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1

Randomized Trial of Oral Misoprostol Before Endometrial Biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if the use of oral misoprostol in women undergoing endometrial biopsy reduces procedural discomfort. Methods: Women undergoing endometrial biopsy were randomized to receive either 400g misoprostol or a vitamin B6 placebo orally 12 hours prior to the procedure, and were stratified based on menopausal status. The primary outcome was procedural discomfort on a visual analogue scale (0-10).

Joan M. G. Crane; Catherine Craig; Lesa Dawson; Teresa O'Grady; Elias Bartellas; Donna Hutchens

2009-01-01

2

Randomized Trial of Oral Misoprostol Treatment for Cervical Ripening Before Tandem Application in Cervix Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of oral misoprostol administered to facilitate tandem application to the cervix as a part of brachytherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty patients with cervical cancer who had been planned to undergo brachytherapy at Dr. Luetfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital were evaluated in a double-blind, prospective, randomized trial. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of 40 patients. The first and second groups received 400 {mu}g of misoprostol orally and placebo, respectively, 3 h before tandem application. The two groups were compared in terms of age, diameter of tumor, parity, age at first intercourse, amount of bleeding and pain at first tandem application, length of endometrial cavity measured by hysterometer, and size of Hegar dilators used for cervical dilatation. Results: Of all cases, 63.6%, 16.3%, 10%, 6.3%, 2.5%, and 1.3% were Stage IIB, IIIB, IIIA, IVA, IIA and IIC, respectively. Mean ({+-}SD) age (range) was 49.3 {+-} 13.1 (25-83) years and 56.6 {+-} 13.2 (30-78) years in the study and control groups, respectively (p = 0.015). Age at first intercourse, diameter of tumor, parity, amount of bleeding at first tandem application, and length of endometrial cavity measured by hysterometer were not significantly different between the two groups. Pain score was significantly higher in the control group (p < 0.001). Application was significantly easier in the study group compared with controls (p < 0.001). Average size of initial Hegar dilators used for cervical dilatation was significantly higher in the study group compared with controls (p = 0.017). Conclusion: Administration of misoprostol 400 {mu}g orally for cervical ripening before tandem application facilitates the procedure, increases patient tolerability and comfort, and may decrease complication rates.

Cepni, Kimia; Gul, Sule [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ministry of Health, Dr. Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Cepni, Ismail [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Gueralp, Onur, E-mail: dronur@hotmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Sal, Veysel [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Mayadagli, Alpaslan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ministry of Health, Dr. Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

2011-11-01

3

Cervical Priming Before Diagnostic Operative Hysteroscopy in Infertile Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Comparison of 2 Vaginal Misoprostol Doses  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vaginal misoprostol for cervical priming at doses of 200 mcg and 400 mcg, 12 to 15 hours before diagnostic office hysteroscopy (OH) without anesthesia in patients with infertility. Sixty infertile patients requiring a diagnostic office hysteroscopy for investigation of infertility were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated into 3 vaginally administered misoprostol groups: (1) control group, (2) 200-mcg dose group, and (3) 400-mcg dose group. Misoprostol significantly facilitated the procedure of OH: cervical entry was easier; procedural time was shorter; baseline cervical width was larger; and pain scoring was lower in the misoprostol groups compared with the control group. Increasing the dose of misoprostol from 200 mcg to 400 mcg did not improve the effect on cervical dilation. Misoprostol is a promising analog to use for cervical priming before OH. Since doses of 200 mcg and 400 mcg vaginal misoprostol 12 hours before the OH both have proven to be effective regimens, 200 mcg may be preferred. However, before routine clinical usage, further research is needed through large, randomized, controlled trials powered to detect a difference in complications to determine whether misoprostol reduces complications in OH. PMID:23701149

Bastu, Ercan; Celik, Cem; Nehir, Asli; Dogan, Murat; Yuksel, Bahar; Ergun, Bulent

2013-01-01

4

Safety and Efficacy of Misoprostol versus Oxytocin for the Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the commonest cause of maternal death worldwide. Studies suggest that the use of misoprostol may be beneficial in clinical settings where oxytocin is unavailable. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of oxytocin and misoprostol when used in the prevention of PPH. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, 400 pregnant women who had a vaginal delivery were assigned into two groups: to receive either 20 IU of oxytocin in 1000?mL Ringer's solution and two placebo tablets or 400?mcg oral misoprostol (as two tablets) and 2?mL normal saline in 1000?mL Ringer's solution. The quantity of blood loss was higher in the oxytocin group in comparison to the misoprostol group. There was no significant difference in the decrease in hematocrit and hemoglobin between the two groups. Although there was no significant difference in the need for transfusions between the two groups, the patients in the oxytocin group had greater need for additional oxytocin. Results from this study indicate that it may be considered as an alternative for oxytocin in low resource clinical settings. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01863706. PMID:24734184

Rajaei, Minoo; Karimi, Samieh; Shahboodaghi, Zohreh; Khorgoei, Tahereh; Rajaei, Farzam

2014-01-01

5

Oral toxicity of isotretinoin, misoprostol, methotrexate, mifepristone and levonorgestrel as pregnancy category X medications in female mice  

PubMed Central

An oral toxicity study of several pregnancy category X drugs was performed in female ICR mice. The drugs were administered orally once daily for 3 days at doses of 1, 10 and 100 ?g/kg for isotretinoin; 6.7, 67 and 670 ?g/kg for misoprostol; 83, 830 and 8,300 ?g/kg for methotrexate; 3.3, 33 and 330 ?g/kg for mifepristone; and 25, 250 and 2,500 ?g/kg for levonorgestrel. During the test period, clinical signs, mortality, body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry and necropsy findings were examined. Following administration of methotrexate at 8,300 ?g/kg, a number of animals exhibited decreased spontaneous activity, and one animal died. In the hematological analysis, compared with those treated with the control, the animals treated with the drugs exhibited similar significant decreases in the number of granulocytes and granulocyte differentiation, and increases in lymphocyte differentiation. In the serum biochemical analysis, animals receiving high doses of the five drugs demonstrated significant changes in uric acid, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, lipase, total cholesterol and calcium. At necropsy, intestinal redness was frequently observed in animals that received the high dose of methotrexate. Uterus enlargement and ovary dropsy were also detected in the groups receiving mifepristone and levonorgestrel. Despite the short-term exposure, these drugs exhibited significant side effects, including white blood cell toxicity, in the mouse model. Category X drugs can be traded illegally via the internet for the purpose of early pregnancy termination. Thus, illegal abuse of the drugs should be further discouraged to protect mothers.

KIM, SEONG-KWAN; SHIN, SOO-JEONG; YOO, YOHAN; KIM, NA-HYUN; KIM, DONG-SOON; ZHANG, DAN; PARK, JIN-A; YI, HEE; KIM, JIN-SUK; SHIN, HO-CHUL

2015-01-01

6

Misoprostol vs. oxytocin for induction of labor at term  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficacy of misoprostol was studied for induction of labor at term. Seventy patients were randomized to Group A (n=36, oral misoprostol 50 ?g four hourly to maximum of 5 doses) and B (n=34, continuous oxytocin infusion). Induction-delivery interval was shorter with misoprostol (7.7±2.8 h against 14.3±4.8 h with oxytocin) but the rates of vaginal delivery, cesarean, neonatal outcome variables were

A. Nigam; V. K. Singh; P. Dubay; K. Pandey; A. Bhagoliwal; A. Prakash

2004-01-01

7

Pharmacokinetic profiles of controlled-release hydrogel polymer vaginal inserts containing misoprostol.  

PubMed

Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue, is commonly administered intravaginally for cervical ripening and induction of labor. There is uncertainty regarding the correct dose because of the need to divide the tablets, and there is difficulty in removing the product when there is an adverse event. A proprietary hydrogel polymer containing a removable controlled-release reservoir dose of misoprostol is being developed for vaginal administration (misoprostol vaginal insert) to address these drawbacks while maintaining efficacy. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic profiles of these vaginal inserts and orally administered misoprostol. Twelve nonpregnant women received 100-, 200-, and 400-microg misoprostol vaginal inserts and separately received an oral dose of 200 microg of misoprostol. Values for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, from time 0 to the last measurable concentration, were dose proportional with 481, 1026, and 2191 pg.h/mL for the 100-, 200-, and 400-microg misoprostol vaginal inserts, respectively. Maximum plasma concentrations were 33.1, 73.4, and 144 pg/mL for the 100-, 200-, and 400-microg misoprostol vaginal inserts, compared with 609 pg/mL for the 200 microg of oral misoprostol. After administration of the insert, plasma misoprostol acid levels increased gradually with time of the maximum measured plasma concentration at 5 to 9 hours. Following removal of the insert, misoprostol acid was eliminated rapidly from the systemic circulation with a mean half-life <1 hour. PMID:18071191

Powers, Barbara L; Wing, Deborah A; Carr, Denis; Ewert, Karine; Di Spirito, Mike

2008-01-01

8

Exacerbation of Celecoxib-Induced Renal Injury by Concomitant Administration of Misoprostol in Rats  

PubMed Central

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can produce adverse effects by inhibiting prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. A PGE1 analogue, misoprostol, is often utilized to alleviate NSAID-related gastrointestinal side effects. This study examined the effect of misoprostol on celecoxib renal toxicity. Additionally, the effects of these drugs on cardiovascular parameters were evaluated. Four randomized rat groups were orally gavaged for 9 days, two groups receiving vehicle and two groups receiving misoprostol (100 µg/kg) twice daily. Celecoxib (40 mg/kg) was co-administered once daily to one vehicle and one misoprostol group from days 3 to 9. Urine and blood samples were collected and blood pressure parameters were measured during the study period. Hearts and kidneys were harvested on final day. Day 2 urinary electrolyte samples revealed significant reductions in sodium excretion in misoprostol (0.12±0.05 µmol/min/100 g) and misoprostol+celecoxib groups (0.07±0.02 µmol/min/100 g). At day 3, all treatment groups showed significantly reduced sodium excretion. Potassium excretion diminished significantly in vehicle+celecoxib and misoprostol+celecoxib groups from day 3 onward. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 levels were significantly increased in vehicle+celecoxib (0.65±0.02 vs. 0.35±0.07 ng/mL, p?=?0.0002) and misoprostol+celecoxib (0.61±0.06 vs. 0.37±0.06 ng/mL, p?=?0.0015) groups when compared to baseline; while plasma levels of cardiac troponin I increased significantly in vehicle+celecoxib (p?=?0.0040) and misoprostol+misoprostol (p?=?0.0078) groups when compared to vehicle+vehicle. Blood pressure parameters increased significantly in all misoprostol treated groups. Significant elevation in diastolic (p?=?0.0071) and mean blood pressure (p?=?0.0153) was noted in misoprostol+celecoxib compared to vehicle+celecoxib. All treatments produced significant tubular dilatation/necrosis compared to control. No significant myocardial changes were noticed; however, three animals presented with pericarditis. Kidney, heart, and plasma celecoxib levels revealed no significant change between vehicle+celecoxib and misoprostol+celecoxib. Concomitant misoprostol administration did not prevent celecoxib renal toxicity, and instead exacerbated renal side effects. Misoprostol did not alter plasma or tissue celecoxib concentrations suggesting no pharmacokinetic interaction between celecoxib and misoprostol. PMID:24586517

Cooper, Dustin L.; Murrell, Derek E.; Conder, Christopher M.; Palau, Victoria E.; Campbell, Grace E.; Lynch, Shaun P.; Denham, James W.; Hanley, Angela V.; Bullins, Kenny W.; Panus, Peter C.; Singh, Krishna; Harirforoosh, Sam

2014-01-01

9

MISOPROSTOL TO REDUCE INTRAOPERATIVE AND POSTOPERATIVE HEMORRHAGE DURING CESAREAN DELIVERY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic misoprostol use at cesarean delivery for reducing intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. RESULTS Seventeen studies (3174 women) were included of which 7 evaluated misoprostol versus oxytocin and 8 evaluated misoprostol plus oxytocin versus oxytocin. Overall, there were no significant differences in intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage between sublingual or oral misoprostol and oxytocin. Rectal misoprostol, compared with oxytocin, was associated with a significant reduction in intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage. The combined use of sublingual misoprostol and oxytocin, compared with the use of oxytocin alone, was associated with a significant reduction in the mean decrease in hematocrit (mean difference, ?2.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], ?3.4 to ?0.8) and use of additional uterotonic agents (relative risk, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.18-0.62). Compared with oxytocin alone, buccal misoprostol plus oxytocin reduced the use of additional uterotonic agents; rectal misoprostol plus oxytocin decreased intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, mean fall in hematocrit, and use of additional uterotonic agents; and intrauterine misoprostol plus oxytocin reduced the mean fall in hemoglobin and hematocrit. Women receiving misoprostol, alone or combined with oxytocin, had a higher risk of shivering and pyrexia. CONCLUSION Misoprostol combined with oxytocin appears to be more effective than oxytocin alone in reducing intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage during caesarean section. There were no significant differences in intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage when misoprostol was compared to oxytocin. However, these findings were based on a few trials with methodological limitations. PMID:23507545

CONDE-AGUDELO, Agustín; NIETO, Aníbal; ROSAS-BERMUDEZ, Anyeli; ROMERO, Roberto

2013-01-01

10

Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries  

PubMed Central

Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC) services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the efficacy of 400 mcg of sublingual misoprostol vs. standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in the environments where need for economical non-surgical treatments may be most useful. Methods A total of 860 women received either sublingual misoprostol or standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in a multi-site randomized trial. Women with confirmed incomplete abortion, defined as past or present history of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and an open cervical os, were eligible to participate. Participants returned for follow-up one week later to confirm clinical status. If abortion was incomplete at that time, women were offered an additional follow-up visit or immediate surgical evacuation. Results Both misoprostol and surgical evacuation are highly effective treatments for incomplete abortion (misoprostol: 94.4%, surgical: 100.0%). Misoprostol treatment resulted in a somewhat lower chance of success than standard surgical practice (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.92). Both tolerability of side effects and women’s satisfaction were similar in the two study arms. Conclusion Misoprostol, much easier to provide than surgery in low-resource environments, can be used safely, successfully, and satisfactorily for treatment of incomplete abortion. Focus should shift to program implementation, including task-shifting the provision of post-abortion care to mid- and low- level providers, training and assurance of drug availability. Trial registration This study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00466999 and NCT01539408 PMID:23150927

2012-01-01

11

Reduction of aspirin-induced fecal blood loss with low-dose misoprostol tablets in man  

SciTech Connect

Misoprostol (SC-29333), a synthetic prostaglandin E1 methyl ester analog, was given simultaneously with acetylsalicylic acid in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized prospective study of 32 healthy human male subjects. Fecal blood loss was measured for eight days using the /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cell technique. Aspirin (650 mg qid) and misoprostol (25 micrograms qid) or placebo were given during days 3, 4, and 5. There was a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in median blood loss (modified Friedman test) from 0.81 to 6.05 ml/day in the aspirin with placebo group (N = 16). Median blood loss was increased (from 0.75 to 3.75 ml/day) in the aspirin with misoprostol group (N = 16), but this was significantly less (Mann-Whitney U test, P less than 0.01) than the placebo group. Mean serum salicylate concentrations in the placebo and misoprostol groups were similar (7.8 and 6.8 micrograms/ml, respectively). There were no significant changes in laboratory values in any of the subjects studied, nor were any major side-effects encountered. This study demonstrates that oral misoprostol reduces aspirin-induced gastrointestinal bleeding even when administered simultaneously and at a dose level below its threshold for significant acid inhibition. This indicates a potential role for misoprostol in the prevention of gastric mucosal damage in selected patients.

Cohen, M.M.; Clark, L.; Armstrong, L.; D'Souza, J.

1985-07-01

12

Ethynilestradiol 20?mcg plus Levonorgestrel 100?mcg: Clinical Pharmacology  

PubMed Central

Estroprogestins (EPs) are combinations of estrogen and progestin with several actions on women's health. The different pharmacological composition of EPs is responsible for different clinical effects. One of the most used low-dose EP associations is ethinylestradiol 20?mcg plus levonorgestrel 100?mcg in monophasic regimen (EE20/LNG100). This review summarizes clinical pharmacology, cycle control, and effects on lipid and glucose metabolism, coagulation, body weight/body composition, acne, and sexuality of EE20/LNG100. Overall, EE20/LNG100 combination is safe and well tolerated, and in several studies the incidence of adverse events in the treated group was comparable to that of the placebo group. Cycle control was effective and body weight/body composition did not vary among treated and untreated groups in most studies. The EE20/LNG100 combination shows mild or no effect on lipid and glucose metabolism. Lastly, EE20/LNG100 is associated with a low risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). In conclusion, in the process of decision making for the individualization of EPs choice, EE20/LNG100 should be considered for its favorable clinical profile. PMID:25477960

2014-01-01

13

Misoprostol for postpartum hemorrhage prevention at home birth: an integrative review of global implementation experience to date  

PubMed Central

Background Hemorrhage continues to be a leading cause of maternal death in developing countries. The 2012 World Health Organization guidelines for the prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) recommend oral administration of misoprostol by community health workers (CHWs). However, there are several outstanding questions about distribution of misoprostol for PPH prevention at home births. Methods We conducted an integrative review of published research studies and evaluation reports from programs that distributed misoprostol at the community level for prevention of PPH at home births. We reviewed methods and cadres involved in education of end-users, drug administration, distribution, and coverage, correct and incorrect usage, and serious adverse events. Results Eighteen programs were identified; only seven reported all data of interest. Programs utilized a range of strategies and timings for distributing misoprostol. Distribution rates were higher when misoprostol was distributed at a home visit during late pregnancy (54.5-96.9%) or at birth (22.5-83.6%), compared to antenatal care (ANC) distribution at any ANC visit (22.5-49.1%) or late ANC visit (21.0-26.7%). Coverage rates were highest when CHWs and traditional birth attendants distributed misoprostol and lower when health workers/ANC providers distributed the medication. The highest distribution and coverage rates were achieved by programs that allowed self-administration. Seven women took misoprostol prior to delivery out of more than 12,000 women who were followed-up. Facility birth rates increased in the three programs for which this information was available. Fifty-one (51) maternal deaths were reported among 86,732 women taking misoprostol: 24 were attributed to perceived PPH; none were directly attributed to use of misoprostol. Even if all deaths were attributable to PPH, the equivalent ratio (59 maternal deaths/100,000 live births) is substantially lower than the reported maternal mortality ratio in any of these countries. Conclusions Community-based programs for prevention of PPH at home birth using misoprostol can achieve high distribution and use of the medication, using diverse program strategies. Coverage was greatest when misoprostol was distributed by community health agents at home visits. Programs appear to be safe, with an extremely low rate of ante- or intrapartum administration of the medication. PMID:23421792

2013-01-01

14

Stakeholder perceptions of misoprostol: a qualitative investigation  

PubMed Central

The study aimed to explore perceptions of stakeholders regarding misoprostol use in Cambodia, a setting with high maternal mortality. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 21 participants in the capital, Phnom Penh. The sample included participants involved in providing reproductive health services through international and local health agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. A theme of controversy over the role of misoprostol in the context of reproductive health services emerged, along with a need to reconcile legitimate viewpoints in order to understand the place of misoprostol in the Cambodian reproductive health setting. Understanding stakeholder perspectives on misoprostol can shed light on the drug’s role in reproductive health programming where maternal mortality is high and health facilities are still improving. PMID:24748820

Bazzano, Alessandra N; Jones, Lea; Ngo, Thoai D

2014-01-01

15

Misoprostol  

MedlinePLUS

... who take certain arthritis or pain medicines, including aspirin, that can cause ulcers. It protects the stomach ... and nonprescription medications you are taking, especially antacids, aspirin, arthritis medications, and vitamins.tell your doctor if ...

16

Randomized double masked trial of Zhi Byed 11, a Tibetan traditional medicine, versus misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage in Lhasa, Tibet.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare a Tibetan traditional medicine (the uterotonic Zhi Byed 11 [ZB11]) to oral misoprostol for prophylaxis of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled trial at three hospitals in Lhasa, Tibet, People's Republic of China. Women (N = 967) were randomized to either ZB11 or misoprostol groups. Postpartum blood loss was measured in a calibrated blood collection drape. The primary combined outcome was incidence of PPH, defined as measured blood loss (MBL) > or = 500 mL, administration of open label uterotonics, or maternal death. We found that the rate of the combined outcome was lower among the misoprostol group (16.1% versus 21.8% for ZB11; P = .02). Frequency of PPH was lower with misoprostol (12.4% versus 17.4%; P = .02). There were no significant differences in MBL > 1000 mL or mean or median MBL. Fever was significantly more common in the misoprostol group (P = .03). The rate of combined outcome was significantly lower among women receiving misoprostol. However, other indices of obstetric hemorrhage were not significantly different. PMID:19249659

Miller, Suellen; Tudor, Carrie; Thorsten, Vanessa; Nyima; Kalyang; Sonam; Lhakpen; Droyoung; Quzong, Karma; Dekyi, Tsering; Hartwell, Ty; Wright, Linda L; Varner, Michael W

2009-01-01

17

Effectiveness and Safety of Lower Doses of Mifepristone Combined With Misoprostol for the Termination of Ultra-Early Pregnancy: A Dose-Ranging Randomized Controlled Trial.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of lower doses of mifepristone combined with misoprostol for the termination of ultra-early pregnancy. A total of 2500 women with ultra-early pregnancy (amenorrhea ? 35 days) were randomly divided into 5 groups with gradually decreased dose of oral mifepristone from 150 to 50 mg followed by 200 µg of oral misoprostol 24 hours later. The primary end point was complete abortion without surgical intervention. Secondary end points were vaginal bleeding, return of menses, and side effects. Rates of complete abortion were high in all groups. Moreover, the lower doses of mifepristone led to shorter vaginal bleeding period, the return of menses on the expected date, and fewer side effects. Lower doses of mifepristone combined with 200 µg of misoprostol are as effective and safe as higher doses of this combination for the termination of ultra-early pregnancy with lower possibility of vaginal bleeding and side effects. PMID:25394644

Li, Cui-Lan; Chen, Dun-Jin; Song, Li-Ping; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Zhong-Fang; Liu, Ming-Xing; Chen, Wei-Ling

2014-11-12

18

Misoprostol: An effective agent for cervical ripening and labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to compare the safety and efficacy of intravaginal misoprostol versus intracervical prostaglandin E2 gel (dinoprostone) for preinduction cervical ripening and induction of labor.Study design: Two hundred seventy-six patients with indications for induction of labor and unfavorable cervices were randomly assigned to receive either intravaginal misoprostol or intracervical dinoprostone. Twenty-five micrograms of misoprostol were placed in the

Deborah A. Wing; Ann Rahall; Margaret M. Jones; T. Murphy Goodwin; Richard H. Paul

1995-01-01

19

Efficacy of Rectal Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Postpartum hemorrhage is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality after delivery. Active management of postpartum hemorrhage by an uterotonic drug decreases the rate of postpartum hemorrhage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of rectal misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. This double blind randomized clinical trial was performed on full term pregnant women candidate for vaginal delivery, referred to Zahedan Imam Ali Hospital during 2008-2009. They were randomly divided into two groups of rectal misoprostol and oxytocin. The women in misoprostol group received 400 ?g rectal misoprostol after delivery and the women in oxytocin group received 3 IU oxytocin in 1 L ringer serum, intravenously. Rate of bleeding, need to any surgery interventions, rate of transfusion and changes in hemoglobin and hematocrite were compared between two groups. A total of 400 patients (200 cases in misoprostol group and 200 in oxytocin group) entered to the study. Rate of bleeding > 500 cc was significantly higher in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (33% vs. 19%) (p = 0.005). Also, need to excessive oxytocin for management of postpartum hemorrhage was significantly lower in misoprostol group than oxytocin group (18% vs. 30%) (p = 0.003). Decrease in hematocrite was significantly more observed in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (mean decrease of hematocrite was 1.3 ± 1.6 in misoprostol group and 1.6 ± 2.2 in oxytocin group). Two groups were similar in terms of side-effects. Rectal misoprostol as an uterotonic drug can decrease postpartum hemorrhage and also can prevent from decrease of hemoglobin as compared to oxytocin. PMID:24250623

Mirteimouri, Masoumeh; Tara, Fatemeh; Teimouri, Batool; Sakhavar, Nahid; Vaezi, Afsaneh

2013-01-01

20

Effect of misoprostol on concentrations of prostaglandins in synovial fluid.  

PubMed Central

The effect of misoprostol, a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E, on prostaglandin concentrations in synovial fluids was investigated in a randomised placebo controlled, double blind study. The synovial fluid concentrations of prostaglandin E1, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha, and thromboxane B2 were measured at the beginning and end of a 24 hour period in 25 patients with effusions of the knee joint. During this period the patients were treated with diclofenac (50 mg every eight hours) and either misoprostol (400 micrograms) or placebo every 12 hours. The concentrations of prostaglandin E and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha were not significantly altered during treatment. There was an unexpected significant reduction in thromboxane B2 concentrations in the group treated with misoprostol (within group analysis). Although the mean concentration with misoprostol was about half the mean concentration with placebo, this difference was not statistically significant in the between group analysis. These results indicate that misoprostol is unlikely to exert a proinflammatory effect or to interfere with the prostaglandin mediated effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The significant decrease in thromboxane B2 concentrations in the misoprostol treated group suggests that misoprostol may exert an anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:1772296

Doube, A; Davies, J; Notarianni, L; Holgate, K; Fenn, G C

1991-01-01

21

[Abortion and misoprostol: health practices and scientific controversy].  

PubMed

This article puts into perspective the controversy between the association of the use of misoprostol for abortion and teratogenicity studies of the type found in a case report. The use of herbal medicinal drugs and the medical-obstetric and national and international norms governing the registration and circulation of pharmaceutical products were examined. Official documents of ANVISA, the Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization on the use of misoprostol, as well as 68 articles such as case reports published in national journals, linking abortion, misoprostol and teratogenicity were reviewed, systematically filed and analyzed using the monographic method. The legal prohibition of abortion prevents the proper prescription and use of a drug such as misoprostol that is both safe and effective. Thus, the danger for the health of women is linked not to the intrinsic characteristics of the drug, but to the moral arguments that constitute negligence and disregard for the fundamental rights of women. PMID:22872339

Corręa, Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela; Mastrella, Miryam

2012-07-01

22

Effects of misoprostol on delayed ulcer healing induced by aspirin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical studies have suggested that treatment with the prostaglandin E1 analog, misoprostol, leads to significant healing of ulcers in patients taking regular nonsteroidal antiinflammatory therapy. This study aimed to investigate mechanisms involved in this healing using a rat model. Gastric ulcers were induced by application of acetic acid using a standard technique. Rats were treated with 200 mg\\/kg aspirin, 100

Angela G. Penney; Fiona J. Andrews; Paul E. O'Brien

1994-01-01

23

Comparison of sensor arrangements of MCG and ECG with respect to information content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetocardiography (MCG) deals with the measurement of biomagnetic fields due to electrical excitation of the heart. The solution of the inverse problem of MCG and electrocardiography (ECG) is the reconstruction and visualization of the excitation process. The calculation is performed from MCG data recorded by multichannel systems. For a maximum of information content an optimized magnetometer arrangement is determined which

M. Nalbach; O. Dössel

2002-01-01

24

Modeling maternal mortality in Bangladesh: the role of misoprostol in postpartum hemorrhage prevention  

PubMed Central

Background Bangladesh is one of the few countries that may actually achieve the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in time, despite skilled birth attendance remaining low. The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential role misoprostol can play in the decline of maternal deaths attributed to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in Bangladesh. Methods Using data from a misoprostol and blood loss measurement tool feasibility study in Bangladesh, observed cause specific maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) were estimated and contrasted with expected ratios using estimates from the Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Survey (BMMS) data. Using Crystal Ball 7 we employ Monte Carlo simulation techniques to estimate maternal deaths in four scenarios, each with different levels of misoprostol coverage. These scenarios include project level misoprostol coverage (69%), no (0%), low (40%), and high (80%) misoprostol coverage. Data on receipt of clean delivery kit, use of misoprostol, experience of PPH, and cause of death were used in model assumptions. Results Using project level misoprostol coverage (69%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 40 (standard deviation?=?8.01) per 100,000 live births. Assuming no misoprostol coverage (0%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 51 (standard deviation?=?9.30) per 100,000 live births. For low misoprostol coverage (40%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 45 (standard deviation?=?8.26) per 100,000 live births, and for high misoprostol coverage (80%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 38 (standard deviation?=?7.04) per 100,000 live births. Conclusion This theoretical exercise hypothesizes that prophylactic use of misoprostol at home births may contribute to a reduction in the risk of death due to PPH, in addition to reducing the incidence of PPH. If findings from this modeling exercise are accurate and uterotonics can prevent maternal death, misoprostol could be the tool countries need to further reduce maternal mortality at home births. PMID:24555848

2014-01-01

25

Misoprostol Impairs Female Reproductive Tract Innate Immunity against Clostridium sordellii1  

PubMed Central

Fatal cases of acute shock complicating Clostridium sordellii endometritis following medical abortion with mifepristone (also known as RU-486) used with misoprostol were reported. The pathogenesis of this unexpected complication remains enigmatic. Misoprostol is a pharmacomimetic of PGE2, an endogenous suppressor of innate immunity. Clinical C. sordellii infections were associated with intravaginal misoprostol administration, suggesting that high misoprostol concentrations within the uterus impair immune responses against C. sordellii. We modeled C. sordellii endometritis in rats to test this hypothesis. The intrauterine but not the intragastric delivery of misoprostol significantly worsened mortality from C. sordellii uterine infection, and impaired bacterial clearance in vivo. Misoprostol also reduced TNF-? production within the uterus during infection. The intrauterine injection of misoprostol did not enhance mortality from infection by the vaginal commensal bacterium Lactobacillus crispatus. In vitro, misoprostol suppressed macrophage TNF-? and chemokine generation following C. sordellii or peptidoglycan challenge, impaired leukocyte phagocytosis of C. sordellii, and inhibited uterine epithelial cell human ?-defensin expression. These immunosuppressive effects of misoprostol, which were not shared by mifepristone, correlated with the activation of the Gs protein-coupled E prostanoid (EP) receptors EP2 and EP4 (macrophages) or EP4 alone (uterine epithelial cells). Our data provide a novel explanation for postabortion sepsis leading to death and also suggest that PGE2, in which production is exaggerated within the reproductive tract during pregnancy, might be an important causal determinant in the pathogenesis of more common infections of the gravid uterus. PMID:18523288

Aronoff, David M.; Hao, Yibai; Chung, Jooho; Coleman, Nicole; Lewis, Casey; Peres, Camila M.; Serezani, Carlos H.; Chen, Gwo-Hsiao; Flamand, Nicolas; Brock, Thomas G.; Peters-Golden, Marc

2009-01-01

26

Recommendations for scale-up of community-based misoprostol distribution programs.  

PubMed

Community-based distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in resource-poor settings has been shown to be safe and effective. However, global recommendations for prenatal distribution and monitoring within a community setting are not yet available. In order to successfully translate misoprostol and PPH research into policy and practice, several critical points must be considered. A focus on engaging the community, emphasizing the safe nature of community-based misoprostol distribution, supply chain management, effective distribution, coverage, and monitoring plans are essential elements to community-based misoprostol program introduction, expansion, or scale-up. PMID:24680582

Robinson, Nuriya; Kapungu, Chisina; Carnahan, Leslie; Geller, Stacie

2014-06-01

27

Discussion of Source Reconstruction Models Using 3D MCG Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we performed the source reconstruction of magnetocardiographic signals generated by the human heart activity to localize the site of origin of the heart activation. The localizations were performed in a four compartment model of the human volume conductor. The analyses were conducted on normal subjects and on a subject affected by the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Different models of the source activation were used to evaluate whether a general model of the current source can be applied in the study of the cardiac inverse problem. The data analyses were repeated using normal and vector component data of the MCG. The results show that a distributed source model has the better accuracy in performing the source reconstructions, and that 3D MCG data allow finding smaller differences between the different source models.

Melis, Massimo De; Uchikawa, Yoshinori

28

Moderately shielded high-Tc SQUID system for rat MCG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we have developed a 5-channel high-Tc SQUID system with one signal channel intended for rat magnetocardiography (MCG) in moderately shielded or "quiet" real environment. This system is an adapted version of a human MCG system which has been improved with respect to user-friendliness and stability. A dewar with a cold-warm distance of 7 mm and a refill cycle time of up to one week is utilized. The implemented high-Tc SQUIDs are single-layer devices with grain boundary junctions fabricated at KRISS with laser ablation on 10 mm × 10 mm STO substrates. In order to cancel environmental magnetic noise, three of the five SQUIDs are arranged to build an axial software first-order or second-order gradiometer with a base line of 35 mm. The other two SQUIDs are used for balancing. To overcome previous system instabilities, we have implemented an Earth field compensation for each SQUID. For this, the SQUIDs were mounted in capsules containing integrated field compensation coils. The three Earth field components are measured with an additional triaxial fluxgate, and compensated at the SQUID locations using the low-noise current source of the SQUID readout electronics. This way, the SQUIDs can be cooled and operated in a low residual field that improves system stability and reduces low-frequency SQUID noise. It is even possible to slowly move the dewar in the Earth field (dynamic field compensation). Different noise cancellation procedures were optimized and compared employing a periodic signal source.

Bechstein, S.; Kim, I.-S.; Drung, D.; Novikov, I.; Schurig, Th

2010-06-01

29

Complete Cervical Avulsion with Intravaginal Misoprostol for Second Trimester Pregnancy Termination  

PubMed Central

Intravaginal misoprostol, a synthetic PGE1 analogue, has largely replaced all other techniques for pregnancy termination in II trimester, because of its successful results. Incidence of II trimester pregnancy termination has also increased in the present days, because of prenatal diagnosis of pregnancies with serious fetal abnormalities like cardiovascular and skeletal malformations. But there are serious and life threatening complications reported with the use of intravaginal misoprostol. Here we are reporting a case of complete avulsion of cervix from lower part of the uterus, with the use of intravaginal misoprostol, for II trimester termination of pregnancy. So, clinicians dealing with II trimester termination of pregnancy should be aware of such complications. PMID:22919526

Sajjan, G. R.; Patil, Neelamma; Kaur, Manpreet; Shirgur, Shobha; Nandi, Suvarna; Ashwini, V.

2012-01-01

30

Clinical evaluation of different applications of misoprostol and aglepristone for induction of abortion in bitches.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical and endocrinological effects of different applications of misoprostol (MIS) and aglepristone (AGL) for the induction of abortion in bitches. For this purpose, 28 healthy pregnant bitches from different breeds, ages, body weights (Body weigt, BWs, 10-40 kg), and between Days 25 to 35 of gestation were used. Bitches were randomly assigned to four groups. In group 1 (GI, n = 7), AGL (10 mg/kg BW, s.c. on 2 consecutive days); in group 2 (GII, n = 7), AGL (as in GI), intravaginal MIS (IVag, 200 ?g for bitches with ?20 kg BW, 400 ?g for bitches with >20 kg BW, daily intravaginally until completion of abortion); in group 3 (GIII, n = 7), AGL (as in GI), ICVag (as in GII), per os MIS (400 ?g for bitches with ?20 kg BW, 800 ?g for bitches with >20 kg BW, daily orally, until completion of abortion); in group 4 (GIV, n = 7), AGL (as in GI), per os MIS (as GIII) were used. Clinical, vaginal, and ultrasonographic examinations were performed daily until abortion was completed. For measurement of serum progesterone, blood samples were collected in all groups immediately after the first AGL administration and every other day until completion of abortion. No statistical differences were found between groups concerning the duration until completion of abortion after treatment (nonsignificant); however, in GII, one bitch completed abortion 2 days after the start of treatment. PMID:24576713

Agaoglu, A R; Aslan, S; Emre, B; Korkmaz, O; Ozdemir Salci, E S; Kocamuftuoglu, M; Seyrek-Intas, K; Schäfer-Somi, S

2014-04-15

31

A comparison of misoprostol and prostaglandin E 2 gel for preinduction cervical ripening and labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to compare the safety ad efficacy of intravaginal misoprostal versus intracervical prostaglandin E2 (dinoprostone) gel for preinduction cervical ripening and induction of labor.Study design: One hundred thirty-five patients with indications for induction of labor and unfavorable cercices were randomly assigned to receive either intravaginal misoprostol or intracervical dinoprostate. Fifty microgram tablets of misoprostol were placed in

Deborah A. Wing; Margaret M. Jones; Ann Rahall; T. Murphy Goodwin; Richard H. Paul

1995-01-01

32

Instability of Misoprostol Tablets Stored Outside the Blister: A Potential Serious Concern for Clinical Outcome in Medical Abortion  

PubMed Central

Introduction Misoprostol (Cytotec) is recognised to be effective for many gynaecological indications including termination of pregnancy, management of miscarriage and postpartum haemorrhage. Although not licensed for such indications, it has been used for these purposes by millions of women throughout the world. Misoprostol tablets are most often packaged as multiple tablets within an aluminium strip, each within an individual alveolus. When an alveolus is opened, tablets will be exposed to atmospheric conditions. Objective To compare the pharmaco technical characteristics (weight, friability), water content, misoprostol content and decomposition product content (type A misoprostol, type B misoprostol and 8-epi misoprostol) of misoprostol tablets Cytotec (Pfizer) exposed to air for periods of 1 hour to 720 hours (30 days), to those of identical non exposed tablets. Methods Four hundred and twenty (420) tablets of Cytotec (Pfizer) were removed from their alveoli blister and stored at 25°C/60% relative humidity. Water content, and misoprostol degradation products were assayed in tablets exposed from 1 to 720 hours (30 days). Comparison was made with control tablets (N?=?60) from the same batch stored in non-damaged blisters. Statistical analyses were carried out using Fisher’s exact test for small sample sizes. Results By 48 hours, exposed tablets demonstrated increased weight (+4.5%), friability (+1 300%), and water content (+80%) compared to controls. Exposed tablets also exhibited a decrease in Cytotec active ingredient dosage (?5.1% after 48 hours) and an increase in the inactive degradation products (+25% for type B, +50% for type A and +11% for 8-epi misoprostol after 48 hours) compared to controls. Conclusion Exposure of Cytotec tablets to ‘typical’ European levels of air and humidity results in significant time-dependent changes in physical and biological composition that could impact adversely upon clinical efficacy. Health professionals should be made aware of the degradation of misoprostol with inappropriate storage of misoprostol tablets. PMID:25502819

Berard, Veronique; Fiala, Christian; Cameron, Sharon; Bombas, Teresa; Parachini, Mirella; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

2014-01-01

33

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Misoprostol and Sulprostone to End Pregnancy after Fetal Death  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare effectiveness, side effects, and patients' perception of vaginal misoprostol versus intravenous sulprostone for ending pregnancy after fetal death between 14 and 42 weeks gestation. Method. Multicenter randomized controlled trial, using block randomization, central allocation, and prior power analysis. Outcome measures. Induction-delivery interval, gastrointestinal side effects, use of analgesia, pain perception, pyrexia, placental retention, hemorrhage, and women's opinions. Results. Of 176 women aimed for, 143 were randomized over 7 years, of whom 4 were excluded. There was no difference in delivery within 24 and 36 hours: 91.4% and 97.1% with misoprostol (n = 70) versus 85.5% and 92.8% with sulprostone (n = 69). There was no difference in either gastrointestinal side effects, as reported by the women and their caregivers, use of analgesia, women's pain perception, blood loss or placental retention. Hyperthermia ?38°C was more common with misoprostol (24.3%) than with sulprostone (11.6%; difference: +12.7%; 95% CI: +1.2% to +25.3%) and related to the total dose used. Acceptability of both induction methods was similar except for freedom of movement, which was substantially in favor of misoprostol (lack of freedom reported with misoprostol in 34.3% versus 63.8% with sulprostone; difference: ?29.5%; 95% CI: ?13.6% to ?45.4%). Conclusions. Misoprostol and sulprostone are similarly effective with little difference in side effects except for hyperthermia, related to the dose of misoprostol used, and women's reported lack of mobility with intravenous sulprostone. Effectiveness of both methods increased with gestational age. PMID:19960062

Van Mensel, Kristin; Claerhout, Filip; Debois, Patrick; Keirse, Marc J. N. C.; Hanssens, Myriam

2009-01-01

34

Evaluation of the non-invasive localization accuracy of cardiac arrhythmias attainable by multichannel magnetocardiography (MCG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of multichannel magnetocardiography (MCG) for the non-invasive localization of cardiac arrhythmias was investigated. A non-magnetic catheter was used in phantom studies and for cardiac pacing of 6 patients. In a clinical setting, 32 patients with WPW-syndrome, 37 patients with premature ventricular complexes and 12 patients with ventricular tachycardia were studied and the MCG results compared to reference methods,

Werner Moshage; Stephan Achenbach; Konrad Göhl; Kurt Bachmann

1996-01-01

35

A comparison of intermittent vaginal administration of misoprostol with continuous dinoprostone for cervical ripening and labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to compare the effect of vaginal administration of misoprostol (Cytotec) with that of dinoprostone (Cervidil) on cervical ripening and labor induction. Study design: Two hundred patients with indications for induction of labor and unfavorable cervical examinations were randomly assigned to receive vaginally administered misoprostol (prostaglandin E1) or the dinoprostone (prostaglandin E2) vaginal insert. Twenty-five microgram tablets

Deborah A. Wing; Gabriela Ortiz-Omphroy; Richard H. Paul

1997-01-01

36

Comparison of sensor arrangements of MCG and ECG with respect to information content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetocardiography (MCG) deals with the measurement of biomagnetic fields due to electrical excitation of the heart. The solution of the inverse problem of MCG and electrocardiography (ECG) is the reconstruction and visualization of the excitation process. The calculation is performed from MCG data recorded by multichannel systems. For a maximum of information content an optimized magnetometer arrangement is determined which is not realized at present. The information content with respect to imaging of bioelectric sources is defined by the slope of the singular values, respective the signal-to-noise ratio and the dimension of the nullspace. Reconstruction errors due to modelling errors are not taken into account in this work. The nullspace describes the set of non-detectable source patterns in MCG and ECG. A conventional commercial sensor arrangement will be compared to an improved sensor composition. Recent publications show evidence that MCG contains more or different diagnostic information in cardiac arrhythmia and infarction diagnosis than electrocardiography. Therefore, first results of a general comparison of the information content of MCG and ECG are presented.

Nalbach, M.; Dössel, O.

2002-08-01

37

Advance distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) at home births in two districts of Liberia  

PubMed Central

Background A postpartum hemorrhage prevention program to increase uterotonic coverage for home and facility births was introduced in two districts of Liberia. Advance distribution of misoprostol was offered during antenatal care (ANC) and home visits. Feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness of distribution mechanisms and uterotonic coverage were evaluated. Methods Eight facilities were strengthened to provide PPH prevention with oxytocin, PPH management and advance distribution of misoprostol during ANC. Trained traditional midwives (TTMs) as volunteer community health workers (CHWs) provided education to pregnant women, and district reproductive health supervisors (DRHSs) distributed misoprostol during home visits. Data were collected through facility and DRHS registers. Postpartum interviews were conducted with a sample of 550 women who received advance distribution of misoprostol on place of delivery, knowledge, misoprostol use, and satisfaction. Results There were 1826 estimated deliveries during the seven-month implementation period. A total of 980 women (53.7%) were enrolled and provided misoprostol, primarily through ANC (78.2%). Uterotonic coverage rate of all deliveries was 53.5%, based on 97.7% oxytocin use at recorded facility vaginal births and 24.9% misoprostol use at home births. Among 550 women interviewed postpartum, 87.7% of those who received misoprostol and had a home birth took the drug. Sixty-three percent (63.0%) took it at the correct time, and 54.0% experienced at least one minor side effect. No serious adverse events reported among enrolled women. Facility-based deliveries appeared to increase during the program. Conclusions The program was moderately effective at achieving high uterotonic coverage of all births. Coverage of home births was low despite the use of two channels of advance distribution of misoprostol. Although ANC reached a greater proportion of women in late pregnancy than home visits, 46.3% of expected deliveries did not receive education or advance distribution of misoprostol. A revised community-based strategy is needed to increase advance distribution rates and misoprostol coverage rates for home births. Misoprostol for PPH prevention appears acceptable to women in Liberia. Correct timing of misoprostol self-administration needs improved emphasis during counseling and education. PMID:24894566

2014-01-01

38

Pre-induction cervical ripening: transcervical foley catheter versus intravaginal misoprostol.  

PubMed

The object of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the intravaginal Misoprostol and transcervical Foley catheters as pre-induction cervical ripening agents, to estimate the proportion of patients achieving vaginal delivery and to compare the complications of labour and foetal outcome between the two groups. The study was a prospective, randomised study of pregnant women, with singleton pregnancies who presented for antenatal care and delivery at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Ninety-nine patients were invited to participate and ninety-six (96) agreed. No patient withdrew from the study. The patients were assigned by means of computer-generated random numbers to receive transcervical Foley catheters (Size 16F, with 30 ml balloon capacity) or 50 microg intravaginal Misoprostol (Cytotec tablet, Searle & Co., Chicago). Fifty (50) patients received intravaginal Misoprostol and Forty-six (46) received Transcervical Foley catheters. The proportions of nulliparous, primiparous and multiparous patients were 52, 20 and 28% in the misoprostol group and 43.5, 26.1 and 30.4%, respectively, in the Foley catheter group. The time to achieve a favourable cervical status was significantly shorter in the Misoprostol group, with 98.0% of the subjects attaining Bishop score > or = 6 within 6-12 hours of insertion of the study agent, in contrast to 69.0% of the subjects in the Foley catheters group (P<0.001). Thirteen (26.6%) and three (6.5%) patients in the Misoprostol and Foley catheters groups, respectively, went into labour while undergoing cervical ripening and all had uneventful vaginal deliveries (P<0.05). The induction-delivery interval did not differ significantly between the groups. The incidence of caesarean delivery was 6.0% in the Misoprostol group compared with 2.2% in the Foley catheter group (P=0.62). Instrumental vaginal delivery rates were similar in both groups. Overall, the mode of delivery did not differ significantly between the groups. The number of neonates with 1-minute Apgar score <7 did not differ significantly in both groups and no neonate had 5-minute Apgar score <7. Meconium stained liquor was noticed in 5 (Misoprostol) vs 2 (Foley catheters) patients in labour. None of the neonates had any features suggestive of meconium aspiration. Labour complications were mainly precipitate labour {2 (Misoprostol) vs 1 (Foley catheters) } and 1 patient with transient tachysystole (> or =6 contractions in 10 minutes for two consecutive 10-minute periods) in the Misoprostol group. Hyperstimulation was not noticed in any of the patients in either arm of the study groups. Intravaginal Misoprostol is as effective a pre-induction cervical ripening agent as transcervical Foley catheters, with added advantages of shorter duration of cervical ripening, reduced oxytocin requirement for induction of labour and greater acceptability to patients. The incidence of caesarean sections, other labour complications and the foetal outcome were similar with both methods. PMID:15814391

Adeniji, O A; Oladokun, A; Olayemi, O; Adeniji, O I; Odukogbe, A A; Ogunbode, O; Aimakhu, C O; Omigbodun, A O; Ilesanmi, A O

2005-02-01

39

Severe morbidities associated with induced abortions among misoprostol users and non-users in a tertiary public hospital in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Misoprostol has become a popular over the counter self-administered abortifacient in Ghana. This study aimed to compare the socio-demographic characteristics and clinical complications associated with misoprostol and non-misoprostol induced abortions among patients admitted to a tertiary public health facility in Ghana. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted at the gynaecological ward of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), over a four-month period using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analysed using Chi-square, Fisher’s exact and student t-tests. Factors associated with severe morbidity were examined using Poisson regression with robust error variance to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Overall, 126 misoprostol users and 126 misoprostol non-users were recruited into the study. About 71% of the clients had self-induced abortions. Misoprostol users were more likely to be younger (p < 0.001), single (p < 0.001), nulliparous (p = 0.001), of higher educational background (p = 0.001), and unemployed (p < 0.001), than misoprostol non-users. Misoprostol users were more likely than non-users to undergo termination of pregnancy because they wanted to continue schooling (p < 0.001) or were not earning regular income to support a family (p = 0.001). Overall, 182 (72.2%) of the women (79.4% misoprostol users vs. 65.1% misoprostol non-users; p = 0.01) suffered severe morbidity. Nulliparous women (adjusted RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.52) and those who had induced abortion after 12 weeks’ gestation (adjusted RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.18-1.57) were at increased risks of experiencing severe morbidity. The association between mode of abortion induction and severe morbidity was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Conclusion Self-induced abortions using misoprostol is a common practice among women in this study; nearly three quarters of them suffered severe morbidity. Nonetheless, severe morbidity among misoprostol users and non-users did not differ significantly but was directly related to the gestational age at which the induced abortions occurred. Health education on the dangers of self-induced abortions and appropriate use of medication abortion could help reduce complications associated with induced abortions in Ghana. PMID:25074294

2014-01-01

40

The analysis and system design for MCG measurement based on optically pumped cesium magnetometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, laser optical pumping magnetometer of sensitivity is continuous improved and can measure the range from Earth magnetic field to the bio-magnetic field. In the bio-magnetic field, magnetocardiography (MCG) is paid also more and more attention. In this paper, we will discuss cesium optically pumped magnetometer theoretical analysis, system design, the magnetic field gradient measuring principle. On this basis, we build optically pumped magnetometer in a gradient structure for the cardiac magnetic measurements and filter through the wavelet transform. Based on optical pumping magnetometer measuring MCG will be applied in life science, clinical medicine and other fields.

Yang, Zhang; Chong, Kang; Wang, Qingtao; Lei, Cheng; Zheng, Caiping

2010-11-01

41

Effect of vaginal misoprostol on pregnancy rate after intrauterine insemination: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most appropriate and cost-effective methods in infertility treatment. Objective: We aimed to investigate effect of vaginal misoprostol on pregnancy rate after IUI. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and ten infertile women who were referred to Infertility Clinic of Alzahra Hospital by an indication of IUI during 2012-2013 were randomly assigned to receive 200 µg vaginal misoprostol (n=105) or vaginal placebo (n=105) after IUI. For detecting pregnancy, past 2 weeks, beta human chorionic gonadotropin evaluation was made and if positive, transvaginal sonography was done for evaluation of pregnancy 2-3 weeks later and clinical pregnancy was recorded. Results: Pregnancy had been noted in 24 patients in misoprotol (22.9%) and 27 patients in placebo (25.7%) groups that this difference was not significant (p=0.748). In misoprostol group, 3 case of nausea and vomiting (2.9%) had been observed. Conclusion: According to the results, administering 200 µg vaginal misoprostol after IUI doesn’t have significant effect on the success rate of IUI. PMID:25653670

Zahiri sorouri, Ziba; Asgharnia, Maryan; Gholampoor, Ameneh

2015-01-01

42

Compartive inhibition of coffee-induced gastric acid secretion employing misoprostol and cimetidine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six healthy subjects (three men, three women) were studied to compare the effects of misoprostol and cimetidine on coffee-induced gastric secretion. Gastric secretion was measured after a 12-hr fast according to the Hobsley method, employing phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) as a marker. Each subject was studied on three occasions separated by at least one week: (1) as control, basal gastric secretion was

P. R. Salmon; T. Barton

1986-01-01

43

The effect of prostaglandin E1 analog misoprostol on chronic cyclosporin nephrotoxicity.  

PubMed

Cyclosporin A has markedly improved graft survival in transplant patients but its side effects, such as renal toxicity and hypertension, pose management problems in transplant recipients. This toxicity has been attributed to prostaglandin inhibition. Concurrent administration of misoprostol (a prostaglandin E1 analog) prevents chronic cyclosporin A-induced nephrotoxicity but not hypertension in rats. PMID:8301454

John, E G; Fornell, L C; Radhakrishnan, J; Anutrakulchai, S; Jonasson, O

1993-11-01

44

Community-level distribution of misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage at home births in northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria, most deaths due to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) occur in the absence of skilled birth attendants. A study using community mobilization and the training of community drug keepers to increase access to misoprostol for PPH prevention was conducted in five communities around Zaria in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Community-oriented resource persons (CORPs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) recruited and counseled pregnant women on bleeding after delivery, the importance of delivery at a health facility, and the role of misoprostol. Drug keepers stored and dispensed misoprostol during a woman's third trimester of pregnancy. TBAs and CORPs enrolled 1,875 women from January through December 2009. These results are based on 1,577 completed postpartum interviews. Almost all women delivered at home (95%) and skilled attendance at delivery was low (7%). The availability of misoprostol protected 83% of women who delivered at home against PPH who otherwise would not have been protected. Policymakers working in similar contexts should consider utilizing commuity-level distribution models to reach women with this life-saving intervention. PMID:25022154

Ejembi, Clara; Shittu, Oladapo; Moran, Molly; Adiri, Faraouk; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Saadatu, Babalafia; Aku-Akai, Larai; Abdul, Mohammed A; Ajayi, Victor; Williams, Natalie; Prata, Ndola

2014-06-01

45

Prevention of post-partum hemorrhage by rectal Misoprostol: A randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) is a common cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. This trial was conducted to study the effectiveness and safety of rectal misoprostol for PPH. Aim: To assess the effectiveness and safety of misoprostol and comparing with oxytocin for prevention of PPH. Materials and Methods: Women were randomized to receive either two 200 ?g rectal misoprostol tablets (study group) or 20 units oxytocin in 1000 cc normal saline intravenously (control group). The outcomes were incidence of PPH, amount of blood loss, duration of labor, incidence of side effects, pre- and post-delivery hemoglobin, and use of additional uterotonics. Finding: The incidence of PPH was 12% in the study group and 10% in the control group (P > 0.05). No significant difference was observed between the groups hematocrit (P > 0.05). Other variables including severe PPH and duration of the third stage of labor were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Rectal misoprostol was as effective as intravenous oxytocin for preventing post-partum hemorrhage with the same incidence of side effects and is recommended to be use as an uterotonic agent to manage third stage of labor routinely. PMID:23633849

Firouzbakht, Mozhgan; Kiapour, Azadeh; Omidvar, Shabnam

2013-01-01

46

Labor Outcomes of Obese Patients Undergoing Induction of Labor with Misoprostol compared to Dinoprostone.  

PubMed

Objective?The aim of the article is to evaluate and compare labor outcomes in obese patients undergoing induction of labor (IOL) with misoprostol and dinoprostone. Study Design?This was a retrospective review of patients who delivered from February 1, 2008, to July 1, 2013 at our institution. All obese women who underwent IOL were identified. The rates of successful cervical ripening and cesarean delivery (CD) for patients who underwent IOL with misoprostol and dinoprostone were calculated and compared. Results?A total of 564 women met inclusion criteria; 297 (52.7%) were induced with misoprostol, and 267 (47.3%) were induced with dinoprostone. The misoprostol group had a higher successful cervical ripening rate (78.1 vs. 66.7%; odds ratio [OR], 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-2.6; p?=?0.002) and a lower CD rate (39.1 vs. 51.3%; OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44-0.85; p?=?0.003) than the dinoprostone group. This significance persisted in a multivariate model adjusting for parity, gestational age, birth weight, and indication for IOL. The rates of tachysystole, terbutaline use, postpartum hemorrhage, and infectious morbidity were comparable in both groups, as were Apgar scores, rates of neonatal intensive care unit admission, and meconium passage. Conclusion?In obese women undergoing IOL, misoprostol leads to a higher successful cervical ripening rate and a lower CD rate than dinoprostone, with a similar rate of peripartum complications and neonatal outcomes. PMID:24915563

Suidan, Rudy S; Rondon, Kaylah C; Apuzzio, Joseph J; Williams, Shauna F

2015-02-01

47

Prostaglandin E2 and misoprostol induce neurite retraction in Neuro-2a cells Javaneh Tamiji b,c  

E-print Network

of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, Canada c Neuroscience Graduate Diploma Program, York misoprostol, a prostaglandin type E analogue, during the first and second trimester of pregnancy has been

Crawford, Dorota A.

48

ASAS-SN Discovery of A Probable Supernova in MCG-01-60-044  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from both the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii and the double 14-cm "Cassius" telescope in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, towards the galaxy MCG-01-60-044:

Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Davis, A. B.; Shappee, B. J.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Brimacombe, J.; Szczygiel, D.; Pojmanski, G.

2014-08-01

49

Miokamycin penetration into oral cavity tissues and crevicular fluid.  

PubMed

Diffusion of miokamycin into gum, maxillary-mandibular bone and crevicular fluid was studied in human beings. The antibiotic concentrations were determined in specimens at different times after oral administration of 600 mg in a single dose of miokamycin. Peak serum levels (2.32 +/- 0.67 mcg/ml) were found at the first hour after dosage. In healthy gum tissue the highest antibiotic levels (1.44 +/- 0.34 mcg/gr) were observed at the second hour, while in the inflamed gum miokamycin penetrates more rapidly, being, as in serum at the highest levels detectable during the first hour. In the bone of the maxilla or mandible the highest levels of miokamycin (0.88 +/- 0.13 mcg/gr) were detected at the second hour after treatment. In the crevicular fluid miokamycin showed a similar profile as that in serum, since the peak levels were reached at the first hour (2.4 +/- 0.88 mcg/ml, but the decrease of the antibiotic occurred more slowly than in serum. Miokamycin rapidly penetrates into tissues and fluids of oral cavity. A single oral dose of 600 mg guarantees antibacterial levels against susceptible bacteria over six hours. PMID:2789197

Fraschini, F; Scaglione, F; Falchi, M; Manzoni, P; D'Orsi, S; Badile, S; Pignanelli, M

1989-01-01

50

Synthesis and gastrointestinal pharmacology of a 3E,5Z diene analogue of misoprostol.  

PubMed

A stereospecific synthesis and the gastric antisecretory and diarrheal activity of a 3E,5Z diene analogue of misoprostol are described. The key intermediate in the synthesis was an alpha chain truncated acetylene that was obtained by a cuprate/enolate capture procedure on the corresponding cyclopentenone. Palladium-catalyzed coupling of the acetylene with methyl 4-iodo-3(E)-butenoate provided the conjugated enyne. Although selective hydrogenation of the enyne with Lindlar catalyst failed, the desired 3E,5Z diene was obtained with P-2 nickel as catalyst. The diene was about 3 times more potent than misoprostol in inhibiting gastric acid secretion in dogs and also in producing diarrhea in rats. PMID:3100798

Collins, P W; Kramer, S W; Gasiecki, A F; Weier, R M; Jones, P H; Gullikson, G W; Bianchi, R G; Bauer, R F

1987-01-01

51

Chronic effects of misoprostol in combination with the NSAID, diclofenac, on gastrointestinal tract of pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the mode of protective effects of misoprostol against the chronic gastrointestinal ulceration from the NSAID, diclofenac, studies were undertaken in domestic pigs, a model of human gastrointestinal ulceration, to determine (1) the effects of repeated daily dosing for 10 days of diclofenac 5 mg\\/kg\\/day twice a day (as Voltaren tablets) on the gastrointestinal morphology,59Fe-red blood loss, mucosal myeloperoxidase

K. D. Rainsford; W. E. Perkins; P. I. Stetsko

1995-01-01

52

Effects of the prostaglandin analogue misoprostol on inflammatory mediator release by human monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of misoprostol (M) on IL-1?, TNF-?, and lipid mediator release (assessed by RIA) by adherent (assessed by electron microscopy) human monocytes were studiedin vitro. Human monocytes stimulated with E. Coli-derived lipopolysaccharide showed an increase in both IL-1? and TNF-? release. Incubation of the monocytes with LPS and M (18 hrs.), resulted in a reduction of both IL-1? and

D. L. Widomski; R. E. Walsh; D. A. Baron; M. I. Hidvegi; D. J. Fretland; P. W. Collins; T. S. Gaginella

1991-01-01

53

Sublingual misoprostol to decrease blood loss after caesarean delivery: a randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of sublingual misoprostol in addition to intravenous oxytocin, with oxytocin alone, in reducing blood loss during and following caesarean section. A total of 120 women undergoing caesarean delivery at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, were randomised into two equal groups. In Group A, 20 IU of intravenous oxytocin was given after umbilical cord clamping, while in Group B, the women received 400 ?g misoprostol sublingually and 20 IU oxytocin intravenously. The outcome measures were blood loss, additional uterotonics, change in packed cell volume and side-effect profile. Associations between variables were determined by the ?(2) and Student's t-test. Relative risks were calculated for side-effects; the level of significance was p < 0.05. Intraoperative and postoperative blood loss were significantly lower in Group B (451.3 ml vs 551.2 ml, p = 0.007; 22.7 vs 42.2 ml, p < 0.001, respectively). In Group B, women were 7.4 (p < 0.001) and 9.0 (p = 0.008) times more likely to experience shivering and fever, respectively. The need for additional uterotonics was greater in the oxytocin group (66.7% vs 27.6%, p < 0.001). The addition of sublingual misoprostol to intravenous oxytocin reduces postpartum blood loss and the need for additional uterotonics. There is however, an increased risk of shivering and fever with this combination. PMID:24724983

Ugwu, I A; Enabor, O O; Adeyemi, A B; Lawal, O O; Oladokun, A; Olayemi, O

2014-07-01

54

92 centimeter VLBI structure of the elliptical galaxy MCG 5-4-18  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 92 cm continuum emission from the nucleus of the elliptical galaxy MCG 5-4-18 (0116+319) was mapped using a seven antenna VLBI array. The emission shows two components separated by about 0.07 arcsec along P.A about 115 deg. Analysis of Perley's (1982) 20 and 6 cm VLA data shows no evidence for high surface brightness features offset from the nucleus by 1-50 kpc. Possible causes of the lack of extranuclear emission are suggested. A total radio spectrum is presented, which shows that the steep-spectrum behavior between 11 and 6 cm does not extend to shorter wavelengths because of the presence of a very compact, time-variable component. The nuclear activity in this elliptical galaxy may be triggered by an interaction with its close binary companion, MCG 5-4-17.

Wrobel, J. M.; Simon, R. S.

1986-10-01

55

Implementation of misoprostol for postabortion care in Kenya and Uganda: a qualitative evaluation  

PubMed Central

Objective Evaluate implementation of misoprostol for postabortion care (MPAC) in two African countries. Design Qualitative, program evaluation. Setting Twenty-five public and private health facilities in Rift Valley Province, Kenya, and Kampala Province, Uganda. Sample Forty-five MPAC providers, health facility managers, Ministry of Health officials, and non-governmental (NGO) staff involved in program implementation. Methods and main outcome measures In both countries, the Ministry of Health, local health centers and hospitals, and NGO staff developed evidence-based service delivery protocols to introduce MPAC in selected facilities; implementation extended from January 2009 to October 2010. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews evaluated the implementation process, identified supportive and inhibitive policies for implementation, elicited lessons learned during the process, and assessed provider satisfaction and providers’ impressions of client satisfaction with MPAC. Project reports were also reviewed. Results In both countries, MPAC was easy to use, and freed up provider time and health facility resources traditionally necessary for provision of PAC with uterine aspiration. On-going support of providers following training ensured high quality of care. Providers perceived that many women preferred MPAC, as they avoided instrumentation of the uterus, hospital admission, cost, and stigma associated with abortion. Appropriate registration of misoprostol for use in the pilot, and maintaining supplies of misoprostol, were significant challenges to service provision. Support from the Ministry of Health was necessary for successful implementation; lack of country-based standards and guidelines for MPAC created challenges. Conclusions MPAC is simple, cost-effective and can be readily implemented in settings with high rates of abortion-related mortality. PMID:23618341

Osur, Joachim; Baird, Traci L.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Jackson, Emily; Murokora, Daniel

2013-01-01

56

Human MCG measurements with a high-sensitivity potassium atomic magnetometer.  

PubMed

Measuring biomagnetic fields, such as magnetocardiograms (MCGs), is important for investigating biological functions. To address to this need, we developed an optically pumped atomic magnetometer. In this study, human MCGs were acquired using a potassium atomic magnetometer without any modulating systems. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is comparable to that of high-T(c) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) and is sufficient for acquiring human MCGs. The activity of a human heart estimated from the MCG maps agrees well with that measured with SQUID magnetometers. Thus, our magnetometer produces reliable results, which demonstrate the potential of our atomic magnetometer for biomagnetic measurements. PMID:22621881

Kamada, K; Ito, Y; Kobayashi, T

2012-06-01

57

Safety and tolerability of once-daily umeclidinium/vilanterol 125/25 mcg and umeclidinium 125 mcg in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from a 52-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background The long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) umeclidinium (UMEC) and the combination of UMEC with the long-acting ?2-agonist (LABA) vilanterol (UMEC/VI) are approved maintenance treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the US and EU. They are not indicated for the treatment of asthma. Methods In this 52-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group safety study (GSK study DB2113359; NCT01316887), patients were randomized 2:2:1 to UMEC/VI 125/25 mcg, UMEC 125 mcg, or placebo. Study endpoints included adverse events (AEs), clinical chemistry and hematology parameters, vital signs, 12-lead, and 24-hour Holter electrocardiograms. COPD exacerbations and rescue medication use were assessed as safety parameters; lung function was also evaluated. Results The incidence of on-treatment AEs, serious AEs (SAEs), and drug-related AEs was similar between treatment groups (AEs: 52–58%; SAEs: 6–7%; drug-related AEs: 12–13%). Headache was the most common AE in each treatment group (8–11%). AEs associated with the LAMA and LABA pharmacologic classes occurred at a low incidence across treatment groups. No clinically meaningful effects on vital signs or laboratory assessments were reported for active treatments versus placebo. The incidences of atrial arrhythmias with UMEC/VI 125/25 mcg were similar to placebo; for UMEC 125 mcg, the incidences of ectopic supraventricular beats, sustained supraventricular tachycardia, and ectopic supraventricular rhythm were ?2% greater than placebo. With active treatments, COPD exacerbations were fewer (13–15% of patients reporting ?1 exacerbation) and on average less rescue medication was required (1.6–2.2 puffs/day) versus placebo (24% reporting ?1 exacerbation, 2.6 puffs/day). Both active treatments improved lung function versus placebo. Conclusion UMEC/VI 125/25 mcg and UMEC 125 mcg were well tolerated over 12 months in patients with COPD. PMID:25015176

2014-01-01

58

Misoprostol elevates intracellular calcium in Neuro-2a cells via protein kinase A Javaneh Tamiji b,c  

E-print Network

of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, Canada c Neuroscience Graduate Diploma Program, York- tric ulcers [20­23] induction of uterine contractions, and medical termination of pregnancy [24­26]. Misuse of misoprostol in some cases of self-attempted termination of pregnancy has linked this drug

Crawford, Dorota A.

59

Comparison of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus placebo for cervical ripening prior to operative hysteroscopy using a sequential trial design*  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the impact of 1000 micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus self-administered vaginal placebo at home on preoperative cervical ripening in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women before operative hysteroscopy. Design Two separate but identical parallel, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled sequential trials, one in premenopausal women and one in postmenopausal women. The boundaries for the sequential trials were calculated on the primary outcomes of a difference of cervical dilatation ?1 mm, with the assumption of a type 1 error of 0.05 and a power of 0.95. Setting Norwegian university teaching hospital. Sample Eighty-six women referred to outpatient operative hysteroscopy. Methods The women were randomised to either 1000 micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol or self-administered vaginal placebo the evening before outpatient operative hysteroscopy. Main outcome measures Preoperative cervical dilatation (primary outcome), number of women who achieve a preoperative cervical dilatation ?5 mm, acceptability, complications and adverse effects (secondary outcomes). Results In premenopausal women, the mean cervical dilatation was 6.4 mm (SD 2.4) in the misoprostol group and 4.8 mm (SD 2.0) in the placebo group, the mean difference in cervical dilatation being 1.6 mm (95% CI 0.5–2.7). Among the premenopausal women receiving misoprostol, 88% achieved a cervical dilatation of ?5 mm compared with 65% in the placebo group. Twelve percent of the women who received misoprostol were difficult to dilate compared with 32% who received placebo. Dilatation was also quicker in the misoprostol group. Misoprostol had no effect on cervical ripening in postmenopausal women compared with placebo, and 43% of the women were difficult to dilate. The trials were terminated after analysis of 21 postmenopausal women and 65 premenopausal women after reaching a conclusion on the primary outcome with only 28% of the number of women needed in a fixed sample size trial. Three of 45 women who received misoprostol experienced severe lower abdominal pain, and there was an increased occurrence of light preoperative bleeding in the misoprostol group. Most women did not experience misoprostol-related adverse effects. The majority (83% of premenopausal and 76% of postmenopausal women) found self-administered vaginal misoprostol at home to be acceptable. There were two serious complications in the premenopausal misoprostol group: uterine perforation with subsequent peritonitis and heavy postoperative bleeding requiring blood transfusion, but these were not judged to be misoprostol related. Complications were otherwise comparatively minor and distributed equally between the two dosage groups. Conclusions One thousand micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol 12 hours prior to operative hysteroscopy has a significant cervical ripening effect compared with placebo in premenopausal but not in postmenopausal women. Self-administered vaginal misoprostol of 1000 micrograms at home the evening before operative hysteroscopy is safe and highly acceptable, although a small proportion of women experienced severe lower abdominal pain. There is a risk of lower abdominal pain and light preoperative bleeding with this regimen, which is very cheap and easy to use. Please cite this paper as: Oppegaard K, Nesheim B, Istre O, Qvigstad E. Comparison of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus placebo for cervical ripening prior to operative hysteroscopy using a sequential trial design. BJOG 2008;115:663–e9. PMID:18201279

Oppegaard, KS; Nesheim, B-I; Istre, O; Qvigstad, E

2008-01-01

60

Helicobacter pylori infection, ABO blood group, and effect of misoprostol on gastroduodenal mucosa in NSAID-treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to investigate the effect of misoprostol on NSAID-induced gastroduodenal mucosal damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study included 40 patients, and it was designed as a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Misoprostol significantly reduced the gastroduodenal mucosal lesions found at endoscopy (PHelicobacter pylori infection, 33% had positive serology only, and 26% had no evidence of infection. Most of

Kenneth Henriksson; Andrés Uribe; Bengt Sandstedt; Carl Erik Nord

1993-01-01

61

A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of misoprostol rectal suppositories to prevent acute radiation proctitis in patients with prostate cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis is the most relevant complication of pelvic radiation and is still mainly treated supportively. Considering the negative impact of acute proctitis symptoms on patients' daily activities and the potential relationship between the severity of acute radiation injury and late damage, misoprostol was tested in the prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 patients who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer were entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. Radiation-induced toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy using the Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Between the placebo and the misoprostol groups, no significant differences in proctitis symptoms occurred: 76% of patients in each group had Grade 1 toxicity, and 26% in the placebo group and 36% in the misoprostol group had Grade 2 toxicity. No differences were found in onset or symptom duration. Comparing the peak incidence of patients' toxicity symptoms, significantly more patients experienced rectal bleeding in the misoprostol group (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Misoprostol given as a once-daily suppository did not decrease the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis and may increase the incidence of acute bleeding.

Hille, Andrea [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany)]. E-mail: ahille@med.uni-goettingen.de; Schmidberger, Heinz [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Hermann, Robert M. [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Christiansen, Hans [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Saile, Bernhard [Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Pradier, Olivier [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Hess, Clemens F. [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany)

2005-12-01

62

The efficient low-mass Seyfert MCG-05-23-016  

E-print Network

The Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-05-23-016 has been shown to exhibit a complex X-ray spectrum. This source has moderate X-ray luminosity, hosts a comparably low-mass black hole, but accretes at a high Eddington rate, and allows us to study a super massive black hole in an early stage. Three observations of the INTEGRAL satellite simultaneous with pointed Swift/XRT observations performed from December 2006 to June 2007 are used in combination with public data from the INTEGRAL archive to study the variability of the hard X-ray components and to generate a high-quality spectrum from 1 to 150 keV. The AGN shows little variability in the hard X-ray spectrum, with some indication of a variation in the high-energy cut-off energy ranging from 50 keV to >>100 keV, with an electron plasma temperature in the 10 - 90 keV range. The reflection component is not evident and, if present, the reflected fraction can be constrained to R low state. The AGN exhibits a remarkably high Eddington ratio of L(bol)/L(Edd)> 0.8 (or L(bol)/L(Edd) > 0.1, if we consider a higher mass of the central engine) and, at the same time, a low cut-off energy around 70 keV. Objects like MCG-05-23-016 might indicate the early stages of super massive black holes, in which a strong accretion flow feeds the central engine.

V. Beckmann; T. J. -L. Courvoisier; N. Gehrels; P. Lubinski; J. Malzac; P. -O. Petrucci; C. R. Shrader; S. Soldi

2008-10-21

63

A case of toxic shock due to clandestine abortion by misoprostol self-administration.  

PubMed

Maternal mortality and morbidity are the leading causes of death and illness, respectively, among women of reproductive age in many countries throughout the world. Of all maternal deaths, those related to unsafe abortions are the most widely underestimated, but they are also the most largely preventable. Medical abortion is a safe and reliable method for termination of a pregnancy in early gestation, although it is important to be aware of signs and symptoms of severe infection and toxic shock syndrome after the medical termination of pregnancy; case studies in literature are rarely fatal events. We report the first case of septic shock syndrome following a clandestine pregnancy termination with a misoprostol-only regimen (12 tablets 200 ?g each). Autopsy findings and histopathological examination proved that the woman died from septic shock. This case suggests to improve the forensic investigations in case of unsafe, often clandestine, abortion is suspected. PMID:25041279

Cittadini, Francesca; Loyola, Giovanni; Caradonna, Letizia; Minelli, Natalia; Rossi, Riccardo

2014-11-01

64

Improving manual vacuum aspiration service delivery, introducing misoprostol for cases of incomplete abortion, and strengthening postabortion contraception in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society of Bangladesh was an important advocate in mobilizing government authorities to adopt new techniques for postabortion care and provide long-acting contraceptives post abortion. With the support of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), the Society provided commodities and training to increase the use of these techniques in 7 private and public hospitals and clinics. Data from two of these institutes for the January 2012 to June 2013 period showed a rapid decrease in the use of dilation and curettage, an increase in the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and misoprostol, and the progressive adoption of long-acting reversible contraceptives, permanent contraception, and injectable contraceptives in one of these two hospitals. The Directorates General of Health and Family Planning incorporated training in the use of MVA and misoprostol in their national operation plans. The success in these hospitals shows that the proposed changes have been well accepted by providers and clients. PMID:24792403

Begum, Ferdousi; Zaidi, Shahida; Fatima, Parveen; Shamsuddin, Latifa; Anowar-ul-Azim, A K M; Begum, Rowshan Ara

2014-07-01

65

A comparative study of DA-9601 and misoprostol for prevention of NSAID-associated gastroduodenal injury in patients undergoing chronic NSAID treatment.  

PubMed

Misoprostol is reported to prevent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-associated gastroduodenal complications. There is, however, limited information regarding the efficacy of DA-9601 in this context. We performed a comparative study on the relative efficacy of DA-9601 and misoprostol for prevention of NSAID-associated complications. In this multicenter, double-blinded, active-controlled, stratified randomized, parallel group, non-inferiority trial, 520 patients who were to be treated with an NSAID (aceclofenac, 100 mg, twice daily) over a 4-week period were randomly assigned to groups for coincidental treatment with DA-9601 (60 mg, thrice daily) (236 patients for full analysis) or misoprostol (200 ?g, thrice daily) (242 patients for full analysis). [corrected]. The primary endpoint was the gastric protection rate, and secondary endpoints were the duodenal protection rate and ulcer incidence rate. Endpoints were assessed by endoscopy after the 4-week treatment period. Drug-related adverse effects, including gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, were also compared. At week 4, the gastric protection rates with DA-9601 and misoprostol were 81.4 % (192/236) and 89.3 % (216/242), respectively. The difference between the groups was -14.2 %, indicating non-inferiority of DA-9601 to misoprostol. Adverse event rates were not different between the two groups; however, the total scores for GI symptoms before and after administration were significantly lower in the DA-9601 group than in the misoprostol group (-0.2 ± 2.8 vs 1.2 ± 3.2; p < 0.0001). DA-9601 is as effective as misoprostol in preventing NSAID-associated gastroduodenal complications, and has a superior adverse GI effect profile. PMID:24871787

Lee, Oh Young; Kang, Dae-Hwan; Lee, Dong Ho; Chung, Il-Kwun; Jang, Jae Young; Jang, Jae-Young; Kim, Jin-Il; Cho, Jin-Woong; Rew, Jong-Sun; Lee, Kang-Moon; Kim, Kyoung Oh; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Soo-Teik; Kim, Tae-Oh; Shin, Yong-Woon; Seol, Sang-Yong

2014-10-01

66

Is Low Dose Vaginal Misoprostol Better Than Dinoprostone Gel For Induction of Labor: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety profile of low dose vaginal misoprostol with dinoprostone gel for induction of labor in term pregnancies. Methods: The study was conducted at Lady Hardinge Medical College and Smt Sucheta Kriplani Hospital on 100 pregnant women with term pregnancy after application of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The women were randomized in 2 groups of 50 women each. Group I received misoprostol 25?g at every six hour vaginally for a maximum of five doses for induction of labor; while group II received dinoprostone gel 0.5 mg every six hourly for a maximum of three doses. Maternal outcomes such as mode of delivery and induction delivery interval; and fetal outcomes such as APGAR score and incidence of NICU admission were assessed in both the groups. Statistical analysis was done using student t-test and chi-square test. Results: There was no significant difference in the mean induction to delivery interval in both the groups (14.32±0.13 hours in Group I and 14.92±0.18 hours in Group II, p=0.75), mode of delivery, indication of cesarean section and perinatal outcome. However, significant difference was observed in requirement of oxytocin augmentation in both the groups (32% in Group I and 68% in Group II, p=0.005). Conclusion: Vaginal misoprostol in low doses is similar in efficacy and safety to dinoprostone gel for cervical ripening and labor induction in term pregnancy. PMID:25386492

Agrawal, Swati; Puri, Manju; Nigam, Aruna; Kaur, Harvinder; Trivedi, Shubha Sagar

2014-01-01

67

Efficacy and safety of ultra-low-dose Vagifem (10 mcg)  

PubMed Central

Vulvovaginal atrophy [VVA] is defined as inflammation of the vaginal epithelium due to atrophy secondary to decreased levels of circulating estrogen. There is currently only one approved method for the treatment of VVA, and that is the administration of exogenous estrogens. Overall, the ideal VVA treatment must have benefits, minimize risks, and enhance compliance in the patient while optimizing cost-effectiveness. Unfortunately, of the approximate 25% of symptomatic women that are thought to seek medical help, the proportion that receives hormone therapy may be small and its duration of use is short. Women have been very reluctant to take hormone therapy due to widely publicized results of the risks associated with hormone therapy. Thus, while menopausal hormone therapy was once accepted as the ideal approach for optimizing changes associated with menopause, prospective randomized clinical trials have challenged that view and have led to a marked decrease in the use of such therapy and increased search for low-dose therapies. This article will highlight the efficacy and safety of recently FDA-approved Vagifem (10 mcg) in treatment of VVA. PMID:22163155

Chollet, Janet A

2011-01-01

68

Baseline drift removal and denoising of MCG data using EEMD: role of noise amplitude and the thresholding effect.  

PubMed

We adopt the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) method, with an appropriate thresholding on the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs), to denoise the magnetocardiography (MCG) signal. To this end, we discuss the two associated problems that relate to: (i) the amplitude of noise added to the observed signal in the EEMD method with a view to prevent mode mixing and (ii) the effect of direct thresholding that causes discontinuities in the reconstructed denoised signal. We then denoise the MCG signals, having various signal-to-noise ratios, by using this method and compare the results with those obtained by the standard wavelet based denoising method. We also address the problem of eliminating the high frequency baseline drift such as the sudden and discontinuous changes in the baseline of the experimentally measured MCG signal using the EEMD based method. We show that the EEMD method used for denoising and the elimination of baseline drift is superior in performance to other standard methods such as wavelet based techniques and Independent Component Analysis (ICA). PMID:25074650

Mariyappa, N; Sengottuvel, S; Parasakthi, C; Gireesan, K; Janawadkar, M P; Radhakrishnan, T S; Sundar, C S

2014-10-01

69

Oral health Oral health  

E-print Network

Prams asks about the care of teeth during pregnancy: whether the mother had a dental problem, went to a dentist or dental clinic or discussed oral hygiene with a dentist or other healthcare worker. Public health importance A pregnant woman’s oral health affects the woman, her fetus and infant. In pregnant women, periodontal disease, which affects the gums and adjacent bone, is associated with pre-term and/or low birth-weight delivery. 1, 2, 3 After delivery, infants or young children may develop cavities from maternal oral bacteria. 4 All health care providers can promote oral health through oral examinations; advising patients about oral hygiene, diet and smoking cessation; and by making referrals to oral health practitioners. 5 Access to oral health services during pregnancy may be constrained by the American Dental Association recommendations to avoid elective dental care during the first trimester and last half of the third trimester. 6 In four PRAMS states, among mothers who reported having a dental problem, about one-half did not go for care. 7 NM PRAMS findings In 2002, 25 % of mothers recalled discussion of oral hygiene during prenatal care (Table 56 / Figure 28), 13% had a dental problem and 33 % had dental care (Table 57 / Figure 29). Among women with a dental problem, 56% had dental care (Table 58 / Figure 30). In 2001-2002, women who were more likely to have dental care included those with insurance, without public assistance or with more than high school education. Use of oral health

unknown authors

70

Letter: Oral contraceptives and vitamin requirements.  

PubMed

Most women who use oral contraceptives should take daily vitamin supplements in dosages that are carefully regulated to avoid excesses of particular vitamins. Requirements for riboflavin, thiamine, B12, and B6 may be increased by the use of oral contraceptives, whereas niacin requirements may be reduced. Fat-soluble vitamins are also influenced by oral contraceptives. There is evidence of increases in plasma Vitamin-A and decreases in plasma tocopherols in users of oral contraceptives; Vitamin-D, Vitamin-K, and biotin, however, have not been shown to be affected. Normalization of vitamin status can be effected fairly quickly by use of a daily multivitamin. Desirable doses are as follows: ascorbic acid, 400-500 mg; ribovlavin, 10 mg; B6, 5 mg; B12, 4 mcg; and d-alpha-tocopherol, 10 mg; optimal thiamine intake is not known . Clinical signs of hypovitaminosis include depression, susceptibility to infections, and skin signs, all of which were found in users of oral contraceptives in an epidemiological survey of 46,000 women in Great Britain. Adverse psychological, dermatological, and hematological side effects of oral contraceptives have also responded to vitamin therapy. Routine prophylactic prescription of carefully formulated supplemental vitamin mixtures is recommended. PMID:1143135

Briggs, M; Briggs, M

1975-03-22

71

Cholangiocarcinoma and oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

A 21-year-old woman presented with a 12-month history of epigastric pain, and for 3 months she had noticed a mass in the right hypochondrium. She had taken 'Norinyl-1' (norethisterone 1 mg and mestranol 50 mcg) for 5 years. She smoked 20 cigarettes a day but drank little alcohol. Physical examination revealed irregular hard hepatomegaly 10 cm below the right costal margin. Hepatitis B surface antigen was not detected in the serum and alpha fetoprotein levels were normal ( 10 M.R.C. units). A liver scan showed a large space-occupying lesion in the right lobe of the liver, and liver biopsy revealed a cholangicarcinoma with striking fibrous reaction. Multiple shadows consistent with metastases were present on chest X-ray, but no bony deposits were found on radiological skeletal survey or bone scan. The serum calcium was persistently high (2.74-2.92 mmol/l) but fell on prednisolone therapy. Serum parathyroid hormone levels were normal. A causal relation between oral contraceptives and hepatic adenoma is now generally accepted, and several patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have also been reported. We have been able to find only 1 previous report of cholangiocarcinoma in a young female taking oral contraceptives, and there is 1 report of this tumor in a man taking high doses of anabolic steroids for refractory anemia. This tumor has its peak incidence in the 6th decade and is very rare in the 3rd decade. The association with hypercalcemia due to pseudohyperparathyroidism is well recognized. In only some cases are parathyroid hormone levels raised, and the cause of the pseudohypercalcemia in our patient is unknown. PMID:6101761

Littlewood, E R; Barrison, I G; Murray-Lyon, I M; Paradinas, F J

1980-02-01

72

Soft X-Ray Emission Lines from a Relativistic Accretion Disk in MCG -6-30-15 and Mrk 766  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectra of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies MCG -6-30-15 and Mrk 766 are physically and spectroscopically inconsistent with standard models comprising a power-law continuum absorbed by either cold or ionized matter. We propose that the remarkably similar features detected in both objects in the 5 - 35 A band are H-like oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon emission lines, gravitation- ally redshifted and broadened by relativistic effects in the vicinity of a Kerr black hole. We discuss the implications of our interpretation, and demonstrate that the derived parameters can be physically self-consistent.

Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Sako, M.; Kahn, S. M.; Brinkman, A. C.; Kaastra, J. S.; Page, M. J.

2000-01-01

73

RXTE and BeppoSAX Observations of MCG-5-23-16: Reflection From Distant Cold Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine the spectral variability of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-5-23-16 using RXTE and BeppoSAX observations spanning 2 years from April 1996 to April 1998. During the first year the X-ray source brightens by a factor of approximately 25% on timescales of days to months. During this time, the reprocessed continuum emission seen with RXTE does not respond measurably to the continuum increase. However, by the end of the second year during the BeppoSAX epoch the X-ray source has faded again. This time, the reprocessed emission has also faded, indicating that the reprocessed flux has responded to the continuum. If these effects are caused by time delays due to the distance between the X-ray source and the reprocessing region, we derive a light crossing time of between approximately 1 light day and approximately 1.5 light years. This corresponds to a distance of 0.001 pc to 0.55 pc, which implies that the reprocessed emission originates between 3 x 10(exp 15) cm and 1.6 x 10(exp l8) cm from the X-ray source. In other words, the reprocessing in MCG-5-23-16 is not dominated by the inner regions of a standard accretion disk.

Mattson, B. J.; Weaver, K. A.

2003-01-01

74

Sublingual Misoprostol versus Intramuscular Oxytocin for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Uganda: A Double-Blind Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the World Health Organization recommends use of oxytocin for prevention of PPH, misoprostol use is increasingly common owing to advantages in shelf life and potential for sublingual administration. There is a lack of data about the comparative efficacy of oxytocin and sublingual misoprostol, particularly at the recommended dose of 600 µg, for prevention of PPH during active management of labor. Methods and Findings We performed a double-blind, double-dummy randomized controlled non-inferiority trial between 23 September 2012 and 9 September 2013 at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda. We randomized 1,140 women to receive 600 µg of misoprostol sublingually or 10 IU of oxytocin intramuscularly, along with matching placebos for the treatment they did not receive. Our primary outcome of interest was PPH, defined as measured blood loss ?500 ml within 24 h of delivery. Secondary outcomes included measured blood loss ?1,000 ml; mean measured blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 h after delivery; death; requirement for blood transfusion; hemoglobin changes; and use of additional uterotonics. At 24 h postpartum, primary PPH occurred in 163 (28.6%) participants in the misoprostol group and 99 (17.4%) participants in the oxytocin group (relative risk [RR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.05, p<0.001; absolute risk difference 11.2%, 95% CI 6.44 to 16.1). Severe PPH occurred in 20 (3.6%) and 15 (2.7%) participants in the misoprostol and oxytocin groups, respectively (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.58, p?=?0.391; absolute risk difference 0.9%, 95% CI ?1.12 to 2.88). Mean measured blood loss was 341.5 ml (standard deviation [SD] 206.2) and 304.2 ml (SD 190.8, p?=?0.002) at 2 h and 484.7 ml (SD 213.3) and 432.8 ml (SD 203.5, p<0.001) at 24 h in the misoprostol and oxytocin groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups in any other secondary outcomes. Women in the misoprostol group more commonly experienced shivering (RR 1.91, 95% CI 1.65 to 2.21, p<0.001) and fevers (RR 5.20, 95% CI 3.15 to 7.21, p?=?0.005). This study was conducted at a regional referral hospital with capacity for emergency surgery and blood transfusion. High-risk women were excluded from participation. Conclusions Misoprostol 600 µg is inferior to oxytocin 10 IU for prevention of primary PPH in active management of labor. These data support use of oxytocin in settings where it is available. While not powered to do so, the study found no significant differences in rate of severe PPH, need for blood transfusion, postpartum hemoglobin, change in hemoglobin, or use of additional uterotonics between study groups. Further research should focus on clarifying whether and in which sub-populations use of oxytocin would be preferred over sublingual misoprostol. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01866241 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25369200

Atukunda, Esther C.; Siedner, Mark J.; Obua, Celestino; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R.; Twagirumukiza, Marc; Agaba, Amon G.

2014-01-01

75

Oral Insulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation.

Sanjay Kalra; Bharti Kalra; Navneet Agrawal

2010-01-01

76

Oral Insulin  

PubMed Central

Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation. PMID:21059246

2010-01-01

77

Oral Medication  

MedlinePLUS

... over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money by finding the right type and ... Options? Is There a Danger of Interactions? How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? We Can Help (Long) - we-can-help-long. ...

78

BeppoSAX confirms extreme relativistic effects in the X-ray spectrum of MCG-6-30-15  

E-print Network

We report the first simultaneous measure of the X-ray broadband (0.1--200 keV) continuum and of the iron K-alpha fluorescent line profile in the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15. Our data confirms the ASCA detection of a skewed and redshifted line profile (Tanaka et al. 1995). The most straightforward explanation is that the line photons are emitted in the innermost regions of a X-ray illuminated relativistic disk. The line Equivalent Width (~200 eV) is perfectly consistent with the expected value for solar abundances, given the observed amount of Compton reflection. We report also the discovery of a cut-off in the nuclear primary emission at the energy of ~160 keV.

M. Guainazzi; G. Matt; S. Molendi; A. Orr; F. Fiore; P. Grandi; A. Matteuzzi; T. Mineo; G. C. Perola; A. N. Parmar; L. Piro

1998-11-16

79

Relativistic Iron K Emission and Absorption in the Seyfert 1.9 Galaxy MCG-05-23-16  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the results of the simultaneous deep XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the bright Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-5-23-16, which is thought to have one of the best known examples of a relativistically broadened iron Kalpha line. We detected a narrow sporadic absorption line at 7.7 keV which appears to be variable on a time-scale of 20 ksec. If associated with FeXXVI this absorption is indicative of a possible variable high ionization, high velocity outflow. The time averaged spectral analysis shows that the iron K-shell complex is best modeled with an unresolved narrow emission component (FWHM less than 5000 kilometers per second, EW approx. 60 eV) plus a broad component. This latter component has FWHM approx. 44000 kilometers per second, an EW approx. 50 eV and its profile is well described with an emission line originating from the accretion disk viewed with an inclination angle approx. 40 deg. and with the emission arising from within a few tens of gravitational radii of the central black hole. The time-resolved spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton EPIC-pn spectrum shows that both the narrow and broad components of the Fe K emission line appear to be constant within the errors. The analysis of the XMM-Newton/RGS spectrum reveals that the soft X-ray emission of MCG-5-23-16 is likely dominated by several emission lines superimposed on an unabsorbed scattered power-law continuum. The lack of strong Fe L shell emission together with the detection of a strong forbidden line in the O VII triplet supports a scenario where the soft X ray emission lines are produced in a plasma photoionized by the nuclear emission.

Braito, V.; Reeves, J. N.; Dewangan, G. C.; George, I.; Griffiths, R.; Markowitz, A.; Nandra, K.; Porquet, D.; Ptak, A.; Turner, T. J.; Yaqoob, T.; Weaver, K.

2007-01-01

80

Current status of oral contraceptive.  

PubMed

Oral contraceptives have been implicated as a causative factor of venous thrombosis and thromboembolism. Compounds containing over 50 mcg of estrogen have developed this complication most frequently. Steroid hormones have a marked influence on liver function. Large doses have caused cholestasis and hepatocellular damage. Disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism have been recorded. Lipid metabolism have also been shown to be disturbed with increased serum levels of triglycerides and low density lipoproteins. A rise in the cholesterol serum level seems to be correlated with the progestogen content of the compound. The ''minipill'' with a small dose of progestogen alone had been effective by alteration of the cervical mucus. The ''one-a-month pill'' is a combination of a long-acting estrogen, quinestrol, and a chorter acting progestogen, qunigestanol acetate. It has not been as acceptable or as effective as combined compounds. The ''morning-after'' pill consists of large doses of stilbestrol. The method has been effective but when de-ethylstilbestrol has been given to a patient already pregnant to prevent an early spontaneous abortion, adenocarcinoma of the cervix or vagina has been reported. Hypertension has been more common with increased duration of pill use. High dosage of progestogens and increasing age of patients have increased the incidence of hypertension. Cerebrovascular disease had also been more frequent among pill users. An increased incidence of gallbladder disease and of gallstones has been shown in pill users. Urinary tract and vaginal infections were reported more often in pill users. Increased sexual activity may have been a factor in this relationship. Resumption of ovualation after discontinuation of oral contraceptives usually follows within 4-6 weeks. In about 1% of patients amenorrhea and anovulation result for 6 months or more. This is often accopanied by galactorrhea. There is evidence that mestranol is demethylated to ethinyl estradiol in the liver. Progesterone seems to interfere with conversion. Therefore ethinyl estradiol is preferred as a compound of the pill. Also the different progestogens used are metabolized in the liver to norethisterone before they exert their biological effects. Several drugs, as ampicillin and barbiturates, have been shown to interfere with the efficacy of oral contraceptives. It is concluded that the overall results have shown oral contraceptives to be an excellent form of contraception with minimal and acceptable side effects and the least metabolic disturbance. PMID:822261

Ping, W W; Puvan, I S

1976-03-01

81

Oral vaccines  

PubMed Central

Oral vaccines are safe and easy to administer and convenient for all ages. They have been successfully developed to protect from many infectious diseases acquired through oral transmission. We recently found in animal models that formulation of oral vaccines in a nanoparticle-releasing microparticle delivery system is a viable approach for selectively inducing large intestinal protective immunity against infections at rectal and genital mucosae. These large-intestine targeted oral vaccines are a potential substitute for the intracolorectal immunization, which has been found to be effective against rectogenital infections but is not feasible for mass vaccination. Moreover, the newly developed delivery system can be modified to selectively target either the small or large intestine for immunization and accordingly revealed a regionalized immune system in the gut. Future applications and research endeavors suggested by the findings are discussed. PMID:23493163

Zhu, Qing; Berzofsky, Jay A.

2013-01-01

82

Oral pathology.  

PubMed

Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth. PMID:18482706

Niemiec, Brook A

2008-05-01

83

The continuum variability of MCG--6-30-15: A detailed analysis of the long 1999 ASCA observation  

E-print Network

We report on an analysis in the 3--10 keV X-ray band of the long 1999 ASCA observation of MCG--6-30-15. The time-averaged broad iron K line is well-described by disk emission near a Schwarzschild black hole, confirming the results of earlier analyses on the ASCA 1994 and 1997 data. The time-resolved iron-line profile is remarkably stable over a factor of three change in source flux, and the line and continuum fluxes are uncorrelated. Detailed fits to the variable iron-line profile suggest that the active region (parametrized by the best-fit inner and outer radii of the accretion disk) responsible for iron line emission actually narrows with increasing flux to a region around 4--5 r_g. In contrast to the iron line, the power-law continuum exhibits significant variability during the 1999 observation. Time-resolved spectral analysis reveals a new feature in the well-known photon index (Gamma) vs. flux correlation: Gamma appears to approach a limiting value of Gamma ~ 2.1 at high flux. Two models are proposed to explain both the new feature in the Gamma vs. flux correlation and the uncorrelated iron-line flux: a phenomenological two power-law model, and the recently proposed ``thundercloud'' model of Merloni & Fabian (2001). Both models are capable of reproducing the data well, but because they are poorly constrained by the observed Gamma vs. flux relation, they cannot at present be tested meaningfully by the data. The various implications and the physical interpretation of these models are discussed.

D. C. Shih; K. Iwasawa; A. C. Fabian

2002-02-22

84

Comparison of isosorbide mononitrate and misoprostol for cervical ripening in termination of pregnancy between 8 and 12 weeks: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The present study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of isosorbide mononitrate (IMN) and misoprostol for cervical ripening\\u000a in termination of pregnancy between 8 and 12 weeks.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  This prospective randomized single blind study enrolled 40 women with singleton pregnancy seeking surgical termination of\\u000a pregnancy between 8 and 12 weeks of gestation. They were divided into two groups—group I received IMN

Nirmala Duhan; Sonam Gupta; Krishna Dahiya; Daya Sirohiwal; Seema Rohilla

2011-01-01

85

Oral Appliances  

MedlinePLUS

... weeks or months to complete. This includes examination, evaluation to determine the most appropriate oral appliance, fitting, maximizing adaptation of the appliance, and the function. Ongoing care, including short- and long-term follow-up is an essential step in the ...

86

Ampicillin Oral  

MedlinePLUS

... Tenormin), oral contraceptives, probenecid (Benemid), rifampin, sulfasalazine, and vitamins.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had kidney or liver disease, allergies, asthma, blood disease, colitis, stomach problems, or hay fever.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan ...

87

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the effects of oral cancer on speech and swallowing? The effects of cancer on speech and swallowing depend on the location and size of the ... or push food back toward the throat during swallowing. A growth on the roof of the mouth ( ...

88

Oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases. PMID:12185216

Akpan, A; Morgan, R

2002-01-01

89

Comparison of low doses of misoprostol with the traditional use of oxytocin for effective cervical ripening and labor induction ? ? This document includes a discussion of use of a product that is unapproved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare misoprostol tablets via intracervical route with a standard regimen of oxytocin.Methods: This retrospective, randomized study analyzed all pregnancy terminations induced with intracervical tablet of misoprostol 25 ?g or oxytocin. The population included primigravidas with an unfavorable cervix and multigravidas with premature rupture of membranes or previous transverse cesarean delivery. Outcomes assessed were induction-to-delivery interval, induction failure, pain

Mercedes Birlain

2001-01-01

90

DISCOVERY OF Fe K{alpha} X-RAY REVERBERATION AROUND THE BLACK HOLES IN MCG-5-23-16 AND NGC 7314  

SciTech Connect

Several X-ray observations have recently revealed the presence of reverberation time delays between spectral components in active galactic nuclei. Most of the observed lags are between the power-law Comptonization component, seen directly, and the soft excess produced by reflection in the vicinity of the black hole. NGC 4151 was the first object to show these lags in the iron K band. Here, we report the discovery of reverberation lags in the Fe K band in two other sources: MCG-5-23-16 and NGC 7314. In both objects, the 6-7 keV band, where the Fe K{alpha} line peaks, lags the bands at lower and higher energies with a time delay of {approx}1 ks. These lags are unlikely to be due to the narrow Fe K{alpha} line. They are fully consistent with reverberation of the relativistically broadened iron K{alpha} line. The measured lags, their time scale, and spectral modeling indicate that most of the radiation is emitted at {approx}5 and 24 gravitational radii for MCG-5-23-16 and NGC 7314, respectively.

Zoghbi, A.; Reynolds, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Cackett, E. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock St, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Miniutti, G. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Dep. de Astrosica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Kara, E.; Fabian, A. C., E-mail: azoghbi@astro.umd.edu [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

2013-04-20

91

Detecting Compton Reflection and a Broad Iron Line in MCG-5-23-16 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer  

E-print Network

We report the detection with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer of a Compton reflection signature in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-5-23-16. RXTE also resolves the Fe K-alpha fluorescence line with FWHM ~48,000 km s^{-1}. This measurement provides the first independent confirmation of ASCA detections in Seyfert galaxies of broad Fe K-alpha lines that are thought to be the signature of emission from the inner regions of an accretion disk orbiting a black hole. Under the assumption that reflection arises from an isotropic source located above a neutral accretion disk, and using a theoretical model that accounts for the dependence of the reflected spectrum on inclination angle, we derive a 90% confidence range for the disk inclination of i = 50 to 81 degrees. The large inclination is consistent with that expected from the unified model for MCG-5-23-16 based on its Seyfert 1.9 classification. If we assume that the high-energy cutoff in the incident spectrum lies at energies larger than a few hundred keV, then the equivalent width of the Fe K-alpha line is much larger than predicted for the amount of reflection. This implies either an enhanced iron abundance, a covering factor of reflecting material > 0.5, or a cutoff in the incident spectrum at energies between ~60 and ~200 keV.

K. A. Weaver; J. H. Krolik; E. A. Pier

1997-12-02

92

Long-Term X-Ray Variabilities of the Seyfert Galaxy MCG-2-58-22 : Secular Flux Decrease and Flares  

E-print Network

We have studied the long-term X-ray light curve (2$-$10 keV) of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-2-58-22 by compiling data, from various X-ray satellites, which together cover more than 20 years. We have found two distinct types of time variations in the light curve. One is a gradual and secular decrease of the X-ray flux, and the other is the episodic increase of X-ray flux (or flare) by a factor of 2$-$4 compared with the level expected from the secular variation. We detected 3 such flares in total; a representative duration for the flares is $\\sim $2 years, with intervening quiescent intervals lasting $\\sim 6-8$ years. We discuss a few possible origins for these variabilities. Though a standard disk instability theory may explain the displayed time variability in the X-ray light curve, the subsequent accretions of stellar debris, from a tidal disruption event caused by a supermassive black hole in MCG-2-58-22, cannot be ruled out as an alternative explanation.

Chul-Sung Choi; Tadayasu Dotani; Heon-Young Chang; Insu Yi

2002-01-18

93

Oral Haemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female. PMID:22431929

Gill, Jaspreet Singh; Gill, Sharanjeet; Bhardwaj, Amit; Grover, Harpreet Singh

2012-01-01

94

Oral Thrush (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Crisp Choosing Safe Toys Checkups: What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Oral Thrush KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Skin Infections & Rashes > Oral Thrush Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? About Oral Thrush Symptoms Prevention Treatment About Oral Thrush Oral thrush is a very ...

95

Does self-administered vaginal misoprostol result in cervical ripening in postmenopausal women after 14 days of pre-treatment with estradiol? Trial protocol for a randomised, placebo-controlled sequential trial*  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the impact of 1000 micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus self-administered vaginal placebo on preoperative cervical ripening after pre-treatment with estradiol vaginal tablets at home in postmenopausal women prior to day-care operative hysteroscopy. Design Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled sequential trial. The boundaries for the sequential trial were calculated on the primary outcomes of a difference of cervical dilatation ?1 millimetre, with the assumption of a type 1 error of 0.05 and a power of 0.95. Setting Norwegian university teaching hospital. Population Postmenopausal women referred for day-care operative hysteroscopy. Methods The women were randomised to either 1000 micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol or self-administered vaginal placebo the evening before day-care operative hysteroscopy. All women had administered a 25-microgram vaginal estradiol tablet daily for 14 days prior to the operation. Main outcome measures Preoperative cervical dilatation (difference between misoprostol and placebo group, primary outcome), difference in dilatation before and after administration of misoprostol or placebo, number of women who achieve a preoperative cervical dilatation ?5 millimetres, acceptability, complications and side effects (secondary outcomes). Results Intra-operative findings and distribution of cervical dilatation in the two treatment groups: values are given as median (range) or n(%). Difference in dilatation before and after administration of misoprostol and placebo: values are given as median (range) of intraindividual differences. Percentage of women who achieve a cervical dilatation of ?5 mm, percentage of women who were difficult to dilate. Acceptability in the two treatment groups: values are given as completely acceptable n(%), fairly acceptable n(%), fairly unacceptable n(%), completely unacceptable n(%). Pain in the two treatment groups: pain was measured with a visual analogue scale ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (unbearable pain): values are given as median (range). Occurrence of side effects in the two treatment groups. Values are given as n(%). Complications given as n(%). Funding sources No pharmaceutical company was involved in this study. A research grant from the regional research board of Northern Norway has been awarded to finance Dr K.S.O.'s leave from Hammerfest hospital as well as travel expenses between Hammerfest and Oslo, and research courses. The research grant from Prof B.I.N. (Helse Řst) funded the purchase of estradiol tablets, the manufacturing costs of misoprostol and placebo capsules from the hospital pharmacy, as well as the costs incurred for preparing the randomisation schedule and distribution of containers containing capsules to hospital. Prof B.I.N.'s research grant also funded insurance for the study participants. Conclusions Estimated completion date 31 December 2008. PMID:18485172

Oppegaard, KS; Lieng, M; Berg, A; Istre, O; Qvigstad, E; Nesheim, B-I

2008-01-01

96

Training traditional birth attendants on the use of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool to prevent postpartum haemorrhage: lessons learnt from Bangladesh.  

PubMed

A consensus emerged in the late 1990s among leaders in global maternal health that traditional birth attendants (TBAs) should no longer be trained in delivery skills and should instead be trained as promoters of facility-based care. Many TBAs continue to be trained in places where home deliveries are the norm and the potential impacts of this training are important to understand. The primary objective of this study was to gain a more nuanced understanding of the full impact of training TBAs to use misoprostol and a blood measurement tool (mat) for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at home deliveries through the perspective of those involved in the project. This qualitative study, conducted between July 2009 and July 2010 in Bangladesh, was nested within larger operations research, testing the feasibility and acceptability of scaling up community-based provision of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool for prevention of PPH. A total of 87 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with TBAs, community health workers (CHWs), managers, and government-employed family welfare visitors (FWVs) at three time points during the study. Computer-assisted thematic data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti (version 5.2). Four primary themes emerged during the data analysis, which all highlight changes that occurred following the training. The first theme describes the perceived direct changes linked to the two new interventions. The following three themes describe the indirect changes that interviewees perceived: strengthened linkages between TBAs and the formal healthcare system; strengthened linkages between TBAs and the communities they serve; and improved quality of services/service utilization. The data indicate that training TBAs and CHW supervisors resulted in perceived broader and more nuanced changes than simply improvements in TBAs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Acknowledgeing TBAs' important role in the community and in home deliveries and integrating them into the formal healthcare system has the potential to result in changes similar to those seen in this study. PMID:24847601

Bell, Suzanne; Passano, Paige; Bohl, Daniel D; Islam, Arshadul; Prata, Ndola

2014-03-01

97

Coronal Properties of the Seyfert 1.9 Galaxy MCG-05-23-016 Determined from Hard X-Ray Spectroscopy with NuSTAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the high-energy cut-off in the coronal continuum of active galactic nuclei have long been elusive for all but a small number of the brightest examples. We present a direct measurement of the cut-off energy in the nuclear continuum of the nearby Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-05-23-016 with unprecedented precision. The high sensitivity of NuSTAR up to 79 keV allows us to clearly disentangle the spectral curvature of the primary continuum from that of its reflection component. Using a simple phenomenological model for the hard X-ray spectrum, we constrain the cut-off energy to 116-5+6 keV with 90% confidence. Testing for more complex models and nuisance parameters that could potentially influence the measurement, we find that the cut-off is detected robustly. We further use simple Comptonized plasma models to provide independent constraints for both the kinetic temperature of the electrons in the corona and its optical depth. At the 90% confidence level, we find kTe = 29 ± 2 keV and ? e = 1.23 ± 0.08 assuming a slab (disk-like) geometry, and kTe = 25 ± 2 keV and ? e = 3.5 ± 0.2 assuming a spherical geometry. Both geometries are found to fit the data equally well and their two principal physical parameters are correlated in both cases. With the optical depth in the ? e >~ 1 regime, the data are pushing the currently available theoretical models of the Comptonized plasma to the limits of their validity. Since the spectral features and variability arising from the inner accretion disk have been observed previously in MCG-05-23-016, the inferred high optical depth implies that a spherical or disk-like corona cannot be homogeneous.

Balokovi?, M.; Matt, G.; Harrison, F. A.; Zoghbi, A.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Esmerian, C. J.; Fabian, A. C.; Fürst, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Marinucci, A.; Parker, M. L.; Reynolds, C. S.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

2015-02-01

98

Understanding Oral Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral

Moon, W. Jay

2012-01-01

99

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History  

E-print Network

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History Annual Report AUGUST 1, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rule of Law Oral History Project Carnegie Corporation Oral History Project BIOGRAPHICAL INTERVIEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Oral History Master of Arts Summer Institute 2012 Oral History Workshop Series 2011­12 Oral

Kim, Philip

100

Diclofenac and Misoprostol  

MedlinePLUS

... patients who have a high risk of developing stomach ulcers. Diclofenac is in a class of medications called ... a class of medications called prostaglandins. It prevents ulcers caused by diclofenac by protecting the stomach lining and decreasing stomach acid production.

101

Multiple Regression Analysis of the Variable Component in the Near-Infrared Region for Type 1 AGN MCG +08-11-011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method of analyzing a variable component for type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the near-infrared wavelength region. This analysis uses a multiple regression technique and divides the variable component into two components originating in the accretion disk at the center of an AGN and from the dust torus that far surrounds the disk. Applying this analysis to the long-term VHK monitoring data of MCG +08-11-011 that were obtained by the MAGNUM project, we found that the (H-K) color temperature of the dust component is T=1635+/-20 K, which agrees with the sublimation temperature of dust grains, and that the time delay of K to H variations is ?t~6 days, which indicates the existence of a radial temperature gradient in the dust torus. As for the disk component, we found that the power-law spectrum of f?~?? in the V to near-infrared HK bands varies with a fixed index of ?~-0.1 to +0.4, which is broadly consistent with the irradiated standard disk model. The outer part of the disk therefore extends out to a radial distance where the temperature decreases to radiate the light in the near-infrared.

Tomita, Hiroyuki; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Minezaki, Takeo; Enya, Keigo; Suganuma, Masahiro; Aoki, Tsutomu; Koshida, Shintaro; Yamauchi, Masahiro

2006-11-01

102

Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral

Troiano, Claire A.

2010-01-01

103

Effect of oral glucose on serum zinc in the elderly  

SciTech Connect

To determine the effect of glucose loading on serum zinc concentrations, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-86 y were studied. Anthropometric data, medical and dietary histories were obtained. Serum zinc and glucose concentrations were obtained fasting and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2 and 3 h after 75 g oral glucose load; glycohemoglobin and fasting serum lipids were also determined. For comparison, the subjects were categorized as: normal or low serum zinc concentrations; normal or high body mass index BMI; normal or high sum of skinfolds and normal or high serum cholesterol. Results showed that low serum zinc concentrations increased significantly over baseline values after the glucose load and did not return to fasting levels. On the other hand, mean serum zinc concentrations significantly declined without recovery for those with normal zinc values. For the total group, no significant differences were noted between fasting values and subsequent time periods. No correlations were noted between fasting serum zinc and area under the curve for zinc except in the high BMI group (positive correlation observed). For the high BMI group, fasting serum zinc differed significantly from the succeeding measurements except for 30 min. For the group as a whole, mean serum zinc concentration was within normal limits (76.9 +/- 2.8 mcg/ml): mean zinc intake was less than 2/3rds the RDA. They conclude that glucose ingestion may alter serum zinc and should be considered in interpreting these levels.

Lopez, A.L.; Kohrs, M.B.; Horwitz, D.L.; Cyborski, C.K.; Czajka-Narins, D.M.; Kamath, S.

1986-03-05

104

A Chandra HETGS Spectral Study of the Iron K Bandpass in MCG-6-30-15: A Narrow View of the Broad Iron Line  

E-print Network

We present a high resolution X-ray spectrum of the iron K bandpass in MCG-6-30-15 based on a 522 ksec observation with Chandra's High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. The Chandra spectrum is consistent with the presence of a relativistically broadened, highly redshifted iron K alpha emission line with a similar profile to previous observations. A number of narrow features are detected above 2 keV, including a narrow Fe K alpha emission line and narrow absorption lines from H- and He-like Fe, H-like S and H-like Si. This absorption is well described by a photoionized plasma with a column density log N_H = 23.2 and an ionization parameter log xi = 3.6, assuming the iron abundance has the Solar value and a velocity dispersion parameter b = 100 km/s. Applying this absorption model to a high fidelity XMM-Newton EPIC-pn spectrum we find that a broad iron line is still required with emission extending to within 1.9 gravitational radii of the black hole. If the iron line comes from an accretion disk truncated at the innermost stable circular orbit, this indicates that the black hole must be spinning rapidly with a>0.95. Ionized absorption models attempting to explain the 3-6 keV spectral curvature without strong gravity predict absorption lines in the 6.4-6.6 keV range that are inconsistent with the Chandra spectrum. The H- and He-like iron absorption lines in the Chandra spectrum are blueshifted by 2.0 (+0.7/-0.9) x 10^3 km/s compared to the source frame, and may originate in a high velocity, high ionization component of the warm absorber outflow. This high ionization component may dominate the energy budget of the outflow, and account for a significant fraction of the outflowing mass. (Abstract truncated).

A. J. Young; J. C. Lee; A. C. Fabian; C. S. Reynolds; R. R. Gibson; C. R. Canizares

2005-06-03

105

Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis  

PubMed Central

Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

2009-01-01

106

Shari T. Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Shari T. Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin February 25, 2009 http...://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/handle/1808/5631 This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian...

T., Shari; Albin, Tami

2009-12-17

107

Oral hypoglycemics overdose  

MedlinePLUS

... hypoglycemics. The poisonous ingredient depends on the specific drug. The main (active) ingredient in sulfonylurea-based oral hypoglycemics stimulates cells in the pancreas to produce more insulin.

108

Oral candidosis in relation to oral immunity.  

PubMed

Symptomatic oral infection with Candida albicans is characterized by invasion of the oral epithelium by virulent hyphae that cause tissue damage releasing the inflammatory mediators that initiate and sustain local inflammation. Candida albicans triggers pattern-recognition receptors of keratinocytes, macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells, stimulating the production of IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-23. These cytokines induce the differentiation of Th17 cells and the generation of IL-17- and/or IL-22-mediated antifungal protective immuno-inflammatory responses in infected mucosa. Some immune cells including NKT cells, ?? T cells and lymphoid cells that are innate to the oral mucosa have the capacity to produce large quantities of IL-17 in response to C. albicans, sufficient to mediate effective protective immunity against C. albicans. On the other hand, molecular structures of commensal C. albicans blastoconidia, although detected by pattern-recognition receptors, are avirulent, do not invade the oral epithelium, do not elicit inflammatory responses in a healthy host, but induce regulatory immune responses that maintain tissue tolerance to the commensal fungi. The type, specificity and sensitivity of the protective immune response towards C. albicans is determined by the outcome of the integrated interactions between the intracellular signalling pathways of specific combinations of activated pattern-recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2). IL-17-mediated protective immune response is essential for oral mucosal immunity to C. albicans infection. PMID:24118267

Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Chandran, R; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

2014-09-01

109

College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine  

E-print Network

College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed. Prereq: Admission to the College of Dentistry. ODM 820 ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL RADIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTIC

MacAdam, Keith

110

Oral Transliterating. NETAC Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the deaf person, inaudibly repeats the spoken message for the deaf person, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called…

Troiano, Claire A.

2005-01-01

111

Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Adults  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A White, slightly elevated lesions on the tongue and lips are typical of oral candidiasis. Overview Thrush (oral candidiasis), also known as ...

112

75 FR 62591 - Oral Argument  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Oral Argument AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection...Notice is hereby given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of: Hyginus U...MSPB'' or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of Hyginus...

2010-10-12

113

Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS  

MedlinePLUS

PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . Updated 25 February 2014. +Related Content Key Facts ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

114

Curricular Guidelines for Oral Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for oral biology curriculum cover its scope, primary educational goals, prerequisites, sequencing, faculty, course content in each subarea (oral tissues and systems and oral diagnostic methodology), and specific behavioral objectives. (MSE)

Journal of Dental Education, 1984

1984-01-01

115

GRADUATE COLLEGE ORAL DEFENSE RESULTS  

E-print Network

GRADUATE COLLEGE ORAL DEFENSE RESULTS THESIS, DISSERTATION/MUSIC DOCUMENT, PROFESSIONAL: Phone: MEANS OF PUBLICIZING ORAL DEFENSE Department email Posted flyer UNLV Today Department website GPSA/GPSA Lounge Other (specify): Date: ORAL DEFENSE

Cho, Hokwon

116

Use of Simulated Patients to Evaluate Combined Oral Contraceptive Dispensing Practices of Community Pharmacists  

PubMed Central

Background Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use is the most commonly used reversible method of birth control. The incorrect use of COCs is frequent and one of the most common causes of unintended pregnancies. Community pharmacists (CPs) are in a strategic position to improve COC use because they are the last health professional to interact with patients before drug use. Objective To evaluate the COC dispensing practices of CPs in a developing country. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies of Assis and Ourinhos microregions, Brazil, between June 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012. Four simulated patients (SPs) (with counseled audio recording) visited community pharmacies with a prescription for Ciclo 21® (a COC containing ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg + levonorgestrel 15 mcg). The audio recording of every SP visit was listened to independently by 3 researchers to evaluate the COC dispensing practice. The percentage of CPs who performed a screening for safe use of COCs (i.e., taking of patients’ medical and family history, and measuring of blood pressure) and provided counseling, as well as the quality of the screening and counseling, were evaluated. Results Of the 185 CPs contacted, 41 (22.2%) agreed to participate in the study and finished the study protocol. Only 3 CPs asked the SP a question (1 question asked by each professional), and all of the questions were closed-ended, viz., “do you smoke?” (n = 2) and “what is your age?” (n = 1). None of the CPs measured the patient’s blood pressure. Six CPs provided counseling when dispensing COCs (drug dosing, 5 CPs; possible adverse effects, 2 CPs), and one CP provided counseling regarding both aspects. Conclusion The CPs evaluated did not dispense COC appropriately and could influence in the occurrence of negatives therapeutic outcomes such as adverse effects and treatment failure. PMID:24324584

Obreli-Neto, Paulo Roque; Pereira, Leonardo Régis Leira; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Baldoni, André de Oliveira; Marusic, Srecko; de Lyra-Júnior, Divaldo Pereira; de Almeida, Kelsen Luis; Pazete, Ana Claudia Montolezi; do Nascimento, Janaina Dutra; Kos, Mitja; Girotto, Edmarlon; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

2013-01-01

117

Genes and oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancers have been one of the leading causes of deaths particularly in the developing countries. Prime reason for this high mortality and morbidity is attributed to the delay in diagnosis and prompt treatment. Relentless research in the field of oncology has led to the advent of novel procedures for the early detection of oral cancers. Molecular biology is highly promising in this regard. It is a procedure that detects alterations at a molecular level much before they are seen under a microscope and much before clinical changes occur. Molecular studies serve as the basis by which we will eventually be able not only to augment clinical assessment and classification of oral lesions but also predict malignant potential of oral lesions, thus reducing the incidence and increasing the scope for early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancers. However, making such sophisticated tools available for the common man in developing countries is one of the most important challenges faced today. PMID:24959008

Jurel, Sunit Kumar; Gupta, Durga Shanker; Singh, Raghuwar D.; Singh, Mrinalini; Srivastava, Shilpi

2014-01-01

118

Oral health and nutrition.  

PubMed

The relationships between oral health conditions, dietary practices and nutritional status, and general health status in the older American are complex, with many interrelating factors. Just as inadequate nutrition can affect oral health, poor oral health status affects food choices and, thus, nutritional status. It is clearly essential that the primary care practitioner and/or screening health professionals always include an evaluation of oral status in assessment of an elderly person. Effective care for the elderly dental patient requires knowledge about the disease of aging and the impact of those diseases on oral health and nutrition, pharmacology and drug interactions and their impact on oral health status, the biology of aging including sensory changes, the relationship of general medicine and systemic diseases, and psychology and sociology. The attitudes of empathy and understanding, caring and compassion, respect and a positive attitude toward the older patient, and flexibility in treatment planning are also critical elements. The interdisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, nutrition professionals, dentists, and social service professionals must all work together to ensure that good oral health status and adequate nutrition are maintained in older Americans. Recognizing and treating oral health and nutrition problems are important in improving the health and quality of life for the elderly population. Research that can provide more answers to health care problems in this growing group; educating professionals with respect to the relationships between oral health and nutrition; and public policy changes with regard to provision and funding of nutrition services, especially when provided by registered and/or licensed nutrition professionals, contribute to improving the health and quality of life for elders. PMID:8197250

Pla, G W

1994-03-01

119

Oral Lactoferrin Treatment of Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the potential of lactoferrin (LF), a multifunctional milk protein, for treatment of oral candi- diasis with immunosuppressed mice, which have local symptoms characteristic of oral thrush. Oral adminis- tration of bovine LF in drinking water starting 1 day before the infection significantly reduced the number of Candida albicans in the oral cavity and the score of lesions on

Natsuko Takakura; Hiroyuki Wakabayashi; Hiroko Ishibashi; Susumu Teraguchi; Yoshitaka Tamura; Hideyo Yamaguchi; Shigeru Abe

2003-01-01

120

NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER ORAL HISTORY PROJECT ORAL HISTORY TRANSCRIPT  

E-print Network

NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER ORAL HISTORY PROJECT ORAL HISTORY TRANSCRIPT NEIL A. ARMSTRONG history with Neil Armstrong was conducted on September 19, 2001, for the Johnson Space Center Oral History of that? 19 September 2001 1 #12;Johnson Space Center Oral History Project Neil A. Armstrong ARMSTRONG: I

121

ADHA Oral Health Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the American Dental Hygienists' Association, this site's resources are valuable for both dental patients and hygienists to help understand "the importance of oral health to total health." Patients will find informative fact sheets describing potential oral health problems as well as tips for preventing them. Hygienists will find the free posters useful as well as the instructions included for proper brushing and flossing techniques in order to educate and support their patients. The site underscores dental hygienists' roles in tobacco cessation efforts, a major topic of concern in the allied health professions. Providing free "life-saving advice", the ADHA hopes to promote overall heath beginning with oral care.

122

Pope Michael Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Pope Michael (David Bawden) conducted by Torang Asadi in Delia, Kansas, on September 2, 2010. In this interview, Pope Michael describes how his family came to be in Kansas, how he came to believe ...

Pope Michael; Bawden, David; Asadi, Torang

2010-09-02

123

Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions  

MedlinePLUS

... Million NIDCR/NIH Grant 2015 AAOM Call for Abstract Submissions Upcoming Events 2015 Annual Conference Registration is Now Open 2016 Annual Meeting in Atlanta - Save the Date! Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions ...

124

Oral Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... available from the NCI Web site . There is no standard or routine screening test for oral cancer. ... other areas by the time they are found. No studies have shown that screening would decrease the ...

125

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

126

Children's Oral Health  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Oral Health home School-Based Dental Sealant Programs Community Water Fluoridation Fluoridation Basics Benefits Guidelines ... Health Engineering & Operations Infection Control School-Based Dental Sealant Programs Community Water Fluoridation FAQs Community Water Fluoridation ...

127

[Risk of oral piercing].  

PubMed

Oral and facial piercing with different kinds of body art are being observed more frequently in medical and dental practices. Principally, piercing is not a new form of body art and is traditional in different geographical areas. Various materials are used. Besides tongue and lip piercing, different locations of the face such as the eyebrows and the nose are anatomical areas of piercing. The aim of this article is to demonstrate different forms of oral piercing, illustrated by own observations. The piercing procedure is briefly described. Piercing is usually performed without local anaesthesia and stepwise. In a literature review, the possible risks and complications are summarised. Postprocedural complications are oedema, haemorrhage and infection. Other complications are foreign body granulomas or allergies, particularly against nickel. Dentists, and oral- and maxillofacial surgeons should be in a position to advise patients with oral or facial piercings or those who plan to have this type of body art performed. PMID:10234960

Bethke, G; Reichart, P A

1999-03-01

128

Mike Rose Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Mike Rose conducted by Lauren Helmer in Salina, Kansas, on December 31, 2010. In this interview, Mike Rose, pastor of the University United Methodist Church in Salina, describes his experiences ...

Rose, Mike; Helmer, Lauren

2010-12-31

129

Rose Stokes Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Rose Stokes conducted by Sarah Heidrick in Nicodemus, Kansas, on November 14, 2009. In this interview, Rose Stokes discusses her involvement with the First Baptist Church in Nicodemus, Kansas, ...

Stokes, Rose; Heidrick, Sarah

2009-11-14

130

Gene Carlson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Gene Carlson conducted by Clint Shriner on December 10, 2009. In this interview, Gene Carlson, lead pastor at Westlink Christian Church, discusses the formative experiences that resulted in his ...

Carlson, Gene; Shriner, Clint

2009-12-10

131

Matt Cox Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Matt Cox conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on July 16, 2013. This interview features Matt Cox, the planter and lead pastor of EastLake Community Church. EastLake Community Church ...

Cox, Matt; Stratton, Emily

2013-07-16

132

David Frech Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with David Frech conducted by Emily Stratton in Olathe, Kansas, on July 10, 2013. David Frech is the senior pastor at the Church of the Harvest in Olathe, Kansas. Church of the Harvest started up in ...

Frech, David; Stratton, Emily

2013-07-10

133

Deacon Godsey Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Deacon Godsey conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 21, 2013. Deacon Godsey is the lead pastor at Vintage Church in Lawrence. Vintage Church is one of Lawrence’s newer ...

Godsey, Deacon; Stratton, Emily

2013-06-21

134

Mary Miller Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Mary Miller conducted by Dr. Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on September 16, 2009. In this interview, Mary Miller describes her journey from a her Presbyterian upbringing and education to the decision that she was a...

Miller, Mary; Miller, Timothy

2009-09-16

135

Gregg Hall Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Gregg Hall conducted by Emily Stratton in Olathe, Kansas, on June 24, 2013. Gregg Hall is the pastor for the Ottawa, Kansas, branch of Life Church. Life Church is a non-denominational church ...

Hall, Gregg; Stratton, Emily

2013-06-24

136

Kacey Carlson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Kacey Carlson conducted by Kaitlin Dosier and Jeremy Adkison in Lawrence, Kansas, on October 25, 2010. In this interview, Kacey Carlson, owner of the store Village Witch in Lawrence, Kansas, describes the history...

Carlson, Kacey; Adkison, Jeremy; Dosier, Kaitlin

2010-10-25

137

Anna Manning Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Anna Manning conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Anna Manning discusses the Hispanic ministries in Catholic Churches in Johnson County, Kansas. This interview...

Manning, Anna; Manning, Sean

2009-11-05

138

Dan Chaverin Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Dan Chaverin conducted by Clint Shriner in Lenexa, Kansas, on December 6, 2009. In this interview, Dan Chaverin, executive pastor of Westside Family Church in Lenexa, Kansas, discusses the operations, missions...

Chaverin, Dan; Shriner, Clint

2009-12-06

139

Leona Anderson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Leona Anderson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Burdick, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Leona Anderson discusses her experiences as a member of the Missouri Synod Lutheran Church in Lattimer, Kansas...

Anderson, Leona; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

140

Garrett Fugate Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Garrett Fugate conducted by Jeremy Adkison in 2010. In this interview, University of Kansas student Garrett Fugate discusses his childhood experiences as a member of the Greek Orthodox community, and his eventual decision...

Fugate, Garrett; Adkison, Jeremy

2010-01-01

141

Joseph Luben Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Joseph Luben conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Joseph Luben discusses being raised with both Pentecostal and Jewish influences in Galena, Kansas. He also describes...

Luben, Joseph; Manning, Sean

2009-11-05

142

Evelyn Forsberg Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Evelyn Forsberg conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Evelyn Forsberg discusses the experience of growing up Catholic in the Herrington, Kansas, area, and, after her marriage to a...

Forsberg, Evelyn; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

143

Oralidad, narración oral y narración oral escénica  

E-print Network

sociedades pasaron de la oralidad primaria a la escritura, y de la escritura a la oralidad secundaria (escritura y oralidad audiovisual), avanzaron, pero la oralidad retrocedió. No ignoro que nuestras sociedades de oralidad secundaria coexisten con... sociedades de oralidad primaria y con otras en tránsito entre las dos a través de la escritura. Pero mi propuesta de la narración oral escénica (NOE) se centra en las sociedades a las que pertenezco: en las sociedades de oralidad secundaria, marcadas por...

Garzó n Cé spedes, Francisco

1995-10-01

144

Ryan Campbell Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Ryan Campbell Oral History Part 1 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 2 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player... Lawrence, KS 66045 Requestors must identify: 1. Type of publication 2. Proposed title 3. Specific passages to be quoted 4. Anticipated uses of the passages 5. Publisher's name 6. Expected date of publication ...

Campbell, Ryan; Albin, Tami

2009-12-16

145

Melatonin and oral cavity.  

PubMed

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

146

Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.  

PubMed

Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

2014-09-01

147

Menopause and oral health  

PubMed Central

Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

2014-01-01

148

Melatonin and Oral Cavity  

PubMed Central

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

149

Menopause and oral health.  

PubMed

Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

2014-07-01

150

Tissue-engineered Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as

K. Moharamzadeh; H. Colley; C. Murdoch; V. Hearnden; W. L. Chai; I. M. Brook; M. H. Thornhill; S. MacNeil

2012-01-01

151

The Canine Oral Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

2012-01-01

152

Oral inflammation in small animals.  

PubMed

The oral cavity can be affected by a wide variety of disorders characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and/or oral mucosa. In dogs and cats, differential diagnoses for generalized oral inflammatory disorders include plaque-reactive mucositis, chronic gingivostomatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex, pemphigus and pemphigoid disorders, erythema multiforme, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, endodontic or periodontal abscesses, infectious conditions, reactive lesions, and neoplastic conditions may initially present with localized or generalized inflammation of the oral mucosa. Determination of the underlying cause of an oral inflammatory condition relies on a thorough history, complete physical and oral examination, and incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination of lesions. PMID:23643021

Lommer, Milinda J

2013-05-01

153

Oral Leukoplakia – an Update  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The main purpose of this paper was to assess the current state of science on oral leukoplakia. Although it is considered a potentially malignant disorder the overall malignant progression of oral leukoplakia is of the order of 5% and even more. Nowadays there are no currently accepted markers to distinguish those that may progress to cancer from those that may not. The current golden standard is considered the presence of epithelial dysplasia on the tissue biopsy of the lesion. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is a rare form of OL which has multiple recurrences, is refractory to treatment and has malignant transformation in a short period. It is considered a true premalignant lesion. The management of oral leukoplakia varies from a "wait and see" attitude and topical chemopreventive agents to complete surgical removal. PMID:25553134

PARLATESCU, Ioanina; GHEORGHE, Carmen; COCULESCU, Elena; TOVARU, Serban

2014-01-01

154

[Osteoporosis and oral diseases].  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a major cause of fractures in elderly women. Bone densitometry is used in order to detect osteoporosis. It has been observed can also be analyzed in the jawbone. The osteoporosis may be associated with resorption of the residual ridge, periodontitis and tooth loss; also the same treatments can affect the jaws. A search was carried out in the Medline-Pubmed database in order to search the association between osteoporosis and oral diseases over the past 5 years. Forty-two articles were obtained after the selection process. The authors stated that: in reference to periodontal disease the results are conflicting, but there seems to be a higher prevalence of the disease and tooth loss and resorption of the crest. Oral bisphosphonates have little risk of causing osteonecrosis, and there is no relationship in the dental implant failure among patients taking bisphosphonates. There is no clear scientific evidence that could link osteoporosis and oral diseases. PMID:22854070

Estrugo-Devesa, Albert; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; López-López, José

2013-02-16

155

The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?  

PubMed Central

The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the oral microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease. PMID:20656903

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

2010-01-01

156

Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21660266

Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

2011-01-01

157

Oral carcinogenesis and oral cancer chemoprevention: a review.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21660266

Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

2011-01-01

158

Per-oral cholangioscopy  

PubMed Central

Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429

Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

2011-01-01

159

Michael Johnson Oral History  

E-print Network

support groups or whatever like that and then it just turned into, Well there's Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 5 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas porn online too. (laugh) So it's like—it's like you just kind... stepmother had found my Xanga site as well. Along with that she had found, on his computer, links to porn site—like gay porn Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 7 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas sites, right...

Johnson, Michael; Albin, Tami

2009-12-16

160

Immunology of oral candidiasis.  

PubMed

A successful pathogen is one that is able to effectively survive and evade detection by the host immune defense. Oral candidiasis has adopted strategies, which evade host defense and eventually cause disease in at-risk patients. Host defense against infections with Candida spp. depends on rapid activation of an acute inflammatory response by innate immunity, followed by an incremental stimulation of specific immune responses mediated by T-cells (cellular immunity) or B-cells (humoral immunity). Understanding these complex pathways of immune evasion can potentially contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies against oral candidiasis. PMID:25210393

Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sivakumar, Muniapillai; Karthikeyan, M; Udayakumar, P; Shanmugam, K T; Kesavan, G

2014-07-01

161

Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives  

MedlinePLUS

... Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent ... oral contraceptives on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/ ...

162

Kidney Disease (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney Disease Oral Effects At the Dentist Oral Effects People with kidney disease often have other health issues. They often have compromised immune systems, so they may be more likely to get infections. People with renal (kidney) problems may have ...

163

Lin Tongqi : an oral history  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I explore the life of Professor Lin Tongqi, a well-known scholar of American Chinese studies, by using an oral history methodology. This oral history is named "Suffering and Thinking," and my goal is to ...

Chen, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

164

Imaging in oral cancers  

PubMed Central

Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist. PMID:23599568

Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

2012-01-01

165

Oral History Online!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bancroft Library at the University of California-Berkeley has recently begun a project to place portions of its oral history collection online in full text. The transcripts will be marked up in SGML using the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), which will allow complex searches of the entire text. In addition to the transcripts themselves, the remainder (photos, prefaces, contents pages) of the published volumes will also be encoded to provide complete access. At this stage, the Suffragists Oral History Project, which offers the text of interviews with twelve suffragists and women's activists for searching or browsing, is the only project available online in complete form. Projects under construction include the Disabled Persons Independence Movement and the BioTech Project. Among the future planned additions are oral histories of the Free Speech Movement at Berkeley, the Earl Warren gubernatorial era, and African-American Alumni at the University of California. Historians of California and oral historians will want to monitor the site as it develops.

166

Oral Anticoagulant Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

2012-01-01

167

Milk and Oral Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10–15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life

Ingegerd Johansson; Pernilla Lif Holgerson

2011-01-01

168

Teaching Oral History Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains the audiotape recorder is an invaluable tool for the local historian. Outlines interviewing techniques, questioning skills, and audiotape recorder use instructions. Provides suggestions for preparing students for an oral history project. Discusses second interviews and how to utilize the tape after the interview. (RW)

Ahren, John

1990-01-01

169

[Oral management for cancer patients].  

PubMed

Chemotherapy and radiotherapy administered to cancer patients can be harmful because of their effect on normal cells as well as cancer cells, and cause many adverse events. The oral cavity is one of the sites most vulnerable to the direct and indirect effects of cancer therapy. Severe adverse events of the oral cavity can not only reduce a patient's QOL, but also disrupt cancer treatment. We discuss the concept of oral management by maintenance of the oral environment. PMID:24335358

Kishimoto, Hiromitsu; Shudo, Atsushi

2013-12-01

170

American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology  

MedlinePLUS

... you the very latest news and information about oral health care and practice. The Academy of Oral and ... with other dental and medical professionals to advance oral health care. Oral and maxillofacial pathologists (OMP) are uniquely ...

171

75 FR 56146 - Oral Argument  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Oral Argument AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection...Notice is hereby given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers...MSPB'' or ``Board'') will hear oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K....

2010-09-15

172

Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo  

PubMed Central

Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin.

Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

2015-01-01

173

Good Oral Health and Diet  

PubMed Central

An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174

Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

2012-01-01

174

Studies in oral leukoplakias  

PubMed Central

Oral carcinoma has been shown to be correlated with the use of tobacco in various parts of India. In a large-scale dental survey conducted in Lucknow, Bombay and Bangalore various precancerous conditions were investigated and studied for their possible relation to smoking and chewing habits. This paper reports the prevalence of oral leukoplakia among 10 000 dental-clinic patients in Lucknow and the correlation of the condition with the use of tobacco and betel nut in the study population. The results show that leukoplakia is far more prevalent among users of tobacco, betel nut or both than among non-users. A strikingly high frequency was found among smokers of the local cigarette, the bidi. PMID:5300044

Pindborg, J. J.; Kićr, Joyce; Gupta, P. C.; Chawla, T. N.

1967-01-01

175

Infant Oral Health Care  

PubMed Central

The family physician/pediatrician who sees a child from birth as part of the well-baby visit program is in the best position to identify early dental problems and to educate the family about early oral preventive health care. Since children under three years of age are not seen routinely by dentists, they are at risk of developing dental disease. This paper briefly covers the areas of infant oral pathology, early preventive care, teething, suckling habits, and dental trauma in the toddler. The physician will then be in a better position to recommend to parents when they should seek dental advice and treatment for their young children. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21253204

Sigal, Michael J.; Levine, Norman

1988-01-01

176

Oral Cavity Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Oral Cavity Lip C000–C009, Base of Tongue C019, Other Parts of Tongue C020–C029, Gum C030–C039, Floor of Mouth C040–C049, Palate C050–C059, Other Parts of Mouth C060–C069 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,

177

Strategies in Oral Immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of mucosal vaccine delivery system is an important area for improving public health. Oral vaccines have large\\u000a implications for rural and remote populations since the access to trained medical staff to administer vaccines by injection\\u000a is limited. New mucosal vaccine strategies are focused on development of non-replicating subunit vaccines, DNA, plant, and\\u000a other types of recombinant vaccines. The conjugation

Pavla Simerska; Peter Moyle; Colleen Olive; Istvan Toth

178

Oral burn contractures in children.  

PubMed

Oral burn contractures in children present major reconstructive problem. Only few reports in literature discussed oral burns in children. Electrical, chemical, and thermal agents are the main causative agents for oral burns. Oral contractures can be classified into anterior, posterior, and total. Anterior contractures are usually caused by electrical burns and involve the oral commissure, lips, anterior buccal sulcus and surrounding mucosa, and anterior tongue. Posterior oral contractures are caused by caustic ingestion and involve the posterior buccal mucosa, posterior tongue, retro-molar area and oro-pharynx. Total oral contractures involve the lips, tongue, oral cavity, and oro-pharyngeal mucosa and are caused by lye caustic ingestion. This report reviews three children; one with posterior, two with total oral cavity contracture. All cases were managed by linear release of scar contracture and skin grafting followed by a prolonged intra-oral splinting with a fixed mouth-block and commissural splint. A successful outcome was observed in all cases. PMID:14595182

Hashem, Fuad K; Al Khayal, Zikra

2003-11-01

179

Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings  

PubMed Central

Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized. PMID:21493882

Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

2011-01-01

180

Oral myiasis: a rare entity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myiasis is the invasion of tissues and organs of human beings or other vertebrates by fly larvae. This phenomenon is well\\u000a documented in the skin, especially among animals and people in tropical and subtropical areas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a When tissues of the oral cavity are invaded by the parasitic larvae of flies, this condition is called oral myiasis. Oral\\u000a myiasis is a rare

Gayathri S. Rao; Laxmikanth Chatra; Shenai K Prashanth

2009-01-01

181

Oral complications in cancer patients  

SciTech Connect

Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

Carl, W.

1983-02-01

182

Route 66 Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The folks at Missouri State University have interviewed a range of business owners along the celebrated Route 66 to tell the amazing story of what life was like living along this American landmark. Visitors can read through interviews with a variety of people, including the long-time owner of the Boots Motel in Carthage, Missouri and Sheldon and Julia Chaney, owner of a popular gas station. It's the type of popular oral history that makes for excellent reading and contemplation. They plan on adding more material in the future, so curious visitors would do well to make return visits to see what's added next.

183

Oral and oropharyngeal cancer.  

PubMed

Oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is a complex and often relentless malignancy prone to local invasion and dissemination. Despite advances in understanding of the disease and improved therapeutic interventions, it continues to be diagnosed at an advanced stage and the survival rate remains poor. The financial cost of treating OPC may be the highest of all cancers in the United States and survivors often experience major detriments to quality of life. Major risk factors for OPC are tobacco, alcohol, areca nut, and human papillomavirus infection. This article updates medical practitioners on the causes, presentation, diagnosis, and management of OPC. PMID:25443678

Huber, Michaell A; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit

2014-11-01

184

Arla Jones Oral History  

E-print Network

:00:06 ALBIN: Okay. So we're now recording. It is March 10, 2008, and I am here with Arla Jones, and Radish is running around the room. 00:00:17 JONES: With a chew toy. 00:00:18 ALBIN: And we are here once again to do an oral history. And I... York to get—I'm trying to make sure she's not going to pee on anything, [Radish, the dog.] 10 So I met Kim. And we were friends for three years before we even figured out anything. I mean what happened was Kim was working in the gift shop. I had...

Jones, Arla; Albin, Tami

2010-10-06

185

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-02-01

186

Improving oral hygiene for patients.  

PubMed

Systematic reviews and patient safety initiatives recommend that oral hygiene should be part of routine patient care. However, evidence suggests it is often neglected in hospitals and care homes. Research recommends encouraging beliefs that support oral hygiene, and teaching nurses appropriate skills, as necessary prerequisites to implementing best practice in hospital wards. This article describes a pilot study of an educational workshop on oral hygiene. Results from the pilot study suggest that this workshop is a feasible intervention for a service-wide trial. The literature suggests that other interventions are required to complement this approach if nurses are to make oral hygiene a priority in daily patient care. PMID:25563127

Bonetti, Debbie; Hampson, Victoria; Queen, Kerry; Kirk, Donna; Clarkson, Jan; Young, Linda

2015-01-01

187

[Intra-oral and peri-oral piercing].  

PubMed

Oral Piercing is a practice that is gaining acceptance in the western world as a sign of individuality, marginality, decoration, or group membership. In a recent large-scale survey among Israeli young adults, more than half of the study population was not aware of any of the complications of oral piercing. Pain, bleeding, edema, inhalation, dental and gingival trauma, allergic reaction, contact lesions, impaired mastication, deglutition, and speech, are all potential complications of intra-oral and peri-oral piercing. Piercing can induce local as well as distant site infection and inflammation such as Ludwig's angina, endocarditis and cerebellar abscess. Moreover, Piercing is recognized as a potential vector of viral transmitting. Nevertheless, not all piercers have adequate knowledge in infection control techniques. With the increase number of patients with pierced intra and peri-oral sites, dentists should be prepared to address issues, such as potential damage to the teeth and gingival, and risk of oral infection that could arise as a result of Piercing, as well as provide appropriate guidance to patients contemplating body piercing that involve the oral sites. Since common knowledge is poor, patients should be educated regarding the dangers that may follow Piercing of the oral cavity. PMID:17615989

Zadik, Y; Becker, T; Levin, L

2007-01-01

188

Oral and dental complications of intra-oral piercing.  

PubMed

The present study assessed the prevalence of oral piercing among young adults and revealed the types and rate of complications following oral piecing, as well as the awareness of the complications. The study included 400 consecutive patients, who randomly arrived at a military dental office. Before dental examination, patients were requested to fill out a questionnaire regarding oral piercing, their awareness of its complications, and the occurrence of complications related to piercing. Intra-oral examination included special attention to piercing-related complications, such as tooth fractures, gingivitis, bleeding, infections, gingival recessions, etc. A total of 389 patients, 210 (54%) males and 179 (46%) females agreed to participate (97.3% response rate), with an average age of 20.08 +/- 1.1 years. Of the participants, 79 (20.3%) reported having at least one type of oral piercing; lingual piercing was the most common. Swelling and bleeding after piercing were reported by 41 (51.9%) and 36 (45.7%) participants, respectively. Among the participants, 225 (57.8%) were unaware of the dangers of intra-oral piercing. Clinical examination revealed 15 fractured teeth in 11 (13.9%) participants with piercing. Gingival recessions were observed in 21 (26.6%), mostly in the mandibular incisor area. Dentists should be aware of the increasing number of patients with pierced intra- and peri-oral sites and to provide appropriate guidance to patients who contemplate body piercing involving oral sites. PMID:16262620

Levin, Liran; Zadik, Yehuda; Becker, Tal

2005-12-01

189

Oral Conversations Online: Redefining Oral Competence in Synchronous Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the focus is on methodology for analysing learner-learner oral conversations mediated by computers. With the increasing availability of synchronous voice-based groupware and the additional facilities offered by audio-graphic tools, language learners have opportunities for collaborating on oral tasks, supported by visual and textual…

Lamy, Marie-Noelle

2004-01-01

190

[Oral jewelry: a review].  

PubMed

Oral jewelry is popular. One of the most widely spread types are so-called tooth diamonds made of composite materials which are applied to the teeth with an adhesive. Note that parents are required to sign a release form for under-aged patients in Switzerland. Tooth cap grills and gold teeth are considered status symbols within the Hip-Hop fashion scene. However, tooth ornaments favour the accumulation of plaque and can diminish the ability to articulate. With respect to jewelry in oral soft tissue especially tongue and lip piercings are of significance to dentists. Besides the systemic complications, which are mostly caused by a lack of hygiene or the failure of noting medical contraindications by the piercer, local complications occur frequently. After surgery, pain, swelling, infections as well as hemorrhages or hematomas can be observed. Long-term effects can be problematic: gingival recession can be discernes mainly in the case of lip piercings the loss of hard tooth substance in the case of tongue piercings. Because of that, conservation therapies can become indespensable. Patients wearing dental jewelry have to be aware of risks of tooth damage, and they regularly have to undergo dental check-ups. Information campaigns--for dentists as well as patients--are necessary. PMID:20112640

Jeger, Franziska; Lussi, Adrian; Zimmerli, Brigitte

2009-01-01

191

SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND ORAL HEALTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inequalities in socioeconomic status underlie many health disparities in the world, including oral health. Occupational status, income and education are intrinsically related and often serve as measure for each-other. In general, the population groups that suffer the worst oral health status are also those that have the highest poverty rates and the lowest education. Higher income enable people to afford

T. Popa

192

Tobacco Use and Oral Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

1982-01-01

193

Nutrition and oral mucosal diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral manifestations of nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissue, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This contribution reviews how the water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, C, and folic acid), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E), and minerals (calcium, fluoride, iron, and zinc) can affect the oral mucosa.

Danielle Marie Thomas; Ginat W. Mirowski

2010-01-01

194

Nutrition and oral mucosal diseases.  

PubMed

Oral manifestations of nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissue, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This contribution reviews how the water-soluble vitamins (B(2), B(3), B(6), B(12), C, and folic acid), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E), and minerals (calcium, fluoride, iron, and zinc) can affect the oral mucosa. PMID:20620760

Thomas, Danielle Marie; Mirowski, Ginat W

2010-01-01

195

48 CFR 15.102 - Oral presentations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 15.102 Section 15.102 ...Source Selection Processes and Techniques 15.102 Oral presentations. (a) Oral presentations by offerors as requested by the...

2010-10-01

196

10 CFR 590.312 - Oral presentations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentations. 590.312 Section 590...NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.312 Oral presentations. (a) Any party may...motion requesting an opportunity to make an oral presentation of views,...

2010-01-01

197

12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentations. 1102.36 Section...Practice for Proceedings § 1102.36 Oral presentations. (a) In general. A party does not have a right to an oral presentation. Under this...

2010-01-01

198

46 CFR 502.241 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.241 Section 502.241...PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submission for Final Decision § 502.241 Oral argument. (a) The Commission may...

2010-10-01

199

Novel oral anticoagulants.  

PubMed

Warfarin has a proven record as an oral anticoagulant; almost every study, however, has found that it is not prescribed for 40-60% of patients who are eligible and should receive it, and of those who do receive it, serum warfarin levels only achieved a time in therapeutic range (TTR) equal to INR 2-3 about 55-60% of the time (online video available at: http://education.amjmed.com/video.php?event_id=445&stage_id=5&vcs=1). This means that only about 1 in 4 patients are adequately anticoagulated with warfarin, and thus there is a large unmet need for achieving better anticoagulation in these patients. Although physicians have sometimes tried to use antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, plus or minus clopidogrel) for anticoagulation, this may result in as much as a doubling of the risk of thromboembolic events. Recently 2 new classes of oral anticoagulant agents have appeared: direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) and factor Xa inhibitors. This review sequentially examines the recent clinical trial evidence for the 3 approved NOACs in the 2 classes, highlighting that all 3 share a class effect of being noninferior to warfarin for reducing risk of stroke and systemic embolization and reducing risk of bleeding, with a relative risk of mortality consistently reduced by 10% per year. In addition, all of the NOACs have a significantly lower risk of intracranial/intracerebral bleeding than warfarin, an important clinical consideration, since that is the most feared bleeding risk and may be sufficient reason to consider switching patients from warfarin to a NOAC, even if they seem to be doing well on warfarin. Finally in addition to reviewing the overall benefits of these NOACs over traditional therapy, the clinical application differences between the classes and between the agents are reviewed. PMID:24655744

Reiffel, James A

2014-04-01

200

Diabetes mellitus and oral health.  

PubMed

The oral health is influenced by systemic health, and one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in dental practice is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can worsen oral infections and vice versa. In the literature, periodontitis and diabetes in the young to middle-aged adults have been the most widely researched area. Understanding the patho-physiology, clinical manifestations and management of different types of orofacial diseases in diabetic patients are important to the diabetologist and the dentist for the optimal care of patients with these diseases. This review explores the inter-link between diabetes and oral health. PMID:25487035

Kudiyirickal, Marina George; Pappachan, Joseph M

2014-12-01

201

Oral Health Status and Oral Health Behaviors in Chinese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the study were to describe the oral health status and treatment needs of the 5- to 6-year-old and 12-year-old children in Southern China; to describe the patterns of oral health behaviors, knowledge, and attitudes among the 12-year-olds; and to assess the effects of socio-behavioral factors on the 12-year-old children's dental caries experiences. The study sample was comprised

M. C. M. Wong; E. C. M. Lo; E. Schwarz; H. G. Zhang

2001-01-01

202

Melanin: the biophysiology of oral melanocytes and physiological oral pigmentation  

PubMed Central

The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis. There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease. In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation. PMID:24661309

2014-01-01

203

Melanin: the biophysiology of oral melanocytes and physiological oral pigmentation.  

PubMed

The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis.There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease.In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation. PMID:24661309

Feller, Liviu; Masilana, Aubrey; Khammissa, Razia A G; Altini, Mario; Jadwat, Yusuf; Lemmer, Johan

2014-01-01

204

Southern Oral History Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the rise of interest in social history in the United States, a number of academics and public citizens have remained committed to preserving the voices and perspectives of everyday people. The Southern Oral History Program (SOHP) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a rather fine example of such a commitment. Founded in 1973, the SOHP has recorded over 2900 interviews with people from all walks of life, and their website contains a generous sampling of this material. First-time visitors may wish to start by watching "Spoken Memories", which provides a nice introduction to the history and work of SOHP. Afterwards, they can sample some of the online audio archives, or listen to the "Interview of the Month" feature. For those who wish to read as they listen, the interviews are complemented by transcripts in several different file formats. Visitors should also feel welcome to browse through the online finding aid to the SOHP's collection and offer their own feedback or inquiries.

205

Oral physiology and mastication.  

PubMed

Mastication is a sensory-motor activity aimed at the preparation of food for swallowing. It is a complex process involving activities of the facial, the elevator and suprahyoidal muscles, and the tongue. These activities result in patterns of rhythmic mandibular movements, food manipulation and the crushing of food between the teeth. Saliva facilitates mastication, moistens the food particles, makes a bolus, and assists swallowing. The movement of the jaw, and thus the neuromuscular control of chewing, plays an important role in the comminution of the food. Characteristics of the food, e.g. water and fat percentage and hardness, are known to influence the masticatory process. Food hardness is sensed during mastication and affects masticatory force, jaw muscle activity, and mandibular jaw movements. When we chew for instance a crispy food, the jaw decelerates and accelerates as a result of resistance and breakage of food particles. The characteristic breakage behaviour of food is essential for the sensory sensation. This study presents a short review of the influence of oral physiology characteristics and food characteristics on the masticatory process. PMID:16564557

van der Bilt, A; Engelen, L; Pereira, L J; van der Glas, H W; Abbink, J H

2006-08-30

206

Oral Tradition in Historical Research  

E-print Network

This article will chronicle how those professionals called archivist, charged with collecting, preserving, and making primary source materials including oral history resources available to the public, view their role in this endeavor. This article...

Hankins, Rebecca

207

Multicultural Issues in Oral Health  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Demographic changes over the coming decades will heighten the challenges to the dental profession and to the nation. The expected growth in the numbers of racial and ethnic minorities, and the concomitant growth of immigrant populations are likely to lead to worsening of oral health disparities. Their consequences are becoming increasingly evident as the profession strives to improve the oral health of all Americans. The increasing diversity of the population, together with the importance of cultural beliefs and behaviors that affect health outcomes, will require ways to enhance provider-patient communications and oral health literacy. We discuss the nature and challenges presented by multicultural patient populations. One important means by which to promote oral health in diverse populations is to develop a dental workforce that is both culturally and linguistically competent, as well as one that is as culturally diverse as the American population. PMID:18329446

Garcia, Raul I.; Cadoret, Cindy; Henshaw, Michelle

2008-01-01

208

Blood Disorders (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... have an infection. This means infections, such as periodontal (gum) disease yeast infections and oral ulcers, can ... in a hospital. This is a treatment for periodontal disease that involves deep cleaning of the teeth ...

209

Oral Health and Bone Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget?s Disease of Bone Related Topics News Glossary ... Rest and Immobilization Exercise Exercise (??) Exercise and Osteogenesis Imperfecta Overtraining Risks for Women Smoking Partner Resources Oral ...

210

Oral Reading: Considerations Before Utilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates oral reading in the classroom for diagnostic purposes, skill development, and recreation; presents seven specific situations children should not be required to read before a peer audience. (MAI)

Briggs, L. D.

1978-01-01

211

Older Adults (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Don’t smoke or use chewing tobacco or snuff Eat a well-balanced diet (For additional information, ... worry about oral cancer. Fact: It's not just smokeless tobacco ("dip" and "chew") that can increase your chances ...

212

Perceived Oral Health in a Diverse Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of perceived oral health represent subjective, individual perspectives of one's health. One measure commonly used is the single-item perceived oral health rating: How would you rate your overall oral health? These analyses examine the associations among age, ethnicity, and perceived oral health within the context of a comprehensive battery of 21 predisposing, enabling, and need variables. The study compares

K. A. Atchison; H. C. Gift

1997-01-01

213

20 CFR 501.5 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral argument. 501.5 Section 501.5 Employees...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PROCEDURE § 501.5 Oral argument. (a) Oral argument. Oral argument may be held in the...

2010-04-01

214

Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…

Songhui, Zheng

2008-01-01

215

Diseases of the Oral Mucosa  

PubMed Central

This article provides a clinical approach to the more common oral mucosal lesions. Histologic diagnoses are not included, apart from their use in diagnosis and management. In a small number of oral mucosal lesions, clinical appearance is sufficiently distinctive to permit accurate diagnosis, but a biopsy is usually necessary. Clinical appearance is important in directing further investigations such as culture and serologic testing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:21253207

Bradley, G.

1988-01-01

216

Menopause and the oral cavity  

PubMed Central

Menopause is associated with a large number of symptoms ranging from physical to psychological. These symptoms may unfavorably affect oral health and treatment needs requiring dentists to be aware of the symptoms and health care needs of peri-menopausal/menopausal/postmenopausal women. This article attempts to provide an insight into the multifarious oral manifestations at menopause along with the relevant prosthodontic implications. PMID:22837914

Mutneja, Puneet; Dhawan, Pankaj; Raina, Anudeep; Sharma, Gaurav

2012-01-01

217

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa  

PubMed Central

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

2014-01-01

218

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

2014-12-16

219

Oral manifestations associated with HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict progression to AIDS. The lesions commonly associated\\u000a with the infection include oral candidiasis, herpes simplex infection, oral Kaposi’s sarcoma, oral hairy leukoplakia, parotid\\u000a gland enlargement, gingival diseases, xerostomia, and recurrent oral ulcerations. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral\\u000a therapy has changed the epidemiology of some of the

Mostafa Nokta

2008-01-01

220

Prolonged monitoring of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel levels confirms an altered pharmacokinetic profile in obese oral contraceptives users  

PubMed Central

Background Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters based on short sampling times (48 h or less) may contain inaccuracies due to their dependency on extrapolated values. This study was designed to measure PK parameters with greater accuracy in obese users of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC), and to correlate drug levels with assessments of end-organ activity. Study design Obese (BMI ?30 kg/m2), ovulatory, otherwise healthy, women (n = 32) received an OC containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/100 mcg levonorgestrel (LNG) for two cycles. EE and LNG PK parameters were characterized for 168 h at the end of Cycle 1. During Cycle 2, biweekly outpatient visits were performed to assess cervical mucus, monitor ovarian activity with transvaginal ultrasound, and obtain serum samples to measure EE, LNG, estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P) levels. PK parameters were calculated and correlated with end-organ activity and compared against control samples obtained from normal and obese women sampled up to 48 h in a previous study. Standard determination of PK accuracy was performed; defined by the dependency on extrapolated values (‘excess’ area under the curve of 25% or less). Results The mean BMI was 39.4 kg/m2 (SD 6.6) with a range of 30–64 kg/m2. Key LNG PK parameters were as follows: clearance 0.52 L/h (SD 0.24), half-life 65 h (SD 40), AUC 232 h*ng/mL (SD 102) and time to reach steady-state 13.6 days (SD 8.4). The majority of subjects had increased ovarian activity with diameter of follicles ?8 mm (n = 25) but only seven women had follicles ?10 mm plus cervical mucus scores ?5. Evidence of poor end-organ suppression did not correlate with the severity of the alterations in PK. As compared to historical normal and obese controls (48 h PK sampling), clearance, half-life, area under the curve (AUC) and time to reach steady-state were found to be significantly different (p ? 0.05) in obese women undergoing a longer duration of PK sampling (168 h). Longer sampling also improved PK accuracy for obese women (excess AUC 20%) as compared to both normal and obese controls undergoing shorter sampling times (48 h) with excess AUCs of 25% and 50%, respectively. Conclusions Obesity results in significant alterations in OC steroid PK parameters but the severity of these alterations did not correlate with end-organ suppression. A longer PK sampling interval (168 h vs. 48 h) improved the accuracy of PK testing. PMID:23153898

Edelman, Alison B; Cherala, Ganesh; Munar, Myrna Y.; DuBois, Barent; McInnis, Martha; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Jensen, Jeffrey T

2014-01-01

221

Oral and Non-Oral Combination Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

An estimated 30 million men in the United States suffer from varying degrees of erectile dysfunction. Increasing age and comorbidities are likely to increase the number of men who are initially refractory or become refractory to phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitors, the most popular oral therapy. Combination therapy, a concept well proved in other areas of medicine, is therefore of increasing importance. Combination oral and non-oral (intracavernosal injection and intraurethral application) therapies have been shown to salvage monotherapy. The early introduction of combination therapy has been shown to expedite both the return of natural function and PDE-5 inhibitor responsiveness in post-prostatectomy patients with no reports of serious adverse events. Larger controlled studies are needed to corroborate those encouraging findings. PMID:17934566

Nehra, Ajay

2007-01-01

222

Drug Testing in Oral Fluid  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in oral fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of oral fluid testing for specific drugs. PMID:17268583

Drummer, Olaf H

2006-01-01

223

Florida Citrus Industry Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's so special about oranges? They are a major cash crop for Florida and other warm weather places, and this fascinating oral history project from the University of South Florida (USF) explores the very nature of this industry. Working together with the USF's Patel Center for Global Studies, oral historian William Mansfield conducted 20 interviews regarding the impact of globalization on the Florida citrus industry. Visitors can listen to or read the interviews, as well as look over the online exhibition, "Selling Sunshine: Florida's Citrus Industry." The exhibition details Florida's unique relationship with the citrus industry, incorporating documents, promotional material, and post cards with its information. The website hosts a remarkable collection that will be of interest to oral historians, folks with an interest in Florida, and many others.

224

Child, neglect and oral health  

PubMed Central

Background Despite advancements in oral health policies, dental caries still a problem. The lack of parents/caregiver’s care regarding child’s oral health, which characterizes neglect, may lead to a high prevalence of caries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the relation between dental caries and neglect in five year-old children. Methods Quantitative study performed in two different moments. First, the children underwent oral examinations and physical inspection. Then, a semi-structured interview was performed with parents of children with high and low caries rate. Results In all, 149 physical inspections and oral exams were performed. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth – dmf-t was 2.75 (SD 2.83); 16 children had extremely high values (dmf-t ?7), 85 intermediate values (1???dmf-t???6) and 48 extremely low (dmf-t?=?0). Nearly all caregivers were female (96.7%; n?=?29), mostly mothers (93.3%; n?=?28). Associations were found between caries experience and reason of the last consultation (p?=?0.011), decayed teeth and child’s oral health perception (p?=?0.001). There was a trend towards a significant association between general health and decayed teeth (p?=?0.079), general hygiene and caries experience (p?=?0.083), and caries experience and number of times the child brushes the teeth (p?=?0.086). Conclusion There’s a relation between caries experience and children’s oral health perception by caregivers, as well as between caries experience and children’s access to dental care. There is a trend towards association between caries experience and risk factors suggestive of neglect. PMID:24238222

2013-01-01

225

Modified oral metronidazole desensitization protocol  

PubMed Central

The Center for Disease Control guidelines recommend desensitization to metronidazole in patients with trichomoniasis and hypersensitivity to metronidazole. There is only one published oral metronidazole desensitization protocol. The purpose of this study was to design a new, more gradual oral desensitization protocol to decrease systemic reactions that may occur when using the previously published protocol. We present two patients with presumed IgE-mediated allergy to metronidazole who underwent oral desensitization using our modified protocol. Case 1 was a 65-year-old woman with trichomoniasis who presented for metronidazole desensitization with a history of intraoperative anaphylaxis and positive skin tests to metronidazole. The patient tolerated six doses of the modified desensitization but developed systemic symptoms of nasal congestion and diffuse pruritus after the 25- and 100-mg doses. Both reactions were treated with intravenous (i.v.) antihistamines. Because of gastrointestinal irritation, the desensitization was completed at a dose of 250 mg orally every 6 hours. Case 2 was a 42-year-old woman with trichomoniasis and a history of hives immediately after administration of i.v. metronidazole who presented for desensitization. The patient had negative skin-prick and intradermal testing to metronidazole. She developed lip tingling and pruritus on her arms 15 minutes after the 10-mg dose. Fexofenadine at 180 mg was given orally and symptoms resolved. She tolerated the rest of the protocol without reaction and received a total dose of 2 g of metronidazole. Our oral metronidazole desensitization for presumed IgE-mediated reactions offers a second option for physicians wishing to use a more gradual escalation in dose. PMID:24612959

Pien, Lily C.; Gutta, Ravi C.; Abouhassan, Susan R.

2014-01-01

226

Oral Complications of HIV Disease  

PubMed Central

Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS. PMID:19488613

Leao, Jair C.; Ribeiro, Camila M. B.; Carvalho, Alessandra A. T.; Frezzini, Cristina; Porter, Stephen

2009-01-01

227

[Ecstasy use and oral health].  

PubMed

Ecstacy is a frequently used drug, especially by young adults in the big cities.Therefore, it is likely that dentists might be confronted with individuals that use XTC. This review of the literature describes the systemic and oral effects of XTC. Life-threatening complications include hyperthermia, hyponatreaemia and liver failure. In addition, psychotic episodes, depression, panic disorders and impulsive behaviour have been reported. Oral effects include mucosal changes, xerostomia and an increased risk of developing dental erosion and bruxism. Finally, the potential use of saliva for detection of XTC is discussed. PMID:17361788

Brand, H S; Dun, S N; van Nieuw Amerongen, A

2007-02-01

228

Ecstasy (MDMA) and oral health.  

PubMed

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), more commonly known as 'ecstasy' or XTC, is frequently used by young adults in the major cities. Therefore, it is likely that dentists might be confronted with individuals who use ecstasy. This review describes systemic and oral effects of ecstasy. Life-threatening complications include hyperthermia, hyponatraemia and liver failure. In addition, psychotic episodes, depression, panic disorders and impulsive behaviour have been reported. Oral effects include xerostomia, bruxism, and an increased risk of developing dental erosion. Mucosal changes have also been reported. Recent use of ecstasy may interfere with dental treatment. Finally, the potential use of saliva for non-invasive detection of ecstasy is discussed. PMID:18268544

Brand, H S; Dun, S N; Nieuw Amerongen, A V

2008-01-26

229

Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention.  

PubMed Central

This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease and in health promotion may assist countries to implement effective public health programmes to the benefit of the poor and disadvantaged population groups worldwide. PMID:16211160

Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi

2005-01-01

230

ABCs of Oral Health: Nutrition - Children  

MedlinePLUS

... directly to your desktop! more... More ABCs of Oral Health A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | ... games Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | Newsroom | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | ...

231

Tips for Good Oral Health during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... your mouth could spread throughout your body). Get Oral Health Care ? Taking care of your mouth while you ... fluoridated, alcohol-free mouthrinse. B Tips for Good Oral Health During Pregnancy 2 ? Drink water throughout the day, ...

232

Physical Limitations Can Affect Oral Hygiene  

MedlinePLUS

... These challenges and impairments can affect health, including oral health. Difficulty with Hearing Gradual hearing loss is common ... loss. Impaired hearing has no direct effect on oral health. However, it can make it harder for patients ...

233

Understanding Carcinogenesis for Fighting Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. Oral cancer development is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are able to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will give us important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, assessing cancer risk, and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from research using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as interventions with molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21772845

Tanaka, Takuji; Ishigamori, Rikako

2011-01-01

234

Neuromuscular Diseases and Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... supplements. Epilepsy Oral Effects If you are taking phenytoin (Dilantin) or other anti-seizure medicines for epilepsy, ... effect occurs in nearly half of people taking phenytoin. Good oral hygiene can help prevent or limit ...

235

Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)  

MedlinePLUS

... Lung Diseases > Quick-Relief Medications > Oral Steroids Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

236

[The oral problems of queen Elizabeth I].  

PubMed

Queen Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603), probably the most famous English Queen ever, had persistent oral problems. Her oral problems were so serious that they probably hampered the Queen in the performance of her tasks. PMID:22667195

Eijkman, M A J

2012-05-01

237

SUGGESTED REFERENCES General Work on Oral History  

E-print Network

, Barry A. Lanman and Laura M., ed. Preparing the Next Generation of Oral Historians: An Anthology of Oral, Kim. The Finest Kind: The Fishermen of Gloucester. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., reprint 2002. Brown

238

Treatment and Outcomes of Oral Candidiasis  

MedlinePLUS

... Candidiasis Share Compartir Treatment & Outcomes of Oral Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth and throat must be ... infections that do not respond to these treatments. Candida esophagitis is typically treated with oral or intravenous ...

239

Oral manifestations of gastrointestinal diseases  

PubMed Central

The present paper offers a detailed review of the oral manifestations of various gastrointestional diseases or conditions, with suggestions on how they may be relevant to the practice of gastroenterology. The review includes Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, Gardner syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, malabsorption conditions related to hematopoiesis, gastrointestinal malignancy metastatic to the jaws, jaundice and gastric reflux diseases. PMID:17431513

Daley, Tom D; Armstrong, Jerrold E

2007-01-01

240

Restored Behavior and Oral Traditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in oral traditions has benefitted the field of interpretation in two ways: a new emphasis on the social and cultural contexts of performance, and an expanded perspective on performance manifestations. In Richard Schechner's concept of "restored behavior," the interpreter engages in a reconstruction of living behavior independent of its…

Miranda, Kathleen Bindert

241

Oral Communication across the Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proficiency in oral communication is necessary in school and in society. To do well in the different curriculum areas, pupils must speak with clarity and understanding. For example, in a discussion group in the social studies involving the topic "the pros and cons of raising taxes," pupils need to express knowledgeable ideas with appropriate voice…

Ediger, Marlow

2011-01-01

242

How Safe Is Oral Isotretinoin?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since oral isotretinoin (Roaccutane®\\/Accutane®) is the only therapy to address all major acne causes, it remains the most effective antiacne therapy available. Due to this unique efficacy and its potential side effects that are predictable and can be managed easily and effectively, it is widely used also in acne patients suffering from serious systemic diseases. As the primary mechanism of

W. N. Meigel

1997-01-01

243

Innovations in oral health insurance.  

PubMed

Dental disease can impact a person's ability to eat and speak, and increases absenteeism at work and school. Dental insurance plays an important role in the oral health care of North Carolinians as children and adults with dental insurance are more likely to get routine dental care, which can prevent dental disease. PMID:22860326

Moore, Linda

2012-01-01

244

College of Dentistry ORAL SCIENCES  

E-print Network

College of Dentistry ORAL SCIENCES Mailing Address: College of Dentistry (MC 621) 801 South (PhD) Telephone: (312) 996-0213 E-mail: marucha@uic.edu Web Site: http://dentistry.uic.edu/admissions/ms/ (MS); http://dentistry.uic.edu/admissions/phd/ (PhD) Director of Graduate Studies: Phillip T. Marucha

Illinois at Chicago, University of

245

Pharmacokinetics of oral vitamin C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose . To test whether plasma vitamin C levels, following oral doses in supplemented volunteers, are tightly controlled and subject to a maximum in the region of 220 mML 21 , as suggested by previous researchers for depleted subjects. To determine plasma levels following single, variable-sized doses of standard and liposomal formulations of vitamin C and compare the effects of

Stephen Hickey; HILARY J. ROBERTS; NICHOLAS J. MILLER

2008-01-01

246

Assessing Proofs via Oral Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative study, we explored how oral interviews can inform instructors about students' understanding of abstract algebra and their ability to construct a proof in this setting. Our findings indicate that some students had a good understanding of the ideas needed for a subgroup proof, but could not write a coherent proof. On the other…

Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Fuller, Evan

2012-01-01

247

Pollen grains for oral vaccination.  

PubMed

Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

2014-11-28

248

Orality, Literacy, and Star Wars.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the educational system should encourage "down to earth" language by including oral recitation in the curricula, particularly recitation of popular poetry with accompaniment. Using the shuttle disaster as a striking example, claims that the modern media overuses conceptual language to disguise the hard meaning of what is being…

Havelock, Eric A.

1986-01-01

249

ORAL NEMATODE INFECTION OF TARANTULAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oral nematode infection of Theraphosidae spiders, known as tarantulas, has been recently identified from several collections in the UK and mainland Europe. The disease has also been seen in captive and wild spiders from the Americas, Asia and Africa. Spider symptoms are described from anorexia until...

250

Nutritional Consequences of Oral Conditions and Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health status is influenced by numerous oral diseases and conditions, including loss of teeth and supporting dental alveolar\\u000a bone, xerostomia, loss of taste and smell, orofacial pain, oral movement disorders, and others. Other major factors include\\u000a general health, socioeconomic status (SES), nutritional well-being, and dietary habits (1). Diseases of the oral cavity, both local and systemic, can have a

A. Ross Kerr; Riva Touger-Decker

251

The Telling Lives Oral History Curriculum Guide The Columbia University Center for Oral History  

E-print Network

The Telling Lives Oral History Curriculum Guide The Columbia University Center for Oral History (formerly the Oral History Research Office) Written by Gerry Albarelli and Amy Starecheski April 2005 Columbia University, 2005 #12;Telling Lives Oral History Curriculum Guide 1 Table of Contents Introduction

Salzman, Daniel

252

Healthy People 2010: Oral Health Toolkit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this Toolkit is to provide guidance, technical tools, and resources to help states, territories, tribes and communities develop and implement successful oral health components of Healthy People 2010 plans as well as other oral health plans. These plans are useful for: (1) promoting, implementing and tracking oral health objectives;…

Isman, Beverly

2007-01-01

253

29 CFR 2700.77 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral argument. 2700.77 Section...Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES...by the Commission § 2700.77 Oral argument. Oral argument may be ordered by...

2010-07-01

254

17 CFR 12.312 - Oral hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral hearing. 12.312 Section 12.312...Formal Decisional Proceedings § 12.312 Oral hearing. (a) Notification; prehearing...the proceeding has reached the stage of an oral hearing, the Administrative Law...

2010-04-01

255

37 CFR 41.47 - Oral hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral hearing. 41.47 Section 41.47...INTERFERENCES Ex Parte Appeals § 41.47 Oral hearing. Link to an amendment published...2008 amendment is delayed. (a) An oral hearing should be requested only...

2010-07-01

256

37 CFR 41.73 - Oral hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral hearing. 41.73 Section 41.73 Patents...INTERFERENCES Inter Partes Appeals § 41.73 Oral hearing. (a) An oral hearing should be requested only in those...

2010-07-01

257

Organization History / Oral Survey University of Maryland  

E-print Network

Organization History / Oral Survey University of Maryland Name: Current Function: Location where;Departmental History / Oral Survey University of Maryland Name: Current Function: Location where currently #12;Alumni/æ Oral Survey University of Maryland Name Current Age Gender Occupation Current Home Home

Hill, Wendell T.

258

Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis. PMID:22930665

Markopoulos, Anastasios K

2012-01-01

259

NATIONAL ORAL HEALTH SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NOHSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS) is a collaborative effort between CDC's Division of Oral Health and The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD). NOHSS is designed to help public health programs monitor the burden of oral disease, use of the ...

260

Expression of Ki-67 in normal oral epithelium, leukoplakic oral epithelium and oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objective: To demonstrate the presence, location and pattern of cell proliferation in different histological grades of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal oral epithelium (NOE) using an antibody directed against the Ki-67 antigen and its intensity of staining evaluated respectively. Materials and Methods: A total number of 100 archival paraffin embedded blocks obtained from Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology were studied. The case details were retrieved which consisted of histopathologically diagnosed cases of OSCC (n = 20), low risk OED (n = 30), high risk OED (n = 30) and normal appearing mucosa (n = 20) were taken as standard for comparison. Ki-67 immunostaining was detected. Ki-67 positive cells were counted in the five random high power fields in each case. Results: Ki-67 labeling Index (LI) was restricted to the basal and parabasal layers of the normal oral epithelium irrespective of age, sex and site whereas it was seen in the basal, suprabasal and spinous layers in OED. Ki-67 LI is increased in high risk cases than the low risk cases of OED. Ki-67 positive cells in OSCC were located in the periphery of the tumor nests than the center, where frequent mitoses were observed. Conclusion: The architectural alteration evaluated by Ki-67 antibody in proliferating cell distribution in the layers of epithelial dysplasias may provide useful information to evaluate the grading of OED. Ki-67 LI increased in high risk cases than low risk cases of OED. This study showed that over expression of Ki-67 antigen between well-differentiated and poorly differentiated OSCC was in accordance with histologic grade of malignancy but not in accordance with moderately differentiated OSCC. PMID:25328294

Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Radhika, MB; Paremala, K; Sudhakara, M; Soumya, M; Gadivan, Mohsin

2014-01-01

261

Oral health in China – trends and challenges  

PubMed Central

For a long time, oral disease is one of the major problems of the public health for its high prevalence and incidence throughout the world, which is especially true for low-income populations. Since China's economic reform in 1978, great changes have taken place in China. These changes have significant impact on and have been reflected in oral disease trends in China. This paper provides an overview and assessment of the oral health status in China. It focuses on changes in the nation's demographic profile, in the marketplace, the oral disease status and trends. The paper also suggests some possible measures and strategies for bettering oral health in future China. PMID:21449210

Hu, De-yu; Hong, Xiao; Li, Xue

2011-01-01

262

Oral Piercing and Oral Diseases: A Short Time Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections. The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing. Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications. Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%). PMID:22135610

Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M.; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D.; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M.; Dipalma, Gianna

2011-01-01

263

Oral piercing and oral diseases: a short time retrospective study.  

PubMed

Body piercing indicates the puncturing of a part of the body in which jewelry may be worn. In recent years, oral piercing is increasingly popular especially among young people. Body piercing has to be considered as a surgical procedure to all intents and purposes and, as such, has to be performed only by qualified personnel able to assure high standards of professionalism in facilities subject to sanitary inspections.The aim of the present work is to verify what risks patients may be exposed to and what complications may occur after a healthcare professional performs oral piercing.Our retrospective study includes 108 patients (74 males and 34 females) aged between 14 and 39 years, who had oral piercing done 12±4 months earlier. All the patients underwent clinical examination to reveal the possible presence of late complications. After piercing, none of the 108 patients developed widespread complications.Although all patients said they had followed the piercers' instructions, 96% of them reported postoperative local complications such as bleeding within 12 hours of piercing (90%), perilesional edema for 3±2 days after piercing surgery (80%), and persistent mucosal atrophy (70%). PMID:22135610

Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D; Palladino, Antonio; Inchingolo, Angelo M; Dipalma, Gianna

2011-01-01

264

Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains. PMID:25625069

Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

2014-01-01

265

Oral History in the Digital Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oral History in the Digital Age website connects interested persons and organizations to a range of resources related to crafting a meaningful and dynamic oral history project. Crafted by people at Michigan State University with funds from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), the site contains critical essays, How-To guides, and an elaborate wiki. The Getting Started area is a good place to begin, as it features helpful playlists about oral history projects. The Essays tab leads to another highly informative section of the site. The short pieces in this section are divided into three topics: Collecting, Curating, and Disseminating. The individual essays include "Enhancing Discovery: Connecting Users to Your Oral History Collections Online" and "Oral History and Social Networks: From Promotion to Relationship Building." Finally, the Ask Doug option features expert responses to key questions on oral history projects from noted oral historian Doug Boyd.

2013-01-01

266

African American Alumni Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Digital Collections has tackled everything from Golda Meir to historic street maps in its quest to offer a diverse and wonderful view of the city's rich history. This particular collection brings together a clutch of oral histories that celebrate the African American experience at the institution. Visitors can look over a panel discussion with a range of recent alums titled, "African American Alumni and Students: Stories of Education and Success." Moving on, visitors can hear Clayborn Benson talk about his long career as a photojournalist or watch and listen to G. Spencer Coggs, who has been a prominent member of the Democratic Political Party in Wisconsin for many years. This is quite a trove of first-hand memories and a great tribute to the cityâÂÂs oral traditions.

267

Harvard Iranian Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oral histories can be quite fascinating, and a number of significant collections have been placed online as of late. One of the best-known projects might be Harvard University's own Iranian Oral History Project (IOHP). The collection consists of the personal accounts of over 150 individuals who were eyewitnesses (or active participants) to a range of crucial political events in Iran from the 1920s to the 1980s. Visitors can start their journey through this site by going to the "About" section, where they can learn about the history of the IHOP and the interviewing process. After that, visitors can go the actual "Transcripts" area, where they can view an index of interviews, and in certain cases, they can listen to audio recordings of these conversations.

268

University District Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Seattle Public Library has been embarking on some ambitious projects as of late and this oral history initiative is one of the best. Working with students in the University of Washington Museology Graduate Program, a number of oral history interviews were conducted with residents, businesspeople, and others in the city's University District. All of the interviews were conducted in 2011 and each interviewee provided a unique viewpoint of life on "The Ave,â?ť which is shorthand for the main street that runs north and south through the neighborhood. There are twelve interviews here, including one with a University of Washington student, a Seattle Police Department officer, and the director of a teen outreach group.

2011-01-01

269

African American Oral History Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Telling the story of Louisville's African American community is an ambitious goal and the University of Louisville's Oral History Center has done a fine job with this website. The process began in the 1970s with funding from the Kentucky Oral History Commission, which supported the collection's first batch of interviews. A wide range of people was interviewed for the project, including politicians, doctors, musicians, and educators as well as "regular folks." Currently, there are 27 interviews, and visitors can browse through them to get a sense of the offerings. One particularly fascinating interviewee is Dr. Jesse Bell, a longtime physician in Louisville. The collection will intrigue historians, urbanologists, and others with a passion for the American experience.

2010-01-01

270

Ecstasy (MDMA) and oral health  

Microsoft Academic Search

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), more commonly known as 'ecstasy' or XTC, is frequently used by young adults in the major cities. Therefore, it is likely that dentists might be confronted with individuals who use ecstasy. This review describes systemic and oral effects of ecstasy. Life-threatening complications include hyperthermia, hyponatraemia and liver failure. In addition, psychotic episodes, depression, panic disorders and impulsive behaviour

S. N. Dun; A. V. Nieuw Amerongen; H. S. Brand

2008-01-01

271

Oral bioavailability of mesna tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the feasibility of uroprotection with sodium 2-mercaptoethane-sulfonate (mesna) in tablet form the bioavailability of mesna tablets was determined in healthy volunteers by HPLC. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of free mesna was significantly lower following oral (110 µmol.l-1.h-1; 95% CI 98–122) than following i.v. administration of 1.2 g of mesna (201 µmol.l-1.h-1; 95% CI 158–244).

Brigitte Stofer-Vogell; Thomas Cerny; Markus Borner; Bernhard H. Lauterburgl

1993-01-01

272

Nitrous Oxide and Oral Premedication  

PubMed Central

Patients frequently require conscious-sedation to achieve anxiety relief in the dental office. There are specific indications, contraindications, advantages, and disadvantages to each sedation modality. Selection of the appropriate anesthetic technique should be individualized for each patient. This paper reviews two important conscious-sedation modalities: oral premedication and nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation sedation. Pertinent drugs are reviewed and recommendations are made for their use; current researches are presented and new areas for investigation are suggested. PMID:6597684

Giovannitti, Joseph A.

1984-01-01

273

Transtracheal ventilation in oral surgery.  

PubMed Central

The use of transtracheal ventilation as a routine method of ventilation during anaesthesia for 60 patients with gross pathology requiring oral surgery is reported. Theoretical hazards of the technique and protection of the airway are discussed. There were no serious complications in this series. The technique is recommended as a simple and safe alternative to blind nasal intubation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6614769

Layman, P. R.

1983-01-01

274

Urban legends series: oral leukoplakia.  

PubMed

To date, the term oral leukoplakia (OL) should be used to recognize 'predominantly white plaques of questionable risk, having excluded (other) known diseases or disorders that carry no increased risk of cancer'. In this review, we addressed four controversial topics regarding oral leukoplakias (OLs): (i) Do tobacco and alcohol cause OLs?, (ii) What percentage of OLs transform into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)?, (iii) Can we distinguish between premalignant and innocent OLs?, and (iv) Is proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) a specific entity or just a form of multifocal leukoplakia? Results of extensive literature search suggest that (i) no definitive evidence for direct causal relationship between smoked tobacco and alcohol as causative factors of OLs, (ii and iii) the vast majority of OLs follow a benign course and do not progress into a cancer, and no widely accepted and/or validated clinical and/or biological factors can predict malignant transformation, and (iv) the distinction between multifocal/multiple leukoplakias and PVL in their early presentation is impossible; the temporal clinical progression and the high rate of recurrences and development of cancer of PVL are the most reliable features for diagnosis. PMID:23379968

Arduino, P G; Bagan, J; El-Naggar, A K; Carrozzo, M

2013-10-01

275

Multiple sclerosis and oral care.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis is a complex neurological condition affecting sensory and motor nerve transmission. Its progression and symptoms are unpredictable and vary from person to person as well as over time. Common early symptoms include visual disturbances, facial pain or trigeminal neuralgia and paraesthesia or numbness of feet, legs, hands and arms. These, plus symptoms of spasticity, spasms, tremor, fatigue, depression and progressive disability, impact on the individual's ability to maintain oral health, cope with dental treatment and access dental services. Also, many of the medications used in the symptomatic management of the condition have the potential to cause dry mouth and associated oral disease. There is no cure for multiple sclerosis, and treatment focuses on prevention of disability and maintenance of quality of life. Increasingly a multi-disciplinary team approach is used where the individual, if appropriate his/her carer, and the specialist nurse are key figures. The dental team plays an essential role in ensuring that oral health impacts positively on general health. PMID:12222018

Fiske, Janice; Griffiths, Janet; Thompson, Shelagh

2002-01-01

276

The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health.  

PubMed Central

This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both developing and developed countries. Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions and oropharyngeal cancers, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related oral disease and orodental trauma are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life. The diversity in oral disease patterns and development trends across countries and regions reflects distinct risk profiles and the establishment of preventive oral health care programmes. The important role of sociobehavioural and environmental factors in oral health and disease has been shown in a large number of socioepidemiological surveys. In addition to poor living conditions, the major risk factors relate to unhealthy lifestyles (i.e. poor diet, nutrition and oral hygiene and use of tobacco and alcohol), and limited availability and accessibility of oral health services. Several oral diseases are linked to noncommunicable chronic diseases primarily because of common risk factors. Moreover, general diseases often have oral manifestations (e.g. diabetes or HIV/AIDS). Worldwide strengthening of public health programmes through the implementation of effective measures for the prevention of oral disease and promotion of oral health is urgently needed. The challenges of improving oral health are particularly great in developing countries. PMID:16211157

Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Estupinan-Day, Saskia; Ndiaye, Charlotte

2005-01-01

277

Oral care in the intensive care unit: a review.  

PubMed

Oral care for patients in the hospital's Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is important, but this is usually the responsibility of nurses without sufficient knowledge in oral care or comprehensive protocols to follow. The problems of maintaining oral care with oral intubation, performing oral assessment, guidelines for oral hygiene care, frequency of oral care needed, and suggested mouth care protocol followed by recommendations are presented and discussed in this paper. PMID:17211508

Abidia, Randa F

2007-01-01

278

Malnutrition and its Oral Outcome – A Review  

PubMed Central

Malnutrition affects the oral health and a poor oral health in turn, may lead to malnutrition. This interdependent relationship sees good nutritional health, thus promoting good oral health and vice versa. Malnutrition may alter the homeostasis, which can lead to disease progression of the oral cavity, reduce the resistance to the microbial biofilm and reduce the capacity of tissue healing. It may even affect the development of the oral cavity. Protein-energy malnutrition occurs when there is a deficiency of protein, energy foods or both, which are relative to a body’s need. Studies have suggested that enamel hypoplasia, salivary gland hypofunction and saliva compositional changes may be the mechanisms through which the malnutrition is associated with caries, while an altered eruption timing may create a challenge in the analysis of the age specific caries rates. This paper gives an insight on the relationship of the malnutrition and the protein-energy malnutrition with the oral health status. PMID:23449967

Sheetal, Aparna; Hiremath, Vinay Kumar; Patil, Anand G; Sajjansetty, Sangmeshwar; Kumar, Sheetal R

2013-01-01

279

Oral communication in the freshman English course  

E-print Network

ORAL COMMUNICATION IN THE FRESHMAN ENGLISH COURSE A Thesis by Janet Su Zann Kettner Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A 8c M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement, for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 1974 Major... Subjects English ORAL COMMUNICATION IN THE FRESHMAN ENGLISH COURSE A Thesis by Janet Su Zann Kettner Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee) Head of Department M em r Member December 1974. 111 ABSTRACI' Oral Communication...

Kettner, Janet Su Zann

1974-01-01

280

Promoting oral health through community engagement.  

PubMed

Persistent health disparities still exist in the U.S. despite decades of focus on the importance of prevention. Individual behaviors are the major contributor to oral health. By partnering and linking with community organizations, oral health professionals can expand their reach, overcome the obstacles to delivering effective prevention activities in dental offices and improve the oral health of the most underserved and vulnerable populations, who bear the greatest burden of dental disease. PMID:25076629

Glassman, Paul; Harrington, Maureen; Namakian, Maysa

2014-07-01

281

Chemotherapy or radiation-induced oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis is a significant toxicity of systemic chemotherapy and of radiation therapy to the head and neck region. The morbidity of oral mucositis can include pain, nutritional compromise, impact on quality of life, alteration in cancer therapy, risk for infection, and economic costs. Management includes general symptomatic support and targeted therapeutic interventions for the prevention or treatment of oral mucositis. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are available to guide clinicians in the selection of effective management strategies. PMID:24655526

Lalla, Rajesh V; Saunders, Deborah P; Peterson, Douglas E

2014-04-01

282

Oral products and dental disease.  

PubMed

Dental disease is a common problem in dogs and cats. A study of North American pets showed a 20% incidence of calculus and/or gingivitis in dogs of all ages, while 24% and 13% of cats of all ages had calculus and gingivitis, respectively.1 Dental disease in older pets is especially common, and as pets age, the incidence of dental disease increases. One study identified periodontitis in 82% of dogs aged 6 to 8 years and in 96% of dogs aged 12 to 14 years.2 Dietary strategies to promote dental health have been established and can be useful additions to a complete home oral care regimen. PMID:20960410

Larsen, Jennifer

2010-09-01

283

Caltech Archives Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Caltech Archives Oral History Project "began in 1978 for the purpose of recording the personal memoirs of the distinguished scientists, teachers and administrators of the Institute." The archive currently includes about 170 interviews, for many of which transcipts are provided. The Online project makes selected interviews available to the public in digital form. Approximately 40 interviews, mostly from the fields of biology and environmental science, are available now and more will be posted in the future. Visitors can browse the archive online by name or by subject, as well as use an online search form.

284

Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP)  

PubMed Central

Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P), on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P) randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg) to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees) of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for huge savings in not only money but the overall quality of life. This may help establish more specific clinical guidelines for oral cleft prevention so that the intervention can be better tailored for at-risk women. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397917 PMID:23181832

2012-01-01

285

Using Learning Assistants in Oral Assessments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Undergraduate Learning Assistants -- prepared to work productively with students -- have been used to facilitate ungraded, voluntary oral assessments offered prior to exams. Oral assessments last one hour, and are offered prior to the three course exams. Orals are geared to improve student understanding and allow instructors to work with students on an individual basis to address misunderstandings. Students attend oral assessments in groups of 5-6 and work at a board to answer scripted, conceptual questions. The facilitator asks the initial scripted questions as well as follow-up probing questions and encourages students to work together.

Stephanie Chasteen

286

Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

2013-11-01

287

Hansen's Oral Life Histories and Healing.  

PubMed

The individual oral statement is human story based on experience. The personal experience forms unconsciousness which appears in a form of oral statement by ego that doesn't want to lose existence. Thus, the process which exposes a tormented hearts is the objectification of oneself. Through this step, oral person attains a healing. If this sort of individual oral is accrued, the undeserved personal affairs could be a history. In case of Hansen's disease patient, She could escape from negative understanding about herself and the world. Furthermore, She kept formating her values about meaningful life and future oriented value. Also, She wants to keep a record of her life. She comes to know that what she denied is actually what she should surmount over oral statement. As a result, She could attains a healing for oneself through oral statement. The oral statement made her look into she's problems. Therefore, oral statement is a self-realization. Through this, person could know what the problem is and solution. This research is about only one person, so there is need for more cases and studies. If this sort of individual oral statement is accrued, there could be a curative narration. This can suggest an curative alternative when we suffer from problem of life. The merit of this research is rendering this possibility. PMID:24005645

Kim, Seong-Lee

2013-08-01

288

Commensal oral Candida in Asian cohorts.  

PubMed

The oral carriage rate of Candida in healthy humans ranges from 40% to 60%. However for a prolonged period, the oral candidal prevalence in humans was documented essentially using data from studies in the West as their prevalence in inhabitants in different regions of the world, including Asia was not known. Yet, recent reports from a number of studies indicate the quality, quantity and prevalence of oral yeasts differ between Asia and other regions for reason that are still unclear. This mini review on such data from Asian studies on oral carriage of Candida provides another intriguing facet of the behavior of this ubiquitous yeast. PMID:20690497

Samaranayake, Lakshman

2009-03-01

289

Commensal Oral Candida in Asian Cohorts  

PubMed Central

The oral carriage rate of Candida in healthy humans ranges from 40% to 60%. However for a prolonged period, the oral candidal prevalence in humans was documented essentially using data from studies in the West as their prevalence in inhabitants in different regions of the world, including Asia was not known. Yet, recent reports from a number of studies indicate the quality, quantity and prevalence of oral yeasts differ between Asia and other regions for reason that are still unclear. This mini review on such data from Asian studies on oral carriage of Candida provides another intriguing facet of the behavior of this ubiquitous yeast. PMID:20690497

Samaranayake, Lakshman

2009-01-01

290

Aboriginal Oral Traditions of Australian Impact Craters  

E-print Network

We explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records, and fieldtrip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool, and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff and Wolfe Creek craters and non-impact origins of Liverpool and Henbury craters, with Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have formed during human habitation of Australia - Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole - do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

Hamacher, Duane W

2013-01-01

291

Oral submucous fibrosis and its dermatological relation  

PubMed Central

Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic insidious disease and is well-recognized as a premalignant condition. It is a collagen related disorder associated with betel quid chewing and characterized by progressive hyalinization of the submucosa. The oral submucous fibrosis needs to be differentiated from scleroderma showing oral manifestations, as these diseases have different pathogenesis and prognostic aspects. The patients of oral submucous fibrosis can approach the dermatologist. The aim of this article is to present concise overview of the disease and its dermatological relation. PMID:25165640

Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Patil, Ashok; Patil, Kishor; Prasant, M. C.

2014-01-01

292

Oral health disparities in older adults: oral bacteria, inflammation, and aspiration pneumonia.  

PubMed

Poor oral hygiene has been suggested to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia in the institutionalized and disabled elderly. Control of oral biofilm formation in these populations reduces the numbers of potential respiratory pathogens in the oral secretions, which in turn reduces the risk for pneumonia. Together with other preventive measures, improved oral hygiene helps to control lower respiratory infections in frail elderly hospital and nursing home patients. PMID:25201541

Scannapieco, Frank A; Shay, Kenneth

2014-10-01

293

An Oral History Bibliography A Research Guide by the Columbia University Center for Oral History  

E-print Network

An Oral History Bibliography *** A Research Guide by the Columbia University Center for Oral History #12;2 Table of Contents I. Manuals and Practical Guides 3 II. Methodology and Theory 4 III. Education 18 X. Human Rights and the Law 19 XI. Memory 22 XII. Narrative, Orality and History 25 XIII

Salzman, Daniel

294

Prevention of Oral Mucositis and Oral Candidiasis for Patients with Cancer Treated with Chemotherapy: Cochrane Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine whether oral prophylactic agents are superior to placebo or no treatment on the incidence of oral mucositis and oral candidiasis for patients with cancer. A Cochrane systematic review was conducted of randomized trials of oral (and topical) prophylactic agents for mucositis and oral candidiasis, anywhere in the world, among patients with cancer

H. V. Worthington; J. E. Clarkson

295

Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know  

MedlinePLUS

Oral Chemotherapy: What You Need to Know Oral chemo is any drug you take by mouth to treat cancer. Chemo taken by mouth is as strong as other forms ... mean a higher co-pay. Make sure you know how much you’ll have to pay for ...

296

42 CFR 405.1124 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 405.1124...Section 405.1124 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE...MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED...Review § 405.1124 Oral argument. A...

2010-10-01

297

42 CFR 423.2124 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 423.2124...Section 423.2124 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Review § 423.2124 Oral argument. An...

2010-10-01

298

Oral Language and Reading in Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the question: Do lexical, syntactic, fluency, and discourse measures of oral language collected under narrative conditions predict reading achievement both within and across languages for bilingual children? More than 1,500 Spanish-English bilingual children attending kindergarten-third grade participated. Oral narratives…

Miller, Jon F.; Heilmann, John; Nockerts, Ann; Iglesias, Aquiles; Fabiano, Leah; Francis, David J.

2006-01-01

299

Oral Assessment in Mathematics: Implementation and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…

Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

2012-01-01

300

Speak up! Oral Examinations and Political Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testing assessments of undergraduate political science students is predictable and stagnant. A missing, yet valuable, testing assessment tool that can contribute to the repertoire of political science is the oral examination. Borrowing this testing tool largely from foreign language departments, oral exams require students to "think on their feet"…

Buehler, Melissa J.; Schneider, Laura U.

2009-01-01

301

Midwestern Rural Adolescents' Oral Sex Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examined the prevalence of oral sexual activity in rural Midwestern adolescents. We also examined the correlates of a series of risk behaviors with oral sexual activity. Methods: A questionnaire based on the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System was distributed to 2121 rural middle and high school students in grades 6-12…

Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Ward, Britney L.; Welch, Philip J.

2011-01-01

302

Validation of Automated Scoring of Oral Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-part experiment is presented that validates a new measurement tool for scoring oral reading ability. Data collected by the U.S. government in a large-scale literacy assessment of adults were analyzed by a system called VersaReader that uses automatic speech recognition and speech processing technologies to score oral reading fluency. In the…

Balogh, Jennifer; Bernstein, Jared; Cheng, Jian; Van Moere, Alistair; Townshend, Brent; Suzuki, Masanori

2012-01-01

303

Classroom Activities: Oral Proficiency in Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is important to introduce and facilitate oral activities in the second language classroom with enthusiasm in a climate of mutual support and cooperation. Students should understand that mistakes are inevitable but not fatal, and that each attempt will build greater ease and confidence in using the language for communication. Oral proficiency…

Hahn, Sidney; Michaelis, Joyce

304

College of Dentistry OBI Oral Biology  

E-print Network

College of Dentistry OBI Oral Biology KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped of the College of Dentistry or consent of instructor. OBI 651 ORAL BIOLOGY FOR POSTGRADUATE DENTAL STUDENTS II to the College of Dentistry. (Same as BCH 812). OBI 813 NEUROPHYSIOLOGY. (1) The brain uses electrical signals

MacAdam, Keith

305

Visual Perception and Oral Language Production.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-eight boys and girls, from ages 4 to 8 and with wide differences in intelligence, were subjects in a study which examined the role of visual perception in the oral language production of young children. Five tests were administered: one to sample visual perception, the others to measure selected skills of oral language--syntactical,…

Allen, Jerry Carlton

306

Oral vaccination with immune stimulating complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for non-living adjuvant vectors which will induce a full range of local and systemic immune responses to orally administered purified antigens. Here we describe our experience with lipophilic immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMS) containing the saponin adjuvant Quil A. When given orally, ISCOMS containing the model protein antigen ovalbumin (OVA) induce a wide range of systemic immune

Allan McI Mowat; Rosemary E Smith; Anne M Donachie; Elizabeth Furrie; Dubravka Grdic; Nils Lycke

1999-01-01

307

Auditory-Oral Matching Behavior in Newborns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-five newborn infants were tested for auditory-oral matching behavior when presented with the consonant sound /m/ and the vowel sound /a/--a precursor behavior to vocal imitation. Auditory-oral matching behavior by the infant was operationally defined as showing the mouth movement appropriate for producing the model sound just heard (mouth…

Chen, Xin; Striano, Tricia; Rakoczy, Hannes

2004-01-01

308

Experimental Gingivitis in Women Using Oral Contraceptives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral contraceptives (OC) have historically been considered a risk factor for gingival diseases. We set out to investigate this premise further, given that, over recent years, hormone concentrations in OC have been substantially reduced. Using a prospective, split-mouth, experimental gingivitis model, pre-menopausal women either taking (n = 14) or not taking (n = 16) OC refrained from all oral hygiene

P. M. Preshaw; M. A. Knutsen; A. Mariotti

2001-01-01

309

Oral History and the Black Studies Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Black Studies means an indepth investigation of the Black Experience. Without oral history methods, this will be prostituted to mean a superficial view of opinions set forth by white society. All the broad areas of Black scholarship must begin to relate to the problems of capturing the life of the race on tape and retaining it for posterity. Oral

Simmons, Henry E.

310

[Methods of complex diagnostics of oral leukoplakia].  

PubMed

The problem of diagnostic of various forms of leukoplakia of the oral mucosa is reviewed IT is introduced a set of methods for diagnosis of the disease, including a clinical check up, evaluation of the data of optical coherence tomography, classical histological and immunohistochemical study to determine the neoplastic cell transformation of oral mucosa in the early stages of its development. PMID:25588334

Rabinovich, O F; Babichenko, I I; Rabinovich, I M; Togonidze, A A

2014-01-01

311

Oral History: A Bridge to Thinking Historically.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a concise introduction to the integration of oral history projects into the social studies classroom. Identifies five goals for student use of oral history: content acquisition, skill development, affective growth, historical understanding, and content production. Includes interviewing techniques, related web sites, and teaching…

Bennett, Clifford; Forney, LeAnne

1997-01-01

312

Oral health and the symptoms of schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the oral health of a group of schizophrenic outpatients and a control group without psychiatric illness. The study also aimed to assess the influence of positive and negative symptomatology on oral health among outpatients with schizophrenia. The DMF-T Index (sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth) and the Community Periodontal Index of

Ainara Arnaiz; Mercedes Zumárraga; Izaskun Díez-Altuna; Jose J. Uriarte; Juan Moro; Maria A. Pérez-Ansorena

2011-01-01

313

Chemokine changes during oral wound healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral mucosa is susceptible to tissue injury from many causes, including infection, autoimmune disorders, surgical and accidental trauma, and gingival and periodontal inflammation; however, little is known about the events that influence wound healing in the mouth. Recent studies in non-oral tissues have implicated immune system-derived factors, in particular chemokines, in the wound healing process. Tissues from mice with

Kevin McGrory; Catherine M. Flaitz; John R. Klein

2004-01-01

314

Development of Oral Health in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around 80% of African communities can be considered to be materially deprived. The presence of widespread poverty and underdevelopment in Africa means that communities are increasingly exposed to all of the major environmental determinants of oral disease. Previous approaches to oral health in Africa have failed to recognize the epidemiological priorities of the region or identify reliable and appropriate strategies

Samuel J. Thorpe

2003-01-01

315

Oral Microbiology: Past, Present and Future  

PubMed Central

Since the initial observations of oral bacteria within dental plaque by van Leeuwenhoek using his primitive microscopes in 1680, an event that is generally recognized as the advent of oral microbiological investigation, oral microbiology has gone through phases of “reductionism” and “holism”. From the small beginnings of the Miller and Black period, in which microbiologists followed Koch's postulates, took the reductionist approach to try to study the complex oral microbial community by analyzing individual species; to the modern era when oral researchers embrace “holism” or “system thinking”, adopt new concepts such as interspecies interaction, microbial community, biofilms, poly-microbial diseases, oral microbiological knowledge has burgeoned and our ability to identify the resident organisms in dental plaque and decipher the interactions between key components has rapidly increased, such knowledge has greatly changed our view of the oral microbial flora, provided invaluable insight into the etiology of dental and periodontal diseases, opened the door to new approaches and techniques for developing new therapeutic and preventive tools for combating oral poly-microbial diseases. PMID:20687296

He, Xue-song; Shi, Wen-yuan

2009-01-01

316

Britannia Mine Oral History Project Collection /  

E-print Network

Britannia Mine Oral History Project Collection / UBC Department of History (collector) Last revised Catalogue entry (UBC Library catalogue) #12;Fonds Description Britannia Mine Oral History Project Collection. Designed to provide students with a first-hand understanding of life in a mining community, this project

Handy, Todd C.

317

Orality in Northern Cree Indigenous Worlds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the importance and centrality of orality, rather than literacy, in the shared lives of the Cree of northern Alberta. Discusses orality consciousness related to the practice of shared memories and personal and communal healing during the "dance of the ancestors" or "ghost dance." Includes a short history of the Cree people and their…

Weber-Pillwax, Cora

2001-01-01

318

The Communication Model Perspective of Oral Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication models suggest that oral interpretation is a communicative process, that this process may be represented by specification of implicit and explicit content and structure, and that the models themselves are useful. This paper examines these assumptions through a comparative analysis of communication models employed by oral

Peterson, Eric E.

319

Discourse Variation in Oral Proficiency Interviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the discourse structure of oral language proficiency interviews focused on (1) one principal discourse variable, topic, for analyzing contingency and goal orientation in dyadic interactions, and (2) contextual factors (interlocutor, theme, task, participant gender). Data came from 30 dyadic oral interviews in English as a Second…

Young, Richard; Milanovic, Michael

320

21 CFR 520.45 - Albendazole oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Albendazole oral dosage forms. 520.45 ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.45 Albendazole oral dosage...

2010-04-01

321

21 CFR 520.82 - Aminopropazine fumarate oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Aminopropazine fumarate oral dosage forms. 520.82 ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...82 Aminopropazine fumarate oral dosage...

2010-04-01

322

21 CFR 520.88c - Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. 520.88c Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...88c Amoxicillin trihydrate oral suspension. (a)...

2010-04-01

323

21 CFR 520.970 - Flunixin oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Flunixin oral dosage forms. 520.970...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.970 Flunixin oral dosage...

2010-04-01

324

21 CFR 520.1120 - Haloxon oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Haloxon oral dosage forms. 520.1120...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1120 Haloxon oral dosage...

2010-04-01

325

21 CFR 520.390c - Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. 520.390c ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... Chloramphenicol palmitate oral suspension. (a)...

2010-04-01

326

21 CFR 520.2345 - Tetracycline oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Tetracycline oral dosage forms. 520.2345...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2345 Tetracycline oral dosage...

2010-04-01

327

21 CFR 520.1696 - Penicillin oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Penicillin oral dosage forms. 520.1696...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696 Penicillin oral dosage...

2010-04-01

328

21 CFR 520.2220 - Sulfadimethoxine oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Sulfadimethoxine oral dosage forms. 520.2220...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2220 Sulfadimethoxine oral dosage...

2010-04-01

329

21 CFR 520.2473 - Tioxidazole oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Tioxidazole oral dosage forms. 520.2473...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2473 Tioxidazole oral dosage...

2010-04-01

330

21 CFR 20.104 - Summaries of oral discussions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Summaries of oral discussions. 20.104 ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... § 20.104 Summaries of oral discussions. (a) All written summaries of oral discussions,...

2010-04-01

331

21 CFR 520.2261 - Sulfamethazine sodium oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Sulfamethazine sodium oral dosage forms. 520.2261...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...2261 Sulfamethazine sodium oral dosage...

2010-04-01

332

21 CFR 520.445 - Chlortetracycline oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Chlortetracycline oral dosage forms. 520.445...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.445 Chlortetracycline oral dosage...

2010-04-01

333

21 CFR 520.154 - Bacitracin oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Bacitracin oral dosage forms. 520.154...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.154 Bacitracin oral dosage...

2010-04-01

334

21 CFR 520.90 - Ampicillin oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Ampicillin oral dosage forms. 520.90 ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.90 Ampicillin oral dosage...

2010-04-01

335

21 CFR 520.1448 - Monensin oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Monensin oral dosage forms. 520.1448...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1448 Monensin oral dosage forms....

2010-04-01

336

21 CFR 520.2150 - Stanozolol oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Stanozolol oral dosage forms. 520.2150...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2150 Stanozolol oral dosage...

2010-04-01

337

21 CFR 520.300 - Cambendazole oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Cambendazole oral dosage forms. 520.300...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.300 Cambendazole oral dosage...

2010-04-01

338

21 CFR 520.2520 - Trichlorfon oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Trichlorfon oral dosage forms. 520.2520...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2520 Trichlorfon oral dosage...

2010-04-01

339

21 CFR 520.622 - Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage forms. 520.622...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... Diethylcarbamazine citrate oral dosage...

2010-04-01

340

21 CFR 520.390 - Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Chloramphenicol oral dosage forms. 520.390...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.390 Chloramphenicol oral dosage...

2010-04-01

341

21 CFR 520.2380 - Thiabendazole oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Thiabendazole oral dosage forms. 520.2380...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2380 Thiabendazole oral dosage...

2010-04-01

342

Diet and Oral Health: A Vicious Circle for Some Seniors  

MedlinePLUS

Diet and Oral Health: A Vicious Circle for Some Seniors Oral Concerns of Older Adults Other Reasons for a Poor Diet Eating ... developing vitamin deficiencies. They also may have more oral health problems. People who wear dentures may not be ...

343

21 CFR 520.2160 - Styrylpyridinium, diethylcarbamazine oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Styrylpyridinium, diethylcarbamazine oral dosage forms. 520.2160...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...Styrylpyridinium, diethylcarbamazine oral dosage...

2010-04-01

344

21 CFR 520.88 - Amoxicillin oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Amoxicillin oral dosage forms. 520.88 ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.88 Amoxicillin oral dosage...

2010-04-01

345

21 CFR 520.905 - Fenbendazole oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole oral dosage forms. 520.905...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905 Fenbendazole oral dosage...

2010-04-01

346

21 CFR 520.1450 - Morantel tartrate oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Morantel tartrate oral dosage forms. 520.1450...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1450 Morantel tartrate oral dosage...

2010-04-01

347

21 CFR 520.2325 - Sulfaquinoxaline oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline oral dosage forms. 520.2325...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2325 Sulfaquinoxaline oral dosage...

2010-04-01

348

21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is...

2010-04-01

349

21 CFR 520.2123 - Spectinomycin oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Spectinomycin oral dosage forms. 520.2123...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2123 Spectinomycin oral dosage...

2010-04-01

350

21 CFR 520.1044a - Gentamicin sulfate oral solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. 520.1044a ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...1044a Gentamicin sulfate oral solution. (a)...

2010-04-01

351

21 CFR 520.620 - Diethylcarbamazine oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Diethylcarbamazine oral dosage forms. 520.620...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.620 Diethylcarbamazine oral dosage...

2010-04-01

352

21 CFR 520.2158c - Dihydrostreptomycin oral suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Dihydrostreptomycin oral suspension. 520.2158c...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...2158c Dihydrostreptomycin oral suspension. (a)...

2010-04-01

353

21 CFR 520.2220c - Sulfadimethoxine oral suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Sulfadimethoxine oral suspension. 520.2220c...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2220c Sulfadimethoxine oral suspension. (a)...

2010-04-01

354

21 CFR 520.540 - Dexamethasone oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Dexamethasone oral dosage forms. 520.540...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.540 Dexamethasone oral dosage...

2010-04-01

355

21 CFR 520.1720 - Phenylbutazone oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Phenylbutazone oral dosage forms. 520.1720...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1720 Phenylbutazone oral dosage...

2010-04-01

356

21 CFR 520.1242 - Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms. 520.1242...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...1242 Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage...

2010-04-01

357

21 CFR 520.1044 - Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage forms. 520.1044...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1044 Gentamicin sulfate oral dosage...

2010-04-01

358

21 CFR 520.763 - Dithiazanine iodide oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Dithiazanine iodide oral dosage forms. 520.763...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.763 Dithiazanine iodide oral dosage...

2010-04-01

359

21 CFR 520.903 - Febantel oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Febantel oral dosage forms. 520.903...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.903 Febantel oral dosage...

2010-04-01

360

21 CFR 520.2260 - Sulfamethazine oral dosage forms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Sulfamethazine oral dosage forms. 520.2260...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2260 Sulfamethazine oral dosage...

2010-04-01

361

20 CFR 802.303 - Decision; no oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Decision; no oral argument. 802.303 Section 802.303...PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedure for Review Oral Argument Before the Board § 802.303 Decision; no oral argument. (a) In the event...

2010-04-01

362

47 CFR 1.277 - Exceptions; oral arguments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Exceptions; oral arguments. 1.277 Section 1.277...Proceedings § 1.277 Exceptions; oral arguments. (a) The consolidated...have been filed, any party may request oral argument not later than five days...

2010-10-01

363

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2011-10-01

364

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2012-10-01

365

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

...2014-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2014-10-01

366

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2013-10-01

367

Oral health promotion interventions on oral yeast in hospitalised and medically compromised patients: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Yeast are major aetiological agents of localised oral mucosal lesions, and are also leading causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of oral health promotion interventions on the prevalence and incidence of these opportunistic oral pathogens in hospitalised and medically compromised patients. The PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases were searched for clinical trials assessing the effect of oral health promotion interventions on oral yeast. Chlorhexidine delivered in a variety of oral hygiene products appeared to have some effect on oral yeast, although some studies found equivocal effects. Although a wide array of other compounds have also been investigated, their clinical effectiveness remains to be substantiated. Likewise, the utility of mechanical oral hygiene interventions and other oral health promotion measures such as topical application of salivary substitute, remains unsettled. Although many chemical agents contained in oral hygiene products have proven in vitro activity against oral yeast, their clinical effectiveness and potential role as adjuncts or alternative therapies to conventional treatment remains to be confirmed by further high-quality randomised controlled trials. This is pertinent, given the recent emergence of yeast resistance to conventional antifungal agents. PMID:21749481

Lam, Otto L T; Bandara, H M H N; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; McGrath, Colman; Li, Leonard S W

2012-03-01

368

Laser treatment of oral mucosa tattoo.  

PubMed

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-12-01

369

Acute Urticaria Induced by Oral Methylprednisolone  

PubMed Central

Although corticosteroids have immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic effects, allergic reactions are rare. We report a case involving a 52-year-old-female with acute urticaria caused by oral methylprednisolone. The patient had experienced aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) for 13 years with frequent asthma exacerbations. Symptoms of asthma exacerbations improved with short-term treatments of systemic steroids, including methylprednisolone or deflazacort, which had been well tolerated. However, the current admission was prompted by the development of acute generalized urticaria following the oral ingestion of methylprednisolone (8 mg) for relief of symptoms. An oral provocation test with 4 mg oral methylprednisolone led to generalized urticaria 20 minutes later, confirming the causal association. This is the first report of acute urticaria caused by oral methylprednisolone in a patient with AERD. PMID:21966609

Jang, Eun Jung; Jin, Hyun Jung; Nam, Young Hee; Kim, Joo Hee; Ye, Young-Min

2011-01-01

370

Laser Treatment of Oral Mucosa Tattoo  

PubMed Central

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-01-01

371

Oral Manifestations in the American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) can affect the skin or mucosa (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis – MCL) including the oral cavity. MCL oral lesions are often confused with other oral diseases, delaying diagnosis and specific treatment, and increasing the likelihood of sequelae. Thus, increasing the knowledge of the evolution of ATL oral lesions can facilitate its early diagnosis improving the prognosis of healing. Objectives Evaluate the frequency of ATL oral lesion and describe its clinical, laboratory and therapeutic peculiarities. Methods A descriptive transversal study was carried out, using data from medical records of 206 patients with MCL examined at the outpatient clinics-IPEC-Fiocruz between 1989 and 2013. Proportions were calculated for the categorical variables and the association among them was assessed by the Pearson's chi-square test. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used for the continuous variables and their differences were assessed by both parametric (t test) and non parametric (Mann-Whitney) tests. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant. Results The most affected site was the nose, followed by the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Seventy eight (37.9%) have oral lesions and the disease presented a lower median of the evolution time than in other mucous sites as well as an increased time to heal. The presence of oral lesion was associated with: the presence of lesions in the other three mucosal sites; a smaller median of the leishmanin skin test values; a longer healing time of the mucosal lesions; a higher recurrence frequency; and a smaller frequency of treatment finishing and healing. When the oral lesion was isolated, it was associated with an age 20 years lower than when the oral lesion was associated with other mucosal sites. Conclusion Considering the worst therapy results associated with the presence of oral lesions, we suggest that lesions in this location represent a factor of worse prognosis for MCL. PMID:25386857

da Costa, Daniel Cesar Silva; Palmeiro, Mariana Reuter; Moreira, Joăo Soares; Martins, Ana Cristina da Costa; da Silva, Aline Fagundes; de Fátima Madeira, Maria; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Confort, Eliame Mouta; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; da Conceiçăo Silva, Fátima; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

2014-01-01

372

Oral Tolerance: Therapeutic Implications for Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Oral tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag) that have been administered previously by the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10) and Th3 (TGF-?) regulatory T cells (Tregs) plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-?, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to oral tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory conditions with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. Oral and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy. PMID:17162357

Faria, Ana M. C.; Weiner, Howard L.

2006-01-01

373

Taxanes: old drugs, new oral formulations.  

PubMed

Oral administration of anticancer drugs is most often preferred over intravenous administration, as it is convenient for patients, prevents hospitalisation and reduces costs of the therapy. However, the oral route is often hampered by low oral bioavailability, for instance of the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel. Limited oral bioavailability can be due to pharmaceutical as well as pharmacological reasons. Taxanes are poorly water-soluble drugs and do not sufficiently dissolve when administered in their crystalline form. Furthermore, affinity for drug transporters highly expressed in the epithelial layer of the gastro-intestinal tract, such as the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), and presystemic elimination by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic enzymes, especially CYP3A4, present in liver and gut wall, further hamper oral application of these important anticancer drugs. Preclinical studies with knockout mice lacking functional Pgp and CYP3A4 metabolic enzymes show a significant increase in the bioavailability of orally applied taxanes. Enhancement of oral bioavailability of both taxanes was shown also in wild-type mice using P-gp and CYP3A4 blockers such as cyclosporine A (CsA) and ritonavir (RTV). Subsequently, in clinical studies enhancement of the oral bioavailability of paclitaxel and docetaxel was established when administered orally in combination with CsA or ritonavir. Initially, in preclinical and clinical studies drinking solutions based on the intravenous formulations were applied for oral administration of taxanes. Because these solutions had several disadvantages, solid pharmaceutical formulations of paclitaxel and docetaxel were developed. Clinical studies with these novel formulations in combination with ritonavir are currently ongoing at our Institute. PMID:23660368

Jibodh, Rajni A; Lagas, Jurjen S; Nuijen, Bastiaan; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M

2013-10-01

374

Buffalo Trace Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This engaging project was developed by the Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History at the University of Kentucky Libraries. It was designed to preserve the story of the Buffalo Trace Distillery in Frankfort, Kentucky which has a truly remarkable history intertwined with that of the Bluegrass State. The project features the people and stories of the Buffalo Trace family, such as master distiller emeritus Elmer T. Lee and descendants of figures like Colonel Albert Blanton and Pappy Van Winkle. On the top of the homepage, visitors can make their way through sections such as Brands, People, Roles, Documentary, and Image Gallery. The Documentary contains a complete film about the history of this unique business and the People section features interesting interviews with those who have made the business known around the world.

375

Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.  

PubMed

Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

2014-07-01

376

Pancake Syndrome (Oral Mite Anaphylaxis)  

PubMed Central

Oral mite anaphylaxis is a new syndrome characterized by severe allergic manifestations occurring in atopic patients shortly after the intake of foods made with mite-contaminated wheat flour. This clinical entity, observed more frequently in tropical/subtropical environments, is more often triggered by pancakes and for that reason it has been designated "pancake syndrome". Because cooked foods are able to induce the symptoms, it has been proposed that thermoresistant allergens are involved in its production. A novel variety of this syndrome occurs during physical exercise and therefore has been named dust mite ingestion-associated exercise-induced anaphylaxis. To prevent mite proliferation and the production of anaphylaxis, it has been recommended that wheat flour be stored at low temperatures in the refrigerator. PMID:23283016

2009-01-01

377

Chicago Architects Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the artistic statements of Louis Sullivan to the brutally Modern statements of Walter Netsch, architecture in Chicago is nothing if not eclectic. Given the important legacy of those architects practicing in and around Chicago, it is refreshing to note that the Art Institute of Chicago has been collecting the oral histories of these men and women since 1983. With substantial financial support from the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts and the Illinois Humanities Council, the Art Institute of Chicago has placed complete transcripts for over fifty of these interviews online here for access by architectural historians and the general public. Here visitors will find the recollections of Stanley Tigerman, Harry Weese, Bertrand Goldberg, and Carter Manny. Visitors will also be glad to find that female architects are well-represented here, and include such individuals as Gertrude Lempp Kerbis and Natalie De Blois.

378

Microbial flora in oral diseases.  

PubMed

The oral cavity being the hub of gamut of microbes, promotes the establishment of distinct microbial communities, such as on the mucosa and teeth. Metabolism of these organisms facilitates the attachment and growth of the subsequent colonisers. A delicate balance is maintained in the microbial ecosystem, with these organisms contributing to normal development and defences. However, any change or disruption in the microbial profile due to either intrinsic or extrinsic factors can result in an unfavorable shift toward pathogenic organisms triggering various diseases like dental caries or periodontitis. Furthermore, recent findings also state that these microorganisms may lead to systemic diseases like diabetes or atherosclerosis. This article is an attempt to give an overview of the altered flora in diseased states. PMID:24858777

Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Sanketh, D S; Amrutha, N

2013-01-01

379

Oral health and elite sport performance  

PubMed Central

While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

2015-01-01

380

Comprehensive review on oral disintegrating films.  

PubMed

Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems were first developed in the late 1970s as an alternative to tablets, capsules, and syrups for pediatric and geriatric patients who experience difficulties swallowing traditional oral solid dosage forms. In response to this need, a variety of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formats were commercialized, which disintegrate within 1 min when placed in the mouth without drinking water or chewing. Oral drug delivery technology has improved from conventional dosage forms to modified release dosage forms to ODT to the recent oral disintegrating films (ODF). Oral disintegrating film or strip that employs a water dissolving polymer which allows the dosage form to quickly hydrate by saliva, adhere to mucosa, and disintegrate within a few seconds, dissolve and releases medication for oromucosal absorption when placed on the tongue or oral cavity. Oral strip technology provides an alternate route for drugs with first pass metabolism. This review give details of materials used in ODF, manufacturing aspects, technologies, evaluation tests and marketed products. PMID:22920576

Nagaraju, T; Gowthami, R; Rajashekar, M; Sandeep, S; Mallesham, M; Sathish, D; Kumar, Y Shravan

2013-02-01

381

Oral and perioral piercings in Tshwane.  

PubMed

Oral and perioral piercings have recently become very popular and many patients present at dental clinics and practices with jewellery inserted into the oral and perioral tissues. It is imperative that oral health care professionals become familiar with this practice, become aware of its sequelae, and are able to provide oral health education regarding oral hygiene and care of the piercing. The present study investigated the sites of oral piercings, complications associated with piercings, plaque control procedures practised by piercees, and the attitude and behaviour of piercers towards infection control and prevention of complications after a piercing. A convenience sample was used and 126 piercees and 10 piercers completed a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 126 participants (107 females and 19 males), 88.10% had a tongue piercing, 19.84% had a lip piercing and 7.94% had both. The most common immediate post-procedure sequelae were pain (69.05%), swelling (52.38%) and difficulty eating, speaking and swallowing (70.63%). Long-term complications were reported by 17.56% of the sample, and included chipping of teeth, gingival recession, lesions on the tongue and palate, painful gums, and sensitivity of teeth. Oral health professionals need to be aware of the risk of damage to soft and hard tissue, and their role in informing patients about the potential risks, if consulted before a piercing. PMID:18811079

Ebrahim, R; Naidoo, S

2008-06-01

382

Oral health and elite sport performance.  

PubMed

While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

2015-01-01

383

Protein and Peptide Drug Delivery: Oral Approaches  

PubMed Central

Till recent, injections remained the most common means for administering therapeutic proteins and peptides because of their poor oral bioavailability. However, oral route would be preferred to any other route because of its high levels of patient acceptance and long term compliance, which increases the therapeutic value of the drug. Designing and formulating a polypeptide drug delivery through the gastro intestinal tract has been a persistent challenge because of their unfavorable physicochemical properties, which includes enzymatic degradation, poor membrane permeability and large molecular size. The main challenge is to improve the oral bioavailability from less than 1% to at least 30-50%. Consequently, efforts have intensified over the past few decades, where every oral dosage form used for the conventional small molecule drugs has been used to explore oral protein and peptide delivery. Various strategies currently under investigation include chemical modification, formulation vehicles and use of enzyme inhibitors, absorption enhancers and mucoadhesive polymers. This review summarizes different pharmaceutical approaches which overcome various physiological barriers that help to improve oral bioavailability that ultimately achieve formulation goals for oral delivery. PMID:20046732

Shaji, Jessy; Patole, V.

2008-01-01

384

Oral health promotion interventions on oral reservoirs of staphylococcus aureus: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The oral cavity serves as a reservoir of Staphylococcus aureus for infection of the lower respiratory tract and cross-infection to other patients. This systematic review was designed to examine the effectiveness of oral health promotion interventions on this pathogen. The PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for clinical trials assessing the effect of oral health promotion interventions on oral and oropharyngeal carriage of S. aureus. Oral health promotion interventions on oral reservoirs of S. aureus in both systemically healthy and medically compromised groups consisted of oral hygiene interventions only. There was a lack of evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of mechanical oral hygiene interventions against this pathogen. Chlorhexidine delivered in oral hygiene products such as mouthrinses, gels, and sprays appeared to have some utility against S. aureus, although some studies found equivocal effects. There was a dearth of studies investigating the efficacy of other chemical agents. Although many chemical agents contained in oral hygiene products have proven in vitro activity against S. aureus, their clinical effectiveness and potential role as adjuncts or alternative therapies to conventional treatment remain to be confirmed by further high-quality randomized controlled trials. PMID:22126675

Lam, O L T; McGrath, C; Bandara, H M H N; Li, L S W; Samaranayake, L P

2012-04-01

385

Ventilator-associated pneumonia risk decreased by use of oral moisture gel in oral health care.  

PubMed

Although oral health care has a preventive effect against ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the most effective method of oral health care in this respect remains to be established. The objective of this single-center, randomized, controlled trial was to investigate the relationship between VAP and various methods of oral health care. All patients included in the study (n=142) were on mechanical ventilation with oral intubation at the intensive care unit of the Tokyo Dental College Ichikawa General Hospital. They were divided into two groups, one receiving standard oral health care (Standard group), and the other receiving oral health care using an oral moisture gel instead of water (Gel group). After removal of the intubation tube, biofilm on cuff of the tube was stained with a disclosing agent to determine the contamination level. Factors investigated included sex, age, number of remaining teeth, intubation time, fever ?38.5°C, VAP, cuff contamination level, and time required for one oral health care session. No VAP occurred in either group during the study period. The level of cuff contamination was significantly lower in the Gel group than the Standard group, and the time required for one session of oral health care was shorter (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed use of the oral moisture gel as a factor affecting cuff contamination level. Use of an oral moisture gel decreased invasion of the pharynx by bacteria and contaminants together with biofilm formation on the intubation tube cuff. These results suggest that oral health care using an oral moisture gel is effective in preventing cuff contamination. PMID:24965954

Takeyasu, Yoshihiro; Yamane, Gen-Yuki; Tonogi, Morio; Watanabe, Yutaka; Nishikubo, Shuichi; Serita, Ryohei; Imura, Kumiko

2014-01-01

386

Goals for oral health in Tunisia 2020.  

PubMed

In 1981, the World Health Organization (WHO) together with the Fédération Dentaire Internationale (FDI) set global dental health goals for the year 2000 within the global strategy of health for all. In 1999, a team of experts drew up new goals to be achieved by 2020, which aimed to facilitate specific oral health policy development for each country. These goals are more general and have to be adapted to local circumstances. This paper aimed to adapt the WHO/FDI/IADR's Global goals for oral health 2020 to Tunisia and draw up new national goals and targets for Tunisia based on previous national oral health surveys. PMID:23301364

Maatouk, F; Jmour, B; Ghedira, H; Baaziz, A; Ben Hamouda, L; Abid, A

2012-10-01

387

Intrinsic Differences between Oral and Skin Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

Keratinocytes cover both the skin and some oral mucosa, but the morphology of each tissue and the behavior of the keratinocytes from these two sites are different. One significant dissimilarity between the two sites is the response to injury. Oral mucosal wounds heal faster and with less inflammation than equivalent cutaneous wounds. We hypothesized that oral and skin keratinocytes might have intrinsic differences at baseline as well as in the response to injury, and that such differences would be reflected in gene expression profiles. PMID:25198578

Turabelidze, Anna; Guo, Shujuan; Chung, Allison Yen; Chen, Lin; Dai, Yang; Marucha, Phillip T.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

2014-01-01

388

Myofibroblasts in oral lesions: A review  

PubMed Central

Myofibroblasts (MFs) are modified fibroblasts that express features of smooth muscle differentiation and were first observed in granulation tissue during wound healing. These cells play a key role in physiologic and pathologic processes like wound healing and tumorigenesis. The presence of MFs has been reported in normal oral tissues and pathologic conditions like reactive lesions, benign tumors, locally aggressive tumors and malignancies affecting the oral cavity. This article briefly reviews the important hallmarks related to the discovery, characterization and tissue distribution of MFs in oral health and disease. PMID:24959038

Pinisetti, Soujanya; Manyam, Ravikanth; Suresh, Babburi; Aparna, V

2014-01-01

389

Prebiotics and Probiotics and Oral Health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first part of this chapter describes the unique characteristics of the mouth with special emphasis on the oral microbiota. Next, the highly prevalent dental diseases are briefly described together with more rare but still important diseases and symptoms of the mouth. Prevention and treatment of oral and dental diseases are also discussed focusing on aspects considered important with respect to the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics. The second part of the chapter then concentrates on research data on prebiotics and probiotics in the oral health perspective, ending up with conclusions and visions for future research.

Meurman, J. H.

390

Oral health of adult prisoners and factors that impact on oral health.  

PubMed

The first article in this series identified the medical and mental health issues among male patients in comparison to the general population. This article will discuss the oral health of male prisoners and those factors that impact upon their oral health including barriers to care. In general, the oral health of prisoners is poorer than that of age matched controls. A variety of factors including health related behaviours and pre-confinement access to dental services can influence this. PMID:25060452

Heidari, E; Dickinson, C; Newton, T

2014-07-01

391

Oral Health in Women During Preconception and Pregnancy: Implications for Birth Outcomes and Infant Oral Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouth is an obvious portal of entry to the body, and oral health reflects and influences general health and well being.\\u000a Maternal oral health has significant implications for birth outcomes and infant oral health. Maternal periodontal disease,\\u000a that is, a chronic infection of the gingiva and supporting tooth structures, has been associated with preterm birth, development\\u000a of preeclampsia, and

Kim A. Boggess; Burton L. Edelstein

2006-01-01

392

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tissues: A Comprehensive Review for Oral Healthcare Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annually, over 35,000 cases of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma are diagnosed in the United States. Oral health care providers can be instrumental in reducing the incidence of oral and pharyngeal premalignant and malignant lesions by identifying patients with high-risk behavior, educating their patients about the consequences of their high-risk behavior, and by early detection of premalignant and malignant conditions. To

Samer A. Bsoul; Michaell A. Huber; Geza T. Terezhalmy

393

Oral sex and oral cancer in the context of human papillomavirus infection: lay public understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a risk factor for ano-genital and cervical cancers and has been associated with head and neck\\u000a malignancies in the context of oral sex for the transmission of the virus. However, the level of knowledge that lay people\\u000a have in terms of HPV transmission through oral sex and oral cancer development remains unknown. A pilot sample of

Mario A. BrondaniMario; Mario A. Cruz-Cabrera; Cheryle Colombe

2010-01-01

394

Pharmacogenetics of Oral Antidiabetic Drugs  

PubMed Central

Oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) are used for more than a half-century in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Only in the last five years, intensive research has been conducted in the pharmacogenetics of these drugs based mainly on the retrospective register studies, but only a handful of associations detected in these studies were replicated. The gene variants in CYP2C9, ABCC8/KCNJ11, and TCF7L2 were associated with the effect of sulfonylureas. CYP2C9 encodes sulfonylurea metabolizing cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2C9, ABCC8 and KCNJ11 genes encode proteins constituting ATP-sensitive K+ channel which is a therapeutic target for sulfonylureas, and TCF7L2 is a gene with the strongest association with type 2 diabetes. SLC22A1, SLC47A1, and ATM gene variants were repeatedly associated with the response to metformin. SLC22A1 and SLC47A1 encode metformin transporters OCT1 and MATE1, respectively. The function of a gene variant near ATM gene identified by a genome-wide association study is not elucidated so far. The first variant associated with the response to gliptins is a polymorphism in the proximity of CTRB1/2 gene which encodes chymotrypsinogen. Establishment of diabetes pharmacogenetics consortia and reduction in costs of genomics might lead to some significant clinical breakthroughs in this field in a near future. PMID:24324494

Becker, Matthijs L.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Tká?, Ivan

2013-01-01

395

Wound biofilms: lessons learned from oral biofilms  

PubMed Central

Biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many chronic infections. Oral biofilms, more commonly known as dental plaque,are a primary cause of oral diseases including caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. Oral biofilms are commonly studied as model biofilm systems as they are easily accessible, thus biofilm research in oral diseases is advanced with details of biofilm formation and bacterial interactions being well-elucidated. In contrast, wound research has relatively recently directed attentionto the role biofilms have in chronic wounds. This review discusses the biofilms in periodontal disease and chronic wounds with comparisons focusing on biofilm detection, biofilm formation, the immune response to biofilms, bacterial interaction and quorum sensing. Current treatment modalities used by both fields as well as future therapies are also discussed. PMID:23551419

Mancl, Kimberly A.; Kirsner, Robert S.; Ajdic, Dragana

2013-01-01

396

10 CFR 2.1113 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE...Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1113 Oral...

2012-01-01

397

10 CFR 2.1113 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE...Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1113 Oral...

2010-01-01

398

10 CFR 2.1113 - Oral argument.  

... 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF...Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1113 Oral...

2014-01-01

399

10 CFR 2.1113 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF...Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1113 Oral...

2013-01-01

400

10 CFR 2.1113 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE...Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1113 Oral...

2011-01-01

401

Respiratory Diseases and Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Bronchitis and Emphysema Tuberculosis Sinusitis If you have a respiratory condition, make ... dental office and make sure it is full. Tuberculosis Oral Effects If you have tuberculosis, you may ...

402

Adverse drug events in the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Adverse reactions to medications are common and may have a variety of clinical presentations in the oral cavity. Targeted therapies and the new biologic agents have revolutionized the treatment of cancers, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory and rheumatologic diseases but have also been associated with adverse events in the oral cavity. Some examples include osteonecrosis, seen with not only bisphosphonates but also antiangiogenic agents, and the distinctive ulcers caused by mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. As newer therapeutic agents are approved, it is likely that more adverse drug events will be encountered. This review describes the most common clinical presentations of oral mucosal reactions to medications, namely, xerostomia, lichenoid reactions, ulcers, bullous disorders, pigmentation, fibrovascular hyperplasia, white lesions, dysesthesia, osteonecrosis, infection, angioedema, and malignancy. Oral health care providers should be familiar with such events, as they will encounter them in their practice. PMID:25442252

Yuan, Anna; Woo, Sook-Bin

2015-01-01

403

[Use of fibrin glue in oral surgery].  

PubMed

Patients with progressive thromboembolic diseases usually are administered a daily therapy with anticoagulants-antiaggregants drugs: oral surgical procedures may be performed in these conditions without reduction of the systemic therapy, using topically fibrin glue. PMID:2534911

Rota, L; Pignanelli, C; Pignanelli, M

1989-11-30

404

Oral Azithromycin for Treatment of Intractable Rosacea  

PubMed Central

Rosacea is a common chronic cutaneous disorder that primarily occurs on the convex surfaces of the central face and is often characterized by exacerbations and remissions. A case of a 52-yr-old woman visited our clinic in February 2008 complaining typical features of rosacea including multiple pinhead to rice-sized erythematous papules. We applied various conventional treatments including topical benzoyl peroxide and metronidazole as well as oral metronidazole, isotretinoin, and doxycycline. The lesions were not controlled but were rather aggravated by complications from these treatments. Therefore, we prescribed oral azithromycin, which has anti-inflammatory effects and reduces reactive oxygen species. Ten weeks after the administration of oral azithromycin, 500 mg per day for 2 weeks, the lesions had mostly disappeared and no specific side effects related to the azithromycin were noted. Oral azithromycin dosing 500 mg/day for 2 weeks is effective for treatment of intractable rosacea. PMID:21532865

Kim, Jae-Hong; Oh, Yoon Seok

2011-01-01

405

Chem I Supplement: Chemistry in Oral Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents chemical information related to dental health: (1) the composition of toothpaste, (2) dental diseases, (3) the role of fluoride, (4) proper oral health care, (5) mouthwashes, and (6) adhesive sealants. (MA)

Journal of Chemical Education, 1978

1978-01-01

406

Communication (Oral and Written) Service Oriented.  

E-print Network

Communication (Oral and Written) Service Oriented. Social Perceptiveness Reading Comprehension Physicians Office Nursing Home Hospice Home Health Care School System Disability Services Non-Profit Organization POSSIBLE EMPLOYERS Ambulatory Care Nurse Cardiac Care Nurse Correctional Facility Nurse Critical

Jiang, Huiqiang

407

Truth about Oral Contraceptives and Acne  

MedlinePLUS

... gynecologist for regular examinations. Clearing Takes Time The truth is clearing takes time. Patients can expect to ... acne — excess sebum. Now that you know the truth about oral contraceptives and acne, you may wonder ...

408

STDs and Related Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Related Conditions Herpes Simplex Virus Cytomegalovirus Gonorrhea Hepatitis Syphilis Epstein-Barr Virus Dentists and dental personnel who ... sure your dentist is aware of your condition. Syphilis Oral Effects After syphilis infection, people may get ...

409

Oral Hygiene for the Orthodontic Patient  

MedlinePLUS

Oral Hygiene for the Orthodontic Patient Brushing Flossing Fluoride Tools To Help You Caring for Your Retainer ... right, ask your orthodontist during your next visit. Fluoride Use a fluoride toothpaste. It doesn't really ...

410

Novel oral anticoagulants in the emergency room.  

PubMed

Hans-Christoph Diener presented essential information for the management of patients with acute events whilst taking novel oral anticoagulants, at the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association International Stroke Conference in 2014. PMID:25184178

Taylor, Jennifer

2014-07-21

411

Diagnosis and Testing of Oral Candidiasis  

MedlinePLUS

... Fungal Diseases Fungal Home Candidiasis Share Compartir Diagnosis & Testing of Oral Candidiasis A healthcare provider diagnoses the ... Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition ...

412

Rebekah Foster-Terry Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Reverend Rebekah Foster-Terry conducted by Stephanie Meador in 2009. In this interview, Rev. Foster-Terry, pastor of the Victory Tabernacle Church in Topeka, Kansas, discusses the history of the church and her family...

Foster-Terry, Rebekah; Meador, Stephanie Rae

2009-01-01

413

Oral Health in the US: Key Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... on national health issues… Trending on kff Ebola Marketplaces Consumer Resources Oral Health in the U.S.: Key ... ACA for people shopping within the health insurance Marketplace. Read More perspectives policy insights Medical Debt Among ...

414

20 CFR 802.308 - Conduct of oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conduct of oral argument. 802.308 Section 802.308...PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedure for Review Oral Argument Before the Board § 802.308 Conduct of oral argument. (a) Oral argument...

2010-04-01

415

20 CFR 802.304 - Purpose of oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose of oral argument. 802.304 Section 802.304...PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedure for Review Oral Argument Before the Board § 802.304 Purpose of oral argument. Oral argument may be held...

2010-04-01

416

Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

2008-01-01

417

Improving oral healthcare for children a great opportunity  

E-print Network

Improving oral healthcare for children ­ a great opportunity S. Fayle1 decade or so have a Changes to the wider National Health Service in England are driving a redesign of how oral healthcare will impact on oral healthcare delivery, providing new challenges and opportunities for children's oral

Cai, Long

418

[PCR rationale for use of oral cephalosporins by oral surgery procedures].  

PubMed

The article presents the experience of PCR detection of DNA of pathogenic germs inducing odontogenic inflammation. Pus samples of 48 patients aged 18 to 68 years undergoing oral surgery because of apical periodontal lesions and pericoronitis. The results showed microorganisms associations revealed by PCR are sensitive to III generation cephalosporins. Effective oral regimen included 400 mg Ceftibuten once daily. The PCR results thus served as a rationale for use of oral cephalosporins by oral surgery procedures proved by clinical and immunological data in postoperative period. PMID:25588340

Tsarev, V N; Chuvilkin, V I; Akhmedov, G D; Chuvilkina, E I; Gadzhiev, F N; Nikitin, I V

2014-01-01

419

The Oral Mucosa Immune Environment and Oral Transmission of HIV/SIV  

PubMed Central

Summary The global spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is dependent on the ability of this virus to efficiently cross from one host to the next by traversing a mucosal membrane. Unraveling how mucosal exposure of HIV results in systemic infection is critical for the development of effective therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on understanding the immune events associated with the oral route of transmission (via breastfeeding or sexual oral intercourse), which occurs across the oral and/or gastrointestinal mucosa. Studies in both humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) monkey models have identified viral changes and immune events associated with oral HIV/SIV exposure. This review covers our current knowledge of HIV oral transmission in both infants and adults, the use of SIV models in understanding early immune events, oral immune factors that modulate HIV/SIV susceptibility (including mucosal inflammation), and interventions that may impact oral HIV transmission rates. Understanding the factors that influence oral HIV transmission will provide the foundation for developing immune therapeutic and vaccine strategies that can protect both infants and adults from oral HIV transmission. PMID:23772613

Wood, Lianna F.; Chahroudi, Ann; Chen, Hui-Ling; Jaspan, Heather B.; Sodora, Donald L.

2013-01-01

420

Oral Sex and HPV: Population Based Indications.  

PubMed

Human pappilloma virus (HPV) is well established in etiology of uterine cervical cancers, but its role in head and neck cancer is strongly suggested through many epidemiological and laboratory studies. Although HPV-16 induced oropharyngeal cancer is a distinct molecular entity, its role at other sub-sites (oral cavity, larynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx) is less well established. Oral sex is supposedly the most commonly practiced unnatural sex across the globe and may prove to be a potential transmitting link between cancers of the uterine cervix and the oropharynx in males particularly in those 10-15% non-smokers. In India with the second largest population (higher population density than China) the oral sex is likely to be a common 'recreation-tool' amongst the majority (poor) and with the concurrent highly prevalent bad cervical/oral hygiene the HPV is likely to synergize other carcinogens. Hence in accordance (or coincidently), in India the cervical cancer happens to be the commonest cancer amongst females while oral/oropharyngeal cancer amongst males. Oral sex as a link between these two cancer types, can largely be argued considering a poor level of evidence in the existing literature. The modern world has even commercialized oral sex in the form of flavored condoms. The inadequate world literature currently is of a low level of evidence to conclude such a relationship because no such specific prospective study has been carried out and also due to wide (and unpredictable) variety of sexual practices, such a relationship can only be speculated. This article briefly reviews the existing literature on various modes and population based indications for HPV to be implicated in head and neck cancer with reference to oral sexual practice. PMID:25621245

Mishra, Anupam; Verma, Veerendra

2015-03-01

421

Oral Amelanotic Melanoma of the Maxilla  

PubMed Central

Amelanotic melanoma is a variant of malignant melanoma comprising 2% to 8% of all malignant melanomas. The amelanotic presentation of melanoma in the oral cavity is extremely rare and has been reported only occasionally in the literature. Moreover, the lack of melanin makes these tumors difficult to diagnose than that of pigmented lesions and the prognosis tends to be poorer. Herein, we report an amelanotic melanoma involving the oral mucosa of the maxilla in a 27 year-old male.

Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Pazouki, Mahdi; Zamanzadeh, Maryam

2014-01-01

422

Oral Premalignancy: New Methods of Detection and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Oral carcinogenesis proceeds through a stepwise accumulation of genetic damage over time. Because the oral cavity is easy to examine and risk factors for oral cancer are known, there is great opportunity to improve patient outcomes through diagnosis and treatment of premalignant lesions before the development of invasive oral carcinoma. This review provides a summary of developments in detection and diagnosis of oral premalignant lesions and innovative approaches to management of early oral neoplasia. These technological and therapeutic advances are much needed to improve the poor outcomes associated with oral cancer due to our inability to diagnose and treat this disease at an early, curable stage. PMID:16507225

Gillenwater, Ann; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vali; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

2009-01-01

423

Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. Material and Methods This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Results Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Conclusions Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan. PMID:24422031

2013-01-01

424

Control of oral cancer in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world. In Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka it is the most common and accounts for about a third of all cancers. More than 100 000 new cases occur every year in south and south-east Asia, with poor prospects of survival. The importance of oral cancer as a public health priority is underscored by the fact that the suffering, disfigurement, and death it causes need not occur. The commonest cause of oral cancer—tobacco use—is well known and can be eliminated. For the oral cancer cases that do occur, detection at an early stage is possible, allowing simple inexpensive treatment, and resulting in long-term survival. Enough is already known about the disease and its prevention for action to be taken. With firm commitment, correct priorities, and concerted efforts by governments and individuals, strategies can be designed, programmes can be implemented, and the disease can be prevented. The economic saving in health care costs to a country, by itself, justifies these steps; the prevention of suffering and death of oral cancer victims makes them mandatory. This article reviews the current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, pathology, prevention, and treatment of oral cancer. It describes a strategy for controlling the disease, sets priorities, and recommends actions that governments and individuals can take. Finally, it identifies targets for future research. PMID:6335843

1984-01-01

425

Association of oral manifestations with ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Aim The study aims to document the oral lesions in patients with UC. Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is comprised of two chronic, tissue-destructive and clinical entities including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), both of which are immunologically based. Patients and methods The population of the study includes fifty patients with UC, as the experimental group, and fifty patients without gastrointestinal disease as the control group. All patients had an oral examination and completed the relevant questionnaire. Results There was a significant statistical relationship among tongue coating (<0.0001), halitosis (<0.0001), and oral ulceration (0.001) in patients suffering from severe UC compared to the control group. Also there was a higher prevalence of oral manifestations in patients with moderate UC compared to that of control group; but taste change (0.001) was the only significant factor. Acidic taste and taste change were among the symptoms more commonly found in patients suffering from pancolitis (40% each). Conclusion The results of the present study show that patients with UC had more oral signs and symptoms than the patients in the normal group. Further researches on oral lesions in UC are also recommended so that these diseases can be better understood. PMID:24834217

Elahi, Maryam; Samadi, Vahid; Vakili, Hadi

2012-01-01

426

Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

2013-01-01

427

Summary of: The oral health status of adults with a visual impairment, their dental care and oral health information needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim There is little information available concerning the impact of visual impairment upon oral health. The present study sought to identify the oral health and experiences of adults with a visual impairment together with the nature, source and access to oral health information. In addition the study evaluated the oral health status of a group of individuals with a visual

K. Dalley

2010-01-01

428

The oral health status of adults with a visual impairment, their dental care and oral health information needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim There is little information available concerning the impact of visual impairment upon oral health. The present study sought to identify the oral health and experiences of adults with a visual impairment together with the nature, source and access to oral health information. In addition the study evaluated the oral health status of a group of individuals with a visual

D. R. Moles; N. Kumar; S. R. Porter; E. K. Watson

2010-01-01

429

A Comparison of Oral Structure and Oral-Motor Function in Young Males with Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the oral structure and oral-motor skills of 59 boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), 34 boys with Down syndrome (DS), and 36 developmentally similar typically developing (TD) boys. An adaptation of the J. Robbins and T. Klee (1987) Oral Speech Motor Protocol was administered to participants and their scores on measures of oral

Barnes, Elizabeth F.; Roberts, Joanne; Mirrett, Penny; Sideris, John; Misenheimer, Jan

2006-01-01

430

Cyclosporin nanoparticulate lipospheres for oral administration.  

PubMed

Cyclosporin is a first line immunosuppressive drug used to prevent transplant rejection and to treat autoimmune diseases. It is a hydrophobic cyclic peptide built from nonmammalian amino acids with low oral bioavailability. The aim of this study was to develop an oral delivery system for cyclosporin A (CyA) and investigate the effect of composition and particle size of the CyA lipid nanoparticles (lipospheres) on the oral bioavailability of this drug. Dispersible concentrated oil formulations that upon mixing in water spontaneously form a nanodispersion were developed. The concentrated oil formulations were clear solutions composed of the drug, a solid triglyceride, a water miscible organic solvent, and a mixture of surfactants and emulsifiers. The activity of the formulated cyclosporin was determined in vitro following the effect on the proliferation of T cells. The oral bioavailability was determined on humans following the cyclosporin blood levels after oral intake of formulated cyclosporin. Cyclosporin dispersion systems resulting in particle size of 25 to 400 nm were prepared from acceptable pharmceutical components. The composition of the surfactants and emulsifiers, the lipid core component, and the amount and type of the water miscible organic solvent N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and alcohols had a strong effect on the particle size of the dispersions. All formulations were reproducible and stable at room temperature for at least 6 months, with full activity of cyclosporin retained. Human oral bioavaiability study indicated a correlation between the AUC and C(max) and the particle size of the dispersion. A C(max) of approximately 1300 ng/mL was found after 2 h of oral intake of four capsules, each loaded with 50 mg cyclosporin. PMID:15067702

Bekerman, Tania; Golenser, Jacob; Domb, Abraham

2004-05-01

431

Knowledge and Attitudes of Pharmacists Regarding Oral Healthcare and Oral Hygiene Products in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacists regarding oral healthcare and oral hygiene products in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey among a sample of the community pharmacies in Riyadh city was done. The survey comprised of 23 closed-ended questions divided into five basic sections. Results: A total of 141 pharmacists participated in this survey. About half of the respondents had not met the dentists practicing close to their pharmacies, nor were they aware of the opening times of the practice. Most of the pharmacists stocked oral health-related products, which comprised of 10-15% of their total stock. Toothpaste was the most common among the oral healthcare products stocked, followed by toothbrushes and mouth rinses. A total of 93% pharmacists expressed an interest in further developing their oral healthcare knowledge through course attendance or oral health programs. Toothache or mouth ulcers were the most common dental problem for which patients approached the pharmacists for advice. Pharmacists advised patients complaining of dental pain to consult a dentist in 43% of cases, dispensed painkiller in 44% of cases, and in 13% of cases dispensed an antibiotic. Conclusions: The community pharmacists in Riyadh are under-used in the promotion of oral health. There is a need for training of pharmacists and providing them with access to information on available dental service and oral health products.

Bawazir, Omar A

2014-01-01

432

Preparing the Next Generation of Oral Historians: An Anthology of Oral History Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Preparing the Next Generation of Oral Historians" is a resource to educators seeking to bring history alive for students at all levels. The anthology opens with chapters on the fundamentals of oral history and its place in the classroom, but its heart lies in nearly two dozen insightful personal essays by educators who have successfully…

Lanman, Barry A.; Wendlin, Laura M.

2006-01-01

433

Oral findings in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and oral lichen planus - a preliminary study on the effects of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine colostrum is rich in antimicrobial substances and growth factors. The purpose of this open study was to examine and compare the interventory effects of daily use of bovine colostrum-containing oral hygiene products (CHP) on oral symptoms and findings in 20 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and 20 age-matched patients with oral lichen planus (OLP). Objective oral measures and

A. M. Pedersen; L. Andersen Torpet; J. Reibel; P. Holmstrup; B. Nauntofte

2002-01-01

434

Outcome of excision of oral erythroplakia.  

PubMed

Oral erythroplakia is a precancerous lesion with high malignant potential, and resection is the recommended treatment. We designed a retrospective study to analyse the outcome of treatment in patients who had operations for oral erythroplakia. A total of 84 patients (74 men and 10 women, mean (SD) age 54 (12) years, range 29-83) were enrolled. Histopathologically the diagnoses were invasive carcinoma (n=3), dysplasia/carcinoma in situ (n=61), and squamous hyperplasia (n=20), and all patients were treated by carbon dioxide laser excision. There was no postoperative malignant transformation, but invasive carcinoma found after initial excision (n=3) was treated by further radical excision. The mean (SD) follow-up period was 46 (29) months (range 1-124), The postoperative recurrent rate was 14/84 (16.7%). The area of oral erythroplakia was the only factor associated with postoperative recurrence on univariate analysis, and was also the only independent factor that predicted postoperative recurrence in multivariate logistic regression analysis. An area exceeding 80mm(2) had the best predictive value (sensitivity=0.71, specificity=0.67) with a 5.1 times increased risk (odds ratio=5.1, CI 95% 1.45 to 18.05, p=0.01) of recurrence. Laser excision is effective for oral erythroplakia that is still confined to dysplasia of any degree, with low morbidity. The area of oral erythroplakia is a predictive factor for postoperative recurrence. PMID:25467247

Yang, S-W; Lee, Y-S; Chang, L-C; Hsieh, T-Y; Chen, T-A

2015-02-01

435

Oral Lichenoid Lesions - A Review and Update  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral lichenoid lesions or reactions (OLLs/OLRs) are clinical and histological contemporaries of the classical oral lichen planus (OLP) that have generated a lot of debate in literature. In contrast to the idiopathic nature of OLP, OLLs are often associated with a known identifiable inciting factor. A superficial examination of these lesions clinically and histologically often reveals many similarities with OLP, but recent data indicate that distinguishable features do exist and form the basis of most classifications. Aims and Objectives: This paper attempts to collate available data in English literature on OLLs, highlight distinguishing features clinically and histologically and reflect on the malignant transformation potential and treatment modalities of the condition. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search of medical and dental databases including PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, Pubget, Researchgate, and non-medical search engines were utilized for the review. The search words included “oral lichen planus”, “oral lichenoid lesions”, “oral drug reactions”, “lichenoid dysplasia”, and “adverse effects of dental materials”. Review Results: OLLs seem to grossly underrated and most cases were clubbed as OLP. Definite clinical and histological features were uncovered to establish the identity of this lesion. Associations with dental restorative materials, drugs, and medications have been conclusively proven in the etiology of this condition. Specific markers are being utilized to diagnose the condition and monitor its progress. Conclusion: Substantial differentiating features were uncovered to delineate OLLs as a separate entity with definite etiology, pathogenesis, and a high malignant transformation rate compared with OLP. PMID:25657414

Kamath, Venkatesh Vishwanath; Setlur, Krishnanand; Yerlagudda, Komali

2015-01-01

436

Composition and development of oral bacterial communities  

PubMed Central

The oral bacterial microbiome encompasses ca. 700 commonly occurring phylotypes, approximately half of which can be present at any time in any individual. These bacteria are largely indigenous to the oral cavity; this limited range suggests that interactions between the various phylotypes, and between the phylotypes and their environment, are crucial for their existence. Molecular cataloging has confirmed many basic observations on the composition of the oral microbiome that were formulated well before ribosomal RNA-based systematics, but the power and the scope of molecular taxonomy has resulted in the discovery of new phylotypes and, more importantly, the speed and detail of molecular analyses are impossible to achieve through classical approaches. Community structure varies with location within the mouth, and changes in community structure are related to disease initiation and disease progression. Factors that influence the formation and the evolution of communities include selective adherence to epithelial or tooth surfaces, specific cell-to-cell binding as a driver of early community composition, and interorganismal interaction leading to alteration of the local environment, which represents the first step on the road to oral disease. A comprehensive understanding of how these factors interact to drive changes in the composition of the oral microbial community can lead to new strategies for the inhibition of periodontal diseases and dental caries. PMID:24320954

Palmer, Robert J.

2012-01-01

437

Oral manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

Extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can affect a variety of organ systems with significant morbidity and mortality. Some of the most frequently reported EHM of HCV infection, involve the oral region predominantly or exclusively. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition that is potentially malignant and represents cell-mediated reaction to a variety of extrinsic antigens, altered self-antigens, or super antigens. Robust epidemiological evidence support the link between OLP and HCV. As the virus may replicate in the oral mucosa and attract HCV-specific T lymphocytes, HCV may be implicated in OLP pathogenesis. Sjögren syndrome (SjS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes and a multitude of other systemic signs and symptoms. SjS patients have also an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis C do frequently have histological signs of Sjögren-like sialadenitis with mild or even absent clinical symptoms. However, it is still unclear if HCV may cause a disease mimicking SjS or it is directly responsible for the development of SjS in a specific subset of patients. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral malignant tumour and at least in some part of the world could be linked to HCV. PMID:24976694

Carrozzo, Marco; Scally, Kara

2014-01-01

438

Smokeless tobacco, viruses and oral cancer.  

PubMed

Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. OSCCs and their variants constitute over 90% of oral malignancies, and the disease is associated with poor prognosis. OSCC is a complex malignancy where environmental factors, viral infections, and genetic alterations most likely interact, and thus give rise to the malignant condition. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2007 concluded: "there is sufficient evidence in humans to establish smokeless tobacco as carcinogenic, i.e. smokeless tobacco causes cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas". ST products contain a large array of carcinogens, although the number found is actually smaller than in cigarette smoke. Worldwide, ST products have many different names depending on the region where it is produced. However, there are two main types of ST, chewing tobacco and snuff. It is estimated that approximately 150 million people in the world use ST. Herein, we review available literature regarding smokeless tobacco and oral Carcinogenesis. We also discuss the role of viral infections in combination with ST in OSCC development. PMID:24984650

Sand, Lars; Wallström, Mats; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél

2014-06-01

439

Protection of Dietary Polyphenols against Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide with approximate 275,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Its poor prognosis is due to local tumor invasion and frequent lymph node metastasis. Better understanding and development of novel treatments and chemo-preventive approaches for the preventive and therapeutic intervention of this type of cancer are necessary. Recent development of dietary polyphenols as cancer preventives and therapeutic agents is of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. Polyphenols may inhibit carcinogenesis in the stage of initiation, promotion, or progression. In particular, dietary polyphenols decrease incidence of carcinomas and exert protection against oral cancer by induction of cell death and inhibition of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this review, we discuss current progress of dietary polyphenols against oral cancers in vitro, in vivo, and at population levels. PMID:23771133

Ding, Yijian; Yao, Hua; Yao, Yanan; Yenwong Fai, Leonard; Zhang, Zhuo

2013-01-01

440

UC Berkeley: Regional Oral History Office  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its creation in 1954, the Regional Oral History Office at the Bancroft Library has carried out hundreds of interviews in a wide variety of subject areas, including arts and letters, business and labor, University of California history, and the environment. As part of a vast digitization project, a number of these interviews have been placed online for consultation and research purposes. The thematic topics covered here include oral histories of the California wine industry, California government and politics, Earl Warren, Jewish community leaders of the Bay Area, Western mining in the twentieth century, and ten others. The oral histories dealing with the life of Earl Warren are particularly fascinating as they deal with his role in the Japanese-American relocation during World War II, his various political campaigns, and the reflections of labor leaders on the Warren era.

California, Online A.

441

Preparation and Characterisation of Nevirapine Oral Nanosuspensions  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to prepare and characterise nevirapine nanosuspensions so as to improve the dissolution rate of nevirapine. Nevirapine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of immunodeficiency virus type-1 and it is poorly water-soluble antiretroviral drug. The low solubility of nevirapine can lead to decreased and variable oral bioavailability. Nanosuspension can overcome the oral bioavailability problem of nevirapine. Nevirapine nanosuspensions were prepared using nanoedge method. The suspensions were stabilised using surfactants Lutrol F 127 or Poloxamer 407 and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose. The nanosuspension was characterised for particle size, polydispersibility index, crystalline state, particle morphology, in vitro drug release and pharmacokinetics in rats after oral administration. The results support the claim for the preparation of nanosuspensions with enhanced solubility and bioavailability. PMID:24799740

Raju, Anju; Reddy, A. Jagdeesh; Satheesh, J.; Jithan, A. V.

2014-01-01

442

Propolis in Dentistry and Oral Cancer Management  

PubMed Central

Propolis, known as bee glue, is a wax-cum-resin substance, which is created out of a mix of buds from some trees with the substance secreted from the bee's glands. Its diverse chemical content is responsible for many valuable properties. Multiple applications of propolis have been studied and described in detail for centuries. However, currently available information on propolis is scarce. A literature search in the PubMed database was performed for English language articles, using the search terms propolis, oral health, dentistry, and oral cancer; no restrictions were used for publication dates. The aim of the article was to review propolis and its applications in dentistry including oral cancer. PMID:25006559

S., Vagish Kumar L.

2014-01-01

443

Propolis in dentistry and oral cancer management.  

PubMed

Propolis, known as bee glue, is a wax-cum-resin substance, which is created out of a mix of buds from some trees with the substance secreted from the bee's glands. Its diverse chemical content is responsible for many valuable properties. Multiple applications of propolis have been studied and described in detail for centuries. However, currently available information on propolis is scarce. A literature search in the PubMed database was performed for English language articles, using the search terms propolis, oral health, dentistry, and oral cancer; no restrictions were used for publication dates. The aim of the article was to review propolis and its applications in dentistry including oral cancer. PMID:25006559

S, Vagish Kumar L

2014-06-01

444

Protection of dietary polyphenols against oral cancer.  

PubMed

Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide with approximate 275,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Its poor prognosis is due to local tumor invasion and frequent lymph node metastasis. Better understanding and development of novel treatments and chemo-preventive approaches for the preventive and therapeutic intervention of this type of cancer are necessary. Recent development of dietary polyphenols as cancer preventives and therapeutic agents is of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. Polyphenols may inhibit carcinogenesis in the stage of initiation, promotion, or progression. In particular, dietary polyphenols decrease incidence of carcinomas and exert protection against oral cancer by induction of cell death and inhibition of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this review, we discuss current progress of dietary polyphenols against oral cancers in vitro, in vivo, and at population levels. PMID:23771133

Ding, Yijian; Yao, Hua; Yao, Yanan; Fai, Leonard Yenwong; Zhang, Zhuo

2013-06-01

445

Nevada Test Site Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, the Nevada Test Site Oral History Project is "a comprehensive program dedicated to documenting, preserving and disseminating the remembered past of persons affiliated with and affected by the Nevada Test Site during the era of Cold War nuclear testing." From 2003 to 2008, oral history narrators participated in this project, and they included national laboratory scientists, military personnel, Native American leaders, and peace activists. On the homepage, visitors should look through the three thematic sections, including "Contested Landscapes" and "Community of Voices". Through these oral histories and testimonies, visitors can learn about the complex set of processes and experiences surrounding the test site. Along the left hand of the site, visitors can search the collection, make a list of their favorite interviews, and also get assistance with using the site.

446

Pediatric oral pulse granuloma: A rare entity  

PubMed Central

A pulse granuloma is nothing but a reaction of the foreign body to any vegetable which is characterized by a collection of the hyaline; a hyaline is a transparent substance that is formed from the pathological degeneration of the tissue. These granulomatous rings may be oral or extra-oral. It is important to recognize such a type of granuloma because it may resemble serious pathological processes or may clinically stimulate neoplasia. It might also be confused morphologically with hyaline vasculopathy. The following manuscript presents a rare case of oral pulse granuloma. As going by the literature-search, the following being the only case to have been occurred in a pediatric patient. The authors therefore aim to bring awareness amongst the pediatric dentists about its etiology, occurrence, clinical features and thereby management of the same. PMID:23559964

Naik, Saraswathi Vishnu; Ghousia, Syed; Shashibhushan, Kamalaksharappa; Benni, Deepa

2012-01-01

447

Optimizing Oral Medications for Children  

PubMed Central

Background Active pharmaceutical ingredients that taste bitter and/or irritate the mouth and throat are aversive to children as well as many adults. Effective methods of avoiding unpleasant tastes for adults (eg, encapsulating the medicine in pill, capsule, or tablet form) are problematic because many children cannot or will not swallow these. The unpalatable flavor of the medicine can thwart the benefits of even the most powerful of drugs. Failure to consume medication may do the child harm and can even be life-threatening. Objectives This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of the sensory capabilities and preferences of children as it relates to flavor, defined here as the combined input of taste, smell, and chemical irritation. The methods used to evaluate flavor perception in children are reviewed. Recent scientific advances are summarized that shed light on why the bitter taste of oral pharmaceuticals is an ongoing formulation problem and how discoveries of novel flavor molecules and modulators of bitter tastes hold considerable promise for the future. Alternative methods for evaluation of the palatability of medicines are described. Methods The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development sponsored a Pediatric Formulation Initiative workshop on December 6 and 7, 2005, in Bethesda, Maryland. Information for this article was gathered from literature reviews that were then discussed during this workshop as well as during several conference calls with the Taste and Flavor Working Group members. Terms for the MEDLINE search (1970-2007) included infant, children, taste, olfaction/smell, flavor, chemical senses, palatability, sensory testing, pharmaceutical, and medicines. Results Children have well-developed sensory systems for detecting tastes, smells, and chemical irritants, and their rejection of unpalatable medications is a reflection of their basic biology. Sugars, salt, and other substances reportedly reduce the bitterness of several pharmaceuticals. Adding pleasant flavor volatiles such as bubble gum may help induce children to consume a medicine, but such volatile compounds are not effective in suppressing the strong bitter tastes associated with some medications. Also, because individual experiences and culture mainly determine which odors are attractive, a universally appealing volatile flavoring agent may be difficult to identify. Sensory panelists who are sensitive to the pediatric palate, which is different from adults, and new techniques involving animal models, isolated parts of the receptor cells, and even electronic devices that detect taste and flavor are among the tools that may be used to evaluate the palatability of medications and predict compliance among pediatric populations. Conclusions Although there are no easy solutions to this dilemma, children’s acceptance of many medicines can be improved by applying the knowledge gleaned from basic research in the chemical senses. Further development and validation of sensory methods will provide a better understanding of the sensory world of the child. This understanding, combined with new technologies and results of animal model studies, will enhance drug acceptance and compliance in pediatric populations. A better understanding of the scientific basis for distaste and how to ameliorate it is a public health priority. PMID:19108800

Mennella, Julie A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

2009-01-01

448

Comparative oral bioavailability advantage from curcumin formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to study the oral bioavailability of seven different formulations of curcumin (CRM). CRM\\u000a formulations viz. aqueous suspension, micronized suspension, nanosuspension, amorphous solid dispersion, hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin\\u000a (HP-?-CD) inclusion complex, combination with piperine, and spray-dried CRM–milk composite were compared for oral bioavailability\\u000a in male Sprague–Dawley rats at a CRM dose of 250 mg\\/kg body weight using a

Bhushan Munjal; Yogesh Bapurao Pawar; Sarsvatkumar Babulal Patel; Arvind Kumar Bansal

449

Oral mucosal diseases: evaluation and management.  

PubMed

Oral mucosal diseases encompass several common conditions that affect the general population. Some of these disorders present with signs and symptoms that are pathognomonic for the condition, whereas others present with similar features that can make clinical diagnosis difficult to achieve. It is important for physicians to have a clear understanding of these disorders to provide appropriate care to patients. This article reviews clinical aspects of common oral mucosal disorders, including candidiasis, herpes simplex viral infections, aphthous stomatitis, lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, and mucous membrane pemphigoid. PMID:25443679

Stoopler, Eric T; Sollecito, Thomas P

2014-11-01

450

Challenges for the oral delivery of macromolecules.  

PubMed

The rapid integration of new technologies by the pharmaceutical industry has resulted in numerous breakthroughs in the discovery, development and manufacturing of pharmaceutical products. In particular, the commercial-scale production of high-purity recombinant proteins has resulted in important additions to treatment options for many large therapeutic areas. In addition to proteins, other macromolecules, such as the animal-derived mucopolysaccharide heparins, have also seen dramatic growth as injectable pharmaceutical products. To date, macromolecules have been limited as therapeutics by the fact that they cannot be orally delivered. This article will address the current status and future possibilities of oral macromolecular drug delivery. PMID:12669028

Goldberg, Michael; Gomez-Orellana, Isabel

2003-04-01

451

Oral Manifestations and Complications of Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting all age groups. It is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Many chronic macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes have been reported in the literature with few reports about oral complications. This article aims to review and increase the awareness of oral manifestations and complications of diabetes mellitus and to stimulate research on the subject. It treats in depth some of the complications such as periodontal disease, fungal infection and salivary dysfunction while other complications are mentioned briefly. PMID:21969888

Al-Maskari, Awatif Y.; Al-Maskari, Masoud Y.; Al-Sudairy, Salem

2011-01-01

452

Oral Health in Children with Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Leukemia is one of the most common malignancies affecting children in India. These children usually suffer from various oral complications, which may be due to the leukemia or due to the chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiotherapy. The complications may include some of the opportunistic infections like candidiasis, herpes simplex; hemorrhage, mucositis, taste alterations and increased incidence of dental caries etc. These complications can cause significant morbidity and mortality in the patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the various oral complications in these children and the methods of prevention and management. PMID:22837605

Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Dhillon, Jatinder Kaur; Kalra, Gauri

2012-01-01

453

Risk for oral cancer associated to smoking, smokeless and oral dip products.  

PubMed

Oral cancer is one of the most common life threatening diseases in India. Tobacco and alcohol are considered to be the most risk factors for oral cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the association of tobacco and poly-ingredient oral dip products with oral cancer. A case-control study of 350 cases and 350 controls, over a period of 19 months, between February 2005 and September 2006 was carried out in Pune, India. The self-reported information about the consumption of tobacco, poly-ingredient oral dip products, alcohol, dietary habits and demographic status were collected by a researcher made questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify the risk of substances abuse. The frequency of smoking, smokeless and oral dip products in cases were significantly higher than controls (P < 0.0001). Among smoking types, bidi (P < 0.0001, OR = 4.1 95% CI = 2.4 - 6.9), of smokeless types, chewing tobacco (P < 0.0001, OR = 8.3, 95% CI = 5.4 - 13.0) and mishiri (P < 0.0001, OR = 3.3, 95% CI =2.1 - 5.4), and of oral dip products, consumption of gutkha (P < 0.0001, OR = 12.8, 95% CI =7.0 - 23.7) and supari (P < 0.0001, OR = 6.6, 95% CI =3.0 - 14.8) indicated strong association with oral cancer upon adjustment. This study provides strong evidence that gutkha, supari -areca nut- chewing tobacco (tobacco flakes), bidi smoking and mishiri (tobacco powder, which applied as a tooth and gum cleaner) are independent risk for oral cancer. PMID:22684175

Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu

2012-01-01

454

Poor oral health, a potential new geriatric syndrome.  

PubMed

This article presents a brief introduction to the medical aspects of ageing and age-related diseases, and to some geriatric syndromes, followed by a discussion on their impact on general and oral healthcare provision to community-dwelling older people. Recent investigations suggest that inflammation constitutes a biological foundation of ageing and the onset of age-related diseases. Multimorbidity and polypharmacy, together with alterations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, make older people at risk of adverse medication reactions. A side effect of several medications is causing xerostomia and hyposalivation, and both the type and number of medications used are relevant. New options of general healthcare provision to community-dwelling older people are the use of mobility aids and assistive technology devices, domiciliary health care, respite care and telecare. Their oral health status may be jeopardised by frailty, disability, care dependency and limited access to professional oral health care. Recommendations for improvement are the following: better integrating oral health care into general health care, developing and implementing an oral healthcare guideline, providing customised oral hygiene care aids, domiciliary oral healthcare provision, visiting dental hygienists and/or nurses, oral hygiene telecare, easily and safely accessible dental offices, transforming dentistry into medical oral health care and upgrading dentists to oral physicians. In case oral healthcare providers do not take the responsibility of persuading society of the importance of adequate oral health, weakened oral health of community-dwelling older people will become a potential new geriatric syndrome. PMID:24446975

van der Putten, Gert-Jan; de Baat, Cees; De Visschere, Luc; Schols, Jos

2014-02-01

455

Oral leukoplakia development in patients with pre-existing oral lichen planus.  

PubMed

Oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus are conditions that have the potential to transform into squamous cell carcinoma. This article describes a series of nine patients with an initial clinical-microscopic diagnosis of lichen planus. During close follow-up, these patients developed localized areas of leukoplakia at intervals ranging from one and a half to six and a half years. While both conditions may present with white and red oral mucosal changes, their management differs with leukoplakia requiring surgical intervention, therefore accurate diagnosis is imperative. PMID:25632518

Chainani-Wu, Nita; Purnell, Daniel M; Silverman, Sol

2015-01-01

456

Study Shows Men Can Get Oral HPV Infection from Women  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Study Shows Men Can Get Oral HPV Infection From Women Virus ... Sexual Health WEDNESDAY, Nov. 12, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Men are at increased risk for oral human papillomavirus ( ...

457

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01... false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220...Section 493.1220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If...

2010-10-01

458

Tips on Finding Preventive Care for Children's Oral Health  

MedlinePLUS

... more... Tips on Finding Preventive Care for Children's Oral Health Article Chapters Tips on Finding Preventive Care for ... the area. Updated: February 2007 Related Articles: Children's Oral Health Baby’s First Steps to a Healthy Mouth Best ...

459

42 CFR 8.27 - Opportunity for oral presentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01...false Opportunity for oral presentation. 8...Section 8.27 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...27 Opportunity for oral presentation....

2010-10-01

460

77 FR 15960 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Pergolide  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Pergolide...520 is amended as follows: PART 520--ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 0 1....

2012-03-19

461

Isolation of T cells from mouse oral tissues  

PubMed Central

Background Utilizing mouse models provides excellent immunological and experimental tools to study oral immune responses. However for functional assays, isolating T lymphocytes from the oral tissues has proved to be challenging due to the absence of reliable methods that yield viable cells with consistency. To study adaptive immune cell interactions in the oral mucosal tissues, it is necessary to isolate T cells with a good viability and study them at the single cell level. Findings We have established an improved method to isolate immune cells, including Tregs and Th17 cells from intra-epithelial niches and lamina propria of the tongue, gingival and palatal tissues in the oral mucosa of mice. Conclusion This new method of isolating immune cells from oral tissues will enable us to further our understanding of oral tissue immune cells and their role during oral infections and oral inflammation. PMID:24612879

2014-01-01

462

Oral and Dental Findings of Dyskeratosis Congenita  

PubMed Central

Dyskeratosis congenital (DC) is a rare condition characterized by reticulate skin hyperpigmentation, mucosal leukoplakia, and nail dystrophy. More serious features are bone marrow involvement with pancytopenia and a predisposition to malignancy. The purpose of this case report is to describe the oral and dental findings in children with DC syndrome. A 10-year-old male diagnosed with DC was admitted because of extensive caries and toothache. Inadequate oral hygiene and extensive caries were observed in oral examination of the patient. Plaque accumulation was seen in gingival border of maxillary teeth. Papillary atrophy on the tongue was observed. Short and blunted roots of mandible incisors and upper and lower molars were determined on the radiographic examination. Dryness on the lips and commisuras, ectropion on his eyes, and epiphora were observed. Hematologic tests were performed and showed aplastic anemia at the age of 2. At the age of 4, the bone marrow transplantation was performed. Dermatological findings occurred after the bone marrow transplantation. The skin of the patient was thin, dry, and wrinkled in some areas. He had palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and syndactylia on his fingers. Endodontic treatment procedures were applied and other extensive caries are still being restored. The patient will be given full preventive care during regular follow-up. Oral hygiene was improved to the optimum level. PMID:25610666

Barlak, Pelin; Seymen, Figen

2014-01-01

463

Teacher Acceptability of Oral Reading Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many schools are adopting a Response to Intervention (RTI) model to support and evaluate learning (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2006). Universal screening and progress monitoring are two essential components of RTI that generally support improved student outcomes (Shinn, 2007). In many schools, teachers collect and use a tool called oral reading fluency for…

Rowe, Sarah Stebbe

2013-01-01

464

Teaching oral communication in computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software analysts currently spend a large portion of their time communicating with others. Effective communication skills is of extreme importance if one wishes to be an efficient and productive software analyst. This article describes some of the exercises related to oral communications that are imposed on our students. Advantages and difficulties are discussed.

Vianney Coté

1987-01-01

465

Business Spanish: Role Playing for Oral Proficiency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The situation card used in the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages/Educational Testing Service (ACTFL/ETS) Oral Proficiency Interview provides a kind of linguistic-topographical map of the student's foreign language ability by measuring what the student of business Spanish is able or unable to do in business situations in that…

Doyle, Michael Scott

466

Policies for Improving Oral Health in Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and Objective: The main purpose of this review was to rehearse the available evidence of good practice in dental public health in order to define policies that could improve oral health in the enlarged European Union and associated countries. Secondary objectives were to describe the basic principles of health service organisation and…

Blinkhorn, Anthony S.; Downer, Martin C.; Drugan, Caroline S.

2005-01-01

467

Oral Proficiency Testing in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the status of and beliefs underlying the process of foreign language oral proficiency testing in the United States, including consideration of academic and nonacademic approaches to testing; the status of foreign language study; the need for foreign language speakers; and the reliability and validity of several tests used to assess foreign…

Barnwell, David

1987-01-01

468

How Accurate Are Oral Reading Tests?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Errors in oral reading tests result from inaccuracies that tend to creep in because children are not totally consistent while taking a test and from inaccuracies caused when the examiner does not catch a word recognition error, giving credit for an answer that is more wrong than right or vice versa. Every test contains a standard error of…

Schell, Leo M.

469

Therapeutic nanosystems for oral administration of insulin.  

PubMed

The treatment of Diabetes Mellitus (DM), a chronic disease, is primarily based upon administration of insulin forms to patients. Conventional subcutaneous administration is associated with a large number of complications, therefore, several new strategies have been developed. Amongst these strategies, oral insulin administration is much less invasive and, therefore, well tolerated. In recent years, various nanoformulations were developed for the oral administration of insulin, allowing more effective stabilization of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and modified for better absorption along the gastrointestinal tract. The development of different oral insulin nanoformulations in academic research as well as in patents, including the development of nanoparticles, liposomes, nanoemulsions and the use of cyclodextrins deserves special attention. The future of oral insulin nanoformulations is dependent on strategies utilizing simple technologies that stabilize the raw material, including inclusion within cyclodextrins or inclusion in low weight molecular mass polymers/ oligomers. All of the theories developed here provide a solid foundation upon which to develop new methods for the production of pharmaceutical peptide formulations. In addition, the effective search for existing nanometric formulations of insulin could provide economically viable therapeutic options that can consequently be produced on an industrial scale. PMID:25219867

do Carmo, Flavia A; Sathler, Plinio C; Zancan, Patricia; Rodrigues, Carlos R; Castro, Helena C; de Sousa, Valeria P; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Cabral, Lucio M

2014-01-01

470

Conversations about Visual Arts: Facilitating Oral Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual arts, such as drawings, are attractive to most young children. Marks left on paper by young children contain meaning. Although it is known that children's oral language could be enhanced through communication with adults, rarely is there a series of dialogues between adults and young children about their drawings. Often heard instead…

Chang, Ni; Cress, Susan

2014-01-01

471

A quick transcribing technique for oral data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stenographic techniques offer a means for transcribing oral data accurately and efficiently. In one such application, during five Appolo lunar missions, a rough but helpful transcript was produced within minutes. Similarly, lectures, conferences, and audio tapes can be accurately transcribed as promptly as necessary. Computer programs for translating shorthand notes are being developed; they will increase both speed and accuracy of translation.

Schleicher, David

1972-01-01

472

Occurrence of oral deformities in larval anurans  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We quantified deformities in the marginal papillae, tooth rows, and jaw sheaths of tadpoles from 13 population samples representing three families and 11 sites in the southeastern United States. Oral deformities were observed in all samples and in 13.5-98% of the specimens per sample. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (chytrid) infections were detected in three samples. There was high variability among samples in the pattern and number of discovered deformities. Pairwise associations between oral structures containing deformities were nonrandom for several populations, especially those with B. dendrobatidis infections or high total numbers of deformities. Comparisons of deformities among samples using multivariate analyses revealed that tadpole samples grouped together by family. Analyses of ordination indicated that three variables, the number of deformities, the number of significant associations among deformity types within populations, and whether populations were infected with B. dendrobatidis, were significantly correlated with the pattern of deformities. Our data indicate that the incidence of oral deformities can be high in natural populations and that phylogeny and B. dendrobatidis infection exert a strong influence on the occurrence and type of oral deformities in tadpoles. ?? by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herperologists.

Drake, D.L.; Altig, R.; Grace, J.B.; Walls, S.C.

2007-01-01

473

Approaches to the Teaching of Oral Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serving as an introduction to a conference for Australian educators on developing oral communication skills, this paper reviews current methods of teaching speech skills. The paper describes a basic approach that holds that a learner's improved use of a skill is related to the number of satisfying experiences the learner has using the skill. It…

Crocker, W. J.

474

Oral Biofilm Architecture on Natural Teeth  

PubMed Central

Periodontitis and caries are infectious diseases of the oral cavity in which oral biofilms play a causative role. Moreover, oral biofilms are widely studied as model systems for bacterial adhesion, biofilm development, and biofilm resistance to antibiotics, due to their widespread presence and accessibility. Despite descriptions of initial plaque formation on the tooth surface, studies on mature plaque and plaque structure below the gum are limited to landmark studies from the 1970s, without appreciating the breadth of microbial diversity in the plaque. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization to localize in vivo the most abundant species from different phyla and species associated with periodontitis on seven embedded teeth obtained from four different subjects. The data showed convincingly the dominance of Actinomyces sp., Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Spirochaetes, and Synergistetes in subgingival plaque. The latter proved to be new with a possibly important role in host-pathogen interaction due to its localization in close proximity to immune cells. The present study identified for the first time in vivo that Lactobacillus sp. are the central cells of bacterial aggregates in subgingival plaque, and that Streptococcus sp. and the yeast Candida albicans form corncob structures in supragingival plaque. Finally, periodontal pathogens colonize already formed biofilms and form microcolonies therein. These in vivo observations on oral biofilms provide a clear vision on biofilm architecture and the spatial distribution of predominant species. PMID:20195365

Zijnge, Vincent; van Leeuwen, M. Barbara M.; Degener, John E.; Abbas, Frank; Thurnheer, Thomas; Gmür, Rudolf; M. Harmsen, Hermie J.

2010-01-01

475

Oral Diadochokinetic Rates for Normal Thai Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The diadochokinetic (DDK) rate represents an index for assessing motor skills. It is commonly used in routine clinical evaluation of diseases of the central nervous system, disturbances of the peripheral sensory motor formations and immaturity of the speech mechanism. "Oral" DDK rates are a popular guideline for the assessment,…

Prathanee, Benjamas; Thanaviratananich, Sangaunsak; Pongjanyakul, Amonrat

2003-01-01

476

Citraturic response to oral citric acid load  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is possible that some orally administered citrate may appear in urine by escaping oxidation in vivo. To determine whether this mechanism contributes to the citraturic response to potassium citrate, we measured serum and urinary citrate for 4 hours after a single oral load of citric acid (40 mEq.) in 6 normal subjects. Since citric acid does not alter acid-base balance, the effect of absorbed citrate could be isolated from that of alkali load. Serum citrate concentration increased significantly (p less than 0.05) 30 minutes after a single oral dose of citric acid and remained significantly elevated for 3 hours after citric acid load. Commensurate with this change, urinary citrate excretion peaked at 2 hours and gradually decreased during the next 2 hours after citric acid load. In contrast, serum and urinary citrate remained unaltered following the control load (no drug). Differences of the citratemic and citraturic effects between phases were significant (p less than 0.05) at 2 and 3 hours. Urinary pH, carbon dioxide pressure, bicarbonate, total carbon dioxide and ammonium did not change at any time after citric acid load, and did not differ between the 2 phases. No significant difference was noted in serum electrolytes, arterialized venous pH and carbon dioxide pressure at any time after citric acid load and between the 2 phases. Thus, the citraturic and citratemic effects of oral citric acid are largely accountable by provision of absorbed citrate, which has escaped in vivo degradation.

Sakhaee, K.; Alpern, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

1992-01-01

477

Oral surgery in patients on anticoagulant therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Surgery is the main oral healthcare hazard to the patient with a bleeding tendency, which is mostly caused by the use of anticoagulants. The traditional management entails the interruption of anticoagulant therapy for dental surgery to prevent hemorrhage. However, this practice may increase the risk of a potentially life-threatening thromboembolism. Because this issue is still controversial, it is the

Crispian Scully; Andy Wolff

478

Assessing Paired Orals: Raters' Orientation to Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speaking tasks involving peer-to-peer candidate interaction are increasingly being incorporated into language proficiency assessments, in both large-scale international testing contexts, and in smaller-scale, for example course-related, ones. This growth in the popularity and use of paired and group orals has stimulated research, particularly into…

Ducasse, Ana Maria; Brown, Annie

2009-01-01

479

Orality, Classical Rhetoric, and the New Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is no escaping the oral, but many people believe that it is detachable and not central. A dominant, assumed belief conveys the idea that spoken words (like knowledge in writing) are escapable. This belief is held by people who tacitly view speaking as a convenient tool that can be applied as necessary. Scholar-teachers know that it is not…

Welch, Kathleen E.

480

College of Dentistry OPT Oral Pathology  

E-print Network

College of Dentistry OPT Oral Pathology KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped.Acasestudyformatisusedtodiscussbothcommonandrareconditions thatillustrateallmajordiseasecategoriesandtoprovideaframeworkfordevelopingasystematicapproachtodiseasediagnosis.Lecture: 36 hours. Prereq: Dental degree and enrollment in a College of Dentistry postgraduate management. Prereq: Enrollment in the College of Dentistry and second year class standing, ANA 530, ANA 534

MacAdam, Keith

481

The implications of Phenylketonuria on oral health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the oral health of children with PKU and to assess, in vitro, the erosive potential of 5 amino acid supplements commonly prescribed in the manage- ment of these children. Methods: Forty children with phenylketonuria underwent a full dental examination and were compared with an age and sex matched control group. The erosive potential

Nicky M. Kilpatrick; Halimah Awang; Bridget Wilcken; John Christodoulou

1999-01-01

482

Oral acyclovir in acute herpes zoster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral acyclovir at a dose of 800 mg five times daily for seven days was compared with placebo in a randomised double blind trial conducted at three centres in the United Kingdom. The study group comprised 205 elderly immune competent patients suffering from herpes zoster who were entered within 72 hours of the onset of rash. Acyclovir significantly reduced the

M W McKendrick; J I McGill; J E White; M J Wood

1986-01-01

483

Oral cytokeratins in health and disease.  

PubMed

The dynamics of oral mucosa is known by its inherent defensive nature. Certain areas demand tough shield when subjected to mechanical insults. This is met by structural scaffolding material referred as cytoskeleton comprised of intracellular protein filaments called cytokeratins in the surface squames of oral epithelia. They also equally contribute towards the architecture of odontogenic apparatus and salivary gland. Differentiation of epithelial cells within stratified epithelia regulates the expression of specific keratin gene. Any mutation in, or autoantibodies to keratins, desmosomal and cornified envelope proteins is translated into genetic and acquired human disorders. Sound knowledge of structural proteins, their expression, distribution and function plays a vital role in acquainting with these disorders and their application as differentiation markers. Thus, they form an integral aid in diagnostic pathology and may be instrumental in the future interventions by gene therapy. This review focuses on basics to current updates on oral cytokeratins with an emphasis on the genetic and acquired disorders of cytokeratins with oral implications. PMID:24939280

Rao, Roopa S; Patil, Shankargouda; Ganavi, B S

2014-01-01

484

Oral Interpretation of Literature: Readers' Theater  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pedagogical principle of experiential learning embodied in the oral interpretation of literature through Readers' Theater provides an avenue to accomplish a seemingly daunting task. Students' participation in reading, interpreting, discussing, writing, assessing, and performing their own creative responses to a literary work promotes a…

Kennedy, Joan

2011-01-01

485

Oral Rabies Vaccination—A Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) targeting specific wild Carnivora species has emerged as an integral adjunct to conventional rabies control strategies to protect humans and domestic animals. ORV has been applied with progress toward eliminating rabies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in western Europe and southern Ontario, Canada. Beginning in the 1990’s, coordinated ORV was implemented in Texas to contain and

Dennis Slate; Charles Rupprecht; Mike Dunbar; Robert McLean

2005-01-01

486

The clinical efficacy of oral tocolytic therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether maintenance oral tocolytic therapy after preterm labor stabilization decreases uterine activity, reduces the rate of recurrent preterm labor and subsequent preterm birth, or improves neonatal outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Women with documented idiopathic preterm labor stabilized with acute tocolytic therapy were randomized to three groups: placebo, terbutaline 5 mg, or magnesium chloride 128 mg,

Orion A. Rust; James A. Bofill; Richard M. Arriola; Michael E. Andrew; John C. Morrison

1996-01-01

487

ORAL QUAL SYLLABUS: SET THEORY; ERGODIC THEORY  

E-print Network

ORAL QUAL SYLLABUS: SET THEORY; ERGODIC THEORY SAMUEL COSKEY Set Theory. #15; Basic set theory's theorem { there exists an Aronsajn tree { Shanin's root system lemma (#2;2) #15; Descriptive set theory of set theory (Jech 12,13) { Mostowski's collapsing theorem { relativization and absolute formulas { re

488

Session: Geothermal Research Volcanology Oral presentation  

E-print Network

Session: Geothermal Research ­ Volcanology Oral presentation Contribution of multi-methods geophysics to improve the regional knowledge of Bouillante geothermal Province (Guadeloupe) Lydie Gailler1.gailler@brgm.fr The need to understand the geological context of the Bouillante geothermal Province (Basse- Terre

Boyer, Edmond

489

Diagnostic Concordance Characteristics of Oral Cavity Lesions  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic concordance characteristics of oral cavity lesions by comparing the clinical diagnosis of the lesions with the histopathologic diagnosis. Material and Method. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the patients, who were admitted with oral cavity pathology and underwent biopsy procedure between 2007 and 2011. The oral cavity lesions were classified into 6 different groups as odontogenic cysts, nonodontogenic cysts, odontogenic tumors, nonodontogenic tumors, malignant tumors, and precancerous lesions in accordance with the 2005 WHO classification. The diagnoses were also recategorized into 3 groups expressing prognostic implications as benign, precancerous, and malignant. The initial clinical diagnoses were compared with the histopathologic diagnoses. Data were analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 2718 cases were included. Histopathologic diagnosis did not match the clinical diagnosis in 6.7% of the cases. Nonodontogenic tumors and malignant tumors had the highest misdiagnosis rates (11.5% and 9%, resp.), followed by odontogenic tumors (7.7%), precancerous lesions (6.9%), and odontogenic cysts (4.4%). Clinicians were excelled in diagnosis of benign and precancerous lesions in clinical setting. Conclusion. The detailed discordance characteristics for each specific lesion should be considered during oral pathology practice to provide early detection without delay. PMID:24453906

Tatli, Ufuk; Erdo?an, Özgür; U?uz, Aysun; Üstün, Yakup; Sertdem?r, Ya?ar

2013-01-01

490

The preservation of some oral liquid preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroform should be considered as an obsolete preservative for pharmaceutical preparations, because of its toxicological implications and its physical instability. The effectiveness of possible alternatives for chloroform in three oral liquid pharmaceutical preparations was investigated, using a microbiological challenge test. Magnesium trisilicate mixture (British Pharmacopoeia) can be adequately preserved with methylparaben (2 g\\/l). Only insignificant amounts of methylparaben were absorbed

H. van Doorne; J. B. Leijen

1994-01-01

491

Women's Oral Health: The Evolving Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence base for women's oral health is emerging from legislative action, clinical research, and survey documenta- tion. The Women's Health in the Dental School Curriculum study (1999) followed a similar study (1996) of medical school cur- ricula. Both of these major efforts resulted from statutory mandates in the National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act of 1993 (updated October 2000).

Jeanne C. Sinkford; Richard W. Valachovic; Sonja G. Harrison

492

Bioengineering in the oral cavity: our experience  

PubMed Central

Background To date, there are no studies reported in the literature on the possible use of bovine collagen, oxidized regenerated cellulose, or synthetic hyaluronic acid medications in the oral cavity. The aim of this paper is to report the use of bovine collagen, oxidized regenerated cellulose, and synthetic hyaluronic acid medications to improve wound healing in the oral cavity by stimulating granulomatous tissue. Methods From 2007 to 2011, 80 patients (median age 67 years) suffering from oral mucosal lesions participated in this double-blind study. The patients were divided into two groups, each consisting of 40 patients. One group received conventional medications, while the other group of patients were treated with the advanced medications. Results Advanced medications allowed re-epithelialization of the wound margin in 2–20 days, whereas patients receiving conventional medication showed a median healing duration of 45 days. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that treating oral mucosal wounds with advanced medication has an advantage with regard to wound healing time, allowing patients to have a rapid, functional, and esthetic recovery. PMID:24143092

Catalfamo, L; Belli, E; Nava, C; Mici, E; Calvo, A; D’Alessandro, B; De Ponte, FS

2013-01-01

493

Developing an Oral Communication Strategy Inventory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on how valid information about learner perception of strategy use during communicative tasks can be gathered systematically from English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. First, the study attempted to develop a questionnaire for statistical analysis, named the Oral Communication Strategy Inventory (OCSI). The research…

Nakatani, Yasuo

2006-01-01

494

Oral zinc aspartate treats experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.  

PubMed

The essential trace element zinc plays a critical role in the regulation of immune homeostasis. Zinc deficiency or excess can cause severe impairment of the immune response, which points to the importance of the physiological and dietary control of zinc levels for a functioning immune system. We previously reported that injection of zinc aspartate suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as effector T cell functions in vitro. Among the preferred characteristics of novel therapeutics for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as MS are oral availability and a tolerable effective dose to minimize side effects. In this study, we investigated whether oral administration of zinc aspartate, an approved drug to treat zinc deficiency in humans, is effective in controlling EAE at clinically approved doses. We show that oral administration of 6 µg/day [0.3 mg/kg body weight (BW)] or 12 µg/day [0.6 mg/kg BW] of zinc aspartate reduces clinical and histopathological signs during the relapsing remitting phase of the disease in SJL mice. The clinical effect in mice was accompanied by suppression of IFN-?, TNF-?, GM-CSF and IL-5 production in stimulated human T cells and mouse splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, a large array of proinflammatory cytokines was modulated by zinc aspartate exposure in vitro. These data suggest that administration of oral zinc aspartate may have beneficial effects on autoimmune diseases like MS. PMID:25146336

Schubert, Claudia; Guttek, Karina; Grüngreiff, Kurt; Thielitz, Anja; Bühling, Frank; Reinhold, Annegret; Brocke, Stefan; Reinhold, Dirk

2014-12-01

495

Is Oral Performance Affected by Motivation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present investigation intends to make a comparison between integratively motivated students of English at Islamic Azad University of Shiraz and their instrumentally motivated peers in terms of their oral performance. To this end, 35 junior students (15 males and 20 females) were selected out of 54 initial participants based on their scores on…

Soozandehfar, Seyyed Mohammad Ali

2010-01-01

496

Oral Traditional Approaches to Old English Verse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the publication of Francis P. Magoun's (1953) seminal article on the formula in Anglo-Saxon narrative verse, oral traditional approaches in the field of Old English have undergone a number of transitions, in the process growing more sophisticated and varied in technique and application. Early excitement over the aptness of Parry-Lord \\

Heather Maring

2004-01-01

497

A BRIEF ORAL OVERVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS  

EPA Science Inventory

A brief 1 hour oral presentation to professional staff of Cincinnati Nature Center is intended to provide a lay audience with a general understanding of how market-based approaches to environmental protection can meet (or exceed) regulatory efforts at enforcing pollution standard...

498

Evolution of meiosis timing during oral development  

E-print Network

Evolution of meiosis timing during ÂŻoral development Ping Li and Mark O. Johnston* Department@is.dal.ca, mark.johnston@dal.ca) Meiosis divides the haploid and diploid portions of the life cycle in all sexual organisms. In angiosperms meiosis occurs during ÂŁower development, the duration of which varies widely among

Johnston, Mark

499

Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Radiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for oral radiology curricula give an overview of the field and its interrelationships with other fields and outline the primary educational objectives, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards to be considered in…

Journal of Dental Education, 1987

1987-01-01

500

Oral surgery in patients on anticoagulant therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Surgery is the main oral healthcare hazard to the patient with a bleeding tendency, which is mostly caused by the use of anticoagulants. The traditional management entails the interruption of anticoagulant therapy for dental surgery to prevent hemorrhage. However, this practice may increase the risk of a potentially life-threatening thromboembolism. Because this issue is still controversial, it is the

Crispian Scully; Andy Wolff

2002-01-01