical to psychological. These symptoms may unfavorably affect oral health and treatment needs requiring dentists to be aware of the symptoms and health care needs of peri-menopausal/menopausal/postmenopausal women. This article attempts to provide an insight into the multifarious oral manifestations at menopause along with the relevant prosthodontic implications.

Mutneja, Puneet; Dhawan, Pankaj; Raina, Anudeep; Sharma, Gaurav

2012-01-01

263

Recent Trends in Oral Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of oral interpretation has been influenced by both the analytical approach to literature study, with significant emphasis on understanding the literary text, and the interpersonal approach. While oral reading may utilize various performance arts or media such as dance, music, or film, the most popular movement currently is Readers…

Armstrong, Chloe

1974-01-01

264

Nutrition and oral mucosal diseases.  

PubMed

Oral manifestations of nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissue, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This contribution reviews how the water-soluble vitamins (B(2), B(3), B(6), B(12), C, and folic acid), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E), and minerals (calcium, fluoride, iron, and zinc) can affect the oral mucosa. PMID:20620760

Thomas, Danielle Marie; Mirowski, Ginat W

2010-01-01

265

Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... benefits associated with oral contraception. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2004; 190(4 Suppl):S5–22. [ ... oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer. Obstetrics and Gynecology 1992; 80(4):708–714. [PubMed ...

266

Oral reconstruction with submental flap  

PubMed Central

Background: Submental flap is a useful technique for reconstruction of medium to large oral cavity defects. Hair bearing nature of this flap in men makes it less appropriate. Therefore, deepithelialized variant is introduced to overcome the problem of hair with this flap. Recently, application of this flap has been introduced in maxillofacial trauma patients. Materials and Methods: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is used for the reconstruction of oral cavity mucosal defects. Results: Four cases including two trauma patients and two squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of oral cavity were treated using deepithelialized orthograde submental flap. There were no complications in all four patients and secondary epithelialization occurred in raw surface of the flap which was exposed to oral cavity. Conclusion: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is very effective in reconstruction of oral cavity in men. The problem of hair is readily solved using this technique without jeopardizing flap blood supply.

Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

2013-01-01

267

12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the content of the oral presentation. Oral presentations will not be recorded or otherwise transcribed. The Secretary must enter promptly into the proceeding's public file a memorandum summarizing the subjects discussed during the oral...

2012-01-01

268

Oral health in Tuvalu.  

PubMed

Current WHO methods were employed to estimate the prevalence of oral pathology, dentofacial anomalies, periodontal disease, caries and prosthetic status as well as treatment needs in Tuvalu, a newly emergent nation in the South Pacific. Fluorosis was endemic but other disorders of teeth, mucosa or bone were extremely rare and the presence of dentofacial anomalies was very low. Periodontal disease was "moderate" at 15 years of age but seemed to be a predisposing factor in caries from the late teens onward. Comparison with a survey 8 years previously indicated that caries rates had risen from "very low" to "low" at 12 years of age but treatment services had improved markedly. More than half of person in the 55-64 year age group required full maxillary and mandibular dentures whilst 10% already possessed them. PMID:6956478

Speake, J D; Malaki, T

1982-08-01

269

Accessory oral cavity.  

PubMed

This is a rare case report of a patient around 11 years with the complaint of extra mouth who reported to the hospital for removal of that extra mouth. On examination there was accessory oral cavity with small upper and lower lips, seven teeth and saliva was drooling out. Under general anesthesia crevicular incision from 32 to 43 was put and labial gingiva with alveolar mucosa was reflected completely and bone exposed to lower border of mandible. There were seven teeth resembling lower permanent anterior teeth in the accessory mouth, which was excised with the accessory lips. 41 extracted and osteotomy carried out extending the incision from the extracted site and osteotomy carried out. Dermoid cyst both below and above the mylohyoid muscle and rudimentary tongue found and excised and the specimen sent for histopathological examination. The wound was closed and uneventful healing noted to the satisfaction of the patient. This is a rare and interesting case which has been documented. PMID:23833508

Gnaneswaran, Manica Ramamoorthy; Varadarajan, Usha; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Kamatchi, Sangeetha

2012-07-01

270

Oral Contraceptives and Breast Cancer: Safety of Oral Contraception.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oral contraceptives and the revised testing procedures that are being recommended for determining toxicity and carcinogenicity characteristics, with particular emphasis on breast cancer, are discussed. Required testing procedures for both laboratory anima...

R. A. Edgren

1991-01-01

271

Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

2013-01-01

272

Melanin: the biophysiology of oral melanocytes and physiological oral pigmentation  

PubMed Central

The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis. There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease. In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation.

2014-01-01

273

Recurrent oral angioleiomyoma  

PubMed Central

Angioleiomyomas are vascular variant of leiomyomas which are benign tumors of smooth muscle. They are exceedingly rare in the oral cavity. Malignant transformation of these tumors has also been reported occasionally which warrants knowledge of this soft tissue tumor. A 57 year old male patient reported with a 15 day history of an asymptomatic growth that had started insidiously in his lower left back tooth region. Clinical examination revealed a solitary, oval, sessile growth in the mandibular left retro molar region. Excisional biopsy was suggestive of Angioleiomyoma. A recurrence of the same was noted two months later which was also histopathologically reported as Angioleiomyoma. The same was confirmed using special stains. This case reports an unusual presentation of Angioleiomyoma with regards to both recurrence as well as rapid growth. It is important to be well aware of this uncommon entity as these tumors often can mimic or transform into malignancy. Precise clinicopathological examinations are therefore invaluable in establishing an accurate diagnosis and delivering suitable treatment.

Mahima, V. G.; Patil, Karthikeya; Srikanth, H. S.

2011-01-01

274

Southern Oral History Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the rise of interest in social history in the United States, a number of academics and public citizens have remained committed to preserving the voices and perspectives of everyday people. The Southern Oral History Program (SOHP) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a rather fine example of such a commitment. Founded in 1973, the SOHP has recorded over 2900 interviews with people from all walks of life, and their website contains a generous sampling of this material. First-time visitors may wish to start by watching "Spoken Memories", which provides a nice introduction to the history and work of SOHP. Afterwards, they can sample some of the online audio archives, or listen to the "Interview of the Month" feature. For those who wish to read as they listen, the interviews are complemented by transcripts in several different file formats. Visitors should also feel welcome to browse through the online finding aid to the SOHP's collection and offer their own feedback or inquiries.

275

As-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria: breadth and association with oral and extra-oral diseases  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that 40–60% of the bacteria found in different healthy and diseased oral sites still remain to be grown in vitro, phenotypically characterized, and formally named as species. The possibility exists that these as-yet-uncultivated bacteria play important ecological roles in oral bacterial communities and may participate in the pathogenesis of several oral infectious diseases. There is also a potential for these as-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria to take part in extra-oral infections. For a comprehensive characterization of physiological and pathogenic properties as well as antimicrobial susceptibility of individual bacterial species, strains need to be grown in pure culture. Advances in culturing techniques have allowed the cultivation of several oral bacterial taxa only previously known by a 16S rRNA gene sequence signature, and novel species have been proposed. There is a growing need for developing improved methods to cultivate and characterize the as-yet-uncultivated portion of the oral microbiome so as to unravel its role in health and disease.

Siqueira, Jose F.; Rocas, Isabela N.

2013-01-01

276

Oral Rehydration Therapy in Nigeria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

AID-assisted efforts by UNICEF/Nigeria and the Government of Nigeria to implement an oral rehydration therapy (ORT) promotion program are briefly reviewed. A scientifically sound ORT methodology applicable throughout Nigeria was developed by UNICEF/N and ...

J. B. Mathison

1986-01-01

277

The Importance of Oral Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers the results of a survey taken at the College of Charleston in South Carolina indicating that faculty members, recent graduates, and employers all feel that college education in communication should stress training in oral communication skills. (JL)

Hetherington, M. Sue

1982-01-01

278

South Asian Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oral histories are an important way of telling a community's history, and this intriguing project from the University of Washington Libraries sheds new light on a very interesting aspect of history in the Pacific Northwest. The goal of the South Asian Oral History Project (SAOHP) is "to record pan-South Asian immigrant experiences in the Pacific Northwest using the medium of oral history." The project began in 2005, and the interviews here include immigrants who moved to the area from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka from the 1950s to the present. Visitors can view transcripts of the interviews at their leisure, and good background material can be found in the section titled "A librarian's gift: Oral history project preserves memories of South Asian immigrants". The interviews are quite fascinating, and they include memories of studying at the University of Washington, attending the1962 Seattle World's Fair, and the challenges immigrants faced when they arrived.

279

Peanut oral immunotherapy modifies IgE and IgG4 responses to major peanut allergens  

PubMed Central

Background Peanut-allergic subjects have highly stable pathologic antibody repertoires to the immunodominant B cell epitopes of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1-3. Objective We used a peptide microarray technique to analyze the effect of treatment with peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) on such repertoires. Methods Measurements of total peanut-specific IgE (psIgE) and psIgG4 were made with CAP-FEIA. We analyzed sera from 22 OIT subjects and 6 controls and measured serum specific IgE and IgG4 binding to epitopes of Ara h 1-3 using a high-throughput peptide microarray technique. Antibody affinity was measured using a competitive peptide microarray as previously described. Results At baseline, psIgE and psIgG4 diversity were similar between subjects and controls, and there was broad variation in epitope recognition. After a median 41 months of OIT, polyclonal psIgG4 increased from a median 0.3 mcg/mL (IQR 0.1-0.43) at baseline to 10.5 mcg/mL (3.95-45.48) (p<0.0001) and included de novo specificities. PsIgE was reduced from a median baseline of 85.45 kUA/L (23.05-101.0) to 7.75 kUA/L (2.58-30.55) (p<0.0001). Affinity was unaffected. Although the psIgE repertoire contracted in most OIT-treated subjects, several subjects generated new IgE specificities even as the total psIgE decreased. Global epitope-specific shifts from IgE to IgG4 binding occurred, including at an informative epitope of Ara h 2. Conclusion OIT differentially alters Ara h 1-3 binding patterns. These changes are variable between subjects, not observed in controls, and include a progressive polyclonal increase in IgG4, with concurrent reduction in IgE amount and diversity.

Vickery, Brian P.; Lin, Jing; Kulis, Michael; Fu, Zhiyan; Steele, Pamela H.; Jones, Stacie M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Gimenez, Gustavo; Bardina, Ludmilla; Sampson, Hugh A.; Burks, A. Wesley

2012-01-01

280

Guidelines for Oral Story Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guidelines for primary grade (k-3) teachers to use in oral story reading were developed as a means of increasing students' reading achievement. These guidelines were incorporated into primary grade lesson plans. Each lesson plan included a research principle which served as the lesson objective, identified a book for oral reading, and described pre, post, and during activities.\\u000aThe lesson plans

David T Sherman

1996-01-01

281

Oral bacteriotherapy for viral gastroenteritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of orally administered lactobacilli on acute rotavirus diarrhea was tested in 42 well-nourished children ages 5–28 months. After oral rehydration, the patients were randomized to a study group, receiving humanLactobacillus casei strain GG 1010 colony-forming units twice daily for five days, or a control group not given lactobacilli.Lactobacillus GG was found in the feces in 83% of the

Erika Isolauri; Minna Kaila; Hannu Mykkänen; Wen Hua Ling; Seppo Salminen

1994-01-01

282

Diseases of the Oral Mucosa  

PubMed Central

This article provides a clinical approach to the more common oral mucosal lesions. Histologic diagnoses are not included, apart from their use in diagnosis and management. In a small number of oral mucosal lesions, clinical appearance is sufficiently distinctive to permit accurate diagnosis, but a biopsy is usually necessary. Clinical appearance is important in directing further investigations such as culture and serologic testing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4

Bradley, G.

1988-01-01

283

Why Must Physicians Know About Oral Diseases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Poor oral health reflects social inequalities, hence the prevention of oral diseases should be a priority in developed and underdeveloped countries around the world. Medical practitioners must play an active role in oral health promotion. Summary: Proper knowledge of oral diseases is crucial in medical practice due to the following reasons: (a) Periodontal disease is associated with multiple systemic

Jorge Hernán Ramirez; Roger Arce; Adolfo Contreras

2010-01-01

284

Salivary Markers for Oral Cancer Detection  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer refers to all malignancies that arise in the oral cavity, lips and pharynx, with 90% of all oral cancers being oral squamous cell carcinoma. Despite the recent treatment advances, oral cancer is reported as having one of the highest mortality ratios amongst other malignancies and this can much be attributed to the late diagnosis of the disease. Saliva has long been tested as a valuable tool for drug monitoring and the diagnosis systemic diseases among which oral cancer. The new emerging technologies in molecular biology have enabled the discovery of new molecular markers (DNA, RNA and protein markers) for oral cancer diagnosis and surveillance which are discussed in the current review.

Markopoulos, Anastasios K.; Michailidou, Evangelia Z.; Tzimagiorgis, Georgios

2010-01-01

285

Oral health as a predictive factor for oral mucositis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Oral mucositis is a complication frequently associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, decreasing a patient's quality of life and increasing the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and to assess the correlation of this disease with the oral health of an individual at the time of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: Before transplantation, patients' oral health and inflammatory conditions were determined using the gingival index and the plaque index, which are based on gingival bleeding and the presence of dental plaque, respectively. Additionally, the dental health status was determined using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. The monitoring of oral mucositis was based on the World Health Organization grading system and was performed for five periods: from Day 0 to D+5, from D+6 to D+10, from D+11 to D+15, from D+16 to D+20, and from D+21 to D+30. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients (56% male and 44% female) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo between January 2008 and July 2009 were prospectively examined. The incidence of ulcerative mucositis was highest from days +6 to +10 and from days +11 to +15 in the patients who underwent autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data, including the dental plaque and periodontal status data, showed that these oral health factors were predictive of the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in a cohort of patients with similar conditioning regimens before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Coracin, Fabio Luiz; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sergio; Gallottini, Marina H. C.; Saboya, Rosaura; Musqueira, Priscila Tavares; Barban, Alessandra; de Alencar Fischer Chamone, Dalton; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; Nunes, Fabio Daumas

2013-01-01

286

Oral health information systems — towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease

Poul Erik Petersen; Denis Bourgeois; Douglas Bratthall; Hiroshi Ogawa

2005-01-01

287

Pharmacokinetics and potential advantages of a new oral solution of levothyroxine vs. other available dosage forms.  

PubMed

To better understand the pharmacokinetics and potential advantages of a levothyroxine oral solution vs. tablets and soft gel capsules.4 randomized, 2-treatment, single-dose (600 mcg levothyroxine), 2-way crossover bioequivalence studies in 84 healthy subjects were analyzed. Samples were collected before dosing and until 48-72?h post-dose to calculate noncompartmental baseline-adjusted pharmacokinetic parameters: maximum concentration, time to maximum concentration, and area-under-the-concentration-time-curve from 0 to 48?h and from 0 to 2?h.Mean pharmacokinetic parameters (±standard deviation) for tablets, capsules and solution, respectively, were: area-under-the-concentration-time-curve from 0 to 2?h (ng*h/mL)=68.4±32.8, 64.4±24.4, 99.1±22.7; area-under-the-concentration-time-curve from 0 to 48?h (ng*h/mL)=1?632±424, 1?752±445, 1?862±439; maximum concentration (ng/mL)=67.6±20.9, 68.0±15.9, 71.4±16.0; time of maximum concentration (hours)=2.25±0.99, 2.38±1.58, 1.96±1.07. Overall rate and extent of exposure were not statistically different between formulations, but a faster onset of absorption for the solution was suggested (greater area-under-the-concentration-time-curve from 0 to 2?h and faster time to maximum concentration by an average of 30?min).Levothyroxine rate and extent of exposure are similar between tested formulations. The solution appears however to reach systemic circulation quicker as dissolution is not needed before absorption starts. The solution's greater early exposure and a faster time to maximal concentration of around 30?min may be of benefit to minimize drug-food interactions and deserves further investigations. PMID:23154888

Yue, C S; Scarsi, C; Ducharme, M P

2012-12-01

288

Oral submucous fibrosis in a young patient.  

PubMed

A seventeen-year-old male presented with a restriction in the oral cavity. The oral mucosa was white and he could not protrude his tongue. For 4 years he had habitually held a powdery material containing betel nut in the oral vestibule for several minutes a day. A biopsy of the labial mucosa was carried out and a diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis was confirmed. This is a premalignant condition. Oral submucous fibrosis is very rare in young patients. PMID:20043056

Yazdanpanah, Mohammad Javad; Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Pezeshkpoor, Fakhrozaman; Famili, Soroor; Layegh, Pouran; Katebi, Mehrdad; Hamidi, Hamid

2009-12-01

289

Oral manifestations associated with HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict progression to AIDS. The lesions commonly associated\\u000a with the infection include oral candidiasis, herpes simplex infection, oral Kaposi’s sarcoma, oral hairy leukoplakia, parotid\\u000a gland enlargement, gingival diseases, xerostomia, and recurrent oral ulcerations. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral\\u000a therapy has changed the epidemiology of some of the

Mostafa Nokta

2008-01-01

290

Approaches to Oral Nutrition Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health plays a significant role in overall and nutritional health. This role becomes increasingly important for patients\\u000a with oral or medical illness, patients with physical limitations that affect chewing ability, and patients who take medications\\u000a that affect immune surveillance, oral ecology, and oral physiology. The primary focus of this chapter is to describe approaches\\u000a to oral nutrition and diet

Riva Touger-Decker; David A. Sirois

291

Oral sex in an adolescent population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of oral sex in an adolescent population is discussed. More girls have either given or received oral-genital stimulation than have had intercourse. More boys have had intercourse than have either given or received oral-genital stimulation. Oral sex is more common than intercourse for females because they are more likely to have received oral-genital stimulation than to have either

Susan F. Newcomer; J. Richard Udry

1985-01-01

292

Adolescents and oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development (autonomy, self-esteem, locus of control), life expectations (marriage, college, career), dating behavior, age at 1st intercourse, perceived risk for becoming pregnant, personal attributes (sex, birth control, acquisition of birth control, pregnancy, parents' and peers' feelings toward sex and birth control), and previous experiences with birth control. PMID:1679420

Sanfilippo, J S

1991-01-01

293

Changes in abundance of oral microbiota associated with oral cancer.  

PubMed

Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

Schmidt, Brian L; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M; Queiroz, Erica L S; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A Ross; DeLacure, Mark D; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B; Albertson, Donna G

2014-01-01

294

Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence.

Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.

2014-01-01

295

Drug Testing in Oral Fluid  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in oral fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of oral fluid testing for specific drugs.

Drummer, Olaf H

2006-01-01

296

Oral candidal infections and antimycotics.  

PubMed

The advent of the human immunodeficiency virus infection and the increasing prevalence of compromised individuals in the community due to modern therapeutic advances have resulted in a resurgence of opportunistic infections, including oral candidoses. One form of the latter presents classically as a white lesion of "thrush" and is usually easily diagnosed and cured. Nonetheless, a minority of these lesions appears in new guises such as erythematous candidosis, thereby confounding the unwary clinician and complicating its management. Despite the availability of several effective antimycotics for the treatment of oral candidoses, failure of therapy is not uncommon due to the unique environment of the oral cavity, where the flushing effect of saliva and the cleansing action of the oral musculature tend to reduce the drug concentration to sub-therapeutic levels. This problem has been partly circumvented by the introduction of the triazole agents, which initially appeared to be highly effective. However, an alarming increase of organisms resistant to the triazoles has been reported recently. In this review, an overview of clinical manifestations of oral candidoses and recent advances in antimycotic therapy is given, together with newer concepts, such as the post-antifungal effect (PAFE) and its possible therapeutic implications. PMID:12002814

Ellepola, A N; Samaranayake, L P

2000-01-01

297

Epigenetic Disregulation in Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral region (OSCC) is one of the most common and highly aggressive malignancies worldwide, despite the fact that significant results have been achieved during the last decades in its detection, prevention and treatment. Although many efforts have been made to define the molecular signatures that identify the clinical outcome of oral cancers, OSCC still lacks reliable prognostic molecular markers. Scientific evidence indicates that transition from normal epithelium to pre-malignancy, and finally to oral carcinoma, depends on the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in a multistep process. Unlike genetic alterations, epigenetic changes are heritable and potentially reversible. The most common examples of such changes are DNA methylation, histone modification, and small non-coding RNAs. Although several epigenetic changes have been currently linked to OSCC initiation and progression, they have been only partially characterized. Over the last decade, it has been demonstrated that especially aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in oral cancer. The major goal of the present paper is to review the recent literature about the epigenetic modifications contribution in early and later phases of OSCC malignant transformation; in particular we point out the current evidence of epigenetic marks as novel markers for early diagnosis and prognosis as well as potential therapeutic targets in oral cancer.

Mascolo, Massimo; Siano, Maria; Ilardi, Gennaro; Russo, Daniela; Merolla, Francesco; De Rosa, Gaetano; Staibano, Stefania

2012-01-01

298

Oral myiasis: a case report.  

PubMed

Myiasis is a condition caused by the invasion of tissues by larvae of Diptera flies. This phenomenon is well documented in the skin especially among animals and people in tropical and subtropical areas. The condition causes extensive tissue destruction as the larvae, at least for a certain period, feed on the host's dead or living tissue, liquid body substances, or ingested food. Mouth breathing during sleep, poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, mental disability, cerebral palsy, and hemiplegia may facilitate the development of myiasis. We present a case report of oral myiasis in a 22-year-old male with cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation treated successfully by manual removal of the larvae by topical application of turpentine oil and oral systemic therapy with ivermectin. PMID:24382372

Zachariah, Jane Emily; Sehgal, Khushboo; Dixit, Uma B; Bhatia, Rupinder

2014-01-01

299

Florida Citrus Industry Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's so special about oranges? They are a major cash crop for Florida and other warm weather places, and this fascinating oral history project from the University of South Florida (USF) explores the very nature of this industry. Working together with the USF's Patel Center for Global Studies, oral historian William Mansfield conducted 20 interviews regarding the impact of globalization on the Florida citrus industry. Visitors can listen to or read the interviews, as well as look over the online exhibition, "Selling Sunshine: Florida's Citrus Industry." The exhibition details Florida's unique relationship with the citrus industry, incorporating documents, promotional material, and post cards with its information. The website hosts a remarkable collection that will be of interest to oral historians, folks with an interest in Florida, and many others.

300

Oral Desensitization for Food Hypersensitivity  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Over the past 20 years, food allergy has become an increasingly prevalent international health problem primarily in developed countries[1]. An explanation for this increased prevalence is currently under investigation as it is not well understood. Allergic reactions can result in life threatening anaphylaxis over a short period of time, so the current standard of care dictates strict avoidance of suspected trigger foods and accessibility to injectable epinephrine. Intervention at the time of exposure is considered a rescue therapy rather than a disease modifying treatment. In recent years, investigators have been studying allergen immunotherapy as a way to promote induction of oral tolerance. These efforts have shown some promise towards a viable disease modifying therapy for food allergies. This review will examine the mechanisms of oral tolerance and the breakdown that leads to food allergy, as well as the history and current state of oral and sublingual immunotherapy development.

Land, Michael H.; Kim, Edwin H.; Burks, A. Wesley

2011-01-01

301

[Oral manifestations of endocrine dysfunction].  

PubMed

Oral manifestations of endocrine dysfunction often may be observed initially by the dentist. Objective manifestations, such as ophtalmos in hyperthyroidism, signs of hypersecretion of GH in acromegaly, are easily recognized. Dentists should have some knowledge of many other diseases in this category that occasionally come in our attention. The present article will discuss the effects of over and under-secretion of each endocrine gland separately, showing its influence on the development and maintenance of the health of the teeth and supporting structures. Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinological disease, with an incidence of 3%. Periodontitis risk is three time greater in diabetic patients than in general population and it may worsen the diabetes evolution. Periodontitis in diabetic patients needs an rapid diagnosis and treatment. We also presents the oral aspects of thyroid, parathyroid, suprarenalian, growth hormone and female hormones pathology. The incidence of these troubles is less important, but oral manifestations may reveal an endocrine disfunction. PMID:15550888

Ionescu, O; Sonnet, E; Roudaut, N; Prédine-Hug, F; Kerlan, V

2004-10-01

302

Pharmacogenetics of coumarinic oral anticoagulants.  

PubMed

Coumarinic oral anticoagulants are life-saving drugs, but are also one of the leading causes of drug-induced major bleeding events. Moreover, there is substantial individual variation in response to coumarinic oral anticoagulants caused by several factors including variations in the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes. Several retrospective and a few small prospective clinical studies have shown that polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes together account for 35-50% of the variability in warfarin initiation and maintenance dose requirements. Large randomized clinical trials are currently underway to further solidify the safety, clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetic-guided dosing algorithms for warfarin, acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon. By 2020, coumarinic oral anticoagulant pharmacogenetic testing will be part of routine clinical practice in anticoagulant therapy. PMID:20350128

Manolopoulos, Vangelis G; Ragia, Georgia; Tavridou, Anna

2010-04-01

303

Child, neglect and oral health  

PubMed Central

Background Despite advancements in oral health policies, dental caries still a problem. The lack of parents/caregiver’s care regarding child’s oral health, which characterizes neglect, may lead to a high prevalence of caries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the relation between dental caries and neglect in five year-old children. Methods Quantitative study performed in two different moments. First, the children underwent oral examinations and physical inspection. Then, a semi-structured interview was performed with parents of children with high and low caries rate. Results In all, 149 physical inspections and oral exams were performed. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth – dmf-t was 2.75 (SD 2.83); 16 children had extremely high values (dmf-t ?7), 85 intermediate values (1???dmf-t???6) and 48 extremely low (dmf-t?=?0). Nearly all caregivers were female (96.7%; n?=?29), mostly mothers (93.3%; n?=?28). Associations were found between caries experience and reason of the last consultation (p?=?0.011), decayed teeth and child’s oral health perception (p?=?0.001). There was a trend towards a significant association between general health and decayed teeth (p?=?0.079), general hygiene and caries experience (p?=?0.083), and caries experience and number of times the child brushes the teeth (p?=?0.086). Conclusion There’s a relation between caries experience and children’s oral health perception by caregivers, as well as between caries experience and children’s access to dental care. There is a trend towards association between caries experience and risk factors suggestive of neglect.

2013-01-01

304

The Application of Vizilite in Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

This article depicts the various applications of Vizilite plus in oral cancer. The oral cavity demonstrates a variety of red and white, pigmented and vesiculo- bullous lesions. Oral cancer still happens to carry the highest mortality worldwide, especially in India. In India, the prime focus is on the downstreaming of oral cancer from an advanced stage to an early diseased state. The techniques that are promoted to facilitate an earlier detection and diagnosis of an oral malignancy include Toluidine blue, ViziLite Plus with TBlue, ViziLite, Microlux DL, Orascoptic DK, VEL scope, Oral CDx and brush biopsy.

Sambandham, Thirugnana; Masthan, K. M. K.; Kumar, M. Sathish; Jha, Abhinav

2013-01-01

305

Neue orale Antikoagulanzien beim Vorhofflimmern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Vorhofflimmern (VHF) verursacht mindestens 20% aller ischämischen Schlaganfälle. In großen randomisierten Primär- und Sekundärprophylaxestudien\\u000a schützte die orale Antikoagulation (OAK) mit Vitamin-K-Antagonisten (VKA) wesentlich wirksamer als Thrombozytenaggregationshemmer\\u000a vor Schlaganfällen. Aufgrund der problematischen pharmakologischen Eigenschaften der VKA werden aber zu wenige VHF-Patienten\\u000a mit OAK behandelt. Die gezielte Entwicklung spezifisch an den zentralen Gerinnungsfaktoren Thrombin und Faktor Xa ansetzender\\u000a oraler Inhibitoren ermöglicht eine zuverlässige

R. Veltkamp; W. Hacke

2011-01-01

306

Oral and Respiratory Immunization Orale en Respiratoire Immunisatie.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibility of using oral and respiratory vaccines in the treatment of infectious diseases is considered. The advantage of this type of local immunization was examined in regard to infections which act only on those organs forming the entry gate, and ...

H. C. Bartlema

1974-01-01

307

Authentic Progress Assessment of Oral Language: Oral Portfolios.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student testing in Japan is not effectively used. In many cases test results are used only for ranking and sorting students into whatever the designated purposes of the tests are. They are not focused on monitoring individual student progress. This is an especially inadequate approach for teaching oral communications courses. This paper proposes a…

Yoshida, Yuichi

308

Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention.  

PubMed Central

This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease and in health promotion may assist countries to implement effective public health programmes to the benefit of the poor and disadvantaged population groups worldwide.

Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi

2005-01-01

309

Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in oral submucous fibrosis, oral epithelial hyperkeratosis and oral epithelial dysplasia in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test whether the oral epithelia of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), epithelial hyperkeratosis (EH) and epithelial dysplasia (ED) may have increased proliferative activity under the long-term exposure to areca quid ingredients and whether there is an increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in oral premalignant lesions with disease progression, we used an immunohistochemical technique with the mouse monoclonal

C. P. Chiang; M. J. Lang; B. Y. Liu; J. T. Wang; J. S. Leu; L. J. Hahn; M. Y. P. Kuo

2000-01-01

310

War, Journalism, and Oral History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)

Rice, Gary

2000-01-01

311

Oral Allergy Syndrome to Fig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The few cases of food allergy to fig reported to date, whose main manifestations were anaphylactic reactions, have been related to a cross-sensitisation to weeping fig (Ficus benjamina) or to the ‘latex-fruit syndrome’. Here we report on two cases of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to fig in patients whose main allergic manifestations were related to sensitisation to grass

A. Antico; G. Zoccatelli; C. Marcotulli; A. Curioni

2003-01-01

312

The Oral Accentuation of Greek.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief review of theory and traditional approaches to the problem of oral reading of Greek dating from the fall of Constantinople (1453) focuses on the importance of two major linguistic features of Byzantine pronunciation. The first examines the nature of the dynamic (stress) accent and the second is concerned with differences in vowel lengths…

Allen, W. Sidney

1967-01-01

313

Recalling Oral and Written Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prescribed an expository text in two versions that varied in difficulty. The text was presented either orally or under one of two reading conditions, a normal reading or a moving window condition. The subjects were business trainees whose main communication experience was in either written or spoken communication. Immediately after presentation of the text, we asked the subjects to

Gert Rickheit; Hans Strohner; Jochen Müsseler; Dieter Nattkemper

1987-01-01

314

Recalling oral and written discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prescribed an expository text in two versions that varied in difficulty. The text was presented either orally or under one of two reading conditions, a normal reading or a moving window condition. The subjects were business trainees whose main communication experience was in either written or spoken communication. Immediately after presentation of the text, we asked the subjects to

Gert Rickheit; Hans Strohner; Jochen Miisseler; Dieter Nattkemper

1987-01-01

315

Raman spectroscopy of oral bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy has been employed to measure the varying concentrations of two oral bacteria in simple mixtures. Evaporated droplets of centrifuged mixtures of Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans were analyzed via Raman microspectroscopy. The concentration of s. sanguis was determined based upon the measured Raman spectrum, using partial least squares cross-validation, with an r2 value of 0.98.

Berger, Andrew J.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Quivey, Robert G.

2003-10-01

316

Comprehending Oral and Written Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for researchers and graduate students, this book--a collection of essays by cognitive scientists, socio- and psycholinguists, and English, reading, and language arts educators--explores theoretical and research questions associated with the relationships among oral and written language, listening and reading, and speaking and writing. The…

Horowitz, Rosalind, Ed.; Samuels, S. Jay, Ed.

317

Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... warranted. Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe Although meticulous oral hygiene practices must be followed, treatments center on killing the overgrown yeast with anti-fungal medications. Nystatin – This ... is swished around the mouth and then swallowed. The lozenge dissolves in the ...

318

Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

Hime, Kirsten

319

Gaelic Singing and Oral Tradition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report by UNESCO placed Scots Gaelic on a list of 2500 endangered languages highlighting the perilous state of a key cornerstone of Scottish culture. Scottish Gaelic song, poems and stories have been carried through oral transmission for many centuries reflecting the power of indigenous peoples to preserve cultural heritage from…

Sheridan, Mark; MacDonald, Iona; Byrne, Charles G.

2011-01-01

320

Oral Communication across the Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proficiency in oral communication is necessary in school and in society. To do well in the different curriculum areas, pupils must speak with clarity and understanding. For example, in a discussion group in the social studies involving the topic "the pros and cons of raising taxes," pupils need to express knowledgeable ideas with appropriate voice…

Ediger, Marlow

2011-01-01

321

Assessing Proofs via Oral Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative study, we explored how oral interviews can inform instructors about students' understanding of abstract algebra and their ability to construct a proof in this setting. Our findings indicate that some students had a good understanding of the ideas needed for a subgroup proof, but could not write a coherent proof. On the other…

Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Fuller, Evan

2012-01-01

322

Oral History as Intergenerational Dialogue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a rationale for bringing older adults and young people together in art education. Focuses on the author's study of a seven-month after-school community art program in New York City's Harlem that was an intergenerational exchange of history and culture through oral history interviews and art making. (CMK)

La Porte, Angela M.

2000-01-01

323

Orally Disintegrating Tablets: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug delivery systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated as pharmaceutical scientists acquire a better understanding of the physicochemical and biochemical parameters pertinent to their performance. Over the past three decades, orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) have gained considerable attention as a preferred alternative to conventional tablets and capsules due to better patient compliance. ODTs are solid dosage forms containing medicinal substances which

Jaysukh J Hirani; Dhaval A Rathod; Kantilal R Vadalia

324

Understanding Carcinogenesis for Fighting Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. Oral cancer development is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are able to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will give us important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, assessing cancer risk, and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from research using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as interventions with molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy.

Tanaka, Takuji; Ishigamori, Rikako

2011-01-01

325

Treatment and Outcomes of Oral Candidiasis  

MedlinePLUS

... Candidiasis Share Compartir Treatment & Outcomes of Oral Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth and throat must be ... infections that do not respond to these treatments. Candida esophagitis is typically treated with oral or intravenous ...

326

Physical Limitations Can Affect Oral Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... Can Affect Oral Hygiene Difficulty with Hearing Visual Impairments Orthopedic Problems Chewing and Swallowing Difficulties Changes in ... smell, taste, chewing or swallowing. These challenges and impairments can affect health, including oral health. Difficulty with ...

327

Cancer of the Oral Cavity and Pharynx  

MedlinePLUS

... third party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Oral Cavity and Pharynx Cancer Expand All Collapse All Mortality ... Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Oral Cavity and Pharynx Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the ...

328

Oral Cancer Removal and Palate Reconstruction  

MedlinePLUS

... DALE BROWNE, M.D.: When we create oral cavity defects from taking out cancers, then it leaves ... that communicates between the nose and the oral cavity. 00:03:32 Typically, our goals of reconstruction ...

329

21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1320 Mebendazole oral. (a) Chemical name. Methyl 5-benzoyl-benzimindazole-2-carbamate. (b) Specifications. As oral powder: Each gram contains either 40 or 166.7 milligrams of mebendazole. As...

2013-04-01

330

Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site . Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer After lip and oral cavity cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells ...

331

Keeping Pace With Oral Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Although the rising number of oral chemotherapy agents offers many patients with cancer a more convenient and less invasive treatment option compared with infusion therapy, multiple risks and challenges have been identified with the oral regimen, including dosing errors, drug interactions, and nonadherence or overadherence. Until recently, cancer care providers had maintained a considerable amount of control, including the certainty that the right drug was being administered in the right dose, via the right route, at the right time, and to the right patient—all of which were meticulously documented in patient records. In contrast, oral chemotherapy takes much of the control out of the clinician's hands and places tremendous responsibility on the patient, raising a number of adherence and control issues. Studies regarding oral hormonal therapy for breast cancer have described adherence rates ramping down from 83% to 77% within the first 2 years of therapy. These figures continue to decrease over time to a range of 50% to 64% within 4 to 5 years. On the basis of these data and a literature review, we developed a program to promote adherence to oral anticancer protocols. Methods: Our team took a proactive, team-focused approach and established protocols at a time when oral chemotherapies were still at a low volume. In addition to infrastructures, policies, and procedures promoting collaborative communications among physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, we developed an in-depth educational component that provides the linchpin for ensuring an effective oral chemotherapy program. Our program focuses on three key pillars: education, communication, and follow-up. Our project team first conducted an inclusive review of available literature, with the objective of designing processes that would help our program directly address existing risks and challenges. Then we introduced concepts for the formalized program to our cancer center physicians, whose support was paramount to successful implementation. The next step was to start the program with a mandatory in-service for all clinical staff, which included a presentation of the research evidence that prompted the creation of this model for oral chemotherapy. To enhance patient understanding, our team provides printed materials, individualized calendars, and in some cases preloaded pillboxes to assist patients. Concurrently, our nurses provide weekly telephone intervention for the second and third months and monthly phone interventions thereafter. Communication is key to the success of the program. This includes the use of a translation service to ensure effective communication with all non–English-speaking patients. We intervene early for those patients with financial barriers and offer a variety of referrals and resources for emotional, nutritional, and patient support services, including transportation issues. Results: Since the inception of the program, the in-service has been incorporated into our new employee orientation. At the same time, a growing number of cancer center physicians are embracing the program. The program has received the attention of the Oncology Roundtable, which developed a Webinar around the topic, and been described in a feature article in an oncology journal. Finally, our team has been tapped to educate other pharmacists regarding oral agents, toxicity profiles, and safe handling. Conclusion: By combining safeguards, patient education strategies, intensive follow-up, and a system of effective checks and balances, our center is taking significant steps to maximize patient safety and oral chemotherapy treatment effectiveness, while keeping pace with the rapidly occurring changes in oncology practice.

Barefoot, Jeanette; Blecher, Carol S.

2012-01-01

332

Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis based on oral lesions  

PubMed Central

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.

Webber, Liana Preto; Martins, Manoela Domingues; de Oliveira, Marcia Gaiger; Munhoz, Etiene Andrade; Carrard, Vinicius Coelho

2014-01-01

333

Grape products and oral health.  

PubMed

Oral diseases, including dental caries, periodontal disease, and tooth loss, affect the majority of the population and can affect a person's overall health. Raisins contain polyphenols, flavonoids, and high levels of iron that may benefit human health. However, their oral health benefits are less well understood. We hypothesized that raisins contain antimicrobial phytochemicals capable of suppressing oral pathogens associated with caries or periodontal diseases and thus benefit oral health. Through antimicrobial assay-guided fractionation and purification, compounds identified with growth inhibition against oral pathogens were oleanolic acid, oleanolic aldehyde, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, betulin, betulinic acid, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, rutin, beta-sitosterol, and beta-sitosterol glucoside. Oleanolic acid suppressed in vitro adherence of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans biofilm. When the effect of raisins and raisin-containing bran cereal on in vivo plaque acidogenicity was examined in 7- to 11-y-old children, it was found that raisins did not reduce the plaque pH decline below pH 6 over the 30-min test period. Compared with commercial bran flakes or raisin bran cereal, a lower plaque pH drop was noted in children who consumed a raisin and bran flake mixture when no sugar was added (P < 0.05). Grape seed extract, high in proanthocyanidins, positively affected the in vitro demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, suggesting its potential as a promising natural agent for noninvasive root caries therapy. Raisins represent a healthy alternative to the commonly consumed sugary snack foods. PMID:19640974

Wu, Christine D

2009-09-01

334

A standard picture of healthy oral mucosae by direct oral microscopy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel technique of in vivo oral mucosae examination. The basic principles of this method derive from colposcopy and dermoscopy. The main goal of direct oral microscopy is the earliest possible detection of oral precancerous lesions in order to implement their treatment as quickly as possible and prevent malignant transformation. Aim To establish a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae with direct oral microscopy applying standard colposcopic criteria in order to create a reference point for further diagnosis of precancerous lesions. Material and methods Thirty patients of both genders with clinically unaltered oral mucosae were examined. For every individual, clinical examination with the naked eye was performed, followed by direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria. Oral mucosae at various sites (lip, cheek, floor of mouth, ventral and lateral sides of the tongue, alveolar ridge and soft palate) were examined. Results Subepithelial blood vessel patterns, mucosal surface, colour tone and transparency were described for healthy oral mucosae. Moreover, cases with clinically unaltered oral mucosae where direct oral microscopy revealed subclinical alterations were described. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria enables establishment of a repeated picture of unaltered oral mucosae. The standard picture of healthy oral mucosae is an essential reference point for application of this technique to early diagnose potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions as well as apply their early treatment.

Drogoszewska, Barbara; Michcik, Adam; Polcyn, Adam

2013-01-01

335

Bionutrition and Oral Cancer in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco (smoking and smokeless) use and excessive consumption of alcohol are considered the main risk factors for oral cancer (ICD9 140-149). Conspicuous national and international variations in oral cancer incidence and mortality rates, as well as observations in migrant populations, raise the possibility that diet and nutritional status could be an important etiologic factor in oral carcinogenesis. As shown in

C. O. Enwonwu; V. I. Meeks

1995-01-01

336

NATIONAL ORAL HEALTH SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NOHSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS) is a collaborative effort between CDC's Division of Oral Health and The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD). NOHSS is designed to help public health programs monitor the burden of oral disease, use of the ...

337

46 CFR 502.241 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.241 Section 502.241 Shipping...RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submission for Final Decision § 502.241 Oral argument. (a) The Commission may hear...

2010-10-01

338

46 CFR 502.241 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.241 Section 502.241 Shipping...RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submission for Final Decision § 502.241 Oral argument. (a) The Commission may hear...

2009-10-01

339

Colorado Oral History Projects: A Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 100 oral history projects in the state of Colorado are described. Information was collected from public libraries, historical societies, public schools, colleges, and universities in order to develop a statewide "locator file" of oral history tapes. This directory lists only those projects which have interview tapes and related oral

Whistler, Nancy, Comp.

340

Implementing Oral Communication Across the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Oral Communication Across the Curriculum (OCXC) program is a university-wide program using oral communication activities to enhance learning of course content and to improve oral communication skills of participating students. Implementing OCXC programs in postsecondary institutions involves planning, publicizing, gearing up, conducting,…

Cronin, Michael W.; Grice, George L.

341

On modelling oral tolerance using cellular automata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral tolerance is modelled using the Chowdhury et al. model. Two fuzzy generalizations for this model (i.e. models that use fuzzy mathematics) are considered to include autoimmunity. Oral tolerance is studied for these fuzzy models and it is shown that for some cases oral tolerance can be used to treat autoimmunity.

Ahmed, E.

1997-02-01

342

Oral White Lesions Associated with Chewing Khat  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is

Meir Gorsky; Joel B. Epstein; Harel Levi; Noam Yarom

2004-01-01

343

Management of mucositis in oral irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucositis significantly affects quality of life and tolerance of treatment in oral irradiation. Effective management of this complication is therefore very important. However, there is a scarcity of up-to-date oral care protocols, with most centres using ritualized regimens. The literature on oral rinses in radiation mucositis is at best inconclusive and at worst confusing. In this study, patients undergoing radical

T. Feber

1996-01-01

344

Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis.

Markopoulos, Anastasios K

2012-01-01

345

Oral Candida: Clearance, Colonization, or Candidiasis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida albicans is frequently isolated from the human mouth, yet few carriers develop clinical signs of candidiasis. Oral candidiasis presents clinically in many forms. This reflects the ability of the yeast to colonize different oral surfaces and the variety of factors which predispose the host to Candida colonization and subsequent infection. Colonization of the oral cavity appears to be facilitated

R. D. Cannon; A. R. Holmes; A. B. Mason; B. C. Monk

1995-01-01

346

25 CFR 11.805 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Appellate Proceedings § 11.805 Oral argument. The appellate division shall assign all criminal cases for oral argument. The court may in its discretion assign civil cases for oral argument or may dispose of civil cases on...

2011-04-01

347

20 CFR 802.308 - Conduct of oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Conduct of oral argument. 802.308 Section 802.308 Employees...PROCEDURE Procedure for Review Oral Argument Before the Board § 802.308 Conduct of oral argument. (a) Oral argument shall...

2009-04-01

348

20 CFR 802.308 - Conduct of oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Conduct of oral argument. 802.308 Section 802.308 Employees...PROCEDURE Procedure for Review Oral Argument Before the Board § 802.308 Conduct of oral argument. (a) Oral argument shall...

2010-04-01

349

Associations between Indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30) and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. METHODS: 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female) completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was

Eleanor J Parker; Lisa M Jamieson

2010-01-01

350

[Dental materials can cause oral allergic reactions].  

PubMed

A large number of materials used in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of dental, periodontal and oral mucosal diseases may induce acute or chronic reactions in the oral cavity including allergic reactions. Clinically, it may be difficult to discriminate oral mucosal changes caused by dental materials from changes related to oral mucosal diseases. Diagnosis and management of allergic reactions in the oral mucosa may therefore be a major challenge. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to commonly used dental materials, which can trigger typical, but also atypical, symptoms and clinical signs of an allergic reaction. PMID:23773217

Røn Larsen, Kristine; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Arenholt-Bindslev, Dorthe; Reibel, Jesper; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

2013-06-17

351

Oral health survey and oral health questionnaire for high school students in Tibet, China  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study is to identify the oral health status as well as oral health practices and access for care of graduating senior high school Tibetan students in Shannan prefecture of Tibet. Methods Based on standards of the 3rd Chinese National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys, 1907 graduating students from three senior high schools were examined for caries, periodontitis, dental fluorosis, and oral hygiene status. The questionnaire to the students addressed oral health practices and present access to oral medical services. Results Dental caries prevalence (39.96%) and mean DMFT (0.97) were high in Tibetan students. In community periodontal indexes, the detection rate of gingivitis and dental calculus were 59.50% and 62.64%, respectively. Oral hygiene index-simplified was 0.69, with 0.36 and 0.33 in debris index-simplified and calculus index-simplified, respectively. Community dental fluorosis index was 0.29, with 8.13% in prevalence rate. The questionnaire showed students had poor oral health practices and unawareness for their needs for oral health services. It was also noted that the local area provides inadequate oral medical services. Conclusions Tibetan students had higher prevalence of dental diseases and lower awareness of oral health needs. The main reasons were geographical environment, dietary habit, students’ attitude to oral health, and lack of oral health promotion and education. Oral health education and local dentists training should be strengthened to get effective prevention of dental diseases.

2014-01-01

352

Oral Health Nursing Education and Practice Program  

PubMed Central

Millions of Americans have unmet oral healthcare needs and profound oral health disparities persist in vulnerable and underserved populations, especially poor children, older adults, and racial and ethnic minorities. Nurses can play a significant role in improving the quality of oral health including access to care with appropriate education and training. The purpose of this paper is to describe New York University College of Nursing's response to this challenge. The Oral Health Nursing Education and Practice (OHNEP) program is a national initiative aimed at preparing a nursing workforce with the competencies to prioritize oral disease prevention and health promotion, provide evidence-based oral healthcare in a variety of practice settings, and collaborate in interprofessional teams across the healthcare system. The overarching goal of this national initiative is to create an educational infrastructure for the nursing profession that advances nursing's contribution to reducing oral health disparities across the lifespan.

Dolce, Maria C.; Haber, Judith; Shelley, Donna

2012-01-01

353

Oral History in the Digital Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oral History in the Digital Age website connects interested persons and organizations to a range of resources related to crafting a meaningful and dynamic oral history project. Crafted by people at Michigan State University with funds from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), the site contains critical essays, How-To guides, and an elaborate wiki. The Getting Started area is a good place to begin, as it features helpful playlists about oral history projects. The Essays tab leads to another highly informative section of the site. The short pieces in this section are divided into three topics: Collecting, Curating, and Disseminating. The individual essays include "Enhancing Discovery: Connecting Users to Your Oral History Collections Online" and "Oral History and Social Networks: From Promotion to Relationship Building." Finally, the Ask Doug option features expert responses to key questions on oral history projects from noted oral historian Doug Boyd.

2013-01-01

354

NCCN Task Force Report: Oral chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Oral chemotherapy is emerging as a new option for well-selected patients who can manage potentially complex oral regimens and self-monitor for potential complications. If a choice between oral and parenteral therapy is available, patients may opt for oral chemotherapy because it is more convenient to administer, allows them to avoid multiple office visits, and gives them a sense of control over their own cancer care. Whether these potential advantages are maintained in regimens that combine oral and parenteral drugs is less clear. The use of oral chemotherapeutic agents profoundly affects all aspects of oncology, including creating significant safety and adherence issues, shifting some traditional roles and responsibilities of oncologists, nurses, and pharmacists to patients and caregivers. The financing of chemotherapy is also affected. To address these issues, the NCCN convened a multidisciplinary task force consisting of oncologists, nurses, pharmacists, and payor representatives to discuss the impact of the increasing use of oral chemotherapy. PMID:18377852

Weingart, Saul N; Brown, Elizabeth; Bach, Peter B; Eng, Kirby; Johnson, Shirley A; Kuzel, Timothy M; Langbaum, Terry S; Leedy, R Donald; Muller, Raymond J; Newcomer, Lee N; O'Brien, Susan; Reinke, Denise; Rubino, Mark; Saltz, Leonard; Walters, Ronald S

2008-03-01

355

Systemic Diseases Caused by Oral Infection  

PubMed Central

Recently, it has been recognized that oral infection, especially periodontitis, may affect the course and pathogenesis of a number of systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, bacterial pneumonia, diabetes mellitus, and low birth weight. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current status of oral infections, especially periodontitis, as a causal factor for systemic diseases. Three mechanisms or pathways linking oral infections to secondary systemic effects have been proposed: (i) metastatic spread of infection from the oral cavity as a result of transient bacteremia, (ii) metastatic injury from the effects of circulating oral microbial toxins, and (iii) metastatic inflammation caused by immunological injury induced by oral microorganisms. Periodontitis as a major oral infection may affect the host's susceptibility to systemic disease in three ways: by shared risk factors; subgingival biofilms acting as reservoirs of gram-negative bacteria; and the periodontium acting as a reservoir of inflammatory mediators. Proposed evidence and mechanisms of the above odontogenic systemic diseases are given.

Li, Xiaojing; Kolltveit, Kristin M.; Tronstad, Leif; Olsen, Ingar

2000-01-01

356

Chemoprevention of oral cancer: Green tea experience.  

PubMed

Oral cancer has a well characterized progression from premalignant oral epithelial changes to invasive cancer, making oral squamous cell carcinoma an optimal disease for chemoprevention interventions prior to malignant transformation. The primary goal of chemoprevention here is to reverse, suppress, or inhibit the progression of premalignant lesions to cancer. Due to the extended duration of oral pathogenesis, its chemoprevention using natural products has been found promising due to their decreased dose and limited toxicity profiles. This review discusses with an emphasis on the clinical trials using green tea extract (GTE) in chemoprevention of oral premalignant lesions along with use of GTE as a chemopreventive agent in various other cancers as well. It is worthwhile to include green tea extract in an oral screening program for evaluating the premalignant lesions comparing the results between the treated and untreated group. Given the wide acceptance of green tea, its benefits may help in effective chemoprevention oral cancer. PMID:24678188

Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishnamurthy, Arvind

2014-01-01

357

African American Alumni Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Digital Collections has tackled everything from Golda Meir to historic street maps in its quest to offer a diverse and wonderful view of the city's rich history. This particular collection brings together a clutch of oral histories that celebrate the African American experience at the institution. Visitors can look over a panel discussion with a range of recent alums titled, "African American Alumni and Students: Stories of Education and Success." Moving on, visitors can hear Clayborn Benson talk about his long career as a photojournalist or watch and listen to G. Spencer Coggs, who has been a prominent member of the Democratic Political Party in Wisconsin for many years. This is quite a trove of first-hand memories and a great tribute to the cityâÂÂs oral traditions.

358

Epigenetic mechanisms in oral carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Dysregulation of gene expression is a frequent occurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, accumulating evidence suggests that in contrast to genetics, epigenetic modifications consisting of aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications and altered expression of miRNAs induce OSCC tumorigenesis and perhaps play a more central role in the evolution and progression of this disease. The unifying theme among these three epigenetic mechanisms remains the same, which is aberrant regulation of gene expression. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the impact of epigenetics on oral tumorigenesis with a systematic report on aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNA regulation in the pathogenesis of OSCC. We provide insights into recent studies on the prospect of biomarkers for early detection and indication of disease recurrence, and novel treatment modalities.

Gasche, Jacqueline A; Goel, Ajay

2013-01-01

359

Human Oral Mucosa and Gingiva  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a heterogeneous population of progenitor cells with self-renewal and multipotent differentiation potential. Aside from their regenerative role, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that MSCs are capable of potent immunomodulatory effects on a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells. In this article, we will review recent experimental studies on the characterization of a unique population of MSCs derived from human oral mucosa and gingiva, especially their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions and their application in the treatment of several in vivo models of inflammatory diseases. The ease of isolation, accessible tissue source, and rapid ex vivo expansion, with maintenance of stable stem-cell-like phenotypes, render oral mucosa- and gingiva-derived MSCs a promising alternative cell source for MSC-based therapies.

Zhang, Q.Z.; Nguyen, A.L.; Yu, W.H.; Le, A.D.

2012-01-01

360

Oral hobnail hemangioma: case report.  

PubMed

Hobnail hemangioma (HH) is a rare benign vascular neoplasm reported as a distinctive small benign, solitary vascular neoplasm of the superficial and mid-dermis occurring on the face, trunk, or extremities of young or middle-aged adults. The oral manifestations are quite uncommon, with only three cases reported in the English language literature. The following case refers to a 38-year-old woman with a small nodule on the hard palatal mucosa. Histological findings showed a biphasic growth pattern of irregularly dilated vascular structures in the superficial mucosa, lined by epithelioid endothelial cells with a hobnail appearance, with neoplastic vessels observed in deeper parts of the lesion. In the oral cavity, the differential diagnosis includes hemangioma, melanoma, and Kaposi's sarcoma, whose clinical and histological features may be confused with those of HH. PMID:20027132

Vieira Cury, S E; Chain Hartung Habibe, R; Siroteau Corrêa Pontes, F; Rebelo Pontes, H A; Santos De Freitas Silva, B; Dos Santos Pinto, Jr D

2009-01-01

361

Oral microbiota and systemic disease.  

PubMed

It is well known that bacteria are the primary cause of infectious diseases, however, evidence is emerging that these organisms are also indirectly responsible for several diseases including cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. The oral cavity is home to several million bacteria that can cause two major diseases-periodontitis and caries. The relationship between periodontopathic bacteria and systemic diseases has been explored for several years. The concept of the oral cavity as a source of distant infection has been debated for at least a century. This review will discuss the historic aspects of the development of the focal infection theory, the reasons for its demise, its re-emergence and current status. PMID:24128801

Kumar, Purnima S

2013-12-01

362

Harvard Iranian Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oral histories can be quite fascinating, and a number of significant collections have been placed online as of late. One of the best-known projects might be Harvard University's own Iranian Oral History Project (IOHP). The collection consists of the personal accounts of over 150 individuals who were eyewitnesses (or active participants) to a range of crucial political events in Iran from the 1920s to the 1980s. Visitors can start their journey through this site by going to the "About" section, where they can learn about the history of the IHOP and the interviewing process. After that, visitors can go the actual "Transcripts" area, where they can view an index of interviews, and in certain cases, they can listen to audio recordings of these conversations.

363

Medieval orality, mothers, and bonding.  

PubMed

The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism. PMID:15132195

Schwartz, Scott C

2004-01-01

364

Postoperative Oral and Intravenous Nutrition  

PubMed Central

Oral and intravenous high calorie-amino acid nutritional therapy postoperatively resulted in significant weight gain, improved colonic wound healing and maintenance of normal intravascular albumin levels. Provision of caloric needs without amino acids minimized weight loss postoperatively. However, infusion of hypertonic dextrose solutions resulted in severe generalized hepatic fatty infiltration and marked hypoalbuminemia. Protein and calorie deprivation by administration of 5% dextrose and water resulted in the greatest postoperative weight loss, reduced intravascular albumin levels and decreased colonic anastomotic strength. Comparison of oral and intravenous diet administration demonstrated that hypertonic dextrose infusion was markedly deleterious to hepatic morphology and serum protein metabolism in normal rats. Further clinical investigation appears indicated in previously well-nourished patients undergoing extensive surgery who will not be able to ingest adequate nutrients in the postoperative period. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.

Daly, J. M.; Steiger, E.; Vars, H. M.; Dudrick, S. J.

1974-01-01

365

Recent innovations in oral contraception.  

PubMed

Traditional forms of oral contraception contain 21 days of hormone-containing pills and 7 days of placebo during the hormone-free interval (HFI). Since 2003, the Food and Drug Administration has approved 24/4, 84/7, and 365-day regimens. These regimens shorten the HFI in an attempt to decrease bleeding and menstrual-associated side effects. Safety and efficacy of these regimens is comparable with traditional 21/7 dosing. Extended regimens are associated with high patient satisfaction. Bleeding patterns are similar or shorter in women using extended regimens, along with improvement in menstrual symptoms. One of the new formulations contains the new progestin drospirenone, which has antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic properties. This review summarizes the data about new formulations of oral contraception available in the United Sates and also provides a summary of the current literature on drospirenone. PMID:20391327

Cremer, Miriam; Phan-Weston, Scarlett; Jacobs, Adam

2010-03-01

366

University District Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Seattle Public Library has been embarking on some ambitious projects as of late and this oral history initiative is one of the best. Working with students in the University of Washington Museology Graduate Program, a number of oral history interviews were conducted with residents, businesspeople, and others in the city's University District. All of the interviews were conducted in 2011 and each interviewee provided a unique viewpoint of life on "The Ave,â which is shorthand for the main street that runs north and south through the neighborhood. There are twelve interviews here, including one with a University of Washington student, a Seattle Police Department officer, and the director of a teen outreach group.

2011-01-01

367

Biofilm formation on oral piercings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  PURPOSE: Biofilms on oral piercings might serve as a bacterial reservoir in the host and lead to bacteraemia and even septic\\u000a complications. The use of piercing materials less susceptible to biofilm accumulation could contribute to alleviation of problems.\\u000a The present study aimed to assess biofilm formation on four commercially available, surface characterized piercing materials\\u000a in vitro (polytetrafluoroethylene, titanium, stainless steel,

Ines Kapferer; Christoph Steiner; Ulrike Beier; Natalia Schiefermeier; Markus Nagl; Frederik Klauser

2010-01-01

368

Microbial flora in oral diseases.  

PubMed

The oral cavity being the hub of gamut of microbes, promotes the establishment of distinct microbial communities, such as on the mucosa and teeth. Metabolism of these organisms facilitates the attachment and growth of the subsequent colonisers. A delicate balance is maintained in the microbial ecosystem, with these organisms contributing to normal development and defences. However, any change or disruption in the microbial profle due to either intrinsic or extrinsic factors can result in an unfavorable shift toward pathogenic organisms triggering various diseases like dental caries or periodontitis. Furthermore, recent fndings also state that these microorganisms may lead to systemic diseases like diabetes or atherosclerosis. This article is an attempt to give an overview of the altered fora in diseased states. Keywords: Oral disease, ecosystem, Microbial fora. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Sanketh DS, Amrutha N. Microbial Flora in Oral Diseases. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(6):1202-1208. Source of support: Nil Confict of interest: None. PMID:24858777

Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Sanketh, Ds; Amrutha, N

2013-01-01

369

Apoptosis in oral lichen planus.  

PubMed

Apoptotic cell death may be a contributory cause of basal cell destruction in oral lichen planus (OLP). Therefore. the purpose of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis in OLP and the expression of two proteins (FasR and FasL) regulating this process. Biopsies from 18 patients with histologically diagnosed OLP were investigated, with comparison to normal oral mucosa of healthy persons. For visualisation of DNA fragmentation, the TUNEL method was used. In order to characterise the infiltrating cell population (CD3. CD4, CD8) and expression of FasR and FasL, we used an immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that T cells dominated in the subepithelial cell infiltrate. Within the epithelium the apoptotic cells were confined to the basal cell layer, and more apoptotic cells were seen in areas with basal cell degeneration and atrophic epithelium. There was a prominent expression of FasR/FasL in OLP. with a rather uniform distribution throughout the inflammatory cell infiltrate. In the epithelium, the FasR/FasL expression was more abundant in the basal cell area compared to the suprabasal cell layer. In conclusion, apoptosis within the epithelium is significantly increased in situ in OLP compared to normal oral mucosa, and seems to be related to the epithelial thickness. PMID:11695759

Neppelberg, E; Johannessen, A C; Jonsson, R

2001-10-01

370

Emerging multiple sclerosis oral therapies.  

PubMed

Currently, patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating disorder of the CNS, must be injected with medication to provide modest relief for their symptoms. Five orally available therapies are being evaluated in phase II/III clinical trials. If these therapies prove safe and tolerable, oral compounds may improve patient endorsement and compliance. Fingolimod, a novel immunosuppressant, significantly lowered annual relapse rates in phase II/III trials. Laquinimod, an immunomodulator, reduced the cumulative number of active lesions at the highest dose tested (0.6 mg/d) in a phase II trial. Cladribine, another immunomodulator, reduced annual relapse rates by >50% and gadolinium-positive lesions by >70% at both doses tested in a phase III trial. Oral fumarate, with immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties, also lowered the number of lesions in a phase II trial. Finally, teriflunomide, an immunomodulator, significantly reduced MRI lesion activity and reduced annual relapse rates in a phase II trial. In this report, we weigh the beneficial outcomes of these compounds against their risks of adverse effects. PMID:20038763

Rammohan, Kottil W; Shoemaker, Jennifer

2010-01-01

371

Oral Health and Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been described as a new epidemic. Approximately 285 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, and this number is predicted to increase by about 50% by year 2030.This article will review oral health manifestations of diabetes, and discuss associations between periodontal disease and diabetes. Although there is a strong body of evidence that supports the relationship between oral health and T2DM, oral health awareness is lacking among patients with diabetes and other health professionals. There is a need for the treating physician to be educated about the various oral manifestations of diabetes so that they can be diagnosed early and timely referrals to oral health specialists can be made. The established link between periodontitis and diabetes calls for an increased need to study ways to control both diseases, particularly among populations with health disparities and limited access to oral and health care.

Leite, Renata S.; Marlow, Nicole M.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.

2013-01-01

372

Oral epithelial hyperplasia in diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is one of the chronic systemic disorders with major influences of the oral cavity microenvironment. Oral manifestations of diabetes are diverse; they are represented by candidose, lichen plan, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, gingivitis, salivary disorders, oral mucosa atrophy and rarely hypertrophy; a possible link between oral cancer and diabetes is suspected, both in animal models and humans. We report a case of a young woman with type 1 diabetes with class I Kennedy edentation with mobile denture prosthesis; latter in the clinical follow-up, a hyperplasic lesion of the oral mucosa with p53 expression within the epithelial nuclei was identified, p53 being the more likely pathogenic pathway involved in diabetes-related oral cancer. The approach of this patient required multidisciplinary investigations and careful follow-up. PMID:20067171

Girtan, Mihaela; Zurac, Sabina; St?niceanu, Florica; Bastian, Alexandra; Popp, Cristiana; Nichita, Luciana; Laba, Elisabeta; Forna, Norina

2009-01-01

373

[Treatment with oral agents for breast cancer].  

PubMed

To overcome the limited efficacy with intermittent high-dose chemotherapy, a metronomic therapy with consecutive administration of oral cytotoxic agents has been attempted. Numerous promising oral molecular-targeted agents have also been emerging. Oral agents have the definite benefit of convenience. Time-dependent long-term exposure of cancer cells to drugs is one of the strategies for treatment. Not only oral cyclophosphamide containing classical CMF, but also UFT, capecitabine and S-1 have been investigated in treatment for breast cancer. Small molecule agents of tyrosine kinase inhibitor have been extensively explored. Oral molecular-targeted agents, such as lapatinib, neratinib, sunitinib, pazopanib, olaparib or everolimus have demonstrated clinical efficacy The significance of treatment with oral agents in chemotherapy, endocrine therapy or molecular-targeted therapy requires further investigation. PMID:20647699

Ito, Yoshinori

2010-07-01

374

[New direct oral oral anticoagulants (DOACs) - indications of DOACs].  

PubMed

The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) were developed because of the urgent therapeutic need due to the deficits of vitamin K antagonist therapy. The predominant indications in internal medicine are the acute treatment and secondary prevention of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) as well as stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. For the acute therapy and secondary prevention of DVT/PE the DOACS were non inferior to low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) plus vitamin K antagonists at a significantly reduced rate of severe bleeding complications. Only Rivaroxaban is currently approved for this indication, with Dabigatran, Apixaban and Edoxaban still awaiting approval. For stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban and Apixaban are approved. The efficacy of Dabigatran (150mg bid) and Apixaban (5mg bid) are superior to warfarin, with Rivaroxaban being non-inferior to warfarin for stroke prevention. The rate of bleeding complications with Apixaban and Dabigatran (110mg bid) were significantly lower as with warfarin. The DOACs do represent a major therapeutic advantage in oral anticoagulation therapy of patients for the approved indications. PMID:24711238

Darius, Harald

2014-03-01

375

Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.  

PubMed

To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions. PMID:23912870

Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

2013-07-01

376

Marathon Maternity Oral History Project  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Design Oral history research. Setting The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. Participants A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Methods Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Main findings Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project’s findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women’s voices. The project’s narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Conclusion Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon’s stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing maternity services in rural Canada.

Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah

2014-01-01

377

Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP)  

PubMed Central

Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P), on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P) randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg) to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees) of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for huge savings in not only money but the overall quality of life. This may help establish more specific clinical guidelines for oral cleft prevention so that the intervention can be better tailored for at-risk women. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397917

2012-01-01

378

Telomerase activity in oral and maxillofacial tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telomerase activity was measured in biopsy specimens as well as surgically resected tissues of 39 oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 22 oral leukoplakias, 13 normal oral mucosas, 12 malignant salivary gland tumors, 10 benign salivary tumors and five normal salivary gland tissues adjacent to tumors using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based telomerase assay. Telomerase activity was detectable in 38.5% (5\\/13)

J. Liao; T. Mitsuyasu; K. Yamane; M. Ohishi

2000-01-01

379

Chemotherapy or radiation-induced oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis is a significant toxicity of systemic chemotherapy and of radiation therapy to the head and neck region. The morbidity of oral mucositis can include pain, nutritional compromise, impact on quality of life, alteration in cancer therapy, risk for infection, and economic costs. Management includes general symptomatic support and targeted therapeutic interventions for the prevention or treatment of oral mucositis. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are available to guide clinicians in the selection of effective management strategies. PMID:24655526

Lalla, Rajesh V; Saunders, Deborah P; Peterson, Douglas E

2014-04-01

380

Update on oral herpes virus infections.  

PubMed

Oral herpes virus infections (OHVIs) are among the most common mucosal disorders encountered by oral health care providers. These infections can affect individuals at any age, from infants to the elderly, and may cause significant pain and dysfunction. Immunosuppressed patients may be at increased risk for serious and potential life-threatening complications caused by OHVIs. Clinicians may have difficulty in diagnosing these infections because they can mimic other conditions of the oral mucosa. This article provides oral health care providers with clinically relevant information regarding etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of OHVIs. PMID:24655522

Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Kuperstein, Arthur S; Stoopler, Eric T

2014-04-01

381

Oral surgery in patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy.  

PubMed

Oral health care in patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy can be complex. Care delivered by a multidisciplinary approach is timely and streamlines the allocation of resources to provide prompt care and to attain favorable outcomes. A hospital dentist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, and a maxillofacial prosthodontist must be involved early to prevent avoidable oral complications. Prevention and thorough preparation are vital before the start of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Oral complications must be addressed immediately and, even with the best management, can cause delays and interruption in treatment, with serious consequences for the outcome and prognosis. PMID:24794266

Demian, Nagi M; Shum, Jonathan W; Kessel, Ivan L; Eid, Ahmed

2014-05-01

382

Hypocalcaemia following thyroidectomy unresponsive to oral therapy.  

PubMed

Hypocalcaemia due to hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy is a relatively common occurrence. Standard treatment is with oral calcium and vitamin D replacement therapy; lack of response to oral therapy is rare. Herein we describe a case of hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy unresponsive to oral therapy in a patient with a complex medical history. We consider the potential causes in the context of calcium metabolism including: poor adherence, hungry bone syndrome, malabsorption, vitamin D resistance, bisphosphonate use and functional hypoparathyroidism secondary to magnesium deficiency. Malabsorption due to intestinal hurry was likely to be a contributory factor in this case and very large doses of oral therapy were required to avoid symptomatic hypocalcaemia. PMID:24776629

Etheridge, Zac C; Schofield, Christopher; Prinsloo, Peter J J; Sturrock, Nigel D C

2014-04-01

383

Trimeprazine as oral premedication in children.  

PubMed

The effect of oral trimeprazine alone or in combination with either atropine or glycopyrrolate or pethidine as oral premedication in children was studied. The effects of different drug combinations were evaluated in respect of pre-operative sedation, salivary secretion, induction characteristic, postoperative sedation and postoperative vomiting. The study concludes that trimeprazine in combination with either atropine or glycopyrrolate is mostly effective, safe and satisfactory as oral premedication in children. Trimeprazine along with pethidine can be recommended for all purpose oral medication both in pre- and post-operative period. PMID:2086663

Paul, A K

1990-11-01

384

Hospitalized mental health patients and oral health.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review of the literature is to present a contemporary perspective related to the nursing care of hospitalized mental health patients who have risk of developing oral health issues. Mental illness is a major health concern worldwide. Compounding this health issue, mental health patients/clients demonstrate avoidant behaviours related to oral health, and the symptoms of mental illness can be a compounding factor. Oral health and oral inflammatory disease are the result of lifestyle and behaviour and mental disorders affect both lifestyle and behaviour. The search used the search terms oral health AND nursing AND mental illness AND Published Date 2005 to 2010. For those who experience mental illness oral health assessment is not routinely practised by clinicians. The importance of special attention to dental problems for people with mental disorders has also been stressed by researchers since the lifespan of people with serious mental disorders is shortened compared to the general population. Oral health care is an important part of treatment. Routine oral care for hospitalized patients is imperative, and this is usually the responsibility of nurses without sufficient knowledge in oral care or comprehensive protocols to follow. PMID:22070464

Edward, K-L; Felstead, B; Mahoney, A-M

2012-06-01

385

Oral Insulin Delivery: How Far Are We?  

PubMed Central

Oral delivery of insulin may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetes patients who routinely receive insulin by the subcutaneous route. In fact, compared with this administration route, oral delivery of insulin in diabetes treatment offers many advantages: higher patient compliance, rapid hepatic insulinization, and avoidance of peripheral hyperinsulinemia and other adverse effects such as possible hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, the oral delivery of insulin remains a challenge because its oral absorption is limited. The main barriers faced by insulin in the gastrointestinal tract are degradation by proteolytic enzymes and lack of transport across the intestinal epithelium. Several strategies to deliver insulin orally have been proposed, but without much clinical or commercial success. Protein encapsulation into nanoparticles is regarded as a promising alternative to administer insulin orally because they have the ability to promote insulin paracellular or transcellular transport across the intestinal mucosa. In this review, different delivery systems intended to increase the oral bioavailability of insulin will be discussed, with a special focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems, as well as the efforts that pharmaceutical companies are making to bring to the market the first oral delivery system of insulin. The toxicological and safety data of delivery systems, the clinical value and progress of oral insulin delivery, and the future prospects in this research field will be also scrutinized.

Fonte, Pedro; Araujo, Francisca; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno

2013-01-01

386

Fungal infections of the oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Fungal infections in humans occur as a result of defects in the immune system. An increasing emergence in oral Candidal and non-Candidal fungal infections is evident in the past decade owing to the rise in the immunodeficient and immunocompromised population globally. Oral Candidal infection usually involves a compromised host and the compromise may be local or systemic. Local compromising factors include decreased salivation, poor oral hygiene, wearing dentures among others while systemic factors include diabetes mellitus, nutritional deficiency, HIV infection/AIDS and others. Oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection and rarely appears as a systemic fungal disease whereas oral non-Candidal fungal infections are usually signs of disseminated disease. Some of the non-Candidal fungi that were once considered exotic and geographically restricted are now seen worldwide, beyond their natural habitat, probably attributed to globalization and travels. Currently infections from these fungi are more prevalent than before and they may present either as primary oral lesions or as oral manifestations of systemic mycoses. This review discusses the various predisposing factors, clinical presentations, clinical differential diagnosis, diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis, as well as briefly highlights upon a few of the more exotic non-Candidal fungi that infect the oral mucosa. PMID:23422613

Krishnan, P Anitha

2012-01-01

387

Primary oral malignant melanoma: case report.  

PubMed

Primary oral malignant melanoma usually presents as a dark brown or black lesion. It is a rare malignancy, accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas and 1.6% of all head and neck malignancies, thus forming up to 0.5% of all oral malignancies in the world literature. In general, the prognosis of oral melanoma is poor and worse than that of cutaneous melanoma. The preferred treatment is radical surgery alone or in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and immunomodulatory agents. A case is presented of a large malignant melanoma of oral cavity, noticed six months before initial biopsy and by history described as a rapidly growing mass. PMID:20635585

Bujas, Tatjana; Pavi?, Ivana; Prus, Andrej; Marusi?, Zlatko; Balicevi?, Drinko

2010-03-01

388

The thrombotic potential of oral pathogens  

PubMed Central

In recent times the concept of infectious agents playing a role in cardiovascular disease has attracted much attention. Chronic oral disease such as periodontitis, provides a plausible route for entry of bacteria to the circulation. Upon entry to the circulation, the oral bacteria interact with platelets. It has been proposed that their ability to induce platelet aggregation and support platelet adhesion is a critical step in the pathogenesis of the infection process. Many published studies have demonstrated multiple mechanisms through which oral bacteria are able to bind to and activate platelets. This paper will review the various mechanisms oral bacteria use to interact with platelets.

Kerrigan, Steven W.; Cox, Dermot

2009-01-01

389

Candidal colonization and oral candidiasis in patients undergoing oral and pharyngeal radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation encourages oral candidal colonization that often leads to oral\\/pharyngeal candidiasis. The purpose of this study was to quantitate oral candidal colonization, assess signs, symptoms, and response to antifungal management, speciate Candida, and evaluate the influence of smoking and dentures.Study design. Forty-six patients undergoing radiation therapy for oral\\/pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were evaluated clinically and by Candidal cultures

Velia Ramirez-Amador; Sol Silverman; Priscilla Mayer; Martin Tyler; Jeanne Quivey

1997-01-01

390

Developing a Pediatric Oral Health Therapist to Help Address Oral Health Disparities Among Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General documented the profound and significant disparities that exist in the oral health of children in the United States. Recently, the country has been issued a National Call to Action to Promote Oral Health, under the leadership of the Office of the Surgeon General. Among the significant factors contributing to the

David A. Nash

391

Oral Health Status of Vietnamese Children: Findings From the National Oral Health Survey of Vietnam 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Oral Health Survey of Vietnam 1999 was conducted to inform policy development. Aims. The aims were to describe the oral health status, to analyze its socioeconomic distribution, and to evaluate change over time in the oral health of Vietnamese children. Methods. A multistaged stratified sampling process was employed. Children aged 6 to 17 years were examined by trained

Loc Giang Do; Andrew John Spencer; Kaye Frances Roberts-Thomson; Hai Dinh Trinh; Thuy Thanh Nguyen

2011-01-01

392

Oral Sex: Varied Behaviors and Perceptions in a College Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Views and behaviors pertaining to oral sex have changed in recent years. This anonymous, online survey posed both old and new questions pertaining to oral sex among a college population. This study not only confirmed previous findings about virgins engaging in oral sex but also found that women reported giving oral sex more often than receiving it from men. Oral

Wendy C. Chambers

2007-01-01

393

The portable gas chromatograph OralChroma™: a method of choice to detect oral and extra-oral halitosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. Gas chromatography using a specific sulfur detector is the most appropriate method to detect halitosis of different origin (intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis) and should be considered as the gold standard. However, a

A Tangerman; E G Winkel

2008-01-01

394

Oral health and quality of life in New Zealand: A social perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the social dimensions of oral health by relating oral quality of life (i.e. dental symptoms, perceived oral well-being and oral functioning) to oral health status. We propose a conceptual model which postulates that socioeconomic status, oral health behavior and oral health status each influence oral quality of life. Using data from the New Zealand National Oral Health

Meei-Shia Chen; Peter Hunter

1996-01-01

395

Oral piercing and oral trauma in a New Zealand sample.  

PubMed

This study investigated the periodontal and dental trauma resultant from tongue and lip piercings in a convenience sample of 43 adult dental patients. Patients underwent an intra-oral examination followed by the administration of a questionnaire. Each patient was examined for lingual or buccal recession of the upper and lower incisors as well as the extent of abnormal toothwear or trauma on these teeth. Following bivariate analyses, regression analyses were conducted to test the study hypotheses and derive adjusted estimates for the dependent variables. Of the 43 individuals who participated (93.0% females; mean age 21 years; age range 14-34 years) 76.7% had a tongue piercing, 34.9% had a lip piercing, and 11.6% had both. Only four had had their piercing procedure provided by a doctor or dentist. Postpiercing complications were reported by 34.9%. Most of those with a labial piercing (80.0%) had 1+ labial site with gingival recession (GR), and almost one-third of those with a tongue piercing had at least one lingual site with GR. Age was a significant predictor of the prevalence of lingual recession, with the odds of having lingual recession increasing by 1.17 (95% CI 1.01, 1.35) for every year older than 14. Age was the only significant predictor of the number of lingual sites with recession, but was not a predictor of the prevalence of labial recession or the number of affected sites. There were no significant associations between piercings and abnormal toothwear or trauma. These findings suggest that oral piercings are associated with localized gingival recession, and that the providers of such procedures should ensure that, as part of the informed consent process, prospective patients are informed of the likelihood that their periodontal health may be compromised. PMID:16149919

Kieser, J A; Thomson, W M; Koopu, P; Quick, A N

2005-10-01

396

Differential Transmission of HIV Traversing Fetal Oral/Intestinal Epithelia and Adult Oral Epithelia  

PubMed Central

While human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission through the adult oral route is rare, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) through the neonatal/infant oral and/or gastrointestinal route is common. To study the mechanisms of cell-free and cell-associated HIV transmission across adult oral and neonatal/infant oral/intestinal epithelia, we established ex vivo organ tissue model systems of adult and fetal origin. Given the similarity of neonatal and fetal oral epithelia with respect to epithelial stratification and density of HIV-susceptible immune cells, we used fetal oral the epithelium as a model for neonatal/infant oral epithelium. We found that cell-free HIV traversed fetal oral and intestinal epithelia and infected HIV-susceptible CD4+ T lymphocytes, Langerhans/dendritic cells, and macrophages. To study the penetration of cell-associated virus into fetal oral and intestinal epithelia, HIV-infected macrophages and lymphocytes were added to the surfaces of fetal oral and intestinal epithelia. HIV-infected macrophages, but not lymphocytes, transmigrated across fetal oral epithelia. HIV-infected macrophages and, to a lesser extent, lymphocytes transmigrated across fetal intestinal epithelia. In contrast to the fetal oral/intestinal epithelia, cell-free HIV transmigration through adult oral epithelia was inefficient and virions did not infect intraepithelial and subepithelial HIV-susceptible cells. In addition, HIV-infected macrophages and lymphocytes did not transmigrate through intact adult oral epithelia. Transmigration of cell-free and cell-associated HIV across the fetal oral/intestinal mucosal epithelium may serve as an initial mechanism for HIV MTCT.

Herrera, Rossana; Veluppillai, Piri; Greenspan, Deborah; Soros, Vanessa; Greene, Warner C.; Levy, Jay A.; Palefsky, Joel M.

2012-01-01

397

Oral manifestations of coeliac disease.  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Aim. The aim of the clinical-statistic study was to evaluate the prevalence of the different oral manifestations in a sample of coeliac patients, in comparison with a control group of healthy subjects. Moreover, a second objective was to determine if the clinical oral examination is useful as a diagnostic tool of screening for atypical forms of coeliac disease (CD). Methods. The enrolment of 300 coeliac patients, aged between 4 and 13 years (mean age 8.16), was carried out at the Pediatric Dentistry Unit in patients sent from the Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit of the PTV Hospital, University of Rome Tor Vergata. The control group was composed of 300 healthy subjects, age-matched (mean age 8.29), enrolled from the Pediatric Dentistry Unit. The patients were examined for hard tissues (enamel hypoplasia, dental caries), soft tissues (recurrent aphthous stomatitis RAS, atrophic glossitis, geographic tongue) and delay dental eruption. Enamel defects were classified according to Aine’s criteria, while dental caries was recorded as dmft/DMFT indices. Statistical analysis was carried out by using SPSS/PC+ Software. Differences between case and control groups were tested using Paired samples T-test, and Chi-Square Test, depending on the variable considered. The minimal level of significance of the differences was fixed at p?0.05 for all the procedures. Results. Statistical differences between groups were observed for the prevalence of enamel defects (p=0.0001), RAS (p=0.005), delay in dental eruption (p=0.0001), but not for the prevalence of atrophic glossitis (p=0.664). Differences in symmetrical distribution and a chronologic coherence of enamel defects were statistically significant between CD and control groups (p=0.0001). Regarding dental caries, the coeliac patients had higher indexes of caries than healthy subjects, both in deciduous teeth (dmft 2.31±1.84 vs 1.42±1.13; p= 0.021) and permanent teeth (DMFT 2.97±1.74 vs 1.74±1.64; p=0.0001). Conclusions. The clinical oral examination should be considered a diagnostic tool for the characterization of subjects affected by silent-atypical forms of CD.

COSTACURTA, M.; MATURO, P.; BARTOLINO, M.; DOCIMO, R.

2010-01-01

398

Oral Language and Reading in Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the question: Do lexical, syntactic, fluency, and discourse measures of oral language collected under narrative conditions predict reading achievement both within and across languages for bilingual children? More than 1,500 Spanish-English bilingual children attending kindergarten-third grade participated. Oral narratives…

Miller, Jon F.; Heilmann, John; Nockerts, Ann; Iglesias, Aquiles; Fabiano, Leah; Francis, David J.

2006-01-01

399

Oral candida: is dummy carriage the culprit?  

PubMed Central

Oral candida in subjects who sucked dummies was almost double that of controls. Although the carriage of Candida albicans on silicone dummies was significantly reduced compared with latex dummies, oral colonisation was unaffected, suggesting that dummy carriage is not the cause of the observed increase. Images Figure

Sio, J O; Minwalla, F K; George, R H; Booth, I W

1987-01-01

400

Teaching the Past through Oral History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses oral history as a means to connect national events with the lives of individual people. Relates the information from student oral term paper interviews, focusing on topics such as the Vietnam War, the Great Depression, civil rights and school integration, and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. (CMK)

Dillon, Pattie

2000-01-01

401

Examining the Master's Oral Exam in Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Georgia Southern College a study of faculty time expended in the master's oral examination in counseling revealed written tests could save 680 faculty hours at the 89 percent success rate (almost 50 hours per year). The oral could be retained as an option for some students. (Author)

Mabry, Kemp

1976-01-01

402

Oral ciprofloxacin as prophylaxis in gastroduodenal surgery.  

PubMed

One hundred and fifty patients undergoing gastroduodenal surgery were randomly allocated to receive intravenous (iv) cefuroxime, iv ciprofloxacin or oral ciprofloxacin as prophylaxis. There were no differences in the incidence of postoperative infection complications or duration of stay among the three groups. Oral ciprofloxacin offers obvious advantages in terms of ease of administration and cost. PMID:8522777

McArdle, C S; Morran, C G; Anderson, J R; Pettit, L; Gemmell, C G; Sleigh, J D; Tillotson, G S

1995-07-01

403

Oral Corrective Feedback in Second Language Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research on oral corrective feedback (CF) in second language (L2) classrooms. Various types of oral CF are first identified, and the results of research revealing CF frequency across instructional contexts are presented. Research on CF preferences is then reviewed, revealing a tendency for learners to prefer receiving CF more…

Lyster, Roy; Saito, Kazuya; Sato, Masatoshi

2013-01-01

404

The Oral Speech Mechanism Screening Examination (OSMSE).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although speech-language pathologists are expected to be able to administer and interpret oral examinations, there are currently no screening tests available that provide careful administration instructions and data for intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability. The Oral Speech Mechanism Screening Examination (OSMSE) is designed primarily for…

St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Ruscello, Dennis M.

405

Evaluation of Oral Water Irrigation Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water irrigation devices (WIDs) are widely used in homes and dental offices across the country for oral hygiene. There have been several reported cases of tissue damage with the use of these devices. In the present investigation, two commercially available oral water irrigation devices were evaluated using bioengineering principles. The flow rates delivered by these devices were measured at different

Narender P Reddy; Sunil K Kesavan; Bruce R Costarella

1985-01-01

406

Tipper and Dipper Types of Oral Swallows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized the normal patterns relating to the onset of the oral-swallowing phase in patients with normal oral motor function. The main pattern of swallowing was of the tipper type, in which swallowing is initiated with the tip of the tongue against the incisors and the bolus is in a supralingual position. However, a second pattern of a dipper-type swallow

Wylie J. Dodds; Andrew J. Taylor; Edward T. Stewart; Mark K. Ker; Jeri A. Logemann; Ian J. Cook

407

Oral vaccination with immune stimulating complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for non-living adjuvant vectors which will induce a full range of local and systemic immune responses to orally administered purified antigens. Here we describe our experience with lipophilic immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMS) containing the saponin adjuvant Quil A. When given orally, ISCOMS containing the model protein antigen ovalbumin (OVA) induce a wide range of systemic immune

Allan McI Mowat; Rosemary E Smith; Anne M Donachie; Elizabeth Furrie; Dubravka Grdic; Nils Lycke

1999-01-01

408

Antimicrobial Activity of Propolis on Oral Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Formation of dental caries is caused by the colonization and accumulation of oral microorganisms and extracellular polysaccharides\\u000a that are synthesized from sucrose by glucosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans. The production of glucosyltransferase from oral microorganisms was attempted, and it was found that Streptococcus mutans produced highest activity of the enzyme. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) were examined whether EEP inhibit

Yong K. Park; Michel H. Koo; José A. S. Abreu; Masaharu Ikegaki; Jaime A. Cury; Pedro L. Rosalen

1998-01-01

409

Surgical Treatment of Oral Verrucous Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients with Verrucous carcinoma (VC) of oral cavity treated at the Chung Gung Memory Hospital with respect to the tumor control rates after surgery, the risk of lymph node metastasis and the role of radiation therapy. Methods: Thirty-eight patients underwent primary treatment for VC of the oral cavity

Chung-Jan Kang; Joseph Tung-Chieh Chang; Tsung-Ming Chen; Chun-Ta Liao

410

Oral and Cutaneous Melanoma: Similarities and Differences  

PubMed Central

Melanomas are malignant lesions stemming from the disorganized proliferation of melanocytes. This condition is more common on skin, but may also be detected in mucosa, such as in the oral cavity. The aim of the present study was to report similarities and differences between oral and cutaneous melanoma. Keywords Melanoma; Skin; Mouth; Diagnosis

Moreira, Rafaela Nogueira; Santos, Cassio Roberto Rocha; Lima, Nadia Lages; Verli, Flaviana Dornela; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida

2010-01-01

411

Advances in oral transmucosal drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful delivery of drugs across the oral mucosa represents a continuing challenge, as well as a great opportunity. Oral transmucosal delivery, especially buccal and sublingual delivery, has progressed far beyond the use of traditional dosage forms with novel approaches emerging continuously. This review highlights the physiological challenges as well as the advances and opportunities for buccal\\/sublingual drug delivery. Particular

Viralkumar F. Patel; Fang Liu; Marc B. Brown

2011-01-01

412

Communicative Competence in Oral Language Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a review of the teaching and assessment of oral language in Western Australian secondary schools. Results show that teachers have considerable difficulty in incorporating oral language tasks into their pedagogy because of a curriculum biased towards developing writing skills. Teachers also revealed that they do not have the…

Oliver, Rhonda; Haig, Yvonne; Rochecouste, Judith

2005-01-01

413

Using Oral Interpretation to Affect Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To dramatize the human resource potential of persons over 65 years old and of the disabled, oral interpretation presentations using oral histories were developed. These presentations were designed to lead to a stimulating exchange of ideas concerning the potential contribution to daily life of the elderly and of the disabled, and to pose questions…

Hartman, Maryann; And Others

414

Validation of Automated Scoring of Oral Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-part experiment is presented that validates a new measurement tool for scoring oral reading ability. Data collected by the U.S. government in a large-scale literacy assessment of adults were analyzed by a system called VersaReader that uses automatic speech recognition and speech processing technologies to score oral reading fluency. In the…

Balogh, Jennifer; Bernstein, Jared; Cheng, Jian; Van Moere, Alistair; Townshend, Brent; Suzuki, Masanori

2012-01-01

415

Midwestern Rural Adolescents' Oral Sex Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined the prevalence of oral sexual activity in rural Midwestern adolescents. We also examined the correlates of a series of risk behaviors with oral sexual activity. Methods: A questionnaire based on the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System was distributed to 2121 rural middle and high school students in grades 6-12…

Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Ward, Britney L.; Welch, Philip J.

2011-01-01

416

The sexual scripting of oral genital contacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence from a number of sources that contemporary cultural scenarios for sexual conduct are often very approving of oral genital sex. Two surveys of sexual conduct are analyzed to examine the changes in interpersonal sexual scripts for oral genital sex for cohorts of white and college-educated young people who entered young adulthood between 1928 and 1943 and 1963

John H. Gagnon; William Simon

1987-01-01

417

Oral Hygiene Products and Acidic Medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidic or EDTA-containing oral hygiene products and acidic medicines have the potential to soften dental hard tissues. The low pH of oral care products increases the chemical stability of some fluoride compounds, favors the incorporation of fluoride ions in the lattice of hydroxyapatite and the precipitation of calcium fluoride on the tooth surface. This layer has some protective effect against

E. Hellwig; A. Lussi

2006-01-01

418

Lupus vulgaris of the Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 cases of lupus vulgaris of the oral mucosa were found to be associated with asymptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis. The patients presented with single or multiple ulcerations of the mouth with an irregular periphery and a granular vegetative fundus. The diagnosis was established histologically and by the favorable and rapid response of the oral lesions to the antituberculosis therapy.Copyright © 1981

George C. Laskaris; George D. Nicolis

1981-01-01

419

Does maternal oral health predict child oral health-related quality of life in adulthood?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  A parental\\/family history of poor oral health may influence the oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) of adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To determine whether the oral health of mothers of young children can predict the OHRQOL of those same children when they\\u000a reach adulthood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Oral examination and interview data from the Dunedin Study's age-32 assessment, as well as maternal self-rated oral health\\u000a data from

Dara M Shearer; W Murray Thomson; Jonathan M Broadbent; Richie Poulton

2011-01-01

420

Bacterial and Host Interactions of Oral Streptococci  

PubMed Central

The oral microbial flora comprises one of the most diverse human-associated biofilms. Its development is heavily influenced by oral streptococci, which are considered the main group of early colonizers. Their initial attachment determines the composition of later colonizers in the oral biofilm and impacts the health or disease status of the host. Thus, the role of streptococci in the development of oral diseases is best described in the context of bacterial ecology, which itself is further influenced by interactions with host epithelial cells, the immune system, and salivary components. The tractability of the oral biofilm makes it an excellent model system for studies of complex, biofilm-associated polymicrobial diseases. Using this system, numerous cooperative and antagonistic bacterial interactions have been demonstrated to occur within the community and with the host. In this review, several recent identified interactions are presented.

Merritt, Justin; Qi, Fengxia

2009-01-01

421

Biologics in oral medicine: ulcerative disorders.  

PubMed

Inflammatory ulcerative diseases of the oral mucosa are wide ranging but include especially aphthous and aphthous-like ulceration, vesiculobullous disorders and erosive lichen planus (LP). While most patients with these conditions respond to conventional topical and/or systemic immunosuppressive agents, treatment-resistant cases remain challenging. In these, the use of biologics such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) inhibitors or rituximab may be of benefit. This article reviews the use of biologics in ulcerative oral conditions, highlighting potential benefits, adverse effects and principles of use and future developments. TNF-? inhibitors such as infliximab can be effective in inducing resolution in oral aphthous and aphthous-like ulcers and may be an appropriate therapy in those patients in which disease is severe and refractory to, or patients are intolerant of, traditional immunomodulatory regimens. There would also seem support and rationale for use of biologics (mainly rituximab) in pemphigus but not in oral LP or other oral ulcerative conditions. PMID:22471882

O'Neill, I D; Scully, C

2013-01-01

422

Laser treatment of oral mucosa tattoo.  

PubMed

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-12-01

423

Laser Treatment of Oral Mucosa Tattoo  

PubMed Central

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit.

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-01-01

424

Formulation strategies to improve oral peptide delivery.  

PubMed

Delivery of peptides by the oral route greatly appeals due to commercial, patient convenience and scientific arguments. While there are over 60 injectable peptides marketed worldwide, and many more in development, most delivery strategies do not yet adequately overcome the barriers to oral delivery. Peptides are sensitive to chemical and enzymatic degradation in the intestine, and are poorly permeable across the intestinal epithelium due to sub-optimal physicochemical properties. A successful oral peptide delivery technology should protect potent peptides from presystemic degradation and improve epithelial permeation to achieve a target oral bioavailability with acceptable intra-subject variability. This review provides a comprehensive up-to-date overview of the current status of oral peptide delivery with an emphasis on patented formulations that are yielding promising clinical data. PMID:24998290

Maher, Sam; Ryan, Ben; Duffy, Aoife; Brayden, David J

2014-05-01

425

Acute urticaria induced by oral methylprednisolone.  

PubMed

Although corticosteroids have immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic effects, allergic reactions are rare. We report a case involving a 52-year-old-female with acute urticaria caused by oral methylprednisolone. The patient had experienced aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) for 13 years with frequent asthma exacerbations. Symptoms of asthma exacerbations improved with short-term treatments of systemic steroids, including methylprednisolone or deflazacort, which had been well tolerated. However, the current admission was prompted by the development of acute generalized urticaria following the oral ingestion of methylprednisolone (8 mg) for relief of symptoms. An oral provocation test with 4 mg oral methylprednisolone led to generalized urticaria 20 minutes later, confirming the causal association. This is the first report of acute urticaria caused by oral methylprednisolone in a patient with AERD. PMID:21966609

Jang, Eun Jung; Jin, Hyun Jung; Nam, Young Hee; Kim, Joo Hee; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

2011-10-01

426

21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a...

2010-04-01

427

21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a...

2009-04-01

428

21 CFR 872.6030 - Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. 872.6030 Section 872... § 872.6030 Oral cavity abrasive polishing agent. (a) Identification. An oral cavity abrasive polishing agent is a device in paste or...

2013-04-01

429

21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510 Section 872.6510...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is an AC-powered device...

2013-04-01

430

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2013-10-01

431

SAG-2 oral rabies vaccine.  

PubMed

The live modified rabies virus vaccine strain SAG-2 was selected from SADBerne in a two step process employing anti-rabies glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies. The first two nucleotides coding for the amino acid in position 333 of the rabies glycoprotein are mutated. Arginine at position 333, which is associated with rabies pathogenicity, was substituted first by lysine and then by glutamic acid. The two nucleotide differences at position 333 in SAG-2 to any of six possible arginine triplets translated into excellent genetic stability and apathogenicity for adult mice, foxes, cats and dogs. The vaccination of foxes and dogs by the oral route provided protection against a lethal challenge with rabies virus. PMID:7777336

Schumacher, C L; Coulon, P; Lafay, F; Bénéjean, J; Aubert, M F; Barrat, J; Aubert, A; Flamand, A

1993-12-01

432

Pancake Syndrome (Oral Mite Anaphylaxis)  

PubMed Central

Oral mite anaphylaxis is a new syndrome characterized by severe allergic manifestations occurring in atopic patients shortly after the intake of foods made with mite-contaminated wheat flour. This clinical entity, observed more frequently in tropical/subtropical environments, is more often triggered by pancakes and for that reason it has been designated "pancake syndrome". Because cooked foods are able to induce the symptoms, it has been proposed that thermoresistant allergens are involved in its production. A novel variety of this syndrome occurs during physical exercise and therefore has been named dust mite ingestion-associated exercise-induced anaphylaxis. To prevent mite proliferation and the production of anaphylaxis, it has been recommended that wheat flour be stored at low temperatures in the refrigerator.

2009-01-01

433

Vitamin C and oral health.  

PubMed

Maintaining natural dentition is a realistic goal given today's improved caries control and attention to good oral hygiene. Expanding knowledge in the area of periodontal diseases provides further insight into health promotion practices which can be effective in preventing tooth loss. Vitamin C's role in maintaining the health of teeth and gingivae remains unchallenged. Now clinical evidence indicates that vitamin C functions in improving host defence mechanisms and is thereby implicated in preserving periodontal health. Common sense tells us that the monitoring of the vitamin C status of individuals, especially those at high risk (e.g., diabetics, smokers, elderly, etc.) for inadequate intakes, will yield positive results for periodontal health. Patient education programs that stress the importance of good nutrition, while at the same time providing practical information for the selection of a well balanced diet, are simple measures that will benefit many. PMID:2676112

Rubinoff, A B; Latner, P A; Pasut, L A

1989-09-01

434

[On oral medications, especially varenicline].  

PubMed

Varenicline is an orally administered alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist. It has been widely used in smoking cessation therapy. It reduces craving and withdrawal symptoms during abstinence and lowers the reinforcing effects of nicotine. A third action of the drug is to blunt responses to smoking cues. Varenicline has higher abstinence rates than nicotine transdermal patches or bupropion. As serious neuro-psychiatric symptoms had been reported post market, including drowsiness, suicidal thoughts and suicide, clinicians are recommended to review the patient's psychiatric history and should monitor them for changes in mood and behavior when prescribing this medication. Studies on flexible dosing regimens, flexible quit dates, and an increased pre-quit medication period have indicated possible improvement to varenicline's effectiveness. PMID:23631241

Kurioka, Narito

2013-03-01

435

[Oral involvement in lymphomatoid papulosis].  

PubMed

Lymphomatoid papulosis is a cutaneous lymphoma with an indolent clinical behaviour characterized by chronic development of recurrent, self-limited lesions appearing as necrotic papules and with a pathology compatible with T cell lymphoma. Mucosal involvement by lymphomatoid papulosis is very rare but has been reported in the literature. It usually appears as ulcers in patients previously diagnosed of lymphomatoid papulosis. From a histological perspective it is characterized by an infiltrate of CD 30 positive atypical lymphocytes together with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate of eosinophils, neutrophils, histiocytes and plasma cells. We report the case of a man previously diagnosed of lymphomatoid papulosis that developed two ulcerated lesions in the tongue whose biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of oral involvement by lymphomatoid papulosis. PMID:17506958

Serra-Guillén, C; Requena, C; Alfaro, A; Hueso, L; Sanmartín, O; Llombart, B; Nagore, E; Botella-Estrada, R; Martorell-Calatayud, A; Guillén, C

2007-05-01

436

Stability of Celecoxib Oral Suspension  

PubMed Central

Background: Celecoxib is a selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitor that relieves pain without affecting platelet function, causing gastrointestinal toxic effects, or increasing the risk of bleeding. Objectives: To develop a suspension formulation for oral celecoxib and to determine its physical and chemical stability when packaged in amber polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bottles and stored with refrigeration (5°C) and at room temperature (23°C). Methods: The contents of celecoxib capsules were used to prepare a single suspension, with Ora-Blend used as the suspending and flavouring agent. The suspension (10 mg/mL) was then packaged in amber PVC bottles and stored at either 5°C or 23°C. Samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 27, 56, and 93. Chemical stability was determined using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. At each sampling time, the suspensions were checked visually for changes in appearance (i.e., colour, layering, caking, and ease of resuspension), odour, and pH. Results: All of the suspensions were stable for at least 93 days, regardless of storage conditions. There were no apparent changes in physical appearance, nor were there any substantial changes in odour or pH. Conclusions: Suspensions of celecoxib (10 mg/mL in Ora-Blend) packaged in amber PVC bottles were stable for up to 93 days when stored at 5°C or 23°C. A 3-month expiry date has been established for this oral suspension on the basis of physical compatibility and chemical stability.

Donnelly, Ronald F; Pascuet, Elena; Ma, Carmen; Vaillancourt, Regis

2009-01-01

437

Oral tolerance: therapeutic implications for autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

Oral tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag) that have been administered previously by the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10) and Th3 (TGF-beta) regulatory T cells (Tregs) plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-beta, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to oral tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory conditions with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. Oral and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy. PMID:17162357

Faria, Ana M C; Weiner, Howard L

2006-01-01

438

Clinical and microbiological diagnosis of oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Candidiasis or oral candidiasis is the most frequent mucocutaneous mycosis of the oral cavity. It is produced by the genus Candida, which is found in the oral cavity of 53% of the general population as a common commensal organism. One hundred and fifty species have been isolated in the oral cavity, and 80% of the isolates correspond to Candida albicans, which can colonize the oral cavity alone or in combination with other species. Transformation from commensal organism to pathogen depends on the intervention of different predisposing factors that modify the microenvironment of the oral cavity and favor the appearance of opportunistic infection. The present study offers a literature review on the diagnosis of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establishing when complementary microbiological techniques for the diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be used, and which techniques are most commonly employed in routine clinical practice in order to establish a definitive diagnosis. Materials and methods: A Medline-PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane search was made covering the last 10 years. Results: The diagnosis of oral candidiasis is fundamentally clinical. Microbiological techniques are used when the clinical diagnosis needs to be confirmed, for establishing a differential diagnosis with other diseases, and in cases characterized by resistance to antifungal drugs. Biopsies in turn are indicated in patients with hyperplastic candidiasis. Staining (10% KOH) and culture (Sabouraud dextrose agar) are the methods most commonly used for diagnosing primary candidiasis. Identification of the individual species of Candida is usually carried out with CHROMagar Candida®. For the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis, and in cases requiring differentiation between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, use is made of immunological and genetic techniques such as ELISA and PCR. Key words:Clinical, oral candidiasis, microbiology.

Jimenez-Soriano, Yolanda

2013-01-01

439

Influence of Oral Sex and Oral Cancer Information on Young Adults' Oral Sexual-Risk Cognitions and Likelihood of HPV Vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health information and educational interventions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) have focused on the link between vaginal sex and cervical cancer among women. Many people are unaware that HPV can be transmitted through oral sex or that HPV causes oral cancers. Given that HPV infections and unprotected oral sex are increasing, research on oral sex-related HPV risk is important. This

Michelle L. Stock; Laurel M. Peterson; Amy E. Houlihan; Laura A. Walsh

2011-01-01

440

Analysis of an MCG/fuse/PFS experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos PROCYON high-explosive pulsed power (HEPP) implosion system is intended to produce 1 MJ of soft X-radiation for fusion and material studies. The system uses the MK-IX magnetic flux compression generator to drive a ``slow`` opening switch which, upon operation, connects the output of the MK-IX generator to a plasma flow switch, which, in turn, delivers current to a rapidly imploding load. The closing switch isolates the plasma flow switch (PFS) and load from any precursor current which might arise due to the finite impedance of the opening switch during its closed phase. In that experiment, our first test, the MK-IX generated approximately 16 MA and 8.2 MJ, and approximately 9.8 MA and 1.15 MJ were delivered to a fixed inductive load in 8--10 microseconds. Computations performed after the experiment, taking into account experimental variables which could not be accurately predicted prior to the experiment, were in satisfactory agreement with all experimental observations, including a double-peaked dI/dt signal which indicated a particular trajectory of the copper fuse material through density-temperature space. Prompted by our success with a fixed load, a second experiment was performed using the MK-IX/fuse/STS combination to drive a plasma flow switch. The objectives of the experiment were to observe the ability of the fuse/STS combination to drive a plasma flow switch and to evaluate our ability to predict system performance. The details of the experiment, the measurements taken, and the data reduction process have previously been reported. The MK-IX produced approximately 22 MA, and approximately 10 MA was delivered to the PFS, which moved down the coaxial barrel of the assembly in an intact manner in about 8 microseconds. In this paper, we present the results of our computational analysis of the experiment.

Lindemuth, I.R.; Rickel, D.G.; Reinovsky, R.E.

1993-02-01

441

Analysis of an MCG/fuse/PFS experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos PROCYON high-explosive pulsed power (HEPP) implosion system is intended to produce 1 MJ of soft X-radiation for fusion and material studies. The system uses the MK-IX magnetic flux compression generator to drive a slow'' opening switch which, upon operation, connects the output of the MK-IX generator to a plasma flow switch, which, in turn, delivers current to a rapidly imploding load. The closing switch isolates the plasma flow switch (PFS) and load from any precursor current which might arise due to the finite impedance of the opening switch during its closed phase. In that experiment, our first test, the MK-IX generated approximately 16 MA and 8.2 MJ, and approximately 9.8 MA and 1.15 MJ were delivered to a fixed inductive load in 8--10 microseconds. Computations performed after the experiment, taking into account experimental variables which could not be accurately predicted prior to the experiment, were in satisfactory agreement with all experimental observations, including a double-peaked dI/dt signal which indicated a particular trajectory of the copper fuse material through density-temperature space. Prompted by our success with a fixed load, a second experiment was performed using the MK-IX/fuse/STS combination to drive a plasma flow switch. The objectives of the experiment were to observe the ability of the fuse/STS combination to drive a plasma flow switch and to evaluate our ability to predict system performance. The details of the experiment, the measurements taken, and the data reduction process have previously been reported. The MK-IX produced approximately 22 MA, and approximately 10 MA was delivered to the PFS, which moved down the coaxial barrel of the assembly in an intact manner in about 8 microseconds. In this paper, we present the results of our computational analysis of the experiment.

Lindemuth, I.R.; Rickel, D.G.; Reinovsky, R.E.

1993-01-01

442

75 FR 16211 - MCG Capital Corporation; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Filing Dates: The application was filed on September...An order granting the application will be issued unless...Secretary, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission...is a summary of the application. The complete application...via the Commission's Web site by searching...

2010-03-31

443

New oral solid dosage form for furosemide oral administration.  

PubMed

Furosemide (FURO) is a drug labeled in class IV of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) as it is both poor soluble and poor permeable. The aim of this work was to improve FURO biopharmaceutical properties by its formulation in a new solid oral dosage form. It consists in the realization of the composite MgAl-HTlc-FURO, obtained by FURO intercalation into the inorganic matrix hydrotalcite (MgAl-HTlc), and its successive formulation in tablets intended to be swallowed whole and to disintegrate rapidly in the stomach. These formulations were prepared by direct compression of a simple powder mixture constituted by MgAl-HTlc-FURO, a super disintegrant (Explotab, PolyplasdoneXL, PolyplasdoneXL-10, PolyplasdoneINF 10 or L-HPCLH-21) and a filler. The prepared formulations were submitted to disintegration time tests, and only those displaying the lowest disintegration time in gastric medium were submitted to in vitro release studies. Drug dissolution profiles from MgAl-HTlc-FURO tablets were compared with those containing crystalline FURO alone or physically mixed to MgAl-HTlc instead of MgAl-HTlc-FURO. The results revealed that tablets containing MgAl-HTlc-FURO give the best dissolution profile and that L-HPCLH-21 is able to promote the highest drug release in gastric medium, resulting in the most suitable super disintegrant in comparison with the other tested. PMID:22230797

Perioli, Luana; D'Alba, Giuseppina; Pagano, Cinzia

2012-04-01

444

Protein and Peptide Drug Delivery: Oral Approaches  

PubMed Central

Till recent, injections remained the most common means for administering therapeutic proteins and peptides because of their poor oral bioavailability. However, oral route would be preferred to any other route because of its high levels of patient acceptance and long term compliance, which increases the therapeutic value of the drug. Designing and formulating a polypeptide drug delivery through the gastro intestinal tract has been a persistent challenge because of their unfavorable physicochemical properties, which includes enzymatic degradation, poor membrane permeability and large molecular size. The main challenge is to improve the oral bioavailability from less than 1% to at least 30-50%. Consequently, efforts have intensified over the past few decades, where every oral dosage form used for the conventional small molecule drugs has been used to explore oral protein and peptide delivery. Various strategies currently under investigation include chemical modification, formulation vehicles and use of enzyme inhibitors, absorption enhancers and mucoadhesive polymers. This review summarizes different pharmaceutical approaches which overcome various physiological barriers that help to improve oral bioavailability that ultimately achieve formulation goals for oral delivery.

Shaji, Jessy; Patole, V.

2008-01-01

445

Oral myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient  

PubMed Central

Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. Oral myiasis is still more “rare” and “unique” owing to the fact that oral cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor oral hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged conditions. Oral myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the oral cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent oral myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of oral myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly) in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture.

Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Jayavelu, Perumal; Shrutha, Santhebachali Prakasha

2013-01-01

446

Oral myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient.  

PubMed

Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. Oral myiasis is still more "rare" and "unique" owing to the fact that oral cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor oral hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged conditions. Oral myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the oral cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent oral myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of oral myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly) in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture. PMID:23956607

Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Jayavelu, Perumal; Shrutha, Santhebachali Prakasha

2013-07-01

447

Comprehensive review on oral disintegrating films.  

PubMed

Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems were first developed in the late 1970s as an alternative to tablets, capsules, and syrups for pediatric and geriatric patients who experience difficulties swallowing traditional oral solid dosage forms. In response to this need, a variety of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formats were commercialized, which disintegrate within 1 min when placed in the mouth without drinking water or chewing. Oral drug delivery technology has improved from conventional dosage forms to modified release dosage forms to ODT to the recent oral disintegrating films (ODF). Oral disintegrating film or strip that employs a water dissolving polymer which allows the dosage form to quickly hydrate by saliva, adhere to mucosa, and disintegrate within a few seconds, dissolve and releases medication for oromucosal absorption when placed on the tongue or oral cavity. Oral strip technology provides an alternate route for drugs with first pass metabolism. This review give details of materials used in ODF, manufacturing aspects, technologies, evaluation tests and marketed products. PMID:22920576

Nagaraju, T; Gowthami, R; Rajashekar, M; Sandeep, S; Mallesham, M; Sathish, D; Kumar, Y Shravan

2013-02-01

448

Immunohistochemical study of oral epithelial sheets cultured on amniotic membrane for oral mucosal reconstruction.  

PubMed

We immunohistochemically evaluated whether oral epithelial cells grown on amniotic membrane (AM) would be an effective biomaterial for reconstructing oral mucosal defects. Oral mucosal epithelial cells from albino rabbits were grown for 2-3 weeks on an AM carrier in a co-culture with 3T3 fibroblasts. The rabbits' oral mucosal defects were reconstructed by autologous transplantation of the oral epithelial sheets. The oral epithelial sheets and reconstructed tissues were then examined histologically and immunohistochemically. After 2-3 weeks of culture, the rabbit oral mucosal epithelial cells developed 5-7 layers of stratification on the AM. Immunohistochemistry revealed that they expressed keratins 4/13, integrin alpha 6, alpha 5 chain and collagen type III, but not keratins 1/10. The transplanted sheets attached to the mucosal defects, and AM fragments disappeared from the transplant area. Immunohistochemical patterns revealed properties of the mucous membrane and basement membrane components in the reconstructed epithelia. The results of this experiment showed that the AM-cultured oral epithelial sheets resulted in mucosa-like differentiation, and adhered to the mucosal defects. Therefore, AM-cultured oral epithelial sheets might be a useful biomaterial for oral mucosal reconstruction. PMID:20448302

Amemiya, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Kanamura, Narisato

2010-01-01

449

Oral mucositis. A complication of radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Oral mucositis is a complication of head and neck radiotherapy. It is understood what causes the inflammation and what biological tissue changes occur, however, a definite cure for oral mucositis has not yet been found. Supportive treatments, analgesics, antimicrobials and anti-inflammatory agents have been prescribed, none of which has been a thorough measure of treatment. An effective cure for oral mucositis is still in the midst of scientific research. In the interim local palliative treatments will help to alleviate the patients', debilitating symptoms.

Rider, C.A. (Tufts Univ. School of Dental Medicine (USA))

1990-11-01

450

Sequential therapy with intravenous and oral cephalosporins.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetic, economic and practical aspects of sequential therapy with iv and oral cephalosporins are reviewed. New broad spectrum oral cephalosporins, such as cefixime, cefpodoxime proxetil and cefetamet pivoxil achieve serum concentrations above the MICs for most Enterobacteriaceae for at least as long as for parenteral cefuroxime. Substantial cost reductions are possible with an early switch from iv to oral cephalosporins. The clinical studies that have been performed so far have important shortcomings. Well designed clinical studies are necessary to prove the feasibility of sequential therapy with cephalosporins for serious infections in hospitalized patients. PMID:8157558

Janknegt, R; van der Meer, J W

1994-01-01

451

Myofibroblasts in oral lesions: A review.  

PubMed

Myofibroblasts (MFs) are modified fibroblasts that express features of smooth muscle differentiation and were first observed in granulation tissue during wound healing. These cells play a key role in physiologic and pathologic processes like wound healing and tumorigenesis. The presence of MFs has been reported in normal oral tissues and pathologic conditions like reactive lesions, benign tumors, locally aggressive tumors and malignancies affecting the oral cavity. This article briefly reviews the important hallmarks related to the discovery, characterization and tissue distribution of MFs in oral health and disease. PMID:24959038

Pinisetti, Soujanya; Manyam, Ravikanth; Suresh, Babburi; Aparna, V

2014-01-01

452

Prebiotics and Probiotics and Oral Health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first part of this chapter describes the unique characteristics of the mouth with special emphasis on the oral microbiota. Next, the highly prevalent dental diseases are briefly described together with more rare but still important diseases and symptoms of the mouth. Prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases are also discussed focusing on aspects considered important with respect to the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics. The second part of the chapter then concentrates on research data on prebiotics and probiotics in the oral health perspective, ending up with conclusions and visions for future research.

Meurman, J. H.

453

Propolis in Dentistry and Oral Cancer Management  

PubMed Central

Propolis, known as bee glue, is a wax-cum-resin substance, which is created out of a mix of buds from some trees with the substance secreted from the bee's glands. Its diverse chemical content is responsible for many valuable properties. Multiple applications of propolis have been studied and described in detail for centuries. However, currently available information on propolis is scarce. A literature search in the PubMed database was performed for English language articles, using the search terms propolis, oral health, dentistry, and oral cancer; no restrictions were used for publication dates. The aim of the article was to review propolis and its applications in dentistry including oral cancer.

S., Vagish Kumar L.

2014-01-01

454

Myofibroblasts in oral lesions: A review  

PubMed Central

Myofibroblasts (MFs) are modified fibroblasts that express features of smooth muscle differentiation and were first observed in granulation tissue during wound healing. These cells play a key role in physiologic and pathologic processes like wound healing and tumorigenesis. The presence of MFs has been reported in normal oral tissues and pathologic conditions like reactive lesions, benign tumors, locally aggressive tumors and malignancies affecting the oral cavity. This article briefly reviews the important hallmarks related to the discovery, characterization and tissue distribution of MFs in oral health and disease.

Pinisetti, Soujanya; Manyam, Ravikanth; Suresh, Babburi; Aparna, V

2014-01-01

455

Pathogenesis of postoperative oral surgical pain.  

PubMed Central

Pain is a major postoperative symptom in many oral surgical procedures. It is a complex and variable phenomenon that can be influenced by many factors. Good management of oral surgical pain requires a detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of surgical pain. This article aims at reviewing postoperative pain from a broad perspective by looking into the nociception, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropharmacology of pain. Therapeutic recommendations are made after reviewing the evidence from the literature for maximizing the efficacy of pain management techniques for oral surgical pain.

Ong, Cliff K. S.; Seymour, R. A.

2003-01-01

456

New oral drugs for multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Disease-modifying treatments are now available in relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), and their beneficial effects have been shown in several clinical studies. However, as these treatments are only partially effective in halting the MS disease process and are frequently associated with side effects and suboptimal patient adherence, new oral therapeutic approaches are warranted. This review focuses on advances in current and novel oral treatment approaches for MS. Several pivotal reports have provided promising results for new oral therapies evaluating the safety and efficacy of new agents including fingolimod, fumaric acid, cladribine, teriflunomide and laquinimod. PMID:19882371

Gasperini, Claudio; Ruggieri, S

2009-10-01

457

Oral hairy leukoplakia: An exfoliative cytology study  

PubMed Central

Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a white, hyperplastic, vertically corrugated lesion that occurs on the lateral border of the tongue, usually unilateral. Caused by the Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV), the lesion is said to be an early indicator of an immune deficiency status, thereby unmasking subclinical systemic conditions. OHL mimics many other white lesions of the oral cavity; therefore, it becomes imperative to identify the lesion. This study used exfoliative cytology, a noninvasive procedure, which helped in identifying the cellular changes brought about by the virus in the oral epithelium. The study revealed a subclinical phase of OHL, where the cellular changes were seen even before the appearance of the clinical lesion.

Reginald, Ajay; Sivapathasundharam, B.

2010-01-01