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1

Medical treatment of missed abortion using misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the efficacy of two routes of misoprostol administration (oral and vaginal) for treatment of missed abortion. Methods: Two hundred women with confirmed missed abortion received 800 mcg misoprostol either orally or vaginally. All women returned for follow-up care 2 days later. If the pregnancy was not completely evacuated at this time, women could wait an additional 5

N. T. N. Ngoc; J. Blum; E. Westheimer; T. T. V. Quan; B. Winikoff

2004-01-01

2

Early pregnancy termination with intravaginally administered sodium chloride solution–moistened misoprostol tablets: Historical comparison with mifepristone and oral misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the abortifacient effect of intravaginally administered moistened misoprostol tablets with that of the combination regimen of mifepristone and oral misoprostol. Study Design: One hundred women at ?56 days’ gestation received 800 ?g misoprostol intravaginally in the form of sodium chloride solution–moistened tablets. The dose was repeated 24 hours later if a

John K. Jain; Karen R. Meckstroth; Daniel R. Mishell

1999-01-01

3

Oral misoprostol for premature rupture of membranes at term  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe study was undertaken to compare the efficacy, safety, and maternal satisfaction of oral misoprostol and intravenous oxytocin for labor induction in women with premature rupture of membranes at term.

Joan M. G. Crane; Tina Delaney; Donna Hutchens

2003-01-01

4

A Randomised Comparison of Oral and Vaginal Misoprostol for Medical Management of First Trimester Missed Abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was done to compare the safety and efficacy of misoprostol administered orally and vaginally for medical management of first trimester missed abortion. 100 women with diagnosed missed abortion were taken for this prospective study. Group A comprised of 50 women who were given oral misoprostol and another 50 in-group B were administered vaginal misoprostol. Clinical outcome, time

Shashi Gupta; Surender Kumar

5

Randomized comparison of oral misoprostol and oxytocin for labor induction in term prelabor membrane rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare labor induction intervals between oral misoprostol and intravenous oxytocin in women who present at term with premature rupture of membranes.Methods: One hundred eight women were randomly assigned to misoprostol 50 ?g orally every 4 hours as needed or intravenous oxytocin. The primary outcome measure was time from induction to vaginal delivery. Sample size was calculated using a

Kimberly D Butt; Kelly A Bennett; Joan M. G Crane; Donna Hutchens; David C Young

1999-01-01

6

A comparative study of 35 mcg and 50 mcg combined oral contraceptives: results from a multicenter clinical trial.  

PubMed

A comparative multicenter clinical trial of two combined oral contraceptives (OCs) differing only in the estrogen content (35 mcg ethinyl estradiol versus 50 mcg mestranol) was conducted at five clinics located in Yugoslavia, Egypt, Sri Lanka, Costa Rica and Mexico. The trial was designed to determine the differences between Norinyl 1+35 (Syntex) and Norinyl 1+50 (Syntex) in rates and reasons of discontinuation, and frequency of selected side effects which might contribute to method discontinuation. This report includes analysis of 1698 women, all of whom were interval patients (at least 42 days but within 26 weeks postpartum), randomly allocated to one of the above OCs between October 1982 and January 1984. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 1, 4, 8 and 12 months after admission. Significantly more women in the Norinyl 1+35 group (p less than .001) reported intermenstrual bleeding (primarily staining and spotting), as well as an increase in the occurrence of intermenstrual bleeding compared to women in the Norinyl 1+50 group. There were no significant differences between the groups for side effects with the exception of more women in the Norinyl 1+50 group (p less than .05) reporting breast discomfort. The lost to follow-up rate at 12 months was 19.3% for both the Norinyl 1+35 and the Norinyl 1+50 groups. The total discontinuation rate (including women lost to follow-up) at 12 months was 43.5% for the Norinyl 1+35 group and 41.0% for the Norinyl 1+50 group. There were no significant differences between the two groups for gross cumulative life table discontinuation rates (p greater than .05). There were six accidental pregnancies attributed to user failure reported during the study period; four in the Norinyl 1+35 group and two in the Norinyl 1+50 group. PMID:1797464

McLaurin, V L; Dunson, B A; Dunson, T R

1991-11-01

7

A masked randomized comparison of oral and vaginal administration of misoprostol for labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To test the null hypothesis that administering misoprostol orally or vaginally will result in no difference in time to vaginal birth, and to determine whether different frequencies of tachysystole and hyperstimulation are associated with route of administration.Methods: Two hundred six women after 37 completed weeks’ gestation who presented with an indication for induction were randomly assigned to receive misoprostol

Kelly A. Bennett; Kimberly Butt; Joan M. G. Crane; Donna Hutchens; David C. Young

1998-01-01

8

Oral misoprostol for preventing postpartum haemorrhage in home births in rural Bangladesh: how effective is it?  

PubMed Central

Aims Evidence exists about prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) by oral administration of misoprostol in low-income countries, but effectiveness of prevention by lay community health workers (CHW) is not sufficient. This study aimed to investigate whether a single dose (400 µg) of oral misoprostol could prevent PPH in a community home-birth setting and to assess its acceptability and feasibility among rural Bangladeshi women. Methods This quasi-experimental trial was conducted among 2,017 rural women who had home deliveries between November 2009 and February 2010 in two rural districts of northern Bangladesh. In the intervention district 1,009 women received 400 µg of misoprostol immediately after giving birth by the lay CHWs, and in the control district 1,008 women were followed after giving birth with no specific intervention against PPH. Primary PPH (within 24 hours) was measured by women's self-reported subjective measures of the normality of blood loss using the ‘cultural consensus model.’ Baseline data provided socio-economic, reproductive, obstetric, and bleeding disorder information. Findings The incidence of primary PPH was found to be lower in the intervention group (1.6%) than the control group (6.2%) (p<0.001). Misoprostol provided 81% protection (RR: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.08–0.48) against developing primary PPH. The proportion of retained and manually removed placentae was found to be higher in the control group compared to the intervention group. Women in the control group were more likely to need an emergency referral to a higher level facility and blood transfusion than the intervention group. Unexpectedly few women experienced transient side effects of misoprostol. Eighty-seven percent of the women were willing to use the drug in future pregnancy and would recommend to other pregnant women. Conclusion Community-based distribution of oral misoprostol (400 µg) by CHW appeared to be effective, safe, acceptable, and feasible in reducing the incidence of PPH in rural areas of Bangladesh. This strategy should be scaled up across the country where access to skilled attendance is limited.

Nasreen, Hashima-E-; Nahar, Shamsun; Al Mamun, Mahfuz; Afsana, Kaosar; Byass, Peter

2011-01-01

9

Comparison of sublingual, vaginal, and oral misoprostol in cervical ripening for first trimester abortion  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness and tolerability of misoprostol as a cervical ripening agent in first trimester abortion through three different routes of administration before surgical evacuation (SE). Materials and Methods: It was a hospital based prospective randomized open labeled parallel study. A total of 150 randomly selected married women were divided in three groups for sublingual (S/L), vaginal and oral 400 ?g of misoprostol single dose administration. The drug was administered 3-4 h before SE in the S/L and vaginal groups and 12 h before the procedure in the oral group. Efficacy was assessed on the basis of time taken for ripening, dilatation achieved, duration of the procedure, intra-operative blood loss, and pain score. The tolerability was noted on the basis of side effects. Results: The mean time taken for cervical ripening was less in sublingual administration (3.7±1.2 hr) as compared to the vaginal and oral routes. The S/L group had significant cervical dilatation (P<0.001) and the duration of SE was less as compared to the vaginal and oral routes. However, the mean intraoperative blood loss was more in sublingual as compared to the vaginal and oral groups. The intra-operative pain score of the S/L group was significantly lower (1.9±1.1, P<0.05) as compared to the vaginal (2.6±1.7) or oral route (3.3±1.7). Loose motions and nausea/vomiting were more with the S/L and oral routes while blood loss was more in the vaginal route. Conclusion: Administration of misoprostol by the sublingual route is better than the oral and vaginal routes for cervical ripening.

Parveen, Shagufta; Khateeb, Zaffar Abbas; Mufti, S.M.; Shah, M.A.; Tandon, Vishal R.; Hakak, S.; Singh, Z.; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Mir, Shakeel A.; Tabasum, Rehana; Jan, Nasreen

2011-01-01

10

A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial of Oral Misoprostol and Intramuscular Syntometrine in the Management of the Third Stage of Labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of oral misoprostol 400 ?g with intramuscular syntometrine in the management of the third stage of labor. Material and Methods: This was a double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Three hundred and fifty-five women randomized to receive either oral misoprostol 400 ?g or

P. S. Ng; C. Y. Lai; D. S. Sahota; P. M. Yuen

2007-01-01

11

Follicular development in a 7-day versus 4-day hormone-free interval with an oral contraceptive containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCombined oral contraceptive (COC) formulations with 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE) have a greater incidence of ovarian hormone production and follicular development, which can be managed by shortening the number of hormone-free days per COC cycle. This study evaluates differences in follicular development during a 7-day versus 4-day hormone-free interval in a COC regimen with 20 mcg EE and 1

Radhika D. Rible; DeShawn Taylor; Melissa L. Wilson; Frank Z. Stanczyk; Daniel R. Mishell

2009-01-01

12

Acceptability and safety profile of oral and sublingual misoprostol for uterine evacuation following early fetal demise  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been established that sublingual (SL) route of misoprostol has a great potential to be developed for medical abortion, but there is dearth of evidence to reveal satisfaction rate and safety profile among patients of oral and SL routes. Thus, this study was conducted to provide an insight into the acceptability and safety profile of the same. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was carried out by giving 200 mg mifepristone orally, followed by administration of 600 ?g misoprostol orally to 50 women and sublingually to 50 women. The primary endpoints of study were measurements of acceptability and safety profile parameters (average blood loss, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hot flushes, fever) of both the groups. The secondary endpoints of the study were number of doses required for complete abortion, success rate and the induction to evacuation interval in both the groups. Results: SL route of administration was more acceptable than the oral route (P = 0.009). Average blood loss was higher in the oral group than in the SL group (P = 0.001). Amongst the side effects, 34% in the SL group and 52% in the oral group had nausea (P = 0.264), 22% in the SL group and 44% in the oral group had vomiting (P = 0.031), 48% in the SL group and 86% in the oral group had diarrhea (P < 0.05), hot flushes were presented by 24% in the SL group and 50% in the oral group (P < 0.05), fever was presented by 20% in the SL group and 44% in the oral group (P < 0.05), and the number of cases aborted with only one dose was higher (86%) in the SL group as compared to 63% in the oral group (P = 0.004). The evacuation (success) rates were 92% in the SL group and 84% in the oral group (P = 0.218) and the mean ± SD induction to evacuation intervals in the SL and oral groups were 5.6 ± 4.54 hours and 9.44 ± 5.61 hours, respectively (P = 0.0002). Conclusion: The SL route had fewer undesirable effects, was more satisfactory, required less number of doses and was more acceptable to the patient compared to the oral route.

Kushwah, Devendra Singh; Kushwah, Beenu; Salman, Mohd Tariq; Verma, V. K.

2011-01-01

13

Cervical priming before diagnostic operative hysteroscopy in infertile women: a randomized, double-blind, controlled comparison of 2 vaginal misoprostol doses.  

PubMed

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vaginal misoprostol for cervical priming at doses of 200 mcg and 400 mcg, 12 to 15 hours before diagnostic office hysteroscopy (OH) without anesthesia in patients with infertility. Sixty infertile patients requiring a diagnostic office hysteroscopy for investigation of infertility were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated into 3 vaginally administered misoprostol groups: (1) control group, (2) 200-mcg dose group, and (3) 400-mcg dose group. Misoprostol significantly facilitated the procedure of OH: cervical entry was easier; procedural time was shorter; baseline cervical width was larger; and pain scoring was lower in the misoprostol groups compared with the control group. Increasing the dose of misoprostol from 200 mcg to 400 mcg did not improve the effect on cervical dilation. Misoprostol is a promising analog to use for cervical priming before OH. Since doses of 200 mcg and 400 mcg vaginal misoprostol 12 hours before the OH both have proven to be effective regimens, 200 mcg may be preferred. However, before routine clinical usage, further research is needed through large, randomized, controlled trials powered to detect a difference in complications to determine whether misoprostol reduces complications in OH. PMID:23701149

Bastu, Ercan; Celik, Cem; Nehir, Asli; Dogan, Murat; Yuksel, Bahar; Ergun, Bulent

14

The use of oral misoprostol as a cervical ripening agent in operative hysteroscopy: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of oral misoprostol as a cervical ripening agent when used in operative hysteroscopy. Study Design: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Any patient undergoing an operative hysteroscopy (with a 9-mm to 10-mm hysteroscope) was considered eligible for the trial. Patients were randomly allocated, by means of computer-generated numbers, to

Jackie A. Thomas; Nicholas Leyland; Nancy Durand; Rory C. Windrim

2002-01-01

15

A randomized controlled trial comparing two protocols for the use of misoprostol in midtrimester pregnancy termination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to compare the efficacy of oral misoprostol with that of vaginal misoprostol for midtrimester termination of pregnancy. Study Design: Women seen for midtrimester pregnancy termination were randomly assigned to receive either misoprostol orally in a dose of 200 ?g every hour for 3 hours followed by 400 ?g every 4 hours or vaginally in a dose

Michael W. Bebbington; Nancy Kent; Ken Lim; Alain Gagnon; Marie France Delisle; Francine Tessier; R. Douglas Wilson

2002-01-01

16

Dose and side effects of sublingual misoprostol for treatment of postpartum hemorrhage: what difference do they make?  

PubMed Central

Background Shivering and fever are common side effects of misoprostol. An unexpectedly high rate of fever above 40°C was documented among Ecuadorian women given treatment with 800mcg of sublingual misoprostol to manage postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) (36%). Much lower rates have been reported elsewhere (0-9%). Methods From February to July 2010, an open-label pilot study was conducted in Quito, Ecuador to determine whether a lower dose--600mcg sublingual misoprostol--would result in a lower incidence of high fever (?40°C). Rates of shivering and fever with 600mcg sublingual regimen were compared to previously documented rates in Ecuador following PPH treatment with 800mcg sublingual misoprostol. Results The 600mcg dose resulted in a 55% lower rate of high fever compared with the 800mcg regimen (8/50; 16% vs. 58/163; 36%; relative risk 0.45 95% CI 0.23-0.88). Only one woman had severe shivering following the 600mcg dose compared with 19 women in the 800mcg cohort (2% vs. 12%; relative risk 0.17 (0.02-1.25)). No cases of delirium/altered sensorium were reported with the 600mcg dose and women’s assessment of severity/tolerability of shivering and fever was better with the lower dose. Conclusions 600mcg sublingual misoprostol was found to decrease the occurrence of high fever among Ecuadorian women when given to treat PPH. This study however was not powered to examine the efficacy of this treatment regimen and cannot be recommended at this time. Future research is needed to confirm whether other populations, outside of Quito, Ecuador, experience unusually high rates of elevated body temperature following sublingual administration of misoprostol for treatment of PPH. If indeed similar trends are found elsewhere, larger trials to confirm the efficacy of lower dosages may be justified. Trial Registration Clinical trials.gov, Registry No. NCT01080846

2012-01-01

17

A combined oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 3.0 mg drospirenone does not impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation  

PubMed Central

Background Ethinyl estradiol (EE) increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation in young women, but certain progestins paired with EE in combination OCPs have been shown to antagonize the vasodilatory effects of EE. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how endothelial function, serum biomarkers, and resting blood pressures change across an OCP cycle in women using a monophasic OCP formulation containing the progestin drospirenone. Study Design Twelve women were studied during two hormone phases of their OCP cycle; once at the end of three weeks of active pills (30 mcg EE and 3.0 mg drospirenone), and once at the end of a week of placebo pills (no exogenous hormones). Results Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was greater during the active phase compared to the placebo phase (p < 0.001). In contrast, there was no difference in endothelium-independent dilation between hormone phases. Conclusion These data suggest that the combination of 30 mcg EE and 3.0 mg drospirenone used in the active phase of this OCP increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation compared to a placebo phase.

Meendering, Jessica R.; Torgrimson, Britta N.; Miller, Nicole P.; Kaplan, Paul F.; Minson, Christopher T.

2010-01-01

18

Pharmacokinetic profiles of controlled-release hydrogel polymer vaginal inserts containing misoprostol.  

PubMed

Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue, is commonly administered intravaginally for cervical ripening and induction of labor. There is uncertainty regarding the correct dose because of the need to divide the tablets, and there is difficulty in removing the product when there is an adverse event. A proprietary hydrogel polymer containing a removable controlled-release reservoir dose of misoprostol is being developed for vaginal administration (misoprostol vaginal insert) to address these drawbacks while maintaining efficacy. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic profiles of these vaginal inserts and orally administered misoprostol. Twelve nonpregnant women received 100-, 200-, and 400-microg misoprostol vaginal inserts and separately received an oral dose of 200 microg of misoprostol. Values for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, from time 0 to the last measurable concentration, were dose proportional with 481, 1026, and 2191 pg.h/mL for the 100-, 200-, and 400-microg misoprostol vaginal inserts, respectively. Maximum plasma concentrations were 33.1, 73.4, and 144 pg/mL for the 100-, 200-, and 400-microg misoprostol vaginal inserts, compared with 609 pg/mL for the 200 microg of oral misoprostol. After administration of the insert, plasma misoprostol acid levels increased gradually with time of the maximum measured plasma concentration at 5 to 9 hours. Following removal of the insert, misoprostol acid was eliminated rapidly from the systemic circulation with a mean half-life <1 hour. PMID:18071191

Powers, Barbara L; Wing, Deborah A; Carr, Denis; Ewert, Karine; Di Spirito, Mike

2007-12-10

19

The use of misoprostol prior to hysteroscopy in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study examined whether oral misoprostol exerted a cervical priming effect in postmenopausal women prior to hysteroscopy. METHOD: Thirty-seven patients were randomized to receive either oral misoprostol (400 µg) or placebo (vitamin B6) 12 h prior to hysteroscopy. The resistance of the cervix to dilatation was objectively assessed by a cervical tonometer. RESULTS: The mean baseline cervical dilatation (4.2

S. W. Ngai; Y. M. Chan; P. C. Ho

2001-01-01

20

Intravaginal misoprostol for termination of midtrimester pregnancy.  

PubMed

Misoprostol seems to be a drug with many potential uses apart from the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers. The oral tablet appears to be effective for termination of midtrimester pregnancy when administered intravaginally. Further research should be carried out to determine its full range of action in order that the drug can be utilized to its maximum potential. PMID:7772001

Lim, J M; Soh, E B; Raman, S

1995-02-01

21

Mifepristone and misoprostol versus Dilapan and sulprostone for second trimester termination of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare two methods for second trimester termination of pregnancy: mifepristone and misoprostol versus Dilapan and sulprostone. METHODS: This was a randomized study involving 16 patients with a singleton live fetus with congenital malformations or genetic disorders. Eight patients were treated with 200 mg mifepristone orally followed by 200 microg misoprostol vaginally 3 hourly and eight patients received a

Nicoline E. Jansen; Pieternel C. M. Pasker-De Jong; Hans A. Zondervan

2008-01-01

22

Effectiveness of medical abortion with mifepristone and buccal misoprostol through 59 gestational days  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFrom 2001 to March 2006, Planned Parenthood Federation of America (Planned Parenthood) health centers throughout the United States provided medical abortions principally by a regimen of oral mifepristone, followed 24–48 h later by vaginal misoprostol. In late March 2006, analyses of serious uterine infections following medical abortions led Planned Parenthood to change the route of misoprostol administration and to employ

Mary Fjerstad; Irving Sivin; E. Steve Lichtenberg; James Trussell; Kelly Cleland; Vanessa Cullins

2009-01-01

23

The use of misoprostol in obstetrics and gynaecology.  

PubMed

Misoprostol, although originally introduced as a therapy for gastric ulcers, is now widely used in reproductive health. For some indications it is now the optimal choice, whilst for others it provides an important alternative, especially in low-resource settings. The optimal dose varies widely from 20 to 600 mcg depending on the indication and gestation. Use of the correct dose is important, too low a dose will be ineffective and overdosage can be dangerous for mother and baby. Evidence-based information about the safest regimens for multiple pregnancy indications are therefore provided in this review. PMID:19740175

Elati, A; Weeks, A D

2009-10-01

24

Misoprostol for the prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage.  

PubMed

Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) causes preventable maternal deaths, mainly in low-income countries. Misoprostol has powerful uterotonic effects and, because it is well absorbed orally and sublingually, has the potential to be used more widely than would be possible with injectable uterotonics alone. Misoprostol is clearly less effective than oxytocin. Placebo-controlled studies have had variable results, although two recent trials in low-income communities have shown promising results. The main recognized side effects have been dose-related pyrexia and shivering, including occasional hyperpyrexia. In the randomized trials reported to date, there has been a trend to more deaths with misoprostol than with the control groups. The dose that has been most commonly used in clinical trials for preventing PPH is 600 microg orally. Meta-analysis of direct and adjusted indirect comparisons between 600 and 400 microg showed very similar effectiveness. To date, there is very limited evidence for the effectiveness of misoprostol, the lowest effective dose and the magnitude of adverse effects, both direct and indirect. The need for further research is a matter of great urgency. PMID:18786863

Hofmeyr, G Justus; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

2008-09-10

25

Silent Uterine Rupture with the Use of Misoprostol for Second Trimester Termination of Pregnancy : A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Uterine rupture is an uncommon, but a life-threatening, complication following second trimester medical termination of pregnancy (TOP). The reported cases have been in both the scarred and unscarred uterus (Rajesh et al. 2002, Drey et al. 2006, and Dickinson). A 27-year-old with two previous deliveries, no previous caesarean section, no history of induced abortions, and no gynaecological operations. She presented with amenorrhoea, and according to her last normal menstruation, she was 10 weeks and 5 days. Ultrasound was done, and it reported 16 weeks and 5 days. She asked for TOP. According to the clinic's protocol, misoprostol 800?mcg (4 tabs) were given to be used vaginally as a loading dose and another three to be taken orally after that. In the following day when she attended the clinic for follow up, a manual vacuum aspiration (MVA). A manual vacuum aspiration was indicated as an incomplete abortion. During the procedure, a uterine rupture was found in the uterine lower segment. A laparotomy was done and a lineal uterine rupture was found and sutured. The patient had a good postoperative recovery and was discharged from hospital after four days. The clinician dealing with second trimester terminations should be aware of the possibility of having a uterine rupture, especially in patients with a uterine scar in order to make an early diagnosis.

Cuellar Torriente, Martin

2011-01-01

26

Silent uterine rupture with the use of misoprostol for second trimester termination of pregnancy : a case report.  

PubMed

Uterine rupture is an uncommon, but a life-threatening, complication following second trimester medical termination of pregnancy (TOP). The reported cases have been in both the scarred and unscarred uterus (Rajesh et al. 2002, Drey et al. 2006, and Dickinson). A 27-year-old with two previous deliveries, no previous caesarean section, no history of induced abortions, and no gynaecological operations. She presented with amenorrhoea, and according to her last normal menstruation, she was 10 weeks and 5 days. Ultrasound was done, and it reported 16 weeks and 5 days. She asked for TOP. According to the clinic's protocol, misoprostol 800?mcg (4 tabs) were given to be used vaginally as a loading dose and another three to be taken orally after that. In the following day when she attended the clinic for follow up, a manual vacuum aspiration (MVA). A manual vacuum aspiration was indicated as an incomplete abortion. During the procedure, a uterine rupture was found in the uterine lower segment. A laparotomy was done and a lineal uterine rupture was found and sutured. The patient had a good postoperative recovery and was discharged from hospital after four days. The clinician dealing with second trimester terminations should be aware of the possibility of having a uterine rupture, especially in patients with a uterine scar in order to make an early diagnosis. PMID:21765835

Cuellar Torriente, Martin

2011-04-19

27

Generating Microwave Radiation Pulses with MCG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transformer schemes matching magnetocumulative generators (MCG) with high impedance loads, like vircator, look promising for achieving long pulse duration of 1 ?s. An analysis of expected parameters is made here. The necessary MCG and transformer parameters are discussed and the experimental set-up is described. The shots with the MCG simulator were carried out first. At simulator voltage 40 kV and reserved energy 12 kJ, the voltage pulse with amplitude to 600 kV and 320 ns duration is generated on a triode with a virtual cathode. Microwave radiation of 300-400 MW and 200-300 ns duration is generated within a 10 cm wavelength range.

Zherlitsyn, A. G.; Kanaev, G. G.; Melnikov, G. V.; Tsvetkov, V. I.; Ushnurtsev, A. E.; Dudin, S. V.; Mintsev, V. B.; Fortov, V. E.

2004-11-01

28

Results from a study using misoprostol for management of incomplete abortion in Vietnamese hospitals: implications for task shifting  

PubMed Central

Background Complications following spontaneous or induced abortion are a major cause of maternal morbidity. To manage these complications, post-abortion care (PAC) services should be readily available and easy to access. Standard PAC treatment includes surgical interventions that are highly effective but require surgical providers and medical centers that have the necessary space and equipment. Misoprostol has been shown to be an effective alternative to surgical evacuation and can be offered by lower level clinicians. This study sought to assess whether 400 mcg sublingual misoprostol could effectively evacuate the uterus after incomplete abortion and to confirm its applicability for use at lower level settings. Methods All women presenting with incomplete abortion at one of three hospitals in Vietnam were enrolled. Providers were not asked to record if the abortion was spontaneous or induced. It is likely that all were spontaneous given the legal status and easy access to abortion services in Vietnam. Participants were given 400 mcg sublingual misoprostol and instructed to hold the pills under their tongue for 30 minutes and then swallow any remaining fragments. They were then asked to return one week later to confirm their clinical status. Study clinicians were instructed to confirm a complete expulsion clinically. All women were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding satisfaction with the treatment. Results Three hundred and two women were enrolled between September 2009 and May 2010. Almost all participants (96.3%) had successful completions using a single dose of 400 mcg misoprostol. The majority of women (87.2%) found the side effects to be tolerable or easily tolerable. Most women (84.3%) were satisfied or very satisfied with the treatment they received; only one was dissatisfied (0.3%). Nine out of ten women would select this method again and recommend it to a friend (91.0% and 90.0%, respectively). Conclusions This study confirms that 400 mcg sublingual misoprostol effectively evacuates the uterus for most women experiencing incomplete abortion. The high levels of satisfaction and side effect tolerability also attest to the ease of use of this method. From these data and given the international consensus around the effectiveness of misoprostol for incomplete abortion care, it seems timely that use of the drug for this indication be widely expanded both throughout Vietnam and wherever access to abortion care is limited. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00670761

2013-01-01

29

Reduction of aspirin-induced fecal blood loss with low-dose misoprostol tablets in man  

SciTech Connect

Misoprostol (SC-29333), a synthetic prostaglandin E1 methyl ester analog, was given simultaneously with acetylsalicylic acid in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized prospective study of 32 healthy human male subjects. Fecal blood loss was measured for eight days using the /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cell technique. Aspirin (650 mg qid) and misoprostol (25 micrograms qid) or placebo were given during days 3, 4, and 5. There was a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in median blood loss (modified Friedman test) from 0.81 to 6.05 ml/day in the aspirin with placebo group (N = 16). Median blood loss was increased (from 0.75 to 3.75 ml/day) in the aspirin with misoprostol group (N = 16), but this was significantly less (Mann-Whitney U test, P less than 0.01) than the placebo group. Mean serum salicylate concentrations in the placebo and misoprostol groups were similar (7.8 and 6.8 micrograms/ml, respectively). There were no significant changes in laboratory values in any of the subjects studied, nor were any major side-effects encountered. This study demonstrates that oral misoprostol reduces aspirin-induced gastrointestinal bleeding even when administered simultaneously and at a dose level below its threshold for significant acid inhibition. This indicates a potential role for misoprostol in the prevention of gastric mucosal damage in selected patients.

Cohen, M.M.; Clark, L.; Armstrong, L.; D'Souza, J.

1985-07-01

30

["Off label" use of some medicinal products. Part II. "Off label" use of misoprostol].  

PubMed

The article is dedicated on the medicinal product known under the INN Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue that is world wide "off label" used in obstetrics and gynecology. Contemporary publications are provided to prove the effects of the medicinal product when applied in a manner which differs from the licensed one--i.e. vaginally, sublingually, orally and rectally. Detailed recommendations are described about the use of Misoprostol in reproductive health. They are published in British National Formulary, "Guidelines on good practices" of the French High Health Authority, WHO Guidelines on save abortion, and presented as official positions of FDA, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the British National Institute for Clinical Excellance - NICE. Evidence and considerations are provided on the Misoprostol's induction of abortion and labor. It is concluded that Misoprostol is potentially important for the reproductive health practice. The widespread use of Misoprostol for "unlicensed" indications in the world is increasingly setting the view that based on the sufficient data for its safe and efficient use and complying with the information about its contraindications and possible risks, Misoprostol can claim to be a medicinal product of choice in the reproductive health practice. PMID:23236666

Sirakov, M

2012-01-01

31

Uses of Misoprostol in Obstetrics and Gynecology  

PubMed Central

Misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analogue that is used off-label for a variety of indications in the practice of obstetrics and gynecology, including medication abortion, medical management of miscarriage, induction of labor, cervical ripening before surgical procedures, and the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage. Due to its wide-ranging applications in reproductive health, misoprostol is on the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines. This article briefly reviews the varied uses of misoprostol in obstetrics and gynecology.

Allen, Rebecca; O'Brien, Barbara M

2009-01-01

32

[Misoprostol for treating postpartum hemorrhages].  

PubMed

Postpartum hemorrhage is defined by bleeding > 500 mL through the vagina. It is one of the obstetrical complications that obstetricians fear most. It is the leading cause of maternal mortality in the world, especially in developing countries. The reference treatments in France are parenteral oxytocin and sulprostone. Sulprostone involves sometimes fatal side effects, and must be administered only in appropriate health care facilities. It also has the major disadvantage of requiring refrigeration. Misoprostol has uterotonic properties that have led to its occasional off-label use in the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage, by rectal or sublingual administration, as an alternative to sulprostone. A careful review of the literature on this particular use of misoprostol is essential. PMID:17643941

Godard, Clémence; Berhoune, Malik; Bertrand, Eric; Schlatter, Joël; Chiadmi, Fouad; Toledano, Audrey; Cisternino, Salvatore; Fontan, Jean-Eudes

2007-07-23

33

Effect of misoprostol, a prostaglandin E 1 analog, on orthodontic tooth movement in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oral administration of misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analog, on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in rats. Sixty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats that initially weighed 250 ± 20 g were used in this study. The animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 experimental and 2 control (nonappliance and appliance)

Ali Reza Sekhavat; Kazem Mousavizadeh; Hamid Reza Pakshir; Fatemeh Sari Aslani

2002-01-01

34

Optimal reduction of MCG in fetal MEG recordings.  

PubMed

Recording fetal magnetoencephalographic (fMEG) signals in-utero is a demanding task due to biological interference, especially maternal and fetal magnetocardiographic (MCG) signals. A method based on orthogonal projection of MCG signal space vectors (OP) was evaluated and compared with independent component analysis (ICA). The evaluation was based on MCG amplitude reduction and signal-to-noise ratio of fetal brain signals using exemplary datasets recorded during ongoing studies related to auditory evoked fields. The results indicate that the OP method is the preferable approach for attenuation of MCG and for preserving the fetal brain signals in fMEG recordings. PMID:16916111

McCubbin, J; Robinson, S E; Cropp, R; Moiseev, A; Vrba, J; Murphy, P; Preissl, H; Eswaran, H

2006-08-01

35

Misoprostol for preventing and treating postpartum hemorrhage in the community: a closer look at the evidence.  

PubMed

The lack of clear interpretation of clinical and operational evidence on misoprostol use for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in the community may jeopardize the realization of its full potential for improving women's survival. This paper highlights the usefulness of misoprostol in addressing PPH in the community within the limits of available research evidence. There is now substantial evidence to support the beneficial effects of 600 ?g of oral misoprostol for PPH prevention in the community, with a trend toward better protection against severe PPH morbidity, and particularly when administered by less skilled or lay caregivers. Although there is tangible evidence to show that 800 ?g of sublingual misoprostol has important benefits for PPH treatment where there is no access to oxytocin, there is presently no direct evidence to indicate that less skilled or lay caregivers can safely use it to treat PPH in the community. Operational research evidence indicates that advance community distribution of misoprostol to pregnant women for postpartum self-use is a feasible strategy to ensure availability of the drug at the time of birth. The evidence is, however, limited by its quality to establish whether the benefits of such a strategy truly outweigh the potential harms. It is time for the international community to focus on improving PPH-related outcomes by scaling up what is currently guided by hard evidence and join forces to address unanswered questions through high-quality research. PMID:22968139

Oladapo, Olufemi T

2012-09-09

36

MCG simulations with a realistic heart-torso model.  

PubMed

Magnetocardiograms (MCG's) simulated with a high-resolution heart-torso model of an adult subject were compared with measured MCG's acquired from the same individual. An exact match of the measured and simulated MCG's was not found due to the uncertainties in tissue conductivities and cardiac source positions. However, general features of the measured MCG's were reasonably represented by the simulated data for most, but not all of the channels. This suggests that the model accounts for the most important mechanisms underlying the genesis of MCG's and may be useful for cardiac magnetic field modeling under normal and diseased states. MCG's were simulated with a realistic finite-element heart-torso model constructed from segmented magnetic resonance images with 19 different tissue types identified. A finite-element model was developed from the segmented images. The model consists of 2.51 million brick-shaped elements and 2.58 million nodes, and has a voxel resolution of 1.56 x 1.56 x 3 mm. Current distributions inside the torso and the magnetic fields and MCG's at the gradiometer coil locations were computed. MCG's were measured with a Philips twin Dewar first-order gradiometer SQUID-system consisting of 31 channels in one tank and 19 channels in the other. PMID:9805831

Ramon, C; Czapski, P; Haueisen, J; Huntsman, L L; Nowak, H; Bardy, G H; Leder, U; Kim, Y; Nelson, J A

1998-11-01

37

Misoprostol for postpartum hemorrhage prevention at home birth: an integrative review of global implementation experience to date  

PubMed Central

Background Hemorrhage continues to be a leading cause of maternal death in developing countries. The 2012 World Health Organization guidelines for the prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) recommend oral administration of misoprostol by community health workers (CHWs). However, there are several outstanding questions about distribution of misoprostol for PPH prevention at home births. Methods We conducted an integrative review of published research studies and evaluation reports from programs that distributed misoprostol at the community level for prevention of PPH at home births. We reviewed methods and cadres involved in education of end-users, drug administration, distribution, and coverage, correct and incorrect usage, and serious adverse events. Results Eighteen programs were identified; only seven reported all data of interest. Programs utilized a range of strategies and timings for distributing misoprostol. Distribution rates were higher when misoprostol was distributed at a home visit during late pregnancy (54.5-96.9%) or at birth (22.5-83.6%), compared to antenatal care (ANC) distribution at any ANC visit (22.5-49.1%) or late ANC visit (21.0-26.7%). Coverage rates were highest when CHWs and traditional birth attendants distributed misoprostol and lower when health workers/ANC providers distributed the medication. The highest distribution and coverage rates were achieved by programs that allowed self-administration. Seven women took misoprostol prior to delivery out of more than 12,000 women who were followed-up. Facility birth rates increased in the three programs for which this information was available. Fifty-one (51) maternal deaths were reported among 86,732 women taking misoprostol: 24 were attributed to perceived PPH; none were directly attributed to use of misoprostol. Even if all deaths were attributable to PPH, the equivalent ratio (59 maternal deaths/100,000 live births) is substantially lower than the reported maternal mortality ratio in any of these countries. Conclusions Community-based programs for prevention of PPH at home birth using misoprostol can achieve high distribution and use of the medication, using diverse program strategies. Coverage was greatest when misoprostol was distributed by community health agents at home visits. Programs appear to be safe, with an extremely low rate of ante- or intrapartum administration of the medication.

2013-01-01

38

Misoprostol in the management of missed abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the effect of vaginal misoprostol with that of placebo when used prior to dilatation and aspiration in women with a missed abortion. Method: Eighty-four pregnant women with a missed abortion were randomized to receive either vaginal misoprostol (200 ?g) or placebo the day before the planned dilatation and aspiration under inhalation anesthesia. Result: Thirty-five women (83.33%) in

Y. Herabutya; P. O-Prasertsawat

1997-01-01

39

Intravaginal misoprostol for medical evacuation of first trimester missed abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravaginal misoprostol for medical evacuation of first trimester missed abortions.Methods: Seven women with a transvaginal ultrasound diagnosis of a first trimester missed abortion were treated with 800 ?g of misoprostol. Four 200 ?g misoprostol tablets were placed intravaginally, and a repeat dose of 800 ?g was repeated if products of conception were

Mark Wakabayashi; Mark Tretiak; Thomas Kosasa; Santosh Sharma; Tod Aeby; Lori Kamemoto; Leticia Diniega

1998-01-01

40

Methotrexate and misoprostol for early abortion: A multicenter trial. Acceptability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective trial was conducted including 300 pregnant women seeking elective abortion to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of methotrexate and misoprostol for abortion at ?56 days gestation. Subjects received methotrexate 50 mg\\/m2 intramuscularly followed 7 days later by misoprostol 800 ?g vaginally. The misoprostol dose was repeated the next day if the abortion did not occur. Efficacy is reported

Mitchell D. Creinin; Anne E. Burke

1996-01-01

41

[Developmental toxicity of misoprostol: an update].  

PubMed

Misoprostol, a synthetic analog of prostaglandin E1, is currently used in Chile and other countries as an antiulcer medication, mainly for the prevention of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory-induced gastric ulcers. Due to its uterotonic properties, it is also indicated in obstetrics for induction of labor and termination of pregnancy. In this last case, misoprostol is either used alone or in combination with other oxytocic drugs such as methotrexate or mifepristone. The use of misoprostol as an abortifacient agent is considered to be safe since it rarely causes serious side effects. However up to 15 % of misoprostol-induced-abortions may not be successful, even under medical supervision, leading to in utero exposure to the drug and to the induction of a series of birth defects including limb and joints defects and Moebius syndrome. Reports from the nineties failed to show a strong epidemiological association between in utero drug exposure and induction of defects, a situation that has changed now that the number of cases reported has increased. Since the practice of abortion is illegal in Chile, many women turn to off-medical procedures to interrupt their pregnancy and use misoprostol as an easy and cheap alternative, readily available in the INTERNET. The lack of medical supervision in these cases may lead to situations that favor the induction of congenital defects. Here, we present an updated review of scientific data, to evaluate the risk of birth defects in babies exposed to the drug during pregnancy termination failed attempts. PMID:21879192

Cavieres, María Fernanda

2011-08-25

42

Low-dose mifepristone 200 mg and vaginal misoprostol for abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness, side effects, and acceptability of one-third the standard 600 mg dose of mifepristone (200 mg) to induce abortion.A prospective trial at seven sites enrolled women ?18 years, up to 8 weeks pregnant, and wanting an abortion. The women received 200 mg mifepristone orally, self-administered 800 ?g misoprostol vaginally at home

Eric A Schaff; Steven H Eisinger; Lisa S Stadalius; Peter Franks; Bernard Z Gore; Suzanne Poppema

1999-01-01

43

Randomized double masked trial of Zhi Byed 11, a Tibetan traditional medicine, versus misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage in Lhasa, Tibet.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare a Tibetan traditional medicine (the uterotonic Zhi Byed 11 [ZB11]) to oral misoprostol for prophylaxis of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled trial at three hospitals in Lhasa, Tibet, People's Republic of China. Women (N = 967) were randomized to either ZB11 or misoprostol groups. Postpartum blood loss was measured in a calibrated blood collection drape. The primary combined outcome was incidence of PPH, defined as measured blood loss (MBL) > or = 500 mL, administration of open label uterotonics, or maternal death. We found that the rate of the combined outcome was lower among the misoprostol group (16.1% versus 21.8% for ZB11; P = .02). Frequency of PPH was lower with misoprostol (12.4% versus 17.4%; P = .02). There were no significant differences in MBL > 1000 mL or mean or median MBL. Fever was significantly more common in the misoprostol group (P = .03). The rate of combined outcome was significantly lower among women receiving misoprostol. However, other indices of obstetric hemorrhage were not significantly different. PMID:19249659

Miller, Suellen; Tudor, Carrie; Thorsten, Vanessa; Nyima; Kalyang; Sonam; Lhakpen; Droyoung; Quzong, Karma; Dekyi, Tsering; Hartwell, Ty; Wright, Linda L; Varner, Michael W

44

Energy Conversion Efficiency of Mcg-Based Lightning Simulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of HE mass gain minimization is extremely important due to environmental and safety considerations of MCG application to mobile simulators of lightning current (MSLC). There are several methods of increasing the efficiency of MSLC with an electrical explosive opening switch (EEOS) in the circuit of the secondary winding of a conventional transformer (CT) with inductance L2. One may use the battery of fast-run MCGs of a small diameter, or increase both the magnitude of L2 and the energy of power supply bank of capacitors, or use larger diameter wires with solid insulation. Results of experiments using spiral-coaxial MCG, 36 mm in diameter, have produced an acceptable efficiency of 12%. When the wires were insulated with polyethylene, energy absorption was high. Analysis of alternatives to open switches (OS) in the MCG circuit has shown their competitiveness. They allow reduction of the optimum L2 magnitude, use of a modular device design, and shaping of the waveform and of the lightning current pulse duration during its droop by introducing one additional MCG module into the circuit.

Chernykh, E. V.; Fortov, V. E.; Gorbachev, K. V.; Kujekin, I. P.; Nesterov, E. V.; Stroganov, V. A.; Karpoushin, Yu. A.; Shourupov, A. V.

2004-11-01

45

3-D magnetic measurement of exercise-induced MCG.  

PubMed

We carried out a three-dimensional (3-D) vector measurement of exercise-induced magnetocardiograms (MCGs) for normal subjects with a wooden and brass-based bicycle ergometer. MCGs were measured by a 3-D second-order gradiometer connected to 39-channel SQUIDs, which can detect magnetic field components perpendicular to the chest wall (Bz) and tangential to the chest wall (Bx, By) simultaneously. Time-frequency analysis was applied to rest times and exercise-induced MCG data. It was shown that the power spectrum of the ST segment was different between the rest times and exercise-induced MCG. Principal component analysis (PCA) was also applied to the result of time-frequency analysis and the time course of frequency for the ST segment was evaluated quantitatively. It found that dominant frequency of the ST segment in the rest time was ranged 5.5 to 6.5 Hz in all components. And it was clearly shown that the peak frequency of the exercise-induced MCG was shifted to 10.5 Hz compared to that of rest MCG. PMID:16012702

Uchikawa, Y; Kim, B S; Kobayashi, K

2004-11-30

46

Effects of misoprostol on cell migration and transit in the dog stomach  

SciTech Connect

Prostaglandins of the E series increase stomach mucosal mass by inducing hyperplasia, which could be the result either of increased cell production or of decreased cell loss. This report describes an investigation of the effect of the prostaglandin E1 analogue, misoprostol, on cell migration and transit. 3H-thymidine was used to label those cells synthesizing deoxyribonucleic acid in dogs that had been given an oral dose of 300 micrograms/kg per day misoprostol for 11 weeks. The animals were killed at timed intervals, and tissue from the gastric fundus was prepared for autoradiography. The distribution of labeled cells at various times after labeling was used to follow the movement of the wave of label and to calculate median cell migration rates and transit times. The migration rate of cells toward the gastric lumen was significantly increased from 1.4 +/- 0.3 to 3.6 +/- 0.6 cell positions per day in the misoprostol-treated group (p less than 0.001); however, the gland length (from the most basal mucous neck cell to the luminal surface) was also increased (from 52.1 +/- 1.1 to 74.0 +/- 1.6; p less than 0.001), thus there was no significant difference in the (transit) time taken for cells to reach the top of the gland (control, 17.5 +/- 9.8 days; test, 12.2 +/- 7.1 days).

Goodlad, R.A.; Madgwick, A.J.; Moffatt, M.R.; Levin, S.; Allen, J.L.; Wright, N.A. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (England))

1990-01-01

47

MCG measurement in the environment of active magnetic shield.  

PubMed

MCG (Magnetocardiography) measurement by a SQUID gradiometer was attempted with only active magnetic shielding (active shielding). A three-axis-canceling-coil active shielding system, where three 16-10-16 turns-coil sets were put in the orthogonal directions, produces a homogeneous magnetic field in a considerable volume surrounding the center. Fluxgate sensors were used as the reference sensors of the system. The system can reduce environmental magnetic noise at low frequencies of less than a few Hz, at 50 Hz and at 150 Hz. Reducing such disturbances stabilizes biomagnetic measurement conditions for SQUIDs in the absence of magnetically shielded rooms (MSR). After filtering and averaging the measured MCG data by a first-order SQUID gradiometer with only the active shielding during the daytime, the QRS complex and T wave was clearly presented. PMID:16012640

Yamazaki, K; Kato, K; Kobayashi, K; Igarashi, A; Sato, T; Haga, A; Kasai, N

2004-11-30

48

Acceptability and Feasibility of Early Pregnancy Termination by Mifepristone-Misoprostol Results of a Large Multicenter Trial in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate whether the regimen of oral mifepristone and misoprostol for medical abortion is ac- ceptable to women and providers, in the United States, including physicians, nurses, and counselors, and whether proposed modifications of this regimen appear feasible for clinical practice. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Seventeen clinics in 15 states. Participants: A total of 2121 women with pregnancies

Beverly Winikoff; Charlotte Ellertson; Batya Elul; Irving Sivin

1998-01-01

49

Safety, efficacy, and acceptability of medical abortion in China, Cuba, and India: A comparative trial of mifepristone-misoprostol versus surgical abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: We investigated safety, efficacy, and acceptability of an oral regimen of medical abortion compared with surgical abortion in three developing countries.STUDY DESIGN: Women (n = 1373) with amenorrhea ?56 days chose either surgical abortion (as provided routinely) or 600 mg of mifepristone followed after 48 hours by 400 ?g of misoprostol. This is the appropriate design for studying safety,

Beverly Winikoff; Irving Sivin; Kurus J. Coyaji; Evelio Cabezas; Xiao Bilian; Gu Sujuan; Du Ming-kun; Usha R. Krishna; Andrea Eschen; Charlotte Ellertson

1997-01-01

50

Visualization of results of mathematical simulations: The contribution of MCG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An abstract on the contribution of MCG to the visualization of results of mathematical simulations is presented. MCG, which is a Belgian company dealing with synthesis three dimensional animation, became aware of a need which was the result of the increasing power of the hardware and software tools used by the engineers today: the visualization of the results of mathematical simulations. The design of a program including various visualization tools adapted to software like SAMCEF in the field of system dynamics and ECRIN Principia and SDRC in the field of fluid dynamics was undertaken by MCG. In fluid dynamics, the program which associates color with the relative values of variables in scalar fields, enables the calculation of iso-value surfaces, cuts in the mesh, and in the case of vector fields, offers colored arrow representation and animated particle paths in the velocity field. The system dynamics program reads the files generated by SAMCEF and allows complex periodic or transient movements on a reactor blade. simulated opening of a structure in space to be represented.

51

Misoprostol for the Treatment of Early Pregnancy Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 20% of all pregnancies end in early pregnancy failure, and surgical evacuation of retained products of conception is often used to manage this failure. Misoprostol is an inexpensive, stable analog of prostaglandin E1, and is powerful at contracting the uterus. With intravaginal misoprostol, the peak plasma levels are lower, but the levels after 4 hours are higher, than after

Sheila A. Doggrell

52

Introducing misoprostol for the treatment of incomplete abortion in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Despite legal restriction, induced abortions and resulting complications are common in Nigeria. Misoprostol administration for incomplete abortion was introduced in 3 Nigerian hospitals. The feasibility of the hospitals, patient and provider acceptability were assessed using questionnaire and interview guides administered to 205 women and 17 providers respectively. Amongst the women, 194 (95%) were satisfied and very satisfied with misoprostol, 176 (86%) would choose misoprostol again if another incomplete abortion occurred and 191 (93%) would recommend it to another woman in a similar situation. Providers were highly satisfied with misoprostol. The ease of use and ability to redirect surgical resources to more complicated issues were positive features cited by them. The providers agreed that integration of misoprostol was straightforward and required few resources. Therefore, misoprostol for incomplete abortion is safe, efficacious and acceptable to providers and patients. In remote areas of Nigeria with limited post-abortion care (PAC), misoprostol administration is an important potential PAC treatment modality. Features of misoprostol-low cost, room temperature stability, and ease of introduction-render it an important treatment option, particularly in low resource and rural settings. PMID:22571104

Dah, Talemoh; Akiode, Akinsewa; Awah, Paschal; Fetters, Tamara; Okoh, Mathew; Ujah, Innocent; Oji, Ejike

2011-12-01

53

Clinical Response to an Oral Prostaglandin Analogue in Patients with Interstitial Cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the efficacy of the oral prostaglandin analogue misoprostol in controlling the symptoms of interstitial cystitis in patients with refractory disease. Methods: Twenty-five patients were commenced on misoprostol 600 µg daily for 3 months. Patients who responded to therapy were offered treatment for a further 6 months. Assessment of the response was by a voiding log and an

J. D. Kelly; M. R. A. Young; S. R. Johnston; P. F. Keane

1998-01-01

54

Novel Cultivation-Based Approach To Understanding the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG) Archaea from Sedimentary Ecosystems.  

PubMed

The uncultured miscellaneous crenarchaeotic group (MCG) archaea comprise one of the most abundant microbial groups in the Earth's subsurface environment. However, very little information is available regarding the lifestyle, physiology, and factors controlling the distribution of members of this group. We established a novel method using both cultivation and molecular techniques, including a pre-PCR propidium monoazide treatment, to investigate viable members of the MCG in vitro. Enrichment cultures prepared from estuarine sediment were provided with one of a variety of carbon substrates or cultivation conditions and incubated for 3 weeks. Compared with the samples from time zero, there was an order-of-magnitude increase in the number of MCG 16S rRNA genes in almost all cultures, indicating that MCG archaea are amenable to in vitro cultivation. None of the tested substrates or conditions significantly stimulated growth of MCG archaea more than the basal medium alone; however, glycerol (0.02%) had a significantly inhibitory effect (P < 0.05). Diversity analysis of populations resulting from four culture treatments (basal medium, addition of amino acids, H2-CO2 as the gas phase, or initial aerobic conditions) revealed that the majority of viable MCG archaea were affiliated with the MCG-8 and MCG-4 clusters. There were no significant differences in MCG diversity between these treatments, also indicating that some members of MCG-4 and MCG-8 are tolerant of initially oxic conditions. The methods outlined here will be useful for further investigation of MCG archaea and comparison of substrates and cultivation conditions that influence their growth in vitro. PMID:23934495

Gagen, Emma J; Huber, Harald; Meador, Travis; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Thomm, Michael

2013-08-09

55

Visualization of Results of Mathematical Simulations: The Contribution of MCG (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An abstract on the contribution of MCG to the visualization of results of mathematical simulations is presented. MCG, which is a Belgian company dealing with synthesis three dimensional animation, became aware of a need which was the result of the increas...

1991-01-01

56

Methotrexate and misoprostol for early abortion: A multicenter trial. I. Safety and efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective trial was conducted including 300 pregant women seeking elective abortion to evaluate the safety and efficacy of methotrexate and misoprostol for abortion at ?56 days gestation. Subjects received methotrexate 50 mg\\/m2 intramuscularly followed 7 days later by misoprostol 800 ?g vaginally. The misoprostol dose was repeated the next day if the abortion did not occur. Outcome measures included

Mitchell D. Creinin; Eric Vittinghoff; Lisa Keder; Philip D. Darney; George Tiller

1996-01-01

57

Misoprostol and declining abortion-related morbidity in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: a temporal association  

Microsoft Academic Search

ductive health professionals, non-governmental organisation leaders and women's group leaders (n ¼ 50) were conducted to discover the role of misoprostol in the Dominican Republic. Local women (n ¼ 157) were surveyed to determine their knowledge of misoprostol as an abortifacient and mystery client visits were made to 80 pharmacies in order to purchase misoprostol without a prescription. Sales data

Suellen Miller; Tara Lehman; Martha Campbell; Anke Hemmerling; Sonia Brito Anderson; Hector Rodriguez; Wilme Vargas Gonzalez; Milton Cordero; Victor Calderonh

2005-01-01

58

Acute Coronary Artery Vasospasm Associated with Misoprostol for Termination of Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostaglandin E1 analogues, gemeprost and misoprostol, are the most widely used drugs for medical termination of pregnancy within the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Gemeprost has been reported to be associated with acute cardiovascular accidents in a few cases, but no adverse cardiovascular events have been reported with misoprostol. For this reason, misoprostol has been considered a potentially safer drug

Miriam Illa; Mar Bennasar; Elisenda Eixarch; Raquel Berge; Montse Palacio

2010-01-01

59

High fever following postpartum administration of sublingual misoprostol  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore what triggers an elevated body temperature of ?40.0°C in some women given misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue, for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Design Post hoc analysis. Setting One tertiary-level hospital in Quito, Ecuador. Population A cohort of 58 women with a fever of above 40°C following treatment with sublingual misoprostol (800 micrograms) for PPH. Methods Side effects were documented for 163 Ecuadorian women given sublingual misoprostol to treat their PPH. Women’s body temperatures were measured, and if they had a fever of ?40.0°C, measurements were taken hourly until the fever subsided. Temperature trends were analysed, and the possible physiological mechanisms by which postpartum misoprostol produces a high fever were explored. Main outcome measures The onset, duration, peak temperatures, and treatments administered for cases with a high fever. Results Fifty-eight of 163 women (35.6%) treated with misoprostol experienced a fever of ?40.0°C. High fevers followed a predictable pattern, often preceded by moderate/severe shivering within 20 minutes of treatment. Body temperatures peaked 1–2 hours post-treatment, and gradually declined over 3 hours. Fevers were transient and did not lead to any hospitalisation. Baseline characteristics were comparable among women who did and did not develop a high fever, except for known previous PPH and time to placental expulsion. Conclusions An unexpectedly high rate of elevated body temperature of ?40.0°C was documented in Ecuador following sublingually administered misoprostol. It is unclear why temperatures ?40.0°C occurred with a greater frequency in Ecuador than in other study populations using similar treatment regimens for PPH. Pharmacogenetic studies may shed further light on variations in individuals’ responses to misoprostol.

Durocher, J; Bynum, J; Leon, W; Barrera, G; Winikoff, B

2010-01-01

60

Rethinking WHO guidance: review of evidence for misoprostol use in the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage.  

PubMed

This article describes and critically appraises clinical trials assessing misoprostol effectiveness in preventing primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in home and community settings in low- and middle-income countries. Of 172 identified studies of misoprostol use in labour only six fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All trials used 600 ?g misoprostol in the intervention arm; three assessed misoprostol alongside components of active management of the third-stage labour (AMTSL), two used expectant management of labour and one allowed birth attendants to choose management practice. The three AMTSL studies showed no significant differences in PPH incidence or referral to higher centres and only one study showed significant decrease in severe PPH using misoprostol. One expectant management study and the choice of management by birth attendants study found significant decreases in PPH incidence with misoprostol. All studies showed significantly increased risk of shivering with misoprostol. Studies were biased by use of alternative uterotonics in the control arm, confounding management practices, and subjective assessment and, with one exception, exclusion of high-risk women. PPH incidence fell in both the control and intervention groups in both the landmark papers that informed the World Health Organization (WHO) decision to admit misoprostol to the Essential Medicines List. This suggests factors other than misoprostol use are crucial. Current evidence does not support misoprostol use in home and community settings in low- and middle-income countries for PPH prevention. WHO should rethink its recent decision to include misoprostol on the Essential Medicines List. PMID:22907551

Chu, Christina S; Brhlikova, Petra; Pollock, Allyson M

2012-08-01

61

Technical details influence the diagnostic accuracy of the 1 mcg ACTH stimulation test  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine factors causing inadequate cortisol responses to the 1 mcg ACTH stimulation test. Design Random test assignment (by age and gender) at 0800h or 1600h Methods We recruited 20 healthy adults to each of three age groups (<40 years, 40 – 55 years, and > 55 years; half female in each group). ACTH stimulation tests were performed in an outpatient clinic at the NIH Clinical Research Center. Plasma cortisol was measured just before, 30 and 60 minutes after administration of 1mcg ACTH (1-24). The ACTH concentration in diluted and administered solutions was measured. Results Twenty-five volunteers (19 at 1600h) had a subnormal cortisol response (peak cortisol 10.4-17.5 mcg/dl), using a criterion < 18 mcg/dl (497 nmol/L), for a specificity of 58% (CI 45 – 71%). Afternoon testing had a significant impact on failure rates (OR 6.98, CI 2.17 - 22.43), while gender and age did not. The stock solution contained 1 mcg ACTH, but after administration through tubing it contained only 0.5 to 0.8 mcg. Conclusions The high rate of abnormal results, especially in the afternoon, and loss of ACTH through tubing, suggest that morning testing and minimal tubing should be adopted to avoid an inappropriate diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency. Earlier time-points and standardized protocols would facilitate comparison of studies.

Wade, Matthew; Baid, Smita; Calis, Karim; Raff, Hershel; Sinaii, Ninet; Nieman, Lynnette

2010-01-01

62

Commercial availability of misoprostol and induced abortion in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Brazil, abortion is only permitted to save the woman's life or in cases of rape. The principal effect of legal restrictions is not to make induced abortion practice less prevalent but to force poor women to resort to abortions performed under unhygience conditions or attempt self-induced abortion. Within this context, misoprostol, a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1, was introduced

S. H. Costa

1998-01-01

63

Misoprostol to treat missed abortion in the first trimester  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missed abortion in the first trimester is characterized by the arrest of embryonic or fetal development. The cervix is closed and there is no or only slight bleeding. Ultrasound examination shows an empty gestational sac or an embryo\\/fetus without cardiac activity. Based on a review of the published literature a single dose of 800 ?g vaginal misoprostol may be offered as

K. Gemzell-Danielsson; P. C. Ho; R. Gómez Ponce de León; B. Winikoff

2007-01-01

64

A randomized controlled trial of vaginal misoprostol for cervical priming before hysteroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of vaginal misoprostol for cervical dilation in nonpregnant women before hysteroscopy.Methods: Ninety-one women scheduled to have hysteroscopy were randomized to receive either vaginal misoprostol or placebo. Cervical response, outcome of hysteroscopy, and side effects of vaginal misoprostol were assessed.Results: The mean cervical dilatation estimated by Hegar dilator and the mean duration of

Sangchai Preutthipan; Yongyoth Herabutya

1999-01-01

65

Cervical priming prior to operative hysteroscopy: a randomized comparison of laminaria versus misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare efficacy of intravaginal misoprostol versus endocervical laminaria tents prior to operative hysteroscopy in selected cases. METHODS: A total of 144 patients with diagnosed intrauterine lesions scheduled for operative hysteroscopy were randomly allocated to two groups according to method of cervi- cal priming prior to the procedure. Misoprostol 200mg was inserted into the posterior fornix of

A. M. Darwish; A. M. Ahmad; A. M. Mohammad

2004-01-01

66

Comparative efficacy and cost of the prostaglandin analogs dinoprostone and misoprostol as labor preinduction agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the relative efficacy and cost of three commercially available prostaglandin analogs, misoprostol (Cytotec), dinoprostone gel (Prepidil), and dinoprostone insert (Cervidil), as labor preinduction agents. Study design: One-hundred eleven women with an unfavorable cervix who underwent labor induction were assigned randomly to receive either misoprostol 50 ?g every 6 hours for two

Patrick S. Ramsey; Denise Y. Harris; Paul L. Ogburn; Robert H. Heise; Paul M. Magtibay; Kirk D. Ramin

2003-01-01

67

Misoprostol use in obstetrics and gynecology in Brazil, Jamaica, and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate current clinical use of misoprostol for the treatment of a range of reproductive health indications by providers in Brazil, Jamaica, and the United States. Methods: Using a ‘snowball’ sampling technique, we surveyed 228 gynecologists and obstetricians in Brazil (n=123), Jamaica (n=52), and the United States (n=53). Results: Providers use misoprostol for labor induction (46%), postpartum hemorrhage (8%),

S. Clark; J. Blum; K. Blanchard; L. Galvão; H. Fletcher; B. Winikoff

2002-01-01

68

Mcg in 2030: new techniques for atomic position determination of immune complexes.  

PubMed

The lambda-type light chain dimer from a patient (Mcg) with multiple myeloma and amyloidosis was a pioneer protein for determining the three-dimensional structures of immunoglobulins, understanding the effects of ligand binding, and exploring the use of combinatorial methods to identify novel peptides complementary to protein active sites. Despite 30 years of intense study, there are still unanswered questions about the structure of the Mcg dimer, especially with respect to positions of hydrogen atoms and solvent molecules. In the present report, we describe two techniques that will help define the roles of solvent in ligand interactions and complex formation with this immunoglobulin fragment: (1) introduction of helium as a cryogenic agent during X-ray data collection; and (2) addition of neutron diffraction analyses. These techniques should provide improved resolution, and a more accurate structure of the Mcg dimer. Resolution enhancements of 0.5 A have been achieved in preliminary experiments with cryogenic helium, as compared with the best X-ray diffraction data obtained previously. In the near future, neutron diffraction studies should produce the first hydrogen structure for the Mcg dimer and help elucidate the ligand preferences and amyloidogenic properties of this eminently useful protein. PMID:12447907

Hanson, B Leif; Bunick, Gerard J; Harp, Joel M; Edmundson, Allen B

69

HTS SQUID gradiometer using substrate resonators operating in an unshielded environment - a portable MCG system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated and verified the basic feasibility of performing magnetocardiographic (MCG) measurements without magnetic shielding when using a first-order electronic gradiometer with our novel dielectric substrate resonator rf SQUIDs. The setup at the operation site involved adjustment of the gradiometer's baseline length and adaptive balancing. Our experimental portable system was tested in three environments differing in the level of

Yi Zhang; Norbert Wolters; Jürgen Schubert; Dieter Lomparski; Marko Banzet; Grigory Panaitov; Hans-Joachim Krause; Michael Mück; Alex I. Braginski

2003-01-01

70

Complete Cervical Avulsion with Intravaginal Misoprostol for Second Trimester Pregnancy Termination  

PubMed Central

Intravaginal misoprostol, a synthetic PGE1 analogue, has largely replaced all other techniques for pregnancy termination in II trimester, because of its successful results. Incidence of II trimester pregnancy termination has also increased in the present days, because of prenatal diagnosis of pregnancies with serious fetal abnormalities like cardiovascular and skeletal malformations. But there are serious and life threatening complications reported with the use of intravaginal misoprostol. Here we are reporting a case of complete avulsion of cervix from lower part of the uterus, with the use of intravaginal misoprostol, for II trimester termination of pregnancy. So, clinicians dealing with II trimester termination of pregnancy should be aware of such complications.

Sajjan, G. R.; Patil, Neelamma; Kaur, Manpreet; Shirgur, Shobha; Nandi, Suvarna; Ashwini, V.

2012-01-01

71

Fetal MCG and fetal MEG measurements with a 3-channel SQUID system.  

PubMed

Since the high costs of common large array SQUID system may hinder widespread application of fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG) and magnetocardiography (fMCG), we intended to investigate a small non-commercial 3-channel SQUID system. The system comprises 3 axial first order gradiometers with 7 cm base length, 2 cm diameter and 2x2 windings of niobium wire, dc-SQUIDs (UJ-111), and current locked mode SQUID electronics that form an equal length triangle (22.5 mm). The system is mounted in a Cryostat BFH-7 model 16 with 5 mm "warm"-"cold" distance. System noise is about 10 fT/Hz1/2. The fMEG and fMCG were recorded between 29 - 40 weeks of gestation after sonographic localization of the fetal head and heart using a 31-channel biomagnetometer (Philips) and the 3-channel-system, both in the same magnetically shielded room. The fMEG was recorded continuously over 500 sec (500 auditory stimuli, 100 dB SPL, 500 Hz, 50 ms, ISI 0.8-1.2/1.6-2.4 sec, trigger channel, maternal ECG lead, sampling rate 1 kHz). The fMCG was recorded over a period of 5 minutes after dewar readjustment. The detection rates of cortical auditory evoked responses (CAER) reached 100 % for both systems. Cross confirmation of the components was difficult and may have uncovered false positive component detection. The fMCG was characterized by a systematic increase in SNR under application of the smaller device. The small size array provides a profitable alternative for the fetal applications. PMID:16012661

Schneider, U; Giessler, F; Nowak, H; Logemann, T; Grimm, B; Haueisen, J; Schleussner, E

2004-11-30

72

Misoprostol, a synthetic PGE 1 analog, in the treatment of duodenal ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Misoprostol, a synthetic analog of prostaglandin E1, inhibits gastric acid production and is cytoprotective at doses well tolerated by patients in preliminary trials. This multicenter double-blind study was performed in out-patients with endoscopically demonstrated duodenal ulcers, to compare the efficacy in ulcer healing and the safety of two dosages of misoprostol and placebo. Up to six antacid tablets daily were

D. L. Brand; W. M. Roufall; A. B. R. Thomson; E. J. Tapper

1985-01-01

73

The efficacy of a 600-microgram misoprostol regimen for the evacuation of missed abortions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a 600-?g misoprostol regimen for the evacuation of first-trimester missed abortions.Materials and Methods: Stable patients with missed abortion diagnosed between 6 and 14 weeks of gestation were given three treatment options. Patients in Group I chose misoprostol, 600 ?g, intravaginally; Group II chose surgical dilation and curettage (D&C), and group III choose spontaneous resolution.

Wayne A. McCreath; Julie Kang; Jorge R. Martin; Makbib Diro; Jerry M. Gilles

2001-01-01

74

Vaginal misoprostol in the management of first-trimester missed abortions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a regimen of vaginal misoprostol in causing the complete expulsion of first-trimester missed abortions, or alternatively dilating the cervix for surgical evacuation. Method: Seventy-four women with a transvaginal ultrasound diagnosis of a first-trimester missed abortion and no more than slight vaginal bleeding were consecutively enrolled. Misoprostol (600 ?g) was administered vaginally and repeated 4

D Ayres-de-Campos; J Teixeira-da-Silva; I Campos; B Patr??cio

2000-01-01

75

Bleeding pattern and cycle control with an estradiol-based oral contraceptive: a seven-cycle, randomized comparative trial of estradiol valerate\\/dienogest and ethinyl estradiol\\/levonorgestrel  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis study compared the bleeding pattern, cycle control and safety of an oral contraceptive (OC) comprising estradiol valerate\\/dienogest (E2V\\/DNG; administered using a dynamic dosing regimen) with a monophasic OC containing ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg\\/levonorgestrel 100 mcg (EE\\/LNG). E2V releases estradiol (E2), which is identical to endogenously produced 17?-estradiol.

Hans-Joachim Ahrendt; Dagmar Makalová; Susanne Parke; Uwe Mellinger; Diana Mansour

2009-01-01

76

Human MCG measurements with a high-sensitivity potassium atomic magnetometer.  

PubMed

Measuring biomagnetic fields, such as magnetocardiograms (MCGs), is important for investigating biological functions. To address to this need, we developed an optically pumped atomic magnetometer. In this study, human MCGs were acquired using a potassium atomic magnetometer without any modulating systems. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is comparable to that of high-T(c) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) and is sufficient for acquiring human MCGs. The activity of a human heart estimated from the MCG maps agrees well with that measured with SQUID magnetometers. Thus, our magnetometer produces reliable results, which demonstrate the potential of our atomic magnetometer for biomagnetic measurements. PMID:22621881

Kamada, K; Ito, Y; Kobayashi, T

2012-05-24

77

Cellulase production in continuous and fed-batch culture by Trichoderma reesei MCG80  

SciTech Connect

Continuous culture of Natick's strain MCG80 of Trichoderma reesei at a dilution rate of 0.028 h/sup -1/ has yielded a cellulase titer of over 61 U/mL using 5% lactose as the sole carbon source. Enzyme productivity at this dilution rate is 168 IU/L/h. Repeated fed-batch cultures using this strain on lactose as the carbon source have titers of 10 IU/mL with productivities in excess of 100 IU/L/h. 5 figures, 1 table.

Allen, A.L.; Andreotti, R.E.

1982-01-01

78

A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the use of mifepristone with sublingual or vaginal misoprostol for medical abortions of less than 9 weeks gestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A combination of mifepristone and misoprostol provides an effective method of medical abortion for early pregnancy. This is the first randomized trial comparing the use of sublingual misoprostol with vaginal misoprostol in combination with mifepristone for termination of early pregnancies up to 63 days. METHODS: A total of 224 women who requested legal termination of pregnancy up to 63

Oi Shan Tang; Carina C. W. Chan; Ernest H. Y. Ng; Sharon W. H. Lee; Pak Chung Ho

2003-01-01

79

A randomized controlled trial of misoprostol and sulprostone to end pregnancy after fetal death.  

PubMed

Objective. To compare effectiveness, side effects, and patients' perception of vaginal misoprostol versus intravenous sulprostone for ending pregnancy after fetal death between 14 and 42 weeks gestation. Method. Multicenter randomized controlled trial, using block randomization, central allocation, and prior power analysis. Outcome measures. Induction-delivery interval, gastrointestinal side effects, use of analgesia, pain perception, pyrexia, placental retention, hemorrhage, and women's opinions. Results. Of 176 women aimed for, 143 were randomized over 7 years, of whom 4 were excluded. There was no difference in delivery within 24 and 36 hours: 91.4% and 97.1% with misoprostol (n = 70) versus 85.5% and 92.8% with sulprostone (n = 69). There was no difference in either gastrointestinal side effects, as reported by the women and their caregivers, use of analgesia, women's pain perception, blood loss or placental retention. Hyperthermia >/=38 degrees C was more common with misoprostol (24.3%) than with sulprostone (11.6%; difference: +12.7%; 95% CI: +1.2% to +25.3%) and related to the total dose used. Acceptability of both induction methods was similar except for freedom of movement, which was substantially in favor of misoprostol (lack of freedom reported with misoprostol in 34.3% versus 63.8% with sulprostone; difference: -29.5%; 95% CI: -13.6% to -45.4%). Conclusions. Misoprostol and sulprostone are similarly effective with little difference in side effects except for hyperthermia, related to the dose of misoprostol used, and women's reported lack of mobility with intravenous sulprostone. Effectiveness of both methods increased with gestational age. PMID:19960062

Van Mensel, Kristin; Claerhout, Filip; Debois, Patrick; Keirse, Marc J N C; Hanssens, Myriam

2009-09-06

80

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Misoprostol and Sulprostone to End Pregnancy after Fetal Death  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare effectiveness, side effects, and patients' perception of vaginal misoprostol versus intravenous sulprostone for ending pregnancy after fetal death between 14 and 42 weeks gestation. Method. Multicenter randomized controlled trial, using block randomization, central allocation, and prior power analysis. Outcome measures. Induction-delivery interval, gastrointestinal side effects, use of analgesia, pain perception, pyrexia, placental retention, hemorrhage, and women's opinions. Results. Of 176 women aimed for, 143 were randomized over 7 years, of whom 4 were excluded. There was no difference in delivery within 24 and 36 hours: 91.4% and 97.1% with misoprostol (n = 70) versus 85.5% and 92.8% with sulprostone (n = 69). There was no difference in either gastrointestinal side effects, as reported by the women and their caregivers, use of analgesia, women's pain perception, blood loss or placental retention. Hyperthermia ?38°C was more common with misoprostol (24.3%) than with sulprostone (11.6%; difference: +12.7%; 95% CI: +1.2% to +25.3%) and related to the total dose used. Acceptability of both induction methods was similar except for freedom of movement, which was substantially in favor of misoprostol (lack of freedom reported with misoprostol in 34.3% versus 63.8% with sulprostone; difference: ?29.5%; 95% CI: ?13.6% to ?45.4%). Conclusions. Misoprostol and sulprostone are similarly effective with little difference in side effects except for hyperthermia, related to the dose of misoprostol used, and women's reported lack of mobility with intravenous sulprostone. Effectiveness of both methods increased with gestational age.

Van Mensel, Kristin; Claerhout, Filip; Debois, Patrick; Keirse, Marc J. N. C.; Hanssens, Myriam

2009-01-01

81

Misoprostol for prevention and treatment of postpartum haemorrhage: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal mortality especially in the developing world. Misoprostol, a highly effective drug is highly effective in inducing uterine contractions and has been proposed as a low-cost, easy-to-use intervention for PPH.Objective: This study assessed evidence of the effectiveness of misoprostol for the prevention and treatment of PPH.Method: Databases searched included MEDLINE, PUBMED, CINHAL, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and EMBASE. Reference lists and conference proceedings were also searched for more studies. Three studies included in the meta-analysis were limited to randomised controlled trials (RCT). Two reviewers independently screened all articles for methodological quality using a standardised instrument adapted from the Cochrane Collaboration website. Data were entered in Review Manager 5.1 software for analysis.Results: Three trials (n = 2346) compared misoprostol to a placebo. Misoprostol was shown not to be effective in reducing PPH (risk ratios [RR] 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-1.06). Only one trial reported on the need for a blood transfusion (RR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-1.15). Shivering (RR 2.75; 95% CI 2.26-3.34) and pyrexia (RR 5.34; 95% CI 2.86-9.96) were significantly more common with misoprostol than with a placebo.Conclusion: The use of misoprostol was not associated with any significant reduction in the incidence of PPH. Therefore, in order to verify the efficacious use of misoprostol in the treatment of PPH, specialised investigations of its dose and routes of administration for clinically significant effects and acceptable side effects are warranted. PMID:23718882

Olefile, Kabelo M; Khondowe, Oswell; M'rithaa, Doreen

2013-04-19

82

Uterine rupture associated with the use of misoprostol in the gravid patient with a previous cesarean section  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose is to report our experience with uterine rupture in patients undergoing a trial of labor after previous cesarean delivery in which labor was induced with misoprostol. The literature on the use of misoprostol in the setting of previous cesarean section is reviewed. Study Design: This report was based on case reports, a computerized search of medical records,

Melanie M. Plaut; Martin L. Schwartz; Suzanne L. Lubarsky

1999-01-01

83

Prenatal exposure to misoprostol and congenital anomalies: systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The present systematic review was proposed with the objective of estimating the risk of congenital anomalies and other adverse events in children exposed to misoprostol during fetal life. The data source consisted of case-control studies that analyzed the effect of prenatal exposure to misoprostol on the pregnancy outcome, which were located in electronic databases and published up to June 2005. The outcomes of interest included congenital anomalies, fetal death, low birth weight and prematurity. The odds ratios (OR) for the individual studies were pooled by meta-analysis. Sensitivity tests and heterogeneity analysis were performed. Four studies involving 4899 cases of congenital anomalies and 5742 controls were included in accordance with the selection criteria. None of the studies analyzed other adverse effects from misoprostol on the outcome from gestation. Increased risks of congenital anomalies related to misoprostol use were found for any congenital defect (OR=3.56; 95% CI: 0.98-12.98), Möbius sequence (OR=25.31; 95% CI: 11.11-57.66) and terminal transverse limb defects (OR=11.86; 95% CI: 4.86-28.90). In conclusion, prenatal exposure to misoprostol is associated with an increased risk of Möbius sequence and terminal transverse limb defects. PMID:16750609

da Silva Dal Pizzol, Tatiane; Knop, Flávia Pozzobon; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

2006-06-05

84

Lack of Evidence for Neonatal Misoprostol Neurodevelopmental Toxicity in C57BL6/J Mice  

PubMed Central

Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1 that is administered to women at high doses to induce uterine contractions for early pregnancy termination and at low doses to aid in cervical priming during labor. Because of the known teratogenic effects of misoprostol when given during gestation and its effects on axonal growth in vitro, we examined misoprostol for its potential as a neurodevelopmental toxicant when administered to neonatal C57BL6/J mice. Mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 0.4, 4 or 40 µg/kg misoprostol on postnatal day 7, the approximate developmental stage in mice of human birth, after which neonatal somatic growth, and sensory and motor system development were assessed. These doses were selected to span the range of human exposure used to induce labor. In addition, adult mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism including tests for anxiety, stereotyped behaviors, social communication and interactions, and learning and memory. No significant effects of exposure were found for any measure of development or behavioral endpoints. In conclusion, the results of the present study in C57BL/6J mice do not provide support for neurodevelopmental toxicity after misoprostol administration approximating human doses and timed to coincide with the developmental stage of human birth.

Koenig, Claire M.; Walker, Cheryl K.; Qi, Lihong; Pessah, Isaac N.; Berman, Robert F.

2012-01-01

85

Combined oral contraception.  

PubMed

The purpose of prescribing combined oral contraceptives (OCs) is achievement of good cycle control and effective contraception with the least side effects, using an OC with the lowest possible dose of estrogen. Triphasil, Triquilar, Nordette, Microgynon 30, and Brevinor are good 1st choices because of the low estrogen dose (30-35 mcg). Women who probably cannot tolerate breakthrough bleeding and who need simple packaging should use a monophasic, more progestogenic OC, e.g., Nordette or Microgynon 30. Physicians should suggest a low dose estrogen and low dose antiandrogenic progestogen (OC) (e.g., Diane-35 ED) for women who have acne. They should advise patients that when they take OCs, their menstrual periods usually become shorter, regular, and lighter. Women need not take a break from OC usage. Vitamin C, antibiotics, griseofulvin, rifampicin, and anticonvulsants (except sodium valproate) interact with OCs. Women using warfarin and oral hypoglycemics and wanting to start using OCs need to consult their physician about changing requirements for warfarin and oral hypoglycemics. The effectiveness of OCs can be diminished by diarrhea and vomiting. Absolute contraindications to OCs include pregnancy, use during the first 2 weeks postpartum, history of thromboembolism, undiagnosed abnormal vaginal bleeding, focal migraine, coronary heart disease, steroid-dependent tumors, recent impaired liver function, and cardiovascular accidents. Some relative contraindications are older than 35 years old and smoking, breast feeding, and hypertension. This article provides a section on how to manage common side effects. For example, if the side effect is acne, the physician should prescribe an OC with increased estrogen and reduced progestogen (e.g., Triphasil/Triquilar to Biphasil/Sequilar). This article lists trade names of various OCs and their estrogen and progestogen doses, e.g., Nordette has 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 150 mcg levonorgestrel. PMID:1476509

Miller, C; Murtagh, J

1992-12-01

86

The efficient low-mass Seyfert MCG-05-23-016  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-05-23-016 has been shown to exhibit a complex X-ray spectrum. This source has moderate X-ray luminosity, hosts a comparably low-mass black hole, but accretes at a high Eddington rate, and allows us to study a super massive black hole in an early stage. Methods: Three observations of the INTEGRAL satellite simultaneous with pointed Swift/XRT observations performed from December 2006 to June 2007 are used in combination with public data from the INTEGRAL archive to study the variability of the hard X-ray components and to generate a high-quality spectrum from 1 to 150 keV. Results: The AGN shows little variability in the hard X-ray spectrum, with some indication of a variation in the high-energy cut-off energy ranging from 50 keV to ?100 keV, with an electron plasma temperature in the 10-90 keV range. The reflection component is not evident and, if present, the reflected fraction can be constrained to R < 0.3 for the combined data set. Comparison to previous observations shows that the reflection component has to be variable. No variability in the UV and optical range is observed on a time scale of 1.5 years. Conclusions: The hard X-ray spectrum of MCG-05-23-016 appears to be stable with the luminosity and underlying power law varying moderately and the optical/UV flux staying constant. The reflection component and the iron K? line seem to have decreased between December 2005 and the observations presented here. The spectral energy distribution appears to be similar to that of Galactic black hole systems, e.g. XTE 1118+480 in the low state. The AGN exhibits a remarkably high Eddington ratio of L_bol/L_Edd >(or L_bol/L_Edd >~0.1, if we consider a higher mass of the central engine) and, at the same time, a low cut-off energy around 70 keV. Objects like MCG-05-23-016 might indicate the early stages of super massive black holes, in which a strong accretion flow feeds the central engine. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA.

Beckmann, V.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Gehrels, N.; Lubi?ski, P.; Malzac, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Shrader, C. R.; Soldi, S.

2008-12-01

87

A Variable Partial Covering Model for the Seyfert 1 Galaxy MCG -6-30-15  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a simple spectral model for the Seyfert 1 Galaxy MCG -6-30-15 that can explain most of the 1-40 keV spectral variation by a change of the partial covering fraction, similar to that proposed by Miller, Turner, and Reeves (2008, A&A, 483, 437). Our spectral model is composed of three continuum components: (1) a direct power-law component, (2) a heavily absorbed power-law component by mildly ionized intervening matter, and (3) a cold-disk reflection component far from the black hole with a moderate solid-angle (?/2? ? 0.3) accompanying a narrow fluorescent iron line. The first two components are affected by the surrounding thin highly ionized absorber with NH ? 1023.4 cm-2 and log ? ? 3.4. The heavy absorber in the second component is fragmented into many clouds, each of which is composed of radial zones with different ionization states and different column densities, a main body (NH ?1024.2 cm-2, log ? ? 1.6), an envelope (NH ? 1022.1 cm-2, log ? ? 1.9), and presumably a completely opaque core. Not only the intrinsic spectral shape of the X-ray source but also these parameters of the ionized absorbers are unchanged at all. The central X-ray source extends moderately, and its luminosity is not significantly variable. The observed flux and spectral variations are mostly explained by the variation of the geometrical partial covering fraction of the central source ranging from 0 (uncovered) to ˜0.63 by the intervening ionized clouds in the line of sight. The ionized iron K-edge of the heavily absorbed component explains most of the seemingly broad line-like features, a well-known spectral characteristic of MCG -6-30-15. The direct component and the absorbed one are negatively correlated, and their variations cancel out each other, so that the fractional spectral variation becomes the minimum at the iron-energy band; thus, another observational characteristic of MCG -6-30-15 is explained.

Miyakawa, Takehiro; Ebisawa, Ken; Inoue, Hajime

2012-12-01

88

Laminaria tent versus Misoprostol for cervical ripening before surgical process in missed abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To compare the efficacy of Laminaria tents with Misoprostol for cervical ripening before surgical process in missed abortion.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  In a prospective study, 70 women with missed abortion were assigned to have either insertion of a 3 mm intracervical Laminaria\\u000a tent (n = 35) or vaginal Misoprostol 400 ?g (n = 35) on the day prior to suction dilation and curettage (D\\/C). The women were interviewed just

Raziah Dehghani Firouzabadi; Leila Sekhavat; Afsar Tabatabaii; Sedighah Hamadani

89

Metabolic effects of oral contraceptives in monkeys fed adequate protein & low proein diets.  

PubMed

The effects of 2 oral contraceptives, Ovulen and Norlestrin, were studied in monkeys fed adequate protein and low protein diets. The experiment was carried out in parts. In the first one, the administration of contraceptives was cyclic and similar to that employed in human subjects. In the other experiments, the contraceptives were given continuously and an attempt was made to exaggerate the deleterious effects of the oral contraceptive on the liver by including small doses of a known hepatotoxic agent, aflatoxin (AT). In Experiment 1, 45 female monkeys were divided into 2 groups of 20 and 25 and received an adequate protein (16%) and low protein diet (4%) respectively. Each monkey was fed 1/5 of a tablet of Ovulen or Norlestrin orally for 3 weeks, and then administration was discontinued for 1 week. In Experiment 2, 35 female monkeys were divided into 7 groups of 5 each. All the animals recieved 4% protein diet. 5 groups were tube fed at the rate of 100 cal/kg body weight, while 2 groups were given diet ad libitum. Group I received the diet alone while groups II-V received 10 mcg AT, 25 mcg AT, 10 mcg AT plus 1/5 Ovulen tablets, and 25 mcg AT plus 1/5 Ovulen tablet respectively daily. Groups VI and VII received the diet ad libitum but were orally fed 75 mcg AT and 75 mcg AT plus 1/5 Ovulen tablet respectively. Serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase activity and alkaline phosphatase activity were studied at regular intervals after the administation of oral contraceptives in the experiments. Serum proteins and hemoglobin were also determined. Monkeys fed oral contraceptives showed increased serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities irrespective of the level of protein in the diet. Livers of animals receiving oral contraceptives were morphologically similar to the controls fed respective diets. The experiments were conducted for a period of almost 2 years. PMID:4205142

Belavady, B; Krishnamurthi, D; Mohiuddin, S M; Rao, P U

1973-01-01

90

Zwangerschapsafbreking in het 2e trimester liever mifepriston-misoprostol dan sulproston  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of sulprostone and mifepristone\\/misoprostol when used for termination of pregnancy (TOP) in the 2nd trimester. DESIGN: Comparative retrospective cohort study. METHOD: Data were collected on all women whose pregnancies were terminated in the 2nd trimester, in the presence of severe fetal defects, between 1996 and 2007 at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, the Netherlands.

S. Ebbers; J. W. T. Creemers; F. K. Lotgering

2009-01-01

91

Evaluation of the effectiveness of vaginal misoprostol to induce first trimester abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two doses, 200 and 400 ?g, of misoprostol, administered vaginally every 12 hours, up to four times, were tested in 101 and 133 healthy women, respectively, for interruption of pregnancies with 35 through 77 days of amenorrhea. The proportion of women who aborted increased with longer duration of treatment and was significantly higher with 400 than with 200 ?g (66

A. Bugalho; A. Faúndes; L. Jamisse; M. Usfá; E. Maria; C. Bique

1996-01-01

92

Misoprostol but not antacid prevents endotoxin-induced gastric mucosal injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the complications of septic shock are believed to be a consequence of elevated circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is an important mediator of tissue injury. Prostaglandins (PGs) of the E series have recently been reported to inhibit TNF productionin vitro. We investigated thein vivo effect of misoprostol, a PGE1 analog, on endotoxin-induced gastric mucosal injury

Mahendra Mahatma; Naurang Agrawal; Esam Z. Dajani; Steve Nelson; Chester nakamura; John Sitton

1991-01-01

93

MISSED ABORTION: TERMINATION USING SINGLE-DOSE VERSUS TWO DOSES OF VAGINAL MISOPROSTOL TABLETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of 400µg misoprostol, administered vaginally as single-dose, compared to repeating the same drug, six hours later, for termination of missed abortion. Methodology: One hundred ninety eight women with missed abortion were enrolled in this study. They had presented to Prince Zeid, Prince Rashed and Queen Alia Military Hospitals from June 1, 2005 to September 30,

Abdel-Nabi Al-Bdour; Hakam Akasheh; Tameem Al-Jayousi

94

Prevention of post-partum hemorrhage by rectal Misoprostol: A randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) is a common cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. This trial was conducted to study the effectiveness and safety of rectal misoprostol for PPH. Aim: To assess the effectiveness and safety of misoprostol and comparing with oxytocin for prevention of PPH. Materials and Methods: Women were randomized to receive either two 200 ?g rectal misoprostol tablets (study group) or 20 units oxytocin in 1000 cc normal saline intravenously (control group). The outcomes were incidence of PPH, amount of blood loss, duration of labor, incidence of side effects, pre- and post-delivery hemoglobin, and use of additional uterotonics. Finding: The incidence of PPH was 12% in the study group and 10% in the control group (P > 0.05). No significant difference was observed between the groups hematocrit (P > 0.05). Other variables including severe PPH and duration of the third stage of labor were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Rectal misoprostol was as effective as intravenous oxytocin for preventing post-partum hemorrhage with the same incidence of side effects and is recommended to be use as an uterotonic agent to manage third stage of labor routinely.

Firouzbakht, Mozhgan; Kiapour, Azadeh; Omidvar, Shabnam

2013-01-01

95

Exposure to misoprostol and hormones during pregnancy and risk of congenital anomalies.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the association between use of misoprostol and other drugs to induce menstruation, and congenital anomalies. A sample of 4,856 pregnant women 20 years and older were enrolled consecutively in prenatal services in the Unified National Health System, in six Brazilian State capitals. Data on socio-demographics and use of medicines were obtained using an interview from the 21st to 28th week of pregnancy. Other data, including information on delivery and diagnosis of congenital anomalies by the attending neonatal physician were obtained from patient charts. Potential confounders were adjusted by logistic regression. Use of drugs to induce menstruation was reported by 707 women (14.6%), of whom 120 (17%) reported use of misoprostol. After adjusting for the study center, a positive association was observed between misoprostol and congenital anomalies (OR = 2.64; 95% CI: 1.03-6.75); a positive association was also observed for sex hormones (OR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.06-4.74). The results suggest that the use of misoprostol or sex hormones during pregnancy increases the risk of congenital anomalies. PMID:18545770

Dal Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

2008-06-01

96

Choosing between surgical abortions and medical abortions induced with methotrexate and misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women phoning to request an abortion at a free-standing abortion clinic who were less than 46 days from the last menstrual period were given a choice between a surgical abortion and a medical abortion induced with methotrexate and misoprostol. Twenty-six percent (116 of 405 women) chose a medical abortion. Younger women were more likely to choose a surgical abortion. There

Ellen R. Wiebe

1997-01-01

97

EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY OF VAGINAL MISOPROSTOL FOR INDUCTION OF LABOUR IN UNFAVOURABLE CERVIX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The use of prostaglandin preparations with or without oxytocin infusion, is widely recognized and accepted as a standard method of induction of labour. It has been shown to reduce induction time and the risk of failed induction. The objective of this quasi- experimental observational study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of Misoprostol administered vaginally for induction of

Nasreen Abbasi; Nargis Danish; Farah Shakoor; Zahida Parveen; Syed Ahmad Bilal

98

Comparative effectiveness of Glycyrrhiza glabra vs. omeprazole and misoprostol for the treatment of aspirin-induced gastric ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) root decoction vs. omeprazole and misoprostol for the treatment of aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Animals were randomly assigned first to the \\

Mesut Sancar; Thaer Hantash; Betul Okuyan; Sule Apikoglu-Rabus; Zeynep Cirakli; Mine G. Gulluoglu; Fikret Vehbi Izzettin

99

Mifepristone and misoprostol for early medical abortion: 18 months experience in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first 18 months since mifepristone was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use with misoprostol for early medical abortion, approximately 80,000 women have been treated. One-hundred thirty-nine adverse events were reported to Danco Laboratories LLC and subsequently reported to the FDA. Thirteen patients required blood transfusions, 10 patients were treated with antibiotics for infection and

Richard Hausknecht

2003-01-01

100

Oral Contraceptives after Myomectomy: A Short Term Trial  

PubMed Central

Following myomectomy the rate of fertility is restored and pregnancy may be attempted with a good outcome. In the present study a 3 month treatment with OCs in a group of women after a myomectomy was evaluated. The drug compliance and side effects, the benefits of OC in order to reduce symptoms, to increase post-surgical hemoglobin levels and to avoid an early pregnancy after myomectomy were analyzed. A group of women (n = 55) each with myoma ?5 cm was recruited: they presented menorrhagia, pelvic pain, dyspareunia and dysmenorrhae. After laparotomic myomectomy the women were divided into 3 groups. Group 1: women (n = 16) treated with pill A (15 mcg of ethynilestradiol + 60 mcg of gestodene); group 2: women (n = 23) treated with pill B (20 mcg of ethynilestradiol + 100 mcg of levonorgestrel); group 3: women (n = 16) treated with a placebo (oral calcium). After three months from myomectomy and treatment patients in each group reported a reduced menorrhagia, dismenorrhea and pelvic pain. Serum haemoglobin levels increased in all women (P < .05). No pregnancy occurred in any group and the compliance was good. A post surgery treatment by using oral contraceptives guarentees pregnancy prevention, associated with reduction of pain, and improvement of haematologic conditions.

Luisi, Stefano; Ciani, Valentina; Gabbanini, Massimo; Sollazzi, Sofia; Torricelli, Michela; Calonaci, Francesco; Petraglia, Felice

2009-01-01

101

Vaginal misoprostol for cervical ripening before operative hysteroscopy in pre-menopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with three dose regimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effects of vaginal misoprostol on cervical dilatation before operative hysteroscopy in pre-menopausal women. METHODS: Four groups of 12 women were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or vaginal misoprostol in doses of 200, 400 or 800 mg 4 h before the surgical procedure. The number of patients was calculated with an a = 0.01 and b

H. Fernandez; J. D. Alby; C. Tournoux; A. Chauveaud-Lambling; R. deTayrac; R. Frydman; R. Porcher

2004-01-01

102

Implementation of misoprostol for postabortion care in Kenya and Uganda: a qualitative evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate implementation of misoprostol for postabortion care (MPAC) in two African countries. Design Qualitative, program evaluation. Setting Twenty-five public and private health facilities in Rift Valley Province, Kenya, and Kampala Province, Uganda. Sample Forty-five MPAC providers, health facility managers, Ministry of Health officials, and non-governmental (NGO) staff involved in program implementation. Methods and main outcome measures In both countries, the Ministry of Health, local health centers and hospitals, and NGO staff developed evidence-based service delivery protocols to introduce MPAC in selected facilities; implementation extended from January 2009 to October 2010. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews evaluated the implementation process, identified supportive and inhibitive policies for implementation, elicited lessons learned during the process, and assessed provider satisfaction and providers’ impressions of client satisfaction with MPAC. Project reports were also reviewed. Results In both countries, MPAC was easy to use, and freed up provider time and health facility resources traditionally necessary for provision of PAC with uterine aspiration. On-going support of providers following training ensured high quality of care. Providers perceived that many women preferred MPAC, as they avoided instrumentation of the uterus, hospital admission, cost, and stigma associated with abortion. Appropriate registration of misoprostol for use in the pilot, and maintaining supplies of misoprostol, were significant challenges to service provision. Support from the Ministry of Health was necessary for successful implementation; lack of country-based standards and guidelines for MPAC created challenges. Conclusions MPAC is simple, cost-effective and can be readily implemented in settings with high rates of abortion-related mortality.

Osur, Joachim; Baird, Traci L.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Jackson, Emily; Murokora, Daniel

2013-01-01

103

A randomized trial of vaginal misoprostol for cervical priming before hysteroscopy in postmenopausal women  

PubMed Central

Objective: To perform hysteroscopy the cervix needs to be dilated and in nullipara and postmenopausal women this is sometimes difficult. Well-known, entry-related complications during hysteroscopy include cervical tear, creation of false tract, bleeding, uterine perforation, scarring, and subsequent anatomical stenosis. Materials and Methods: This study was done to investigate the priming effect of vaginal misoprostol on cervical dilatation in postmenopausal women, before hysteroscopy, to prevent such complications. Two hundred micrograms of misoprostol was inserted into the vagina at least 12 hours before the procedure and the control group did not receive any cervical priming agent. Pre-procedural dilatation, additional dilatation required, and time taken for dilatation was noted in each case. Observations: The study showed a significant difference between the study group (7.7 ± 1.7 mm) and the control group (4.5 ± 1.8 mm) in terms of pre-procedural cervical width and the number of women requiring a dditional dilatation (7 / 25 versus 22 / 25), and hence, the time required for dilatation (4.7 ± 8 seconds versus 20.6 ± 9.3 seconds). Conclusion: The pre-procedural cervical width was significantly more in the study group as compared to that in the control group. We found significant differences between the study and control groups with respect to the number of women who required cervical dilatation. To conclude, this study helps derive a conclusion that vaginal misoprostol as a cervical priming agent in postmenopausal women appears to be safe, effective, and inexpensive, with mild side effects.

Kant, Anita; Divyakumar; Priyambada, Usha

2011-01-01

104

Coagulation profile in women on low-dose oral contraceptive pills.  

PubMed

The effect of low dose combined oral contraceptives containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and either 150 mcg levonorgestrel or 150 mcg desogestrel on coagulation indices in Malaysian women was examined. 50 women who had been using the pills for 1 year or more, were compared to 75 non-users. All were attending the Maternity Clinic of the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Pill users registered shorter prothrombin time, 11.5 vs. 11.1 seconds (p=0.016), and partial thromboplastin time, 40.1 vs 35.1 seconds (p=0.000). Since there were no significant differences in Factors II, V, VII, or VIII, the overall effects of low-dose pills on coagulation is probably not clinically significant. PMID:12343152

Roshidah, I; Khalid, H; Baharum, Y

1990-12-01

105

[Effective treatment of multiple sclerosis with rebif-22 mcg in children and adolescences: results of a long-term study].  

PubMed

Management from an early age and availability of new treatment options have changed the outcome of paediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently available for treatment of MS in adults, such drugs as interferons beta and copolymer-1 are not widely used in paediatric neurological practice. The present long-term study of the effect of interferon beta la (rebif-22 mcg) included 20 children with MS from Moscow population. The data of this open-label study were compared with our previously reported data from the prospective population-based study of 67 ethnically-matched children with MS. The results revealed early formation of stable neurological deficit at late-onset treatment, high therapeutic efficacy when the drug was timely used and good tolerability of the treatment. So, it is necessary to use immunomodulating therapy with these drugs in children and adolescents as early as possible. PMID:17172246

Bykova, O V; Studenikin, V M; Kuzenkova, L M; Maslova, O I; Bo?ko, A N

2006-01-01

106

Small-angle neutron scattering study of Bence-Jones protein Mcg: comparison of structures in solution and in crystal  

SciTech Connect

Small-angle neutron scattering measurements in dilute solution were performed on the Mcg Bence-Jones protein dimer, for which accurate atomic coordinates have been determined by crystallographic methods. The measured radius of gyration (R/sub g/) in H/sub 2/O buffer is 24.0 +/- 0.4 angstrom and in D/sub 2/O buffer is 23.3 +/- O.1 angstrom; the calculated value of R/sub v/ (R/sub g/ in vacuo) is 24.0 angstrom. On the basis of a match point of 44.2% D/sub 2/O concentration, the experimental partial specific volume is 0.74 cm/sup 3//g. The experimentally derived molecular weight of 47 000 is in very good agreement with that (45 500) calculated from the amino acid composition. For comparisons with different Fab's (antigen binding fragments) exhibiting various ''elbow bends'' due to the flexibility of the switch peptide between variable and constant domains of the immunoglobulin chains, calculation of the R/sub g/ value of the Mcg dimer was performed as a function of the elbow bend. The R/sub g/ varied from 22.8 to 26.0 angstrom as the elbow bend was opened from 100/sup 0/ to 180/sup 0/; the maximum radius of gyration of the particle was 26.5 angstrom with the switch peptide stretched by separating the variable and constant domains by an additional 1.5 angstrom at an elbow bend of 180/sup 0/.

Schiffer, M. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Stevens, F.J.; Westholm, F.A.; Kim, S.S.; Carlson, R.D.

1982-06-08

107

Low-dose mifepristone followed by vaginal misoprostol at 48 hours for abortion up to 63 days  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness, side effects, and acceptability of one-third the standard dose of mifepristone, ie, 200 mg, and vaginal misoprostol 800 ?g to induce abortion in subjects ?56 days pregnant with subjects 57–63 days pregnant. A prospective multicenter trial enrolled healthy women ?18 years, ?63 days pregnant, and wanting an abortion. Women received

Eric A Schaff; Stephen L Fielding; Steven H Eisinger; Lisa S Stadalius; Lisa Fuller

2000-01-01

108

Comparison of isosorbide mononitrate (Mono Mack) and misoprostol (Cytotec) for cervical ripening in the first trimester missed abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare NO-donor isosorbide mononitrate to misoprostol, both applied as vaginal tablets for cervical ripening prior to first trimester curettage in patients with missed abortion. Materials and methods: Thirty women with missed abortion were assigned after a random list to be treated either with 200 ?g gemeprost (Cytotec, Pfizer, Germany) or with 40 mg isosorbide

Matthias David; Frank C.-K. Chen

2005-01-01

109

A combination of misoprostol and estradiol for preoperative cervical ripening in postmenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the impact of 1000 ?g of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus self-administered vaginal placebo on preoperative cervical ripening after 2 weeks of pretreatment with estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women prior to day-care operative hysteroscopy. Design Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled sequential trial. Setting Norwegian university teaching hospital. Population Sixty-seven postmenopausal women referred for day-care operative hysteroscopy. Methods The women were randomised to receive either 1000 ?g of self-administered vaginal misoprostol or self-administered vaginal placebo on the evening before day-care operative hysteroscopy. All women had administered a 25-?g vaginal estradiol tablet daily for 14 days prior to the operation. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: preoperative cervical dilatation at hysteroscopy. Secondary outcomes: difference in dilatation at recruitment and before hysteroscopy, number of women who achieved a preoperative cervical dilatation of 5 mm or more, acceptability, complications and adverse effects. Results The mean cervical dilatation was 5.7 mm (SD, 1.6 mm) in the misoprostol group and 4.7 mm (SD, 1.5 mm) in the placebo group, the mean difference in cervical dilatation being 1.0 mm (95% CI, 0.2–1.7 mm). Self-administered vaginal misoprostol of 1000 ?g at home on the evening before day-care hysteroscopy is safe and highly acceptable, although a small proportion of women experienced lower abdominal pain. Conclusions One thousand micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol, 12 hours prior to day-care hysteroscopy, after 14 days of pretreatment with vaginal estradiol, has a significant cervical ripening effect compared with placebo in postmenopausal women.

Oppegaard, KS; Lieng, M; Berg, A; Istre, O; Qvigstad, E; Nesheim, B-I

2010-01-01

110

Stray capacitance calculation of a MCG having n turns with multi layers filamentary conductor in rectangular cross-section by VRH model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method called vespiary regular hexagonal (VRH) model in order to calculate parasitic capacitance between conductor wire filaments of one turn of coil (OTC) and between conductor wire filaments and liner and also total capacitance of n turns having multi-layers conductor wires filament of the coil of helix magneto flux cumulative generator (MCG) in the form

Majid Ezati Mosleh; Mohammd Reza Besmi

2011-01-01

111

Comparison of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus placebo for cervical ripening prior to operative hysteroscopy using a sequential trial design*  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the impact of 1000 micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus self-administered vaginal placebo at home on preoperative cervical ripening in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women before operative hysteroscopy. Design Two separate but identical parallel, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled sequential trials, one in premenopausal women and one in postmenopausal women. The boundaries for the sequential trials were calculated on the primary outcomes of a difference of cervical dilatation ?1 mm, with the assumption of a type 1 error of 0.05 and a power of 0.95. Setting Norwegian university teaching hospital. Sample Eighty-six women referred to outpatient operative hysteroscopy. Methods The women were randomised to either 1000 micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol or self-administered vaginal placebo the evening before outpatient operative hysteroscopy. Main outcome measures Preoperative cervical dilatation (primary outcome), number of women who achieve a preoperative cervical dilatation ?5 mm, acceptability, complications and adverse effects (secondary outcomes). Results In premenopausal women, the mean cervical dilatation was 6.4 mm (SD 2.4) in the misoprostol group and 4.8 mm (SD 2.0) in the placebo group, the mean difference in cervical dilatation being 1.6 mm (95% CI 0.5–2.7). Among the premenopausal women receiving misoprostol, 88% achieved a cervical dilatation of ?5 mm compared with 65% in the placebo group. Twelve percent of the women who received misoprostol were difficult to dilate compared with 32% who received placebo. Dilatation was also quicker in the misoprostol group. Misoprostol had no effect on cervical ripening in postmenopausal women compared with placebo, and 43% of the women were difficult to dilate. The trials were terminated after analysis of 21 postmenopausal women and 65 premenopausal women after reaching a conclusion on the primary outcome with only 28% of the number of women needed in a fixed sample size trial. Three of 45 women who received misoprostol experienced severe lower abdominal pain, and there was an increased occurrence of light preoperative bleeding in the misoprostol group. Most women did not experience misoprostol-related adverse effects. The majority (83% of premenopausal and 76% of postmenopausal women) found self-administered vaginal misoprostol at home to be acceptable. There were two serious complications in the premenopausal misoprostol group: uterine perforation with subsequent peritonitis and heavy postoperative bleeding requiring blood transfusion, but these were not judged to be misoprostol related. Complications were otherwise comparatively minor and distributed equally between the two dosage groups. Conclusions One thousand micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol 12 hours prior to operative hysteroscopy has a significant cervical ripening effect compared with placebo in premenopausal but not in postmenopausal women. Self-administered vaginal misoprostol of 1000 micrograms at home the evening before operative hysteroscopy is safe and highly acceptable, although a small proportion of women experienced severe lower abdominal pain. There is a risk of lower abdominal pain and light preoperative bleeding with this regimen, which is very cheap and easy to use. Please cite this paper as: Oppegaard K, Nesheim B, Istre O, Qvigstad E. Comparison of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus placebo for cervical ripening prior to operative hysteroscopy using a sequential trial design. BJOG 2008;115:663–e9.

Oppegaard, KS; Nesheim, B-I; Istre, O; Qvigstad, E

2008-01-01

112

A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of misoprostol rectal suppositories to prevent acute radiation proctitis in patients with prostate cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis is the most relevant complication of pelvic radiation and is still mainly treated supportively. Considering the negative impact of acute proctitis symptoms on patients' daily activities and the potential relationship between the severity of acute radiation injury and late damage, misoprostol was tested in the prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 patients who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer were entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. Radiation-induced toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy using the Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Between the placebo and the misoprostol groups, no significant differences in proctitis symptoms occurred: 76% of patients in each group had Grade 1 toxicity, and 26% in the placebo group and 36% in the misoprostol group had Grade 2 toxicity. No differences were found in onset or symptom duration. Comparing the peak incidence of patients' toxicity symptoms, significantly more patients experienced rectal bleeding in the misoprostol group (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Misoprostol given as a once-daily suppository did not decrease the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis and may increase the incidence of acute bleeding.

Hille, Andrea [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany)]. E-mail: ahille@med.uni-goettingen.de; Schmidberger, Heinz [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Hermann, Robert M. [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Saile, Bernhard [Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Pradier, Olivier [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Hess, Clemens F. [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany)

2005-12-01

113

Revealing the High Energy Emission from the Obscured Seyfert Galaxy MCG-5-23-16 with Suzaku  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a 100ks Suzaku observation of the bright, nearby (z=0.008486) Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-5-23-16. The broad-band (0.4-100keV) X-ray spectrum allows us to determine the nature of the high energy emission with little ambiguity. The X-ray continuum consists of a cutoff power-law of photon index ?=1.9, absorbed through Compton-thin matter of column density NH = 1.6 × 1022 cm-2. A soft excess is observed below 1keV and is likely a combination of emission from scattered continuum photons and distant photoionized gas. The iron K line profile is complex, showing narrow neutral iron K? and K? emission, as well as a broad line which can be modeled by a moderately inclined accretion disk. The line profile shows either the disk is truncated at a few tens of gravitational radii, or the disk emissivity profile is relatively flat. A strong Compton reflection component is detected above 10keV, which is best modeled by a combination of reflection off distant matter and the accretion disk. The reflection component does not appear to vary. The overall picture is that this Seyfert 1.9 galaxy is viewed at moderate (˜ 50°) inclination through Compton-thin matter at the edge of a Compton-thick torus covering ˜ 2? steradians, consistent with unified models.

Reeves, James N.; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Fabian, Andy C.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Gallo, Luigi; Griffiths, Richard; Inoue, Hajime; Kunieda, Hideyo; Markowitz, Alex; Miniutti, Giovanni; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mushotzky, Richard; Okajima, Takashi; Ptak, Andy; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Terashima, Yuichi; Ushio, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Shin; Yamasaki, Tomonori; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yaqoob, Tahir

2007-01-01

114

ASCA PV observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15: rapid variability of the warm absorber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed re-analysis of the two ASCA Performance Verification observations of the nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15. Confirming the results of Fabian et al. (1994), we find definite evidence for the OVII and OVIII K-shell absorption edges of the warm absorber and a doubling of the warm absorber column density within the three weeks separating the two observations. No intraday flux-correlated variability of the warm absorber is found. However, we report the discovery of an `event' in which the warm absorber parameters temporarily change for ~10000s before returning to their original values. Possible interpretations are discussed, but a contradiction remains: the constancy of the ionization state of the warm absorber argues that it lies at large distances from the central source, whereas the short-term change in column density argues for small distances. Fluorescent iron emission is examined. As found by Fabian et al., the iron line is broad and strong (equivalent width ~300 eV). The line profile is also suggestive of it being skewed. Such a line would be expected from a relativistic accretion disc. We also find very rapid primary X-ray variability. Assuming relativistic beaming to be unimportant, the derived efficiency is comparable to the maximum obtainable from accretion on to a Schwarzschild black hole. Correlated variability outside of the energy range of ASCA might exceed this maximum, thus requiring efficient accretion on to a Kerr hole.

Reynolds, C. S.; Fabian, A. C.; Nandra, K.; Inoue, H.; Kunieda, H.; Iwasawa, K.

1995-12-01

115

Consecutive intra-umbilical vein injection of misoprostol and intravenous sulprostone in the management of retained placenta.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Consecutive intra-umbilical vein injection of misoprostol and intravenous sulprostone in the management of retained placenta (RP). PURPOSE: The general accepted treatment of RP is manual removal of the placenta (MRP), but medical intervention protocols were suggested. We evaluate a protocol of using intra-umbilical vein injection of misoprostol followed, if necessary, by intravenous sulprostone. A reduction in the need for MRP and less blood loss was expected. METHODS: Cohort A (1 January 2007 to 31 September 2008), managed by an expectative protocol including active management of the third stage of labor and if necessary MRP performed 60 min after birth of the baby, was compared with cohort B (1 April 2009 to 31 December 2010) managed by medical intervention protocol. This protocol consisted of intra-umbilical vein injection of misoprostol and if not successful, 250 ?g of sulprostone was given intravenously in 30 min. All vaginal deliveries after 24 weeks of gestation, with RP after 20 min and blood loss <500 mL were included. An intention to treat analysis was performed, with the need for MRP as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar. In cohort A, 275 women met the inclusion criteria and 57 (20.7 %) women needed MRP. In cohort B, 219 women were included and 35 (16 %) women needed MRP. There was no significant difference in number of MRP, the amount of blood loss and other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the use of intra-umbilical vein injection of misoprostol and intravenous sulprostone consecutively, does not reduce the number of MRPs as well as the total amount of blood loss in women with RP after 20 min. The study shows that changing obstetric management by extrapolating results from specific study groups to a general population may lead to other results. PMID:23771186

Notten, Frouke; Meertens, Linda; Wissink, Brechtje; Scheepers, Hubertina C J

2013-06-15

116

GALEX UV properties of the polar ring galaxy MCG-05-07-001 and the shell galaxies NGC 1210 and NGC 5329  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: Systems of shells and polar rings in early-type galaxies are considered “bona fide” tracers of mass accretion and/or mergers. Their high frequency in low density environments suggests that these processes could drive the evolution of at least a fraction of the early-type galaxy population. Aims: We investigate the star formation histories of this type of galaxies. Their UV emission is important for testing whether these galaxies host ongoing or recent star formation and how this formation varies across the galaxy. Methods: We used far- and near- ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared images, neutral hydrogen HI maps, and line-strength indices to investigate the nuclear and outer regions of these galaxies as well as the regions where fine structures are present. Results: The GALEX near UV (NUV) and far UV (FUV) images of MCG-05-07-001 and NGC 1210 show complex tidal tails and debris structures. The far UV morphology of both galaxies appears so different from the optical morphology that the early-type classification may not apply. In both GALEX bands, the polar ring of MCG-05-07-001 is the dominant feature, whereas an extended tidal tail dominates the FUV bands of NGC 1210. In MCG-05-07-001 and NGC 1210, there is a strong correlation between structures detected in the FUV and NUV bands and in HI. In contrast, NGC 5329 does not show evidence of shells in the GALEX bands. We try to constrain the age of the accretion episode or merger that produced the shells and polar rings with the aid of composite stellar populations that take the presence of dust into account. The presence of HI in both MCG-05-07-001 and NGC 1210 argues in favour of wet mergers. Models suggest the presence of very young stellar populations in MCG-05-07-001: the observations could be explained in the framework of a conspicuous burst of star formation that occurred ?1 Gyr ago and involved a large fraction of the galaxy mass. Our models suggest that also the nuclei of NGC 1210 and NGC 5329 could have been rejuvenated by an accretion episode about 2-4 Gyr ago. Based on GALEX observations: GI1-059 PI D. Bettoni

Marino, A.; Iodice, E.; Tantalo, R.; Piovan, L.; Bettoni, D.; Buson, L. M.; Chiosi, C.; Galletta, G.; Rampazzo, R.; Rich, R. M.

2009-12-01

117

Carbetocin versus sublingual misoprostol plus oxytocin infusion for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage at cesarean section in patients with risk factors: a randomized, open trail study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: To compare combined sublingual misoprostol plus oxytocin infusion with intravenous carbetocin for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in patients with risk factors during cesarean section (CS). METHODS: In this randomized study, 380 patients were randomly allocated to receive either combined 400 ?g sublingual misoprostol before surgery plus 20 IU oxytocin after delivery of baby (n = 190) or intravenous 100 ?g carbetocin (n = 190). The main outcome measure was requirement of additional pharmacological uterotonic. Secondary outcomes were the difference in preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin, estimated blood loss, incidence of blood transfusion and adverse effects. RESULTS: 16.3 % of women who received sublingual misoprostol plus oxytocin infusion required additional uterotonic versus 13.7 % of women who received intravenous carbetocin with no significant difference (p = 0.27). No significant difference between treatment groups in preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin level change, estimated blood loss, incidence of blood transfusion was observed. Shivering and fever were significantly higher with misoprostol plus oxytocin (p = <0.001 and <0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Both sublingual misoprostol plus oxytocin infusion and intravenous carbetocin are similarly effective for the prevention of PPH in patients with risk factors during CS. PMID:23689739

Elgafor El Sharkwy, Ibrahim Abd

2013-05-21

118

Surgical versus expectant management in women with an incomplete evacuation of the uterus after treatment with misoprostol for miscarriage: the MisoREST trial  

PubMed Central

Background Medical treatment with misoprostol is a non-invasive and inexpensive treatment option in first trimester miscarriage. However, about 30% of women treated with misoprostol have incomplete evacuation of the uterus. Despite being relatively asymptomatic in most cases, this finding often leads to additional surgical treatment (curettage). A comparison of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of surgical management versus expectant management is lacking in women with incomplete miscarriage after misoprostol. Methods/Design The proposed study is a multicentre randomized controlled trial that assesses the costs and effects of curettage versus expectant management in women with incomplete evacuation of the uterus after misoprostol treatment for first trimester miscarriage. Eligible women will be randomized, after informed consent, within 24?hours after identification of incomplete evacuation of the uterus by ultrasound scanning. Women are randomly allocated to surgical or expectant management. Curettage is performed within three days after randomization. Primary outcome is the sonographic finding of an empty uterus (maximal diameter of any contents of the uterine cavity misoprostol treatment for first trimester miscarriage. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register: NTR3110

2013-01-01

119

Three triphasic oral contraceptives now available in U.S.  

PubMed

The 3 triphasic oral contraceptives currently marketed in the US are describes in reference to steroid composition and manufacturers claims concerning the reduced side affects associated with the triphasics. These triphasics are 1)Ortho-Novum 7-7-7, producted by the Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation; 2) Tri-Norinyl, produces by Syntex; and 3)Triphasil, produced by Wyeth Laboratries. The 1st 2 formulations were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (fda) in early 1984, andd Triphasil was approved in December, 1984. Despite the recency of triphasic availability, a survey of 13 family planning clinicians, conducted by Contraceptive Technology Update, revealrd that triphasics were the 2nd most common type of OC prescribed by the clinicians. All 3 triphasics provide varying daily doses of progestogen throughout the cycle but only Triphasil varies the daily dose of estrogen. Triphasil provides a total progestogen dose of 1.925 mg of levonor estrel for the entire cycle, and a daily dose of 0.05 mg for 6 days, 0.075 mg for 5 days, and 0.125 mg for 10 days. The total dose of ethinyl estradiol provides by Triphasil is 700 mcg, and the daily dose is 30 mcg for 6 days, 40 mcg for 5 days, and mcg for 10 days. Tri-Norinyl provides a total progedtogen dose of 15.0 mg ofnorethindine at a daily dose of 0.5 mg for 7 days, 1.0 mg for & days, anf 0.5 mg for 5 days. The total ethinyl estradiol dose is 735 mcg provided at a constant rate of 35 mcg for 21 days. Ortho-Novum 7-7-7 provides a total progestogen dose of 15.75 mg of norethindrone at a rate of 0.5 mg for 7 days, 0.75 mg for 7 days, and 1.0 mg for 7 days. The total dose of ethinyl estradiol is 735 mcg provided at a constant rate of 35 mcg/day for 21 days. The triphasics provide low steriod dosages in order to minimize longterm adverse effects; however, unlike other low dose formulations, the triphasics, according to the manufacturers, are associated with only minimal breakthrough bleeding problems. Ortho claims women who use Otrho-Novum 7-7-7 have bleeding patterns similar to those associated with Ortho-Novum 1-35 by the end of the 3rd menstrual cycle. Syntex claims that the incidence of breakthrough bleeding, amenorrhea, weight gain, headachess, nausea, and edema among women who use Tri-Norinyl is similar to that observed among women who use Norinyl 1-35. Wyeth reported that among women who took Triphasil for 25 montha, the total incidence of breakthrough bleeding was only 5.7%. The cost of the triphasics is similar to the cost of other low dose OCs, and the reiphasics are reportedly as effective as the higher dose OCs. PMID:12279912

1985-01-01

120

A pilot study of mifepristone and misoprostol administered at the same time for abortion in women with gestation from 50 to 63 days  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionIn the interest of decreasing the amount of time it takes to achieve a medical abortion, we performed a pilot study to evaluate the simultaneous administration of mifepristone and vaginal misoprostol for women with gestation from 50 to 63 days.

Courtney A. Schreiber; Mitchell D. Creinin; Bryna Harwood; Amitasrigowri S. Murthy

2005-01-01

121

[The illegal market for gender-related drugs as portrayed in the Brazilian news media: the case of misoprostol and women].  

PubMed

This article analyzes how the Brazilian news media covers the illegal market for misoprostol, the main drug used to induce abortion. A total of 1,429 news stories were retrieved from 220 print and electronic media channels from 2004 to 2009. The analysis included 524 stories from 62 regional and national newspapers. Misoprostol appeared repeatedly in the news, but was usually approached from a criminal perspective, unlike abortion as a whole, which the Brazilian media routinely covers as a religious, political, and public health issue. Misoprostol is part of the illegal gender-related drug market, along with drugs for weight loss and erectile dysfunction and anabolic steroids. Sixty-four (12%) of the news stories told life histories of women who had aborted with misoprostol. The women's ages ranged from 13 to 46 years, and socioeconomic status was associated with different experiences with abortion. Three characters appeared in the women's abortion itineraries: girlfriends (confidantes), go-betweens, and physicians. Stories of late-stage abortion are confused with the criminal characterization of infanticide and provide the extreme cases in the media's narrative on abortion. PMID:21340108

Diniz, Debora; Castro, Rosana

2011-01-01

122

Oral Candidiasis  

MedlinePLUS

... http://www.usa.gov . Oral Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis ("Thrush") Candidiasis that develops in the mouth or ... other Fungal topics, visit the Fungal Homepage. Oral Candidiasis Topics Definition What is oral candidiasis? Symptoms Redness ...

123

When patients ask about the latest and safest oral contraceptive.  

PubMed

Advice is provided for nurses and midwives who are asked about the safety and efficacy of the newer oral contraceptives (OCs). The trend toward ever smaller amounts of estrogen in new formulations effectively halted when the quantities of estrogen became insufficient to suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary axis or drug interactions with barbiturates or oral antibiotics resulted in insufficient estrogen, both conditions resulting in higher pregnancy rates. The newest generation of OCs follows 2 basic approaches, phasic OCs and improved progestogens. The triphasic pills Logynon and Trinordiol come in memo-packets with pills of 3 different progestogen-estrogen balances to be taken for 21 days. They contain 30 g less total monthly hormone than any other combined pill, give excellent cycle control and high reliability, and produce minimal metabolic changes. Bi-Novum, a biphasic pill with 35 mcg estrogen, gives cycle stability and minimal nausea, weight gain, and breast tenderness, comparable to results with 50 mcg estrogen. The progestogen used in Bi-Novum produces minimal changes in lipid metabolism and glucose tolerance safety factors. Another new formulation, Marvelon, is a conventional combined type pill containing a new progestogen, desogestrel, which favorably affects high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratios, remobilizes cholesterol deposits from arterial walls, and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disesase. The progestogen-only formulation Femulen, with a daily dose of 5 mg of ethynodiol diacetate, has high efficacy and a relatively low dropout rate due to irregular bleeding and other causes. PMID:6924041

Trimmer, E

1982-11-01

124

American Regent Initiates Nationwide Voluntary Recall of Cyanocobalamin Injection, USP, 100 mcg/mL, 1ml Vial Lot #s 1662, 1679, 1683 Due to Cracks in the Vials  

NASA Website

American Regent is conducting a nationwide voluntary recall to the Retail/Hospital level of the following product: Cyanocobalamin Injection, USP, 100 mcg/mL, 1 mL Vial NDC # 0517-0031-25 Lot # 1662, Exp Date: November, 2013, Lot # 1679, Exp Date: ...

125

Termination of second-trimester pregnancy by mifepristone combined with misoprostol versus intra-amniotic injection of ethacridine lactate (Rivanol®): a systematic review of Chinese trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMifepristone combined with misoprostol for second-trimester abortion (MM) and intra-amniotic injection of ethacridine lactate (EL; Rivanol®) are the common methods for termination of second-trimester pregnancy in China. The systematic review of relevant literature was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety on termination of second-trimester pregnancy using MM, introduced in 1988 in China, versus the Chinese routinely used method since

Shu-Ping Hou; Ai-Hua Fang; Qin-Fang Chen; Yong-Mei Huang; Oiu-ju Chen; Li-Nan Cheng

2011-01-01

126

Oral Insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation.

Sanjay Kalra; Bharti Kalra; Navneet Agrawal

2010-01-01

127

Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration.  

PubMed

High serum copper concentration--a well-known effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use--has been linked to increased mortality from cardiovascular disease. The influence of OCs containing newer progestins has not been investigated, however. This concern was addressed in a 1987-88 cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 610 nonpregnant, nonlactating West German women 18-44 years of age. 195 women (32.1%) were current OC users, but only 152 of these women were able to cite the name of the formulation they were taking. In 70% of cases, the OC contained less than 45 mcg of ethylestradiol (median dose, 32.4 mcg). The most common progestin components were desogestrel (41%) and levonorgestrel (30%). Mean serum copper concentration was higher among users of all types of OCs than among non-users, but this concentration varied more strongly according to the OC's progestin compound than its estrogen content. The greatest increase in serum copper (55% compared with non-users) was recorded in users of OCs containing anti-androgen progestins, followed by desogestrel (46%), norethisterone/lynestrenol (42%), and levonorgestrel (34%). The increase in serum copper was more pronounced in women taking OCs containing 45 mcg or less of ethylestradiol than in users of OCs with a high estrogen dose. In the regression models, the different progestin compounds alone explained 28% of the total variance in serum copper concentration. Further investigation of OC-induced increases in serum copper concentration and their impact on cardiovascular risk are warranted. PMID:9805216

Berg, G; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

1998-10-01

128

On the Lack of X-Ray Iron Line Reverberation in MCG -6-30-15: Implications for the Black Hole Mass and Accretion Disk Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the method of Press, Rybicki, & Hewitt to search for time lags and time leads between different energy bands of the RXTE data for MCG -6-30-15. We tailor our search in order to probe any reverberation signatures of the fluorescent iron K? line that is thought to arise from the inner regions of the black hole accretion disk. In essence, an optimal reconstruction algorithm is applied to the continuum band (2-4 keV) light curve that smooths out noise and interpolates across the data gaps. The reconstructed continuum band light curve can then be folded through trial transfer functions in an attempt to find lags or leads between the continuum band and the iron line band (5-7 keV). We find reduced fractional variability in the line band. The spectral analysis of Lee et al. reveals this to be due to a combination of an apparently constant iron line flux (at least on timescales of few×104 s) and flux-correlated changes in the photon index. We also find no evidence for iron line reverberation and exclude reverberation delays in the range 0.5-50 ks. This extends the conclusions of Lee et al. and suggests that the iron line flux remains constant on timescales as short as 0.5 ks. The large black hole mass (>108 Msolar) naively suggested by the constancy of the iron line flux is rejected on other grounds. We suggest that the black hole in MCG -6-30-15 has a mass of MBH~106-107 Msolar and that changes in the ionization state of the disk may produce the puzzling spectral variability. Finally, it is found that the 8-15 keV band lags the 2-4 keV band by 50-100 s. This result is used to place constraints on the size and geometry of the Comptonizing medium responsible for the hard X-ray power law in this AGN.

Reynolds, Christopher S.

2000-04-01

129

X-ray polarimetry as a new tool to discriminate reflection from absorption scenarios - predictions for MCG-6-30-15  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present modelling of X-ray polarization spectra emerging from the two competing scenarios that are proposed to explain the broad Fe K? line in the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15. The polarization signature of complex absorption is studied for a partial covering scenario using a clumpy wind and compared to a reflection model based on the lamppost geometry. The shape of the polarization percentage and angle as a function of photon energy are found to be distinctly different between the reflection and the absorption cases. Relativistic reflection produces significantly stronger polarization in the 1-10 keV energy band than absorption. The spectrum of the polarization angle adds additional constraints: in the absorption case it shows a constant shape, whereas the relativistic reflection scenario typically leads to a smooth rotation of the polarization angle with photon energy. Based on this work, we conclude that a soft X-ray polarimeter onboard a small X-ray satellite may already discriminate between the absorption and the reflection scenarios. A promising opportunity may arise with the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer mission, which has been proposed to the European Space Agency in response to a small-size (S-class) mission call due for launch in 2017.

Marin, F.; Goosmann, R. W.; Dov?iak, M.; Muleri, F.; Porquet, D.; Grosso, N.; Karas, V.; Matt, G.

2012-10-01

130

Estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills.  

PubMed

The estrogen potencies of 9 oral contraceptive pills, Enovid-E, Enovid-5, Ovulen, Demulen, Norinyl+80, Norinyl+50, Ovral, Norlestrin 1 mg. and Norlestrin 2.5 mg., were determined by bioassay. Relative estrogen potency was determined by analysis of variance. Enovid-5, the most estrogenic compound, had a potency of 4.88 compared to ethinyl estradiol, 50 mcg. equal 1.00; Ovral, the least estrogenic compound, had a potency of 0.81, a sixfold difference. Estrogen potencies at a fractional dose of 0.00155 correlate with reports of the incidence of minor side effects and thromboembolic disease. The effect of progestins on estrogen potency was purely additive (norgestrel and norethynodrel), purely antagonistic, or additive at low concentrations and antagonistic at high concentrations (norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, and ethynodiol diacetate). These results suggest that pills with a greater margin of safety might be developed by utilizing greater ratios of progestin to estrogen. In addition, differences in relative estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills may be used as a basis for better clinical selection. PMID:1115120

Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

1975-01-01

131

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the mouth. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are male, over age 40, use tobacco or alcohol or have a history of head or neck cancer. Frequent sun exposure is also a risk for lip cancer. Symptoms of oral ...

132

Zolmitriptan Oral  

MedlinePLUS

... with other symptoms such as upset stomach and sensitivity to sound and light). Zolmitriptan is in a ... To take the orally disintegrating tablet, use dry hands to peel back the foil packaging. Immediately take ...

133

Oral Thrush  

MedlinePLUS

... sugar, which encourages the growth of candida. Vaginal yeast infections. Vaginal yeast infections are caused by the same fungus that causes oral thrush. Although a yeast infection isn't dangerous, if you're pregnant ...

134

Oral pemphigoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Cicatricial pemphigoid (CP) is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by anti-basement membrane zone (BMZ) antibodies with a varied heterogeneous clinical spectrum. We sought to characterize a subset of patients with disease limited to the oral cavity.Study Design. Twenty-nine random patients with vesiculobullous disease limited to the oral cavity were studied. We identified patients by clinical criteria, the presence of

Narciss Mobini; Neville Nagarwalla; A. Razzaque Ahmed

1998-01-01

135

Early medical abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol 2 1 The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the views of Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. 2 2 We thank Olivera Vragovic, MBA, for her assistance with statistical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the introduction of an early medical abortion program with methotrexate and misoprostol, using a standardized protocol.Methods: A total of 1973 women at 34 Planned Parenthood sites participated in a case series of early medical abortion. Ultrasound was used to confirm gestational age of less than 49 days from the first day of the last menstrual period. Women

Lynn Borgatta; Michael S Burnhill; Judith Tyson; Kathryn K Leonhardt; Richard U Hausknecht; Sue Haskell

2001-01-01

136

[A prospective randomized trial of the impact of misoprostol (PgE1) on pregnancy rate after intrauterine insemination (IUI) therapy: a preliminary report].  

PubMed

Although the use of prostaglandin plays an important role in the reproductive human physiology, it is still controversial in the reproductive field. Ovarian stimulation as well as intrauterine insemination increased the reproductive goals in certain group of patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prostaglandin effect (misoprostol) in patients under ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination and their final outcome in the clinical pregnancy rate. There were a total of 59 ovarian stimulated cycles, the study group (n = 29) received 200 micrograms of prostaglandin E1 (misoprostol) intravaginal after IUI, compared with the control group (n = 30). Demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. There were no differences in age, FSH. LH and E2, hCG day and number of ampoules between groups. However, a significant pregnancy rate was observed between groups (31% study group vs. 20% control group). We concluded that prostaglandin application in stimulated cycles under intrauterine insemination remain a beneficial effect showing in the pregnancy outcome. PMID:11816531

Barroso, G; Karchmer, S; Castelazo, E; Carballo, E; Kably, A

2001-09-01

137

Oral myiasis  

PubMed Central

Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash P.; Chande, Mayura S.; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya

2010-01-01

138

Hydrocortisone Oral  

MedlinePLUS

... will decrease your dose gradually to allow your body to adjust before stopping the drug completely. Watch for these side effects if you are gradually decreasing your dose and after you stop taking the tablets or oral liquid, even if you switch to an inhalation. If ...

139

Triamcinolone Oral  

MedlinePLUS

... will decrease your dose gradually to allow your body to adjust before stopping the drug completely. Watch for these side effects if you are gradually decreasing your dose and after you stop taking the tablets or oral liquid, even if you switch to an inhalation. If ...

140

Dexamethasone Oral  

MedlinePLUS

... will decrease your dose gradually to allow your body to adjust before stopping the drug completely. Watch for these side effects if you are gradually decreasing your dose and after you stop taking the tablets or oral liquid, even if you switch to an inhalation corticosteroid ...

141

Oral Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing\\/recovering from chemo-\\/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases.

Irène Hitz Lindenmüller; J. Thomas Lambrecht

2011-01-01

142

Oral history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recording memories of World War II is an intervention that can humanize geriatric care in addition to the historical significance provided. Participants in this oral history project described memories of World War II and expressed themes of patriotism, loss, tense moments, makeshift living, self-sufficiency, and uncertain journey. Their ethnic roots were primarily Scandinavian, Dutch, German, and English. The nursing home

Lois B. Taft; Mary Ellen Stolder; Alice Briolat Knutson; Karolyn Tamke; Jennifer Platt; Tara Bowlds

2004-01-01

143

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of the impact of low-dose and triphasic oral contraceptives on follicular development.  

PubMed

Health practitioners randomly enrolled 48 18-35 year old healthy women into either the group receiving a low dose oral contraceptive (Loestrin, 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 1.5 mg of norethindrone acetate) or the group receiving a triphasic oral contraceptive (Estrostep, 20, 30, and 35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 1.5 mg of norethindrone acetate) and followed them for a 4-week control period. They were able to follow only 42-45 women during active treatment. This double blind, placebo controlled study took place at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. Its purpose was to determine whether Estrostep was causally related to development of ovarian cysts. 63% of the women in the placebo group had a follicle 18 mm sometime during treatment compared with 43% of those treated with Estrostep and 25% of those treated with Loestrin. No group was more prone to developing follicular cysts than the other 2 groups. Mean size of these follicles were 21, 21.5, and 23.8 mm for the control, Loestrin, and Estrostep groups, respectively, and were not significantly different. The mean largest follicle sizes were also not significantly different. None of the women experienced a follicle 18 mm for 2 weeks. The results indicated that follicular development persists during oral contraceptive treatment. They also do not support the hypothesis that triphasic oral contraceptives cause continual ovarian cysts. PMID:1530022

Young, R L; Snabes, M C; Frank, M L; Reilly, M

1992-09-01

144

Oral care.  

PubMed

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

2011-02-10

145

Oral tolerance  

PubMed Central

Summary The gut-associated lymphoid tissue is the largest immune organ in the body and is the primary route by which we are exposed to antigens. Tolerance induction is the default immune pathway in the gut, and the type of tolerance induced relates to the dose of antigen fed: anergy/deletion (high dose) or regulatory T-cell (Treg) induction (low dose). Conditioning of gut dendritic cells (DCs) by gut epithelial cells and the gut flora, which itself has a major influence on gut immunity, induces CD103+ retinoic acid-dependent DC that induces Tregs. A number of Tregs are induced at mucosal surfaces. Th3 type Tregs are transforming growth factor-? dependent and express latency-associated peptide (LAP) on their surface and were discovered in the context of oral tolerance. Tr1 type Tregs (interleukin-10 dependent) are induced by nasal antigen and forkhead box protein 3+ iTregs are induced by oral antigen and by oral administration of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. Oral or nasal antigen ameliorates autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in animal models by inducing Tregs. Furthermore, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody is active at mucosal surfaces and oral or nasal anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody induces LAP+ Tregs that suppresses animal models (experimental autoimmune encephalitis, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, lupus, arthritis, atherosclerosis) and is being tested in humans. Although there is a large literature on treatment of animal models by mucosal tolerance and some positive results in humans, this approach has yet to be translated to the clinic. The successful translation will require defining responsive patient populations, validating biomarkers to measure immunologic effects, and using combination therapy and immune adjuvants to enhance Treg induction. A major avenue being investigated for the treatment of autoimmunity is the induction of Tregs and mucosal tolerance represents a non-toxic, physiologic approach to reach this goal.

Weiner, Howard L.; da Cunha, Andre Pires; Quintana, Francisco; Wu, Henry

2012-01-01

146

Oral Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Summary The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is the largest immune organ in the body and is the primary route by which we are exposed to antigens. Tolerance induction is the default immune pathway in the gut, and the type of tolerance induced relates to the dose of antigen fed: anergy/deletion (high dose) or regulatory T-cell (Treg) induction (low dose). Conditioning of gut dendritic cells by gut epithelial cells and the gut flora, which itself has a major influence on gut immunity, induces a CD103+ retinoic acid-dependent dendritic cell that induces Tregs. A number of Tregs are induced at mucosal surfaces. Th3 type Tregs are transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) dependent and express latency-associated peptide (LAP) on their surface and were discovered in the context of oral tolerance. Tr1 type Tregs (interleukin-10 dependent) are induced by nasal antigen and Foxp3 iTregs are induced by oral antigen and by oral administration of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. Oral or nasal antigen ameliorates autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in animal models by inducing Tregs. Furthermore, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody is active at mucosal surfaces and oral or nasal anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody induces a LAP+ Tregs that suppresses animal models (experimental autoimmune encephalitis, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, lupus, arthritis, atherosclerosis) and is being tested in humans. Although there is a large literature on treatment of animal models by mucosal tolerance and some positive results in humans, this approach has yet to be translated to the clinic. The successful translation will require defining responsive patient populations, validating biomarkers to measure immunologic effects, and using combination therapy and immune adjuvants to enhance Treg induction. A major avenue being investigated for the treatment of autoimmunity is the induction of Tregs and mucosal tolerance represents a non-toxic, physiologic approach to reach this goal.

Weiner, Howard L.; Cunha, Andre Pires da; Quintana, Francisco; Wu, Henry

2011-01-01

147

Oral calcitonin.  

PubMed

Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through ?-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen(®) 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl)-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC) (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ). Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis) failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake. PMID:23071417

Hamdy, Ronald C; Daley, Dane N

2012-09-06

148

Oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases.

Akpan, A; Morgan, R

2002-01-01

149

Oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis remains one of the most common and troubling side effects of standard chemoradiation regimens used for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Virtually all patients who receive cumulative radiation doses of more than 30 Gy that includes oral mucosal fields will develop the condition. Not only does mucositis cause extreme discomfort, often necessitating opioid analgesia, but it is also associated with increased use of health resources and cost of treatment. The incremental cost of mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer is more than $17 000 (US). Much has been learned about the pathobiology that underlies the condition. The departure from the historical paradigm of direct cell death as being the primary cause for mucosal injury in favor of a more comprehensive view of the impact of chemoradiation on all the cells of the mucosa, has resulted in a picture of mucositis pathogenesis, which is biologically broad based. Although there are currently few treatment options for oral mucositis at the moment, the recognition that its underlying biology is complex has provided a range of treatment options that are currently being developed. PMID:21709615

Sonis, Stephen T

2011-08-01

150

Thyroid function in oral contraception: is there cyclic variation?  

PubMed

A study was carried out to determine whether there was any overall pattern of variation of thyroid parameters in women using oral contraceptives (OCs) throughout the menstrual cycle. Early morning blood samples were obtained from 7 women aged 25-45 on day 1, 7, 9, 14, 16, and 21 of their cycle while taking OCs and also on day 23 during menstruation. OCs used in this study included medium dose (6 subjects): Eugynon 50, Minilyn 50, Minovlar 50, Ovran 50, and Ovulen 50, and low dose (19 subjects): Brevinor, Eugynon 30, Microgynon 30, Norimyn 35, Ovran 30, and Ovranette 30. Out of 47 samples, 21 total thyroxine (TT4) and 23 total triiodothyronine (TT3) values were at the upper limit of normal or above, compared with 5 for free thyroxine index (FT4I) and 6 for free triiodothyronine index (FT3I). None of the free thyroid hormone levels were above the upper limit. While TT4 and FT4I are significantly raised (p0.001) in women on OCs compared to control women, there is no significant difference in free thyroxine levels between the 2 groups (p0.10) and this is true whether the estrogen dose of the OC was low (30 or 35 mcg, n = 19), or medium (50 mcg, n = 6). Each woman showed some slight variations but the pattern was different for each one; this suggests that these preparations do not interfere with thyroid metabolism per se. It has also been shown that with women taking OCs, the T3-uptake corrects insufficiently for TBG levels so that FT4I and FT3I values are near the upper limit of normal whereas the free hormones, FT4 and FT3 are in the mid-range. Where hypothyroidism is suspected, the FT4 should be followed up by a TSH measurement. PMID:6841023

Tuttlebee, J W; Marsden, J T

1983-02-01

151

Misoprostol and termination of pregnancy: is there a need for ultrasound screening in a general population to assess the risk for adverse outcome in cases of uterine anomaly?  

PubMed Central

Purpose and methods We reviewed the existing literature on medical termination of pregnancy in cases of congenital uterine malformation. Is medical termination of pregnancy safe in the presence of a uterine anomaly? Can termination of pregnancy still be performed when information concerning the presence of congenital uterine malformation is not available? Results The risk of adverse outcome, i.e. uterine rupture, was high in class 2 uterine anomalies, whereas the risks in classes 3–6 were negligible. However, the very low incidence of class 2 anomalies in pregnant women results in a calculated risk of uterine rupture in medical termination of pregnancy on the basis of this anomaly of 1 in 300,000 pregnancies. Ultrasound scanning is of limited diagnostic value to diagnose congenital uterine malformations. Conclusions The implications of uterine anomalies are not an argument in the discussion whether to use misoprostol for termination of pregnancy in developing countries with scarce diagnostics tools.

van der Veen, N. M.; Doornbos, J. P.; van Wijngaarden, W. J.

2010-01-01

152

Determination of misoprostol free acid in human breast milk and serum by gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

To study an expected transition of misoprostol from human blood into breast milk, a novel method for the determination of its active metabolite misoprostol acid (MPA) was developed. MPA was determined in serum and breast milk samples by an isotope dilution assay using gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC/NICI-MS/MS). After addition of (15S)-15-methylprostaglandin E(2) (15-methyl-PGE(2)) as an internal standard, MPA was extracted from both matrices using a reversed-phase cartridge. The prostanoids were derivatized with O-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) and 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFBB) to the pentafluorobenzyl oxime (PFBO)-pentafluorobenzyl ester (PFB) derivatives. The sample was subjected to thin-layer chromatography with ethyl acetate-hexane (1 : 1 (v/v)) as the developing solvent. The corresponding zone was extracted. After derivatization to the trimethylsilyl ether, MPA was determined by GC/NICI-MS/MS using the [molecule (M) - pentafluorobenzyl (PFB)](-) ([P](-)) ions as precursor in the negative ion chemical ionization mode. The product ions used for quantification were [P - 2TMSOH - C(6)F(5)CH(2)OH](-) (MPA) and [P - 2TMSOH - C(6)F(5)CH(2)OH - CO(2)](-)(15-methyl-PGE(2)), respectively. The limit of quantification for MPA was approximately 1 pg ml(-1) in breast milk and serum samples. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves for MPA were r > 0.997 in the 0.5-2000 pg ml(-1) range for both tested matrices. PMID:12271435

Watzer, Bernhard; Seyberth, Hannsjörg W; Schweer, Horst

2002-09-01

153

Oral contraceptives did not affect biochemical folate indexes and homocysteine concentrations in adolescent females.  

PubMed

The impact of oral contraceptive (OC) use, smoking, and alcohol drinking on biochemical indexes of folate and vitamin B-12 was investigated in 229 adolescents 14-20 years old recruited from advertisements in Ontario, Canada. Subjects completed a life-style questionnaire and a 3-day, weighed food record, followed by overnight fasting and the collection of blood samples. Of the 48 participants (21%) who were OC users, 30 had used the pill for more than 12 months. Only 37 adolescents (16%) smoked, but 94 (60%) had consumed alcohol in the month preceding the study. Median daily intake of folate and vitamin B-12 (including intake from supplements) was 215 mcg and 1.9 mcg, respectively. OC use, smoking, and alcohol consumption were not significantly associated with lower serum or red blood cell folate levels, after controlling for folate intake. Serum homocysteine levels were not correlated with smoking or OC use, but were 13% higher among alcohol drinkers than nondrinkers. Finally, although smoking and alcohol use were not associated with serum B-12 levels, OC use was linked with an estimated 33% lower serum B-12 level than was nonuse. These findings fail to validate concerns that OC use has a negative impact on the folate status of adolescent females, but suggest a need to improve the dietary folate intake of young women who smoke. PMID:9434651

Green, T J; Houghton, L A; Donovan, U; Gibson, R S; O'Connor, D L

1998-01-01

154

Diclofenac and Misoprostol  

MedlinePLUS

... headache stiff neck sore throat muscle pain confusion sensitivity to light fever blisters rash hives swelling of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, throat, arms, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs difficulty breathing or ...

155

Oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Mucositis and xerostomia are the most common oral complications of the non-surgical therapy of cancer. Mucositis, a common sequel of radio- (DXR), chemo-(CXR) and radiochemo-therapy in patients with cancer, or patients requiring haemopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT), has a direct and significant impact on the quality of life and cost of care, and also affects survival--because of the risk of infection. Apart from dose reduction, preventive and treatment options for mucositis are scarce, although multiple agents have been tested. Evidence suggests that cryotherapy, topical benzydamine and amifostine might provide some benefit in specific situations. The recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor Palifermin (Kepivance) was recently approved as a mucositis intervention in patients receiving conditioning regimens before HSCT for the treatment of haematological malignancies. A number of mechanistically based interventions are in various stages of development. Unfortunately, many other approaches have not been rigorously tested. This paper reviews the clinical features, prevalence, diagnosis, complications, pathogenesis, prophylaxis and management of mucositis. PMID:16700732

Scully, C; Sonis, S; Diz, P D

2006-05-01

156

Oral Sex and HIV Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Oral Sex and HIV Risk Oral Sex Is Not Risk Free Like all sexual activity, ... HIV or another STD through oral sex. Oral Sex is a Common Practice Oral sex involves giving ...

157

Effect of oral glucose on serum zinc in the elderly  

SciTech Connect

To determine the effect of glucose loading on serum zinc concentrations, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-86 y were studied. Anthropometric data, medical and dietary histories were obtained. Serum zinc and glucose concentrations were obtained fasting and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2 and 3 h after 75 g oral glucose load; glycohemoglobin and fasting serum lipids were also determined. For comparison, the subjects were categorized as: normal or low serum zinc concentrations; normal or high body mass index BMI; normal or high sum of skinfolds and normal or high serum cholesterol. Results showed that low serum zinc concentrations increased significantly over baseline values after the glucose load and did not return to fasting levels. On the other hand, mean serum zinc concentrations significantly declined without recovery for those with normal zinc values. For the total group, no significant differences were noted between fasting values and subsequent time periods. No correlations were noted between fasting serum zinc and area under the curve for zinc except in the high BMI group (positive correlation observed). For the high BMI group, fasting serum zinc differed significantly from the succeeding measurements except for 30 min. For the group as a whole, mean serum zinc concentration was within normal limits (76.9 +/- 2.8 mcg/ml): mean zinc intake was less than 2/3rds the RDA. They conclude that glucose ingestion may alter serum zinc and should be considered in interpreting these levels.

Lopez, A.L.; Kohrs, M.B.; Horwitz, D.L.; Cyborski, C.K.; Czajka-Narins, D.M.; Kamath, S.

1986-03-05

158

Peptides in oral diseases.  

PubMed

The oral cavity is home to numerous viruses and micro-organisms recognized as having a role in various oral diseases as well as in infections in other parts of the body. Indeed, in general a microbial infection underlies or is believed to underlie the ample spectrum of oral diseases, from tooth enamel decay to periodontal lesions, from candidiasis to virus-induced oral squamous cell carcinomas, and bullous autoimmune oral disorders. This clinico-pathological context stresses the need of targeted therapies to specifically kill infectious agents in a complex environment such as the oral cavity, and explains the current interest in exploring peptide-based therapeutic approaches in oral and dental research. Here, we review the therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37, beta defensins, adrenomedullin, histatins, and of various peptides modulating gene expression and immuno-biological interaction(s) in oral diseases. PMID:22236124

Lucchese, Alberta; Guida, Agostino; Petruzzi, Massimo; Capone, Giovanni; Laino, Luigi; Serpico, Rosario

2012-01-01

159

Comparison of a Two-Lead, Computerized, Resting ECG Signal Analysis De vice, the MultiFunction-CardioGramsm or MCG (a.k.a. 3DMP), to Quantitative Coronary Angiography for the Detection of Relevant Coronary Artery Stenosis (>70%) - A Meta-Analysis of all Published Trials Performed and Analyzed in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Accurate, non-invasive diagnosis of, and screening for, coronary artery disease (CAD) and restenosis after coronary revascularization has been a challenge due to either low sensitivity\\/specificity or relevant morbidity associated with current diagnostic modalities. Methods: To assess sensitivity and specificity of a new computerized, multiphase, resting electrocardiogram analysis device (MultiFunction-CardioGramsm or MCG a.k.a. 3DMP) for the detection of relevant coronary

John E. Strobeck; Joseph T. Shen; Binoy Singh; Kotaro Obunai; Charles Miceli; Howard Sacher; Franz Ritucci; Michael Imhoff

160

Oral and extra-oral taste perception.  

PubMed

Of the five basic taste qualities, the molecular mechanisms underlying sweet, bitter, and umami (savory) taste perception have been extensively elucidated, including the taste receptors and downstream signal transduction molecules. Recent studies have revealed that these taste-related molecules play important roles not only in the oral cavity but also in a variety of tissues including the respiratory tract, stomach, intestines, pancreas, liver, kidney, testes, and brain. This review covers the current knowledge regarding the physiological roles of taste-related molecules in the oral and extra-oral tissues. PMID:22963927

Yamamoto, Kurumi; Ishimaru, Yoshiro

2012-09-02

161

Outpatient cervical ripening with intravaginal misoprostol 1 1 The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense, Department of the Navy, or the United States Government  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if outpatient cervical ripening using misoprostol can initiate labor within 48 hours of medication administration and to determine if time from medication administration to time of delivery is decreased using outpatient cervical ripening.Methods: Uncomplicated singleton, vertex pregnancies at 41 weeks’ gestation or later with Bishop score of 4 or less were eligible for enrollment. Other inclusion criteria

Michael L Stitely; Joseph Browning; Mark Fowler; Richard T Gendron; Robert B Gherman

2000-01-01

162

Divergent Effects of a Combined Hormonal Oral Contraceptive on Insulin Sensitivity in Lean versus Obese Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effects of a commonly used combined hormonal oral contraceptive (OC) on carbohydrate metabolism in obese as compared with obese women. Design 6-month prospective study. Setting Clinical Research Center at an academic medical center. Patients Premenopausal non-diabetic women with BMI < 25 kg/m2 (n=15) or > 30 kg/m2 (n=14). Intervention Ethinyl estradiol 35mcg and norgestimate 0.18/0.215/0.25 mg for 6 cycles. Main Outcome Measures Insulin sensitivity (Si) by frequent sampling intravenous glucose tolerance test; other indices of insulin sensitivity (ISI HOMA, Matsuda index); fasting lipid panel. Results Si changed from 6.62±3.69 min?1/mu/L (baseline) to 8.23±3.30 min?1/mu/L (6 months) in lean women, and from 4.36±2.32 to 3.82±2.32 min?1/mu/L in obese women (p for interaction=0.0494). Divergent effects on insulin sensitivity were also observed with ISI HOMA (p=0.0128) and Matsuda index (p=0.0227). LDL increased by approximately 20 mg/dL in both groups (p<0.005 [lean]; p<0.01 [obese]). Conclusions Lean and obese women exhibit differential changes in insulin sensitivity when given 6 months of a commonly used OC. The mechanisms of these differences, and whether these divergent effects persist long-term, require further investigations. Capsule Lean and obese non-diabetic women exhibit differential changes in insulin sensitivity when given 6 months of a commonly used OC (ethinyl estradiol 35mcg and norgestimate 0.18/0.215/0.25 mg)

Cheang, Kai I.; Essah, Paulina A.; Sharma, Susmeeta; Wickham, Edmond P.; Nestler, John E.

2011-01-01

163

Effect of topiramate on the pharmacokinetics of an oral contraceptive containing norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol in patients with epilepsy.  

PubMed

The efficacy of combined oral contraceptives (OCs) is diminished in women taking enzyme-inducing anti-epileptic drugs such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine. In preliminary in vitro studies, a new anti-epileptic drug derived from D-fructose, topiramate, produced no clinically relevant inhibitory effects on the metabolism of such drugs as barbiturates, classic neuroleptics, and tricyclic antidepressants. To assess this new drug, 12 women with documented histories of epilepsy took an OC containing 1 mg norethindrone and 35 mcg ethinyl estradiol as well as topiramate (100-400 mg every 12 hours) for 4 menstrual cycles. Serial blood samples were obtained on day 20 of the 4 cycles. None of the norethindrone pharmacokinetic parameters changed significantly in the presence of topiramate. Ethinyl estradiol serum levels were reduced by an average of 30% from baseline. The mean area under the concentration-versus-time curve over the 24-hour period values for ethinyl estradiol were 18-30% lower in cycles 2-4 than the baseline cycle and mean oral serum clearance values were 14.7-33.0% higher. This compares favorably with the 40-72% reductions in progestin and estrogen levels recorded in women taking a levonorgestrel-containing OC and enzyme-inducing anti-epileptics. Although topiramate's modest interaction with OCs is not likely to interfere with contraceptive efficacy, the reduction in serum estrogen concentrations has the potential to increase the incidence of breakthrough bleeding, indicating the OC should contain at least 35 mcg of estrogen. PMID:9070594

Rosenfeld, W E; Doose, D R; Walker, S A; Nayak, R K

1997-03-01

164

[Bacteremia of oral origin].  

PubMed

Transient bacteremia from oral cavity related to oral anaerobic bacteria may occur as a result of dental healthcare procedures but also as a result of daily gestures involving the gums (chewing and oral hygiene). The risk of presenting a transient bacteremia is related to oral cavity bacterial load and to the severity of inflammation in the oral cavity. Although bacteremia is transient, in patients with immunodeficiency or comorbidity, this bacteremia may cause extra-oral infections. The bacteremia rate and the identified bacteria vary from one study to the next, depending on the method used to isolate and identify bacteria. Nevertheless, the risk for bacteremia is determined by the infectious and inflammatory conditions of each patient. PMID:21940028

Perez-Chaparro, P J; Meuric, V; De Mello, G; Bonnaure-Mallet, M

2011-09-21

165

Probiotics and oral health  

PubMed Central

Probiotics utilize the naturally occurring bacteria to confer health benefits. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and are being mainly utilized for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and disease; however, recently, several studies have suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. The aim of this review is to understand the potential mechanism of action of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and summarize their observed effects with respect to oral health.

Rastogi, Pavitra; Saini, Himani; Dixit, Jaya; Singhal, Rameshwari

2011-01-01

166

Oral Delivery of Taxanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral treatment with cytotoxic agents is tobe preferred as this administration routeis convenient to patients, reducesadministration costs and facilitates theuse of more chronic treatment regimens. Forthe taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel,however, low oral bioavailability haslimited development of treatment by theoral route. Preclinical studies with mdr1aP-glycoprotein knock-out mice, which lackfunctional P-glycoprotein activity in thegut, have shown significant bioavailabilityof orally administered paclitaxel.Additional studies

Mirte M. Malingré; Jos H. Beijnen; Jan H. M. Schellens

2001-01-01

167

Management of oral malodour.  

PubMed

Halitosis is a common problem. Its aetiology is multifactorial, but oral malodour is usually caused by microbial metabolism from the tongue, saliva or dental plaque. Mouthwashes are only effective against halitosis caused by intraoral factors. The principal causative agents of oral malodour are volatile sulphide compounds (VSCs), including hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide. Data suggest that oral VSC levels correlate with the depth of periodontal pockets. Trials have shown that both mechanical oral care and mouthwash use can reduce halitosis levels. The majority of studies involving mouthwashes have investigated chlorhexidine and essential oil mouthwashes, although comparative studies are sparse. PMID:12787198

Quirynen, M

2003-01-01

168

Oral microbiota and cancer  

PubMed Central

Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.

Meurman, Jukka H.

2010-01-01

169

The Oral History Review, 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The contents of this issue of the "Oral History Review" include eight articles, Oral History Council reports, and lists of the sites of future oral history colloquiums, of Oral History Association publications in print and in microform, and of contributors. Titles of articles and authors are as follows: "Oral History Comes of Age" by Samuel…

Hand, Samuel B., Ed.

170

Survival of Oral Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global distribution of individual species of oral bacteria demonstrates their ability to survive among their human hosts. Such an ubiquitous existence is the result of efficient transmission of strains and their persistence in the oral environment. Genetic analysis has identified specific clones of pathogenic bacteria causing infection. Presumably, these express virulence-associated characteristics enhancing colonization and survival in their hosts.

G. H. W. Bowden; I. R. Hamilton

1998-01-01

171

Tobacco and Oral Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that smoking contributes to the development of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, and there is weighty evidence that it has a considerable influence on oral health. Smoking has many negative effects on the mouth, including staining of teeth and dental restorations, reduction of the ability to smell and taste, and the development of oral diseases such

Jesper Reibel

2003-01-01

172

Oral mucosal immunity.  

PubMed

Oral keratinocytes and dendritic cells of the oral mucosa, through molecular pattern recognition receptors, distinguish between commensal and pathogenic microorganisms and mediate the generation of protective immunoinflammatory responses to potentially invading pathogens or mediate immune tolerance toward commensal microorganisms. Oral immune tolerance is the result either of lack of activation of T cells in response to immunogenic presentation of antigens or of suppression of activity of effector T cells by regulatory T cells. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibodies at oral mucosal sites contribute to oral immunity by limiting colonization of microorganisms and their invasion of the epithelium. Ig isotype class switching to IgA is either dependent on or independent of T helper cells and is facilitated by cytokines secreted by dendritic cells and monocytes. PMID:24119522

Feller, L; Altini, M; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Bouckaert, M; Lemmer, J

2013-11-01

173

Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... A A A In oral candidiasis, normal mouth yeast overgrows, causing white, slightly elevated lesions. Overview Thrush ( ... candidiasis), also known as oral moniliasis, is a yeast infection of the mouth or throat (the oral ...

174

Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

McAlpine, Dave

175

Examining the Association between Oral Health and Oral HPV Infection.  

PubMed

Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers. Cancer Prev Res; 6(9); 917-24. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23966202

Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

2013-08-21

176

Nicotine Oral Inhalation  

MedlinePLUS

... oral inhalation should be used together with a smoking cessation program, which may include support groups, counseling, or ... inhalation is in a class of medications called smoking cessation aids. It works by providing nicotine to your ...

177

Dehydration and Oral Rehydration  

MedlinePLUS

... INCLUDE Oral rehydration fluids. These are also called electrolyte solutions. These fluids are made for situations when ... diarrhea. These fluids provide water as well as electrolytes (like salt), which the body loses during vomiting ...

178

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

179

Personality and oral health  

PubMed Central

We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry.

Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.

2013-01-01

180

Oral heparin: status review  

PubMed Central

Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. Extended out-of-hospital treatment is inconvenient in that these agents must be administered parenterally. Current research is directed at development of a safe and effective oral antithrombotic agent as an alternative for the effective, yet difficult to use vitamin K antagonists. A novel drug delivery technology that facilitates transport of drugs across the gastrointestinal epithelium has been harnessed to develop an oral dosage form of unfractionated heparin. Combining unfractionated heparin with the carrier molecule, sodium N-(8 [2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino) caprylate, or SNAC has markedly increased the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Preclinical and clinical studies to-date suggests that oral heparin-SNAC can confer a clinical efficacious effect; further confirmation is sought in planned clinical trials.

Arbit, Ehud; Goldberg, Michael; Gomez-Orellana, Isabel; Majuru, Shingai

2006-01-01

181

The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?  

PubMed Central

The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the oral microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease.

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

2010-01-01

182

Oral and perioral candidosis.  

PubMed

The following article has been assembled from the current literature and our clinical experience to provide a comprehensive review of oral and perioral candidal infections. A brief review of the epidemiology and pathogenesis is followed by a description of the various clinical signs and symptoms associated with oral candidosis. Methods useful in arriving at a diagnosis of candidal infection as well as a number of effective therapeutic modalities are discussed. In addition, special considerations relating to the treatment of patients with other concurrent mucosal diseases and long-term antifungal maintenance regimes are addressed. PMID:8060823

Fotos, P G; Ray, T L

1994-06-01

183

Oral myiasis in children.  

PubMed

Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:22629058

Reddy, M H Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M R

2012-04-01

184

Per-oral cholangioscopy  

PubMed Central

Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions.

Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

2011-01-01

185

Oral myiasis in children  

PubMed Central

Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed.

Reddy, M. H. Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M. R.

2012-01-01

186

Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy.

Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

2011-01-01

187

Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk  

PubMed Central

A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through chronic inflammation. High-throughput genetic-based assays now make it possible to comprehensively survey the human oral microbiome, the totality of bacteria in the oral cavity. Establishing the association of the oral microbiome with cancer risk may lead to significant advances in understanding of cancer etiology, potentially opening a new research paradigm for cancer prevention.

Chen, Calvin Y.; Hayes, Richard B.

2013-01-01

188

[Were the severe adverse effects on several organs and the marked blood pressure increase caused by oral contraceptives?].  

PubMed

A 22-year old unmarried healthy woman was admitted to the Swedish department with low fever, tiredness, SR 75 mm, positive uricult, but no urinary tract symptoms. Urinary tract infection was suspected and treatment was started with norfloxacin. Nevertheless, the urine culture proved to be negative. A few weeks later she had increasing trouble with stiff knee and shoulder joints and the left foot became swollen. The subfebrile status continued, and tonsillitis was suspected and diagnosed. V-penicillin and cefaklor treatment was applied. She was transferred to the infectious diseases ware, where fever was confirmed with leukocytosis (19 x 1 billion/1), C-reactive protein at 66 (normal value 10) mcg/ml, pronounced blood pressure increase (160/130 mm Hg), anemic signs, and pathological liver status with increased transaminases (ASAT 6.3-10.4 and ALAT 8.,8-16 ukat/1). ALP increased slightly to 6 ukat/1. The symptoms of weight loss indisposition, and muscles and joints aches, especially in foot ache continued. Collagen disease was suspected, and she was transferred to the internal medicine department. She regularly had tachycardia and high blood pressure. She had to use crutches for mobility because of the pain. S-albumin was 32 (normal 36- 50) g/l and S-hepatoglobin was 2.7 (normal value .4-1.8) g.l. Various others tests were normal. Ulnaris neuropathy was suspected on the left hand. Intensive blood pressure reducing combination treatment was started with 200 mg x 1 of metoprolol, 10 mg x 2 nifedipin, and 20 mg x 1 enalapril. The Desolett oral contraceptive (containing 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 150 mcg of desogestrel) she had been taking for a few months were discontinued. Quick improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters followed. SR and leukocytosis became normal. The values of ALP, ASAT, and ALAT became normal some days later. She was discharged shortly thereafter, and blood pressure medication was gradually discontinued. In the 1940s there were reports about the hepatotoxic effects of synthetic estrogens followed by carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism alterations. Jaundice has also been reported, and the Swedes have an ethnic susceptibility to it. The global incidence rate is 1/10.000 vs. 1/100 and 1/4000 in Sweden induced by high-dose OCs containing more than 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol, but with low-dose OCs this rate is much lower. Both estrogens and gestagens can increase blood pressure. A 1969 study reported that 22 young women developed arthritis, arthralgia, and myalgia after taking pills for 3- 12 months. Rheumatic symptoms were also recorded with pill use. Thus, it is very likely that OCs were responsible for the patient's symptoms, especially since her status rapidly improved after discontinuing them. PMID:1825862

Bergbrant, A; Mattsson, L A; Kutti, J

1991-02-20

189

Tri-Norinyl and Ortho-Novum 7/7/7--two triphasic oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of clinical trials with 2 new triphasic oral contraceptives (OCs): Tri-Norinyl and Ortho-Novum 7/7/7. Both preparations contain 35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and varying amounts of norethindrone. The progestin dose increases in Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 and increases and then decreases in Tri-Norinyl. In multicenter randomized trials involving Ortho-Novum 7/7/7, 2 pregnancies occurred in 294 women and the incidence of breakthrough bleeding was either comparable to or less than that found in women taking Ortho-Novum 1/35 and 10/11, respectively. Clinical trials comparing Tri-Norinyl with standard OC formulations noted similar numbers of pregnancies and less bleeding in the 1st 2 cycles of Tri-Norinyl use but considerably more bleeding in the 4th cycle. No studies have compared the 2 triphasis formulations with each other. It is concluded that the existing research evidence does not establish the advantage of triphasic OCs over older formulations. PMID:6384752

1984-10-12

190

Continuous Compared With Cyclic Oral Contraceptives for the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate whether continuous OCP (oral contraceptive pills) will result in more pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea patients than cyclic OCP, which induces withdrawal bleeding with associated pain and symptoms. Material and Methods We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing continuous to a cyclic 21/7 OCP regimen (gestodene 0.075 mg and ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg) for 6 months in 38 primary dysmenorrhea patients. The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) over the period of 6 months. Results Twenty-nine patients completed the study. In both groups, pain reduction measured by VAS declined over time and was significant at 6 months compared to baseline with no difference between groups. Continuous regimen was superior to cyclic regimen after one month (mean difference: -27.3; 95% CI: (-40.5,-14.2); p<0.001) and 3 months (mean difference: -17.8; 95% CI: (-33.4,-2.1); p=0.03) of treatment. Secondary outcomes noted no difference between groups in terms of menstrual distress as measured by the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. After 6 months, there was an increase in weight and decrease in systolic blood pressure in continuous compared with the cyclic group. Conclusions Both regimens of OCP are effective in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. Continuous OCP outperforms cyclic OCP in the short term, but this difference is lost after 6 months.

Dmitrovic, Romana; Kunselman, Allen R.; Legro, Richard S.

2013-01-01

191

Oral History: What? Why? How? Guidelines for Oral History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growing interest in oral history, this booklet provides guidelines for the development of oral history projects at the secondary level. There are various options for establishing oral history in the school program including an elective semester course, an independent study project, a minicourse, a cocurricular history club project, or an…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

192

Imaging in oral cancers  

PubMed Central

Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist.

Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

2012-01-01

193

Oral History Online!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bancroft Library at the University of California-Berkeley has recently begun a project to place portions of its oral history collection online in full text. The transcripts will be marked up in SGML using the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), which will allow complex searches of the entire text. In addition to the transcripts themselves, the remainder (photos, prefaces, contents pages) of the published volumes will also be encoded to provide complete access. At this stage, the Suffragists Oral History Project, which offers the text of interviews with twelve suffragists and women's activists for searching or browsing, is the only project available online in complete form. Projects under construction include the Disabled Persons Independence Movement and the BioTech Project. Among the future planned additions are oral histories of the Free Speech Movement at Berkeley, the Earl Warren gubernatorial era, and African-American Alumni at the University of California. Historians of California and oral historians will want to monitor the site as it develops.

194

The novel oral anticoagulants.  

PubMed

After the introduction of warfarin, long-term oral anticoagulation treatment remained unchanged for more than 50 years. Most recently, with the development and approval of new oral anticoagulants, the treatment of medical conditions that require thrombosis prophylaxis and long-term anticoagulation has become more complex. In the case of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention after orthopedic surgery, the new oral agents will be less costly than the parenteral alternative. In other settings (such as atrial fibrillation or treatment of acute VTE), the new agents will offer additional convenience at higher cost, but the degree to which they will reduce clinically important events such as thrombosis or bleeding will be limited, especially for patients on optimally controlled warfarin. As the use of the new oral anticoagulants becomes more widespread, it will be important for all clinicians to have a basic understanding of their pharmacology, advantages, and limitations. Although the need to measure or reverse the effect of these drugs will arise infrequently, clinicians--especially hematologists--will desire evidence-based recommendations about how to manage such scenarios, which will require research studies. PMID:23390028

Rojas-Hernandez, Cristhiam M; Garcia, David A

2013-02-06

195

WRITING ORAL DRILLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

NEY, JAMES W.

196

Oral Anticoagulant Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban.

Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

2012-01-01

197

Triamcinolone Oral Inhalation  

MedlinePLUS

Triamcinolone comes as an aerosol to use by oral inhalation. It usually is inhaled three or four times a day at evenly spaced intervals. Follow ... proper disposal of your medication. Avoid puncturing the aerosol container, and do not discard it in an ...

198

Kidney Disease (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney Disease Oral Effects At the Dentist Oral Effects People with kidney disease often have other health issues. They often have compromised immune systems, so they may be more likely to get infections. People with renal (kidney) problems may have ...

199

Learning Oral Presentation Skills  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Oral presentation skills are central to physician-physician communication; however, little is known about how these skills are learned. Rhetoric is a social science which studies communication in terms of context and explores the action of language on knowledge, attitudes, and values. It has not previously been applied to medical discourse. We used rhetorical principles to qualitatively study how students learn oral presentation skills and what professional values are communicated in this process. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING Inpatient general medicine service in a university-affiliated public hospital. PARTICIPANTS Twelve third-year medical students during their internal medicine clerkship and 14 teachers. MEASUREMENTS One-hundred sixty hours of ethnographic observation. including 73 oral presentations on rounds. Discoursed-based interviews of 8 students and 10 teachers. Data were qualitatively analyzed to uncover recurrent patterns of communication. MAIN RESULTS Students and teachers had different perceptions of the purpose of oral presentation, and this was reflected in performance. Students described and conducted the presentation as a rule-based, data-storage activity governed by “order” and “structure.” Teachers approached the presentation as a flexible means of “communication” and a method for “constructing” the details of a case into a diagnostic or therapeutic plan. Although most teachers viewed oral presentations rhetorically (sensitive to context), most feedback that students received was implicit and acontextual, with little guidance provided for determining relevant content. This led to dysfunctional generalizations by students, sometimes resulting in worse communication skills (e.g., comment “be brief” resulted in reading faster rather than editing) and unintended value acquisition (e.g., request for less social history interpreted as social history never relevant). CONCLUSIONS Students learn oral presentation by trial and error rather than through teaching of an explicit rhetorical model. This may delay development of effective communication skills and result in acquisition of unintended professional values. Teaching and learning of oral presentation skills may be improved by emphasizing that context determines content and by making explicit the tacit rules of presentation.

Haber, Richard J; Lingard, Lorelei A

2001-01-01

200

Tuberculosis masquerading as oral malignancy  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis of the oral cavity is a rare condition. A 55-year-old labourer was referred as a case of oral cancer for further management. The patient had no systemic symptoms. Biopsy of the lesion revealed caseating granulomatous inflammation. Chest X-ray and sputum revealed evidence of asymptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis. The purpose of this paper is to sensitize clinicians to consider oral tuberculosis as a differential diagnosis in patients with an Non-healing oral cavity ulcer.

Kannan, S.; Thakkar, Purvi; Dcruz, Anil K.

2011-01-01

201

Frame Tales and Oral Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frame tales, medieval literary works in which characters become narrators by telling stories of their own, owe a great debt to oral tradition and transmission. Oral tradition provides much of the raw material for these texts, while at the same time providing medieval audiences and modern readers cues for understanding them. Frame tales depict oral storytelling events in such a

Bonnie D. Irwin

2003-01-01

202

Oral and Perioral Piercing Complications  

PubMed Central

Background. The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing Methods. A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ``oral and perioral, piercing ´´, ``oral, piercing and disease”, ``recessions and oral piercing´´. It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series Results. A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. Conclusion. Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. Clinical implications. Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures.

Escudero-Castano, N; Perea-Garcia, M.A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sanchez; Bascones-Martinez, A

2008-01-01

203

Minor Oral Injuries in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic injuries involving the oral cavity in children often result from falls or collisions with stationary objects. Repair of lacerations involving the soft tissue structures within the oral cavity is described. These injuries often can be managed by emergency department personnel, with referral to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon for follow-up care. Initial management of more extensive injuries such as

KATHY BANKS; PHYLLIS G. MERLINO

204

Ximelagatran: a new oral anticoagulant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin K antagonists are effective oral anticoagulants, but they have limitations related to a narrow therapeutic range, food and drug interactions, slow onset of action and the need for routine coagulation monitoring. Ximelagatran is a promising new oral anticoagulant under investigation in advanced clinical trials. It is a prodrug that is converted after oral administration to melagatran, a direct thrombin

Charles W Francis

2004-01-01

205

Arylaminopeptidase Activities of Oral Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protease and peptidase enzymes are thought to play a role in the virulence of many oral organisms, especially those associated with periodontal diseases. In order to evaluate the peptidases of periodontopathogens, we compared the arylaminopeptidase activities of Bacteroides gingivalis with those of other oral and non-oral bacteria. Sixty-three bacterial strains representing the prominent cultivable organisms in human periodontal pockets were

H. Suido; M. Nakamura; P. A. Mashimo; J. J. Zambon; R. J. Genco

1986-01-01

206

Social disparity and oral health.  

PubMed

There is a clear reported association between social disparity and oral health, for example, between dental caries and malnutrition in children. This fact is detected in several studies, and also found amongst the Brazilian population. However, several efforts have been made to improve the quality of life of the population and to achieve the 2015 Millennium Development Goals. Oral health is a branch to be improved among these goals. The Brazilian experience has been drawing the attention of authorities, insofar as there have been direct improvements in oral health through state oral health programs, and also indirect results by improving the quality of life of the population. Included within the Brazilian oral health programs are the Family Health Program and Smiling Brazil Program. The former is a global healthcare program which involves primary oral healthcare, while the latter is a specialized oral care program. Among the social programs that would indirectly improve oral health are Family Stipend and the Edmond and Lily Safra International Institute of Neuroscience of Natal (ELS-IINN). In conclusion, although oral health problems are related to socioeconomic factors, the implementation of primary oral health programs and programs to improve the population's quality of life may directly or indirectly improve the oral health scenario. This fact is being observed in Brazil, where the oral health policies have changed, and social programs have been implemented. PMID:23318740

Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Bresciani, Eduardo

2012-01-01

207

Mast Cells and Oral Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mast cells are mobile granule-containing secretory cells that are distributed preferentially about the microvascular endothelium in oral mucosa and dental pulp. The enzyme profile of mast cells in oral tissues resembles that of skin, with most mast cells expressing the serine proteases tryptase and chymase. Mast cells in oral tissues contain the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-? in their granules,

Laurence J. Walsh

2003-01-01

208

American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology  

MedlinePLUS

... you the very latest news and information about oral health care and practice. The Academy of Oral and ... with other dental and medical professionals to advance oral health care. Oral and maxillofacial pathologists (OMP) are uniquely ...

209

Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know Oral chemo is any drug you take by mouth to treat cancer. ... be ready for oral chemo. What is oral chemotherapy? Today there are many types of chemotherapy (chemo). ...

210

46 CFR 201.166 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Oral argument. 201.166 Section 201...PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submittal for Final Decision (Rule 17) § 201.166 Oral argument. If oral...

2009-10-01

211

46 CFR 201.166 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 201.166 Section 201...PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submittal for Final Decision (Rule 17) § 201.166 Oral argument. If oral...

2010-10-01

212

Determinants of oral health: does oral health literacy matter?  

PubMed

Objective. To evaluate oral health literacy, independent of other oral health determinants, as a risk indicator for self-reported oral health. Methods. A cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Tehran, Iran. Multiple logistic regression analysis served to estimate the predictive effect of oral health literacy on self-reported oral health status (good versus poor) controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors and tooth-brushing behavior. Results. In all, among 1031 participants (mean age 36.3 (SD 12.9); 51% female), women reported brushing their teeth more frequently (P < 0.001) and scored higher for oral health literacy (mean 10.9 versus 10.2, P < 0.001). In the adjusted model, high age (OR = 1.01, 95% CI 1.003-1.034), low education (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.23-2.87), small living area in square meters per person (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.003-3.423), poor tooth brushing behavior (OR = 3.35, 95% CI 2.02-5.57), and low oral health literacy scores (OR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.02-2.45) were significant risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health. Conclusions. Low oral health literacy level, independent of education and other socioeconomic determinants, was a predictor for poor self-reported oral health and should be considered a vital determinant of oral health in countries with developing health care systems. PMID:23577262

Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad Mehdi; Yazdani, Reza; Virtanen, Jorma; Pakdaman, Afsaneh; Murtomaa, Heikki

2013-03-13

213

The relevance of the pharmacologic properties of a progestational agent to its clinical effects as a combination oral contraceptive.  

PubMed Central

Levonorgestrel (LNg) is known for its marked progestational/contraceptive activity. As shown in animal experiments, however, high doses of LNg are required to elicit an androgenic response; in contrast, considerably lower doses of LNg are required for antiovulatory (contraceptive) action. Thus, a large dose separation exists between androgenic and contraceptive activity. When LNg is combined with an estrogen, as in the contraceptive formulations, the androgenic response is attenuated or negated. The results of recent clinical trials have demonstrated that the androgenic activity of LNg is not expressed at contraceptive doses, particularly when LNg is combined with ethinyl estradiol (EE), as in the low-dose monophasic/triphasic formulations (monophasic [Nordette]: 150 mcg LNg/30 mcg EE; triphasic [Triphasil/Trinordiol]: six days, 50 mcg LNg/30 mcg EE; five days, 75 mcg LNg/40 mcg EE; ten days, 125 mcg LNg/30 mcg EE). Clinical evidence from several trials confirms that sex hormone-binding globulin levels are increased, plasma androgen levels are decreased, and acne is markedly improved with the use of Triphasil and Nordette, suggesting a non-androgenic profile. Images FIG. 4

Upton, G. V.; Corbin, A.

1989-01-01

214

The relevance of the pharmacologic properties of a progestational agent to its clinical effects as a combination oral contraceptive.  

PubMed

Levonorgestrel (LNg) is known for its marked progestational/contraceptive activity. As shown in animal experiments, however, high doses of LNg are required to elicit an androgenic response; in contrast, considerably lower doses of LNg are required for antiovulatory (contraceptive) action. Thus, a large dose separation exists between androgenic and contraceptive activity. When LNg is combined with an estrogen, as in the contraceptive formulations, the androgenic response is attenuated or negated. The results of recent clinical trials have demonstrated that the androgenic activity of LNg is not expressed at contraceptive doses, particularly when LNg is combined with ethinyl estradiol (EE), as in the low-dose monophasic/triphasic formulations (monophasic [Nordette]: 150 mcg LNg/30 mcg EE; triphasic [Triphasil/Trinordiol]: six days, 50 mcg LNg/30 mcg EE; five days, 75 mcg LNg/40 mcg EE; ten days, 125 mcg LNg/30 mcg EE). Clinical evidence from several trials confirms that sex hormone-binding globulin levels are increased, plasma androgen levels are decreased, and acne is markedly improved with the use of Triphasil and Nordette, suggesting a non-androgenic profile. PMID:2534253

Upton, G V; Corbin, A

215

Oral yeast carriage correlates with presence of oral epithelial dysplasia.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested a link between the presence of Candida albicans and the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of the present study was to assess the presence and level of colonisation of oral yeast in patients undergoing an incisional oral mucosal biopsy in order to assess whether the amount of oral yeast present correlated with the presence and degree of oral epithelial dysplastic or neoplastic change. Two hundred and twenty-three patients who were undergoing an incisional biopsy for the diagnosis of an oral mucosal lesion were enrolled in this study. Mouth swills were obtained from each patient for the presence and amount of oral yeast present. Some of the patients (44.6%) had a histopathological diagnosis of either oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) or OSCC and the frequency of oral yeast carriage was significantly greater (P<0.001) in these patients than those without histopathologically detected dysplastic or neoplastic oral lesions. Furthermore, significantly (P<0.001) more patients with OED or OSCC had a higher number of yeast (over 1000 cfu/ml) in their oral cavity than patients without any evidence of epithelial dysplasia or neoplasia histopathologically. The degree of epithelial dysplasia present in these patients also correlated with higher amounts of yeast in the oral cavity (P=0.017). The results of the present study reveal that there is an interaction between oral carriage of yeast and oral epithelial dysplasia, however it remains unclear how yeast infection influences the development and progression of dysplasia. PMID:12076705

McCullough, M; Jaber, M; Barrett, A W; Bain, L; Speight, P M; Porter, S R

2002-06-01

216

In search of oral psoriasis.  

PubMed

Even though psoriasis is a common skin disorder, reports of it involving the oral cavity are exceedingly rare, with less than 100 publications in the literature. Biopsy-proven oral psoriasis has been reported in the oral medical literature, but the commonest oral mucosal findings in most studies are associated non-specific features including fissured and geographic tongue. Case series on this entity have not provided any definitive data to support its existence. From the evidence available to date, it is still unclear if oral psoriasis is a distinct entity or if, indeed, it exists. PMID:21927905

Yesudian, P D; Chalmers, R J G; Warren, R B; Griffiths, C E M

2011-09-17

217

The new oral anticoagulants  

PubMed Central

In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation oral anticoagulation with the vitamin K antagonists acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon and warfarin reduces the risk of stroke by more than 60%, whereas single or double antiplatelet therapy is much less effective and sometimes associated with a similar bleeding risk as vitamin K antagonists. Besides bleeding, INR monitoring and high interindividual variability remain the largest drawbacks of vitamin K antagonists. In the last decade oral agents have been developed that directly block the activity of thrombin (factor IIa), as well as drugs that directly inhibit activated factor X (Xa), which is the first protein in the final common pathway to the activation of thrombin. These agents have huge advantages in that they do not need monitoring and have a fast onset and offset of action. This survey addresses the role of classical and modern anticoagulation in stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:314–8.)

Verheugt, F.W.A.

2010-01-01

218

New oral anticoagulants.  

PubMed

The new oral anticoagulants may prove to be one of the most significant innovations in clinical practice in the past 60 years. Apixaban and rivaroxaban are specific inhibitors of Factor Xa while dabigatran inhibits Factor IIa. The predictable pharmacological profile of these new agents will allow physicians to use these drugs without the need for routine coagulation monitoring which is the mainstay of warfarin therapy. In addition, these new agents have not been shown to have any food interactions and limited drug-drug interactions due to their minimal metabolism through the CYP450 system. This unique pharmacokinetic profile may usher in for clinicians a new era of managing thromboembolic disorders. In this paper, the pharmacology of these new oral anticoagulants are reviewed along with the major clinical trials in venous thromboembolism prevention in total hip and knee replacement orthopedic surgery, the treatment of venous thromboembolic disorders and stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. PMID:21327511

Galanis, Taki; Thomson, Lynda; Palladino, Michael; Merli, Geno J

2011-04-01

219

Oral hypoglycemic agent update.  

PubMed

The treatment of diabetes is still a problem more than a half-century after the discovery of insulin. Patients are now living significantly longer but until the development of oral hypoglycemic agents, the only direct treatment modalities were exercise, diet, and insulin. Before evaluating the effectiveness of treatment, a therapeutic goal must be determined. While there are no absolutely "hard" facts proving that "good control" is beneficial in preventing chronic complications of diabetes, increasing accumulation of "soft" data strongly suggests that normal blood glucose levels are most desirable, when possible, but not at the cost of severe or disabling hypoglycemic reactions. The development of the oral agents was a great public health advance in that many persons with early diabetes, but fearful of insulin injections, had less dread of "the pills" and sought treatment. The oral agents simplified care but this very simplification process often undermined the need for proper diet and good fundamental care. This often led to mediocre diabetes care. While useful, the oral agents have marked limitations and in some are effective only temporarily. The presently available oral agents are sulfonylureas and require a viable beta-cell system for success. This limits the number of diabetics responsive to such treatment. The general indications for tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, acetohexamide and tolazamide are in maturity-onset diabetics, generally beyond the age of 40 with diabetes of less than 10 years. They are contraindicated in juvenile-onset diabetics, in pregnant women, and usually in patients undergoing major surgery, and can become ineffective during periods of extreme stress or during severe infection. They can lower blood glucose levels if used in proper doses in properly selected patients. Contrary to several decades of documentation, it has become popular to suggest that the oral agents are not effective. They can be effective but for many reasons apparently were not in their use by the U.G.D.P. researchers. This might not be the fault of the oral agent used. If ineffective, they should be discontinued. Many, but not all, patients may respond to diet therapy, which is then the treatment of choice. Obviously insulin, though difficult to use for many persons and in itself able to induce several severe reactions if not used properly, is the only treatment (with diet) for the severe diabetic. There is a large spectrum of patients inbetween in whom the oral agents may be useful. The use of phenformin (phenethyl-biguanide) has been effectively curtailed because of many reported cases of lactic acidosis, and while it is doubtful that phenformin alone, in the absence of complicating factors, is the causative factor, it is capable of being an augmenting influence when other conditions, such as decreased kidney function, prevail... PMID:98675

Krall, L P; Chabot, V A

1978-07-01

220

Oral rehydration therapy.  

PubMed

The management of diarrhea is mostly dependent on parenteral administration of fluids and electrolytes, yet for the majority of India's population such facilities are practically unavailable. In addition there are several serious limitations to the use of this technique. These include prohibitive cost, the fact that it can only be administered by trained personnel, and that it brings undue distress to both patients and parents. Such procedures should be reserved only for those patients who have severe dehydration, impending shock, electrolyte imbalance, or persistent vomiting. For the others, the majority, oral rehydration therapy should be the treatment of choice. The implementation of oral rehydration therapy in the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Calcutta alone, has resulted in an annual saving of much money. Another benefit is that the family members can participate in the therapy and can continue it at home. The process of water and solute absorption is accelerated in the presence of glucose and sodium, and its effectiveness has been proven and documented. There are various types of oral multi-electrolyte-glucose powders available in India. The mixture recommended by the World Health Organization seems to be the most suitable, and this mixture can be prepared at home by the addition of 3-1/2 grams of common salt, 2-1/2 grams of baking soda, 1-1/2 grams of potassium chloride, and 20 grams of glucose in 1 liter of water. Instructions for the use of oral rehydration therapy are outlined, and other types of rehydration therapy are described. PMID:7229409

Jain, A; Khatri, P C; Jain, S; Yadav, S P

1980-09-16

221

Oral antiresorptive therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral antiresorptive agents play a pivotal role in the management of osteoporosis. This paper discusses the effects and potential\\u000a future role of newer agents such as ibandronate. Alternative dosing schedules and routes of administration have become available\\u000a and may improve fracture protection, compliance, and tolerability for the long term treatment of a chronic condition such\\u000a as osteoporosis. Increasingly these agents

Ira Pande; David J. Hosking

2004-01-01

222

Oral antiresorptive therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral antiresorptive agents play a pivotal role in the management of osteoporosis. This paper discusses the effects and potential\\u000a future role of newer agents such as ibandronate. Alternative dosing schedules and routes of administration have become available\\u000a and may improve fracture protection, compliance, and tolerability for the long term treatment of a chronic condition such\\u000a as osteoporosis. Increasingly these agents

Ira Pande; David J. Hosking

2005-01-01

223

New oral anticoagulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new oral anticoagulants may prove to be one of the most significant innovations in clinical practice in the past 60 years.\\u000a Apixaban and rivaroxaban are specific inhibitors of Factor Xa while dabigatran inhibits Factor IIa. The predictable pharmacological\\u000a profile of these new agents will allow physicians to use these drugs without the need for routine coagulation monitoring which\\u000a is the

Taki Galanis; Lynda Thomson; Michael Palladino; Geno J. Merli

2011-01-01

224

The new oral anticoagulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation oral anticoagulation with the vitamin K antagonists acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon\\u000a and warfarin reduces the risk of stroke by more than 60%, whereas single or double antiplatelet therapy is much less effective\\u000a and sometimes associated with a similar bleeding risk as vitamin K antagonists. Besides bleeding, INR monitoring and high\\u000a interindividual variability remain the largest drawbacks

F. W. A. Verheugt

2010-01-01

225

[Oral candidiasis and dentures].  

PubMed

Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus usually colonize the human oral cavity. Immunocompromised patients or individuals with an imbalance of their oral microflora can develop yeast infections from this reservoir. However, saliva protects oral mucosa against candidosis; in turn, dry mouth is associated with increased yeast counts and candidosis risk. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown Candida incorporation into biofilms covering different biomaterials such as dentures: these biofilms may be an increased risk factor for invasive candidosis when the host immune system is compromised. Daily denture brushing is recommended to all wearers. Family or healthcare workers must take over this task when there is autonomy loss, especially in the elderly. In case of candidosis in denture wearers, decontamination of dentures is mandatory. Antimycotics (azoles, nystatin) must be kept for curative treatments of infected patients; they are less active against Candida biofilms on dentures and could lead to emergent resistance if applied daily to dentures against yeast colonization. There are several antiphlogistic solutions with antifungal properties. Nevertheless, literature data does not integrate all aspects of denture care: welfare of denture wearers, prevention of candidosis, biomaterial defects after decontamination processing, and taking into account possible Candida biofilm development. Daily brushing of dentures remains the key recommendation. PMID:20347465

Ahariz, M; Loeb, I; Courtois, P

2010-03-27

226

Oral immunization against poliomyelitis  

PubMed Central

In the ten years since attenuated poliovirus was first administered to man for immunization against poliomyelitis, a vast body of experience has grown up and an attempt can now be made to assess the potentialities of oral poliovirus vaccine. The author of this paper seeks to answer two main questions: how safe are the strains now under study, and is oral vaccine effective in practice under the different conditions in which it may be used? From the information gained in large-scale trials involving a total of nearly 70 million people, he concludes that where poliomyelitis is predominantly a disease of infancy and early childhood the vaccines now available are safe both for the individual and for the community. The Sabin strains appear also to be safe for use in areas where the disease affects older children and adults; there is still not enough information to permit final conclusions to be drawn as to the safety of the Koprowski and Lederle strains in such areas. The evaluation of data on the efficacy of rural vaccines is beset with many problems, but the evidence of serological conversion rates suggests that, with one exception, there are no striking differences in efficacy between any of the strains when used in monovalent vaccines. However, 100% conversion cannot be expected in all circumstances from any oral vaccine given once only; repeated administration is clearly necessary, although it is still too early to say what the best vaccine schedule may be in any particular set of circumstances. While the problems yet to be solved are legion, great progress has nevertheless been made in the past decade, and the author looks forward to a steady extension of the use of live poliovirus vaccine and even to the eventual possibility of the eradication of poliomyelitis.

Payne, A. M.-M.

1960-01-01

227

Oral contraceptives and dysmenorrhea.  

PubMed

This artical examines the risks and benefits associated with use of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) by adolescents and the various alternatives and methods of prescribing OCPs. Any adolescent who is either sexually active or contemplating sexual activity should be offered a contraceptive method that is appropriate to her individual needs. The contraceptive needs to be highly effective, safe and within the means and desires of the adolescent. For the majority of teenagers, the contraceptive of choice will be the OCP. The IUD should almost never be prescribed to the adolescent. Most OCPs marketed today are combination pills containing both an estrogen and a progestin in each pill. A variety of contraceptive actions combines to create a contraceptive method that is 99.3-99.9% effective. OCPs provide some protection against the development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Oral contraceptives also decrease the incidence of anemia by decreasing the amount and duration of menstrual flow. Ovarian cysts do not form in the ovaries of the OCP user. On the other hand, a serious risk of the use of OCPs is the increased danger of thromboembolic events including deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, and myocardial infarction. The increased risk of myocardial infarction in OCP users is additive with other risk factors including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cigarette smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and age. OCP use seems to provide some protection against development of endometrial or ovarian cancer. Oral contraceptives are associated with the development of benign hepatocellular adenomas. A variety of metabolic and hormonal alterations also occur in pill users. Most appropriate for the adolescent is a formulation containing a low dose of estrogen because of the decreased risk of thromboembolic complications. Dysmenorrhea effects more than 1/2 of female adolescents, and can best be treated with ibuprofen. PMID:3546224

Cholst, I N; Carlon, A T

1987-01-01

228

[New oral anticoagulant drugs].  

PubMed

Thromboembolic disease (TED) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hallmark of oral long-term anticoagulant therapy has been the use of vitamin K antagonists, whose anticoagulant effect is exerted inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase. Warfarin and acenocoumarol are the most commonly used. In the last five years several new drugs for long term anticoagulation have been developed, which can inhibit single clotting factors with the purpose of improving drug therapeutic range and, ideally, minimizing bleeding risks. This review addresses the state of the art on the clinical use of inhibitors of activated factor X and thrombin. PMID:22286737

Berkovits, Alejandro; Aizman, Andrés; Zúñiga, Pamela; Pereira, Jaime; Mezzano, Diego

2012-01-03

229

[New oral anticoagulant pharmacology].  

PubMed

All new oral anticoagulants are direct specific reversible inhibitors, either direct factor Xa inhibitors or inhibitors of thrombin. The pharmacokinetic of the new drugs is mediated by P- glycoprotein (P-gp) and metabolised by liver enzymes for some of them, principally cytochrome P450. That explains an important risk of drug interactions. The particularity of these new drugs is a priori a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile more predictable involving no need for laboratory monitoring. In some clinical situations (risk of too high or too low exposure), a specific dose is proposed. PMID:23876650

Delavenne, Xavier

2013-07-19

230

Oral health of adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Adolescence is a period of life marked by important changes: physical growth and development, emotional changes, the search\\u000a for one’s own identity and an evolving role in society. Most of these changes will have an impact on health, also with respect\\u000a of the oral cavity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims  This contribution aims to give an overview of the problems faced by the adolescent (in

D. Declerck

2009-01-01

231

Oral complications in cancer patients  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

Carl, W.

1983-02-01

232

Halitosis: much beyond oral malodor.  

PubMed

Oral malodor one of the most common complaints with which patients approaches us thinking it can be detrimental to his self-image and confidence. Even though majority of oral malodor is of oral origin, there are multiple other systemic causes that have to be addressed while we diagnose and treat this condition. Most of these patients look up to oral care physicians for expert advice, it is critical for us to have the knowledge base and communication techniques to provide quality clinical assessment and implement effective intervention programs. This article reviews the various causes and the diagnostic modalities which will help us treat this multifaceted condition. PMID:21209551

Ongole, R; Shenoy, N

233

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-07-11

234

Does oral health promotion improve oral hygiene and gingival health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dental profession has had a long-standing interest in the prevention of dental diseases. Histor- ically, the dominant preventive approach has been based on a behavioral model (34). This has placed emphasis on providing oral health information to patients and the general public with the assumption that improvements in knowledge will lead to changes in oral health behaviors and, ultimately,

Richard G. Watt; Valeria C. Marinho

2005-01-01

235

Oral Conversations Online: Redefining Oral Competence in Synchronous Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the focus is on methodology for analysing learner-learner oral conversations mediated by computers. With the increasing availability of synchronous voice-based groupware and the additional facilities offered by audio-graphic tools, language learners have opportunities for collaborating on oral tasks, supported by visual and textual…

Lamy, Marie-Noelle

2004-01-01

236

A comparative study to evaluate the effect of intranasal dexmedetomidine versus oral alprazolam as a premedication agent in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Morbidly obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea are extremely sensitive to sedative premedication. Intranasal dexmedetomidine is painless and quick acting. Intranasal dexmedetomidine can be used for premedication as it produces adequate sedation and also obtund hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Materials and Methods: Forty morbidly obese patients with BMI > 35 were chosen and divided into two groups. Group DEX received intranasal dexmedetomidine 1 mcg/kg (ideal body weight) while other group (AZ) received oral alprazolam 0.5 mg. Sedation scale, heart rate and the mean arterial pressure was assessed in both the groups at 0 hour, 45 minutes, during laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Results: The demographic profile, baseline heart rate, means arterial pressure, oxygen saturation and sedation scale was comparable between the two groups. The sedation scores, after 45 min, were statistically significant between the two groups i.e., 2.40 ± 1.09 in the AZ group as compared to 3.20 ± 1.79 in DEX group P value 0.034. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure and oxygen saturation were statistically similar between the two groups, after 45 min. The heart rate was significantly lower in the DEX group as compared to the AZ group. There was no statistical difference in the mean arterial pressure between the two groups either during laryngoscopy or tracheal intubation. Conclusion: Intranasal dexmedetomidine is a better premedication agent in morbidly obese patients than oral alprazolam.

Jayaraman, Lakshmi; Sinha, Aparna; Punhani, Dinesh

2013-01-01

237

Student Conceptions of Oral Presentations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A phonographic study of students' experience of oral presentations in an open learning theology programme constituted three contrasting conceptions of oral presentations--as transmission of ideas; as a test of students' understanding of what they were studying; and as a position to be argued. Each of these conceptions represented a combination of…

Joughin, Gordon

2007-01-01

238

Gustation in oral submucous fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sense of gustation was assessed in a group of fifty oral submucous fibrosis patients. About 24% showed some degree of\\u000a impairment of taste sensation, which was shown to be related to the severity and extent of the disease. The possible reasons\\u000a for the loss of gustation in oral submucous fibrosis are discussed.

N. K. Soni; P. Chatterji; U. N. Tyagi; S. K. Nahata; M. Bansal

1981-01-01

239

Tobacco Use and Oral Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)|

Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

1982-01-01

240

Oral anticoagulation therapy in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of thromboembolic complications in children has been the subject of considerable research in the last decade. Recommendations for oral anticoagulant therapy in children have been extrapolated from adult clinical trials. Coumarin derivatives are the preeminent oral antithrombotic agents used in children. Warfarin, acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon are the vitamin K antogonists used in children with thrombotic complications in different countries

Mariana M. Bonduel

2006-01-01

241

Oral tuberculosis involving maxillary gingiva  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is transmitted by aerosolized saliva droplets among individuals in close contact with expelled sputum of a diseased patient. However, TB lesions of the oral cavity are often overlooked in the differential diagnosis. We report here a case of tuberculosis of oral cavity affecting the gingiva of a 24-year-old male.

Jaiswal, Rohit; Singh, Anil; Badni, Manjunath; Singh, Priyanka

2011-01-01

242

Recent Trends in Oral Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of oral interpretation has been influenced by both the analytical approach to literature study, with significant emphasis on understanding the literary text, and the interpersonal approach. While oral reading may utilize various performance arts or media such as dance, music, or film, the most popular movement currently is Readers…

Armstrong, Chloe

1974-01-01

243

Oral antiresorptive therapy.  

PubMed

Oral antiresorptive agents play a pivotal role in the management of osteoporosis. This paper discusses the effects and potential future role of newer agents such as ibandronate. Alternative dosing schedules and routes of administration have become available and may improve fracture protection, compliance, and tolerability for the long term treatment of a chronic condition such as osteoporosis. Increasingly these agents are being used to reduce bone loss in other diseases associated with high risk for osteoporosis such as organ transplantation and cystic fibrosis. Such studies may act as prototypes for the extended use of this class of drugs in other chronic inflammatory disease states. The innovative, yet disappointing results from combining an antiresorptive agent (alendronate) with the anabolic effects of teriparatide is also discussed. The major problem that remains is the lack of direct comparison between the agents in terms of fracture endpoints. PMID:15760584

Pande, Ira; Hosking, David J

2005-03-01

244

Oral antiresorptive therapy.  

PubMed

Oral antiresorptive agents play a pivotal role in the management of osteoporosis. This paper discusses the effects and potential future role of newer agents such as ibandronate. Alternative dosing schedules and routes of administration have become available and may improve fracture protection, compliance, and tolerability for the long term treatment of a chronic condition such as osteoporosis. Increasingly these agents are being used to reduce bone loss in other diseases associated with high risk for osteoporosis such as organ transplantation and cystic fibrosis. Such studies may act as prototypes for the extended use of this class of drugs in other chronic inflammatory disease states. The innovative, yet disappointing results from combining an antiresorptive agent (alendronate) with the anabolic effects of teriparatide is also discussed. The major problem that remains is the lack of direct comparison between the agents in terms of fracture endpoints. PMID:16036092

Pande, Ira; Hosking, David J

2004-12-01

245

ORAL PHENTOLAMINE AS TREATMENT FOR ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeFor most patients with erectile dysfunction oral agents are a preferred treatment option. Oral or buccal phentolamine has been shown to produce full erections in impotent subsets of study populations. We evaluate the efficacy of oral phentolamine.

ARMIN J. BECKER; CHRISTIAN G. STIEF; STEPHAN MACHTENS; DIRK SCHULTHEISS; UWE HARTMANN; MICHAEL C. TRUSS; UDO JONAS

1998-01-01

246

Oral Care for the Institutionalized Elderly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Oral health and the elderly (Introduction, oral manifestations of aging, dental problems in the aged, benefits of maintaining a healthy mouth); A manual of oral care techniques for working with the institutionalized elderly (The problem and resp...

L. L. Garland

1980-01-01

247

21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Mebendazole oral. 520.1320 Section 520...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1320 Mebendazole oral. (a) Chemical...

2009-04-01

248

The Etiology of the Oral Character.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the etiology of the oral character, the link between oral personality traits and orality by means of two personality tests. Subjects were 275 men and 340 women of mean age 20 years. (CM)|

Kline, Paul; Storey, Ron

1980-01-01

249

36 CFR 214.16 - Oral presentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral presentation. 214.16 Section 214...SYSTEM LANDS AND RESOURCES § 214.16 Oral presentation. (a) Purpose. The purpose of an oral presentation is to provide parties to...

2013-07-01

250

48 CFR 570.107 - Oral presentations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oral presentations. 570.107 Section 570...IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.107 Oral presentations. The contracting officer may require oral presentations for acquisitions of...

2011-10-01

251

46 CFR 502.241 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.241 Section 502.241...PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submission for Final Decision § 502.241 Oral argument. (a) The Commission may...

2010-10-01

252

46 CFR 502.241 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.241 Section 502.241...PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submission for Final Decision § 502.241 Oral argument. (a) The Commission may...

2009-10-01

253

Elite athletes and oral health.  

PubMed

Elite athletes follow demanding training regimes to achieve optimal performance. Training incorporates strategies which coincide with risk factors for dental caries and erosion. The important role of a disease-free oral cavity for peak performance is often overlooked and oral health may be compromised. This initial exploratory study aimed to identify risk factors for dental caries and erosion in elite triathletes. Questionnaires regarding training, diet and oral health were distributed to a sample of elite triathletes in New Zealand. A further sample of 10 athletes was randomly selected from the Dunedin triathlon club to participate in a clinical oral examination. Sports drinks were consumed by 83.9% of the triathletes while training; for 48.4% consumption of both sports drinks and water was described as 'little sips often, from a bottle'. Eating during training sessions was reported by 93.5% of participants; of those 62.1% ate only during cycling training. Only 3.2% perceived training as high risk to oral health. All clinical examination cases were assessed as high risk for developing caries. The diet of elite triathletes is consistent with a high risk profile for caries and erosion. Future research should be aimed at oral health promotion programs for the athletes, coaches and oral-health providers. PMID:21590645

Bryant, S; McLaughlin, K; Morgaine, K; Drummond, B

2011-05-17

254

RotaTeq (Rotavirus Vaccine, Live, Oral, Pentavalent) Oral ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... use liquid doses of RotaTeq administered orally starting at 6 to 12 weeks of age, with the subsequent doses administered at 4- to 10-week intervals. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines

255

Oral cysticercosis: a clinical dilemma.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is a potentially fatal parasitic disease caused by cysticercus cellulosae, the larval stage of Taenia solium. Oral cysticercosis is a rare entity and represents difficulty in clinical diagnosis. This article reports two cases of oral cysticercosis involving buccal and labial mucosa. Both the cases presented with solitary, nodular swelling that had been clinically diagnosed as a mucocele. Histopathology of excisional biopsy revealed it to be cysticercosis. Single, cystic nodular swelling of oral cavity may be the only evidence of cysticercosis and may present first to dentist. These cases emphasise the role of dentist and thorough histopathological examination in the early diagnosis of disease that can prevent potential systemic complication. PMID:23580668

Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab; Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Tekade, Satyajitraje A

2013-04-10

256

Platelet aggregation during oral contraception*  

PubMed Central

Platelet aggregation has been found to be significantly accelerated with the coagulation-induced Chandler's tube technique in women taking combined oestrogen-progestin oral contraceptives, though this was less than in the third trimester of pregnancy. Women taking the pure progestogen, chlormadinone acetate, have not shown this change up to the sixth month of study. In contrast the accelerated platelet aggregation resulting from conventional oral contraception became normal one month after changing to the progestogen. There was no change in the platelet aggregation response to adenosine diphosphate (A.D.P.) during oral contraception.

Poller, L.; Priest, Celia M.; Thomson, Jean M.

1969-01-01

257

Oral conversations online: Redefining oral competence in synchronous environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the focus is on methodology for analysing learner-learner oral conversations mediat- ed by computers. With the increasing availability of synchronous voice-based groupware and the additional facilities offered by audio-graphic tools, language learners have opportunities for collab- orating on oral tasks, supported by visual and textual stimuli via computer-conferencing. Used syn- chronously with real-time voice-based work, these tools

MARIE-NOËLLE LAMY

2004-01-01

258

Southern Oral History Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the rise of interest in social history in the United States, a number of academics and public citizens have remained committed to preserving the voices and perspectives of everyday people. The Southern Oral History Program (SOHP) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a rather fine example of such a commitment. Founded in 1973, the SOHP has recorded over 2900 interviews with people from all walks of life, and their website contains a generous sampling of this material. First-time visitors may wish to start by watching �Spoken Memories�, which provides a nice introduction to the history and work of SOHP. Afterwards, they can sample some of the online audio archives, or listen to the �Interview of the Month� feature. For those who wish to read as they listen, the interviews are complemented by transcripts in several different file formats. Visitors should also feel welcome to browse through the online finding aid to the SOHP�s collection and offer their own feedback or inquiries.

259

Oral aspects of osteopetrosis.  

PubMed

The characteristic feature of osteopetrosis is a lack of osteoclastic activity, leading to a series of somatic problems for afflicted persons. The life span of osteopetrotic patients has increased in recent years, thereby making oral aspects of the disease more evident. Four children with malignant osteopetrosis, born between 1967 and 1975, were examined. In all patients the anterior teeth were of normal shape, and erupted on schedule. Primary molars and all permanent teeth were greatly distorted, and remained totally or partly embedded in basal bone. Vertical growth of alveolar ridge was very limited. Where a fenestration of overlaying mucosa had occurred, a localized progressive osteitis developed, leading to soft tissue inflammation and, in two cases, extraoral mandibular fistulas. Peridontal attachment was very poor, spontaneous exfoliation had occurred in all patients. In two children tooth germs and necrotic bone were surgically removed. No beneficial effect of the treatment was observed. Large doses of antibiotics were needed to control recurring infections. No means of curing progressive osseous destruction of mandibular bone has been found. The general prognosis is poor. PMID:295483

Bjorvatn, K; Gilhuus-Moe, O; Aarskog, D

1979-08-01

260

Oral contraceptives and cholesterol.  

PubMed

Women with high cholesterol, who are successfully controlling it by diet, exercise, medication, or a combination of these treatments, may be able to safely use oral contraceptives (OCs). OCs change the lipid profile but keep it within the normal range. They do not increase the risk of the types of heart disease linked to high cholesterol. Women who use the higher dose OCs do not have an increased risk of heart attack, stroke, or other cardiovascular disease. Animal studies show that the OC protects against development of atherosclerosis. The estrogen component may provide this protection. It may protect against the development of coronary heart disease. Women with a rare genetic form of high cholesterol or severely high cholesterol that does not respond to medication may need to use another contraceptive method than OCs. Other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women are sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, obesity (30% above ideal weight), high blood pressure, and a family history of heart disease. Older OC users should not smoke. If so, they should use another method. The first steps to lower cholesterol are exercise and modifying the diet, especially reducing the amount of saturated fat. Foods high in saturated fat are meat, dairy products, and eggs. If these fail, persons with high cholesterol need medication. PMID:12290847

1996-01-01

261

South Asian Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oral histories are an important way of telling a community's history, and this intriguing project from the University of Washington Libraries sheds new light on a very interesting aspect of history in the Pacific Northwest. The goal of the South Asian Oral History Project (SAOHP) is "to record pan-South Asian immigrant experiences in the Pacific Northwest using the medium of oral history." The project began in 2005, and the interviews here include immigrants who moved to the area from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka from the 1950s to the present. Visitors can view transcripts of the interviews at their leisure, and good background material can be found in the section titled "A librarian's gift: Oral history project preserves memories of South Asian immigrants". The interviews are quite fascinating, and they include memories of studying at the University of Washington, attending the1962 Seattle World's Fair, and the challenges immigrants faced when they arrived.

262

Oral Administration of Decitabine Salt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to salts of decitabine as well as methods for synthesizing the salts described herein. Pharmaceutical compositions and methods of using the decitabine salts are also provided, including methods of orally administering the sal...

P. Phiasivongsa S. Redkar

2005-01-01

263

Oral Rehydration Therapy in Nigeria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

AID-assisted efforts by UNICEF/Nigeria and the Government of Nigeria to implement an oral rehydration therapy (ORT) promotion program are briefly reviewed. A scientifically sound ORT methodology applicable throughout Nigeria was developed by UNICEF/N and ...

J. B. Mathison

1986-01-01

264

Oral contraceptives and hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 26 white women aged under 50 who developed hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-cirrhotic liver were studied for the possible role of oral contraceptives. Eighteen of the women had used the \\

J Neuberger; D Forman; R Doll; R Williams

1986-01-01

265

Depressive Symptoms and Oral Contraceptives  

PubMed Central

Of 261 women who completed a self-rating scale for measuring depression, 168 were taking oral contraceptives and 93 were using physical methods of contraception. Of the group of women taking oral contraceptives 6·6% were more severely depressed than any of the control group. There was a significant variation in the depth of depression related to the day of the menstrual cycle in the control group. This association was not found in the oral contraceptive group, where premenstrual depression was limited to the one or two days preceding menstruation. Women taking a contraceptive containing lynoestrenol 2·5 mg. and mestranol 0·075 mg. showed a significantly increased incidence of pessimism, feelings of dissatisfaction, crying, and tension, compared with women taking other oral contraceptives and the control group.

Herzberg, Brenda N.; Johnson, Anthony L.; Brown, Susannah

1970-01-01

266

Ocular complications of oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

The systemic side effects of oral contraceptives are mentioned, and the incidence and variety of ocular complications are discussed. Experimental studies on the ocular effects of oral contraceptives in laboratory animals have shown only increased permeability of the lens and possibly vascular dilatation. Numerous case reports, however, have been published which describe neuroophthalamic, vascular, retinal and macular, aqueous humor dynamic, cornea and contact lense, lens, color vision, and other miscellaneous effects. These reports are reviewed as are the 6 reported prospective studies. These prospective studies reveal only changes in kerotometry readings. Thus the large number of case reports may represent a low overall incidence or may be normal findings in the population as a whole or may be caused by other systemic factors. Until multicenter prospective studies provide definitive guidelines, the risk associated with oral contraceptive use must be kept in its proper perpsective and ocular histories should contain information on oral contraceptive use. PMID:306593

Wood, J R

1977-01-01

267

Multicultural issues in oral health.  

PubMed

Demographic changes over the coming decades will heighten the challenges to both the dental profession and the nation. The expected growth in the numbers of racial and ethnic minorities and the concomitant growth of immigrant populations are likely to lead to worsening of oral health disparities. Their consequences are becoming increasingly evident, as the profession strives to improve the oral health of all Americans. The increasing diversity of the population, together with the importance of cultural beliefs and behaviors that affect health outcomes, will require ways to enhance provider-patient communications and oral health literacy. One important means by which to promote oral health in diverse populations is to develop a dental workforce that is both culturally and linguistically competent, as well as one that is as culturally diverse as the American population. PMID:18329446

Garcia, Raul I; Cadoret, Cynthia A; Henshaw, Michelle

2008-04-01

268

Oral Health and Bone Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Rest and Immobilization Exercise Exercise (??) Exercise and Osteogenesis Imperfecta Overtraining Risks for Women Smoking Partner Resources Oral ...

269

Blood Disorders (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

Blood Disorders Neutropenia Polycythemia Vera Anemias Hemophilia Platelet Disorders Neutropenia Oral Effects People with neutropenia have low levels of white blood cells called neutrophils. These cells are the first ...

270

Influencing patients' oral hygiene behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

DesignA patient-randomised controlled trial (RCT) and a cluster RCT of the same intervention were conducted independently of each other.InterventionThe evidence-based intervention (a powered toothbrush and behavioural advice on timing, method and duration of toothbrushing) was framed to target oral hygiene self-efficacy (Social Cognitive Theory) and action plans (Implementation Intention Theory) to influence oral hygiene behaviour and therefore clinical outcomes. The

Andy Blinkhorn

2010-01-01

271

Cereal based oral rehydration solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 257 boys (age range 4-55 months), who had acute diarrhoea with moderate to severe dehydration, were randomly assigned to treatment with either the World Health Organisation\\/United Nations Childrens Fund (WHO\\/Unicef) recommended oral rehydration solution or cereal based oral rehydration solution made either of maize, millet, sorghum, or rice. After the initial rehydration was achieved patients were offered

H W Odongo; G Oundo; K Waswa; J Muttunga; A M Molla; S K Nath; W B Greenough; R Juma

1989-01-01

272

Metastases to the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Metastatic spread to the oral cavity of a malignant neoplasm is a rare yet important sign of advanced systemic malignant disease. This manuscript briefly describes the metastatic process and highlights the most common neoplasms that metastasise to the oral cavity as well as their clinical and radiological presentations. The role of the patients' history in suspecting metastatic disease and the importance of a microscopic diagnosis is emphasised. PMID:23957102

Raubenheimer, E J; Noffke, C E E; Hendrik, H D

2012-11-01

273

Outcomes of suction curettage and mifepristone abortion in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective, nonconcurrent cohort analysis of 178 mifepristone\\/misoprostol and 199 suction curettage abortion subjects, ages ? 18 years, with intrauterine pregnancies ? 63 days estimated gestational age, was conducted to compare the outcomes of suction curettage abortion to those of medical abortion. The medical abortion subjects received 600 mg of mifeprisone orally, followed by 400 ?g of oral misoprostol 2

Jeffrey T Jensen; Susan J Astley; Elizabeth Morgan; Mark D Nichols

1999-01-01

274

Oral Health Information on the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The publication of Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General was a hallmark for America's oral health. This first-ever report explained why oral health is essential to an American's health and well-being. Oral health's meaning has evolved from a narrow focus on teeth and gums to recognition of the mouth's critical role in health. As a mirror

Janice E. Cox

2008-01-01

275

Perceived Oral Health in a Diverse Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of perceived oral health represent subjective, individual perspectives of one's health. One measure commonly used is the single-item perceived oral health rating: How would you rate your overall oral health? These analyses examine the associations among age, ethnicity, and perceived oral health within the context of a comprehensive battery of 21 predisposing, enabling, and need variables. The study compares

K. A. Atchison; H. C. Gift

1997-01-01

276

Trends in oral cancer mortality in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality from oral cancer has been rising appreciably in most European countries up to the late 1980s, essentially for men. To update trends in oral cancer, death certification data from oral and pharyngeal cancer for 27 European countries were abstracted and analysed from the WHO mortality database over the period 1980–99. Oral cancer mortality in men has started to decline

Carlo La Vecchia; Franca Lucchini; Eva Negri; Fabio Levi

2004-01-01

277

37 CFR 41.124 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral argument. 41.124 Section 41.124 Patents...AND APPEAL BOARD Contested Cases § 41.124 Oral argument. (a) Request for oral argument. A party may request an oral...

2013-07-01

278

Oral malodour--a review.  

PubMed

Halitosis is a very common condition which may affect up to 30% of the population. In most cases the aetiology of the condition is from local oral causes (oral malodour). Oral malodour is the result of the action of anaerobic bacteria in producing a range of malodorous molecular species including volatile sulphur compounds. Whilst malodour is often associated with the presence of periodontitis, in many cases there is no such link, and the evidence points to the importance of these anaerobic bacteria in tongue coatings which results in the clinical presentation of oral malodour. Management of oral malodour is directed at managing and reducing the bacterial load both in periodontitis and in tongue coatings by instituting proper oral hygiene measures, control of tongue flora by brushing or scraping, and possibly the adjunctive use of antiseptic agents. Treatments have also been proposed to neutralise malodorous compounds by chemical agents to mask the presence of the condition. Further evidence is required to demonstrate the long-term efficacy of therapies for this troublesome condition. PMID:18460398

Hughes, Francis J; McNab, Rod

2008-04-01

279

Oral health as a predictive factor for oral mucositis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Oral mucositis is a complication frequently associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, decreasing a patient's quality of life and increasing the occurrence of opportunistic infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and to assess the correlation of this disease with the oral health of an individual at the time of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODS: Before transplantation, patients' oral health and inflammatory conditions were determined using the gingival index and the plaque index, which are based on gingival bleeding and the presence of dental plaque, respectively. Additionally, the dental health status was determined using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. The monitoring of oral mucositis was based on the World Health Organization grading system and was performed for five periods: from Day 0 to D+5, from D+6 to D+10, from D+11 to D+15, from D+16 to D+20, and from D+21 to D+30. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients (56% male and 44% female) who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo between January 2008 and July 2009 were prospectively examined. The incidence of ulcerative mucositis was highest from days +6 to +10 and from days +11 to +15 in the patients who underwent autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, respectively. CONCLUSION: The data, including the dental plaque and periodontal status data, showed that these oral health factors were predictive of the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in a cohort of patients with similar conditioning regimens before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Coracin, Fabio Luiz; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sergio; Gallottini, Marina H. C.; Saboya, Rosaura; Musqueira, Priscila Tavares; Barban, Alessandra; de Alencar Fischer Chamone, Dalton; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; Nunes, Fabio Daumas

2013-01-01

280

Stromal myofibroblasts in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Oral leukoplakia (OL) is the main potentially malignant disorder and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral mucosa. Stromal myofibroblasts play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis, due to its ability to modify the extracellular matrix. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of stromal myofibroblasts in OL and OSCC. Differences in the presence of myofibroblasts among OL with distinct grades of epithelial dysplasia as well as between histologically high- and low-invasive OSCC were also assessed. Study Design: A total of 30 OL and 41 OSCC from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens were evaluated. 10 samples of normal oral mucosa were used as a control. Myofibroblasts were identified by immunohistochemical detection of alpha smooth muscle actin and its presence was classified as negative, scanty or abundant. Differences in the presence of myofibroblasts among OL with distinct grades of epithelial dysplasia as well as between high- and low-invasive OSCC were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Myofibroblasts were not detected in normal oral mucosa and OL, whatever its histological grade. In OSCC, the presence of stromal myofibroblasts was classified as negative in 11 (26.8%), scanty in 15 (36.6%), and abundant in 15 samples (36.6%). The presence of stromal myofibroblasts was statistically higher in high-invasive OSCC than in low-invasive OSCC (p<0.05). Conclusions: Stromal myofibroblasts were not detected in OL, indicating that these cells are not important during oral carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, stromal myofibroblasts were heterogeneously detected in OSCC and its presence was higher in tumors with a more diffuse histological pattern of invasion. These findings suggest that myofibroblasts are associated with the creation of a permissive environment for tumor invasion in OSCC. Key words:Leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, myofibroblast.

de-Assis, Eliene M.; Pimenta, Luiz G.G.S.; Costa-e-Silva, Edson; Souza, Paulo E.A.

2012-01-01

281

Oral rehydration therapy.  

PubMed

Oral rehydration solution (ORS), the best treatment of dehydration due to acute diarrhea, is the most important medical advance of this century since it is key to reducing infant and child morbidity and mortality. Pathogens responsible for acute diarrhea include those which produce enterotoxin at the intestinal mucosal surface, inducing secretion but are not invasive (e.g., Vibrio cholerae); those which invade and disrupt the mucosal lining (e.g., shigella species); and rotavirus. The World Health Organization (WHO)/UNICEF ORS is considered a universal ORS. Much research has been done on the ideal composition of an ORS. An ORS must have sufficient sodium to replace losses on a volume to volume basis, a glucose concentration that matches that of sodium to ensure its delivery to the ileum, sufficient amounts of potassium and base (e.g., sodium bicarbonate or trisodium citrate dihydrate) to correct acidosis and to enhance sodium absorption, and sufficient amounts of liquid. The risk of hypernatremia with use of the WHO/UNICEF ORS is a concern since infants and young children have an immature renal concentrating capacity, increased insensible water losses, and an impaired natriuretic response. Neonates and young infants may be prone to relatively slow correction of acidosis. It appears that the potassium content (20 mmol/l) of WHO-ORS should be higher to promote a net positive potassium retention. Too much glucose in the ORS will induce reverse osmosis of water into the gut, effectively making the ORS a dehydrating solution rather than a hydrating solution. Some carbohydrates other than glucose have proven effective glucose substitutes (e.g., sucrose, rice starch and powder, other cereals). Cereals have higher acceptability levels in developing countries. Research is investigating the nutritional benefits of supplementing ORS with micronutrients (e.g., vitamin A, folic acid, and zinc). ORS use with early refeeding has a beneficial effect on nutritional status after an acute diarrhea episode. PMID:8855579

Sachdev, H P

1996-08-01

282

The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases

Poul Erik Petersen; Denis Bourgeois; Hiroshi Ogawa; Saskia Estupinan-Day; Charlotte Ndiaye

2005-01-01

283

Oral health information systems — towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease

Poul Erik Petersen; Denis Bourgeois; Douglas Bratthall; Hiroshi Ogawa

2005-01-01

284

Oral manifestations associated with HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict progression to AIDS. The lesions commonly associated\\u000a with the infection include oral candidiasis, herpes simplex infection, oral Kaposi’s sarcoma, oral hairy leukoplakia, parotid\\u000a gland enlargement, gingival diseases, xerostomia, and recurrent oral ulcerations. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral\\u000a therapy has changed the epidemiology of some of the

Mostafa Nokta

2008-01-01

285

[Oral contraception and surgery].  

PubMed

Oral contraceptives (OCs) and surgery are both recognized risk factors for thromboembolism. Observation of a postoperative deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in a 21-year-old OC user prompted the authors to define the risk of OC use in surgical patients through a review of the literature. The patient had no other relevant risk factors except a moderate smoking habit. Surgery increases risk of thromboembolism because of the postoperative hypercoagulation state with declines in AT III, elevation of fibrinogen and products of degradation of fibrin, decline of plasminogen, and elevation of antiplasmin. The risks are greater in the immobile postsurgical phase and are increased as well by direct vascular lesions during surgery. Estimates of rates of deep venous thrombosis are very variable according to different authors because of the difficulties of diagnosis, heterogeneity of risk factors encountered, and variety of prophylactic methods employed. The most thrombogenic surgery is believed to be that on the legs; 1 literature review produced a range of estimates from 45-70% without prophylaxis and with 2% involving fatal pulmonary emboli. Another study estimated the risk of deep venous thrombosis at 2% for young subjects in good health undergoing minor surgery lasting less than 30 minutes and at 10-40% for subjects over 40 undergoing moderately serious general surgical procedures. No ideal method of prevention has been found that is well accepted by patients, nurses, and physicians. OC use entails multiple physiopathologic modifications including among others alterations of the vascular walls with endothelial proliferation and/or thickening of the media, increased blood viscosity, hyperaggregability of platelets, and increases in certain coagulation factors. Synthetic estrogens play the major role in modifications but progestins diminish venous tone and increase stasis. Large epidemiologic studies in the US and Great Britain found a significantly increased thromboembolic risk in OC users beginning in the 1st month of use and persisting until 3-4 weeks after termination of treatment. Most authors believe that OC use increases the postsurgical risk of thromboembolism by a factor of about 3. More selective choice of OC users, reduced estrogen doses, and better surveillance of users appear to have diminished the risk of thromboembolic disease with OC use. But unfortunately there are no sure predictors of thromboembolic disease. All authors recognize the reversibility of modifications caused by OCs on hemostasis by 4 weeks after termination. If therefore is recommended that OC use be interrupted 1 cycle before surgery. PMID:2691023

Houssel, P; Gouezec, H; Malledant, Y; Nolain, E; Le Bouquin, V; Orain, C; Saint-Marc, C

1989-10-01

286

Drug Testing in Oral Fluid  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in oral fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of oral fluid testing for specific drugs.

Drummer, Olaf H

2006-01-01

287

Oral Contraceptives and Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Between January 1970 and December 1972 22 women aged between 31 and 45 years were admitted to the coronary care unit with acute myocardial infarction and six of these (27%) had been taking oral contraceptives. There were nine women aged 40 or less and five of them (55%) had been on oral contraceptives while three of the other four had been sterilized by tubal interruption. Both these figures of prevalence of oral contraceptive use are significantly greater than estimates for the general population of women of similar age. For those aged 30-44 years, current estimates suggest that it is between 8 and 11%. All the women in this study had risk factors recognized as being associated with the premature development of ischaemic heart disease, and the prevalence of these risk factors was similar in those taking oral contraceptives as in those not doing so. Oral contraceptives probably enhance the chance of developing myocardial infarction in women whose risk is increased for other reasons.

Radford, Dorothy J.; Oliver, M. F.

1973-01-01

288

Oral anticoagulation: preparing for change.  

PubMed

Thromboembolic disorders-stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE)--pose a substantial risk for mortality and morbidity. Primarily affecting individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF) in their 7th and 8th decades of life, these disorders will represent a growing burden as aging baby boomers expand the pool of at-risk patients in coming decades, underscoring the need for effective, well tolerated long-term prophylactic therapy. Oral warfarin, the current cornerstone of preventative therapy for these conditions, is associated with a host of barriers--the need for careful dose titration and monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions, among other--that, despite compelling evidence of efficacy, makes it difficult to implement of this agent in at-risk patients. Effective, well-tolerated, and convenient alternatives are needed to maximize oral anticoagulant use and optimize therapy. Several new oral anticoagulants in development offer increased pharmacologic specificity, but only one ximelagatran, has reached late Phase III development. An oral direct thrombin inhibitor, ximelagatran offers a pharmacologic profile that supports twice daily oral administration with minimal drug interactions and a wide therapeutic window that may obviate routine drug-level monitoring, although liver enzyme elevations detected in clinical trials remain an unresolved concern. Further, the results of clinical trials suggest that ximelagatran may be as effective as warfarin in preventing stroke and VTE. PMID:17948616

Nutescu, Edith A; Spyropoulos, Alex C; Cranmer, Kerry W

289

Epigenetic Disregulation in Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral region (OSCC) is one of the most common and highly aggressive malignancies worldwide, despite the fact that significant results have been achieved during the last decades in its detection, prevention and treatment. Although many efforts have been made to define the molecular signatures that identify the clinical outcome of oral cancers, OSCC still lacks reliable prognostic molecular markers. Scientific evidence indicates that transition from normal epithelium to pre-malignancy, and finally to oral carcinoma, depends on the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in a multistep process. Unlike genetic alterations, epigenetic changes are heritable and potentially reversible. The most common examples of such changes are DNA methylation, histone modification, and small non-coding RNAs. Although several epigenetic changes have been currently linked to OSCC initiation and progression, they have been only partially characterized. Over the last decade, it has been demonstrated that especially aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in oral cancer. The major goal of the present paper is to review the recent literature about the epigenetic modifications contribution in early and later phases of OSCC malignant transformation; in particular we point out the current evidence of epigenetic marks as novel markers for early diagnosis and prognosis as well as potential therapeutic targets in oral cancer.

Mascolo, Massimo; Siano, Maria; Ilardi, Gennaro; Russo, Daniela; Merolla, Francesco; De Rosa, Gaetano; Staibano, Stefania

2012-01-01

290

Oral Desensitization for Food Hypersensitivity  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Over the past 20 years, food allergy has become an increasingly prevalent international health problem primarily in developed countries[1]. An explanation for this increased prevalence is currently under investigation as it is not well understood. Allergic reactions can result in life threatening anaphylaxis over a short period of time, so the current standard of care dictates strict avoidance of suspected trigger foods and accessibility to injectable epinephrine. Intervention at the time of exposure is considered a rescue therapy rather than a disease modifying treatment. In recent years, investigators have been studying allergen immunotherapy as a way to promote induction of oral tolerance. These efforts have shown some promise towards a viable disease modifying therapy for food allergies. This review will examine the mechanisms of oral tolerance and the breakdown that leads to food allergy, as well as the history and current state of oral and sublingual immunotherapy development.

Land, Michael H.; Kim, Edwin H.; Burks, A. Wesley

2011-01-01

291

Oral clonidine for proctalgia fugax.  

PubMed Central

A report is made of the successful use of oral clonidine for proctalgia fugax by the author on himself. The author, a 30 year old otherwise healthy man, has been having attacks of proctalgia fugax for several years. He had hitherto left the condition untreated. Last year, in a severe attack, he tried oral clonidine 150 micrograms twice a day and found it to be dramatically effective. He was completely relieved in three days and tapered off the drug thereafter. A further attack of proctalgia fugax after a month was again treated successfully with oral clonidine. The presumed aetiology of proctalgia fugax is discussed and the possible mechanism of action of clonidine in this condition is outlined. Further trials of clonidine appear to be worthwhile for this condition which has been described as incurable.

Swain, R

1987-01-01

292

Oral clonidine for proctalgia fugax.  

PubMed

A report is made of the successful use of oral clonidine for proctalgia fugax by the author on himself. The author, a 30 year old otherwise healthy man, has been having attacks of proctalgia fugax for several years. He had hitherto left the condition untreated. Last year, in a severe attack, he tried oral clonidine 150 micrograms twice a day and found it to be dramatically effective. He was completely relieved in three days and tapered off the drug thereafter. A further attack of proctalgia fugax after a month was again treated successfully with oral clonidine. The presumed aetiology of proctalgia fugax is discussed and the possible mechanism of action of clonidine in this condition is outlined. Further trials of clonidine appear to be worthwhile for this condition which has been described as incurable. PMID:3666555

Swain, R

1987-08-01

293

Pharmacogenetics of coumarinic oral anticoagulants.  

PubMed

Coumarinic oral anticoagulants are life-saving drugs, but are also one of the leading causes of drug-induced major bleeding events. Moreover, there is substantial individual variation in response to coumarinic oral anticoagulants caused by several factors including variations in the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes. Several retrospective and a few small prospective clinical studies have shown that polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes together account for 35-50% of the variability in warfarin initiation and maintenance dose requirements. Large randomized clinical trials are currently underway to further solidify the safety, clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetic-guided dosing algorithms for warfarin, acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon. By 2020, coumarinic oral anticoagulant pharmacogenetic testing will be part of routine clinical practice in anticoagulant therapy. PMID:20350128

Manolopoulos, Vangelis G; Ragia, Georgia; Tavridou, Anna

2010-04-01

294

Gastrointestinal disease and oral contraception.  

PubMed

Oral contraceptive steroids play a major role in modern family planning. With the present tendency to decrease the doses of both estrogens and progestogens, any factor that reduces the bioavailability of the lower-dose preparations may have an impact on contraceptive protection. Although ethinyl estradiol, the most commonly used oral estrogen, is liable to an enterohepatic circulation as unchanged drug, the commonly used progestogens are not. At present, no convincing evidence exists in the human subject that disruption of the enterohepatic circulation by antibiotics or antacids does reduce contraceptive efficacy of the pill. Oral contraceptive steroids are mainly absorbed from the small bowel, and contraceptive efficacy depends on its absorptive capacity. Enhanced passage of gastrointestinal contents or impaired absorption may thus contribute to contraceptive failures in patients who have chronic inflammatory disease, diarrhea, ileostomy, or jejunoileal bypass. PMID:2256527

Hanker, J P

1990-12-01

295

Oral contraceptives and endocrine changes*  

PubMed Central

In groups of women taking oral contraceptives and in control groups of women, the serum levels of cortisol, protein-bound iodine, and total thyroxine were measured together with the T3 binding index. The daily excretion in the urine of free cortisol, 17-hydroxycorticosteroids, 17-ketosteroids, pregnanediol, pregnanetriol, total oestrogens, total catecholamines, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid was also assayed. The frequency distribution of the values obtained indicates that oral contraceptives have a marked influence on the endocrine environment. The smallest deviations were observed in urinary excretion of total catecholamines and of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid. In some individuals the hormone assays were continued throughout the menstrual cycle. The morning and afternoon levels of serum cortisol tended to increase during the period when the oral contraceptive was being taken.

Lucis, O. J.; Lucis, R.

1972-01-01

296

The application of vizilite in oral cancer.  

PubMed

This article depicts the various applications of Vizilite plus in oral cancer. The oral cavity demonstrates a variety of red and white, pigmented and vesiculo- bullous lesions. Oral cancer still happens to carry the highest mortality worldwide, especially in India. In India, the prime focus is on the downstreaming of oral cancer from an advanced stage to an early diseased state. The techniques that are promoted to facilitate an earlier detection and diagnosis of an oral malignancy include Toluidine blue, ViziLite Plus with TBlue, ViziLite, Microlux DL, Orascoptic DK, VEL scope, Oral CDx and brush biopsy. PMID:23450083

Sambandham, Thirugnana; Masthan, K M K; Kumar, M Sathish; Jha, Abhinav

2013-01-01

297

Oral contraceptives and liver function  

PubMed Central

Oral contraceptives can cause liver damage and jaundice but this is very rare in women in the United Kingdom. The drugs are contraindicated where there is a history of recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and acute or chronic disturbance of liver function which can be congenital or acquired. It is not yet known whether the oestrogenic or progestogenic components of oral contraceptives cause the hepatic abnormalities. The available data suggest that neither oestrogens nor progestogens in low doses impair hepatic excretory processes. The full implications of the continued administration of oestrogens and progestogens for many years on liver proteins are not yet known.

Hargreaves, Tom

1969-01-01

298

Oral Complications of HIV Disease  

PubMed Central

Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS.

Leao, Jair C.; Ribeiro, Camila M. B.; Carvalho, Alessandra A. T.; Frezzini, Cristina; Porter, Stephen

2009-01-01

299

Authentic Progress Assessment of Oral Language: Oral Portfolios.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student testing in Japan is not effectively used. In many cases test results are used only for ranking and sorting students into whatever the designated purposes of the tests are. They are not focused on monitoring individual student progress. This is an especially inadequate approach for teaching oral communications courses. This paper proposes a…

Yoshida, Yuichi

300

Maternal MCG interference cancellation using splined independent component subtraction.  

PubMed

Signal distortion is commonly observed when using independent component analysis (ICA) to remove maternal cardiac interference from the fetal magnetocardiogram. This can be seen even in the most conservative case where only the independent components dominated by maternal interference are subtracted from the raw signal, a procedure we refer to as independent component subtraction (ICS). Distortion occurs when the subspaces of the fetal and maternal signals have appreciable overlap. To overcome this problem, we employed splining to remove the fetal signal from the maternal source component. The maternal source components were downsampled and then interpolated to their original sampling rate using a cubic spline. A key aspect of the splining procedure is that the maternal QRS complexes are downsampled much less than the rest of the maternal signal so that they are not distorted, despite their higher bandwidth. The splined maternal source components were projected back onto the magnetic field measurement space and then subtracted from the raw signal. The method was evaluated using data from 24 subjects. We compared the results of conventional, i.e., unsplined, ICS with our method, splined ICS, using matched filtering as a reference. Correlation and subjective assessment of the P-wave and QRS complex were used to assess the performance. Using ICS, we found that the P-wave was adversely affected in 7 of 24 (29%) subjects, all having correlations less than 0.8. Splined ICS showed negligible distortion and improved the signal fidelity to some extent in all subjects. We also demonstrated that maternal T-wave interference could be problematic when the fetal and maternal heartbeats were synchronous. In these instances, splined ICS was more effective than matched filtering. PMID:21712157

Yu, Suhong; Wakai, Ronald T

2011-06-27

301

Lowering oral contraceptive norethindrone dose increases estrogen and progesterone receptor levels with no reduction in proliferation of breast epithelium: a randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background This study was conducted to compare breast epithelial-cell proliferation and estrogen and progesterone receptor levels in women taking one of two oral contraceptives (OCs) containing the same dose of estrogen but different doses of the progestin norethindrone (NET). Study Design Thirty-three women were randomly assigned 1:1 to one of two OCs with 35-mcg ethinylestradiol (EE2) but different doses of NET - 1 mg or 0.4 mg. At the end of the active pill phase of the third OC cycle, a breast biopsy was performed and the percentages of epithelial cells of the terminal duct lobular units were measured for Ki67 (MIB1), progesterone receptors A and B (PRA and PRB), and estrogen receptor ? (ER?). Results The biopsies from 27 women had sufficient epithelium for analysis. The percentage of cells positive for PRA, PRB, and ER? were approximately double with the lower progestin dose (PRA: p = 0.041; PRB: p = 0.030; ER?: p = 0.056). The Ki67 percentage was not reduced with the lower progestin dose (0.4-mg NET - 12.5% vs 1.0-mg NET - 7.8%). Conclusions The increase in PRA, PRB, and ER? positive cells with the 60% lower progestin dose OC appears likely to account for its failure to decrease breast-cell proliferation. This breast-cell proliferation result is contrary to that predicted from the results of lowering the medroxyprogesterone acetate dose in menopausal hormone therapy.

Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Taylor, DeShawn; Hawes, Debra; Spicer, Darcy V.; Press, Michael F.; Wu, Anna H.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Pearce, C. Leigh

2012-01-01

302

Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in oral submucous fibrosis, oral epithelial hyperkeratosis and oral epithelial dysplasia in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test whether the oral epithelia of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), epithelial hyperkeratosis (EH) and epithelial dysplasia (ED) may have increased proliferative activity under the long-term exposure to areca quid ingredients and whether there is an increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in oral premalignant lesions with disease progression, we used an immunohistochemical technique with the mouse monoclonal

C. P. Chiang; M. J. Lang; B. Y. Liu; J. T. Wang; J. S. Leu; L. J. Hahn; M. Y. P. Kuo

2000-01-01

303

Refugees, Migrants, and Oral Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Migrant and refugee communities must be considered as high-risk groups for poor general and oral health. Limited access to basic necessities, risky behavior, and a mismatch between services and health belief systems of migrants and refugees are contributing factors. (SLD)

Williams, Sonia; Infirri, Jennifer Sardo

1996-01-01

304

Assessing Proofs via Oral Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative study, we explored how oral interviews can inform instructors about students' understanding of abstract algebra and their ability to construct a proof in this setting. Our findings indicate that some students had a good understanding of the ideas needed for a subgroup proof, but could not write a coherent proof. On the other…

Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Fuller, Evan

2012-01-01

305

Oral hemorrhagic blister: an enigma.  

PubMed

Angina bullosa hemorrhagica (ABH) is a disorder of unclear aetiology characterized by abrupt and unprovoked presentation of blood-filled blister over the oral mucosa. Histopathology reveals sub epithelial blister containing erythrocytes with superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate. We report two cases of ABH of which one was idiopathic and other was associated with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis. PMID:24082207

Shashikumar, Bm; Reddy, R Raghunatha; Harish, Mr

2013-09-01

306

ORAL NEMATODE INFECTION OF TARANTULAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oral nematode infection of Theraphosidae spiders, known as tarantulas, has been recently identified from several collections in the UK and mainland Europe. The disease has also been seen in captive and wild spiders from the Americas, Asia and Africa. Spider symptoms are described from anorexia until...

307

Oral contraceptives and breast cancer.  

PubMed

The possible relationship of oral contraception use to breast cancer is a concern to physicians and their patients. In this article, the authors present a review of the major studies conducted during the last 10 years, from an epidemiologic viewpoint. PMID:2259330

Gay, J W; Cardwell, M S

1990-10-01

308

Chorea and the Oral Contraceptives  

PubMed Central

The case histories are reported of six women who developed chorea while taking oral contraceptive drugs. The chorea that results from taking compounds containing oestrogen and progestogen has many features in common with chorea gravidarum, and the pathogenesis is probably similar. In some of the patients, however, the sudden onset of symptoms suggests a vascular aetiology.

Riddoch, Donald; Jefferson, Michael; Bickerstaff, Edwin R.

1971-01-01

309

Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

Hime, Kirsten

310

Oral direct factor Xa inhibitors.  

PubMed

Vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin, have been the mainstay of oral anticoagulation for many decades. Although effective, warfarin has numerous limitations, including a variable dose requirement from patient to patient because of differences in dietary vitamin K intake, common genetic polymorphisms, and multiple drug interactions that affect its pharmacodynamics and metabolism. Consequently, warfarin requires frequent monitoring to ensure that a therapeutic anticoagulant effect has been achieved because excessive anticoagulation can lead to bleeding, and because insufficient anticoagulation can result in thrombosis. Such monitoring is burdensome for patients and physicians and is costly for the health care system. These limitations have prompted the development of new oral anticoagulants that target either factor Xa or thrombin. Although the path to the development of these drugs has been long, the new drugs are at least as effective and safe as warfarin, but they streamline clinical care because they can be administered in fixed doses without routine coagulation monitoring. This article focuses on rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, the oral factor Xa inhibitors in the most advanced stages of development. After 20 years of discovery research, these agents are already licensed for several indications. Thus, the long path to finding replacements for warfarin has finally reached fruition. Therefore, development of the oral factor Xa inhibitors represents a translational science success story. PMID:23023509

Yeh, Calvin H; Fredenburgh, James C; Weitz, Jeffrey I

2012-09-28

311

[31] Coaggregations among oral bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral bacterial community appears to use coaggregation as a major mechanism for interbacterial adhesion and colonization of the host. Methods for measuring and evaluating the specificity of adhesion vary from the visual observation of the phenomenon to quantitative analyses. Not only is aggregation specificity reflected in the choice of partners but also in the fact that many are inhibited

Paul E Kolenbrander

1995-01-01

312

Gaelic Singing and Oral Tradition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report by UNESCO placed Scots Gaelic on a list of 2500 endangered languages highlighting the perilous state of a key cornerstone of Scottish culture. Scottish Gaelic song, poems and stories have been carried through oral transmission for many centuries reflecting the power of indigenous peoples to preserve cultural heritage from…

Sheridan, Mark; MacDonald, Iona; Byrne, Charles G.

2011-01-01

313

Gaelic Singing and Oral Tradition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A recent report by UNESCO placed Scots Gaelic on a list of 2500 endangered languages highlighting the perilous state of a key cornerstone of Scottish culture. Scottish Gaelic song, poems and stories have been carried through oral transmission for many centuries reflecting the power of indigenous peoples to preserve cultural heritage from…

Sheridan, Mark; MacDonald, Iona; Byrne, Charles G.

2011-01-01

314

Oral Communication across the Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proficiency in oral communication is necessary in school and in society. To do well in the different curriculum areas, pupils must speak with clarity and understanding. For example, in a discussion group in the social studies involving the topic "the pros and cons of raising taxes," pupils need to express knowledgeable ideas with appropriate…

Ediger, Marlow

2011-01-01

315

Africanisms in Gullah Oral Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina, Georgia, and Northern Florida retain almost every element of African culture, including language, oral tradition, folklore, and aesthetics. Examines the African influence in the lifestyle of the Gullah people of the Sea Islands, especially in terms of their concept of time. (AF)

Holloway, Joseph E.

1989-01-01

316

Oral Mucositis in Cancer Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and chemotherapy is a frequently occurring toxicity in patients with cancer. Severe mucositis has a major impact on patient daily functioning, well-being, and quality of life. It can also compromise a patient's ability to tolerate planned therapy, resulting in missed doses or dose reductions. Mucositis negatively affects other health outcomes as well, increasing the

Stephen T. Sonis

2004-01-01

317

Oral hypoglycemic agents in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Multiple studies have been published illustrating the use of oral hypoglycemic agents in pregnancy. Glyburide and metformin have been shown to be as effective as insulin for the treatment of gestational diabetes. Both are safe with breastfeeding. Although both glyburide and metformin appear safe for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, more studies are needed to support this practice. PMID:21575798

Refuerzo, Jerrie S

2011-06-01

318

Drug interactions with oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

In the very rare cases where a pregnancy occurs during oral contraceptive use, the blame is usually laid against the patient for having forgotten to take the pill. Evidence has started to accumulate to suggest that neither the patient nor the pill is at fault in some contraceptive failures. It may be because the patient is taking other medicines and these may be preventing the pill from suppressing ovulation. Most drug interactions reducing or negating contraceptive activity are due to concomitant use of drugs having microsomal enzyme-inducing activity (e.g., some antibiotics, especially rifampicin, and anticonvulsants, including phenobarbital, phenytoin, and primidone. Other antibiotics (e.g., tetracycline) may also interact by interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of contraceptive steroids. Less well appreciated, oral contraceptive steroids may themselves modify the metabolism and pharmacological activity of various other drugs (e.g., anticoagulants, benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, caffeine, corticosteroids, and tricyclic antidepressants); in this respect the oral contraceptives are acting as enzyme inhibitors. Contraceptive steroids may also interact with drugs that cause enzyme inhibition and this delays the metabolism of the hormonal agents. Interactions of this type would be expected to potentiate the action of the contraceptive steroids. It is suggested that the effects of such interaction might be presented in terms of increased incidence of side effects, including water retention, diabetogenic effects, hypertension, and an increased risk of thromboembolic disorders. The spectrum of interactions with oral contraceptives is presented in three tables. PMID:3519141

D'Arcy, P F

1986-05-01

319

An Evaluation of California's Oral Licensing Examination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cost of, and the failure rate on, the oral test of driving knowledge for illiterate license applicants were both quite high. There was no significant difference in accident frequency between oral testees and other drivers. Further exploration is recom...

D. M. Harrington

1973-01-01

320

FastStats: Oral and Dental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Links Accessibility NCHS Home FastStats Home Oral and Dental Health (Data are for the U.S.) Morbidity Percent of ... United States [PDF - 863 KB] Search Tables for Dental Health in Health Data Interactive Selected Oral Health Indicators ...

321

25 CFR 11.805 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... The appellate division shall assign all criminal cases for oral argument. The court may in its discretion assign civil cases for oral argument or may dispose of civil cases on the briefs without...

2011-04-01

322

Oral Vaccine for Immunization against Enteric Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A living, attenuated, oral vaccine system is described for the immunization against enteric disease. This oral vaccine is a genetic hybrid derivative of an attenuated galactose epimeraseless strain of S. typhi which carries at least one protective antigen...

S. B. Formal

1981-01-01

323

Managing drug interactions with oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

An increasing concern to nurses is the possibility of drug interactions involving oral contraceptives. Information regarding the mechanisms, significance, and management of drug interactions with oral contraceptives is provided. Approaches to counseling patients also are discussed. PMID:6355611

Stoehr, G P; White, J

324

American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons  

MedlinePLUS

... They treat accident victims suffering facial injuries, place dental implants, care for patients with oral cancer, tumors and ... oral and maxillofacial surgeon near you. Upcoming Events Dental Implant Conference December 5th - 7th, 2013 Chicago, IL 2014 ...

325

Active ingredient: Loratadine Form/Route: Orally ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionContains Nonbinding Recommendations Guidance on Loratadine ... Active ingredient: Loratadine Form/Route: Orally Disintegrating Tablets/Oral ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

326

[The oral problems of queen Elizabeth I].  

PubMed

Queen Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603), probably the most famous English Queen ever, had persistent oral problems. Her oral problems were so serious that they probably hampered the Queen in the performance of her tasks. PMID:22667195

Eijkman, M A J

2012-05-01

327

Choosing the best oral contraceptive.  

PubMed

This guide to choice of oral contraceptives, for U.S. clinicians, includes a review of the available types of pills, the pharmacology of the steroids in pills, safety issues regarding thrombosis, arterial disease and hypertension related to estrogens and progestins in pills, common side effects, and therapeutic uses of orals. Choice of an oral contraceptive narrows down to which of the 5 available progestins and their formulation, since all contain ethinyl estradiol as the estrogen. While Briggs' theory espoused picking a pill with the minimal metabolic effect, recent evidence suggests that some estrogenic activity may be preferable to the unopposed progestagen, actually an anti-estrogenic receptor effect, to prevent adverse lipid and blood pressure effects in users. Current pills with low doses of estrogens probably are not significant risks for women as regards thrombosis, particularly if predisposed women and smokers are excluded. Pills containing 0.35 mg ethinyl estradiol and 0.5 mg norethindrone, based on large population trials, are probably the minimal effective dose yet even these are more effective than most other contraceptive methods. Breakthrough bleeding and spotting have been further minimized, however, with multiphasic pills. It is best to start with a 0.30-0.35 mg estrogen oral contraceptive, such as Loestrin, Demulin, Orthonovum 1.35, Orthonovum 7/7/7 or Nordette, encouraging the patient to accept early side effects for 3 months before switching to others. Disorders that can be managed with oral contraceptives include recurring and pre-existing ovarian cysts, endometriosis, dysfunctional uterine bleeding and dysmenorrhea. Brief guidelines for handling normal side effects and treatment of the above disorders are included. PMID:2743645

Stubblefield, P G

1989-06-01

328

Efficacy of fibrin sealant in patients on various levels of oral anticoagulant undergoing oral surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of fibrin sealant in patients on oral anticoagulant therapy undergoing oral surgery with varying degrees of surgical trauma and various intensities of anticoagulation.Study design. A consecutive series of 69 subjects on oral anticoagulant therapy undergoing oral surgery without changing anticoagulation intensity is presented. For each subject, indication for anticoagulation,

Lipa Bodner; Jean Marc Weinstein; Amalia Kleiner Baumgarten

1998-01-01

329

Changing oral care needs in the United States: The continuing need for oral medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this article is to provide oral care providers evidence of oral conditions and medical compromise that is impacting the oral health and oral health needs of the public. Design: Data were analyzed based on current epidemiologic data, derived in large part from the Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, the National Center for Health Statistics, National Health

Craig S. Miller; Joel B. Epstein; Ellis H. Hall; David Sirois

2001-01-01

330

Evaluation of TGF-? and EGFR Expression in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis by Quantitative Immunohistochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) are clinically distinct preneoplastic states that precede the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Recently, attempts are being made to identify specific molecular event(s) as prognostic markers to identify oral precancerous lesions with higher malignant potential. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the expression of EGFR and its

Mythily Srinivasan; Scott D. Jewell

2001-01-01

331

Support vector machines for oral lesion classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate support vector machines (SVM) in the context of oral lesion classification using digital color images as input. Two common lesions of similar visual appearance to the human observer were evaluated: oral leukoplakia, which is a potentially pre-cancerous lesion, and oral lichenoid reactions (with subclasses of atrophic, plaqueformed and reticular reactions), which are usually harmless lesions. In total, 89%

Artur Chodorowski; Tomas Gustavsson; Ulf Mattsson

2002-01-01

332

Colorado Oral History Projects: A Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|More than 100 oral history projects in the state of Colorado are described. Information was collected from public libraries, historical societies, public schools, colleges, and universities in order to develop a statewide "locator file" of oral history tapes. This directory lists only those projects which have interview tapes and related oral

Whistler, Nancy, Comp.

333

Epidemiology and prevention of oral cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Descriptive epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal cancer over the last four decades is reviewed, with specific focus on Europe. Substantial rises in mortality rates have been observed for younger males, mostly in eastern Europe. The independent role of alcohol and tobacco and their interaction on oral carcinogenesis is discussed, since these factors account for about three quarters of oral cancers

C. La Vecchia; A. Tavani; S. Franceschi; F. Levi; G. Corrao; E. Negri

1997-01-01

334

Colorado Oral History Projects: A Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than 100 oral history projects in the state of Colorado are described. Information was collected from public libraries, historical societies, public schools, colleges, and universities in order to develop a statewide "locator file" of oral history tapes. This directory lists only those projects which have interview tapes and related oral

Whistler, Nancy, Comp.

335

Oral phosphate binders: History and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an oral phosphate binder is a promising and most practical strategy for the prevention of vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To secure the safety: 1) the oral phosphate binder must not cause adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract; 2) the oral phosphate binder should be non-absorbable or barely absorbable through the gastrointestinal tract,

Junichiro James Kazama

2009-01-01

336

Self-estimation of Oral Malodor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bad breath (halitosis, oral malodor) is a common condition, usually the result of microbial putrefaction within the oral cavity. Often, people suffering from bad breath remain unaware of it, whereas others remain convinced that they suffer from foul oral malodor, although there is no evidence for such. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether objective self-measurement of

M. Rosenbergl; A. Kozlovskyl; I. Gelernter; O. Cherniak; J. Gabbay; R. Baht; I. Eli

1995-01-01

337

Inhibition of microflora associated with oral malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the microflora on oral carcinoma surfaces may lead to both local and systemic infections, which may complicate the morbidity of the patient suffering from oral malignant neoplasms. Thus, anticancer therapy, irradiation, chemotherapy or surgery impairs the defence mechanism of the oral mucosa and is accompanied by proliferation of the mucosal biofilm with overgrowth of yeast and bacteria. This

K. Nagy; I. Szöke; I. Sonkodi; E. Nagy; A. Mari; G. Szolnoky; H. N. Newman

2000-01-01

338

Oral Candida: Clearance, Colonization, or Candidiasis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida albicans is frequently isolated from the human mouth, yet few carriers develop clinical signs of candidiasis. Oral candidiasis presents clinically in many forms. This reflects the ability of the yeast to colonize different oral surfaces and the variety of factors which predispose the host to Candida colonization and subsequent infection. Colonization of the oral cavity appears to be facilitated

R. D. Cannon; A. R. Holmes; A. B. Mason; B. C. Monk

1995-01-01

339

29 CFR 2700.77 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral argument. 2700.77 Section...Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES...by the Commission § 2700.77 Oral argument. Oral argument may be ordered by...

2013-07-01

340

Oral bacteria inhibit Helicobacter pylori growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various oral bacterial species were found to inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori strains. The growth inhibitory activities of most of these oral bacteria were adversely affected by heating at 80°C for 60 min or by protease treatment, indicating that these bacteria produce bacteriocin-like inhibitory proteins against H. pylori strains. The antagonistic effects of oral bacteria against H. pylori may

Kazuyuki Ishihara; Tadashi Miura; Ryuta Kimizuka; Yoko Ebihara; Yoshio Mizuno; Katsuji Okuda

1997-01-01

341

Novel colorimetric sensor for oral malodour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile sulphur compounds are the primary constituents of oral malodour. Quantitative tools for the detection of oral malodour are beneficial to evaluate the intensity of malodour, analyse its causes and monitor the effectiveness of customized treatments. We have developed an objective, cost effective, do-it-yourself colorimetric sensor for oral malodour quantification. The sensor consisted of a sensing solution, a gas sampling

Nethaji Alagirisamy; Sarita S. Hardas; Sujatha Jayaraman

2010-01-01

342

Students' Oral Contributions to Classroom Verbal Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the literature related to research on oral communication in the classroom pursues two issues: the types of oral contributions students make and whether those types are related to school achievement. In considering research on oral communication in classrooms, the paper looks at information that considers whether the communication…

Dunkin, Michael J.

343

Basic Oral Health Needs: A Public Priority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is there a way to support a special ethical status for unmet oral health needs within our pluralistic, liberty-loving American society? Some people in American society, perhaps many people, believe that some kinds of human needs have special ethical importance. But very few people outside the oral health professions have ever considered that unmet oral health needs might belong to

David T. Ozar

344

Aspects of Adherence of Oral Spirochetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral spirochetes are present in the oral cavity in various numbers and forms and have been strongly implicated as playing a role in the etiology of periodontal disease. Because adherence to host tissues is a critical first step in establishing a bacterial infection, reports on the attachment of oral spirochetes to host tissues and matrix components were reviewed. The great

D. Denee Thomas

1996-01-01

345

17 CFR 9.32 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral argument. 9.32 Section 9.32 ...Denial or Other Adverse Action § 9.32 Oral argument. (a) On motion of Commission...Commission may, in its discretion, hear oral argument by the parties any time...

2013-04-01

346

49 CFR 825.25 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oral argument. 825.25 Section 825.25...COMMANDANT, U.S. COAST GUARD § 825.25 Oral argument. (a) If any party desires...filed pursuant to § 825.20. (b) Oral argument before the Board will...

2011-10-01

347

10 CFR 590.312 - Oral presentations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral presentations. 590.312 Section 590...NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.312 Oral presentations. (a) Any party may...motion requesting an opportunity to make an oral presentation of views,...

2013-01-01

348

10 CFR 2.1507 - Oral hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral hearing. 2.1507 Section 2.1507...PROCEDURE Legislative Hearings § 2.1507 Oral hearing. (a) Not less than five (5) days before the commencement of the oral hearing, the presiding officer...

2013-01-01

349

17 CFR 171.32 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral argument. 171.32 Section 171.32...and Registration Actions § 171.32 Oral argument. (a) On motion of Commission...Commission may, in its discretion, hear oral argument in a proceeding. (b) On...

2013-04-01

350

46 CFR 202.8 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oral argument. 202.8 Section 202.8 Shipping...OF ACTIONS BY MARITIME SUBSIDY BOARD § 202.8 Oral argument. Generally, oral argument will not be necessary. However, the...

2011-10-01

351

12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral presentations. 1102.36 Section...Practice for Proceedings § 1102.36 Oral presentations. (a) In general. A party does not have a right to an oral presentation. Under this...

2013-01-01

352

46 CFR 502.317 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.317 Section 502.317 Shipping...Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims § 502.317 Oral argument. No oral argument will be held unless otherwise directed by...

2011-10-01

353

43 CFR 4.1608 - Oral presentations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oral presentations. 4.1608 Section 4...Under OMB Circular A-76 § 4.1608 Oral presentations. (a) Upon request of the appellant, an opportunity for an oral presentation to the appeals official...

2011-10-01

354

The Oral History Collection of Columbia University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is a catalog of the contents of the oral history collection at Columbia University. Entries are listed alphabetically by the person or group making the oral history recordings. Each entry includes the subject's full name and vocation, brief notes on the content of the oral recording, and an indication of the accessibility of the…

Mason, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Starr, Louis M., Ed.

355

Decreased bone turnover in oral contraceptive users  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of oral contraceptive pills on bone turnover. The design consisted of a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. There were 52 women taking oral contraceptives and 156 nonuser controls from a large cohort of 1039 healthy women, aged 31–89 years (OFELY study). Most users were taking combined oral contraceptives containing

P. Garnero; E. Sornay-Rendu; P. D. Delmas

1995-01-01

356

Healthy People 2010: Oral Health Toolkit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this Toolkit is to provide guidance, technical tools, and resources to help states, territories, tribes and communities develop and implement successful oral health components of Healthy People 2010 plans as well as other oral health plans. These plans are useful for: (1) promoting, implementing and tracking oral health objectives;…

Isman, Beverly

2007-01-01

357

[President George Washington and his oral complaints].  

PubMed

George Washington, the first president of the United States of America, suffered for most of his life from continuous oral pain. Through letters, diaries, and other personal information from this president, much has become known concerning his oral problems and the level of oral healthcare in the United States in the mid and late 18th century. PMID:23050379

Eijkman, M A J

2012-09-01

358

The Oral History Collection of Columbia University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a catalog of the contents of the oral history collection at Columbia University. Entries are listed alphabetically by the person or group making the oral history recordings. Each entry includes the subject's full name and vocation, brief notes on the content of the oral recording, and an indication of the accessibility of the…

Mason, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Starr, Louis M., Ed.

359

NATIONAL ORAL HEALTH SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NOHSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS) is a collaborative effort between CDC's Division of Oral Health and The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD). NOHSS is designed to help public health programs monitor the burden of oral disease, use of the ...

360

Epigenetic mechanisms in oral carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Dysregulation of gene expression is a frequent occurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, accumulating evidence suggests that in contrast to genetics, epigenetic modifications consisting of aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications and altered expression of miRNAs induce OSCC tumorigenesis and perhaps play a more central role in the evolution and progression of this disease. The unifying theme among these three epigenetic mechanisms remains the same, which is aberrant regulation of gene expression. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the impact of epigenetics on oral tumorigenesis with a systematic report on aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNA regulation in the pathogenesis of OSCC. We provide insights into recent studies on the prospect of biomarkers for early detection and indication of disease recurrence, and novel treatment modalities.

Gasche, Jacqueline A; Goel, Ajay

2013-01-01

361

Medieval orality, mothers, and bonding.  

PubMed

The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism. PMID:15132195

Schwartz, Scott C

2004-01-01

362

Harvard Iranian Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oral histories can be quite fascinating, and a number of significant collections have been placed online as of late. One of the best-known projects might be Harvard University's own Iranian Oral History Project (IOHP). The collection consists of the personal accounts of over 150 individuals who were eyewitnesses (or active participants) to a range of crucial political events in Iran from the 1920s to the 1980s. Visitors can start their journey through this site by going to the "About" section, where they can learn about the history of the IHOP and the interviewing process. After that, visitors can go the actual "Transcripts" area, where they can view an index of interviews, and in certain cases, they can listen to audio recordings of these conversations.

363

Epigenetic mechanisms in oral carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Dysregulation of gene expression is a frequent occurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, accumulating evidence suggests that in contrast to genetics, epigenetic modifications consisting of aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications and altered expression of miRNAs induce OSCC tumorigenesis and perhaps play a more central role in the evolution and progression of this disease. The unifying theme among these three epigenetic mechanisms remains the same, which is aberrant regulation of gene expression. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the impact of epigenetics on oral tumorigenesis with a systematic report on aberrant DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNA regulation in the pathogenesis of OSCC. We provide insights into recent studies on the prospect of biomarkers for early detection and indication of disease recurrence, and novel treatment modalities. PMID:23148615

Gasche, Jacqueline A; Goel, Ajay

2012-11-01

364

Systemic Diseases Caused by Oral Infection  

PubMed Central

Recently, it has been recognized that oral infection, especially periodontitis, may affect the course and pathogenesis of a number of systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, bacterial pneumonia, diabetes mellitus, and low birth weight. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current status of oral infections, especially periodontitis, as a causal factor for systemic diseases. Three mechanisms or pathways linking oral infections to secondary systemic effects have been proposed: (i) metastatic spread of infection from the oral cavity as a result of transient bacteremia, (ii) metastatic injury from the effects of circulating oral microbial toxins, and (iii) metastatic inflammation caused by immunological injury induced by oral microorganisms. Periodontitis as a major oral infection may affect the host's susceptibility to systemic disease in three ways: by shared risk factors; subgingival biofilms acting as reservoirs of gram-negative bacteria; and the periodontium acting as a reservoir of inflammatory mediators. Proposed evidence and mechanisms of the above odontogenic systemic diseases are given.

Li, Xiaojing; Kolltveit, Kristin M.; Tronstad, Leif; Olsen, Ingar

2000-01-01

365

Initial selection of oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

A prospective, randomized trial compared client experiences with three popular oral contraceptives--Triphasil, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 and Ortho-Novum 1/35. After one year, no significant relationship was found between the contraceptive prescribed and either breakthrough bleeding or satisfaction with the medication. The monophasic formulation, Ortho-Novum 1/35, was associated with amenorrhea more often. PMID:2352250

Reiter, S L; Baer, L J

1990-05-01

366

Biofilm formation on oral piercings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  PURPOSE: Biofilms on oral piercings might serve as a bacterial reservoir in the host and lead to bacteraemia and even septic\\u000a complications. The use of piercing materials less susceptible to biofilm accumulation could contribute to alleviation of problems.\\u000a The present study aimed to assess biofilm formation on four commercially available, surface characterized piercing materials\\u000a in vitro (polytetrafluoroethylene, titanium, stainless steel,

Ines Kapferer; Christoph Steiner; Ulrike Beier; Natalia Schiefermeier; Markus Nagl; Frederik Klauser

2010-01-01

367

Oral contraceptives in adolescent women.  

PubMed

Taking into account the biological and psychosocial changes during the transition from childhood to adulthood adolescents would need a contraceptive method which ideally would be very effective, independent of compliance, without major health risks during use and no negative impact on the future health of the adolescent, protective against STI, favorable for bone development, with no or only few side effects and having some preventive and therapeutic potential with respect to frequent health problems of adolescent girls. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) used regularly and consistently have a more than 99% efficacy to prevent a pregnancy. COCs have a very low health risk (almost exclusively thromboembolic disease) which seems to differ marginally with respect to dosage and type of the components. Progestogen only oral contraceptives do not have any major negative health impact. The leading side effect is irregular bleeding which in COC users is mainly during the first 3 months and in progestogen only users during the period of use. Other side effects are reported but their frequency is similar to placebo. COC protect against endometrial and ovarian cancer and they may have beneficial effects on a variety of menstrual complaints and acne, which are frequent problems during adolescence. To be effective COCs have to be taken regularly which is frequently not the case. This diminishes considerably their effectiveness depending on the individual compliance. They do not protect against STI and may even have an inhibitory effect on the use of condoms. For most adolescents the risk benefit profile of oral contraceptives is favorable and makes this method valuable. At the same time the prescription of oral contraceptives for adolescents need to be individualized by taking into account the individual risk/benefit profile. Specialized counseling with a high degree of confidentiality adapted to the knowledge and needs of the individual adolescent is desirable. PMID:23384748

Bitzer, Johannes

2012-09-30

368

Oral Anticoagulation: Preparing for Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thromboembolic disorders—stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE)—pose a substantial risk for mortality and morbidity. Primarily affecting individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF) in their 7th and 8th decades of life, these disorders will represent a growing burden as aging baby boomers expand the pool of at-risk patients in coming decades, underscoring the need for effective, well tolerated long-term prophylactic therapy. Oral warfarin,

Edith A. Nutescu; Alex C. Spyropoulos; Kerry W. Cranmer

2004-01-01

369

New oral anticoagulants in development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Although currently available anticoagulants are effective for the pre- vention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders, they have several drawbacks. Low-molecular-weight heparins and fondaparinux produce a predictable level of anticoagulation that obviates the need for coagu- lation monitoring, but they must be given parenterally, which renders them inconvenient for long-term use. Vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin, are administered orally,

Jeffrey I. Weitz

2010-01-01

370

Oral anticoagulation therapy in children.  

PubMed

Treatment of thromboembolic complications in children has been the subject of considerable research in the last decade. Recommendations for oral anticoagulant therapy in children have been extrapolated from adult clinical trials. Coumarin derivatives are the preeminent oral antithrombotic agents used in children. Warfarin, acenocoumarol and phenprocoumon are the vitamin K antagonists used in children with thrombotic complications in different countries according to their experience and familiarity within a country or region. Prospective studies from Canada and Argentina propose guidelines for administering and monitoring warfarin and acenocoumarol therapy in children. These studies highlight the difficulty of their use in pediatric patients. Infants younger than 12 months of age require increased doses to achieve and maintain the therapeutic target INR, adjustments of loading dose to achieve the target INR faster with no overshooting, more frequent INR testing and dose adjustments, and fewer INR in the target range. The current indications for oral anticoagulants in children with thrombotic complications, the side effects of these agents and the reversal of the anticoagulant effect are discussed. PMID:16709477

Bonduel, Mariana M

2005-02-08

371

Emerging multiple sclerosis oral therapies.  

PubMed

Currently, patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating disorder of the CNS, must be injected with medication to provide modest relief for their symptoms. Five orally available therapies are being evaluated in phase II/III clinical trials. If these therapies prove safe and tolerable, oral compounds may improve patient endorsement and compliance. Fingolimod, a novel immunosuppressant, significantly lowered annual relapse rates in phase II/III trials. Laquinimod, an immunomodulator, reduced the cumulative number of active lesions at the highest dose tested (0.6 mg/d) in a phase II trial. Cladribine, another immunomodulator, reduced annual relapse rates by >50% and gadolinium-positive lesions by >70% at both doses tested in a phase III trial. Oral fumarate, with immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties, also lowered the number of lesions in a phase II trial. Finally, teriflunomide, an immunomodulator, significantly reduced MRI lesion activity and reduced annual relapse rates in a phase II trial. In this report, we weigh the beneficial outcomes of these compounds against their risks of adverse effects. PMID:20038763

Rammohan, Kottil W; Shoemaker, Jennifer

2010-01-01

372

Misoprostol (Rectal): Prevention of Radiation Proctitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

† Editor- in-Chief, Hospital Pharmacy, and Executive Editor, The Formulary, e-mail: Dennis .Cada@wolterskluwer.com. This Hospital Pharmacy feature is extracted from Off-Label Drug Facts, a quarterly publication available from Wolters Kluwer Health. Off-Label Drug Facts is a practitioner-oriented resource for information about specif- ic drug uses that are unapproved by the US Food and Drug Administration. This new guide to the

Joyce A. Generali; Dennis J. Cada

373

Extra-oral halitosis: an overview.  

PubMed

Halitosis can be subdivided into intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis, depending on the place where it originates. Most reports now agree that the most frequent sources of halitosis exist within the oral cavity and include bacterial reservoirs such as the dorsum of the tongue, saliva and periodontal pockets, where anaerobic bacteria degrade sulfur-containing amino acids to produce the foul smelling volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), especially hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and methyl mercaptan (CH(3)SH). Tongue coating is considered to be the most important source of VSCs. Oral malodor can now be treated effectively. Special attention in this overview is given to extra-oral halitosis. Extra-oral halitosis can be subdivided into non-blood-borne halitosis, such as halitosis from the upper respiratory tract including the nose and from the lower respiratory tract, and blood-borne halitosis. The majority of patients with extra-oral halitosis have blood-borne halitosis. Blood-borne halitosis is also frequently caused by odorous VSCs, in particular dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3). Extra-oral halitosis, covering about 5-10% of all cases of halitosis, might be a manifestation of a serious disease for which treatment is much more complicated than for intra-oral halitosis. It is therefore of utmost importance to differentiate between intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis. Differences between intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis are discussed extensively. The importance of applying odor characterization of various odorants in halitosis research is also highlighted in this article. The use of the odor index, odor threshold values and simulation of bad breath samples is explained. PMID:21386205

Tangerman, A; Winkel, E G

2010-03-02

374

Exploring scarless healing of oral soft tissues.  

PubMed

Our research group is comparing clinical, histological and molecular healing profiles of oral and skin wounds using human and pig models. The goal is to determine the molecular cues that lead to scarless healing in the oral mucosa and use that information to develop scar prevention therapies for skin and prevent aberrant wound healing in the oral cavity. Wound healing in human and pig palatal mucosa is almost identical, and scar formation is reduced in oral wounds compared with skin. The striking difference between these tissues is transient and rapidly resolving inflammation in oral wounds compared with long-lasting inflammation in the skin wounds. Currently, we are looking at wound transcriptomes (genes differentially regulated) and proteomes (a set of proteins) to investigate how these wound healing responses in skin and oral mucosa are regulated at the molecular level. PMID:21366956

Larjava, Hannu; Wiebe, Colin; Gallant-Behm, Corrie; Hart, David A; Heino, Jyrki; Häkkinen, Lari

2011-01-01

375

Oral health and obesity indicators  

PubMed Central

Background In western Sweden, the aim was to study the associations between oral health variables and total and central adiposity, respectively, and to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors (SES), lifestyle, dental anxiety and co-morbidity. Methods The subjects constituted a randomised sample from the 1992 data collection in the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden (n?=?999, 38-?>?=78 yrs). The study comprised a clinical and radiographic examination, together with a self-administered questionnaire. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI)?>?=30 kg/m2, waist-hip ratio (WHR)?>?=0.80, and waist circumference >0.88 m. Associations were estimated using logistic regression including adjustments for possible confounders. Results The mean BMI value was 25.96 kg/m2, the mean WHR 0.83, and the mean waist circumference 0.83 m. The number of teeth, the number of restored teeth, xerostomia, dental visiting habits and self-perceived health were associated with both total and central adiposity, independent of age and SES. For instance, there were statistically significant associations between a small number of teeth (<20) and obesity: BMI (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.40-2.73), WHR (1.67; 1.28-2.19) and waist circumference (1.94; 1.47-2.55), respectively. The number of carious lesions and masticatory function showed no associations with obesity. The obesity measure was of significance, particularly with regard to behaviour, such as irregular dental visits, with a greater risk associated with BMI (1.83; 1.23-2.71) and waist circumference (1.96; 1.39-2.75), but not with WHR (1.29; 0.90-1.85). Conclusions Associations were found between oral health and obesity. The choice of obesity measure in oral health studies should be carefully considered.

2012-01-01

376

Teratocarcinosarcoma of the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Teratocarcinosarcoma (TCS) is a very rare and aggressive neoplasm characterized by teratoma and carcinosarcoma components. The authors report on a case of TCS in the oral cavity of a child. Rapid growth and extensive local destruction were prominent features prior to treatment. Histologic examination revealed various tissue elements, such as epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal components. Chemotherapy was effective in reducing tumor mass, followed by partial anterior mandibulectomy and reconstruction with composite microvascular tissue transfer. The approach allowed radical resection of the tumor and functional reconstruction with excellent aesthetic results. PMID:15390296

Crazzolara, Roman; Puelacher, Wolfgang; Ninkovic, Milomir; Zelger, Bettina; Buchberger, Wolfgang; Meister, Bernhard; Zimmerhackl, Lothar B; Klein-Franke, Andreas

2004-11-01

377

Oral surgery during Byzantine times.  

PubMed

The Byzantine World covers the eleven-century period between 323-1453 AD and was characterized by a comprehensive system of medicine based on the fundamental principles of Ancient Greek medicine. Several clinical entities, such as epulis, parulis, constrictions of the tongue (short frenum), sublingual ranula, jaws fractures and disclocations, oral fistulae were well-known and treated during the Byzantine period with primarily surgical, but also non-surgical, interventions. Tooth extractions and operations on the uvula were also popular. The variety of these operations, for which special dental instruments were used, demonstrates the high level of surgical knowledge among physicians in Byzantine times. PMID:21563728

Topaloglou, Eleftheria I; Papadakis, Marios N; Madianos, Phoebus N; Ferekidis, Eleftherios A

2011-01-01

378

Oral myiasis in a captive hippopotamus.  

PubMed

Causes of dental infections can be related to failed dental eruption, malocclusion, abrasion, fractures with or without exposure of the dental pulp, and periodontal disease. Reports of oral myiasis in megavertebrates in captivity are infrequent, perhaps due to the difficulty in observing the oral cavity in such species. This report describes a case of oral myiasis in an adult male hippopotamus in the gingival area and alveolar mucosa of the left mandibular canine tooth. PMID:19950517

Rossi Júnior, João Luiz; Guião-Leite, Flaviana L; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Falqueiro, Léslie M Domingues; Fecchio, Roberto Silveira

2009-01-01

379

Involuntary movements in patients taking oral contraceptives  

PubMed Central

Involuntary movements developed in five women taking oral contraceptives. In one, the sudden onset of a unilateral disturbance suggested a cerebral thrombosis; this case is considered to be a further example of the increased risk of cerebrovascular disease associated with oral contraception. The four other patients suffered a relapse of Sydenham's chorea between one and four months after starting an oral contraceptive regimen. Possibly an underlying vascular mechanism was responsible for these relapses.

Lewis, P. D.; Harrison, M. J. G.

1969-01-01

380

Oral diseases in HIV1 infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-associated oral lesions have been reported since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, be they fungal, viral, bacterial,\\u000a neoplastic, or non-specific in origin. The most common lesions are oral candidiasis (OC; noted in several forms) and oral\\u000a hairy leukoplakia (OHL). OC appears to be directly related to levels of immunosuppression while OHL, a newly described lesion,\\u000a is associated with the

Charles E. Barr

1992-01-01

381

Pharmacogenetic Aspects of Coumarinic Oral Anticoagulant Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coumarinic oral-anticoagulants (COAs) are commonly used for treatment of thromboembolic events. However, these medications\\u000a have a narrow therapeutic range and there are large inter-individual variations in drug response. This is especially important\\u000a in the initial phases of oral-anticoagulant therapy. Recent advancements in pharmacogenetics have established that clinical\\u000a outcomes in oral-anticoagulant therapy are affected by genetic factors. The allelic variants of

Saurabh Singh Rathore; Surendra Kumar Agarwal; Shantanu Pande; Sushil Kumar Singh; Tulika Mittal; Balraj Mittal

382

Putting the population back into oral health; decoupling oral health improvement from clinical dental practice.  

PubMed

Some 20 years ago, there was much speculation about improving oral health and the subsequent emergence of a vastly different type of clinical dental practice and vis versa. Few of the predictions have come to pass in Australia. Caries in children has somewhat rebounded, new treatment philosophies have not gained widespread adoption, and work effort in clinical dental practice remains dominated by diagnostic services, restorations and removable prosthodontics. What was behind the wayward predictions was a failure to separate the potency of 'care' from ability to 'cure' and an overestimation of the improvement in child oral health attributable to clinical dental services. If progress is to be made in improving oral health, an understanding of the mid- and upstream determinants of oral health needs to guide new population oral health activities. The contribution of clinical dental services to oral health should also be enhanced, but this should not divert attention from necessary population oral health activities to improve oral health. PMID:22998297

Spencer, A John

2012-10-01

383

Oral insulin delivery: how far are we?  

PubMed

Oral delivery of insulin may significantly improve the quality of life of diabetes patients who routinely receive insulin by the subcutaneous route. In fact, compared with this administration route, oral delivery of insulin in diabetes treatment offers many advantages: higher patient compliance, rapid hepatic insulinization, and avoidance of peripheral hyperinsulinemia and other adverse effects such as possible hypoglycemia and weight gain. However, the oral delivery of insulin remains a challenge because its oral absorption is limited. The mainbarriers faced by insulin in the gastrointestinal tract are degradation by proteolytic enzymes and lack of transport across the intestinal epithelium. Several strategies to deliver insulin orally have been proposed, but without much clinical or commercial success. Protein encapsulation into nanoparticles is regarded as a promising alternative to administer insulin orally because they have the ability to promote insulin paracellular or transcellular transport across the intestinal mucosa. In this review, different delivery systems intended to increase the oral bioavailability of insulin will be discussed, with a special focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems, as well as the efforts that pharmaceutical companies are making to bring to the market the first oral delivery system of insulin. The toxicological and safety data of delivery systems, the clinical value and progress of oral insulin delivery, and the future prospects in this research field will be also scrutinized. PMID:23567010

Fonte, Pedro; Araújo, Francisca; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno

2013-03-01

384

Oral presentation bias: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper was to assess oral presentation bias at a national level. This was a retrospective cohort study with initial characteristics of the approved protocols extracted from the committee's archives, and follow?up characteristics obtained from a questionnaire mailed to the principal investigators. A representative sample of French research ethics committees (25/48), the only committees legally endorsed for ethical authorisation in biomedical research, were studied. All completed research protocols, which had been approved in 1994 by these committees, were included. Initial characteristics (design, study size, investigator) of completed studies and follow?up information (direction of results, rates of publication and rates of oral presentation) were collected. Complete information on results and their dissemination was available for 248 completed non?confidential protocols. Half of these (49%) were declared as orally presented. The observed ranking for strategies to disseminate results was the following: orally presented and published, published only, neither orally presented nor published and orally presented only. Confirmatory results were more often orally presented, with an adjusted OR of 6.4 (95% CI 2.69 to 15.22). Other associated variables are the following: national/international scope of the study, protocol writer's university status, adverse events and interim analysis. There is a trend to submit or accept confirmatory results for oral presentations: meetings are a biased representation of research, and oral presentation bias could even be higher than publication bias.

Decullier, Evelyne; Chapuis, Francois

2007-01-01

385

Oral malodour and active ingredients for treatment.  

PubMed

Synopsis Oral care preparations are widely used for the treatment of oral malodour as over-the-counter products. Bad breath is highly distressing to an individual's confidence during social interaction, which is a large concern nowadays as the consumption of these products is increasing worldwide. However, oral deodorant ingredients are rarely studied compared with other cosmetic ingredients, and the only preparations which are well known are those contained in dentifrices and mouthrinses. This review briefly summarizes the compounds which cause oral malodour and the treatments available. The active ingredients in various preparations are emphasized and novel products are presented. PMID:20572885

Lourith, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M

2010-06-21

386

Hospitalized mental health patients and oral health.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review of the literature is to present a contemporary perspective related to the nursing care of hospitalized mental health patients who have risk of developing oral health issues. Mental illness is a major health concern worldwide. Compounding this health issue, mental health patients/clients demonstrate avoidant behaviours related to oral health, and the symptoms of mental illness can be a compounding factor. Oral health and oral inflammatory disease are the result of lifestyle and behaviour and mental disorders affect both lifestyle and behaviour. The search used the search terms oral health AND nursing AND mental illness AND Published Date 2005 to 2010. For those who experience mental illness oral health assessment is not routinely practised by clinicians. The importance of special attention to dental problems for people with mental disorders has also been stressed by researchers since the lifespan of people with serious mental disorders is shortened compared to the general population. Oral health care is an important part of treatment. Routine oral care for hospitalized patients is imperative, and this is usually the responsibility of nurses without sufficient knowledge in oral care or comprehensive protocols to follow. PMID:22070464

Edward, K-L; Felstead, B; Mahoney, A-M

2011-10-27

387

Hansen's Oral Life Histories and Healing.  

PubMed

The individual oral statement is human story based on experience. The personal experience forms unconsciousness which appears in a form of oral statement by ego that doesn't want to lose existence. Thus, the process which exposes a tormented hearts is the objectification of oneself. Through this step, oral person attains a healing. If this sort of individual oral is accrued, the undeserved personal affairs could be a history. In case of Hansen's disease patient, She could escape from negative understanding about herself and the world. Furthermore, She kept formating her values about meaningful life and future oriented value. Also, She wants to keep a record of her life. She comes to know that what she denied is actually what she should surmount over oral statement. As a result, She could attains a healing for oneself through oral statement. The oral statement made her look into she's problems. Therefore, oral statement is a self-realization. Through this, person could know what the problem is and solution. This research is about only one person, so there is need for more cases and studies. If this sort of individual oral statement is accrued, there could be a curative narration. This can suggest an curative alternative when we suffer from problem of life. The merit of this research is rendering this possibility. PMID:24005645

Kim, Seong-Lee

2013-08-01

388

Metastasis from oral cancer: an overview.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is a common neoplasm worldwide. Its incidence and mortality have also increased over the past decades. It is characterized by poor prognosis and a low survival rate despite sophisticated surgical and radiotherapeutic modalities. Metastasis of oral cancer is a complex process involving detachment of cells from tumor tissue, regulation of cell motility and invasion, proliferation and evasion through the lymphatic system or blood vessels. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge in metastasis from oral cancer regarding facts, such as incidence; stage, histopathology and grade of primary tumor; clinical manifestations; diagnosis; and treatment. Certainly, such information will contribute to the understanding of oral cancer pathogenesis. PMID:22990112

Noguti, Juliana; De Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; De Jesus, Gustavo Protasio Pacheco; Da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; Hossaka, Thais Ayako; Oshima, Celina Tijuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

389

Oral metastases from carcinoma of cervix.  

PubMed

Metastatic tumours of the oral cavity are uncommon, they may occur in soft tissue as well as in bone in the oropharyngeal region. Owing to its rarity, metastatic tumours of the oral regions are a challenge to diagnose. We report a case of metastasis of the oral cavity, arising from uterine cervix mimicking as mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The metastatic lesions were noticed in the soft tissue of the lower buccal and gingival side of a oral cavity, in a 40-year-old woman with history of an adenosquamous carcinoma of uterine cervix treated by panhysterectomy. PMID:23771978

Ram, Hari; Kumar, Manoj; Bhatt, M L B; Shadab, Mohammad

2013-06-14

390

Alcohol and oral squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Alcohol is a risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma. It enhances the permeability of the oral epithelium, acts as a solvent for tobacco carcinogens, induces basal-cell proliferation, and generates free radicals and acetaldehyde, which have the capacity to cause DNA damage. Alcohol-associated malnutrition and immune suppression may further promote carcinogenesis. However, acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is the critical agent by which prolonged and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages increases the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Alcohol also acts synergistically with the products of tobacco combustion in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23971298

Feller, L; Chandran, R; Khammissa, R A G; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

2013-05-01

391

Self-Reported Oral Hygiene Habits and Oral Health Problems of Kuwaiti Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aims of this study were to examine self-reported oral hygiene habits and oral health problems of a sample of adult Kuwaitis. Materials and Methods: A self-administered, anonymous, structured questionnaire was distributed to 2,400 adult Kuwaiti nationals from all 6 governates of Kuwait assessing socio-demographic variables, oral hygiene habits, and oral health problems. Results: Of the 2,400 questionnaires, 1,925

Khalaf F. Al-Shammari; Jassem M. Al-Ansari; Areej K. Al-Khabbaz; Asmahan Dashti; Eino J. Honkala

2007-01-01

392

Candidal colonization and oral candidiasis in patients undergoing oral and pharyngeal radiation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation encourages oral candidal colonization that often leads to oral\\/pharyngeal candidiasis. The purpose of this study was to quantitate oral candidal colonization, assess signs, symptoms, and response to antifungal management, speciate Candida, and evaluate the influence of smoking and dentures.Study design. Forty-six patients undergoing radiation therapy for oral\\/pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were evaluated clinically and by Candidal cultures

Velia Ramirez-Amador; Sol Silverman; Priscilla Mayer; Martin Tyler; Jeanne Quivey

1997-01-01

393

Side effects of oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

It is estimated that 10-15 million women use oral contraceptives in the U.S. The 2 types of pills available are combination products containing both an estrogen and progestin, and single entity products with only progestin. Although more side effects are associated with estrogen, combination pills are the preferred prescription. Most often side effects are mild and disappear after continued use or switching to another type of pill. Some of the side effects are nausea; weight gain; chloasma; cervical extrophia and leukorrhea; hypermenorrhea; spotting and breakthrough bleeding; galactorrhea and pituitary tumors; choreiform movement disorder; endometrial cancer; and, hepatic effects. Fetal exposure to exogenous estrogens and progestins has been reported to result in increased risk for the heart and neural tube defects. Teratogenic effects subsequent to discontinuation of OCs does not appear to be a risk. The beneficial side effects of oral contraceptives are that the incidence of menorrhagia, benign breast neoplasm, dysmenorrhea, iron-deficiency anemia, premenstrual tension, acne, and ovarian cysts are lower in OC users. Thryoid diseases may be reduced by OCs. PMID:503375

Dawson, K

394

Oral manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome.  

PubMed

Sjögren's syndrome is a common autoimmune rheumatic disease. The most common symptoms of Sjögren's syndrome are extreme tiredness, along with dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) and dry mouth (xerostomia). Saliva plays an essential role in numerous functions of the mouth. Xerostomia can be caused by medications, chronic diseases like Sjögren's syndrome, and medical treatments, such as radiation therapy and bone marrow transplant. Xerostomia can eventually lead to difficulty in swallowing, severe and progressive tooth decay, or oral infections. Despite having excellent oral hygiene, individuals with Sjögren's syndrome have elevated levels of dental caries, along with the loss of many teeth, early in the disease. Sjögren's syndrome alters the protein profile and brings about a change in the composition of saliva. There is an increase in the levels of lactoferrin, beta(2)-microglobulin, sodium, lysozyme C, and cystatin C, and a decrease in salivary amylase and carbonic anhydrase. Up to 90% of individuals with Sjögren's syndrome have antibodies targeting the Ro 60 and La autoantigens. Natural aging, regardless of Sjögren's syndrome, is also another factor that brings about a significant change in the composition of saliva. The most prevailing cause of xerostomia in elderly persons is the use of anticholinergic medications. Currently, there is no cure for Sjögren's syndrome, and treatment is mainly palliative. PMID:18362310

Mathews, S A; Kurien, B T; Scofield, R H

2008-04-01

395

[Trichomonosomycosis of the oral cavity].  

PubMed

Protozoa and fungi of the oral cavity, although frequently occuring and connected with considerable clinical adverse effects, are as yet insufficiently known. The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence of common invasions of Trichomonas tenax and fungi, to associate the symptoms with the diagnosis of trichomonosis complicated by mycosis and to determine trichomonacidal properties of ornidazole, tinidazole and metronidazole. 936 dentist patients with different diagnoses were included into the study. The collected material consisted of rinsings, with simultaneous application of selective media, different for protozoa and for fungi 6ultures. Among the examined patients T. tenax was found in 90 cases including 85 cases where it occurred together with fungi (11 species), on the basis of which the diagnosis of trichomonosomycosis of the oral cavity was established. It was the most often in patients with leukoplakia and Lichen Wilsoni. We received a statistically significant association (0.001

Kurnatowska, A J; Kurnatowski, P

1999-01-01

396

Effects of Oral Care on Development of Oral Mucositis and Microorganisms in Patients with Esophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: We evaluated the effects of special oral care using a toothbrush with combined irrigation and suction- ing functions, along with povidone-iodine to treat oral bacteria and mucositis, in esophageal cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. In the special care group, oral hygiene was performed 3 days a week after dinner. Bacteria in saliva and plague samples were measured at various sampling

Saori Yoneda; Susumu Imai; Nobuhiro Hanada; Tsuneyoshi Yamazaki; Hidenobu Senpuku; Yojiro Ota; Hiroshi Uematsu

2007-01-01

397

Oral hygiene evaluation for effective oral care in preventing pneumonia in dentate elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to establish criteria for the visual evaluation of oral hygiene by analyzing the relationship between status of oral hygiene and number of oral bacteria in saliva for use in predicting the development of pneumonia. A total of 145 Japanese people of advanced age living in nursing homes were enrolled in the study. We evaluated

Shu Abe; Kazuyuki Ishihara; Mieko Adachi; Katsuji Okuda

2006-01-01

398

Complications of oral and peri-oral piercings: a summary of case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To systemically search the literature for case reports concerning adverse effects associated with oral and peri-oral piercings on oral health and\\/or general health. Material and methods: MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched up through 1 April 2010 to identify appropriate studies. Results: Independent screening of the titles and abstracts identified 1169 papers from

N. L. Hennequin-Hoenderdos; D. E. Slot; Weijden van der G. A

2011-01-01

399

Oral Health in Women During Preconception and Pregnancy: Implications for Birth Outcomes and Infant Oral Health  

PubMed Central

The mouth is an obvious portal of entry to the body, and oral health reflects and influences general health and well being. Maternal oral health has significant implications for birth outcomes and infant oral health. Maternal periodontal disease, that is, a chronic infection of the gingiva and supporting tooth structures, has been associated with preterm birth, development of preeclampsia, and delivery of a small-for-gestational age infant. Maternal oral flora is transmitted to the newborn infant, and increased cariogenic flora in the mother predisposes the infant to the development of caries. It is intriguing to consider preconception, pregnancy, or intrapartum treatment of oral health conditions as a mechanism to improve women's oral and general health, pregnancy outcomes, and their children's dental health. However, given the relationship between oral health and general health, oral health care should be a goal in its own right for all individuals. Regardless of the potential for improved oral health to improve pregnancy outcomes, public policies that support comprehensive dental services for vulnerable women of childbearing age should be expanded so that their own oral and general health is safeguarded and their children's risk of caries is reduced. Oral health promotion should include education of women and their health care providers ways to prevent oral disease from occurring, and referral for dental services when disease is present.

Edelstein, Burton L.

2006-01-01

400

Influence of oral buprenorphine, oral naltrexone or morphine on the effects of laparotomy in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effects of oral administration of buprenorphine ('buprenorphine jello'), a partial ~t opioid agonist, oral naltrexone, a ~t antagonist and morphine, a J.1agonist, were investigated in rats following laparotomy. Food and water consumption and body weight were reduced in rats that underwent surgery. Rats undergoing anaesthesia alone showed only a small reduction in water consumption. Administration of oral buprenorphine

J. H. Liles; P. A. Flecknell; J. Roughan; I. Cruz-Madorran

1998-01-01

401

Oral Health Status of Vietnamese Children: Findings From the National Oral Health Survey of Vietnam 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Oral Health Survey of Vietnam 1999 was conducted to inform policy development. Aims. The aims were to describe the oral health status, to analyze its socioeconomic distribution, and to evaluate change over time in the oral health of Vietnamese children. Methods. A multistaged stratified sampling process was employed. Children aged 6 to 17 years were examined by trained

Loc Giang Do; Andrew John Spencer; Kaye Frances Roberts-Thomson; Hai Dinh Trinh; Thuy Thanh Nguyen

2011-01-01

402

The Effects Of Oral Presentation Previewing Rates On Reading Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multielement design was used to compare the effects of rapid oral presentation and slow oral presentation during listening previewing on rates of accurate oral rereading. The participants were 2 elementary students with reading skills deficits. For both students, rates of accurate oral rereading were higher when adults reduced their oral reading rates as students read silently. DESCRIPTORS: reading rates,

CHRISTOPHER H. SKINNER; LISA COOPER; C Colel

1997-01-01

403

Oral Sex: Varied Behaviors and Perceptions in a College Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Views and behaviors pertaining to oral sex have changed in recent years. This anonymous, online survey posed both old and new questions pertaining to oral sex among a college population. This study not only confirmed previous findings about virgins engaging in oral sex but also found that women reported giving oral sex more often than receiving it from men. Oral

Wendy C. Chambers

2007-01-01

404

The portable gas chromatograph OralChroma™: a method of choice to detect oral and extra-oral halitosis.  

PubMed

It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. Gas chromatography using a specific sulfur detector is the most appropriate method to detect halitosis of different origin (intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis) and should be considered as the gold standard. However, a gas chromatograph is an expensive apparatus and needs trained personnel. The less specific Halimeter is the most used apparatus in halitosis research. In this study a newly developed portable gas chromatograph, the OralChroma™ (Abilit Corporation, Japan), was evaluated for use in the field of halitosis. The results show that the OralChroma is a very sensitive apparatus for measuring VSCs. Just like standard gas chromatography, it can perfectly differentiate between intra-oral and extra-oral blood-borne halitosis, while the Halimeter can only detect intra-oral halitosis. The hardware of the OralChroma meets all the needs for becoming the apparatus of choice in the field of halitosis. However, the software needs a major revision. Sometimes, the concentrations given for the different VSCs are completely incorrect due to a wrong assignment of the place of the VSCs in the chromatogram. PMID:21386154

Tangerman, A; Winkel, E G

2008-03-07

405

The portable gas chromatograph OralChroma™: a method of choice to detect oral and extra-oral halitosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. Gas chromatography using a specific sulfur detector is the most appropriate method to detect halitosis of different origin (intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis) and should be considered as the gold standard. However, a

A Tangerman; E G Winkel

2008-01-01

406

Oral, Post-Oral and Genetic Interactions in Sweet Appetite  

PubMed Central

Inbred mouse strains differ in their preferences for sweeteners, due in part to variations in their T1R3 sweet taste receptor. Recent studies of sweet sensitive C57BL/6J (B6) and subsensitive 129P3/J (129) mice indicate that experiential and post-oral effects of sugar substantially modify sweetener preference. In fact, the strain difference in sucrose preference disappeared after the mice were given 23 h/day tests with sucrose at ascending concentrations (0.5 - 32%). Intragastric infusions of sucrose (16%) also conditioned increased preference for and absolute intake of flavored sweet solutions in B6 and 129 mice. An operant analysis of sweetener appetite revealed, unexpectedly, that sugar-experienced 129 mice respond more vigorously than B6 mice for 16% sucrose rewards. These findings indicate that experiential and nutritional factors can, to some degree, override genetic differences in peripheral taste sensitivity in determining food appetite.

Sclafani, Anthony

2008-01-01

407

Effect of oral contraceptives on carbohydrate metabolism  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal studies of plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (Nefa), and insulin and blood pyruvate levels during oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests are described in three groups of women treated with combined oral contraceptive preparations: (A) 91 women tested before and during therapy; (B) 39 women tested during therapy and again after this had been discontinued; and (C) 22 women tested twice during therapy. The mean fasting plasma glucose level was unchanged during therapy. In terms of the total area between the plasma-glucose curve and the abscissa, oral and intravenous glucose tolerance deteriorated during therapy in 78% and 70% of group A women, respectively. Thirteen per cent of group A women developed chemical diabetes mellitus during therapy. In group B, oral glucose tolerance improved in 90% and intravenous glucose tolerance improved in 85% after therapy was discontinued. Group C, with an initial mean oral glucose tolerance similar to that of group B during therapy, showed no significant mean change of oral glucose tolerance on retesting. Mean plasma Nefa levels, both before and after oral or intravenous glucose, were unchanged during therapy in groups A and B. During therapy the mean fasting blood pyruvate level was raised in group A and mean blood pyruvate levels were also higher in both groups during oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests. The mean fasting plasma insulin levels were unchanged during therapy in both groups, but plasma insulin levels were significantly raised in group A after oral and intravenous glucose. Mean plasma insulin levels during oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests in group B, however, were not significantly different on and off therapy. It is suggested that the impaired glucose tolerance is `steroid diabetes' caused by raised plasma cortisol (hydrocortisone) levels secondary to the oestrogen component of the oral contraceptive. The clinical consequences of these abnormalities remain to be determined. Some individual case studies are presented which exemplify the metabolic abnormalities described above.

Wynn, Victor; Doar, J. W. H.

1969-01-01

408

Differential transmission of HIV traversing fetal oral/intestinal epithelia and adult oral epithelia.  

PubMed

While human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission through the adult oral route is rare, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) through the neonatal/infant oral and/or gastrointestinal route is common. To study the mechanisms of cell-free and cell-associated HIV transmission across adult oral and neonatal/infant oral/intestinal epithelia, we established ex vivo organ tissue model systems of adult and fetal origin. Given the similarity of neonatal and fetal oral epithelia with respect to epithelial stratification and density of HIV-susceptible immune cells, we used fetal oral the epithelium as a model for neonatal/infant oral epithelium. We found that cell-free HIV traversed fetal oral and intestinal epithelia and infected HIV-susceptible CD4(+) T lymphocytes, Langerhans/dendritic cells, and macrophages. To study the penetration of cell-associated virus into fetal oral and intestinal epithelia, HIV-infected macrophages and lymphocytes were added to the surfaces of fetal oral and intestinal epithelia. HIV-infected macrophages, but not lymphocytes, transmigrated across fetal oral epithelia. HIV-infected macrophages and, to a lesser extent, lymphocytes transmigrated across fetal intestinal epithelia. In contrast to the fetal oral/intestinal epithelia, cell-free HIV transmigration through adult oral epithelia was inefficient and virions did not infect intraepithelial and subepithelial HIV-susceptible cells. In addition, HIV-infected macrophages and lymphocytes did not transmigrate through intact adult oral epithelia. Transmigration of cell-free and cell-associated HIV across the fetal oral/intestinal mucosal epithelium may serve as an initial mechanism for HIV MTCT. PMID:22205732

Tugizov, Sharof M; Herrera, Rossana; Veluppillai, Piri; Greenspan, Deborah; Soros, Vanessa; Greene, Warner C; Levy, Jay A; Palefsky, Joel M

2011-12-28

409

Differential Transmission of HIV Traversing Fetal Oral/Intestinal Epithelia and Adult Oral Epithelia  

PubMed Central

While human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission through the adult oral route is rare, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) through the neonatal/infant oral and/or gastrointestinal route is common. To study the mechanisms of cell-free and cell-associated HIV transmission across adult oral and neonatal/infant oral/intestinal epithelia, we established ex vivo organ tissue model systems of adult and fetal origin. Given the similarity of neonatal and fetal oral epithelia with respect to epithelial stratification and density of HIV-susceptible immune cells, we used fetal oral the epithelium as a model for neonatal/infant oral epithelium. We found that cell-free HIV traversed fetal oral and intestinal epithelia and infected HIV-susceptible CD4+ T lymphocytes, Langerhans/dendritic cells, and macrophages. To study the penetration of cell-associated virus into fetal oral and intestinal epithelia, HIV-infected macrophages and lymphocytes were added to the surfaces of fetal oral and intestinal epithelia. HIV-infected macrophages, but not lymphocytes, transmigrated across fetal oral epithelia. HIV-infected macrophages and, to a lesser extent, lymphocytes transmigrated across fetal intestinal epithelia. In contrast to the fetal oral/intestinal epithelia, cell-free HIV transmigration through adult oral epithelia was inefficient and virions did not infect intraepithelial and subepithelial HIV-susceptible cells. In addition, HIV-infected macrophages and lymphocytes did not transmigrate through intact adult oral epithelia. Transmigration of cell-free and cell-associated HIV across the fetal oral/intestinal mucosal epithelium may serve as an initial mechanism for HIV MTCT.

Herrera, Rossana; Veluppillai, Piri; Greenspan, Deborah; Soros, Vanessa; Greene, Warner C.; Levy, Jay A.; Palefsky, Joel M.

2012-01-01

410

Nevada State Oral Health Plan, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2002, An Oral Health Plan for Nevada was released. The document was the outcome of the 2002 Strategic Meeting of Oral Health Stakeholders held in January 2002. The Strategic meeting was funded through a grant from the HRSA Bureau of Primary Health Care...

2004-01-01

411

Oral microbiology: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Since the initial observations of oral bacteria within dental plaque by van Leeuwenhoek using his primitive microscopes in 1680, an event that is generally recognized as the advent of oral microbiological investigation, oral microbiology has gone through phases of "reductionism" and "holism". From the small beginnings of the Miller and Black period, in which microbiologists followed Koch's postulates, took the reductionist approach to try to study the complex oral microbial community by analyzing individual species; to the modern era when oral researchers embrace "holism" or "system thinking", adopt new concepts such as interspecies interaction, microbial community, biofilms, poly-microbial diseases, oral microbiological knowledge has burgeoned and our ability to identify the resident organisms in dental plaque and decipher the interactions between key components has rapidly increased, such knowledge has greatly changed our view of the oral microbial flora, provided invaluable insight into the etiology of dental and periodontal diseases, opened the door to new approaches and techniques for developing new therapeutic and preventive tools for combating oral polymicrobial diseases. PMID:20687296

He, Xue-Song; Shi, Wen-Yuan

2009-06-01

412

The Oral Speech Mechanism Screening Examination (OSMSE).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although speech-language pathologists are expected to be able to administer and interpret oral examinations, there are currently no screening tests available that provide careful administration instructions and data for intra-examiner and inter-examiner reliability. The Oral Speech Mechanism Screening Examination (OSMSE) is designed primarily for…

St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Ruscello, Dennis M.

413

The Communication Model Perspective of Oral Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication models suggest that oral interpretation is a communicative process, that this process may be represented by specification of implicit and explicit content and structure, and that the models themselves are useful. This paper examines these assumptions through a comparative analysis of communication models employed by oral

Peterson, Eric E.

414

13 CFR 134.222 - Oral hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oral hearing. 134.222 Section 134.222 Business...PROCEDURE GOVERNING CASES BEFORE THE OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice § 134.222 Oral hearing. (a) Availability. A party...

2012-01-01

415

Patient delay for potentially malignant oral symptoms.  

PubMed

The detection of oral cancer at an early stage is the most effective means to improve survival and reduce morbidity, disfigurement, duration of treatment, and hospital costs associated with this disease. However, approximately 30% of patients delay seeking help for more than 3 months following the self-discovery of symptoms of oral cancer. This study aimed to increase our understanding of patient delay for potentially malignant oral symptoms in order to inform the development of interventions to encourage early presentation of oral cancer. Newly referred patients (n = 80) with potentially malignant oral symptoms completed a questionnaire to determine influences on the timing of their decision to seek help. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine factors associated with patient delay. The analysis indicated that the gravity of patients' initial symptom interpretation, the level of deprivation, knowledge of oral cancer, severity of life events in the patient delay period, and perceived ability to seek help for oral symptoms were significantly related to the duration of patient delay, with the latter three variables being independent predictors. The results are discussed with reference to their implications for interventions aimed at reducing patient delay for symptoms of oral cancer. PMID:18353007

Scott, Suzanne; McGurk, Mark; Grunfeld, Elizabeth

2008-04-01

416

Oral Health Beliefs in Diverse Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from population-based samples of adults participating in the ICS-II USA study, and using principal components analysis, we constructed oral health belief measures corresponding to the Health Belief Model (HBM) dimensions. Tests of validity and reliability were performed. Scales measuring perceived benefit of preventive practices and seriousness of oral disease had the highest validity and reliability. We used multiple

T. T. Nakazono; P. L. Davidson; R. M. Andersen

1997-01-01

417

Midwestern Rural Adolescents' Oral Sex Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: This study examined the prevalence of oral sexual activity in rural Midwestern adolescents. We also examined the correlates of a series of risk behaviors with oral sexual activity. Methods: A questionnaire based on the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System was distributed to 2121 rural middle and high school students in grades 6-12…

Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Ward, Britney L.; Welch, Philip J.

2011-01-01

418

Why Orality Works: Insights from field experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper based on results from field research addresses eight reasons why orality works in contrast to a literacy approach. Research shows that orality works when it is initiated and embraced by people with political authority and their social systems. Regional leaders engage and prescribe messages that are needed for their people, but unfortunately this rarely happens with Bible

Charles Madinger; Derek C. Eggers; Kyle McClellan

2007-01-01

419

Orality in Northern Cree Indigenous Worlds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the importance and centrality of orality, rather than literacy, in the shared lives of the Cree of northern Alberta. Discusses orality consciousness related to the practice of shared memories and personal and communal healing during the "dance of the ancestors" or "ghost dance." Includes a short history of the Cree people and their…

Weber-Pillwax, Cora

2001-01-01

420

A Phonological Exploration of Oral Reading Errors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents study exploring oral reading errors of normally developing readers to determine any developmental differences in learning phoneme-grapheme units; to discover if the grapheme representations of some phonemes are more difficult to read than others; and to replicate results reported by Fowler, et. al. Findings show most oral reading errors…

Moscicki, Eve K.; Tallal, Paula

1981-01-01

421

Correlation between oral malodor and periodontal bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), including hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide, are primarily responsible for oral malodor. Recently, the mgl gene encoding L-methionine-?-deamino-?-mercaptomethane-lyase, which produces methyl mercaptan, was cloned from Porphyromonas gingivalis. This article discusses the mechanism and pathogenic role of the formation of VSCs by oral bacteria.

Yoshio Nakano; Mamiko Yoshimura; Toshihiko Koga

2002-01-01

422

Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Oral and Written Language Scales, an assessment of receptive and expressive language for children and young adults aged 3 to 21. The test assesses overall language skills and specific performance in oral expression, listening comprehension, and written expression. Its administration, standardization, reliability, and…

Goldblatt, Jennifer; Friedman, Fran

1999-01-01

423

Oral Skills Testing: A Rhetorical Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development, implementation, and evaluation of a semidirect test of oral proficiency, the Rhetorical Task Examination (RTE), is reported. The RTE proposes a compromise approach to rating oral skills by having two scales: one for the functional ability for accomplishing rhetorical tasks and one for linguistic competence. (34 references)…

Lazaraton, Anne; Riggenbach, Heidi

1990-01-01

424

Validation of Automated Scoring of Oral Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A two-part experiment is presented that validates a new measurement tool for scoring oral reading ability. Data collected by the U.S. government in a large-scale literacy assessment of adults were analyzed by a system called VersaReader that uses automatic speech recognition and speech processing technologies to score oral reading fluency. In the…

Balogh, Jennifer; Bernstein, Jared; Cheng, Jian; Van Moere, Alistair; Townshend, Brent; Suzuki, Masanori

2012-01-01

425

Discourse Variation in Oral Proficiency Interviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the discourse structure of oral language proficiency interviews focused on (1) one principal discourse variable, topic, for analyzing contingency and goal orientation in dyadic interactions, and (2) contextual factors (interlocutor, theme, task, participant gender). Data came from 30 dyadic oral interviews in English as a Second…

Young, Richard; Milanovic, Michael

426

Discourse Approaches to Oral Language Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at a sample conversation and examines layers of interpretation that different academic traditions have constructed to interpret it. Reviews studies that have compared the discourse of oral interaction in assessment with oral discourse in contexts outside the assessment. Discusses studies that related ways of speaking to cultural values of…

Young, Richard F.

2002-01-01

427

Oral Assessment in Mathematics: Implementation and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…

Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

2012-01-01

428

Effects of smoking on oral cancer transcriptome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Oral cancer is a debilitating disease and the survival rates for these patients have not improved over the past decades. Tobacco smoking is one of the most common risk factor associated with oral cancer. Objectives: To explore and identify differential genes expression associated with tobacco smoking. Methodology: Next generation sequencing using the Illumina Genome Analyzer was done to sequence

R. B. Zain; L. P. Karen-Ng; S. C. Cheong; A. Anwar; W. M. W. Mustaffa; N. Prepagaran; Z. Zaini; A. F. Merican; M. T. Abraham; K. K. Tay; Z. A. A. Rahman; A. Jallaludin

2011-01-01

429

Liver Hamartomas in Patients on Oral Contraceptives  

PubMed Central

Three cases are reported of tumour-like lesions of the liver in women who had been on oral contraceptives for long periods. These malformations have a prominent vascular component and may present with haemoperitoneum and shock. The possibility of an association between liver hamartomas and oral contraceptive therapy has to be considered. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4

O'Sullivan, J. P.; Wilding, R. P.

1974-01-01

430

Teaching the Past through Oral History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses oral history as a means to connect national events with the lives of individual people. Relates the information from student oral term paper interviews, focusing on topics such as the Vietnam War, the Great Depression, civil rights and school integration, and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. (CMK)|

Dillon, Pattie

2000-01-01

431

Angioneurotic oedema secondary to oral thiamine.  

PubMed

Although allergic side effects due to parenteral thiamine are well-documented, they are extremely rare when thiamine is used orally. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman who developed angioneurotic oedema secondary to oral ingestion of thiamine at a therapeutic dose. The incident occurred twice with a clear temporal relationship to the initiation on thiamine. PMID:24051148

Osman, Mugtaba; Casey, Patricia

2013-09-19

432

Even small interventions can improve oral health.  

PubMed

When resources are scarce, authors of articles appearing in health publications have questioned the effectiveness of traditional interventions as a means of improving oral health. The experience in Delicias, Honduras, indicates that the principles of BPOC (Basic Package of Oral Care) may provide quicker and better results. PMID:24027899

Vega, Lina; Carberry, Frank J

433

STDs and Related Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... to avoid non-emergency dental treatment. Hepatitis Oral Effects Hepatitis rarely affects the mouth or teeth. At the Dentist Hepatitis ... patches" if the patch is white-gray in color. At the Dentist Avoid non-emergency dental ... Virus Oral Effects The most common disease associated with Epstein-Barr ...

434

Human papillomavirus infections and oral tumors.  

PubMed

In the past 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in human papillomaviruses (HPV) because of their potential role in the pathogenesis of malignant tumors. In 1983, we published the first evidence that HPV might be involved in oral squamous cell carcinomas. The identification of morphological similarities between oral and cervical mucosa lead us to this original proposal. In a recent meta-analysis, HPV was indeed confirmed as an independent risk factor for oral carcinoma. To date, totally more than 100 types of HPV have been identified. As in anogenital cancers, HPV type 16 is the most prevalent type in oral carcinomas. The benign oral lesions, associated with HPV infection, include squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verrucca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH). Papillomas and condylomas are mostly caused by HPV type 6 or 11, while oral verrucas are associated with the skin types 2 or 4. A family history of FEH has been suggested. The FEH lesions are caused by HPV types 13 and 32, only detected in oral epithelium. In immunocompromised patients, benign HPV-induced lesions are characterized by atypical morphology and the simultaneous detection of multiple HPV types. Oral benign HPV lesions are mostly asymptomatic, and may persist or regress spontaneously. PMID:12920585

Syrjänen, Stina

2003-01-18

435

The availability of orally administered nortriptyline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of an orally administered drug may be defined as the fraction of the total dose that enters the blood. Three healthy subjects were given identical doses of nortriptyline hydrochloride (NT-HCl) by the oral and intramuscular routes. The availability was assessed by comparing the total areas under the NT plasma concentration-time curves produced by the two methods of administration.

B. Alexanderson; O. Borgå; G. Alvfin

1973-01-01

436

Mathematical Communication through Written and Oral Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this action research study of my classroom of sixth grade mathematics, I investigated the use of communication of mathematics through both written and oral expression. Giving my students the opportunity to communicate mathematics both in writing and orally helped to deepen the students’ understanding of mathematics. The students’ levels of comprehension were increased when they were presented with a

Brandee Wilson

2009-01-01

437

Human Platelet Aggregation Curve and Oral Contraception  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of in vitro experiments, the authors investigated the different aspects of the aggregation curves of human blood platelets taken from a group of women who received oral contraceptives, another group of women who did not receive oral contraceptives and a group of men. The platelets were subjected to ADP stimulation. The authors showed that at the lower

C. M. D. Montanari; A. Vittoria; U. Rossi; P. Sala

1979-01-01

438

Oral mucositis with features of psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual case of oral mucositis with features of psoriasis is reported along with a review of the cases of oral psoriasis in the literature. The case reported involved a crusted lesion on the upper lip and erythematous lesions on the labial mucosa, buccal mucosa, and denture-bearing palatal mucosa. In addition, lesions resembling geographic tongue and ectopic geographic tongue were

Fariba Simhai Younai; Joan Andersen Phelan

1997-01-01

439

Speak Up! Oral Examinations and Political Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing assessments of undergraduate political science students is predictable and stagnant. A missing, yet valuable, testing assessment tool that can contribute to the repertoire of political science is the oral examination. Borrowing this testing tool largely from foreign language departments, oral exams require students to “think on their feet” in order to critically assess and appropriately respond to questions. The

Melissa J. Buehler; Laura U. Schneider

2009-01-01

440

medical management of dental and oral pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Patients may consult medical practitioners because of painful dental or oral conditions. medical practitioners need to be aware of common dental and oral diseases in order to manage the patient's pain, but it is even more important to encourage the patient to see a dentist. Typically there is an underlying disease that must be managed by dental or surgical

Paul V Abbott

441

Can oral pathogens influence allergic disease?  

PubMed

The hygiene hypothesis contends that fewer opportunities for infections and microbial exposures have resulted in more widespread asthma and atopic disease. Consistent with that hypothesis, decreases in infectious oral diseases over the past half century have coincided with increases in the prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases. This observation has led some researchers to speculate that exposures to oral bacteria, including pathogens associated with periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, might play a protective role in the development of asthma and allergy. Colonization of the oral cavity with bacteria, including some species of periodontal pathogens, begins shortly after birth, and the detection of serum antibodies to oral pathogens in early childhood provides evidence of an early immune response to these bacteria. Current knowledge of the immune response to oral bacteria and the immunologic pathogenesis of periodontal diseases suggests biologically plausible mechanisms by which oral pathogens could influence the risk of allergic disease. However, studies investigating the association between oral pathogen exposures and allergic disease are few in number and limited by cross-sectional or case-control design, exclusion of young children, and use of surrogate measures of oral bacterial colonization. Additional studies, particularly well-designed case-control studies among very young children and prospective birth cohort studies, are needed. PMID:21531254

Arbes, Samuel J; Matsui, Elizabeth C

2011-05-01

442

Does maternal oral health predict child oral health-related quality of life in adulthood?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  A parental\\/family history of poor oral health may influence the oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) of adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To determine whether the oral health of mothers of young children can predict the OHRQOL of those same children when they\\u000a reach adulthood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Oral examination and interview data from the Dunedin Study's age-32 assessment, as well as maternal self-rated oral health\\u000a data from

Dara M Shearer; W Murray Thomson; Jonathan M Broadbent; Richie Poulton

2011-01-01

443

Pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis.  

PubMed

Data from recent epidemiological studies provide overwhelming evidence that areca nut is the main etiological factor for oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). It is logical to hypothesize that the increased collagen synthesis or reduced collagen degradation is the possible mechanism in the development of the disease. There are numerous biological pathways involved in the above processes and it is likely that the normal regulatory mechanisms are either down regulated or up regulated at different stages of the disease. The copper content of areca nut is high and the possible role of copper as a mediator of fibrosis is supported by the demonstration of the up regulation of lysyl oxidase in OSMF biopsies. The aim of this article is to emphasize that the incorporation of copper into the areca nut is through the Bordeaux mixture, which is sprayed as a fungicide on areca plantations in regions with scheduled monsoons and of which copper sulfate is an important constituent. PMID:22842361

Khan, Saba; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Prashanth, Shenai K; Veena, K M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar

444

Buffalo Trace Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This engaging project was developed by the Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History at the University of Kentucky Libraries. It was designed to preserve the story of the Buffalo Trace Distillery in Frankfort, Kentucky which has a truly remarkable history intertwined with that of the Bluegrass State. The project features the people and stories of the Buffalo Trace family, such as master distiller emeritus Elmer T. Lee and descendants of figures like Colonel Albert Blanton and Pappy Van Winkle. On the top of the homepage, visitors can make their way through sections such as Brands, People, Roles, Documentary, and Image Gallery. The Documentary contains a complete film about the history of this unique business and the People section features interesting interviews with those who have made the business known around the world.

445

Chicago Architects Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the artistic statements of Louis Sullivan to the brutally Modern statements of Walter Netsch, architecture in Chicago is nothing if not eclectic. Given the important legacy of those architects practicing in and around Chicago, it is refreshing to note that the Art Institute of Chicago has been collecting the oral histories of these men and women since 1983. With substantial financial support from the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts and the Illinois Humanities Council, the Art Institute of Chicago has placed complete transcripts for over fifty of these interviews online here for access by architectural historians and the general public. Here visitors will find the recollections of Stanley Tigerman, Harry Weese, Bertrand Goldberg, and Carter Manny. Visitors will also be glad to find that female architects are well-represented here, and include such individuals as Gertrude Lempp Kerbis and Natalie De Blois.

446

Venous effects of oral contraceptives  

PubMed Central

In a five-year analysis of an oral contraceptive trial by the Council for the Investigation of Fertility Control venous effects were the third most troublesome group of side-effects with both combined and sequential therapy. Vein complaints, leg cramps, and thrombophlebitis were significantly more frequent with the combined preparations that contained a relatively low dose of progestogen and a high dose of oestrogen than with the other groups tested. No cases of thrombophlebitis occurred in women taking the strongly oestrogenic sequential groups. Histological examination of uterine curettings showed that most progestogenic combined preparations were associated with a high incidence of dilated endometrial sinusoids, while the oestrogenic sequential regimens and low-dose progestogen-only regimens had a low incidence. The incidence of stromal condensation round the sinusoids correlated with the incidence of leg cramps, and these effects appeared to be specific for each preparation tested.

Grant, Ellen C. G.

1969-01-01

447

Oral immunotherapy for food allergy.  

PubMed

Current management of food allergy involves strict avoidance, education on recognizing and managing allergic reactions, and carrying an adrenaline autoinjector. This approach is burdensome and associated with reduced quality of life. Patients with food allergy would benefit greatly from a treatment that could achieve desensitization or long-term tolerance. Recent studies have shown that oral immunotherapy (OIT) can induce desensitization and modulate allergen-specific immune responses; however, it remains uncertain whether OIT can induce long-term tolerance. Nevertheless, successful desensitization provides a major advance in management by reducing the risk of reaction to low amounts of allergen. Allergic reactions during OIT are common, although severe reactions are less common. Therefore, OIT should be performed in specialist centers under close medical supervision and would ideally be conducted as part of ongoing research studies. OIT holds promise as a novel approach to managing food allergy. PMID:19063824

Tang, Mimi L K

2009-01-01

448

[Oral contraception and cerebrovascular accidents].  

PubMed

The authors had the opportunity to follow a case of fatal ischemic bilateral cerebral infarctus which occurred in a 28 year old female with a history of migraine (but without any anti-migrainous drug). She had been using a low dose (0.05 mg ethinyl estradiol) oral contraceptive (OC) for 2 years. The previous pathological data of subendothelial thickening and fibrosis with thrombosis were confirmed, but for the 1st time, a marked giant cell reaction was found in close contact with lesions of the internal elastic membrane. Thus, there was evidence of inflammatory thrombo-angeitis obliterans. Biological and immunological abnormalities such as a high rate of anti-ethinyl estradiol antibodies in the serum (polyclonal immunoglobulin IgC) and circulating blood immune complexes seem to be closely related to this inflammatory thrombo-angeitis. These biological and histological findings suggest that vascular accidents related to OCs may be induced by an immunological mechanism. (author's) PMID:7034891

Nick, J; Bakouche, P; Beaumont, V; Vedrenne, C

1981-06-01

449

Laser Treatment of Oral Mucosa Tattoo  

PubMed Central

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit.

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-01-01

450

Textual analysis of retired nurses' oral histories.  

PubMed

This paper considers the use of textual analysis of oral histories as a method for historians of nursing. Fifty-three oral histories of retired nurses in midwestern USA were analyzed for the purpose of historical reconstruction of past education experiences in nursing. Textual analysis was used to determine how nurses made sense of their educational experiences, and it involved gathering data, analyzing the information, and using a different method of interpreting the data. Although the participants responded to specific questions, the oral histories in this study are more than mere answers to the researchers' queries. The participants' memories are narratives that are the joint product of both the historian and the participant. As such, the oral history becomes a text to be stored along with other primary sources for future historians' use. The research also suggests decentering oral histories from an exclusively academic agenda and focusing more on what the participants choose to remember and why they make those choices. PMID:18028148

Wall, Barbra Mann; Edwards, Nancy E; Porter, Marjorie L; Edwards, Nancy; Wall, Barbra

2007-12-01

451

Bacterial and Host Interactions of Oral Streptococci  

PubMed Central

The oral microbial flora comprises one of the most diverse human-associated biofilms. Its development is heavily influenced by oral streptococci, which are considered the main group of early colonizers. Their initial attachment determines the composition of later colonizers in the oral biofilm and impacts the health or disease status of the host. Thus, the role of streptococci in the development of oral diseases is best described in the context of bacterial ecology, which itself is further influenced by interactions with host epithelial cells, the immune system, and salivary components. The tractability of the oral biofilm makes it an excellent model system for studies of complex, biofilm-associated polymicrobial diseases. Using this system, numerous cooperative and antagonistic bacterial interactions have been demonstrated to occur within the community and with the host. In this review, several recent identified interactions are presented.

Merritt, Justin; Qi, Fengxia

2009-01-01

452

Oral malodor: causes, assessment, and treatment.  

PubMed

Oral malodor has been recognized in the literature since ancient times. However, in the last 5 to 6 years, it has come to the forefront of public and dental professional awareness. Oral malodor is caused mainly by facultative bacteria on the tongue that produce volatile organic compounds. Traditional assessment methods include organoleptic measurements and gas chromatography. Newer techniques make diagnosis more convenient, and the electronic nose is in the early stages of development. After assessment, active practices of using proper oral hygiene products and making small lifestyle changes can reduce the amount of oral malodor significantly for an individual. Understanding causes, assessment, and treatment of oral malodor can help dental professionals find ways to decrease its prevalence and increase their patients' well-being. PMID:21462620

Nachnani, Sushma

453

A Disguised Tuberculosis in Oral Buccal Mucosa  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.

Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine

2011-01-01

454

Oral health promotion interventions on oral yeast in hospitalised and medically compromised patients: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Yeast are major aetiological agents of localised oral mucosal lesions, and are also leading causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of oral health promotion interventions on the prevalence and incidence of these opportunistic oral pathogens in hospitalised and medically compromised patients. The PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases were searched for clinical trials assessing the effect of oral health promotion interventions on oral yeast. Chlorhexidine delivered in a variety of oral hygiene products appeared to have some effect on oral yeast, although some studies found equivocal effects. Although a wide array of other compounds have also been investigated, their clinical effectiveness remains to be substantiated. Likewise, the utility of mechanical oral hygiene interventions and other oral health promotion measures such as topical application of salivary substitute, remains unsettled. Although many chemical agents contained in oral hygiene products have proven in vitro activity against oral yeast, their clinical effectiveness and potential role as adjuncts or alternative therapies to conventional treatment remains to be confirmed by further high-quality randomised controlled trials. This is pertinent, given the recent emergence of yeast resistance to conventional antifungal agents. PMID:21749481

Lam, Otto L T; Bandara, H M H N; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; McGrath, Colman; Li, Leonard S W

2011-07-12

455

21 CFR 520.2612 - Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. 520.2612 ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...Trimethoprim and sulfadiazine oral suspension. (a)...

2009-04-01

456

21 CFR 520.1720 - Phenylbutazone oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Phenylbutazone oral dosage forms. 520.1720...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1720 Phenylbutazone oral dosage...

2013-04-01

457

21 CFR 520.2150 - Stanozolol oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Stanozolol oral dosage forms. 520.2150...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2150 Stanozolol oral dosage...

2013-04-01

458

21 CFR 520.2220 - Sulfadimethoxine oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Sulfadimethoxine oral dosage forms. 520.2220...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2220 Sulfadimethoxine oral dosage...

2013-04-01

459

21 CFR 520.2482 - Triamcinolone acetonide oral powder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Triamcinolone acetonide oral powder. 520.2482 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...2482 Triamcinolone acetonide oral powder. (a)...

2009-04-01

460

21 CFR 520.2325 - Sulfaquinoxaline oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline oral dosage forms. 520.2325...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2325 Sulfaquinoxaline oral dosage...

2013-04-01

461

21 CFR 520.88 - Amoxicillin oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Amoxicillin oral dosage forms. 520.88 ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88 Amoxicillin oral dosage...

2013-04-01

462

21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is...

2013-04-01

463

21 CFR 520.903 - Febantel oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Febantel oral dosage forms. 520.903...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.903 Febantel oral dosage...

2013-04-01

464

21 CFR 520.2260 - Sulfamethazine oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Sulfamethazine oral dosage forms. 520.2260...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2260 Sulfamethazine oral dosage...

2013-04-01

465

21 CFR 520.905 - Fenbendazole oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Fenbendazole oral dosage forms. 520.905...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905 Fenbendazole