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1

Early pregnancy termination with intravaginally administered sodium chloride solution–moistened misoprostol tablets: Historical comparison with mifepristone and oral misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the abortifacient effect of intravaginally administered moistened misoprostol tablets with that of the combination regimen of mifepristone and oral misoprostol. Study Design: One hundred women at ?56 days’ gestation received 800 ?g misoprostol intravaginally in the form of sodium chloride solution–moistened tablets. The dose was repeated 24 hours later if a

John K. Jain; Karen R. Meckstroth; Daniel R. Mishell

1999-01-01

2

Comparative Study of Oral and Vaginal Misoprostol for Induction of Labour, Maternal and Foetal Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: Misoprostol is a new promising agent for cervical ripening and induction of labour .The ideal dose, route and frequency of administration of misoprostol are still under investigation. Although, vaginal application of misoprostol has been validated as a reasonable mean of induction, there is a patient resistance to digital examination and there is a risk of ascending infection. For this reason, oral administration of misoprostol for cervical ripening and labour induction has been tried. Aims and Objectives: To compare 50?g of oral misoprostol versus 25?g of intravaginal misoprostol for induction of labour at term and maternal, foetal outcomes. Methods: Two hundred women who were at term, with indication for induction of labour and Bishop scores of ?5 were randomly assigned to receive misoprostol 50?g or 25?g intravaginal, every 4-6 hours, for a maximum of 5 doses. In either group, pregnant females with inadequate uterine contractions despite being given maximum 5 doses of misoprostol, were augmented using oxytocin. The primary outcome measure was time-interval from induction to vaginal delivery and vaginal delivery rate within 24 hours. Results: The median induction to vaginal delivery time in oral group (12.92h) and vaginal group (14.04 h) was not significant. Oral misoprostol resulted in more number of vaginal deliveries as compared to vaginal misoprostol (94% as compared to 86%), which was not significant. There was a significantly higher incidence of uterine tachysystole in the vaginal group, as compared to oral group. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to oxytocin augmentation, caesarean section rate, analgesic requirement and neonatal outcome. Conclusion: Oral misoprostol is as efficacious as vaginal misoprostol because of shorter induction delivery interval, lower caesarean section rates, and lower incidence of failed induction rates. Lower incidence of foetal distress and easy intake are observed if the drug is administered orally. PMID:24551660

Komala, Kambhampati; Reddy, Meherlatha; Quadri, Iqbal Jehan; B., Suneetha; V., Ramya

2013-01-01

3

Randomized trial of oral versus vaginal misoprostol 2 days after mifepristone 200 mg for abortion up to 63 days of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective, open-label, randomized trial of healthy adult women up to 9 weeks pregnant compared mifepristone 200 mg followed 2 days later with misoprostol 400 ?g orally versus misoprostol 800 ?g vaginally. The study was interrupted after the oral misoprostol group experienced a higher than expected failure rate. This treatment was discontinued and another substituted consisting of oral misoprostol 800

Eric A. Schaff; Stephen L. Fielding; Carolyn Westhoff

2002-01-01

4

Randomized trial of oral versus vaginal misoprostol at one day after mifepristone for early medical abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mifepristone was recently approved in the United States. Regimens with shorter intervals may be more acceptable. The objective of this study was to determine whether the oral route of misoprostol was as effective as the vaginal route of misoprostol 1 day after mifepristone. A prospective, open-labeled, randomized trial of healthy adult women up to 63 days pregnant and wanting a

Eric A. Schaff; Stephen L. Fielding; Carolyn Westhoff

2001-01-01

5

Induction of labour with a Foley catheter or oral misoprostol at term: the PROBAAT-II study, a multicentre randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Induction of labour is a common obstetric procedure. At present, different methods are used for induction of labour in women with an unfavourable cervix. Recently, we showed that in term women with an unfavorable cervix the use of a Foley catheter in comparison with vaginal Prostaglandin E2 gel, results in a comparable vaginal delivery rate. A meta-analysis on the subject indicated lower rates of hyperstimulation, and probably as a sequel fewer cases of postpartum haemorrhage. Misoprostol (PgE1) is another type of prostaglandin frequently used for labour induction, recommended by the international federation of gynaecology and obstetrics (FIGO). Misoprostol can be administered by vaginal, rectal and oral route. There is evidence that oral administration results in less asphyxia and hyperstimulation than vaginal administration. At present, valid comparisons between oral misoprostol and Foley catheter are lacking. Therefore, we propose a randomised controlled trial comparing Foley catheter to oral misoprostol in order to assess safety and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design We plan a multicentre, randomised, controlled, open-label clinical trial among term pregnant women with a vital singleton in cephalic presentation, unfavorable cervix, intact membranes and an indication for induction of labour. After informed consent, women will be randomly allocated by a webbased randomisation system to transcervical Foley catheter or oral misoprostol (50 mcg every 4 hours). The primary outcome will be a composite of complications of uterine hyperstimulation, i.e. post partum haemorrhage and asphyxia. Secondary outcomes are mode of delivery, maternal and neonatal morbidity, costs and women’s preference. Serious adverse events such as severe maternal or neonatal morbitity or mortality will be monitored and reported to an independent data safety monitory board. With a sample size of 1860 women we will be able to demonstrate a 5% non-inferiority of the Foley catheter as compared to misoprostol for the composite outcome. Discussion Worldwide, various methods are being used for labour induction. Results of the proposed trial will contribute to the answer which method of induction of labour is most safe, cost-effective, and patient friendly and will help to construct evidence based guidelines. Trial registration The Netherlands Trial Register NTR3466 PMID:23506128

2013-01-01

6

A comparison of orally administered misoprostol to intravenous oxytocin for labor induction in women with favorable cervical examinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to compare orally administered misoprostol with intravenous oxytocin infusion for labor induction in women with favorable cervical examinations (defined as a Bishop score of 6 or more).

Deborah A Wing; Michael J Fassett; Cristiane Guberman; Susan Tran; Antigone Parrish; Debra Guinn

2004-01-01

7

Randomized Trial of Oral Misoprostol Treatment for Cervical Ripening Before Tandem Application in Cervix Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of oral misoprostol administered to facilitate tandem application to the cervix as a part of brachytherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty patients with cervical cancer who had been planned to undergo brachytherapy at Dr. Luetfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital were evaluated in a double-blind, prospective, randomized trial. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of 40 patients. The first and second groups received 400 {mu}g of misoprostol orally and placebo, respectively, 3 h before tandem application. The two groups were compared in terms of age, diameter of tumor, parity, age at first intercourse, amount of bleeding and pain at first tandem application, length of endometrial cavity measured by hysterometer, and size of Hegar dilators used for cervical dilatation. Results: Of all cases, 63.6%, 16.3%, 10%, 6.3%, 2.5%, and 1.3% were Stage IIB, IIIB, IIIA, IVA, IIA and IIC, respectively. Mean ({+-}SD) age (range) was 49.3 {+-} 13.1 (25-83) years and 56.6 {+-} 13.2 (30-78) years in the study and control groups, respectively (p = 0.015). Age at first intercourse, diameter of tumor, parity, amount of bleeding at first tandem application, and length of endometrial cavity measured by hysterometer were not significantly different between the two groups. Pain score was significantly higher in the control group (p < 0.001). Application was significantly easier in the study group compared with controls (p < 0.001). Average size of initial Hegar dilators used for cervical dilatation was significantly higher in the study group compared with controls (p = 0.017). Conclusion: Administration of misoprostol 400 {mu}g orally for cervical ripening before tandem application facilitates the procedure, increases patient tolerability and comfort, and may decrease complication rates.

Cepni, Kimia; Gul, Sule [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ministry of Health, Dr. Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Cepni, Ismail [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Gueralp, Onur, E-mail: dronur@hotmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Sal, Veysel [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Mayadagli, Alpaslan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ministry of Health, Dr. Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

2011-11-01

8

A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study to assess the effect of oral contraceptive pills on the outcome of medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) pills taken immediately after medical abortion on the duration of bleeding and complete abortion rate. Two hundred women in the first 49 days of pregnancy were given 200 mg mifepristone orally followed by 400 mg misoprostol vaginally 48 h later. One day later, they were

Oi Shan Tang; Pei Pei Gao; Linan Cheng; Sharon W. H. Lee; Pak Chung Ho

1999-01-01

9

Oral toxicity of isotretinoin, misoprostol, methotrexate, mifepristone and levonorgestrel as pregnancy category X medications in female mice  

PubMed Central

An oral toxicity study of several pregnancy category X drugs was performed in female ICR mice. The drugs were administered orally once daily for 3 days at doses of 1, 10 and 100 ?g/kg for isotretinoin; 6.7, 67 and 670 ?g/kg for misoprostol; 83, 830 and 8,300 ?g/kg for methotrexate; 3.3, 33 and 330 ?g/kg for mifepristone; and 25, 250 and 2,500 ?g/kg for levonorgestrel. During the test period, clinical signs, mortality, body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry and necropsy findings were examined. Following administration of methotrexate at 8,300 ?g/kg, a number of animals exhibited decreased spontaneous activity, and one animal died. In the hematological analysis, compared with those treated with the control, the animals treated with the drugs exhibited similar significant decreases in the number of granulocytes and granulocyte differentiation, and increases in lymphocyte differentiation. In the serum biochemical analysis, animals receiving high doses of the five drugs demonstrated significant changes in uric acid, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, lipase, total cholesterol and calcium. At necropsy, intestinal redness was frequently observed in animals that received the high dose of methotrexate. Uterus enlargement and ovary dropsy were also detected in the groups receiving mifepristone and levonorgestrel. Despite the short-term exposure, these drugs exhibited significant side effects, including white blood cell toxicity, in the mouse model. Category X drugs can be traded illegally via the internet for the purpose of early pregnancy termination. Thus, illegal abuse of the drugs should be further discouraged to protect mothers. PMID:25667641

KIM, SEONG-KWAN; SHIN, SOO-JEONG; YOO, YOHAN; KIM, NA-HYUN; KIM, DONG-SOON; ZHANG, DAN; PARK, JIN-A; YI, HEE; KIM, JIN-SUK; SHIN, HO-CHUL

2015-01-01

10

Misoprostol-is more research needed?  

PubMed

Misoprostol (Cytotec) is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analogue that was designed for the prevention and treatment of peptic ulcer associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In obstetrics, misoprostol has been administered for induction of first and second trimester abortion, for induction of labor in the third trimester, and to control postpartum hemorrhage. None of these uses has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Nevertheless, misoprostol is widely used in the United States and throughout the world. Advantages are cited as reduced rate of cesareans, shorter time from induction to birth and, particularly in developing countries, lower cost, oral, vaginal or rectal administration, and stability without refrigeration. Disadvantages are uterine hyperstimulation and, in rare instances, uterine rupture and death. Mothers should be informed of both the risks and the possible benefits of misoprostol. Further research with large samples is necessary to determine whether the risks outweigh any possible benefits. PMID:17273309

Moore, Mary Lou

2002-01-01

11

Exacerbation of Celecoxib-Induced Renal Injury by Concomitant Administration of Misoprostol in Rats  

PubMed Central

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can produce adverse effects by inhibiting prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. A PGE1 analogue, misoprostol, is often utilized to alleviate NSAID-related gastrointestinal side effects. This study examined the effect of misoprostol on celecoxib renal toxicity. Additionally, the effects of these drugs on cardiovascular parameters were evaluated. Four randomized rat groups were orally gavaged for 9 days, two groups receiving vehicle and two groups receiving misoprostol (100 µg/kg) twice daily. Celecoxib (40 mg/kg) was co-administered once daily to one vehicle and one misoprostol group from days 3 to 9. Urine and blood samples were collected and blood pressure parameters were measured during the study period. Hearts and kidneys were harvested on final day. Day 2 urinary electrolyte samples revealed significant reductions in sodium excretion in misoprostol (0.12±0.05 µmol/min/100 g) and misoprostol+celecoxib groups (0.07±0.02 µmol/min/100 g). At day 3, all treatment groups showed significantly reduced sodium excretion. Potassium excretion diminished significantly in vehicle+celecoxib and misoprostol+celecoxib groups from day 3 onward. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 levels were significantly increased in vehicle+celecoxib (0.65±0.02 vs. 0.35±0.07 ng/mL, p?=?0.0002) and misoprostol+celecoxib (0.61±0.06 vs. 0.37±0.06 ng/mL, p?=?0.0015) groups when compared to baseline; while plasma levels of cardiac troponin I increased significantly in vehicle+celecoxib (p?=?0.0040) and misoprostol+misoprostol (p?=?0.0078) groups when compared to vehicle+vehicle. Blood pressure parameters increased significantly in all misoprostol treated groups. Significant elevation in diastolic (p?=?0.0071) and mean blood pressure (p?=?0.0153) was noted in misoprostol+celecoxib compared to vehicle+celecoxib. All treatments produced significant tubular dilatation/necrosis compared to control. No significant myocardial changes were noticed; however, three animals presented with pericarditis. Kidney, heart, and plasma celecoxib levels revealed no significant change between vehicle+celecoxib and misoprostol+celecoxib. Concomitant misoprostol administration did not prevent celecoxib renal toxicity, and instead exacerbated renal side effects. Misoprostol did not alter plasma or tissue celecoxib concentrations suggesting no pharmacokinetic interaction between celecoxib and misoprostol. PMID:24586517

Cooper, Dustin L.; Murrell, Derek E.; Conder, Christopher M.; Palau, Victoria E.; Campbell, Grace E.; Lynch, Shaun P.; Denham, James W.; Hanley, Angela V.; Bullins, Kenny W.; Panus, Peter C.; Singh, Krishna; Harirforoosh, Sam

2014-01-01

12

Misoprostol: a prostaglandin E1 analog with antisecretory and cytoprotective properties.  

PubMed

Misoprostol, a methylester analog of prostaglandin E1, with antisecretory and cytoprotective properties, has undergone extensive investigation and has received Food and Drug Administration approval for the prevention of nonsteroidal-induced ulceration. The drug represents the first synthetic, orally active prostaglandin evaluated for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Clinical studies reveal a trend toward slightly lower healing rates with misoprostol when compared with histamine (H2)-receptor antagonists in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers. In addition, misoprostol was less effective than H2-blockers in reducing ulcer pain, and caused a higher incidence of adverse reactions, particularly diarrhea occurring in up to 13 percent of the patients treated. Several studies have shown misoprostol to be superior to cimetidine and sucralfate in the prevention of alcohol- and drug-induced gastritis. This report summarizes the biopharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy of misoprostol in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers and in the prevention of mucosal injury. PMID:2499129

Jones, J B; Bailey, R T

1989-04-01

13

MISOPROSTOL TO REDUCE INTRAOPERATIVE AND POSTOPERATIVE HEMORRHAGE DURING CESAREAN DELIVERY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic misoprostol use at cesarean delivery for reducing intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. RESULTS Seventeen studies (3174 women) were included of which 7 evaluated misoprostol versus oxytocin and 8 evaluated misoprostol plus oxytocin versus oxytocin. Overall, there were no significant differences in intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage between sublingual or oral misoprostol and oxytocin. Rectal misoprostol, compared with oxytocin, was associated with a significant reduction in intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage. The combined use of sublingual misoprostol and oxytocin, compared with the use of oxytocin alone, was associated with a significant reduction in the mean decrease in hematocrit (mean difference, ?2.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], ?3.4 to ?0.8) and use of additional uterotonic agents (relative risk, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.18-0.62). Compared with oxytocin alone, buccal misoprostol plus oxytocin reduced the use of additional uterotonic agents; rectal misoprostol plus oxytocin decreased intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, mean fall in hematocrit, and use of additional uterotonic agents; and intrauterine misoprostol plus oxytocin reduced the mean fall in hemoglobin and hematocrit. Women receiving misoprostol, alone or combined with oxytocin, had a higher risk of shivering and pyrexia. CONCLUSION Misoprostol combined with oxytocin appears to be more effective than oxytocin alone in reducing intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage during caesarean section. There were no significant differences in intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage when misoprostol was compared to oxytocin. However, these findings were based on a few trials with methodological limitations. PMID:23507545

CONDE-AGUDELO, Agustín; NIETO, Aníbal; ROSAS-BERMUDEZ, Anyeli; ROMERO, Roberto

2013-01-01

14

Abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol: Regimens, efficacy, acceptability and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mifepristone at a dose of 600 mg followed by 400 ?g misoprostol orally has been used for early abortion by hundreds of thousands of women with success rates at ?49 days’ gestation ranging from 92% to 97%. Newer regimens may prove simpler than this standard regimen and may serve a larger number of patients. Vaginal rather than oral administration of

Elizabeth Pirruccello Newhall; Beverly Winikoff

2000-01-01

15

Reduction of aspirin-induced fecal blood loss with low-dose misoprostol tablets in man  

SciTech Connect

Misoprostol (SC-29333), a synthetic prostaglandin E1 methyl ester analog, was given simultaneously with acetylsalicylic acid in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized prospective study of 32 healthy human male subjects. Fecal blood loss was measured for eight days using the /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cell technique. Aspirin (650 mg qid) and misoprostol (25 micrograms qid) or placebo were given during days 3, 4, and 5. There was a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in median blood loss (modified Friedman test) from 0.81 to 6.05 ml/day in the aspirin with placebo group (N = 16). Median blood loss was increased (from 0.75 to 3.75 ml/day) in the aspirin with misoprostol group (N = 16), but this was significantly less (Mann-Whitney U test, P less than 0.01) than the placebo group. Mean serum salicylate concentrations in the placebo and misoprostol groups were similar (7.8 and 6.8 micrograms/ml, respectively). There were no significant changes in laboratory values in any of the subjects studied, nor were any major side-effects encountered. This study demonstrates that oral misoprostol reduces aspirin-induced gastrointestinal bleeding even when administered simultaneously and at a dose level below its threshold for significant acid inhibition. This indicates a potential role for misoprostol in the prevention of gastric mucosal damage in selected patients.

Cohen, M.M.; Clark, L.; Armstrong, L.; D'Souza, J.

1985-07-01

16

Efficacy of intra-cervical misoprostol in the management of early pregnancy failure  

PubMed Central

The aim of this prospective study was to assess the efficacy of intra-cervical misoprostol in the management of early pregnancy failure. Twenty women with early pregnancy failure received intra-cervical misoprostol via an endometrial sampling cannula. The first dose was 50??g of misoprostol dissolved in 5?ml of normal saline. The administration was repeated after 12?h if there was no vaginal bleeding or pain. Nine (45%) women received 1 dose and 11 (55%) women received 2 doses of intra-cervical misoprostol. Abortion within 24?h occurred in 16 (80%) women, and complete abortion was achieved in 14 (70%) cases. Two women with incomplete abortion were managed with 600??g of misoprostol orally (1 case) and surgical intervention (1 case). The mean time interval between the first dose and the abortion was 10.6 ± 6.3?h. Two women did not respond within 24?h of treatment initiation, 1 woman withdrew consent after the first treatment, and 1 woman developed heavy vaginal bleeding after the first dose and underwent surgical management. Intra-cervical misoprostol is a promising method of medical treatment of early pregnancy failure. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to validate its safety and efficacy. PMID:25418083

Rouzi, Abdulrahim A.; Almansouri, Nisma; Sahly, Nora; Alsenani, Nawal; Abed, Hussam; Darhouse, Khalid; Bondagji, Nabil

2014-01-01

17

Medical management of early fetal demise using a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the efficacy of a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol in the management of missed miscarriage and anembryonic pregnancy. METHODS: Data of 220 consecutive women with miscarriage, undergoing medical evacuation of the uterus were collected prospectively at an early pregnancy assessment unit in a tertiary referral hospital. Each woman received a single oral dose of

P. T. Wagaarachchi; P. W. Ashok; N. Narvekar; N. C. Smith; A. Templeton

2001-01-01

18

Mifepristone versus vaginally administered misoprostol for cervical priming before first-trimester termination of pregnancy: A randomized, controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of mifepristone orally administered at 24 or 48 hours before first-trimester vacuum aspiration abortion with that of vaginally administered misoprostol as a cervical priming agent. Study Design: In a randomized comparative trial 90 women who requested surgical termination of pregnancy were randomly assigned to receive 200 mg mifepristone orally 24 or

Premila W. Ashok; Gillian M. M. Flett; Allan Templeton

2000-01-01

19

The Prostaglandin E1 Analog Misoprostol Reduces Symptoms and Microvascular Arteriovenous Shunting in Erythromelalgia—A Double-Blind, Crossover, Placebo-Compared Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on previous experience with parenteral prostanoids, we studied the effect of misoprostol treatment, an orally administered prostaglandin E1 analog, in patients with erythromelalgia. Treatment with placebo was followed by treatment with misoprostol (0.4–0.8 mg per d), both for 6 wk. The patients (n=21) and a study nurse who administered the trial were blinded. The endpoints were change in pain

Cato Mørk; E. Goran Salerud; Claes L. Asker; Knut Kvernebo

2004-01-01

20

Stakeholder perceptions of misoprostol: a qualitative investigation.  

PubMed

The study aimed to explore perceptions of stakeholders regarding misoprostol use in Cambodia, a setting with high maternal mortality. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 21 participants in the capital, Phnom Penh. The sample included participants involved in providing reproductive health services through international and local health agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. A theme of controversy over the role of misoprostol in the context of reproductive health services emerged, along with a need to reconcile legitimate viewpoints in order to understand the place of misoprostol in the Cambodian reproductive health setting. Understanding stakeholder perspectives on misoprostol can shed light on the drug's role in reproductive health programming where maternal mortality is high and health facilities are still improving. PMID:24748820

Bazzano, Alessandra N; Jones, Lea; Ngo, Thoai D

2014-01-01

21

Stakeholder perceptions of misoprostol: a qualitative investigation  

PubMed Central

The study aimed to explore perceptions of stakeholders regarding misoprostol use in Cambodia, a setting with high maternal mortality. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 21 participants in the capital, Phnom Penh. The sample included participants involved in providing reproductive health services through international and local health agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. A theme of controversy over the role of misoprostol in the context of reproductive health services emerged, along with a need to reconcile legitimate viewpoints in order to understand the place of misoprostol in the Cambodian reproductive health setting. Understanding stakeholder perspectives on misoprostol can shed light on the drug’s role in reproductive health programming where maternal mortality is high and health facilities are still improving. PMID:24748820

Bazzano, Alessandra N; Jones, Lea; Ngo, Thoai D

2014-01-01

22

Ethynilestradiol 20?mcg plus Levonorgestrel 100?mcg: Clinical Pharmacology  

PubMed Central

Estroprogestins (EPs) are combinations of estrogen and progestin with several actions on women's health. The different pharmacological composition of EPs is responsible for different clinical effects. One of the most used low-dose EP associations is ethinylestradiol 20?mcg plus levonorgestrel 100?mcg in monophasic regimen (EE20/LNG100). This review summarizes clinical pharmacology, cycle control, and effects on lipid and glucose metabolism, coagulation, body weight/body composition, acne, and sexuality of EE20/LNG100. Overall, EE20/LNG100 combination is safe and well tolerated, and in several studies the incidence of adverse events in the treated group was comparable to that of the placebo group. Cycle control was effective and body weight/body composition did not vary among treated and untreated groups in most studies. The EE20/LNG100 combination shows mild or no effect on lipid and glucose metabolism. Lastly, EE20/LNG100 is associated with a low risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). In conclusion, in the process of decision making for the individualization of EPs choice, EE20/LNG100 should be considered for its favorable clinical profile. PMID:25477960

2014-01-01

23

Low-dose mifepristone 200 mg and vaginal misoprostol for abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness, side effects, and acceptability of one-third the standard 600 mg dose of mifepristone (200 mg) to induce abortion.A prospective trial at seven sites enrolled women ?18 years, up to 8 weeks pregnant, and wanting an abortion. The women received 200 mg mifepristone orally, self-administered 800 ?g misoprostol vaginally at home

Eric A Schaff; Steven H Eisinger; Lisa S Stadalius; Peter Franks; Bernard Z Gore; Suzanne Poppema

1999-01-01

24

Misoprostol  

MedlinePLUS

... who take certain arthritis or pain medicines, including aspirin, that can cause ulcers. It protects the stomach ... and nonprescription medications you are taking, especially antacids, aspirin, arthritis medications, and vitamins.tell your doctor if ...

25

Effectiveness and Safety of Lower Doses of Mifepristone Combined With Misoprostol for the Termination of Ultra-Early Pregnancy: A Dose-Ranging Randomized Controlled Trial.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of lower doses of mifepristone combined with misoprostol for the termination of ultra-early pregnancy. A total of 2500 women with ultra-early pregnancy (amenorrhea ? 35 days) were randomly divided into 5 groups with gradually decreased dose of oral mifepristone from 150 to 50 mg followed by 200 µg of oral misoprostol 24 hours later. The primary end point was complete abortion without surgical intervention. Secondary end points were vaginal bleeding, return of menses, and side effects. Rates of complete abortion were high in all groups. Moreover, the lower doses of mifepristone led to shorter vaginal bleeding period, the return of menses on the expected date, and fewer side effects. Lower doses of mifepristone combined with 200 µg of misoprostol are as effective and safe as higher doses of this combination for the termination of ultra-early pregnancy with lower possibility of vaginal bleeding and side effects. PMID:25394644

Li, Cui-Lan; Chen, Dun-Jin; Song, Li-Ping; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Zhong-Fang; Liu, Ming-Xing; Chen, Wei-Ling

2014-11-12

26

Safety, efficacy, and acceptability of medical abortion in China, Cuba, and India: A comparative trial of mifepristone-misoprostol versus surgical abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: We investigated safety, efficacy, and acceptability of an oral regimen of medical abortion compared with surgical abortion in three developing countries.STUDY DESIGN: Women (n = 1373) with amenorrhea ?56 days chose either surgical abortion (as provided routinely) or 600 mg of mifepristone followed after 48 hours by 400 ?g of misoprostol. This is the appropriate design for studying safety,

Beverly Winikoff; Irving Sivin; Kurus J. Coyaji; Evelio Cabezas; Xiao Bilian; Gu Sujuan; Du Ming-kun; Usha R. Krishna; Andrea Eschen; Charlotte Ellertson

1997-01-01

27

Acceptability and Feasibility of Early Pregnancy Termination by Mifepristone-Misoprostol Results of a Large Multicenter Trial in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate whether the regimen of oral mifepristone and misoprostol for medical abortion is ac- ceptable to women and providers, in the United States, including physicians, nurses, and counselors, and whether proposed modifications of this regimen appear feasible for clinical practice. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Seventeen clinics in 15 states. Participants: A total of 2121 women with pregnancies

Beverly Winikoff; Charlotte Ellertson; Batya Elul; Irving Sivin

1998-01-01

28

[Abortion and misoprostol: health practices and scientific controversy].  

PubMed

This article puts into perspective the controversy between the association of the use of misoprostol for abortion and teratogenicity studies of the type found in a case report. The use of herbal medicinal drugs and the medical-obstetric and national and international norms governing the registration and circulation of pharmaceutical products were examined. Official documents of ANVISA, the Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization on the use of misoprostol, as well as 68 articles such as case reports published in national journals, linking abortion, misoprostol and teratogenicity were reviewed, systematically filed and analyzed using the monographic method. The legal prohibition of abortion prevents the proper prescription and use of a drug such as misoprostol that is both safe and effective. Thus, the danger for the health of women is linked not to the intrinsic characteristics of the drug, but to the moral arguments that constitute negligence and disregard for the fundamental rights of women. PMID:22872339

Corrêa, Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela; Mastrella, Miryam

2012-07-01

29

Mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion: home administration of misoprostol in guadeloupe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion promises to revolutionize reproductive health-care. Several simplifications of the standard three clinic visit regimen may be possible, however. Particularly in developing countries, access to the method can be greatly increased by eliminating the longest clinic visit. Indeed, shortly after mifepristone’s introduction in Guadeloupe, a semi-developed Caribbean territory administered by France, in 1991, two of the authors conducted

Jean-Pierre Guengant; Jacques Bangou; Batya Elul; Charlotte Ellertson

1999-01-01

30

Methotrexate and misoprostol for early abortion: A multicenter trial. I. Safety and efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective trial was conducted including 300 pregant women seeking elective abortion to evaluate the safety and efficacy of methotrexate and misoprostol for abortion at ?56 days gestation. Subjects received methotrexate 50 mg\\/m2 intramuscularly followed 7 days later by misoprostol 800 ?g vaginally. The misoprostol dose was repeated the next day if the abortion did not occur. Outcome measures included

Mitchell D. Creinin; Eric Vittinghoff; Lisa Keder; Philip D. Darney; George Tiller

1996-01-01

31

Induction of labor with misoprostol for premature rupture of membranes beyond thirty-six weeks’ gestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare vaginally administered misoprostol (Cytotec) with intravenous oxytocin for labor induction in women with premature rupture of membranes beyond 36 weeks’ gestation.STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred subjects with rupture of membranes without labor were randomly assigned to receive vaginally administered misoprostol or intravenous oxytocin. Twenty-five micrograms of misoprostol (Cytotec) was placed in the posterior vaginal fornix.

Deborah A. Wing; Richard H. Paul

1998-01-01

32

Effect of misoprostol and cimetidine on gastric cell labeling index  

SciTech Connect

The effect of misoprostol and cimetidine on gastric cell turnover was studied. Endoscopic biopsy specimens of fundic and antral mucosa were obtained from duodenal ulcer patients before and after 4 wk of therapy with cimetidine 1.2 g/day or misoprostol 800 micrograms/day. Biopsy specimens were incubated with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. Glandular column length and number of labeled cells were determined after autoradiography. There was no significant difference in column length of antral or fundic glands before or after therapy with cimetidine and misoprostol. The number of antral and fundic labeled cells was significantly decreased after misoprostol treatment (3.6 +/- 0.3 and 4.6 +/- 0.4, mean +/- SE), as opposed to their respective number before therapy (6.9 +/- 0.5 and 8.3 +/- 0.8) (p less than 0.01). On the other hand, after treatment with cimetidine, the number of antral and fundic labeled cells was significantly higher (11.8 +/- 0.9 and 7.5 +/- 1.0, respectively) as compared with their number before therapy (5.7 +/- 0.5 and 5.6 +/- 0.6, respectively). The decreased gastric cell turnover induced by misoprostol indicates that the trophic effect of prostanoids on gastric mucosa is not due to an increase in cellular kinetics. The increased gastric cell turnover induced by cimetidine may contribute to its therapeutic effect in peptic ulcer disease.

Fich, A.; Arber, N.; Sestieri, M.; Zajicek, G.; Rachmilewitz, D.

1985-07-01

33

Misoprostol protection against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hepatoprotective effects of misoprostol on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced toxicity were studied in the rat. Liver injury was evaluated at 36 hr after APAP administration by measuring serum ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, by using tetranitroblue tetrazolium (TNBT) staining and by histological analysis. After APAP administration, peak serum levels of the drug were detected at 15 min. Liver

S. Ping Lim; Fiona J. Andrews; Paul E. O'Brien

1994-01-01

34

First trimester abortion with mifepristone and vaginal misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the efficacy and side effects of first trimester medical abortion using mifepristone and vaginally administered misoprostol. Medical abortion was first introduced in Denmark in December 1997, and the acceptability of this new approach in a Danish population was evaluated. The study included the first 100 women seeking medical abortion. The gestational age was from 33 to 56

Ulla Breth Knudsen

2001-01-01

35

Recommendations for scale-up of community-based misoprostol distribution programs.  

PubMed

Community-based distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in resource-poor settings has been shown to be safe and effective. However, global recommendations for prenatal distribution and monitoring within a community setting are not yet available. In order to successfully translate misoprostol and PPH research into policy and practice, several critical points must be considered. A focus on engaging the community, emphasizing the safe nature of community-based misoprostol distribution, supply chain management, effective distribution, coverage, and monitoring plans are essential elements to community-based misoprostol program introduction, expansion, or scale-up. PMID:24680582

Robinson, Nuriya; Kapungu, Chisina; Carnahan, Leslie; Geller, Stacie

2014-06-01

36

Misoprostol associated refractile material in fetal and placental tissues after medical termination of pregnancy.  

PubMed

Misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin analog administered vaginally to induce labor for intrauterine death or termination of pregnancy for congenital abnormalities. We encountered a case of misoprostol induction of labor at 14 weeks of gestation for fetal acrania associated with amniotic bands. Histology demonstrated abundant deposits of refractile material appearing to be of vegetable fiber origin on the maternal surface of the fetal membranes. Misoprostol tablet scrapings had a similar microscopic appearance. Ten additional placentas from cases of misoprostol induction of labor between 16 and 18 weeks of gestation were examined and half were found to contain such deposits. No deposits were seen in cases between 15 and 18 weeks of gestation where misoprostol was not used. We attribute the refractile material to a nonmedicinal ingredient, microcrystalline cellulose, in the misoprostol tablet preparation. This study demonstrates that vaginal administration of misoprostol tablets can be detected microscopically in at least half of cases and may have a florid appearance simulating a potential causative factor of fetal malformation. Despite the large amounts of microcrystalline cellulose and its apparent embedding in placental tissue, the misoprostol in our index case was unlikely to have caused the amniotic bands and the resulting cranial abnormality. PMID:18043045

Ho, Vincent; Keating, Sarah; Kingdom, John; Shannon, Patrick

2007-12-01

37

Endothelial cell growth regulation by PGE 1 analog misoprostol and indomethacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of prostaglandins on growth regulation of different cell types was investigated. We studied the effect of exogenous misoprostol in the presence or absence of indomethacin on the cell growth kinetics. Our results clearly show that misoprostol strongly inhibited the growth of several cancer cells but only slightly affected that of endothelial cells. Moreover, indomethacin alone (which decreases PG

T. Patrice; J. Harb; M. T. Foultier; A. Berrada; N. Robillard; J. P. Galmiche; K. Meflah; L. Lebodic

1989-01-01

38

Mifepristone followed on the same day by vaginal misoprostol for early abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a pilot study to examine the clinical efficacy of mifepristone 200 mg followed on the same day by misoprostol 800 ?g vaginally in women with pregnancies up to 49 days gestation. Forty women received mifepristone 200 mg after which they self-inserted misoprostol intravaginally 6 to 8 h later at home. Participants returned for an evaluation, including transvaginal ultrasonography,

Helen C. Pymar; Mitchell D. Creinin; Jill L. Schwartz

2001-01-01

39

[Concentration of minocycline in human aqueous humor after oral administration (author's transl)].  

PubMed

For antibacterial prophylaxis in intraocular surgery minocycline was administered in oral dosage in 22 cataract-patients. The concentration levels reached in the aqueous humor were determined. The detected levels ranged in some cases from 0.08 to 0.2 mcg/ml, the majority was below 0.06 mcg/ml. PMID:310492

Hartwig, H; Mester, U; Krasemann, C

1978-12-01

40

MCG measurement in the environment of active magnetic shield.  

PubMed

MCG (Magnetocardiography) measurement by a SQUID gradiometer was attempted with only active magnetic shielding (active shielding). A three-axis-canceling-coil active shielding system, where three 16-10-16 turns-coil sets were put in the orthogonal directions, produces a homogeneous magnetic field in a considerable volume surrounding the center. Fluxgate sensors were used as the reference sensors of the system. The system can reduce environmental magnetic noise at low frequencies of less than a few Hz, at 50 Hz and at 150 Hz. Reducing such disturbances stabilizes biomagnetic measurement conditions for SQUIDs in the absence of magnetically shielded rooms (MSR). After filtering and averaging the measured MCG data by a first-order SQUID gradiometer with only the active shielding during the daytime, the QRS complex and T wave was clearly presented. PMID:16012640

Yamazaki, K; Kato, K; Kobayashi, K; Igarashi, A; Sato, T; Haga, A; Kasai, N

2004-01-01

41

Novel Cultivation-Based Approach To Understanding the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG) Archaea from Sedimentary Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

The uncultured miscellaneous crenarchaeotic group (MCG) archaea comprise one of the most abundant microbial groups in the Earth's subsurface environment. However, very little information is available regarding the lifestyle, physiology, and factors controlling the distribution of members of this group. We established a novel method using both cultivation and molecular techniques, including a pre-PCR propidium monoazide treatment, to investigate viable members of the MCG in vitro. Enrichment cultures prepared from estuarine sediment were provided with one of a variety of carbon substrates or cultivation conditions and incubated for 3 weeks. Compared with the samples from time zero, there was an order-of-magnitude increase in the number of MCG 16S rRNA genes in almost all cultures, indicating that MCG archaea are amenable to in vitro cultivation. None of the tested substrates or conditions significantly stimulated growth of MCG archaea more than the basal medium alone; however, glycerol (0.02%) had a significantly inhibitory effect (P < 0.05). Diversity analysis of populations resulting from four culture treatments (basal medium, addition of amino acids, H2-CO2 as the gas phase, or initial aerobic conditions) revealed that the majority of viable MCG archaea were affiliated with the MCG-8 and MCG-4 clusters. There were no significant differences in MCG diversity between these treatments, also indicating that some members of MCG-4 and MCG-8 are tolerant of initially oxic conditions. The methods outlined here will be useful for further investigation of MCG archaea and comparison of substrates and cultivation conditions that influence their growth in vitro. PMID:23934495

Huber, Harald; Meador, Travis; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Thomm, Michael

2013-01-01

42

Mucosal protective effects of vitamin E and misoprostol during acute radiation-induced enteritis in rats.  

PubMed

Cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation on gastrointestinal epithelium may be mediated by oxygen free radicals. Therapeutic intervention directed toward oxidant scavenging and increasing tissue oxygen tension may provide a novel approach to management. We investigated the effects of a nonenzymatic oxygen radical scavenger (vitamin E) and an exogenous PGE1 analog known to increase mucosal blood flow (misoprostol) on acute radiation enteritis. Rats were pretreated with: (1) vitamin E, (2) misoprostol, or (3) a combination of both agents prior to 10 Gy abdominal radiation. Three days following irradiation, net fluid absorption using in vivo isolated loops, mucosal histology, and mucosal morphometry using a computerized videoplan were determined in jejunum, ileum, and colon. Nonirradiated control intestine demonstrated net fluid absorption in all segments, which was not altered by vitamin E and/or misoprostol treatment. Irradiation significantly reduced net fluid absorption in jejunum, ileum, and colon. Vitamin E administered prior to irradiation maintained jejunal, ileal, and colonic fluid absorption near control levels. In contrast misoprostol or a combination of vitamin E and misoprostol did not provide protection against the injury caused by abdominal irradiation. Alterations in intestinal fluid absorption occurred without significant changes in histologic or morphometric appearance. In conclusion, ionizing radiation reduces in vivo intestinal fluid absorption without significant changes in histologic or morphometric appearance. Treatment with vitamin E, but not misoprostol, protects gastrointestinal mucosa against radiation-induced absorptive injury. PMID:1735337

Empey, L R; Papp, J D; Jewell, L D; Fedorak, R N

1992-02-01

43

Comparative study of intravaginal misoprostol with gemeprost as an abortifacient in second trimester missed abortion.  

PubMed

This prospective, randomized study compared the efficacy of intravaginal misoprostol (Cytotec) and gemeprost (Cervagem) as an abortifacient for intrauterine deaths in second trimester pregnancy. Side-effects, complications and the cost-effectiveness associated with each drug were assessed. 21 out of 25 patients (84%) in the misoprostol group aborted whereas only 17 out of 25 patients (68%) in the gemeprost group aborted within 24 hours after the initiation of therapy. In the misoprostol group, the abortion rate was influenced by the gestational age with 100% abortion rate for those > 17 weeks' gestation compared to 67% for those with a gestational age of 13-16 weeks. Side-effects were rare in either group and no major complications were reported in either group. Misoprostol was definitely more cost-effective compared to gemeprost as the mean cost of inducing an abortion using misoprostol was RM 1.08 whereas that of gemeprost was RM 105. We thus concluded that misoprostol was at least as effective as gemeprost as an abortifacient for intrauterine death in second trimester pregnancy. Moreover, it was less costly, with very few side-effects. PMID:9325520

Eng, N S; Guan, A C

1997-08-01

44

Mifepristone and misoprostol and methotrexate\\/misoprostol in clinical practice for abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, side-effect profile, and follow-up rates in women who obtain a medical abortion in a nonresearch setting. Study Design: From December 1, 2000, to June 30, 2001, we prospectively followed 218 women who had been evaluated in our private office for medical abortion. Women received either mifepristone 200 mg orally

Mitchell D. Creinin; Cynthia Potter; Maria Holovanisin; Lynn Janczukiewicz; Helen C. Pymar; Jill L. Schwartz; Leslie Meyn

2003-01-01

45

A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the use of mifepristone with sublingual or vaginal misoprostol for medical abortions of less than 9 weeks gestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A combination of mifepristone and misoprostol provides an effective method of medical abortion for early pregnancy. This is the first randomized trial comparing the use of sublingual misoprostol with vaginal misoprostol in combination with mifepristone for termination of early pregnancies up to 63 days. METHODS: A total of 224 women who requested legal termination of pregnancy up to 63

Oi Shan Tang; Carina C. W. Chan; Ernest H. Y. Ng; Sharon W. H. Lee; Pak Chung Ho

2003-01-01

46

Instability of Misoprostol Tablets Stored Outside the Blister: A Potential Serious Concern for Clinical Outcome in Medical Abortion  

PubMed Central

Introduction Misoprostol (Cytotec) is recognised to be effective for many gynaecological indications including termination of pregnancy, management of miscarriage and postpartum haemorrhage. Although not licensed for such indications, it has been used for these purposes by millions of women throughout the world. Misoprostol tablets are most often packaged as multiple tablets within an aluminium strip, each within an individual alveolus. When an alveolus is opened, tablets will be exposed to atmospheric conditions. Objective To compare the pharmaco technical characteristics (weight, friability), water content, misoprostol content and decomposition product content (type A misoprostol, type B misoprostol and 8-epi misoprostol) of misoprostol tablets Cytotec (Pfizer) exposed to air for periods of 1 hour to 720 hours (30 days), to those of identical non exposed tablets. Methods Four hundred and twenty (420) tablets of Cytotec (Pfizer) were removed from their alveoli blister and stored at 25°C/60% relative humidity. Water content, and misoprostol degradation products were assayed in tablets exposed from 1 to 720 hours (30 days). Comparison was made with control tablets (N?=?60) from the same batch stored in non-damaged blisters. Statistical analyses were carried out using Fisher’s exact test for small sample sizes. Results By 48 hours, exposed tablets demonstrated increased weight (+4.5%), friability (+1 300%), and water content (+80%) compared to controls. Exposed tablets also exhibited a decrease in Cytotec active ingredient dosage (?5.1% after 48 hours) and an increase in the inactive degradation products (+25% for type B, +50% for type A and +11% for 8-epi misoprostol after 48 hours) compared to controls. Conclusion Exposure of Cytotec tablets to ‘typical’ European levels of air and humidity results in significant time-dependent changes in physical and biological composition that could impact adversely upon clinical efficacy. Health professionals should be made aware of the degradation of misoprostol with inappropriate storage of misoprostol tablets. PMID:25502819

Berard, Veronique; Fiala, Christian; Cameron, Sharon; Bombas, Teresa; Parachini, Mirella; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

2014-01-01

47

Moderately shielded high-Tc SQUID system for rat MCG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we have developed a 5-channel high-Tc SQUID system with one signal channel intended for rat magnetocardiography (MCG) in moderately shielded or "quiet" real environment. This system is an adapted version of a human MCG system which has been improved with respect to user-friendliness and stability. A dewar with a cold-warm distance of 7 mm and a refill cycle time of up to one week is utilized. The implemented high-Tc SQUIDs are single-layer devices with grain boundary junctions fabricated at KRISS with laser ablation on 10 mm × 10 mm STO substrates. In order to cancel environmental magnetic noise, three of the five SQUIDs are arranged to build an axial software first-order or second-order gradiometer with a base line of 35 mm. The other two SQUIDs are used for balancing. To overcome previous system instabilities, we have implemented an Earth field compensation for each SQUID. For this, the SQUIDs were mounted in capsules containing integrated field compensation coils. The three Earth field components are measured with an additional triaxial fluxgate, and compensated at the SQUID locations using the low-noise current source of the SQUID readout electronics. This way, the SQUIDs can be cooled and operated in a low residual field that improves system stability and reduces low-frequency SQUID noise. It is even possible to slowly move the dewar in the Earth field (dynamic field compensation). Different noise cancellation procedures were optimized and compared employing a periodic signal source.

Bechstein, S.; Kim, I.-S.; Drung, D.; Novikov, I.; Schurig, Th

2010-06-01

48

Misoprostol elevates intracellular calcium in Neuro-2a cells via protein kinase A Javaneh Tamiji b,c  

E-print Network

) and mediate activation of protein kinase A (PKA) through the action of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cMisoprostol elevates intracellular calcium in Neuro-2a cells via protein kinase A Javaneh Tamiji b August 2010 Keywords: Misoprostol Prostaglandin E2 Calcium Fura-2 AM Protein kinase A Neuro-2a cell a b

Crawford, Dorota A.

49

Rectally administered misoprostol for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage unresponsive to oxytocin and ergometrine: a descriptive study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate whether rectally administered misoprostol is an effective treatment for postpartum hemorrhage unresponsive to conventional first-line management.Methods: We studied 14 women with postpartum hemorrhage unresponsive to oxytocin and ergometrine (n = 10) or, when ergometrine was contraindicated, oxytocin alone (n = 4). While awaiting carboprost, misoprostol 1000 ?g (five tablets) was administered rectally.Results: In all 14 women, the

Patrick O’Brien; Hazem El-Refaey; Alasdair Gordon; Michael Geary; Charles H. Rodeck

1998-01-01

50

Prostaglandin E2 and misoprostol induce neurite retraction in Neuro-2a cells Javaneh Tamiji b,c  

E-print Network

Prostaglandin E2 and misoprostol induce neurite retraction in Neuro-2a cells Javaneh Tamiji b June 2010 Keywords: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) Misoprostol Growth cone Calcium transients Differentiation Autism a b s t r a c t Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a key lipid-derived compound which mediates important

Crawford, Dorota A.

51

Perceptions of misoprostol among providers and women seeking post-abortion care in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

In Zimbabwe, abortions are legally restricted and complications from unsafe abortions are a major public health concern. This study in 2012 explored women's and providers' perspectives in Zimbabwe on the acceptability of the use of misoprostol as a form of treatment for complications of abortion in post-abortion care. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 participants at seven post-abortion care facilities. Participants included 73 women of reproductive age who received services for incomplete abortion and 42 providers, including physicians, nurses, midwives, general practitioners and casualty staff. Only 29 providers had previously used misoprostol with their own patients, and only 21 had received any formal training in its use. Nearly all women and providers preferred misoprostol to surgical abortion methods because it was perceived as less invasive, safer and more affordable. Women also generally preferred the non-surgical method, when given the option, as fears around surgery and risk were high. Most providers favoured removing legal restrictions on abortion, particularly medical abortion. Approving use of misoprostol for post-abortion care in Zimbabwe is important in order to reduce unsafe abortion and its related sequelae. Legal, policy and practice reforms must be accompanied by effective reproductive health curricula updates in medical, nursing and midwifery schools, as well as through updated training for current and potential providers of post-abortion care services nationwide. Our findings support the use of misoprostol in national post-abortion care programmes, as it is an acceptable and potentially life-saving treatment option. PMID:25702065

Maternowska, M Catherine; Mashu, Alexio; Moyo, Precious; Withers, Mellissa; Chipato, Tsungai

2015-02-01

52

Role of Sublingual Misoprostol for Cervical Priming in First Trimester Medical Termination of Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sublingual misoprostol as facilitator in first trimester medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) by surgical method. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective open label study conducted at a tertiary center. A total 150 patients at 6-12 wks gestation requesting for MTP were randomized into two groups. Patients in study group (n=75) received sublingual misoprostol three hours before surgical abortion and in control group (n=75) directly underwent surgical abortion without prior cervical priming with misoprostol. The outcomes of both groups were recorded in terms of baseline cervical dilatation, need of additional cervical dilatation, intraoperative blood loss, operative time and procedure related complications. The results were statistically analyzed using student-t test and chi-square test. p-value of <0.05 and <0.001 were considered significant and highly significant respectively. Results: The mean baseline cervical dilatation was significantly more in study group compared to control group (8.6±1.3mm versus 5±2.3mm; p <0.001) and the operative time and intraoperative blood loss were also less (p<0.001). Higher incidence of side effects like nausea, vomiting and pyrexia were recorded in sublingual misoprostol group but were well tolerable to the patients. Conclusion: Sublingual misoprostol is an effective and safe drug for cervical priming prior to surgical evacuation and has good patient acceptability. PMID:25302236

Rani, Jyotsna; Vijayshree

2014-01-01

53

Advance distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) at home births in two districts of Liberia  

PubMed Central

Background A postpartum hemorrhage prevention program to increase uterotonic coverage for home and facility births was introduced in two districts of Liberia. Advance distribution of misoprostol was offered during antenatal care (ANC) and home visits. Feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness of distribution mechanisms and uterotonic coverage were evaluated. Methods Eight facilities were strengthened to provide PPH prevention with oxytocin, PPH management and advance distribution of misoprostol during ANC. Trained traditional midwives (TTMs) as volunteer community health workers (CHWs) provided education to pregnant women, and district reproductive health supervisors (DRHSs) distributed misoprostol during home visits. Data were collected through facility and DRHS registers. Postpartum interviews were conducted with a sample of 550 women who received advance distribution of misoprostol on place of delivery, knowledge, misoprostol use, and satisfaction. Results There were 1826 estimated deliveries during the seven-month implementation period. A total of 980 women (53.7%) were enrolled and provided misoprostol, primarily through ANC (78.2%). Uterotonic coverage rate of all deliveries was 53.5%, based on 97.7% oxytocin use at recorded facility vaginal births and 24.9% misoprostol use at home births. Among 550 women interviewed postpartum, 87.7% of those who received misoprostol and had a home birth took the drug. Sixty-three percent (63.0%) took it at the correct time, and 54.0% experienced at least one minor side effect. No serious adverse events reported among enrolled women. Facility-based deliveries appeared to increase during the program. Conclusions The program was moderately effective at achieving high uterotonic coverage of all births. Coverage of home births was low despite the use of two channels of advance distribution of misoprostol. Although ANC reached a greater proportion of women in late pregnancy than home visits, 46.3% of expected deliveries did not receive education or advance distribution of misoprostol. A revised community-based strategy is needed to increase advance distribution rates and misoprostol coverage rates for home births. Misoprostol for PPH prevention appears acceptable to women in Liberia. Correct timing of misoprostol self-administration needs improved emphasis during counseling and education. PMID:24894566

2014-01-01

54

Comparison effect of intravenous tranexamic acid and misoprostol for postpartum haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the third-most common cause of maternal death in the United States and it is still the first prevalent cause of maternal death in developing countries. Active prevention of haemorrhage with an uterotonic or other new drugs leads to a decrease in postpartum vaginal haemorrhage. The aim of this study was to compare anti-haemorrhagic effect of Tranexamic acid (TXA) and Misoprostol for PPH. Patients and Methods: In a double-blinded randomised control clinical trial, 200 women were included after Caesarean or natural vaginal delivery with abnormal PPH. They were divided into two equal intervention and control groups. Effect of intravenous TXA and Misoprostol for postpartum haemorrhage was examined. Results: The mean age of patients was 26.7 ± 6.5 years which ranged from 14 to 43 years. The sonographic gestational age in the group treated with TXA was 37.7 ± 3.4 weeks and it was 37.4 ± 3.3 weeks for the other group (P = 0.44). The haemorrhage in the TXA and Misoprostol groups was 1.2 ± 0.33 litres and 1.18 ± 0.47 litres, respectively (P = 0.79). The haemoglobin levels after 6-12 hours of labour, in TXA group was more than that of the Misoprostol group, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.22 and P = 0.21, respectively). Conclusion: Regarding to the superior results in Misoprostol group in one hand and lack of significant differences between two groups in haemorrhage during labour, post-partum haemoglobin level and discharge haemoglobin level, we can state that Misoprostol has no specific preferences to TXA, but more studies with greater population are needed. PMID:25114373

Sahhaf, Farnaz; Abbasalizadeh, Shamsi; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Velayati, Atefeh; Khandanloo, Roya; Saleh, Parviz; Piri, Reza; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

2014-01-01

55

Severe morbidities associated with induced abortions among misoprostol users and non-users in a tertiary public hospital in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Misoprostol has become a popular over the counter self-administered abortifacient in Ghana. This study aimed to compare the socio-demographic characteristics and clinical complications associated with misoprostol and non-misoprostol induced abortions among patients admitted to a tertiary public health facility in Ghana. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted at the gynaecological ward of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), over a four-month period using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analysed using Chi-square, Fisher’s exact and student t-tests. Factors associated with severe morbidity were examined using Poisson regression with robust error variance to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Overall, 126 misoprostol users and 126 misoprostol non-users were recruited into the study. About 71% of the clients had self-induced abortions. Misoprostol users were more likely to be younger (p < 0.001), single (p < 0.001), nulliparous (p = 0.001), of higher educational background (p = 0.001), and unemployed (p < 0.001), than misoprostol non-users. Misoprostol users were more likely than non-users to undergo termination of pregnancy because they wanted to continue schooling (p < 0.001) or were not earning regular income to support a family (p = 0.001). Overall, 182 (72.2%) of the women (79.4% misoprostol users vs. 65.1% misoprostol non-users; p = 0.01) suffered severe morbidity. Nulliparous women (adjusted RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.52) and those who had induced abortion after 12 weeks’ gestation (adjusted RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.18-1.57) were at increased risks of experiencing severe morbidity. The association between mode of abortion induction and severe morbidity was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Conclusion Self-induced abortions using misoprostol is a common practice among women in this study; nearly three quarters of them suffered severe morbidity. Nonetheless, severe morbidity among misoprostol users and non-users did not differ significantly but was directly related to the gestational age at which the induced abortions occurred. Health education on the dangers of self-induced abortions and appropriate use of medication abortion could help reduce complications associated with induced abortions in Ghana. PMID:25074294

2014-01-01

56

Investigations of sensitivity and resolution of ECG and MCG in a realistically shaped thorax model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solving the inverse problem of electrocardiography (ECG) and magnetocardiography (MCG) is often referred to as cardiac source imaging. Spatial properties of ECG and MCG as imaging systems are, however, not well known. In this modelling study, we investigate the sensitivity and point-spread function (PSF) of ECG, MCG, and combined ECG+MCG as a function of source position and orientation, globally around the ventricles: signal topographies are modelled using a realistically-shaped volume conductor model, and the inverse problem is solved using a distributed source model and linear source estimation with minimal use of prior information. The results show that the sensitivity depends not only on the modality but also on the location and orientation of the source and that the sensitivity distribution is clearly reflected in the PSF. MCG can better characterize tangential anterior sources (with respect to the heart surface), while ECG excels with normally-oriented and posterior sources. Compared to either modality used alone, the sensitivity of combined ECG+MCG is less dependent on source orientation per source location, leading to better source estimates. Thus, for maximal sensitivity and optimal source estimation, the electric and magnetic measurements should be combined.

Mäntynen, Ville; Konttila, Teijo; Stenroos, Matti

2014-12-01

57

Evaluation of the effectiveness of vaginal misoprostol to induce first trimester abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two doses, 200 and 400 ?g, of misoprostol, administered vaginally every 12 hours, up to four times, were tested in 101 and 133 healthy women, respectively, for interruption of pregnancies with 35 through 77 days of amenorrhea. The proportion of women who aborted increased with longer duration of treatment and was significantly higher with 400 than with 200 ?g (66

A. Bugalho; A. Faúndes; L. Jamisse; M. Usfá; E. Maria; C. Bique

1996-01-01

58

Community-level distribution of misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage at home births in northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria, most deaths due to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) occur in the absence of skilled birth attendants. A study using community mobilization and the training of community drug keepers to increase access to misoprostol for PPH prevention was conducted in five communities around Zaria in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Community-oriented resource persons (CORPs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) recruited and counseled pregnant women on bleeding after delivery, the importance of delivery at a health facility, and the role of misoprostol. Drug keepers stored and dispensed misoprostol during a woman's third trimester of pregnancy. TBAs and CORPs enrolled 1,875 women from January through December 2009. These results are based on 1,577 completed postpartum interviews. Almost all women delivered at home (95%) and skilled attendance at delivery was low (7%). The availability of misoprostol protected 83% of women who delivered at home against PPH who otherwise would not have been protected. Policymakers working in similar contexts should consider utilizing commuity-level distribution models to reach women with this life-saving intervention. PMID:25022154

Ejembi, Clara; Shittu, Oladapo; Moran, Molly; Adiri, Faraouk; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Saadatu, Babalafia; Aku-Akai, Larai; Abdul, Mohammed A; Ajayi, Victor; Williams, Natalie; Prata, Ndola

2014-06-01

59

Effect of vaginal misoprostol on pregnancy rate after intrauterine insemination: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most appropriate and cost-effective methods in infertility treatment. Objective: We aimed to investigate effect of vaginal misoprostol on pregnancy rate after IUI. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and ten infertile women who were referred to Infertility Clinic of Alzahra Hospital by an indication of IUI during 2012-2013 were randomly assigned to receive 200 µg vaginal misoprostol (n=105) or vaginal placebo (n=105) after IUI. For detecting pregnancy, past 2 weeks, beta human chorionic gonadotropin evaluation was made and if positive, transvaginal sonography was done for evaluation of pregnancy 2-3 weeks later and clinical pregnancy was recorded. Results: Pregnancy had been noted in 24 patients in misoprotol (22.9%) and 27 patients in placebo (25.7%) groups that this difference was not significant (p=0.748). In misoprostol group, 3 case of nausea and vomiting (2.9%) had been observed. Conclusion: According to the results, administering 200 µg vaginal misoprostol after IUI doesn’t have significant effect on the success rate of IUI. PMID:25653670

Zahiri sorouri, Ziba; Asgharnia, Maryan; Gholampoor, Ameneh

2015-01-01

60

Termination of 2nd and 3rd trimester pregnancies with mifepristone and misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate our use of the association of mifepristone and misoprostol for terminating second and third trimester pregnancies. Study design: One hundred and six patients undergoing termination of pregnancy between January 1993 and June 1995 in our center were studied. Each patient received 600 mg of mifepristone followed 24 h later by 400

Denis Jannet; Nisard Aflak; Alexandre Abankwa; Bruno Carbonne; Loïc Marpeau; Jacques Milliez

1996-01-01

61

Mifepristone-misoprostol abortion: a trial in rural and urban Maharashtra, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

As several important policy questions remain regarding the use of medical abortion in developing countries, we investigated the safety, efficacy, and acceptability of mifepristone-misoprostol abortion in the outpatient family planning departments of two urban hospitals and one rural hospital in India. Nine-hundred women (with gestations of ?63 days in the urban sites and ?56 days in the rural site) received

Kurus Coyaji; Batya Elul; Usha Krishna; Suhas Otiv; Shubha Ambardekar; Arti Bopardikar; Veena Raote; Charlotte Ellertson; Beverly Winikoff

2002-01-01

62

Civil Society Organizations and medicines policy change: A case study of registration, procurement, distribution and use of misoprostol in Uganda.  

PubMed

Misoprostol use for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) has been promoted by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) since the early 2000s. Yet, CSOs' role in improving access to misoprostol and shaping health policy at global and national levels is not well understood. We document the introduction of misoprostol in Uganda in 2008 from its registration, addition to treatment guidelines and national Essential Medicines List (EML), to its distribution and use. We then analyse the contribution of CSOs to this health policy change and service provision. Policy documents, procurement data and 82 key informant interviews with government officials, healthcare providers, and CSOs in four Ugandan districts of Kampala, Mbarara, Apac, Bundibugyo were collected between 2010 and 2013. Five key CSOs promoted and accelerated the rollout of misoprostol in Uganda. They supported the registration of misoprostol with the National Drug Authority, the development of clinical guidelines, and the piloting and training of health care providers. CSOs and National Medical Stores were procuring and distributing misoprostol country-wide to health centres two years before it was added to the clinical guidelines and EML of Uganda and in the absence of good evidence. The evidence suggests an increasing trend of misoprostol procurement and availability over the medicine of choice, oxytocin. This shift in national priorities has serious ramifications for maternal health care that need urgent evaluation. The absence of clinical guidelines in health centres and the lack of training preclude rational use of misoprostol. CSOs shifted their focus from the public to the private sector, where some of them continue to promote its use for off-label indications including induction of labour and abortion. There is an urgent need to build capacity to improve the robustness of the national and local institutions in assessing the safety and effectiveness of all medicines and their indications in Uganda. PMID:25728484

Atukunda, Esther Cathyln; Brhlikova, Petra; Agaba, Amon Ganafa; Pollock, Allyson M

2015-04-01

63

Synthesis and gastrointestinal pharmacology of a 3E,5Z diene analogue of misoprostol.  

PubMed

A stereospecific synthesis and the gastric antisecretory and diarrheal activity of a 3E,5Z diene analogue of misoprostol are described. The key intermediate in the synthesis was an alpha chain truncated acetylene that was obtained by a cuprate/enolate capture procedure on the corresponding cyclopentenone. Palladium-catalyzed coupling of the acetylene with methyl 4-iodo-3(E)-butenoate provided the conjugated enyne. Although selective hydrogenation of the enyne with Lindlar catalyst failed, the desired 3E,5Z diene was obtained with P-2 nickel as catalyst. The diene was about 3 times more potent than misoprostol in inhibiting gastric acid secretion in dogs and also in producing diarrhea in rats. PMID:3100798

Collins, P W; Kramer, S W; Gasiecki, A F; Weier, R M; Jones, P H; Gullikson, G W; Bianchi, R G; Bauer, R F

1987-01-01

64

Labor induction with intravaginal misoprostol versus intracervical prostaglandin E 2 gel (Prepidil gel): Randomized comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare the safety and efficacy of intravaginal prostaglandin E1, misoprostol, with that of intracervical prostaglandin E2 (Prepidil gel) for labor induction.STUDY DESIGN: One hundred three patients with an indication for induction of labor were randomly assigned to induction with prostaglandin E1, 50 ?g intravaginally, or with Prepidil gel, 0.5 mg intracervically, every 4 hours until

Frank J. Chuck; B. Joyce Huffaker

1995-01-01

65

Première expérience de l'utilisation du Misoprostol comme soin après avortement (SAA) à Libreville, Gabon  

PubMed Central

Introduction Une étude a été menée afin de déterminer le taux d'acceptabilité de 400µg de misoprostol par voie sublinguale comme traitement de première intention de l'avortement incomplet et de préciser le taux d'avortement complet ou vacuité utérine. Méthodes Les femmes éligibles avaient un diagnostic clinique d'avortement incomplet avec une taille utérine inférieure à celle d'un utérus de 12 semaines d'aménorrhées (SA). Chacune a reçu 400µg de misoprostol par voie sublinguale. Les femmes ont été revues après une semaine. A J7, celles qui n'avaient pas complètement expulsé ont eu le choix entre une nouvelle consultation de suivi à J14 et la pratique d'une évacuation chirurgicale immédiate. Résultats 145 patientes ont été éligibles et ont toutes accepté la méthode (100%). L’âge moyen était de 25,9 ± 6 ans. A J7, 120 patientes étaient guéries (85,7%). A J14, le taux de réussitea été de 95,7% soit 134 patientes guéries. Les patientes guéries ont déclaré être très satisfaites (57,5%), satisfaites (41,8%) et insatisfaite (0,7%). Au total,128 femmes (95,5%) ont dit être prêtes à utiliser de nouveau le misoprostol comme méthode d’évacuation utérine en cas d'avortement incomplet. Conclusion L’étude démontre que le 400µg misoprostol par voie sublinguale nous permet de prendre en charge d'une manière adéquate l'avortement incomplet surtout dans les pays à faible ressource et notamment dans les structures sanitaires de première ligne ou éloignées. PMID:25469194

Mayi-Tsonga, Sosthène; Minkobame, Ulysse; Mbila, Arielle; Assoumou, Pamphile; Diop, Ayisha; Winikoff, Beverly

2014-01-01

66

Mifepristone and misoprostol for early medical abortion: 18 months experience in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first 18 months since mifepristone was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use with misoprostol for early medical abortion, approximately 80,000 women have been treated. One-hundred thirty-nine adverse events were reported to Danco Laboratories LLC and subsequently reported to the FDA. Thirteen patients required blood transfusions, 10 patients were treated with antibiotics for infection and

Richard Hausknecht

2003-01-01

67

New hope: community-based misoprostol use to prevent postpartum haemorrhage.  

PubMed

The wide gap in maternal mortality ratios worldwide indicates major inequities in the levels of risk women face during pregnancy. Two priority strategies have emerged among safe motherhood advocates: increasing the quality of emergency obstetric care facilities and deploying skilled birth attendants. The training of traditional birth attendants, a strategy employed in the 1970s and 1980s, is no longer considered a best practice. However, inadequate access to emergency obstetric care and skilled birth attendants means women living in remote areas continue to die in large numbers from preventable maternal causes. This paper outlines an intervention to address the leading direct cause of maternal mortality, postpartum haemorrhage. The potential for saving maternal lives might increase if community-based birth attendants, women themselves, or other community members could be trained to use misoprostol to prevent postpartum haemorrhage. The growing body of evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of misoprostol for this indication raises the question: if achievement of the fifth Millennium Development Goal is truly a priority, why can policy makers and women's health advocates not see that misoprostol distribution at the community level might have life-saving benefits that outweigh risks? PMID:22879523

Prata, Ndola; Passano, Paige; Bell, Suzanne; Rowen, Tami; Potts, Malcolm

2013-07-01

68

Feasibility, Acceptability, and Programme Effectiveness of Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Haemorrhage in Rural Bangladesh: A Quasiexperimental Study  

PubMed Central

We explored the feasibility of distributing misoprostol tablets using two strategies in prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) among women residing in the Abhoynagar subdistrict of Bangladesh. We conducted a quasiexperimental study with a posttest design and nonequivalent comparison and intervention groups. Paramedics distributed three misoprostol tablets, one delivery mat (Quaiyum's delivery mat), a packet of five standardized sanitary pads, and one lidded plastic container with detailed counseling on their use. All materials except misoprostol were also provided with counseling sessions to the control group participants. Postpartum blood loss was measured by paramedics using standardized method. This study has demonstrated community acceptability to misoprostol tablets for the prevention of PPH that reduced overall volume of blood loss after childbirth. Likewise, the delivery mat and pad were found to be useful to mothers as tools for assessing the amount of blood loss after delivery and informing care-seeking decisions. Further studies should be undertaken to explore whether government outreach health workers can be trained to effectively distribute misoprostol tablets among rural women of Bangladesh. Such a study should explore and identify the programmatic requirements to integrate this within the existing reproductive health program of the Government of Bangladesh.

Quaiyum, Abdul; Gazi, Rukhsana; Hossain, Shahed; Wirtz, Andrea; Saha, Nirod Chandra

2014-01-01

69

Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of Syrian hamster embryo cells in utero from cell death and oncogenic transformation  

SciTech Connect

Misoprostol, a PGE analog, is an effective radioprotector of murine intestine and hematopoietic and hair cell renewal systems. The radioprotective nature of misoprostol was extended to examine its ability to influence clonogenic cell survival and induction of oncogenic transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to X rays in utero and assayed in vitro. Hamsters in their 12th day of pregnancy were injected subcutaneously with misoprostal, and 2 h later the pregnant hamsters were exposed to graded doses of X rays. Immediately after irradiation, hamsters were euthanized and embryonic tissue was explanted into culture dishes containing complete growth medium. After a 2-week incubation period, clongenic cell survival and morphologically transformed foci were determined. Survival of misoprostol-treated SHE cells was increased and yielded a dose reduction factor of 1.5 compared to SHE cells treated with X rays alone. In contrast, radiation-induced oncogenic transformation of misoprostol-treated cells was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to cells treated with X rays alone. These studies suggest that misoprostol not only protects normal tissues in vivo from acute radiation injury, but also protects cells, to a large extent, from injury leading to transforming events. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Miller, R.C.; LaNasa, P.; Hanson, W.R. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States)

1994-07-01

70

Optimal sensor distribution for measuring the tangential field components in MCG.  

PubMed

We discuss the optimal arrangement of detectors for a 52-channel magnetocardiogram (MCG) system measuring tangential components of the cardiac magnetic fields. Nowadays, most MCG instruments are designed to cover the whole heart area to maximize the information available from the myocardial magnetic field in a simultaneous measurement. In such a system, detectors should be spread over a sufficiently wide area. However, an increased diameter of the cooling dewar will result in more heat-loss and higher production and maintenance costs. Therefore, we reviewed the spatial sampling theory to determine the proper interval between detectors, and we decided on the number of channels to cover the whole heart area. In order to fit the detector array on the cylindrical dewar economically, we removed the detectors at the corners of the square array. Through simulations using the confidence region method, we verified that our design of the detector array is enough to obtain adequate information from the heart. Simulations also suggested that tangential-component MCG measurement can localize deep current dipoles better than normal-component measurement with the same confidence volume; therefore, we conclude that measurement of the tangential component is more suitable to an MCG system than the normal component. PMID:16012625

Kim, K; Lee, Y H; Kwon, H; Kim, J M; Kim, I S; Park, Y K

2004-01-01

71

ELECTRO-MECHANICAL IMAGING OF THE HEART USING TAGGED MRI AND ECG/MCG ARRAYS  

E-print Network

ELECTRO-MECHANICAL IMAGING OF THE HEART USING TAGGED MRI AND ECG/MCG ARRAYS Aleksandar Jeremi mechanical properties (active stress, passive elasticities, and mechanical activation time) and electrical the mechanical properties, active stress and passive elasticity modulus, of the in vivo heart using magnetic

Nehorai, Arye

72

CAGEN: a modern, PC based computer modeling tool for explosive MCG generators and attached loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the PC based computer program CAGEN. CAGEN models the performance of many varieties of magneto-cumulative-generators (MCG) or magnetic flux compression generators (FCG) which are energized with high explosive (HE). CAGEN models helical wound or coaxial types which have HE on the interior. Any materials and any HE types may be used. The cylindrical radius of the windings (or

J. B. Chase; D. Chato; G. Peterson; P. Pincosy

1997-01-01

73

CAGEN: a modern, PC based computer modeling tool for explosive MCG generators and attached loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the PC based computer program CAGEN in its current state of development. It models the performance of many varieties of magneto-cumulative-generators (MCG) which are energized with high explosive (HE). CAGEN models helical or coaxial types (in the same generator, if desired) which have HE on the interior. Any materials and any HE types may be used. The cylindrical

Jay B. Chase; Donna Chato; Giles Peterson; Phil Pincosy; G. F. Kiuttu

1999-01-01

74

X-ray continuum variability of MCG-6-30-15  

E-print Network

This paper presents a comprehensive examination of the X-ray continuum variability of the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15. The source clearly shows the strong, linear correlation between rms variability amplitude and flux first seen in Galactic X-ray binaries. The high frequency power spectral density (PSD) of MCG-6-30-15 is examined in detail using a Monte Carlo fitting procedure and is found to be well represented by a steep power-law at high frequencies (with a power-law index alpha ~ 2.5), breaking to a flatter slope (alpha ~ 1) below f_br ~ 0.6 - 2.0 x 10^-4 Hz, consistent with the previous results of Uttley, McHardy & Papadakis. The slope of the power spectrum above the break is energy dependent, with the higher energies showing a flatter PSD. At low frequencies the variations between different energy bands are highly coherent while at high frequencies the coherence is significantly reduced. Time lags are detected between energy bands, with the soft variations leading the hard. The magnitude of the lag is small (X-1. The characteristic timescales in these two types of source differ by ~10^5; assuming that these timescales scale linearly with black hole mass then suggests a black hole mass ~10^6 M_sun for MCG-6-30-15. We speculate that the timing properties of MCG-6-30-15 may be analogous to those of Cyg X-1 in its high/soft state and discuss a simple phenomenological model, originally developed to explain the timing properties of Cyg X-1, that can explain many of the observed properties of MCG-6-30-15.

S. Vaughan; A. C. Fabian; K. Nandra

2002-11-19

75

A 3-D model-based registration approach for the PET, MR and MCG cardiac data fusion.  

PubMed

In this paper, a new approach is presented for the assessment of a 3-D anatomical and functional model of the heart including structural information from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional information from positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetocardiography (MCG). The method uses model-based co-registration of MR and PET images and marker-based registration for MRI and MCG. Model-based segmentation of MR anatomical images results in an individualized 3-D biventricular model of the heart including functional parameters from PET and MCG in an easily interpretable 3-D form. PMID:12946476

Mäkelä, Timo; Pham, Quoc Cuong; Clarysse, Patrick; Nenonen, Jukka; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Sipilä, Outi; Hänninen, Helena; Lauerma, Kirsi; Knuuti, Juhani; Katila, Toivo; Magnin, Isabelle E

2003-09-01

76

Demonstration of specific E-type prostaglandin receptors using enriched preparations of canine parietal cells and (/sup 3/H)misoprostol free acid  

SciTech Connect

High-affinity, E-type prostaglandin binding sites in enriched canine parietal cell preparations were identified with (/sup 3/H) misoprostol free acid, a prostaglandin E1 analogue. Saturable, reversible, and highly stereospecific binding was identified, with approximately 8000 binding sites per cell. Prostaglandin I and F bound weakly, and cimetidine and histamine did not bind. The results indicate that (/sup 3/H) misoprostol free acid binds to E-type prostaglandin receptors, which suggests that the ulcer-healing inhibition of gastric acid secretion by misoprostol results from its interaction with a specific E-type prostaglandin receptor.

Tsai, B.S.; Kessler, L.K.; Schoenhard, G.; Collins, P.W.; Bauer, R.F.

1987-07-27

77

A 3-D model-based registration approach for the PET, MR and MCG cardiac data fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new approach is presented for the assessment of a 3-D anatomical and functional model of the heart including structural information from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional information from positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetocardiography (MCG). The method uses model-based co-registration of MR and PET images and marker-based registration for MRI and MCG. Model-based segmentation of

Timo Mäkelä; Quoc-Cuong Pham; Patrick Clarysse; Jukka Nenonen; Jyrki Lötjönen; Outi Sipilä; Helena Hänninen; Kirsi Lauerma; Juhani Knuuti; Toivo Katila; Isabelle E. Magnin

2003-01-01

78

Fetal MCG and fetal MEG measurements with a 3-channel SQUID system.  

PubMed

Since the high costs of common large array SQUID system may hinder widespread application of fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG) and magnetocardiography (fMCG), we intended to investigate a small non-commercial 3-channel SQUID system. The system comprises 3 axial first order gradiometers with 7 cm base length, 2 cm diameter and 2x2 windings of niobium wire, dc-SQUIDs (UJ-111), and current locked mode SQUID electronics that form an equal length triangle (22.5 mm). The system is mounted in a Cryostat BFH-7 model 16 with 5 mm "warm"-"cold" distance. System noise is about 10 fT/Hz1/2. The fMEG and fMCG were recorded between 29 - 40 weeks of gestation after sonographic localization of the fetal head and heart using a 31-channel biomagnetometer (Philips) and the 3-channel-system, both in the same magnetically shielded room. The fMEG was recorded continuously over 500 sec (500 auditory stimuli, 100 dB SPL, 500 Hz, 50 ms, ISI 0.8-1.2/1.6-2.4 sec, trigger channel, maternal ECG lead, sampling rate 1 kHz). The fMCG was recorded over a period of 5 minutes after dewar readjustment. The detection rates of cortical auditory evoked responses (CAER) reached 100 % for both systems. Cross confirmation of the components was difficult and may have uncovered false positive component detection. The fMCG was characterized by a systematic increase in SNR under application of the smaller device. The small size array provides a profitable alternative for the fetal applications. PMID:16012661

Schneider, U; Giessler, F; Nowak, H; Logemann, T; Grimm, B; Haueisen, J; Schleussner, E

2004-01-01

79

NOTE: Entropy-based automated classification of independent components separated from fMCG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is a noninvasive technique suitable for the prenatal diagnosis of the fetal heart function. Reliable fetal cardiac signals can be reconstructed from multi-channel fMCG recordings by means of independent component analysis (ICA). However, the identification of the separated components is usually accomplished by visual inspection. This paper discusses a novel automated system based on entropy estimators, namely approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn), for the classification of independent components (ICs). The system was validated on 40 fMCG datasets of normal fetuses with the gestational age ranging from 22 to 37 weeks. Both ApEn and SampEn were able to measure the stability and predictability of the physiological signals separated with ICA, and the entropy values of the three categories were significantly different at p <0.01. The system performances were compared with those of a method based on the analysis of the time and frequency content of the components. The outcomes of this study showed a superior performance of the entropy-based system, in particular for early gestation, with an overall ICs detection rate of 98.75% and 97.92% for ApEn and SampEn respectively, as against a value of 94.50% obtained with the time-frequency-based system.

Comani, S.; Srinivasan, V.; Alleva, G.; Romani, G. L.

2007-03-01

80

Low-dose mifepristone followed by vaginal misoprostol at 48 hours for abortion up to 63 days  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness, side effects, and acceptability of one-third the standard dose of mifepristone, ie, 200 mg, and vaginal misoprostol 800 ?g to induce abortion in subjects ?56 days pregnant with subjects 57–63 days pregnant. A prospective multicenter trial enrolled healthy women ?18 years, ?63 days pregnant, and wanting an abortion. Women received

Eric A Schaff; Stephen L Fielding; Steven H Eisinger; Lisa S Stadalius; Lisa Fuller

2000-01-01

81

Cervical priming with misoprostol before manual vacuum aspiration versus electric vacuum aspiration for first-trimester surgical abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo compare the efficacy of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) with electric vacuum aspiration (EVA) and to evaluate whether cervical priming with misoprostol facilitates cervical dilation and reduces complications associated with first-trimester medical abortion performed up to 10weeks of pregnancy.

Suneeta Mittal; Rohini Sehgal; Sagarika Aggarwal; Janaki Aruna; Anupama Bahadur; Guresh Kumar

2011-01-01

82

Social networks and health policy: The case of misoprostol and the WHO model essential medicine list.  

PubMed

The WHO Essential Medicines List (EML) was established to help countries prioritise medicines according to their health care needs. Selection for the List is based on rigorous scrutiny of public health relevance, evidence on efficacy and safety, and comparative cost effectiveness. The WHO ideal is that a medicine and its efficacy are based on science, but in reality a medicine has a social life and the acceptance of a pharmaceutical intervention involves the interaction of a wide array of governmental and civil society organisations, and industry. Misoprostol is a medicine widely used for both abortion and prevention of postpartum haemorrhage in low income countries. Although the evidence for the latter is highly contested it was nevertheless added to the WHO EML in 2011. We use social network analysis to examine the social, political and economic field surrounding the WHO EML applications and health policy. We describe a chronology of the drug's use and of the applications to the WHO EML and carry out a social network analysis of the organisations and individuals involved in the applications, research and dissemination. The research identified a network of 238 organisations and individuals involved in the promotion of misoprostol for postpartum haemorrhage and present at the time of the WHO EML applications. There is a strong interdependency between the funding bodies, civil society organisations, researchers and clinician organisations. The research was part of an EU FP7 funded project on Accessing Medicines in Africa and South Asia (2010-2013). PMID:25818380

Millard, Colin; Brhlikova, Petra; Pollock, Allyson

2015-05-01

83

Prevention of NSAID-Associated Gastroduodenal Injury in Healthy Volunteers-A Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Study Comparing DA-9601 with Misoprostol  

PubMed Central

In addition to inhibiting cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may cause gastroduodenal injuries due to reactive oxygen species produced by recruited inflammatory cells. DA-9601 is a novel antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and cyto-protective effects. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of DA-9601 with misoprostol for preventing NSAID-associated gastroduodenal injury. In this randomized, double-blind, multicenter, noninferiority trial we compared the extents of protection of gastric and duodenal mucosae by endoscopy after 4 weeks of treatment with DA-9601 60 mg or misoprostol 200 µg three times daily, in subjects with normal baseline endoscopic findings who received an NSAID twice daily for 4 weeks. A total of 266 subjects were randomized to treatment. At week 4, the gastric protection rates with DA-9601 and misoprostol were 85.1% and 95.2%, respectively; the difference between the groups was -10.1% (var = 0.001), which was shown to indicate noninferiority of DA-9601 compared to misoprostol. Adverse events were lower in the DA-9601 group, 56.4% (95% CI, 48.0%-64.8%) than in the misoprostol group, 69.2% (95% CI, 61.3%-77.0%) (P = 0.031). DA-9601 is not inferior to misoprostol for preventing NSAID-associated gastroduodenal injury, and superior to it with respect to treatment-related side effects. PMID:21860559

Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Choi, Seok Reyol; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Choi, Suck Chei; Rew, Jong Sun

2011-01-01

84

BeppoSAX observations of Mrk 509 and MCG +8-11-11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BeppoSAX observations of the Seyfert galaxies Mrk 509 and MCG +8-11-11 are presented. Earlier evidence of a soft excess in Mrk 509 is confirmed. This excess is found to be better represented by a power law than by a black body: with a photon slope Gamma_s of 2.5, its extrapolation matches the flux recorded in the far UV. An ASCA observation, which appeared to exclude the presence of the excess while showing instead evidence of a warm absorber, turns out to be compatible with the coexistence of the excess seen with BeppoSAX and of the warm absorber. The hard power law of Mrk 509 is seen for the first time to be affected by a cut-off at high energies, with an e-folding energy of about 70 keV. In MCG +8-11-11 the cut-off is found at about 170 keV, consistent within the combined errors with a previous estimate from a ASCA+OSSE/CGRO observation. In both objects the reflection component is clearly detected. In Mrk 509 its strength, together with that of the iron K line, indicates a solid angle Omega , subtended by the reprocessing gas in the accretion disk, much less than 2pi , but lacking a valid constraint on the inclination angle this evidence is not as convincing as that found with BeppoSAX in IC 4329A. In MCG +8-11-11 the same parameters are instead consistent with Omega =2pi , but the comparison with an ASCA observation, when the flux level was about 2.5 times weaker, suggests that a substantial fraction of the angle might be associated with gas farther out than the accretion disk.

Perola, G. C.; Matt, G.; Fiore, F.; Grandi, P.; Guainazzi, M.; Haardt, F.; Maraschi, L.; Mineo, T.; Nicastro, F.; Piro, L.

2000-06-01

85

Cellulase production in continuous and fed-batch culture by Trichoderma reesei MCG80  

SciTech Connect

Continuous culture of Natick's strain MCG80 of Trichoderma reesei at a dilution rate of 0.028 h/sup -1/ has yielded a cellulase titer of over 61 U/mL using 5% lactose as the sole carbon source. Enzyme productivity at this dilution rate is 168 IU/L/h. Repeated fed-batch cultures using this strain on lactose as the carbon source have titers of 10 IU/mL with productivities in excess of 100 IU/L/h. 5 figures, 1 table.

Allen, A.L.; Andreotti, R.E.

1982-01-01

86

High Energy Break and Reflection Features in the Seyfert Galaxy MCG+8-11-11  

E-print Network

We present the results from ASCA and OSSE simultaneous observations of the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy MCG+8-11-11 performed in August-September 1995. The ASCA observations indicate a modest flux increase (20%) in 3 days, possibly correlated to a softening of the 0.6-9 keV spectrum. The spectrum is well described by a hard power law (Gamma=1.64) absorbed by a column density slightly larger than the Galactic value, with an iron line at 6.4 keV of EW=400 eV. The simultaneous OSSE data are characterized by a much softer power law with photon index Gamma=3.0, strongly suggesting the presence of a spectral break in the hard X/soft gamma-ray band. A joint fit to OSSE and ASCA data clearly shows an exponential cut-off at about 300 keV, and strong reflection component. MCG+8-11-11 features a spectral break in the underlying continuum unambiguously. This, together with the inferred low compactness of this source, favours thermal or quasi-thermal electron Comptonization in a structured Corona as the leading process of high energy radiation production.

P. Grandi; F. Haardt; G. Ghisellini; E. J. Grove; L. Maraschi; C. M. Urry

1997-11-20

87

Cagen:. a Modern, PC Based Computer Modeling Tool for Explosive MCG Generators and Attached Loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will describe the PC based computer program CAGEN. CAGEN models the performance of many varieties of Magneto-Cumulative-Generators (MCG) or Magnetic Flux Compression Generators (FCG) that are energized with High Explosive (HE). CAGEN models helical wound or coaxial types, which have HE on the interior. Any materials and any HE types may be used. The cylindrical radius of the windings (or outer conductor) and the radius of the armature may vary with axial position. Variable winding width, thickness, and pitch can be represented, and divided windings are allowed. The MHD equations are used to advance the diffusion of magnetic field into the conductors in order to compute resistance, melting, and contact effects. Magnetic pressure effects are included. The MCG model is treated as part of a lumped circuit, which includes the priming circuit, an opening fuse switch, an inline storage inductance, a transformer or a voltage dividing fuse, peaking-circuit, and several interesting load models. A typical problem will complete in a few seconds to a few minutes. Graphical input, run control, and analysis of results is provided by MathGraf, which is a CARE'N CO. application.

Chase, J. B.; Chato, D.; Peterson, G.; Pincosy, P.; Kiuttu, G. F.

2004-11-01

88

Is Low Dose Vaginal Misoprostol Better Than Dinoprostone Gel For Induction of Labor: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety profile of low dose vaginal misoprostol with dinoprostone gel for induction of labor in term pregnancies. Methods: The study was conducted at Lady Hardinge Medical College and Smt Sucheta Kriplani Hospital on 100 pregnant women with term pregnancy after application of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The women were randomized in 2 groups of 50 women each. Group I received misoprostol 25?g at every six hour vaginally for a maximum of five doses for induction of labor; while group II received dinoprostone gel 0.5 mg every six hourly for a maximum of three doses. Maternal outcomes such as mode of delivery and induction delivery interval; and fetal outcomes such as APGAR score and incidence of NICU admission were assessed in both the groups. Statistical analysis was done using student t-test and chi-square test. Results: There was no significant difference in the mean induction to delivery interval in both the groups (14.32±0.13 hours in Group I and 14.92±0.18 hours in Group II, p=0.75), mode of delivery, indication of cesarean section and perinatal outcome. However, significant difference was observed in requirement of oxytocin augmentation in both the groups (32% in Group I and 68% in Group II, p=0.005). Conclusion: Vaginal misoprostol in low doses is similar in efficacy and safety to dinoprostone gel for cervical ripening and labor induction in term pregnancy. PMID:25386492

Agrawal, Swati; Puri, Manju; Nigam, Aruna; Kaur, Harvinder; Trivedi, Shubha Sagar

2014-01-01

89

The efficient low-mass Seyfert MCG-05-23-016  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-05-23-016 has been shown to exhibit a complex X-ray spectrum. This source has moderate X-ray luminosity, hosts a comparably low-mass black hole, but accretes at a high Eddington rate, and allows us to study a super massive black hole in an early stage. Methods: Three observations of the INTEGRAL satellite simultaneous with pointed Swift/XRT observations performed from December 2006 to June 2007 are used in combination with public data from the INTEGRAL archive to study the variability of the hard X-ray components and to generate a high-quality spectrum from 1 to 150 keV. Results: The AGN shows little variability in the hard X-ray spectrum, with some indication of a variation in the high-energy cut-off energy ranging from 50 keV to ?100 keV, with an electron plasma temperature in the 10-90 keV range. The reflection component is not evident and, if present, the reflected fraction can be constrained to R < 0.3 for the combined data set. Comparison to previous observations shows that the reflection component has to be variable. No variability in the UV and optical range is observed on a time scale of 1.5 years. Conclusions: The hard X-ray spectrum of MCG-05-23-016 appears to be stable with the luminosity and underlying power law varying moderately and the optical/UV flux staying constant. The reflection component and the iron K? line seem to have decreased between December 2005 and the observations presented here. The spectral energy distribution appears to be similar to that of Galactic black hole systems, e.g. XTE 1118+480 in the low state. The AGN exhibits a remarkably high Eddington ratio of L_bol/L_Edd >(or L_bol/L_Edd >~0.1, if we consider a higher mass of the central engine) and, at the same time, a low cut-off energy around 70 keV. Objects like MCG-05-23-016 might indicate the early stages of super massive black holes, in which a strong accretion flow feeds the central engine. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA.

Beckmann, V.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Gehrels, N.; Lubi?ski, P.; Malzac, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Shrader, C. R.; Soldi, S.

2008-12-01

90

XMM-Newton observation of the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy, MCG+8-11-11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the XMM-Newton observation of the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy, MCG+8-11-11. Data from the EPIC/p-n camera, the Reflection Gratings Spectrometers (RGS), and the Optical Monitor (OM) were analyzed. The p-n spectrum was fitted well by a power law, a spectrally unresolved Fe K? line, a Compton reflection component (whose high value, when compared to the iron line equivalent width, suggests iron underabundance), and absorption by warm material. Absorption lines are apparent in the RGS spectra, but their identification is uncertain and would require large matter velocities. The UV fluxes measured by the OM are well above the extrapolation of the X-ray spectrum, indicating the presence of a UV bump.

Matt, G.; Bianchi, S.; de Rosa, A.; Grandi, P.; Perola, G. C.

2006-01-01

91

Interacting Dark Energy Model: Exact Analytic Solution and Equivalent Scenario for MCG and Scalar field  

E-print Network

Dark energy models have got tremendous enthusiasm recently both from theoretical and observational point of view. In the present work we assume that the universe at present is dominated by dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE) which do not evolve separately but interact non-gravitationally with one another and are equivalent to a single dark fluid. We construct explicit solutions for two choices of the equation of state parameter for DE and results are analyzed both graphically as well as analytically. The modified chaplygin gas (MCG) model is shown to be compatible with this effective single dark fluid as well as different interacting holographic dark energy (HDE) models characterized by various IR cut off lengths. Finally, we establish the equivalence between HDE with different scalar field models.

Supriya Pan; Subenoy Chakraborty

2014-04-02

92

Hubble Space Telescope images of the Seyfert galaxies NGC 5929 and MCG 8-11-11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the initial results of a program to obtain high resolution images of Seyfert galaxies with the Planetary Camera aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In this paper we discuss the images of the type 2 Seyfert NGC 5929 and the type 1.5 Seyfert MCG 8-11-11 (= UGC 3374). The images were obtained in the emission lines of (O III) lambda lambda 4959 and 5007 A and H alpha + (N II) lambda lambda 6548 and 6583 A and their adjacent continua. The high-excitation gas in the narrow line region (NLR) of NGC 5929 is resolved into individual clouds in the central 1 sec .5. Although the (O III) emission is clearly not spherically symmetric with respect to the nucleus, it does not define a distinct 'bicone' morphology, as observed by the HST in a few other Seyfert galaxies. We find no direct evidence for the reddening and/or obscuration effects characteristic of a dusty torus, which, in the context of 'unified models', is expected to obscure the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in type 2 Seyfert galaxies. The correspondence between the emission line gas and the radio morphology suggests that the structure of the NLR in NGC 5929 is governed by matter ejected from the AGN. A comparison of the recombination rate of hydrogen in the brightest emission line cloud with an upper limit on the ionizing luminosity emitted toward Earth provides no evidence that the central ionizing source radiates anisotropically. The images of MCG 8-11-11 show only an unresolved nuclear source. No emission line gas associated with the extended radio source is detected. We estimate upper limits on the intensity of extended line emission in this galaxy and examine their significance.

Bower, Gary A.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Mulchaey, John S.; Miley, George K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Krolik, Julian H.

1994-01-01

93

Principal component analysis of MCG-06-30-15 with XMM-Newton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse the spectral variability of MCG-06-30-15 with 600 k s of XMM-Newton data, including 300 k s of new data from the joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR 2013 observational campaign. We use principal component analysis to find high-resolution, model-independent spectra of the different variable components of the spectrum. We find that over 99 per cent of the variability can be described by just three components, which are consistent with variations in the normalization of the power-law continuum (˜97 per cent), the photon index (˜2 per cent) and the normalization of a relativistically blurred reflection spectrum (˜0.5 per cent). We also find a fourth significant component but this is heavily diluted by noise, and we can attribute all the remaining spectral variability to noise. All three components are found to be variable on time-scales from 20 down to 1 k s, which corresponds to a distance from the central black hole of less than 70 gravitational radii. We compare these results with those derived from spectral fitting, and find them to be in very good agreement with our interpretation of the principal components. We conclude that the observed relatively weak variability in the reflected component of the spectrum of MCG-06-30-15 is due to the effects of light-bending close to the event horizon of the black hole, and demonstrate that principal component analysis is an effective tool for analysing spectral variability in this regime.

Parker, M. L.; Marinucci, A.; Brenneman, L.; Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E.; Matt, G.; Walton, D. J.

2014-01-01

94

On the origin of the broad, relativistic iron line of MCG-6-30-15 observed by XMM-Newton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relativistic iron line profile recently observed by XMM-Newton in the spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15 (Wilms et al. \\cite{Wilms01}) is discussed in the framework of the lamp-post model. It is shown that the steep disc emissivity, the large line equivalent width and the amount of Compton reflection can be self-consistently reproduced in this scenario.

Martocchia, A.; Matt, G.; Karas, V.

2002-03-01

95

Oral myiasis.  

PubMed

Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

2015-01-01

96

Oral Myiasis  

PubMed Central

Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

2015-01-01

97

Supernova 2011at = PSN J09285756-1448206 in MCG -02-24-27  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Announces the discovery of SN 2011at = PSN J09285756-1448206 in MCG -02-24-27 by Lou Cox, Jack Newton, and Tim Puckett (Ellijay, GA, in the course of the Puckett Observatory Supernova Search) on 2011 March 10.214 UT at unfiltered CCD magnitude 14.5. Spectra obtained March 11.81 UT with the Swift satellite (+UVOT) by F. Bufano (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Osservatorio Astronomico di Catania), S. Benetti (INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova), and A. Pastorello (Queen's University, Belfast, et al.); and on March 12 UT with the F. L. Whipple Observatory 1.5-m telescope (+FAST) by M. Calkins (reported by G. H. Marion, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), on behalf of the CfA Supernova Group) show SN 2011at to be a type-Ia supernova a few days before/around maximum. The object was designated PSN J09285756-1448206 when posted on the Central Bureau's Transient Objects Confirmation Page (TOCP) webpage. Initially announced in CBET 2676 (Daniel W. ! E. Green, ed.). Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

Waagen, Elizabeth O.

2011-03-01

98

The changing X-ray time lag in MCG-6-30-15  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MCG-6-30-15 is one of the most observed narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies in the X-ray band. In this paper, we examine the X-ray time lags in this source using a total of 600 ks in observations (440 ks exposure) taken with the XMM-Newton telescope (300 ks in 2001 and 300 ks in 2013). Both the old and new observations show the usual hard lag that increases with energy; however, the hard lag turns over to a soft lag at frequencies below ˜10-4 Hz. The highest frequencies (˜10-3 Hz) in this source show a clear soft lag, as previously presented for the first 300 ks observation, but no clear iron K lag is detected in either the old or new observation. The soft lag is more significant in the old observation than the new. The observations are consistent with a reverberation interpretation, where the soft, reflected emission is delayed with respect to the hard power-law component. These spectral timing results suggest that two distinct variability mechanisms are important in this source: intrinsic coronal variations (which lead to correlated variability in the reprocessed emission) and geometrical changes in the corona. Variability due to geometrical changes does not result in correlated variability in the reflection, and therefore inhibits the clear detection of an iron K lag.

Kara, E.; Fabian, A. C.; Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Parker, M. L.; Alston, W.; Brenneman, L. W.; Cackett, E. M.; Miniutti, G.

2014-11-01

99

A SUZAKU OBSERVATION OF MCG -2-58-22: CONSTRAINING THE GEOMETRY OF THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR MATERIAL  

SciTech Connect

We have analyzed a long-look Suzaku observation of the active galactic nucleus MCG -2-58-22, a type 1.5 Seyfert with very little X-ray absorption in the line of sight and prominent features arising from reflection off circumnuclear material: the Fe line and Compton reflection hump. We place tight constraints on the power-law photon index ({Gamma} = 1.80 {+-} 0.02), the Compton reflection strength (R = 0.69 {+-} 0.05), and the Fe K emission line energy centroid and width (E = 6.40 {+-} 0.02 keV, v{sub FWHM} < 7100 km s{sup -1}). We find no significant evidence either for emission from strongly ionized Fe, or for a strong, relativistically broadened Fe line, indicating that perhaps there is no radiatively efficient accretion disk very close in to the central black hole. In addition, we test a new self-consistent physical model from Murphy and Yaqoob, the 'MYTORUS' model, consisting of a donut-shaped torus of material surrounding the central illuminating source and producing both the Compton hump and the Fe K line emission. From the application of this model we find that the observed spectrum is consistent with a Compton-thick torus of material (column density N{sub H} = 3.6{sup +1.3}{sub -0.8} x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}) lying outside of the line of sight to the nucleus, leaving it bare of X-ray absorption in excess of the Galactic column. We calculate that this material is sufficient to produce all of the Fe line flux without the need for any flux contribution from additional Compton-thin circumnuclear material.

Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard, E-mail: erivers@ucsd.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States)

2011-05-01

100

Once-daily fluticasone furoate 50 mcg in mild-to-moderate asthma: a 24-week placebo-controlled randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background Inhaled glucocorticosteroids (ICS) are the mainstay of treatment in asthma. Fluticasone furoate (FF) is a novel, once-daily ICS asthma therapy. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of FF 50 mcg in patients with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma. Methods A 24-week, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled and active-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group phase III study. Three hundred and fifty-one patients (aged ?12 years; uncontrolled by non-ICS therapy) were randomized to treatment (1 : 1 : 1) with once-daily FF 50 mcg dosed in the evening, twice-daily fluticasone propionate (FP) 100 mcg or placebo. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in evening trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at Week 24. Secondary endpoints were change from baseline in the percentage of rescue-free 24-h periods (powered endpoint), change from baseline in evening and morning peak expiratory flow, change from baseline in the percentage of symptom-free 24-h periods and number of withdrawals due to lack of efficacy. Results Evening trough FEV1 at Week 24 was not statistically significantly increased with FF 50 mcg once-daily (37 ml [95% CI: ?55, 128]; P = 0.430), but was with FP 100 mcg twice daily (102 ml [10, 194]; P = 0.030), vs placebo. No consistent trends were observed across other endpoints, including the powered secondary endpoint. No safety concerns were raised for either active treatment. Conclusions FP 100 mcg twice daily improved evening trough FEV1 in patients with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma, but FF 50 mcg once daily did not demonstrate a significant effect. Secondary endpoints showed variable results. No safety concerns were identified for FF or FP. PMID:25040613

Busse, W W; Bateman, E D; O'Byrne, P M; Lötvall, J; Woodcock, A; Medley, H; Forth, R; Jacques, L

2014-01-01

101

Sublingual Misoprostol versus Intramuscular Oxytocin for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Uganda: A Double-Blind Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the World Health Organization recommends use of oxytocin for prevention of PPH, misoprostol use is increasingly common owing to advantages in shelf life and potential for sublingual administration. There is a lack of data about the comparative efficacy of oxytocin and sublingual misoprostol, particularly at the recommended dose of 600 µg, for prevention of PPH during active management of labor. Methods and Findings We performed a double-blind, double-dummy randomized controlled non-inferiority trial between 23 September 2012 and 9 September 2013 at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda. We randomized 1,140 women to receive 600 µg of misoprostol sublingually or 10 IU of oxytocin intramuscularly, along with matching placebos for the treatment they did not receive. Our primary outcome of interest was PPH, defined as measured blood loss ?500 ml within 24 h of delivery. Secondary outcomes included measured blood loss ?1,000 ml; mean measured blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 h after delivery; death; requirement for blood transfusion; hemoglobin changes; and use of additional uterotonics. At 24 h postpartum, primary PPH occurred in 163 (28.6%) participants in the misoprostol group and 99 (17.4%) participants in the oxytocin group (relative risk [RR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.05, p<0.001; absolute risk difference 11.2%, 95% CI 6.44 to 16.1). Severe PPH occurred in 20 (3.6%) and 15 (2.7%) participants in the misoprostol and oxytocin groups, respectively (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.58, p?=?0.391; absolute risk difference 0.9%, 95% CI ?1.12 to 2.88). Mean measured blood loss was 341.5 ml (standard deviation [SD] 206.2) and 304.2 ml (SD 190.8, p?=?0.002) at 2 h and 484.7 ml (SD 213.3) and 432.8 ml (SD 203.5, p<0.001) at 24 h in the misoprostol and oxytocin groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups in any other secondary outcomes. Women in the misoprostol group more commonly experienced shivering (RR 1.91, 95% CI 1.65 to 2.21, p<0.001) and fevers (RR 5.20, 95% CI 3.15 to 7.21, p?=?0.005). This study was conducted at a regional referral hospital with capacity for emergency surgery and blood transfusion. High-risk women were excluded from participation. Conclusions Misoprostol 600 µg is inferior to oxytocin 10 IU for prevention of primary PPH in active management of labor. These data support use of oxytocin in settings where it is available. While not powered to do so, the study found no significant differences in rate of severe PPH, need for blood transfusion, postpartum hemoglobin, change in hemoglobin, or use of additional uterotonics between study groups. Further research should focus on clarifying whether and in which sub-populations use of oxytocin would be preferred over sublingual misoprostol. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01866241 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25369200

Atukunda, Esther C.; Siedner, Mark J.; Obua, Celestino; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R.; Twagirumukiza, Marc; Agaba, Amon G.

2014-01-01

102

Variability of serum drug level following a single oral dose of dipyridamole  

SciTech Connect

Serum dipyridamole levels were measured in 27 patients undergoing planar thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy after receiving a 300 mg oral dose. Mean serum dipyridamole level was 2.9 +/- 1.6 mcg/ml (range 0.2-5.7). No correlation was found between serum level and symptoms, heart rate or blood pressure response, peak heart to lung thallium activity ratio, peak heart to liver thallium activity ratio, or peak myocardial thallium washout. Serum level following a single oral dose of dipyridamole is unpredictable and patients with low drug levels cannot be easily identified at the time of study.

Segall, G.M.; Davis, M.J.

1988-10-01

103

Soft X-Ray Emission Lines from a Relativistic Accretion Disk in MCG -6-30-15 and Mrk 766  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectra of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies MCG -6-30-15 and Mrk 766 are physically and spectroscopically inconsistent with standard models comprising a power-law continuum absorbed by either cold or ionized matter. We propose that the remarkably similar features detected in both objects in the 5 - 35 A band are H-like oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon emission lines, gravitation- ally redshifted and broadened by relativistic effects in the vicinity of a Kerr black hole. We discuss the implications of our interpretation, and demonstrate that the derived parameters can be physically self-consistent.

Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Sako, M.; Kahn, S. M.; Brinkman, A. C.; Kaastra, J. S.; Page, M. J.

2000-01-01

104

Oral Medication  

MedlinePLUS

... doctor before starting anything new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money by finding the right type and dosage of medicine for your needs. In this section Treatment and ...

105

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Oral Cancer Are You at Risk? What Are the Signs & Symptoms? Should You Have an Oral Cancer Exam? U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ... Health Early Detection It is important to find oral cancer as early as possible when it can be ...

106

RXTE and BeppoSAX Observations of MCG-5-23-16: Reflection From Distant Cold Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine the spectral variability of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-5-23-16 using RXTE and BeppoSAX observations spanning 2 years from April 1996 to April 1998. During the first year the X-ray source brightens by a factor of approximately 25% on timescales of days to months. During this time, the reprocessed continuum emission seen with RXTE does not respond measurably to the continuum increase. However, by the end of the second year during the BeppoSAX epoch the X-ray source has faded again. This time, the reprocessed emission has also faded, indicating that the reprocessed flux has responded to the continuum. If these effects are caused by time delays due to the distance between the X-ray source and the reprocessing region, we derive a light crossing time of between approximately 1 light day and approximately 1.5 light years. This corresponds to a distance of 0.001 pc to 0.55 pc, which implies that the reprocessed emission originates between 3 x 10(exp 15) cm and 1.6 x 10(exp l8) cm from the X-ray source. In other words, the reprocessing in MCG-5-23-16 is not dominated by the inner regions of a standard accretion disk.

Mattson, B. J.; Weaver, K. A.

2003-01-01

107

The reprocessing features in the X-ray spectrum of the NELG MCG -5-23-16  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from the spectral analysis of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG -5-23-16, based on ASCA, BeppoSAX, Chandra and XMM-Newton observations. The spectrum of this object shows a complex iron K? emission line, which is best modeled by a superposition of a narrow and a broad (possibly relativistic) iron line, together with a Compton reflection component. Comparing results from all (six) available observations, we do not find any significant variation in the flux of both line components. The moderate flux continuum variability (about 25% difference between the brightest and faintest states), however, does not permit us to infer much about the location of the line-emitting material. The amount of Compton reflection is lower than expected from the total iron line EW, implying either an iron overabundance or that one of the two line components (most likely the narrow one) originates in Compton-thin matter.

Balestra, I.; Bianchi, S.; Matt, G.

2004-02-01

108

BeppoSAX confirms extreme relativistic effects in the X-ray spectrum of MCG-6-30-15  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report in this Letter the first simultaneous measure of the X-ray broadband (0.1-200 keV) continuum and of the iron K_? fluorescent line profile in the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15. Our data confirms the ASCA detection of a skewed and redshifted line profile (Tanaka et al. 1995). The most straightforward explanation is that the line photons are emitted in the innermost regions of a X-ray illuminated relativistic disk. The line Equivalent Width (=~ 200 eV) is perfectly consistent with the expected value for solar abundances, given the observed amount of Compton reflection. We report also the discovery of a cut-off in the nuclear primary emission at the energy of =~ 160 keV.

Guainazzi, M.; Matt, G.; Molendi, S.; Orr, A.; Fiore, F.; Grandi, P.; Matteuzzi, A.; Mineo, T.; Perola, G. C.; Parmar, A. N.; Piro, L.

1999-01-01

109

Revealing the High Energy Emission from the Obscured Seyfert Galaxy MCG -5-23-16 with Suzaku  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a 100 ks Suzaku observation of the bright, nearby (z=0.008486)\\u000aSeyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG -5-23-16. The broad-band (0.4-100 keV) X-ray spectrum\\u000aallows us to determine the nature of the high energy emission with little\\u000aambiguity. The X-ray continuum consists of a cutoff power-law of photon index\\u000a$\\\\Gamma=1.9$, absorbed through Compton-thin matter of column density $N_{\\\\rm\\u000aH}=1.6\\\\times10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$.

James N. Reeves; Hisamitsu Awaki; Gulab C. Dewangan; Andy C. Fabian; Yasushi Fukazawa; Luigi Gallo; Richard Griffiths; Hajime Inoue; Hideyo Kunieda; Alex Markowitz; Giovanni MiniuttI; Tsunefumi Mizuno; Richard Mushotzky; Takashi Okajima; Andy Ptak; Tadayuki Takahashi; Yuichi Terashima; Masayoshi Ushio; Shin Watanabe; Tomonori Yamasaki; Makoto Yamauchi; Tahir Yaqoob

2006-01-01

110

Oral implants.  

PubMed

Today, more and more evidence suggests that even small changes in hardware for oral implants may jeopardize its biocompatibility. Even the manner in which the hardware is sterilized can influence cellular adhesion. This review discusses the surface characteristics, configuration, and success rates of various oral implants, as well as the complications that can result following implantation. PMID:1777657

van Steenberghe, D

1991-04-01

111

Oral Appliances  

MedlinePLUS

... two categories. The diverse variety is simply a variation of a few major themes. Oral appliances can be classified by mode of action or design variation. Tongue Retaining Appliances Tongue retaining appliances hold the ...

112

Safety, efficacy and acceptability of outpatient mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion through 70 days since last menstrual period in public sector facilities in Mexico City.  

PubMed

Extensive evidence exists regarding the efficacy and acceptability of medical abortion through 63 days since last menstrual period (LMP). In Mexico City's Secretariat of Health (SSDF) outpatient facilities, mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion is the first-line approach for abortion care in this pregnancy range. Recent research demonstrates continued high rates of complete abortion through 70 days LMP. To expand access to legal abortion services in Mexico City (where abortion is legal through 12 weeks LMP), this study sought to assess the efficacy and acceptability of the standard outpatient approach through 70 days in two SSDF points of service. One thousand and one women seeking pregnancy termination were enrolled and given 200 mg mifepristone followed by 800 ?g misoprostol 24-48 hours later. Women were asked to return to the clinic one week later for evaluation. The great majority of women (93.3%; 95% CI: 91.6-94.8) had complete abortions. Women with pregnancies ?8 weeks LMP had significantly higher success rates than women in the 9th or 10th weeks (94.9% vs. 90.5%; p = 0.01). The difference in success rates between the 9th and 10th weeks was not significant (90.0% vs. 91.2%; p = 0.71). The majority of women found the side effects (82.9%) and the use of misoprostol (84.4%) to be very acceptable or acceptable. This study provides additional evidence supporting an extended outpatient medical abortion regimen through 10 weeks LMP. PMID:25702071

Sanhueza Smith, Patricio; Peña, Melanie; Dzuba, Ilana G; Martinez, María Laura García; Peraza, Ana Gabriela Aranguré; Bousiéguez, Manuel; Shochet, Tara; Winikoff, Beverly

2015-02-01

113

Does Adding Misoprostol to Standard Intravenous Proton Pump Inhibitor Protocol Improve the Outcome of Aspirin\\/NSAID-Induced Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastrointestinal bleeding is recognized as an important health\\u000a problem. We performed a single-center randomized clinical trial to compare the effect of high-dose intravenous proton pump\\u000a inhibitor (omeprazole) alone (group 1) with omeprazole in combination with a low-dose prostaglandin analog (misoprostol; group\\u000a 2) on clinical outcomes in patients with aspirin\\/NSAID-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Additionally, we

?erif Y?lmaz; Kadim Bayan; Mehmet Dursun; Fikri Canoruç; Nihal K?l?nç; Yekta Tüzün; Ramazan Dan??; Meliksah Ertem

2007-01-01

114

The broad-band X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy, MCG+8-11-11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: Evidence is mounting that the main ingredients of the unification models of active galactic nuclei may behave differently from expectations, and be intimately related to fundamental physical parameters. The availability of high signal-to-noise broad-band X-ray spectra provides us with the opportunity to study in detail all the contributions from the materials invoked in these models, and infer their general properties, including whether their presence or absence is related to other quantities. Methods: We present a long (100 ks) Suzaku observation of one of the X-ray brightest AGN, MCG+8-11-11. These data are complemented with the 54-month Swift BAT spectrum, allowing us to perform a broad-band fit to the 0.6-150 keV range. Results: The fits performed in the 0.6-10 keV band provide results consistent with those of a a previous XMM-Newton observation, i.e. a lack of a soft excess, warm absorption along the line of sight, a large Compton reflection component (R ? 1), and an absence of a relativistic component of the neutral iron K? emission line. However, when the PIN and Swift BAT data are included, the reflection amount drops significantly (R ? 0.2-0.3), and a relativistic iron line is required, the latter being confirmed by a phenomenological analysis in a restricted energy band (3-10 keV). When a self-consistent model is applied to the whole broad-band data, the observed reflection component appears to be entirely associated with the relativistic component of the iron K? line. Conclusions: The implied scenario, though strongly model-dependent, requires that all the reprocessing spectral components from Compton-thick material be associated with the accretion disc, and no evidence of a classical pc-scale torus is found. The narrow core of the neutral iron K? line is therefore produced in Compton-thin material, such as the BLR, similarly to what is found in another Seyfert galaxy, NGC 7213, but with the notable difference that MCG+8-11-11 presents spectral signatures from an accretion disc. The very low accretion rate of NGC 7213 could explain the lack of relativistic signatures in its spectrum, but the absence of the torus in both sources is more difficult to explain, since their luminosities are comparable, and their accretion rates are completely different.

Bianchi, S.; de Angelis, I.; Matt, G.; La Parola, V.; de Rosa, A.; Grandi, P.; Jiménez Bailón, E.; Piconcelli, E.

2010-11-01

115

EXTENDED NEUTRAL HYDROGEN IN THE ALIGNED SHELL GALAXIES Arp 230 AND MCG -5-7-1: FORMATION OF DISKS IN MERGING GALAXIES?  

SciTech Connect

As part of an ongoing study of the neutral hydrogen (H I) morphology and kinematics of 'shell' elliptical galaxies, we present Very Large Array observations of two shell galaxies with aligned shells, Arp 230 and MCG -5-7-1. Our data provide the first H I images of Arp 230 and deeper images of MCG -5-7-1 than previously reported. Optical images of Arp 230 reveal a bright, aligned, interleaved shell system, making it an ideal candidate for 'phase-wrapped' shell formation following a radial encounter with a smaller companion. The fainter, non-interleaved shells of MCG -5-7-1 do not clearly favor a particular formation scenario. The H I we detect in both galaxies extends to nearly the same projected distance as the optical shells. In Arp 230 this gas appears to be anti-correlated with the aligned shells, consistent with our expectations for phase-wrapped shells produced in a radial encounter. In MCG -5-7-1, we observe gas associated with the shells making a 'spatial wrapping' or looping scenario more plausible. Although the extended gas component in both galaxies is unevenly distributed, the gas kinematics are surprisingly regular, looking almost like complete disks in rotation. We use the H I kinematics and optical data to determine mass-to-light ratios M/L{sub B} of 2.4{sup +3.0}{sub -0.5} (at 13.5 kpc, 4.5 R{sub e} ) for Arp 230 and M/L{sub B} of 30 {+-} 7 (at 40 kpc, 7 R{sub e} ) in MCG -5-7-1. In both systems we find that this ratio changes as a function of radius, indicating the presence of a dark halo. By comparing orbital and precession timescales, we conclude that the potentials are slightly flattened. We infer a 5%-10% flattening for Arp 230 and less flattening in the case of MCG -5-7-1. Finally, we present images of the H I associated with the inner disk or (polar) ring of each galaxy and discuss possible explanations for their different present-day star formation rates. We detect total H I masses of 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} in Arp 230 and 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} in MCG -5-7-1. Both systems have H I masses, scale sizes, and regular kinematics similar to those of non-aligned shell galaxies we have previously studied (Cen A and NGC 2865). Furthermore, we (re-)emphasize in this paper that shell galaxies such as MCG -5-7-1, along with previously studied galaxies NGC 5128 (Cen A) and NGC 2865, are unique in that they provide evidence of recent accretion with gas and collisionless stars showing clear association, though the displacement suggests the presence of significant gas-dynamical interaction.

Schiminovich, David; Van Gorkom, J. H. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Van der Hulst, J. M. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands)

2013-02-01

116

The Broadband Spectral Variability of MCG-6-30-15 Observed by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MCG-6-30-15, at a distance of 37 Mpc (z = 0.008), is the archetypical Seyfert 1 galaxy showing very broad Fe K? emission. We present results from a joint NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observational campaign that, for the first time, allows a sensitive, time-resolved spectral analysis from 0.35 keV up to 80 keV. The strong variability of the source is best explained in terms of intrinsic X-ray flux variations and in the context of the light-bending model: the primary, variable emission is reprocessed by the accretion disk, which produces secondary, less variable, reflected emission. The broad Fe K? profile is, as usual for this source, well explained by relativistic effects occurring in the innermost regions of the accretion disk around a rapidly rotating black hole. We also discuss the alternative model in which the broadening of the Fe K? is due to the complex nature of the circumnuclear absorbing structure. Even if this model cannot be ruled out, it is disfavored on statistical grounds. We also detected an occultation event likely caused by broad-line region clouds crossing the line of sight.

Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Miniutti, G.; Guainazzi, M.; Parker, M. L.; Brenneman, L.; Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E.; Arevalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boggs, S. E.; Cappi, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Elvis, M.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Reynolds, C. S.; Risaliti, G.; Stern, D. K.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W.

2014-05-01

117

Oral Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment by an SLP are important to restore speech intelligibility and swallowing skills. Treatment often includes helping people get used to the differences in the size, shape, and feel of their mouth. The SLP will ... how to produce speech sounds more clearly. Oral exercises help the client ...

118

Oral tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the mucosal immune system to distinguish between harmful and harmless antigens is essential for mounting protective immune responses and preventing the induction of mucosal pathology yet the basis for this remains unclear. As fed antigen can also exert systemic effects understanding oral tolerance and priming will also have important consequences for therapy and vaccination. Here we will

P Garside; A. McI Mowat

2001-01-01

119

Oral Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing\\/recovering from chemo-\\/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases.

Irène Hitz Lindenmüller; J. Thomas Lambrecht

2011-01-01

120

Oral care.  

PubMed

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

2011-01-01

121

Oral calcitonin  

PubMed Central

Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget’s disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through ?-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl)-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC) (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ). Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis) failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake. PMID:23071417

Hamdy, Ronald C; Daley, Dane N

2012-01-01

122

Oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, malignancies, and immunosuppressive conditions. Management involves taking a history, an examination, and appropriate antifungal treatment with a few requiring samples to be taken for laboratory analysis. In certain high risk groups antifungal prophylaxis reduces the incidence and severity of infections. The prognosis is good in the great majority of cases. PMID:12185216

Akpan, A; Morgan, R

2002-01-01

123

Ulcer Prevention in Long-term Users of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs: Results of a Double-blind, Randomized, Multicenter, Active and Placebo-Controlled Study of Misoprostol vs Lansoprazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

(95% confidence interval (CI), 41.1%-61.3%); misopros- tol, 93% (95% CI, 87.2%-97.9%); 15-mg lansoprazole, 80% (95% CI, 72.5%-87.3%); and 30-mg lansoprazole, 82% (95% CI, 75.0%-89.6%). A significantly higher proportion of patients in the misoprostol group re- ported treatment-related adverse events and early with- drawal from the study. When the impact of withdrawals on ulcer development was considered (as failures), therapy was

David Y. Graham; Naurang M. Agrawal; Donald R. Campbell; Marian M. Haber; Cyndy Collis; Nancy L. Lukasik; Bidan Huang

2002-01-01

124

Diclofenac and Misoprostol  

MedlinePLUS

... patients who have a high risk of developing stomach ulcers. Diclofenac is in a class of medications called ... a class of medications called prostaglandins. It prevents ulcers caused by diclofenac by protecting the stomach lining and decreasing stomach acid production.

125

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History  

E-print Network

Columbia Oral History Columbia University Center for Oral History Annual Report AUGUST 1, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rule of Law Oral History Project Carnegie Corporation Oral History Project BIOGRAPHICAL INTERVIEWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Oral History Master of Arts Summer Institute 2012 Oral History Workshop Series 2011­12 Oral

Kim, Philip

126

Kinematics and ionization of extended ionized gas in active galaxies. I - The X-ray luminous galaxies NGC 2110, NGC 5506, and MCG -5-23-16  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct CCD imaging and long-slit Vidicon spectroscopy have been used to map the emission-line ratios, profiles, and velocity fields over the extended narrow-line regions in three nearby Seyfert galaxies, NGC 2110, NGC 5506, and MCG -5-23-16. The gas in the letter is spatially unresolved. Similarities between the other two nebulae include the excitation mechanism (photoionization by a central nonthermal source) and the overall profiles of the very broad emission lines close to the nucleus. The nebulae are, however, quite different in their global kinematic behavior. In NGC 2110, the gas appears to lie in a disk or flattened spheroid and to be in ordered rotation, with a classical rotation curve, about an axis parallel to the minor axis of the stellar isophotes. The velocity field of NGC 5506 is quite irregular, but a component of rotation in the plane of the galaxy seems to exist.

Wilson, A. S.; Baldwin, J. A.; Ulvestad, J. S.

1985-01-01

127

Observations of MCG-5-23-16 with Suzaku, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR: Disk Tomography and Compton Hump Reverberation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MCG-5-23-16 is one of the first active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where relativistic reverberation in the iron K line originating in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole was found, based on a short XMM-Newton observation. In this work, we present the results from long X-ray observations using Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR designed to map the emission region using X-ray reverberation. A relativistic iron line is detected in the lag spectra on three different timescales, allowing the emission from different regions around the black hole to be separated. Using NuSTAR coverage of energies above 10 keV reveals a lag between these energies and the primary continuum, which is detected for the first time in an AGN. This lag is a result of the Compton reflection hump responding to changes in the primary source in a manner similar to the response of the relativistic iron K line.

Zoghbi, A.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C.; Kara, E.; Harrison, F. A.; Fabian, A. C.; Lohfink, A.; Matt, G.; Balokovic, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W.; Hailey, C. J.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

2014-07-01

128

Coronal Properties of the Seyfert 1.9 Galaxy MCG-05-23-016 Determined from Hard X-Ray Spectroscopy with NuSTAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the high-energy cut-off in the coronal continuum of active galactic nuclei have long been elusive for all but a small number of the brightest examples. We present a direct measurement of the cut-off energy in the nuclear continuum of the nearby Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-05-23-016 with unprecedented precision. The high sensitivity of NuSTAR up to 79 keV allows us to clearly disentangle the spectral curvature of the primary continuum from that of its reflection component. Using a simple phenomenological model for the hard X-ray spectrum, we constrain the cut-off energy to 116-5+6 keV with 90% confidence. Testing for more complex models and nuisance parameters that could potentially influence the measurement, we find that the cut-off is detected robustly. We further use simple Comptonized plasma models to provide independent constraints for both the kinetic temperature of the electrons in the corona and its optical depth. At the 90% confidence level, we find kTe = 29 ± 2 keV and ? e = 1.23 ± 0.08 assuming a slab (disk-like) geometry, and kTe = 25 ± 2 keV and ? e = 3.5 ± 0.2 assuming a spherical geometry. Both geometries are found to fit the data equally well and their two principal physical parameters are correlated in both cases. With the optical depth in the ? e >~ 1 regime, the data are pushing the currently available theoretical models of the Comptonized plasma to the limits of their validity. Since the spectral features and variability arising from the inner accretion disk have been observed previously in MCG-05-23-016, the inferred high optical depth implies that a spherical or disk-like corona cannot be homogeneous.

Balokovi?, M.; Matt, G.; Harrison, F. A.; Zoghbi, A.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Esmerian, C. J.; Fabian, A. C.; Fürst, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Marinucci, A.; Parker, M. L.; Reynolds, C. S.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

2015-02-01

129

HAD Oral History Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

Holbrook, Jarita

2014-01-01

130

Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral…

Troiano, Claire A.

2010-01-01

131

Effect of oral glucose on serum zinc in the elderly  

SciTech Connect

To determine the effect of glucose loading on serum zinc concentrations, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-86 y were studied. Anthropometric data, medical and dietary histories were obtained. Serum zinc and glucose concentrations were obtained fasting and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2 and 3 h after 75 g oral glucose load; glycohemoglobin and fasting serum lipids were also determined. For comparison, the subjects were categorized as: normal or low serum zinc concentrations; normal or high body mass index BMI; normal or high sum of skinfolds and normal or high serum cholesterol. Results showed that low serum zinc concentrations increased significantly over baseline values after the glucose load and did not return to fasting levels. On the other hand, mean serum zinc concentrations significantly declined without recovery for those with normal zinc values. For the total group, no significant differences were noted between fasting values and subsequent time periods. No correlations were noted between fasting serum zinc and area under the curve for zinc except in the high BMI group (positive correlation observed). For the high BMI group, fasting serum zinc differed significantly from the succeeding measurements except for 30 min. For the group as a whole, mean serum zinc concentration was within normal limits (76.9 +/- 2.8 mcg/ml): mean zinc intake was less than 2/3rds the RDA. They conclude that glucose ingestion may alter serum zinc and should be considered in interpreting these levels.

Lopez, A.L.; Kohrs, M.B.; Horwitz, D.L.; Cyborski, C.K.; Czajka-Narins, D.M.; Kamath, S.

1986-03-05

132

A history of oral contraception: from evolution to revolution.  

PubMed

Women throughout the world and throughout time have ingested substances such as mercury, diluted copper ore, and various noxious solutions in the mistaken belief that these substances would prevent pregnancy. The era of modern contraception began in 1937 with the discovery that the administration of progesterone could halt ovulation in rabbits. During the next decade, work proceeded on finding an easy and less expensive way to synthesize progesterone and to develop the synthetic estrogens mestranol and ethinyl estradiol. Initial trials in humans proved that these hormones could prevent ovulation. In 1950, with support from Margaret Sanger and Katharine Dexter McCormick, Gregory Goodwin Pincus developed the first oral contraceptive (OC), which consisted of supplemental progestin and 0.5 mg norethindrone. In the early 1990s, the Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation introduced an OC that combined the synthetic progesterone norgestimate and 35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. By 1988, several noncontracepting health benefits of the OC were recognized, including decreased rates of ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, ovarian cysts, benign breast disease, iron deficiency anemia, and dysmenorrhea. These health benefits outweigh risks even in nonsmoking women over 40. In the US, 80% of women have used the OC at one time, and they are using this most popular form of reversible contraception longer than ever. PMID:7670417

1995-09-01

133

X-ray polarimetry as a new tool to discriminate reflection from absorption scenarios - predictions for MCG-6-30-15  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present modelling of X-ray polarization spectra emerging from the two competing scenarios that are proposed to explain the broad Fe K? line in the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15. The polarization signature of complex absorption is studied for a partial covering scenario using a clumpy wind and compared to a reflection model based on the lamppost geometry. The shape of the polarization percentage and angle as a function of photon energy are found to be distinctly different between the reflection and the absorption cases. Relativistic reflection produces significantly stronger polarization in the 1-10 keV energy band than absorption. The spectrum of the polarization angle adds additional constraints: in the absorption case it shows a constant shape, whereas the relativistic reflection scenario typically leads to a smooth rotation of the polarization angle with photon energy. Based on this work, we conclude that a soft X-ray polarimeter onboard a small X-ray satellite may already discriminate between the absorption and the reflection scenarios. A promising opportunity may arise with the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer mission, which has been proposed to the European Space Agency in response to a small-size (S-class) mission call due for launch in 2017.

Marin, F.; Goosmann, R. W.; Dov?iak, M.; Muleri, F.; Porquet, D.; Grosso, N.; Karas, V.; Matt, G.

2012-10-01

134

Measuring Supermassive Black Hole Spins in NGC 1365 and MCG--6-30-15 Using XMM-Newton and NuSTAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on detailed spectral modeling of the Seyfert 1 AGN NGC 1365 and MCG--6-30-15 using simultaneous, broadband X-ray spectra from XMM-Newton and NuSTAR. Both of these galaxies show evidence for relativistic reflection from the inner accretion disk in addition to complex, variable absorption. The high signal-to-noise across the 0.2-79 keV energy band enabled by these observations allows us to definitively disentangle the spectral signatures of the continuum, warm and cold absorption, and reflection from the torus and the inner disk in both sources. These deep pointings also enable the use of time-resolved spectral fitting in order to assess the role of each component in driving the spectral and temporal variability of the AGN. This type of analysis allows us to isolate the relativistic reflection signatures in each object, facilitating the most accurate, precise constrains ever obtained on the spins of their supermassive black holes.

Brenneman, Laura; Marinucci, Andrea; Walton, Dom; Risaliti, Guido; Matt, Giorgio; Harrison, Fiona; Stern, Daniel

2014-06-01

135

Probing Supermassive Black Hole Spins in MCG--6-30-15 and NGC 1365 with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on detailed spectral modeling of the Seyfert 1 AGNs NGC 1365 and MCG--6-30-15 using simultaneous, broadband X-ray spectra from XMM-Newton and NuSTAR. Both of these galaxies show evidence for relativistic reflection from the inner accretion disk in addition to complex, variable absorption. The high signal-to-noise across the 0.3-79 keV energy band enabled by these observations allows us to definitively disentangle the spectral signatures of the continuum, warm and cold absorption, and reflection from the torus and the inner disk in both sources. These deep pointings also enable the use of time-resolved spectral fitting in order to assess the role of each component in driving the spectral and temporal variability of the AGNs. This type of analysis allows us to isolate the relativistic reflection signatures in each object, facilitating the most accurate, precise constrains ever obtained on the spins of their supermassive black holes. We present our spin measurements, as well as a discussion of sources of systematic error. Finally, we place our results in the context of relativistic light-bending models in an effort to characterize the structure of the innermost regions of these AGNs.

Brenneman, Laura; Walton, Dom; Marinucci, Andrea; Matt, Giorgio; Risaliti, Guido; Harrison, Fiona; Stern, Daniel

2014-08-01

136

X-ray polarimetry as a new tool to discriminate reflection from absorption scenarios -- Predictions for MCG-6-30-15  

E-print Network

We present modelling of X-ray polarisation spectra emerging from the two competing scenarios that are proposed to explain the broad Fe K{\\alpha} line in the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15. The polarisation signature of complex absorption is studied for a partial covering scenario using a clumpy wind and compared to a reflection model based on the lamp-post geometry. The shape of the polarisation percentage and angle as a function of photon energy are found to be distinctly different between the reflection and the absorption case. Relativistic reflection produces significantly stronger polarisation in the 1-10 keV energy band than absorption. The spectrum of the polarisation angle adds additional constraints: in the absorption case it shows a constant shape, whereas the relativistic reflection scenario typically leads to a smooth rotation of the polarisation angle with photon energy. Based on this work, we conclude that a soft X-ray polarimeter on-board a small X-ray satellite may already discriminate between the absorption and the reflection scenario. A promising opportunity may arise with the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer (XIPE) mission, which has been proposed to ESA in response to a small-size (S-class) mission call due for launch in 2017.

F. Marin; R. W. Goosmann; M. Dovciak; F. Muleri; D. Porquet; N. Grosso; V. Karas; G. Matt

2012-08-16

137

Radiation induced oral mucositis.  

PubMed

PATIENTS RECEIVING RADIOTHERAPY OR CHEMOTHERAPY WILL RECEIVE SOME DEGREE OF ORAL MUCOSITIS THE INCIDENCE OF ORAL MUCOSITIS WAS ESPECIALLY HIGH IN PATIENTS: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene. PMID:20668585

Ps, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

2009-07-01

138

Christopher Draven Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Christopher Draven Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin February 9, 2008 http...://hdl.handle.net/1808/5684 This interview was made possible by the generous support of the University of Kansas Libraries and the University of Kansas grants 2302114, 2301283, 2301334. © Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual...

Draven, Christopher; Albin, Tami

2010-01-12

139

Global Oral Health Inequalities  

PubMed Central

Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232

Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.

2011-01-01

140

Chrysomya bezziana oral myiasis.  

PubMed

Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae) were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly. PMID:22224006

Kumar, Gs Vijay; Sowmya, Gs; Shivananda, S

2011-10-01

141

College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine  

E-print Network

College of Dentistry ODM Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed. Prereq: Admission to the College of Dentistry. ODM 820 ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL RADIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTIC

MacAdam, Keith

142

signal processing and oral communication  

E-print Network

SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Computational Linguistics, 5 December 2012 Frank University of Toronto #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication An introduction to SPOClab · SPOClab (Signal Processing and Oral Communication) is a new lab intersecting Computer Science

Penn, Gerald

143

American Academy of Oral Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... Fall Meeting AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

144

Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS  

MedlinePLUS

PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . Updated 25 February 2014. +Related Content Key Facts ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

145

Diagnosing oral ulcers.  

PubMed

Oral ulcers are common and can have many causes, making diagnosis challenging. This article provides an overview of common oral ulcers and an algorithmic approach to establishing the correct diagnosis. Factors such as duration, pattern of recurrence, clinical appearance, mucosal location, and presence or absence of systemic symptoms are useful clues to determining an ulcer's cause. PMID:25621959

Bruce, Alison J; Dabade, Tushar S; Burkemper, Nicole M

2015-02-01

146

Steven Brown Oral History  

E-print Network

Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTQ People in Kansas Steven Brown Oral History Part 2 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 3 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player... Part 4 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 5 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 6 video platform video management video solutionsvideo player Part 7 video platform video...

Brown, Steven; Albin, Tami

2010-11-24

147

Teaching Oral Language Appreciation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discovering pleasure in words should begin at a young age. But the discovery can continue among college students if oral communication courses offer parallels to the art and music appreciation courses which are part of most collegiate curricula. Some class activities which can enlarge appreciation of oral language are: (1) students may be assigned…

Jensen, Marvin D.

148

Materiality and oral documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information professionals focus on artifacts. This focus shows the value information science has placed on materiality or physicality in its efforts to preserve and make artifacts in specific media accessible. But this focus has proven less useful when dealing with information that becomes available orally. As a strategy to increase understanding of oral information, Turner asserted that it can emerge

Deborah Turner; Warren Allen

2011-01-01

149

Use of Simulated Patients to Evaluate Combined Oral Contraceptive Dispensing Practices of Community Pharmacists  

PubMed Central

Background Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use is the most commonly used reversible method of birth control. The incorrect use of COCs is frequent and one of the most common causes of unintended pregnancies. Community pharmacists (CPs) are in a strategic position to improve COC use because they are the last health professional to interact with patients before drug use. Objective To evaluate the COC dispensing practices of CPs in a developing country. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies of Assis and Ourinhos microregions, Brazil, between June 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012. Four simulated patients (SPs) (with counseled audio recording) visited community pharmacies with a prescription for Ciclo 21® (a COC containing ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg + levonorgestrel 15 mcg). The audio recording of every SP visit was listened to independently by 3 researchers to evaluate the COC dispensing practice. The percentage of CPs who performed a screening for safe use of COCs (i.e., taking of patients’ medical and family history, and measuring of blood pressure) and provided counseling, as well as the quality of the screening and counseling, were evaluated. Results Of the 185 CPs contacted, 41 (22.2%) agreed to participate in the study and finished the study protocol. Only 3 CPs asked the SP a question (1 question asked by each professional), and all of the questions were closed-ended, viz., “do you smoke?” (n = 2) and “what is your age?” (n = 1). None of the CPs measured the patient’s blood pressure. Six CPs provided counseling when dispensing COCs (drug dosing, 5 CPs; possible adverse effects, 2 CPs), and one CP provided counseling regarding both aspects. Conclusion The CPs evaluated did not dispense COC appropriately and could influence in the occurrence of negatives therapeutic outcomes such as adverse effects and treatment failure. PMID:24324584

Obreli-Neto, Paulo Roque; Pereira, Leonardo Régis Leira; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Baldoni, André de Oliveira; Marusic, Srecko; de Lyra-Júnior, Divaldo Pereira; de Almeida, Kelsen Luis; Pazete, Ana Claudia Montolezi; do Nascimento, Janaina Dutra; Kos, Mitja; Girotto, Edmarlon; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

2013-01-01

150

A Chandra HETGS Spectral Study of the Iron K Bandpass in MCG-6-30-15: A Narrow View of the Broad Iron Line  

E-print Network

We present a high resolution X-ray spectrum of the iron K bandpass in MCG-6-30-15 based on a 522 ksec observation with Chandra's High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. The Chandra spectrum is consistent with the presence of a relativistically broadened, highly redshifted iron K alpha emission line with a similar profile to previous observations. A number of narrow features are detected above 2 keV, including a narrow Fe K alpha emission line and narrow absorption lines from H- and He-like Fe, H-like S and H-like Si. This absorption is well described by a photoionized plasma with a column density log N_H = 23.2 and an ionization parameter log xi = 3.6, assuming the iron abundance has the Solar value and a velocity dispersion parameter b = 100 km/s. Applying this absorption model to a high fidelity XMM-Newton EPIC-pn spectrum we find that a broad iron line is still required with emission extending to within 1.9 gravitational radii of the black hole. If the iron line comes from an accretion disk truncated at the innermost stable circular orbit, this indicates that the black hole must be spinning rapidly with a>0.95. Ionized absorption models attempting to explain the 3-6 keV spectral curvature without strong gravity predict absorption lines in the 6.4-6.6 keV range that are inconsistent with the Chandra spectrum. The H- and He-like iron absorption lines in the Chandra spectrum are blueshifted by 2.0 (+0.7/-0.9) x 10^3 km/s compared to the source frame, and may originate in a high velocity, high ionization component of the warm absorber outflow. This high ionization component may dominate the energy budget of the outflow, and account for a significant fraction of the outflowing mass. (Abstract truncated).

A. J. Young; J. C. Lee; A. C. Fabian; C. S. Reynolds; R. R. Gibson; C. R. Canizares

2005-06-03

151

Extending virial black hole mass estimates to low-luminosity or obscured AGN: the cases of NGC 4395 and MCG -01-24-012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, using single epoch (SE) virial based spectroscopic optical observations, it has been possible to measure the black hole (BH) mass on large type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) samples. However this kind of measurements cannot be applied on those obscured type 2 and/or low-luminosity AGN where the nuclear component does not dominate in the optical. We have derived new SE relationships, based on the full width at half-maximum and luminosity of the broad-line region component of the Pa? emission line and/or the hard X-ray luminosity in the 14-195 keV band, which have the prospect of better working with low luminosity or obscured AGN. The SE relationships have been calibrated in the 105-109 M? mass range, using a sample of AGN, whose BH masses have been previously measured using reverberation mapping techniques. Our tightest relationship between the reverberation-based BH mass and the SE virial product has an intrinsic spread of 0.20 dex. Thanks to these SE relations, in agreement with previous estimates, we have measured a BH mass of M_BH = 1.7^{+1.3}_{-0.7} × 10^5 M? for the low luminosity, type 1, AGN NGC 4395 (one of the smallest active galactic BH known). We also measured, for the first time, a BH mass of M_BH = 1.5^{+1.1}_{-0.6} × 10^7 M? for the Seyfert 2 galaxy MCG -01-24-012.

La Franca, F.; Onori, F.; Ricci, F.; Sani, E.; Brusa, M.; Maiolino, R.; Bianchi, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Fiore, F.; Marconi, A.; Vignali, C.

2015-05-01

152

Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

McAlpine, Dave

153

Probiotics and Oral Health  

PubMed Central

The number of products containing probiotics, viable bacteria with proven health benefits, entering the market is increasing. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and most clinical interest has been focused on their use for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and diseases; however, during the last decade several investigators have also suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. The aim of this review is to examine potential mechanisms of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and summarize observed effects of probiotics with respect to oral health. The review focuses on probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, genera that are most used in various probiotic products. PMID:20613927

Haukioja, Anna

2010-01-01

154

ADHA Oral Health Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the American Dental Hygienists' Association, this site's resources are valuable for both dental patients and hygienists to help understand "the importance of oral health to total health." Patients will find informative fact sheets describing potential oral health problems as well as tips for preventing them. Hygienists will find the free posters useful as well as the instructions included for proper brushing and flossing techniques in order to educate and support their patients. The site underscores dental hygienists' roles in tobacco cessation efforts, a major topic of concern in the allied health professions. Providing free "life-saving advice", the ADHA hopes to promote overall heath beginning with oral care.

155

signal processing and oral communication  

E-print Network

SPOClab signal processing and oral communication #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Introduction 2 #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication Hey everybody! My name's James Institute of Health) #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication · Types of dysarthria are related

Penn, Gerald

156

signal processing and oral communication  

E-print Network

SPOClab signal processing and oral communication #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral Institute of Health) #12;SPOClab signal processing and oral communication · Types of dysarthria are related and oral communication Dysarthria 5 (After Darley et al., 1969) Ataxic Flaccid Hypo- kinetic Hyper- kinetic

Penn, Gerald

157

Leona Anderson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Leona Anderson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Burdick, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Leona Anderson discusses her experiences as a member of the Missouri Synod Lutheran ...

Anderson, Leona; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

158

Phil Friedl Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Phil Friedl conducted by Sara Vestal and Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Delia, Kansas, on November 11, 2009. Phil Friedl is a follower of David Bawden, who is also known as Pope Michael. In this interview, ...

Friedl, Phil; Vestal, Sara; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-11-11

159

Glenn Lindell Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Glenn Lindell conducted by Jeffrey Caton in Johnson County, Kansas, on October 24, 2009. In this interview, Glen Lindell, pastor emeritus of the Hillcrest Covenant Church in Prairie Village, Kansas, discusses his training...

Lindell, Glenn; Caton, Jeffrey

2009-10-24

160

Anna Manning Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Anna Manning conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Anna Manning discusses the Hispanic ministries in Catholic Churches in Johnson County, Kansas. This interview...

Manning, Anna; Manning, Sean

2009-11-05

161

Evelyn Forsberg Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Evelyn Forsberg conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Evelyn Forsberg discusses the experience of growing up Catholic in the Herrington, Kansas, area, and, after her marriage to a...

Forsberg, Evelyn; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

162

Terry Koenig Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Terry Koenig conducted by Lauren Helmer in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 16, 2010. In this interview, Terry Koenig discusses her childhood growing up as a member of the Missouri Synod Lutheran Church, the importance...

Koenig, Terry L.; Helmer, Lauren

2010-11-16

163

Dan Chaverin Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Dan Chaverin conducted by Clint Shriner in Lenexa, Kansas, on December 6, 2009. In this interview, Dan Chaverin, executive pastor of Westside Family Church in Lenexa, Kansas, discusses the operations, missions...

Chaverin, Dan; Shriner, Clint

2009-12-06

164

Mary Tholen Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Mary Tholen conducted by Clint Shriner in Kansas City, Missouri, on December 10, 2009. In this interview, Mary Tholen describes her experiences growing up as a member of the Catholic Church, primarily in Hays, Kansas. She...

Tholen, Mary; Shriner, Clint

2009-12-10

165

Janice Bryant Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Janice Bryant conducted by Lauren Helmer in Marion, Kansas, on December 29, 2010. In this interview, Janice Bryant, a former church secretary for Valley Methodist Church, discusses the history, organization, and programs...

Bryant, Janice; Helmer, Lauren

2010-12-29

166

Oral Melanotic Macule  

MedlinePLUS

... mouth. Similarly, any existing spot that changes size, shape, or color should also be evaluated promptly. Treatments Your Physician ... the oral melanotic macule stays stable in size, shape, and color, no treatment is needed. Nonetheless, some people want ...

167

Dehydration and Oral Rehydration  

MedlinePLUS

... v Oral rehydration fluids. These are also called electrolyte solutions. These fluids are made for situations when ... diarrhea. These fluids provide water as well as electrolytes (like salt), which the body loses during vomiting ...

168

Oral Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... partners of people with HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer . Sun exposure Being exposed to sunlight may increase the risk of lip cancer. Lip ... factors, such as drinking alcohol, HPV infection, and sun exposure, increase the risk of oral cancer. It ...

169

David Ollington Oral History  

E-print Network

in the Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas are copyrighted and protected by copyright law (Title 17, U. S. Code). Requests for permission to publish quotations beyond "fair use" from...

Ollington, David; Albin, Tami

2010-01-11

170

Edith Bogart Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Edith Bogart conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on September 14, 2010. In this interview, Edith Bogart discusses her experiences with a variety of denominations, including Episcopalian, Jehovah's Witnesses...

Bogart, Edith; Miller, Timothy

2010-09-14

171

Leni Salkind Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Leni Salkind conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 11, 2009. In this interview, Leni Salkind describes her experiences as a member of the Jewish community in Lawrence. She discusses the issue...

Salkind, Leni; Miller, Timothy

2009-11-11

172

Oral Cancer Exam  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with ...

173

Chris Husbands Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Chris Husbands conducted by Chhaya Kolavalli in Kansas City, Kansas, on June 12, 2014. Chris Husbands, a 24-year old Kansas City resident, discusses his 7-years of experience living in various ...

Husbands, Chris; Kolavalli, Chhaya

2014-01-01

174

Beverly Boyd Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Beverly Boyd conducted by Steve Teichgraeber in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 12, 2010. In this interview, Beverly Boyd discusses the life of Saint Rose-Phillippine Duchesne (1769-1852), a Catholic nun of the Society...

Boyd, Beverly; Teichgraeber, Steve

2010-11-12

175

David Nelson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with David Nelson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Kansas City, Kansas, on October 31, 2009. In this interview, David Nelson discusses his journey from his childhood experiences in the Swedish Lutheran church in Burdick...

Nelson, David; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-10-31

176

Naomi Nelson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Naomi Nelson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Kansas City, Kansas, on September 18, 2009. In this interview, Naomi Nelson describes her early childhood experiences attending church in Wilsey, Kansas. After marriage, she...

Nelson, Naomi; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

2009-09-18

177

Joshua Shepherd Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Joshua Shepherd conducted by Chhaya Kolavalli in Kansas City, Missouri, on June 15, 2014. In this interview, Joshua Shepherd discusses the organization of his intentional community in Kansas ...

Shepherd, Joshua; Kolavalli, Chhaya

2014-01-01

178

Seth Davidson Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Seth Davidson conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on October 22, 2010. In this interview, Seth Davidson, lead pastor and founder of what is now the non-denominational Vintage Church in Lawrence, discusses...

Davidson, Seth; Stratton, Emily

2010-10-22

179

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

180

Oralidad, narración oral y narración oral escénica  

E-print Network

de la fuente oral o literaria, análisis estuctural del relato, Antropología, Creatividad, Comunicación, Investigación del Folclore, 72 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Motivación a la Lectura, Movimiento Corporal, Pedagogía, Psico y Neurolingüística... (91), y en el Internacional de Títeres de Bilbao (92). Así como la presencia en el Encuentro Nacional de Cuenteros (México, 1987 y 88), la Feria Internacional del Libro Infantil y Juvenil (México, 87), las Mesas Redondas sobre el Teatro...

Garzó n Cé spedes, Francisco

1995-10-01

181

Oral Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

Padmavathi, BN; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, GV

2014-01-01

182

Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.  

PubMed

Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

2014-09-01

183

Melatonin and Oral Cavity  

PubMed Central

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

184

Tissue-engineered Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in tissue engineering have permitted the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human oral mucosa for various in vivo and in vitro applications. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa have been further optimized in recent years for clinical applications as a suitable graft material for intra-oral and extra-oral repair and treatment of soft-tissue defects. Novel 3D in vitro models of oral diseases such as

K. Moharamzadeh; H. Colley; C. Murdoch; V. Hearnden; W. L. Chai; I. M. Brook; M. H. Thornhill; S. MacNeil

2012-01-01

185

The Canine Oral Microbiome  

PubMed Central

Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

2012-01-01

186

Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can the Hmong history of Minnnesota be best understood? One good place to start is with oral histories of their own experiences. Various Hmong experiences, along with other ethnic groups, are told with a flourish on the Minnesota Immigrant Oral Histories site. Created by the Minnesota Historical Society, this site contains over 360 oral history interviews conducted between 1967 and 2012. Visitors can click on any of the groups listed to get started, then find detailed transcripts, streaming audio, and thumbnail sketches of participants. The Tibetan collection is quite a gem as visitors can learn about the U.S. Tibetan Resettlement Project from 1990. Overall, it's a wonderful way to learn about the diversity of the people who have come to call Minnesota home.

187

Recurrent oral thrush.  

PubMed

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is characterized by the presence of at least two out of three clinical features, which include chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), Addison's disease and hypoparathyroidism. The authors' present an one and a half year old girl with recurrent oral thrush who presented with generalised afebrile seizure. Evaluation revealed severe hypocalcemia with low parathormone and normal vitamin D level consistent with hypoparathyroidism. In view of the oral candidiasis and hypoparathyroidism, a clinical possibility of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (type 1) was strongly considered. Her mother, on subsequent pregnancy was subjected to gene analysis of the fetus (chorionic villus sampling) and also for this child (index case). Both the fetus and index child were confirmed to have the AIRE gene mutation of APS1. After detailed counseling the parents opted for medical termination of the pregnancy. In children who present with recurrent oral thrush we need to consider but also look beyond immunodeficiency. PMID:24081895

Sivabalan, Somu; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Srinath, M V

2014-04-01

188

Miconazole in oral candidiasis.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-four patients were treated with oral miconazole (250 mg) for a total of 35 episodes of oral candidiasis. Sixteen had various forms of leukaemia and all were massively predisposed to fungal infection because of granulocytopenia and treatment with prednisolone and antibiotics. Clinical cure was observed in all 35 of the treated episodes, with a mean treatment time of five days, cure being observed in two to three days. When patients violating the protocol were excluded, the mycological cure rate was 97%. In 21 episodes there was a recurrence less than one month after miconazole treatment, probably because of reinfection. No side-effects ascribable to miconazole were observed, even in the severely debilitated patients, and the orally administered drug appeared to be superior to other commercially available antimycotic preparations. Images p29-a PMID:122644

Brincker, H

1977-01-01

189

The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?  

PubMed Central

The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority of unnamed oral taxa are referenced by clone numbers or 16S rRNA GenBank accession numbers, often without taxonomic anchors. The first aim of this research was to collect 16S rRNA gene sequences into a curated phylogeny-based database, the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD), and make it web accessible (www.homd.org). The HOMD includes 619 taxa in 13 phyla, as follows: Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, SR1, Synergistetes, Tenericutes, and TM7. The second aim was to analyze 36,043 16S rRNA gene clones isolated from studies of the oral microbiota to determine the relative abundance of taxa and identify novel candidate taxa. The analysis identified 1,179 taxa, of which 24% were named, 8% were cultivated but unnamed, and 68% were uncultivated phylotypes. Upon validation, 434 novel, nonsingleton taxa will be added to the HOMD. The number of taxa needed to account for 90%, 95%, or 99% of the clones examined is 259, 413, and 875, respectively. The HOMD is the first curated description of a human-associated microbiome and provides tools for use in understanding the role of the microbiome in health and disease. PMID:20656903

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-Han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

2010-01-01

190

Per-oral cholangioscopy  

PubMed Central

Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429

Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

2011-01-01

191

Oral myiasis in children.  

PubMed

Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:22629058

Reddy, M H Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M R

2012-04-01

192

Michael Johnson Oral History  

E-print Network

support groups or whatever like that and then it just turned into, Well there's Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 5 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas porn online too. (laugh) So it's like—it's like you just kind... stepmother had found my Xanga site as well. Along with that she had found, on his computer, links to porn site—like gay porn Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 7 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas sites, right...

Johnson, Michael; Albin, Tami

2009-12-16

193

Oral Myiasis : Case Report  

PubMed Central

Myiasis occurs when living tissues of mammals are invaded by eggs or larvae of flies, mainly from the order of Diptera. Most of the previousty reported cases are in the tropics and they were usually associated with inadequate personal hygiene, sometimes with poor manual dexterity. This report describes two cases of oral myiasis in cerebral palsy patients in Seremban General Hospital, Malaysia. This article also discusses the therapeutic property of maggots and highlights the importance of oral health care in the special needs patients. PMID:22844224

Ramli, Roszalina; Abd Rahman, Roslan

2002-01-01

194

The New Orality: Oral Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the characteristics of orality and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new orality" which is neither purely oral or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the "literate," while the…

Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen

1996-01-01

195

Evidence-based oral care for oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Nurses must intervene to provide evidence-based supportive care and symptom management for cancer patients. Oral mucositis, a distressing side effect of cancer treatment, is both a research and clinical priority. Nurses can lead improvements with evidence-based oral mucositis interventions. This article describes application of evidence-based clinical recommendations for oral mucositis across diverse patient populations. PMID:24069711

Farrington, Michele; Cullen, Laura; Dawson, Cindy

2013-01-01

196

Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

Journal of Dental Education, 1987

1987-01-01

197

Lin Tongqi : an oral history  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I explore the life of Professor Lin Tongqi, a well-known scholar of American Chinese studies, by using an oral history methodology. This oral history is named "Suffering and Thinking," and my goal is to ...

Chen, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

198

Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives  

MedlinePLUS

... Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, but they do not prevent ... oral contraceptives on another day, use a backup method of birth control (such as a condom and/ ...

199

31 CFR 1010.713 - Oral communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oral communications. 1010.713 Section 1010...Administrative Rulings § 1010.713 Oral communications. (a) The Director of...administrative rulings in response to oral requests. Oral...

2012-07-01

200

31 CFR 1010.713 - Oral communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral communications. 1010.713 Section 1010...Administrative Rulings § 1010.713 Oral communications. (a) The Director of...administrative rulings in response to oral requests. Oral...

2013-07-01

201

31 CFR 1010.713 - Oral communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oral communications. 1010.713 Section 1010...Administrative Rulings § 1010.713 Oral communications. (a) The Director of...administrative rulings in response to oral requests. Oral...

2014-07-01

202

31 CFR 1010.713 - Oral communications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oral communications. 1010.713 Section 1010...Administrative Rulings § 1010.713 Oral communications. (a) The Director of...administrative rulings in response to oral requests. Oral...

2011-07-01

203

Oral Drug Absorption  

E-print Network

properties ? membrane permeability ? metabolic stability ? enzyme inhibition or induction ? protein binding ? transporter affinity ?. Chemical Optimization DDS technology 4 Strategy of Drug Delivery Absorption Distribution Metabolism Excretion Improve of drug... absorption absorption enhancement controlled releasecontrolled release new administration route Drug targeting to the tissue to the cell to the organelle Dr. Shinji Yamashita (Setsunan University) Issue: Oral Drug Absorption Dr. Valentino J. Stella...

Yamashita, Shinji

2006-10-26

204

Alcohol and oral cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol, particularly when associated with tobacco use, has been recognized as an important risk factor for mouth cancer for almost 50 years. Together, they are associated with approximately 75% of upper aerodigestive tract cancers. However, intake of alcohol remains high in many countries. The rising incidence of oral cancer has prompted a revaluation of the role of alcohol (both alone

Graham R. Ogden

2005-01-01

205

[Halitosis in oral diseases].  

PubMed

The presence of hydrogen sulfide, methilmercaptane, dimethilsulfide, putrescine, cadaverine in exhaled air was evaluated in the study. The concentrations of the named substances were defined in various oral diseases. The received results are of interest for differential diagnostics of halitosis causes. PMID:22678600

Bakhmutov, D N; Kharchenko, O I; Ianushevich, O O

2012-01-01

206

Justin Jenkins Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Justin Jenkins conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 6, 2013. Justin Jenkins is the founder and lead pastor of Velocity Church. Velocity Church is a recent non-denominational church-plant in Lawrence...

Jenkins, Justin; Stratton, Emily

2013-06-06

207

Oral History Online!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bancroft Library at the University of California-Berkeley has recently begun a project to place portions of its oral history collection online in full text. The transcripts will be marked up in SGML using the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), which will allow complex searches of the entire text. In addition to the transcripts themselves, the remainder (photos, prefaces, contents pages) of the published volumes will also be encoded to provide complete access. At this stage, the Suffragists Oral History Project, which offers the text of interviews with twelve suffragists and women's activists for searching or browsing, is the only project available online in complete form. Projects under construction include the Disabled Persons Independence Movement and the BioTech Project. Among the future planned additions are oral histories of the Free Speech Movement at Berkeley, the Earl Warren gubernatorial era, and African-American Alumni at the University of California. Historians of California and oral historians will want to monitor the site as it develops.

208

Methotrexate and oral ulceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methotrexate is well established in the drug treatment of various neoplastic diseases. More recently it has become increasingly used as a once-weekly, low-dose treatment of disorders such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical trials have shown its effectiveness in these conditions and it is likely that dentists will encounter patients taking this drug in general dental practice. Oral ulceration can

G M J Deeming; J Collingwood; M N Pemberton

2005-01-01

209

History of oral contraception.  

PubMed

On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product. PMID:21091163

Dhont, Marc

2010-12-01

210

Anaphylaxis to oral furosemide.  

PubMed

Furosemide, one of the most used diuretic drugs, rarely induces type-1 allergic reactions It is included in the non-aromatic sulfonamides but a cross-reactivity mechanism between this group and the sulfonamides antibiotics, has not been clearly demonstrated. A 24-year-old woman, 10 minutes after the intake of one pill of Seguril 40mg experienced oral itching, generalized urticaria, facial angioedema, dyspnea and hypotension. She recovered after the administration of parental adrenaline, methyl-prednisolone and dyphenhydramine. An skin prick test with furosemide (10 mg/ml) was negative. The intradermal skin tests were positive to furosemide (1 %) as well as sulfamethoxazole (0.03 mg/ml), with 10 atopic and non-atopic negative controls. The patient rejected the performance of an oral challenge test with sulfamethoxazole. IgE-mediated reactions to furosemide are infrequent, but it could be the cause of life-threatening reactions. We have reported a case of anaphylaxis after the oral administration of furosemide with a demonstrated hypersensitivity mechanism through the positive intradermal skin test. The previous administration of the drug could probably the mechanism of sensitization, but the positive intradermal test to sulfamethoxazole would open the hypothesis of a cross-reactivity between non-aromatic and antimicrobial sulfonamides. It could be necessary an oral challenge test with furosemide in allergic patients to sulfamides. PMID:14670291

Domínguez-Ortega, J; Martínez-Alonso, J C; Domínguez-Ortega, C; Fuentes, M J; Frades, A; Fernández-Colino, T

2003-01-01

211

Children's Written and Oral Spelling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether written spelling is superior to oral spelling for children in kindergarten through Grade 2, this study compared children's ability to spell real words and nonsense words orally and in writing. By first and second grade, written spellings were superior to oral spellings in both overall quality and representation of phonological…

Treiman, Rebecca; Bourassa, Derrick

2000-01-01

212

HIV and AIDS: Oral Effects  

MedlinePLUS

HIV and AIDS Oral Effects At the Dentist Oral Effects The oral effects of HIV and AIDS occur because of your weakened immune system and ... of medicines that you may take for HIV/AIDS. Dry mouth can make you more prone to ...

213

Anticoagulation orale en pratique gériatrique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. – Atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism are particularly frequent in the elderly. Whether or not prescribe oral anticoagulant treatment in the elderly is therefore a common question for the physician. Despite the benefits of anticoagulation demonstrated in clinical trials, oral anticoagulant therapy is underused in the elderly.Current knowledge and key points. – Indications for oral anticoagulation are discussed specifically

M Debray; E Pautas; P Couturier; A Franco; V Siguret

2003-01-01

214

Frame Tales and Oral Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frame tales, medieval literary works in which characters become narrators by telling stories of their own, owe a great debt to oral tradition and transmission. Oral tradition provides much of the raw material for these texts, while at the same time providing medieval audiences and modern readers cues for understanding them. Frame tales depict oral storytelling events in such a

Bonnie D. Irwin

2003-01-01

215

Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo  

PubMed Central

Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin. PMID:25657420

Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

2015-01-01

216

Oral health policies in Brazil.  

PubMed

Since Oral Health policies in Brazil have been constructed according to circumstances and possibilities, they should be understood within a given context. The present analysis contextualizes several issues of the Brazilian Oral Health Policy, called "Smiling Brazil", and describes its present stage of development. Today it involves re-organizing basic oral health care by deploying Oral Health Teams within the Family Health strategy, setting up Centers of Dental Specialists within an Oral Health network as a secondary care measure, setting up Regional Laboratories of Dental Prosthesis and a more extensive fluoridation of the public water supply. PMID:19838553

Pucca, Gilberto Alfredo; Costa, José Felipe Riani; Chagas, Luciana de Deus; Sivestre, Rosa Maria

2009-01-01

217

Oral hypoglycemic agent update.  

PubMed

The treatment of diabetes is still a problem more than a half-century after the discovery of insulin. Patients are now living significantly longer but until the development of oral hypoglycemic agents, the only direct treatment modalities were exercise, diet, and insulin. Before evaluating the effectiveness of treatment, a therapeutic goal must be determined. While there are no absolutely "hard" facts proving that "good control" is beneficial in preventing chronic complications of diabetes, increasing accumulation of "soft" data strongly suggests that normal blood glucose levels are most desirable, when possible, but not at the cost of severe or disabling hypoglycemic reactions. The development of the oral agents was a great public health advance in that many persons with early diabetes, but fearful of insulin injections, had less dread of "the pills" and sought treatment. The oral agents simplified care but this very simplification process often undermined the need for proper diet and good fundamental care. This often led to mediocre diabetes care. While useful, the oral agents have marked limitations and in some are effective only temporarily. The presently available oral agents are sulfonylureas and require a viable beta-cell system for success. This limits the number of diabetics responsive to such treatment. The general indications for tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, acetohexamide and tolazamide are in maturity-onset diabetics, generally beyond the age of 40 with diabetes of less than 10 years. They are contraindicated in juvenile-onset diabetics, in pregnant women, and usually in patients undergoing major surgery, and can become ineffective during periods of extreme stress or during severe infection. They can lower blood glucose levels if used in proper doses in properly selected patients. Contrary to several decades of documentation, it has become popular to suggest that the oral agents are not effective. They can be effective but for many reasons apparently were not in their use by the U.G.D.P. researchers. This might not be the fault of the oral agent used. If ineffective, they should be discontinued. Many, but not all, patients may respond to diet therapy, which is then the treatment of choice. Obviously insulin, though difficult to use for many persons and in itself able to induce several severe reactions if not used properly, is the only treatment (with diet) for the severe diabetic. There is a large spectrum of patients inbetween in whom the oral agents may be useful. The use of phenformin (phenethyl-biguanide) has been effectively curtailed because of many reported cases of lactic acidosis, and while it is doubtful that phenformin alone, in the absence of complicating factors, is the causative factor, it is capable of being an augmenting influence when other conditions, such as decreased kidney function, prevail... PMID:98675

Krall, L P; Chabot, V A

1978-07-01

218

New oral anticoagulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new oral anticoagulants may prove to be one of the most significant innovations in clinical practice in the past 60 years.\\u000a Apixaban and rivaroxaban are specific inhibitors of Factor Xa while dabigatran inhibits Factor IIa. The predictable pharmacological\\u000a profile of these new agents will allow physicians to use these drugs without the need for routine coagulation monitoring which\\u000a is the

Taki Galanis; Lynda Thomson; Michael Palladino; Geno J. Merli

2011-01-01

219

Oral Cavity Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Oral Cavity Lip C000–C009, Base of Tongue C019, Other Parts of Tongue C020–C029, Gum C030–C039, Floor of Mouth C040–C049, Palate C050–C059, Other Parts of Mouth C060–C069 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,

220

Skylab oral health studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

1977-01-01

221

[Extended cycle oral contraceptives].  

PubMed

Oral contraceptive pills are conventionally prescribed in a manner that causes monthly withdrawal uterine bleeding (lunar month). The reasons for this are historical without an inherent medical need. According to our literature search, there are patients' demands for less frequent menstrual cycles. We have learned from patients who were given the pill continuously for long periods due to medical or social indications that continuous administration of the contraceptive pill is feasible and safe. In the current review, the authors have searched the literature regarding extended cycle oral contraception for periods of time up to one year. This way of administration of the pill is not compromising the efficacy of pregnancy prevention, nor is it detrimental in terms of cardiovascular and hemostatic complications or endometrial malignancy. It is known that there is a slightly increased risk of breast cancer in users of oral contraceptives up to 10 years, regardless of the mode of administration. From a few studies of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women, there is concern that continuous treatment may be deleterious, while sequential is not. Extended cycle contraceptive treatment has a few side effects, mainly increased breakthrough bleeding but decreased withdrawal bleeding. Other side effects were less prevalent than in conventional administration. PMID:17990394

Geist, Ruth; Beyth, Yoram

2007-10-01

222

Pediatric oral and maxillofacial surgery.  

PubMed

Pediatric oral and maxillofacial surgery is rarely seen as a separate entity from adult oral and maxillofacial surgery. Many procedures are similar on adults and children; however, children have unique behavioral, anatomic, and physiologic considerations. Children also have a propensity for certain injuries and pathologic lesions. Children born with congenital anomalies may also have a special subset of needs. This article is a brief review of oral and maxillofacial surgery on the pediatric population. PMID:23174612

Kutcipal, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

223

Improving oral hygiene for patients.  

PubMed

Systematic reviews and patient safety initiatives recommend that oral hygiene should be part of routine patient care. However, evidence suggests it is often neglected in hospitals and care homes. Research recommends encouraging beliefs that support oral hygiene, and teaching nurses appropriate skills, as necessary prerequisites to implementing best practice in hospital wards. This article describes a pilot study of an educational workshop on oral hygiene. Results from the pilot study suggest that this workshop is a feasible intervention for a service-wide trial. The literature suggests that other interventions are required to complement this approach if nurses are to make oral hygiene a priority in daily patient care. PMID:25563127

Bonetti, Debbie; Hampson, Victoria; Queen, Kerry; Kirk, Donna; Clarkson, Jan; Young, Linda

2015-01-13

224

Halitosis: much beyond oral malodor.  

PubMed

Oral malodor one of the most common complaints with which patients approaches us thinking it can be detrimental to his self-image and confidence. Even though majority of oral malodor is of oral origin, there are multiple other systemic causes that have to be addressed while we diagnose and treat this condition. Most of these patients look up to oral care physicians for expert advice, it is critical for us to have the knowledge base and communication techniques to provide quality clinical assessment and implement effective intervention programs. This article reviews the various causes and the diagnostic modalities which will help us treat this multifaceted condition. PMID:21209551

Ongole, R; Shenoy, N

2010-01-01

225

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-02-01

226

Allison Oral History  

E-print Network

or transcripts. Please be sure to include: Narrator’s name e.g. Bill Smith Interviewer’s Name e.g. Tami Albin Date of interview e.g. March 26, 2009 Name of project and location e.g.... Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas URL e.g. http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/handle/1808/5556 Allison August 23, 2009 Allison: Narrator Tami Albin: Interviewer TAMI ALBIN...

Albin, Tami; Allison

2014-03-13

227

Pat Miller Oral History  

E-print Network

law (Title 17, U. S. Code). Requests for permission to publish quotations beyond “fair use” from this collection should be addressed to: Tami Albin (albin@ku.edu or tami.albin@gmail.com ) Director of Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ..., The Lesbian Mother because she kept on talking about all these kids. She had five kids. I went, No lesbian has five children. But she did. (laughs) And we hooked up together and—I don't know. For some reason we didn't get officially married until...

Miller, Pat; Albin, Tami

2009-10-28

228

[Accidental oral mercurochrome poisoning].  

PubMed

Neonatal mercury poisoning, especially that due to merbromin ingestion, is uncommon. We describe the case of a 10 day old newborn infant who was given mercurochrome orally for 7 days due to misunderstanding of medical instructions. Initial symptoms included loss of appetite and low weight increase. Elevated blood mercury concentrations were found. Chelating therapy with dimercaprol was initiated and the patient's evolution was good. We discuss the potential toxicity of mercury and emphasise the importance of the transmission of information by physicians, especially to the immigrant population. PMID:11141371

Ayala Curiel J; Nieto Conde C; Santana Rodríguez C; Urbón Artero A; Gracia Remiro R

2000-11-01

229

Oral and oropharyngeal cancer.  

PubMed

Oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is a complex and often relentless malignancy prone to local invasion and dissemination. Despite advances in understanding of the disease and improved therapeutic interventions, it continues to be diagnosed at an advanced stage and the survival rate remains poor. The financial cost of treating OPC may be the highest of all cancers in the United States and survivors often experience major detriments to quality of life. Major risk factors for OPC are tobacco, alcohol, areca nut, and human papillomavirus infection. This article updates medical practitioners on the causes, presentation, diagnosis, and management of OPC. PMID:25443678

Huber, Michaell A; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit

2014-11-01

230

Route 66 Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The folks at Missouri State University have interviewed a range of business owners along the celebrated Route 66 to tell the amazing story of what life was like living along this American landmark. Visitors can read through interviews with a variety of people, including the long-time owner of the Boots Motel in Carthage, Missouri and Sheldon and Julia Chaney, owner of a popular gas station. It's the type of popular oral history that makes for excellent reading and contemplation. They plan on adding more material in the future, so curious visitors would do well to make return visits to see what's added next.

231

Oral argument set.  

PubMed

The U.S. Supreme Court will hear oral arguments in the case of [name removed]. [Name removed], a U.S. [Name removed] Major who violated orders by not telling two women with whom he had unprotected sex about his HIV status. The high court will decide whether [name removed]'s court-martial violates double jeopardy and ex post facto clauses of the U.S. Constitution. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces said the Air Force's move to dismiss [name removed] following his conviction was an unconstitutional second punishment for the same offense. PMID:11366390

1999-03-01

232

Shari T. Oral History  

E-print Network

Festival, hang out there. ALBIN: Do you think there would ever be an event where your entire family would go? SHARI: I would love that and I was kind of hoping last year would be, but my daughter and my husband had a daddy/daughter girl scout camp... the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas Please note: this transcript is not time stamped or indexed. It will be at a later date. Shari T: Narrator Tami Albin: Interviewer TAMI ALBIN: Okay, so today is February 25, 2009, and I...

T., Shari; Albin, Tami

2009-12-17

233

An Oral Philosophy of Personhood: Comments on Philosophy and Orality  

Microsoft Academic Search

An oral tradition is a transmission of thought over generations by the spoken word and techniques of communication other than writing. Under this definition, such items as poems, lyrics, proverbs, and maxims, of course, qualify as elements of our oral traditions. So too do drum texts and art motifs. But languages do have embedded in their syntax and semantics various

Kwasi Wiredu

2009-01-01

234

Micronutrients and Oral Clefts  

PubMed Central

Little is known about oral clefts in developing countries. We aimed to identify micronutrient-related and environmental risk factors for oral clefts in Thailand. We tested hypotheses that maternal exposure during the periconceptional period to multivitamins or liver consumption would decrease cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ± P) risk and that menstrual regulation supplements would increase CL ± P risk. We conducted a multisite hospital-based case-control study in Thailand. We enrolled cases with CL ± P and 2 live births as controls at birth from the same hospital. Mothers completed a questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eighty-six cases and 172 controls were enrolled. Mothers who took a vitamin (adjusted OR, 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.94) or ate liver (adjusted OR, 0.26; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.57) were less likely than those who did not to have an affected child. Mothers who took a menstrual regulation supplement were more likely than mothers who did not to have an affected child. Findings did not differ for infants with a family history of other anomalies or with isolated CL ± P. If replicated, our finding that liver decreases CL ± P risk could offer a low-cost primary prevention strategy. PMID:24097855

McKinney, C.M.; Chowchuen, B.; Pitiphat, W.; DeRouen, T.; Pisek, A.; Godfrey, K.

2013-01-01

235

Acute oral hypoglycemic ingestions.  

PubMed

We reviewed the poison center records of 48 consecutive reports of oral hypoglycemic exposure reported to the Rush Poison Control Center between January 1988 and December 1989. The average age of ingestion was 15.0 y (range 1 to 75 y). Twenty-three of the patients (48%) were male, while 25 (52%) were female. Twenty-nine patients ingested glyburide, 10 chlorpropamide, 6 glipizide, 2 tolbutamide, and 1 each for tolazamide and phenformin. One patient ingested both glyburide and tolbutamide. Sixteen cases (33%) involved coingestants. Accidental cause was the primary reason for ingestion in 33 cases (69%) with suicidal intent being mentioned in an additional 11 cases (23%). Thirteen patients (27%) were treated and released from a health care facility, while the same percentage of patients were admitted. There was no adverse effect in 24 patients (50%) while 9 patients (19%) had minor effects without residual disability. Only 2 patients (4%) experienced a major effect. No deaths were reported. We conclude that oral hypoglycemic ingestions generally have a successful outcome and there does not appear to be a significant difference whether a short/long acting agent or first/second-generation product was ingested. PMID:1858305

Erickson, T; Arora, A; Lebby, T I; Lipscomb, J W; Leikin, J B

1991-06-01

236

Reversal of Oral Anticoagulation  

PubMed Central

Although the use of dabigatran and rivaroxaban are increasing, data on reversal of their effects are limited. The lack of reliable monitoring methods and specific reversal agents renders treatment strategies empirical and as a result, , treatment consists mainly of supportive measures. Therefore, we performed a systematic search of the PubMed database to find studies and reviews pertaining to oral anticoagulation reversal strategies. This review discusses current anticoagulation reversal recommendations for the oral anticoagulants warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban for patients at a heightened risk of bleeding, actively bleeding or those in need for pre-procedural anticoagulation reversal. We highlight the literature that shaped these recommendations and provide directions for future research to address knowledge gaps. While reliable recommendations are available for anticoagulation reversal in patients treated with warfarin, guidance on reversal of dabigatran and rivaroxaban is varied and equivocal. Given the increasing use of the newer agents, focused research is needed to identify effective reversal strategies and develop and implement an accurate method (assay) to guide reversal of the newer agents. Determining patient-specific factors that influence the effectiveness of reversal treatments and comparing the effectiveness of various treatment strategies are pertinent areas for future anticoagulation reversal research. PMID:23606318

Limdi, Nita A.

2013-01-01

237

What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?  

MedlinePLUS

... and oropharyngeal cancers? Oral cavity cancer, or just oral cancer, is cancer that starts in the mouth (also ... However, it is important to note that most oral cancers do not develop from pre-existing lesions (either ...

238

Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Key Points for This Section After lip and oral cavity cancer has been diagnosed, ... I Stage II Stage III Stage IV After lip and oral cavity cancer has been diagnosed, tests ...

239

National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS)  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer of the Oral Cavity and Pharynx Additional Resources Data Sources Related Links Glossary Contact Us National Oral Health Surveillance System Oral Health Indicators Dental Visit . Adults aged 18+ who have visited a dentist or ...

240

12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Oral presentations. 1102.36 Section 1102...Proceedings § 1102.36 Oral presentations. (a) In general. A party does not have a right to an oral presentation. Under this section, a...

2010-01-01

241

43 CFR 4.1608 - Oral presentations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 4.1608 Section 4...Circular A-76 § 4.1608 Oral presentations. (a) Upon request of...appellant, an opportunity for an oral presentation to the appeals official...

2010-10-01

242

46 CFR 201.166 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reply thereto. Requests for oral argument will be granted or...if granted, the notice of oral argument will set forth the order of presentation and the amount of time to be...before the Administration for oral argument should...

2010-10-01

243

37 CFR 41.73 - Oral hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Partes Appeals § 41.73 Oral hearing. (a) An oral hearing should be requested...necessary or desirable for a proper presentation of the appeal. An appeal decided on the briefs without an oral hearing will receive the...

2010-07-01

244

48 CFR 570.107 - Oral presentations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 570.107 Section 570.107 Federal...IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.107 Oral presentations. You may use oral presentations for acquisitions of leasehold interests...

2010-10-01

245

48 CFR 15.102 - Oral presentations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 15.102 Section 15.102 Federal...Selection Processes and Techniques 15.102 Oral presentations. (a) Oral presentations by offerors as requested by the...

2010-10-01

246

7 CFR 2901.3 - Oral presentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral presentation. 2901.3 Section 2901...CURTAILMENT PRIORITY § 2901.3 Oral presentation. Any person seeking an...given an opportunity to make an oral presentation of data, views and...

2010-01-01

247

Why Is Oral Health Important for Men?  

MedlinePLUS

... desktop! more... Why is Oral Health Important for Men? Article Chapters Why is Oral Health Important for ... then the other. Updated: February 2007 Related Articles: Men's Oral Health Is Kissing Dangerous to Your Health? ...

248

Tobacco Use and Oral Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

1982-01-01

249

Hypnotic induction and oral temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral temperature was measured in 19 Ss under hypnotic and control conditions. Confirming a previous study by Reid and Curtsinger (1968), the hypnotic induction procedure gave rise to a significant increase in oral temperature (p<.01). This significant rise was due to the data of 10 of the 19 Ss–6 did not change and 3 dropped in temperature. The temperature change

Brian N. Timney; Theodore Xenophon Barber

1969-01-01

250

The Oral Language Proficiency Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes the test used by the federal government to determine oral proficiency in a foreign language. The test is essentially an oral interview, conducted by two testers, and lasting from 15 to 30 minutes, although the format can vary. Proficiency levels range from 0 (for no practical speaking proficiency) to 5 (for speaking…

Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

251

Oral Histories as Living Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many reasons, oral histories should commend themselves to classroom teachers. Sensitively edited, they are eminently readable because of their intimacy, their authenticity, and their varied presentation of human life. As with other books, especially novels written in the first person and autobiographies, oral histories can provide students…

Farrell, Edmund J.

252

Student Conceptions of Oral Presentations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A phonographic study of students' experience of oral presentations in an open learning theology programme constituted three contrasting conceptions of oral presentations--as transmission of ideas; as a test of students' understanding of what they were studying; and as a position to be argued. Each of these conceptions represented a combination of…

Joughin, Gordon

2007-01-01

253

Oral reconstruction with submental flap  

PubMed Central

Background: Submental flap is a useful technique for reconstruction of medium to large oral cavity defects. Hair bearing nature of this flap in men makes it less appropriate. Therefore, deepithelialized variant is introduced to overcome the problem of hair with this flap. Recently, application of this flap has been introduced in maxillofacial trauma patients. Materials and Methods: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is used for the reconstruction of oral cavity mucosal defects. Results: Four cases including two trauma patients and two squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of oral cavity were treated using deepithelialized orthograde submental flap. There were no complications in all four patients and secondary epithelialization occurred in raw surface of the flap which was exposed to oral cavity. Conclusion: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is very effective in reconstruction of oral cavity in men. The problem of hair is readily solved using this technique without jeopardizing flap blood supply. PMID:24205473

Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

2013-01-01

254

Oral and sublingual immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Allergic diseases have continued to increase throughout the developed world. Subcutaneous immunotherapy has been a mainstay of treatment for allergic rhinitis and asthma, however, some patients are precluded from treatment. On the other hand, in the case of food allergy, treatments simply do not exist. Oral and sublingual immunotherapy, with its superior safety and ease of administration, offers an alternative for patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and has also been promising as a potential treatment for food allergy. The review summarizes significant advances from the past year including further data on the effectiveness of existing treatments, preliminary data on novel treatments, and further understanding of the mechanisms of these new therapies. PMID:25133094

Burks, Wesley

2014-01-01

255

Methotrexate and oral ulceration.  

PubMed

Methotrexate is well established in the drug treatment of various neoplastic diseases. More recently it has become increasingly used as a once-weekly, low-dose treatment of disorders such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical trials have shown its effectiveness in these conditions and it is likely that dentists will encounter patients taking this drug in general dental practice. Oral ulceration can occur as a side effect of methotrexate therapy. This may be due to lack of folic acid supplementation or overdosage due to confusion regarding its once-weekly regime. Illustrations of these problems, which have initially presented in a dental setting, are given. Important drug interactions of methotrexate relevant to dentistry are discussed. PMID:15702101

Deeming, G M J; Collingwood, J; Pemberton, M N

2005-01-22

256

Novel oral anticoagulants.  

PubMed

Warfarin has a proven record as an oral anticoagulant; almost every study, however, has found that it is not prescribed for 40-60% of patients who are eligible and should receive it, and of those who do receive it, serum warfarin levels only achieved a time in therapeutic range (TTR) equal to INR 2-3 about 55-60% of the time (online video available at: http://education.amjmed.com/video.php?event_id=445&stage_id=5&vcs=1). This means that only about 1 in 4 patients are adequately anticoagulated with warfarin, and thus there is a large unmet need for achieving better anticoagulation in these patients. Although physicians have sometimes tried to use antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, plus or minus clopidogrel) for anticoagulation, this may result in as much as a doubling of the risk of thromboembolic events. Recently 2 new classes of oral anticoagulant agents have appeared: direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) and factor Xa inhibitors. This review sequentially examines the recent clinical trial evidence for the 3 approved NOACs in the 2 classes, highlighting that all 3 share a class effect of being noninferior to warfarin for reducing risk of stroke and systemic embolization and reducing risk of bleeding, with a relative risk of mortality consistently reduced by 10% per year. In addition, all of the NOACs have a significantly lower risk of intracranial/intracerebral bleeding than warfarin, an important clinical consideration, since that is the most feared bleeding risk and may be sufficient reason to consider switching patients from warfarin to a NOAC, even if they seem to be doing well on warfarin. Finally in addition to reviewing the overall benefits of these NOACs over traditional therapy, the clinical application differences between the classes and between the agents are reviewed. PMID:24655744

Reiffel, James A

2014-04-01

257

Sturge-Weber syndrome: oral and extra-oral manifestations.  

PubMed

Sturge-Weber syndrome is a rare, congenital, neuro-oculo-cutaneous disorder which is characterised extra-orally by unilateral port wine stains on the face, glaucoma, seizures and mental retardation, and intra-orally by ipsilateral gingival haemangioma which frequently affects the maxilla or mandible. In the present case, a 15-year-old female patient presented with a port wine stain on the right side of the face and glaucoma of the right eye, and intra-orally with gingival haemangioma on the right side of the maxilla. PMID:25766438

Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Kumar, Vivek; Dwivedi, Rahul; Saimbi, Charanjit Singh

2015-01-01

258

Oral melanoacanthoma: A rare case of diffuse oral pigmentation  

PubMed Central

The clinical presentation of diffuse pigmentation can be alarming to the patient as well as the clinician. A histopathologic examination of a pigmented lesion is necessary in most of the cases in the oral cavity. Oral melanoacanthoma is a very rare diffuse pigmentation with no specific treatment required. It shows increased number of dendritic melanocytes in an acanthotic epithelium. We present a rare case of diffuse pigmentation in the oral cavity whose diagnosis was done on the basis of clinical presentation and histopathology. Also immunohistochemistry was done. PMID:23248484

Gupta, Anish Ashok; Nainani, Purshotam; Upadhyay, Bipin; Kavle, Pratibha

2012-01-01

259

Diabetes mellitus and oral health.  

PubMed

The oral health is influenced by systemic health, and one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in dental practice is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can worsen oral infections and vice versa. In the literature, periodontitis and diabetes in the young to middle-aged adults have been the most widely researched area. Understanding the patho-physiology, clinical manifestations and management of different types of orofacial diseases in diabetic patients are important to the diabetologist and the dentist for the optimal care of patients with these diseases. This review explores the inter-link between diabetes and oral health. PMID:25487035

Kudiyirickal, Marina George; Pappachan, Joseph M

2014-12-01

260

Diabetes mellitus and oral care.  

PubMed

Diabetes is a common condition. Its incidence is increasing. It can lead to medical complications including visual impairment, neuropathies, renal and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes can have an adverse effect on oral health and healthcare. Conversely, poor oral health can have an adverse effect on blood glucose control. Repeated oral infections can indicate uncontrolled diabetes and lead to its diagnosis. Whereas hyperglycaemia may occur in untreated diabetes, hypoglycaemic episodes are not uncommon in well-controlled diabetes Type 2. The tight glycaemic control required to prevent its long-term complications can be destabilized by infection, anxiety or missed meals. PMID:15188524

Fiske, Janice

2004-05-01

261

Oral focal mucinosis: case report  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Oral focal mucinosis (OFM) is an uncommon disease of unknown aetiology. It is considered to be the oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis and cutaneous myxoid cyst and it is characterized by a focal myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue. A preoperative diagnosis is almost impossible, and the clinical suspicion, usually made by exclusion, must be confirmed by a bioptic examination followed by histological observations. The Authors report a case of focal oral mucinosis diagnosed and treated in a male adult patient. PMID:23285343

GERMANO, F.; ABATE, R.; SANTINI, F.; DRI, M.; ARCURI, C.

2009-01-01

262

As-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria: breadth and association with oral and extra-oral diseases  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that 40–60% of the bacteria found in different healthy and diseased oral sites still remain to be grown in vitro, phenotypically characterized, and formally named as species. The possibility exists that these as-yet-uncultivated bacteria play important ecological roles in oral bacterial communities and may participate in the pathogenesis of several oral infectious diseases. There is also a potential for these as-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria to take part in extra-oral infections. For a comprehensive characterization of physiological and pathogenic properties as well as antimicrobial susceptibility of individual bacterial species, strains need to be grown in pure culture. Advances in culturing techniques have allowed the cultivation of several oral bacterial taxa only previously known by a 16S rRNA gene sequence signature, and novel species have been proposed. There is a growing need for developing improved methods to cultivate and characterize the as-yet-uncultivated portion of the oral microbiome so as to unravel its role in health and disease. PMID:23717756

Siqueira, José F.; Rôças, Isabela N.

2013-01-01

263

Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…

Songhui, Zheng

2008-01-01

264

Why Must Physicians Know About Oral Diseases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Poor oral health reflects social inequalities, hence the prevention of oral diseases should be a priority in developed and underdeveloped countries around the world. Medical practitioners must play an active role in oral health promotion. Summary: Proper knowledge of oral diseases is crucial in medical practice due to the following reasons: (a) Periodontal disease is associated with multiple systemic

Jorge Hernán Ramirez; Roger Arce; Adolfo Contreras

2010-01-01

265

Oral Tradition in Historical Research  

E-print Network

This article will chronicle how those professionals called archivist, charged with collecting, preserving, and making primary source materials including oral history resources available to the public, view their role in this endeavor. This article...

Hankins, Rebecca

266

Oral immunotherapy for food allergy.  

PubMed

Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent disorder with potentially life-threatening complications that requires life-altering changes in dietary habits and psychosocial interactions. The standard of care presently includes strict dietary elimination of the implicated allergen and ready access to injectable epinephrine; however, no active, definitive therapeutic options exist for food-allergic patients. Although the detailed immunologic mechanisms underlying the development of food allergy are still being fully defined, food allergy appears to be the direct result of a breakdown in oral tolerance. Thus, current therapeutic approaches to food allergy are focused on modulating the immunologic response to food proteins to promote induction of oral tolerance. In this review, we examine gastrointestinal mucosal immunity and the mechanisms of oral tolerance, as well as the breakdown in oral tolerance that promotes food allergy, and we also explore novel therapeutic interventions for treatment of food allergy. PMID:19348718

Scurlock, Amy M; Burks, A Wesley; Jones, Stacie M

2009-05-01

267

Robert Keys Jr Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Robert Keys, Jr., conducted by Ben Nelson on December 7, 2009. In this interview, Robert Keys, Jr., a member of the Topeka Bible Church congregation, describes his experiences growing up attending ...

Keys, Robert Jr; Nelson, Ben

2009-12-07

268

Social capital and oral health.  

PubMed

Social determinants have always been an important element of the oral health. It has been seen that social aspects like the organizations and relations influence the health of population. A new domain named social capital has come up into limelight which refers to "features of social organization, such as trust, norms and networks that can improve the efficacy of society by facilitating coordinated actions". The bonds between individuals, both in intimate relationships and in voluntary associations have been claimed to have health promoting effects. Oral health can never be segregated from general health as they are bidirectional in their relationship. Therefore determinants of general health and its promotion are interlinked with that of oral health. So, this review tries to figure out the effects of social capital on various aspects of oral health. PMID:25386549

Batra, Manu; Tangade, Pradeep; Rajwar, Yogesh Chand; Dany, Subha Soumya; Rajput, Prashant

2014-09-01

269

Westside Family Church Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Brad Mann and Jason Morris conducted by Emily Stratton in Lenexa, kansas, on June 27, 2013. Brad Mann is the Speedway Campus Pastor and Jason Morris is the Online Campus Pastor for Westside ...

Mann, Brad; Morris, Jason; Stratton, Emily

2013-06-27

270

Multicultural Issues in Oral Health  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Demographic changes over the coming decades will heighten the challenges to the dental profession and to the nation. The expected growth in the numbers of racial and ethnic minorities, and the concomitant growth of immigrant populations are likely to lead to worsening of oral health disparities. Their consequences are becoming increasingly evident as the profession strives to improve the oral health of all Americans. The increasing diversity of the population, together with the importance of cultural beliefs and behaviors that affect health outcomes, will require ways to enhance provider-patient communications and oral health literacy. We discuss the nature and challenges presented by multicultural patient populations. One important means by which to promote oral health in diverse populations is to develop a dental workforce that is both culturally and linguistically competent, as well as one that is as culturally diverse as the American population. PMID:18329446

Garcia, Raul I.; Cadoret, Cindy; Henshaw, Michelle

2008-01-01

271

Information Theory and Oral Interpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how information theory can be applied to the study of oral interpretation in ways that help performers understand and use the channels available to them in sharing literature with listeners. (PD)

Overstreet, Robert

1984-01-01

272

Social Capital and Oral Health  

PubMed Central

Social determinants have always been an important element of the oral health. It has been seen that social aspects like the organizations and relations influence the health of population. A new domain named social capital has come up into limelight which refers to “features of social organization, such as trust, norms and networks that can improve the efficacy of society by facilitating coordinated actions”. The bonds between individuals, both in intimate relationships and in voluntary associations have been claimed to have health promoting effects. Oral health can never be segregated from general health as they are bidirectional in their relationship. Therefore determinants of general health and its promotion are interlinked with that of oral health. So, this review tries to figure out the effects of social capital on various aspects of oral health. PMID:25386549

Tangade, Pradeep; Rajwar, Yogesh Chand; Dany, Subha Soumya; Rajput, Prashant

2014-01-01

273

South Asian Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oral histories are an important way of telling a community's history, and this intriguing project from the University of Washington Libraries sheds new light on a very interesting aspect of history in the Pacific Northwest. The goal of the South Asian Oral History Project (SAOHP) is "to record pan-South Asian immigrant experiences in the Pacific Northwest using the medium of oral history." The project began in 2005, and the interviews here include immigrants who moved to the area from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka from the 1950s to the present. Visitors can view transcripts of the interviews at their leisure, and good background material can be found in the section titled "A librarian's gift: Oral history project preserves memories of South Asian immigrants". The interviews are quite fascinating, and they include memories of studying at the University of Washington, attending the1962 Seattle World's Fair, and the challenges immigrants faced when they arrived.

274

Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... include: Diabetes or other glandular (endocrine) disorders Genetic disorders such as Down syndrome A course of oral antibiotics Chemotherapy Leukemia or lymphoma Poor nutrition Immune deficiency, such as HIV/AIDS ...

275

Southern Oral History Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the rise of interest in social history in the United States, a number of academics and public citizens have remained committed to preserving the voices and perspectives of everyday people. The Southern Oral History Program (SOHP) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a rather fine example of such a commitment. Founded in 1973, the SOHP has recorded over 2900 interviews with people from all walks of life, and their website contains a generous sampling of this material. First-time visitors may wish to start by watching "Spoken Memories", which provides a nice introduction to the history and work of SOHP. Afterwards, they can sample some of the online audio archives, or listen to the "Interview of the Month" feature. For those who wish to read as they listen, the interviews are complemented by transcripts in several different file formats. Visitors should also feel welcome to browse through the online finding aid to the SOHP's collection and offer their own feedback or inquiries.

276

History (of oral contraceptives).  

PubMed

This article summarizes the interest and research in oral contraceptives, with particular attention given to recent discoveries in the field. Development of the present day pill was impossible until scientific discoveries of female ovarian hormones during pregnancy. Scientific work in the 1920s identified the 2 hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and scientists showed that use of the 2 together influenced ovulation and eased dysmenorrhea. It was not until 1944 that a scientist produced progesterone from a plant steroid; today synthetic steroids are available. Margaret Sanger, a pioneer in the American Family Planning Movement, financed and encouraged early human volunteer trials and later clinical trials with contraceptive pills. By 1957, the pills were approved by the FDA for use in treating menstrual disorders. In January 1962, they were released on the market as contraceptives. By 1976-77, the pill was used by 80-100 million women around the world. A dated table summarizes the information in the article in a timetable fashion. PMID:12308937

1978-02-01

277

Imaging of the oral cavity.  

PubMed

The oral cavity is a challenging area in head and neck imaging because of its complex anatomy and the numerous pathophysiologies that involve its contents. This challenge is further compounded by the ubiquitous artifacts that arise from the dental amalgam, which compromise image quality. In this article, the anatomy of the oral cavity is discussed in brief, followed by a description of the imaging technique and some common pathologic abnormalities. PMID:25476175

Meesa, Indu Rekha; Srinivasan, Ashok

2015-01-01

278

Oral health information systems — towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease

Poul Erik Petersen; Denis Bourgeois; Douglas Bratthall; Hiroshi Ogawa

2005-01-01

279

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa  

PubMed Central

Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

2014-01-01

280

Oral malodour--a review.  

PubMed

Halitosis is a very common condition which may affect up to 30% of the population. In most cases the aetiology of the condition is from local oral causes (oral malodour). Oral malodour is the result of the action of anaerobic bacteria in producing a range of malodorous molecular species including volatile sulphur compounds. Whilst malodour is often associated with the presence of periodontitis, in many cases there is no such link, and the evidence points to the importance of these anaerobic bacteria in tongue coatings which results in the clinical presentation of oral malodour. Management of oral malodour is directed at managing and reducing the bacterial load both in periodontitis and in tongue coatings by instituting proper oral hygiene measures, control of tongue flora by brushing or scraping, and possibly the adjunctive use of antiseptic agents. Treatments have also been proposed to neutralise malodorous compounds by chemical agents to mask the presence of the condition. Further evidence is required to demonstrate the long-term efficacy of therapies for this troublesome condition. PMID:18460398

Hughes, Francis J; McNab, Rod

2008-04-01

281

The oral minimal model method.  

PubMed

The simultaneous assessment of insulin action, secretion, and hepatic extraction is key to understanding postprandial glucose metabolism in nondiabetic and diabetic humans. We review the oral minimal method (i.e., models that allow the estimation of insulin sensitivity, ?-cell responsivity, and hepatic insulin extraction from a mixed-meal or an oral glucose tolerance test). Both of these oral tests are more physiologic and simpler to administer than those based on an intravenous test (e.g., a glucose clamp or an intravenous glucose tolerance test). The focus of this review is on indices provided by physiological-based models and their validation against the glucose clamp technique. We discuss first the oral minimal model method rationale, data, and protocols. Then we present the three minimal models and the indices they provide. The disposition index paradigm, a widely used ?-cell function metric, is revisited in the context of individual versus population modeling. Adding a glucose tracer to the oral dose significantly enhances the assessment of insulin action by segregating insulin sensitivity into its glucose disposal and hepatic components. The oral minimal model method, by quantitatively portraying the complex relationships between the major players of glucose metabolism, is able to provide novel insights regarding the regulation of postprandial metabolism. PMID:24651807

Cobelli, Claudio; Dalla Man, Chiara; Toffolo, Gianna; Basu, Rita; Vella, Adrian; Rizza, Robert

2014-04-01

282

Approaches to Oral Nutrition Health Risk Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health plays a significant role in overall and nutritional health. This role becomes increasingly important for patients\\u000a with oral or medical illness, patients with physical limitations that affect chewing ability, and patients who take medications\\u000a that affect immune surveillance, oral ecology, and oral physiology. The primary focus of this chapter is to describe approaches\\u000a to oral nutrition and diet

Riva Touger-Decker; David A. Sirois

283

Peanut oral immunotherapy modifies IgE and IgG4 responses to major peanut allergens  

PubMed Central

Background Peanut-allergic subjects have highly stable pathologic antibody repertoires to the immunodominant B cell epitopes of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1-3. Objective We used a peptide microarray technique to analyze the effect of treatment with peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) on such repertoires. Methods Measurements of total peanut-specific IgE (psIgE) and psIgG4 were made with CAP-FEIA. We analyzed sera from 22 OIT subjects and 6 controls and measured serum specific IgE and IgG4 binding to epitopes of Ara h 1-3 using a high-throughput peptide microarray technique. Antibody affinity was measured using a competitive peptide microarray as previously described. Results At baseline, psIgE and psIgG4 diversity were similar between subjects and controls, and there was broad variation in epitope recognition. After a median 41 months of OIT, polyclonal psIgG4 increased from a median 0.3 mcg/mL (IQR 0.1-0.43) at baseline to 10.5 mcg/mL (3.95-45.48) (p<0.0001) and included de novo specificities. PsIgE was reduced from a median baseline of 85.45 kUA/L (23.05-101.0) to 7.75 kUA/L (2.58-30.55) (p<0.0001). Affinity was unaffected. Although the psIgE repertoire contracted in most OIT-treated subjects, several subjects generated new IgE specificities even as the total psIgE decreased. Global epitope-specific shifts from IgE to IgG4 binding occurred, including at an informative epitope of Ara h 2. Conclusion OIT differentially alters Ara h 1-3 binding patterns. These changes are variable between subjects, not observed in controls, and include a progressive polyclonal increase in IgG4, with concurrent reduction in IgE amount and diversity. PMID:23199605

Vickery, Brian P.; Lin, Jing; Kulis, Michael; Fu, Zhiyan; Steele, Pamela H.; Jones, Stacie M.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Gimenez, Gustavo; Bardina, Ludmilla; Sampson, Hugh A.; Burks, A. Wesley

2012-01-01

284

Prolonged monitoring of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel levels confirms an altered pharmacokinetic profile in obese oral contraceptives users  

PubMed Central

Background Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters based on short sampling times (48 h or less) may contain inaccuracies due to their dependency on extrapolated values. This study was designed to measure PK parameters with greater accuracy in obese users of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC), and to correlate drug levels with assessments of end-organ activity. Study design Obese (BMI ?30 kg/m2), ovulatory, otherwise healthy, women (n = 32) received an OC containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/100 mcg levonorgestrel (LNG) for two cycles. EE and LNG PK parameters were characterized for 168 h at the end of Cycle 1. During Cycle 2, biweekly outpatient visits were performed to assess cervical mucus, monitor ovarian activity with transvaginal ultrasound, and obtain serum samples to measure EE, LNG, estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P) levels. PK parameters were calculated and correlated with end-organ activity and compared against control samples obtained from normal and obese women sampled up to 48 h in a previous study. Standard determination of PK accuracy was performed; defined by the dependency on extrapolated values (‘excess’ area under the curve of 25% or less). Results The mean BMI was 39.4 kg/m2 (SD 6.6) with a range of 30–64 kg/m2. Key LNG PK parameters were as follows: clearance 0.52 L/h (SD 0.24), half-life 65 h (SD 40), AUC 232 h*ng/mL (SD 102) and time to reach steady-state 13.6 days (SD 8.4). The majority of subjects had increased ovarian activity with diameter of follicles ?8 mm (n = 25) but only seven women had follicles ?10 mm plus cervical mucus scores ?5. Evidence of poor end-organ suppression did not correlate with the severity of the alterations in PK. As compared to historical normal and obese controls (48 h PK sampling), clearance, half-life, area under the curve (AUC) and time to reach steady-state were found to be significantly different (p ? 0.05) in obese women undergoing a longer duration of PK sampling (168 h). Longer sampling also improved PK accuracy for obese women (excess AUC 20%) as compared to both normal and obese controls undergoing shorter sampling times (48 h) with excess AUCs of 25% and 50%, respectively. Conclusions Obesity results in significant alterations in OC steroid PK parameters but the severity of these alterations did not correlate with end-organ suppression. A longer PK sampling interval (168 h vs. 48 h) improved the accuracy of PK testing. PMID:23153898

Edelman, Alison B; Cherala, Ganesh; Munar, Myrna Y.; DuBois, Barent; McInnis, Martha; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Jensen, Jeffrey T

2014-01-01

285

Changes in abundance of oral microbiota associated with oral cancer.  

PubMed

Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

Schmidt, Brian L; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M; Queiroz, Erica L S; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A Ross; DeLacure, Mark D; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B; Albertson, Donna G

2014-01-01

286

Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.

2014-01-01

287

Drug testing in oral fluid.  

PubMed

Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing outside laboratory environments has become widespread and provides presumptive results within minutes of collection of specimens. This review focuses on the developments, particularly over the last 10 years, and outlines the roles and applications of testing for drugs in oral fluid, describes the difficulties associated with this form of testing and illustrates applications of oral fluid testing for specific drugs. PMID:17268583

Drummer, Olaf H

2006-08-01

288

Adolescents and oral contraceptives.  

PubMed

Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development (autonomy, self-esteem, locus of control), life expectations (marriage, college, career), dating behavior, age at 1st intercourse, perceived risk for becoming pregnant, personal attributes (sex, birth control, acquisition of birth control, pregnancy, parents' and peers' feelings toward sex and birth control), and previous experiences with birth control. PMID:1679420

Sanfilippo, J S

1991-01-01

289

Oral immunotherapy for allergic conjunctivitis.  

PubMed

Antigen-specific immunotherapy is expected to be a desirable treatment for allergic diseases. Currently, antigen-specific immunotherapy is performed by administering disease-causing antigens subcutaneously or sublingually. These approaches induce long-term remission in patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma. The oral route is an alternative to subcutaneous and sublingual routes, and can also induce long-term remission, a phenomenon known as "oral tolerance." The effectiveness of oral tolerance has been reported in the context of autoimmune diseases, food allergies, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis in both human patients and animal models. However, few studies have examined its efficacy in animal models of allergic conjunctivitis. Previously, we showed that ovalbumin feeding suppressed ovalbumin-induced experimental allergic conjunctivitis, indicating the induction of oral tolerance is effective in treating experimental allergic conjunctivitis. In recent years, transgenic rice has been developed that can induce oral tolerance and reduce the severity of anaphylaxis. The major Japanese cedar pollen antigens in transgenic rice, Cryptomeria japonica 1 and C. japonica 2, were deconstructed by molecular shuffling, fragmentation, and changes in the oligomeric structure. Thus, transgenic rice may be an effective treatment for allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:25289722

Ishida, Waka; Fukuda, Ken; Harada, Yosuke; Yagita, Hideo; Fukushima, Atsuki

2014-11-01

290

Mandibular conservation in oral cancer.  

PubMed

Surgery is one of the established modes of initial definitive treatment for a majority of oral cancers. Invasion of bony or cartilaginous structures by advanced upper aero-digestive tract cancer has been considered an indication for primary surgery on the basis of historic experience of poor responsiveness to radiation therapy [1]. The mandible is a key structure both in the pathology of intra-oral tumours and their surgical management. It bars easy surgical access to the oral cavity, yet maintaining its integrity is vital for function and cosmesis. Management of tumours that involve or abut the mandible requires specific understanding of the pattern of spread and routes of tumour invasion into the mandible. This facilitates the employment of mandibular sparing approaches like marginal mandibulectomy and mandibulotomy, as opposed to segmental or hemimandibulectomy which causes severe functional problems, as the mandibular continuity is lost. Accurate preoperative assessment that combines clinical examination and imaging along with the understanding of the pattern of spread and routes of invasion is essential in deciding the appropriate level and extent of mandibular resection in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Studies have shown that local control rates achieved with marginal mandibulectomy are comparable with that of segmental mandibulectomy. In carefully selected patients, marginal mandibulectomy is an oncologically safe procedure to achieve good local control and provides a better quality of life. This article aims to review the mechanism of spread, evaluation and prognosis of mandibular invasion, various techniques and role of mandibular conservation in oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:21856149

Rao, Latha P; Shukla, Mridula; Sharma, Vinay; Pandey, Manoj

2012-06-01

291

Diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis in an infant undergoing milk oral immunotherapy - a case report.  

PubMed

Although the standard of care for cow's milk (CM) allergy is strict food avoidance, oral immunotherapy (OIT) is being widely investigated as an alternative management option in certain cases. Immediate adverse reactions to OIT have been described, but its long-term effects are much less often reported. We present the case of a girl diagnosed with IgE-mediated CM allergy that was proposed for our CM OIT protocol at the age of 3 years. The first sessions (dose escalation up to 5 ml) were well tolerated, however eight hours after her daily morning dose of 5 ml CM the child developed late episodes of vomiting. No other symptoms, particularly immediately after CM ingestion, were reported. These episodes became progressively worse and on the third day she presented mild dehydration and blood eosinophilia. After OIT interruption, a progressive clinical improvement was observed. An esophageal endoscopy was performed, showing signs of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) with peak 20 eosinophils/hpf. After treatment with topical swallowed fluticasone (500 mcg bid) and a CM-free diet for 4 months, the child was asymptomatic and endoscopy and biopsy findings were normal.The long-term effects of milk OIT are still in part unknown. We hypothesize that eosinophilic esophagitis may have been a consequence of OIT in this case. The findings seem to indicate that food allergy may play a role in the pathogenesis of esophageal eosinophilia and stress the importance of a well programmed long-term follow-up of patients that have undergone milk OIT. PMID:25053634

Morais Silva, P; Antunes, J; Chambel, M; Prates, S; Leiria Pinto, P

2014-07-01

292

Chemical Stability of Admixtures Containing Ziconotide 25 mcg/mL and Morphine Sulfate 10 mg/mL or 20 mg/mL During Simulated Intrathecal Administration.  

PubMed

The chemical stability of an intrathecally administered analgesic combination may influence the frequency of pump refills necessary to maintain safe and effective analgesia. Previous work has shown that the stability of ziconotide at body temperature is reduced substantially by the presence of morphine sulfate 35 mg/mL. The current study was performed to evaluate the chemical stability of admixtures combining ziconotide with lower concentrations of morphine sulfate during simulated intrathecal infusion under laboratory conditions at 37 deg C. Admixtures containing ziconotide 25 mcg/mL and morphine sulfate 10 mg/mL or 20 mg/mL were stored in implantable intrathecal pumps at 37 deg C and in control vials at 37 deg C or 5 deg C. Samples were obtained over 60 days (admixture containing morphine sulfate 10 mg/mL) or 28 days (admixture containing morphine sulfate 20 mg/mL) and drug concentrations were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Estimates of the time intervals that each admixture retained > or= 90% and > or = 80% of the initial concentrations of both drugs (i.e., the 90% and 80% stabilites) were based on 95% confidence bounds obtained via linear regression. Morphine sulfate 10 mg/mL, the mean ziconotide concentration declined to 81.4% of the initial concentration in 60 days, and 90% and 80% stabilites were maintained for 34 days and 65 days, respctively. In the admixture containing morphine sulfate 20 mg/mL, the mean ziconotide concentration declined to 85.3% of the initial concentration in 28 days, and 90% and 80% stabilities were maintained for 19 days and 37 days, respectively. Decreasing the concentration of morphine in an admixture containing ziconotide improves the stablity of ziconotide. PMID:23969933

Shields, David E; Aclan, Jennifer; Szatkowski, Aaron

2008-01-01

293

The Application of Vizilite in Oral Cancer  

PubMed Central

This article depicts the various applications of Vizilite plus in oral cancer. The oral cavity demonstrates a variety of red and white, pigmented and vesiculo- bullous lesions. Oral cancer still happens to carry the highest mortality worldwide, especially in India. In India, the prime focus is on the downstreaming of oral cancer from an advanced stage to an early diseased state. The techniques that are promoted to facilitate an earlier detection and diagnosis of an oral malignancy include Toluidine blue, ViziLite Plus with TBlue, ViziLite, Microlux DL, Orascoptic DK, VEL scope, Oral CDx and brush biopsy. PMID:23450083

Sambandham, Thirugnana; Masthan, K. M. K.; Kumar, M. Sathish; Jha, Abhinav

2013-01-01

294

The application of vizilite in oral cancer.  

PubMed

This article depicts the various applications of Vizilite plus in oral cancer. The oral cavity demonstrates a variety of red and white, pigmented and vesiculo- bullous lesions. Oral cancer still happens to carry the highest mortality worldwide, especially in India. In India, the prime focus is on the downstreaming of oral cancer from an advanced stage to an early diseased state. The techniques that are promoted to facilitate an earlier detection and diagnosis of an oral malignancy include Toluidine blue, ViziLite Plus with TBlue, ViziLite, Microlux DL, Orascoptic DK, VEL scope, Oral CDx and brush biopsy. PMID:23450083

Sambandham, Thirugnana; Masthan, K M K; Kumar, M Sathish; Jha, Abhinav

2013-01-01

295

Florida Citrus Industry Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's so special about oranges? They are a major cash crop for Florida and other warm weather places, and this fascinating oral history project from the University of South Florida (USF) explores the very nature of this industry. Working together with the USF's Patel Center for Global Studies, oral historian William Mansfield conducted 20 interviews regarding the impact of globalization on the Florida citrus industry. Visitors can listen to or read the interviews, as well as look over the online exhibition, "Selling Sunshine: Florida's Citrus Industry." The exhibition details Florida's unique relationship with the citrus industry, incorporating documents, promotional material, and post cards with its information. The website hosts a remarkable collection that will be of interest to oral historians, folks with an interest in Florida, and many others.

296

Child, neglect and oral health  

PubMed Central

Background Despite advancements in oral health policies, dental caries still a problem. The lack of parents/caregiver’s care regarding child’s oral health, which characterizes neglect, may lead to a high prevalence of caries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the relation between dental caries and neglect in five year-old children. Methods Quantitative study performed in two different moments. First, the children underwent oral examinations and physical inspection. Then, a semi-structured interview was performed with parents of children with high and low caries rate. Results In all, 149 physical inspections and oral exams were performed. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth – dmf-t was 2.75 (SD 2.83); 16 children had extremely high values (dmf-t ?7), 85 intermediate values (1???dmf-t???6) and 48 extremely low (dmf-t?=?0). Nearly all caregivers were female (96.7%; n?=?29), mostly mothers (93.3%; n?=?28). Associations were found between caries experience and reason of the last consultation (p?=?0.011), decayed teeth and child’s oral health perception (p?=?0.001). There was a trend towards a significant association between general health and decayed teeth (p?=?0.079), general hygiene and caries experience (p?=?0.083), and caries experience and number of times the child brushes the teeth (p?=?0.086). Conclusion There’s a relation between caries experience and children’s oral health perception by caregivers, as well as between caries experience and children’s access to dental care. There is a trend towards association between caries experience and risk factors suggestive of neglect. PMID:24238222

2013-01-01

297

Efficacy of oral administration and oral intake of edible vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate whether vaccine administration via intragastric gavage is indicative for the outcome of edible vaccines, mice were orally immunised with ovalbumin (OVA) mixed with or without Vibrio cholerae toxin (CT) in various compositions via various routes: (1) OVA dissolved in saline and intragastrically (IG) administered (‘IG’); (2) OVA mixed with food extract and administered IG (‘food IG’); (3) food

Tosca G. M Lauterslager; Luuk A. T Hilgers

2002-01-01

298

Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)  

MedlinePLUS

You are here: Health Information > Medications > Asthma and Lung Diseases > Quick-Relief Medications > Oral Steroids Oral Steroids (Steroid ... often necessary for treating more severe episodes of lung disease. Common steroid pills and liquids include: Medicine name ...

299

Oral feeding readiness assessment in premature infants.  

PubMed

Oral feeding readiness is a complex concept. More evidence is needed on how to approach beginning oral feedings in premature hospitalized infants. This article provides a review of literature related to oral feeding readiness in the premature infant and strategies for promoting safe and efficient progression to full oral intake. Oral feeding readiness assessment tools, clinical pathways, and feeding advancement protocols have been developed to assist with oral feeding initiation and progression. Recognition and support of oral feeding readiness may decrease length of hospital stay and have a positive impact on reducing healthcare costs. Supporting effective cue-based oral feeding through use of rigorous assessment or evidence-based care guidelines can also optimize the hospital experience for infants and caregivers, which, in turn, can promote attachment and parent satisfaction. PMID:25494013

Gennattasio, Annmarie; Perri, Elizabeth A; Baranek, Donna; Rohan, Annie

2015-01-01

300

American Oral Literature: Our Forgotten Heritage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on American Indian and Afro-American oral tradition to explore the substance and potential pedagogic value of American oral literature. Stresses the literary value of modern folk literature, including popular songs and rhetoric. (Author/JB)

Haslam, Gerald

1971-01-01

301

Treatment and Outcomes of Oral Candidiasis  

MedlinePLUS

... swallow”). Systemic antifungal medication such as fluconazole or itraconazole may be necessary for oropharyngeal infections that do ... treated with oral or intravenous fluconazole or oral itraconazole. For severe or azole-resistant esophageal candidiasis, treatment ...

302

Oral biofilms, periodontitis, and pulmonary infections  

PubMed Central

Bacteria from the oral biofilms may be aspirated into the respiratory tract to influence the initiation and progression of systemic infectious conditions such as pneumonia. Oral bacteria, poor oral hygiene, and periodontitis seem to influence the incidence of pulmonary infections, especially nosocomial pneumonia episodes in high-risk subjects. Improved oral hygiene has been shown to reduce the occurrence of nosocomial pneumonia, both in mechanically-ventilated hospital patients and non-ventilated nursing home residents. It appears that oral colonization by potential respiratory pathogens, possibly fostered by periodontitis, and possibly by bacteria specific to the oral cavity or to periodontal diseases contribute to pulmonary infections. Thus, oral hygiene will assume an even more important role in the care of high-risk subjects – patients in the hospital intensive care and the elderly. The present paper critically reviews the recent literature on the effect of oral biofilms and periodontitis on pneumonia. PMID:17944664

Paju, S; Scannapieco, FA

2008-01-01

303

13 CFR 134.311 - Oral hearings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...APPEALS Rules of Practice for Appeals From Size Determinations and NAICS Code Designations § 134.311 Oral hearings. Oral hearings will not be held in appeals from NAICS code designations, and will be held in appeals from size...

2013-01-01

304

13 CFR 134.311 - Oral hearings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...APPEALS Rules of Practice for Appeals From Size Determinations and NAICS Code Designations § 134.311 Oral hearings. Oral hearings will not be held in appeals from NAICS code designations, and will be held in appeals from size...

2010-01-01

305

13 CFR 134.311 - Oral hearings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...APPEALS Rules of Practice for Appeals From Size Determinations and NAICS Code Designations § 134.311 Oral hearings. Oral hearings will not be held in appeals from NAICS code designations, and will be held in appeals from size...

2014-01-01

306

13 CFR 134.311 - Oral hearings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...APPEALS Rules of Practice for Appeals From Size Determinations and NAICS Code Designations § 134.311 Oral hearings. Oral hearings will not be held in appeals from NAICS code designations, and will be held in appeals from size...

2011-01-01

307

13 CFR 134.311 - Oral hearings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...APPEALS Rules of Practice for Appeals From Size Determinations and NAICS Code Designations § 134.311 Oral hearings. Oral hearings will not be held in appeals from NAICS code designations, and will be held in appeals from size...

2012-01-01

308

Neuromuscular Diseases and Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Muscular Dystrophy Parkinson's Disease Huntington's Disease Myasthenia Gravis Spina Bifida Bell's Palsy Oral Effects Bell's palsy is a ... together to coordinate your medical and dental needs. Spina Bifida Oral Effects People with spina bifida have no ...

309

Disciplinary Lens Course Rubric Oral Communication (ULO 2)  

E-print Network

Disciplinary Lens Course Rubric Oral Communication (ULO 2) Communicate effectively in speech, both understanding of oral communication of ideas Responds with comprehension to oral communication of ideas Responds with flawed comprehension to oral communication

Barrash, Warren

310

Nutritional Consequences of Oral Conditions and Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health status is influenced by numerous oral diseases and conditions, including loss of teeth and supporting dental alveolar\\u000a bone, xerostomia, loss of taste and smell, orofacial pain, oral movement disorders, and others. Other major factors include\\u000a general health, socioeconomic status (SES), nutritional well-being, and dietary habits (1). Diseases of the oral cavity, both local and systemic, can have a

A. Ross Kerr; Riva Touger-Decker

311

Oral diadochokinetic rate in adults.  

PubMed

Diadochokinetic rate has traditionally been used for assessment, diagnosis and therapy in patients who suffered from oral cancer resection, glossectomy, oral myofunctional disease, dysphagia, dysarthria, functional articulation disorders or apraxia of speech. This is because diadochokinetic rate shows the documented structural and physiological changes in the central nervous system and the peripheral components of oral and speech production mechanism. Diadochokinetic rates were obtained from seventy-six normal subjects by counting the repetition of oral function (/a:-u:/; /u:-i:/; and /i:-a:/), tongue function (tongue movement from side to side of lip corner and lan lan lan lan la), and lip-tongue function (/p-t-k/ and /ph-th-kh/) in 15 seconds. The Count-by-Time test was used for data collection. The finding showed average diadochokinetic rates (syllables or times per 15 seconds) were 33.6, 33.16, 30.58; 24.21, 15.10, 26.50 and 26.30 for /a:-u:/, /u:-i:/, /i:-a:/, tongue movement from side to side of lip corner, lan lan lan lan la, /p-t-k/, and /ph-th-kh/. Most of the correlation analysis showed a high positive relationship. The results of this study are guidelines of normal diadochokinetic rates. In addition, they can indicate the severity of diseases and evaluation of treatment. PMID:9803070

Prathanee, B

1998-10-01

312

Pollen grains for oral vaccination.  

PubMed

Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to 7 months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate into mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

Atwe, Shashwati U; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

2014-11-28

313

Crossed cheiro-oral syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesCheiro-oral syndrome is characterized by sensory impairment confined to perioral area and ipsilateral fingers\\/hand. It results from an involvement of the ascending sensory tracts above the pons. However, a crossed pattern of perioral and acral paresthesia was rarely reported before.

Wei-Hsi Chen; Tzu-Hui Li; Tsung-Hwa Chen; Hung-Sheng Lin; Ming-Ching Hsu; Shun-Sheng Chen; Jia-Shou Liu

2008-01-01

314

Bilateral cheiro-oral syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight cases of pure bilateral cheiro-oral syndrome (COS) are reported. The location and etiology of lesion were well defined in six cases, including pontine infarct in three, and brainstem hemorrhage, unilateral thalamic infarct and bilateral subdural hematoma in one patient each respectively. Neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies were normal in another two patients. Taken together with the previous five reported cases

W. H Chen; M. Y Lan; Y. Y Chang; J. S Liu; M. S Chou; S. S Chen

1997-01-01

315

DNA fingerprinting of oral bacteria.  

PubMed

This elective study was conducted at the Dental School, University of Wales College of Medicine and at the University of Wales College of Cardiff School of Pure and Applied Biology. The student's interest in oral microbiology and desire to contribute to the work being performed in the field of oral microbiology, led him to concentrate his study on developing a DNA fingerprinting method to evaluate the putative new species of the genus Capnocytophaga. The genus Capnocytophaga, which contains Gram-negative, capnophilic fusiform-shaped bacteria, has been implicated in juvenile periodontitis and prepubertal gingivitis. However, the genus is also part of the normal oral flora. The student believed that there was an implication of the existence of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of Capnocytophaga and developed a method of DNA fingerprinting to distinguish Capnocytophaga strains from clusters identified by Khwaja et al. The student felt that the study allowed insight into the tremendous potential of molecular techniques for furthering the understanding of dental disease and confirmed his ambition to pursue a career in academic oral microbiology. This area of study allows new associations to be made between specific bacteria and diseases, aiding the possibility of rapid and early diagnosis. PMID:1739503

Lancashire, P

1992-01-25

316

War, Journalism, and Oral History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)

Rice, Gary

2000-01-01

317

Oral Communication across the Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proficiency in oral communication is necessary in school and in society. To do well in the different curriculum areas, pupils must speak with clarity and understanding. For example, in a discussion group in the social studies involving the topic "the pros and cons of raising taxes," pupils need to express knowledgeable ideas with appropriate voice…

Ediger, Marlow

2011-01-01

318

Gaelic singing and oral tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent report by UNESCO placed Scots Gaelic on a list of 2500 endangered languages highlighting the perilous state of a key cornerstone of Scottish culture. Scottish Gaelic song, poems and stories have been carried through oral transmission for many centuries reflecting the power of indigenous peoples to preserve cultural heritage from generation to generation without recourse to a written

Mark Sheridan; Iona MacDonald; Charles G. Byrne

2011-01-01

319

ORAL NEMATODE INFECTION OF TARANTULAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oral nematode infection of Theraphosidae spiders, known as tarantulas, has been recently identified from several collections in the UK and mainland Europe. The disease has also been seen in captive and wild spiders from the Americas, Asia and Africa. Spider symptoms are described from anorexia until...

320

British Romantic Homer: Oral Tradition, \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This essay explores how Homer was newly good to think with in Britain, c. 1760-1830, and hopes to offer an account of the first oralization of Homer. In eighteenth-century Britain, as the very notions of culture and society were themselves undergoing transformation, \\

Maureen N. McLane; Laura M. Slatkin

2011-01-01

321

Reconstructing Old Norse Oral Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The written residue of oral tradition from the medieval Nordic world encompasses a wide variety of pan-national genres, including charms, legends, and genealogical lore, but modern scholarly attention has generally focused on two areas: (1) the prose (and often prosimetrical) Icelandic sagas and (2) traditional poetry in its two dominant forms, eddic and scaldic. Many factors play into this somewhat

Stephen Mitchell

2003-01-01

322

British Romantic Homer: Oral Tradition, \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay explores how Homer was newly good to think with in Britain, c. 1760-1830, and hopes to offer an account of the first oralization of Homer. In eighteenth-century Britain, as the very notions of culture and society were themselves undergoing transformation, \\

Maureen N. McLane; Laura M. Slatkin

2011-01-01

323

JAMA Patient Page: Oral Contraceptives  

MedlinePLUS

... is 0.1%. However, in the real world, accounting for missed days of use, the chance of pregnancy is about 8% per year. Side Effects Side effects of oral contraceptives vary depending on the pills’ hormone levels and types. Some include vaginal spotting and abnormal ...

324

College of Dentistry ORAL SCIENCES  

E-print Network

College of Dentistry ORAL SCIENCES Mailing Address: College of Dentistry (MC 621) 801 South (PhD) Telephone: (312) 996-0213 E-mail: marucha@uic.edu Web Site: http://dentistry.uic.edu/admissions/ms/ (MS); http://dentistry.uic.edu/admissions/phd/ (PhD) Director of Graduate Studies: Phillip T. Marucha

Illinois at Chicago, University of

325

Assessing Proofs via Oral Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative study, we explored how oral interviews can inform instructors about students' understanding of abstract algebra and their ability to construct a proof in this setting. Our findings indicate that some students had a good understanding of the ideas needed for a subgroup proof, but could not write a coherent proof. On the other…

Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Fuller, Evan

2012-01-01

326

Gaelic Singing and Oral Tradition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report by UNESCO placed Scots Gaelic on a list of 2500 endangered languages highlighting the perilous state of a key cornerstone of Scottish culture. Scottish Gaelic song, poems and stories have been carried through oral transmission for many centuries reflecting the power of indigenous peoples to preserve cultural heritage from…

Sheridan, Mark; MacDonald, Iona; Byrne, Charles G.

2011-01-01

327

Kent A. Wagner Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Kent A. Wagner conducted by Emily Stratton in Wichita, Kansas, on June 20, 2013. Kent A. Wagner is the founder and lead pastor of Epic Church, a recent church-plant in the Wichita, Kansas, area. It launched in 2009...

Wagner, Kent A; Stratton, Emily

2013-06-20

328

Developing the Oral Language Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Oral Language Program developed by the Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory is intended to disseminate and implement strategies and materials which will improve the teaching of language skills to preschool and primary children with little or no facility in English. The first version of the program, known as Mark I, did not include…

Olivero, James L.

329

The Telling Lives Oral History Curriculum Guide The Columbia University Center for Oral History  

E-print Network

The Telling Lives Oral History Curriculum Guide The Columbia University Center for Oral History (formerly the Oral History Research Office) Written by Gerry Albarelli and Amy Starecheski April 2005 Columbia University, 2005 #12;Telling Lives Oral History Curriculum Guide 1 Table of Contents Introduction

Salzman, Daniel

330

Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine: Oral Biofilms: Emerging Concepts in Microbial Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral biofilms develop under a range of different conditions and different environments. This review will discuss emerging concepts in microbial ecology and how they relate to oral biofilm development and the treatment of oral diseases. Clues to how oral biofilms develop may lie in other complex systems, such as interactions between host and gut microbiota, and even in factors that

S. Filoche; L. Wong; C. H. Sissons

2010-01-01

331

Oral Diseases / Review Oral mucosa lesions in hypereosinophilic syndrome: an update  

E-print Network

: Hypereosinophilic syndrome and oral ulcers Keywords: hypereosinophilic syndrome, oral ulcers, myeloproliferative. Oral mucosa ulcerations can be early clinical signs in severe forms. They are discrete, round or oval, sometimes confluent ulcers or erosions, located on non-keratinized, unattached oral mucosa. In the last

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

332

Healthy People 2010: Oral Health Toolkit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this Toolkit is to provide guidance, technical tools, and resources to help states, territories, tribes and communities develop and implement successful oral health components of Healthy People 2010 plans as well as other oral health plans. These plans are useful for: (1) promoting, implementing and tracking oral health objectives;…

Isman, Beverly

2007-01-01

333

The Oral History Project The Vietnam Archive  

E-print Network

posting complete transcripts and interview recordings to the Internet for free and open access who conduct an interview with us to speak openly about their experiences. The Oral History Project aware of and understands the following: 1. By participating in an oral history interview with the Oral

Gelfond, Michael

334

Ronald Reagan and the Oral Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses oral theory to examine the relationship between cognition and orality. Analyzes how the electronic media mimic the kind of interaction between speaker and audience characteristic of preliterate cultures. Argues that Ronald Reagan's effectiveness on television stems from his use of rhetorical structures characteristic of preliterate oral…

Gold, Ellen Reid

1989-01-01

335

Ronald Reagan and the oral tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

President Reagan's success stems from his use of rhetorical structures characteristic of the oral epics and his use of the electronic media which partially replicate conditions characteristic of preliterate oral societies. These societies develop a culture transmitted orally through epic poems or recitations. Such recitations are developed by themes, formulas, and repetition as well as by distinctive thought patterns, experiential

Ellen Reid Gold

1988-01-01

336

Minimum intervention dentistry in oral medicine.  

PubMed

Oral medicine sits at the interface of medicine and dentistry. Minimum intervention dentistry (MID) borrows a medical model of disease control by oral health professionals. As an oral physician, the oral medicine specialist practices MID on a daily basis. With the advent of sophisticated early detection and diagnostic technology, and the growing understanding of oral diseases at the microscopic and molecular levels, all oral health practitioners can contribute to the practice of oral medicine from a MID perspective. MID in oral medicine allows the practice of comprehensive oral care where the patient is fully engaged in their own healthcare, with the use of advanced diagnostic technology, the application of medicines and therapeutics depending on disease processes, important risk assessment of both the oral disease and the affected patient with identification of those at high risk, monitoring of compliance, and patient recall. In this article we highlight minimum intervention in oral medicine by exploring oral cancer as the most significant disease we encounter and are involved with. Advances in patient care, particularly in relation to minimum intervention, are underpinned by high calibre cutting edge translational research. It is this research that allows us to positively transform our patients' lives. PMID:23721342

Farah, C S; Bhatia, N; John, K; Lee, B W

2013-06-01

337

Organization History / Oral Survey University of Maryland  

E-print Network

Organization History / Oral Survey University of Maryland Name: Current Function: Location where;Departmental History / Oral Survey University of Maryland Name: Current Function: Location where currently #12;Alumni/æ Oral Survey University of Maryland Name Current Age Gender Occupation Current Home Home

Hill, Wendell T.

338

37 CFR 41.47 - Oral hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Parte Appeals § 41.47 Oral hearing. Link to an amendment...amendment is delayed. (a) An oral hearing should be requested...necessary or desirable for a proper presentation of the appeal. An appeal decided on the briefs without an oral hearing will receive the...

2010-07-01

339

46 CFR 502.241 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in such brief. Requests for oral argument on any motion, petition...Commission determines to hear oral argument, a notice will be issued setting forth the order of presentation and the amount of time allotted... (b)(1) Requests for oral argument will be granted...

2010-10-01

340

7 CFR 15.139 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral argument. 15.139 Section...Posthearing Procedures § 15.139 Oral argument. If any party...granted, he will serve notice of oral argument on all parties and will set forth the order of presentation and the amount of time...

2010-01-01

341

Novel colorimetric sensor for oral malodour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile sulphur compounds are the primary constituents of oral malodour. Quantitative tools for the detection of oral malodour are beneficial to evaluate the intensity of malodour, analyse its causes and monitor the effectiveness of customized treatments. We have developed an objective, cost effective, do-it-yourself colorimetric sensor for oral malodour quantification. The sensor consisted of a sensing solution, a gas sampling

Nethaji Alagirisamy; Sarita S. Hardas; Sujatha Jayaraman

2010-01-01

342

NATIONAL ORAL HEALTH SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NOHSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS) is a collaborative effort between CDC's Division of Oral Health and The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD). NOHSS is designed to help public health programs monitor the burden of oral disease, use of the ...

343

When EFL Writing Students Draft Oral Histories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encouraging students of English as a foreign language (EFL) to write family oral histories is an excellent way to teach academic writing and spark student interest. Oral history is defined, steps in writing oral histories are outlined, advantages and disadvantages of having undergraduate EFL composition students draft them are examined, and…

Jones, Nathan B.

344

On modelling oral tolerance using cellular automata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral tolerance is modelled using the Chowdhury et al. model. Two fuzzy generalizations for this model (i.e. models that use fuzzy mathematics) are considered to include autoimmunity. Oral tolerance is studied for these fuzzy models and it is shown that for some cases oral tolerance can be used to treat autoimmunity.

Ahmed, E.

1997-02-01

345

Associations between Indigenous Australian oral health literacy and self-reported oral health outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine oral health literacy (REALD-30) and oral health literacy-related outcome associations, and to calculate if oral health literacy-related outcomes are risk indicators for poor self-reported oral health among rural-dwelling Indigenous Australians. METHODS: 468 participants (aged 17-72 years, 63% female) completed a self-report questionnaire. REALD-30 and oral health literacy-related outcome associations were determined through bivariate analysis. Multivariate modelling was

Eleanor J Parker; Lisa M Jamieson

2010-01-01

346

Primary oral leishmaniasis mimicking oral cancer: a case report.  

PubMed

Primary mucosal leishmaniasis is a rare infectious disease, particularly in immunocompetent patients. We present a 50-year-old patient with a 6-week history of a painful lesion of the left buccal mucosa that mimicked cancer. The exophytic lesion looked invasive, and we took an incisional biopsy specimen to exclude cancer. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was unexpected, and the patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B for five weeks. After five months the patient had a visceral recurrence. Chronic exophytic and ulcerated mucosal lesions that do not heal within 3-4 weeks should be regarded as the first signs of oral cancer, but primary oral leishmaniasis can easily mimic it. PMID:25701438

Celentano, A; Ruoppo, E; Mansueto, G; Mignogna, M D

2015-04-01

347

Mast cells and oral pathologies: A Review  

PubMed Central

Mast cells (MCs) are resident cells of several types of tissues and contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. They are distributed preferentially about the micro-vascular endothelial cells in the oral mucosa. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and thus their number has been found to be altered in various oral pathological conditions such as oral pyogenic granuloma, oral lichen planus, leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, periapical cysts etc. The present review article is aimed to describe the alteration in the number of MCs along with their probable roles in these pathological conditions.

Kamal, Reet; Dahiya, Parveen; Goyal, Niti; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Neeta; Saini, Hans Raj

2015-01-01

348

Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer.  

PubMed

Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains. PMID:25625069

Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

2014-12-01

349

Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, research is being done on the relationship between diet and oral cancer. Oral cancer is a very serious disease that can be prevented. Practicing good oral hygiene is key to help keep the oral cavity clean. Limiting the use of tobacco and alcohol products is also important because these are the causes of most oral cancers. Lastly, eating a well balanced diet that has protective affects can reduce the risk of oral cancer. This includes a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in high fat and cholesterol meats, rice, and refined grains. PMID:25625069

Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

2014-01-01

350

Chemoprevention of oral cancer: Green tea experience  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer has a well characterized progression from premalignant oral epithelial changes to invasive cancer, making oral squamous cell carcinoma an optimal disease for chemoprevention interventions prior to malignant transformation. The primary goal of chemoprevention here is to reverse, suppress, or inhibit the progression of premalignant lesions to cancer. Due to the extended duration of oral pathogenesis, its chemoprevention using natural products has been found promising due to their decreased dose and limited toxicity profiles. This review discusses with an emphasis on the clinical trials using green tea extract (GTE) in chemoprevention of oral premalignant lesions along with use of GTE as a chemopreventive agent in various other cancers as well. It is worthwhile to include green tea extract in an oral screening program for evaluating the premalignant lesions comparing the results between the treated and untreated group. Given the wide acceptance of green tea, its benefits may help in effective chemoprevention oral cancer. PMID:24678188

Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi; Krishnamurthy, Arvind

2014-01-01

351

Salivary RNA Signatures in Oral Cancer Detection  

PubMed Central

Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are common malignancies that affect almost a million people every year. The key issue in reducing mortality and morbidity associated with OSCC is to develop novel strategies to identify OSCC at an early stage. One such strategy is the identification of biomarkers. So far, more than 100 biomarkers are recognized in the detection of oral cancer and they range from proteins to nucleic acids (DNAs, RNAs). Detection of ribose nucleic acids in saliva is a recent trend in diagnosing oral cancer. Studies have shown statistically significant changes in the levels of salivary transcriptomes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas. These biomarkers have displayed high sensitivity and specificity. Also, new point-of-care platforms such as oral fluid nanosensor test are now available that will soon emerge as chair-side tools for early detection of oral cancer. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of salivary transcriptomes in oral cancer detection.

Panta, Prashanth; Venna, Venkat Raghavender

2014-01-01

352

Oral History in the Digital Age  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oral History in the Digital Age website connects interested persons and organizations to a range of resources related to crafting a meaningful and dynamic oral history project. Crafted by people at Michigan State University with funds from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), the site contains critical essays, How-To guides, and an elaborate wiki. The Getting Started area is a good place to begin, as it features helpful playlists about oral history projects. The Essays tab leads to another highly informative section of the site. The short pieces in this section are divided into three topics: Collecting, Curating, and Disseminating. The individual essays include "Enhancing Discovery: Connecting Users to Your Oral History Collections Online" and "Oral History and Social Networks: From Promotion to Relationship Building." Finally, the Ask Doug option features expert responses to key questions on oral history projects from noted oral historian Doug Boyd.

2013-01-01

353

University District Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Seattle Public Library has been embarking on some ambitious projects as of late and this oral history initiative is one of the best. Working with students in the University of Washington Museology Graduate Program, a number of oral history interviews were conducted with residents, businesspeople, and others in the city's University District. All of the interviews were conducted in 2011 and each interviewee provided a unique viewpoint of life on "The Ave,� which is shorthand for the main street that runs north and south through the neighborhood. There are twelve interviews here, including one with a University of Washington student, a Seattle Police Department officer, and the director of a teen outreach group.

2011-01-01

354

Recent innovations in oral contraception.  

PubMed

Traditional forms of oral contraception contain 21 days of hormone-containing pills and 7 days of placebo during the hormone-free interval (HFI). Since 2003, the Food and Drug Administration has approved 24/4, 84/7, and 365-day regimens. These regimens shorten the HFI in an attempt to decrease bleeding and menstrual-associated side effects. Safety and efficacy of these regimens is comparable with traditional 21/7 dosing. Extended regimens are associated with high patient satisfaction. Bleeding patterns are similar or shorter in women using extended regimens, along with improvement in menstrual symptoms. One of the new formulations contains the new progestin drospirenone, which has antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic properties. This review summarizes the data about new formulations of oral contraception available in the United Sates and also provides a summary of the current literature on drospirenone. PMID:20391327

Cremer, Miriam; Phan-Weston, Scarlett; Jacobs, Adam

2010-03-01

355

Harvard Iranian Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oral histories can be quite fascinating, and a number of significant collections have been placed online as of late. One of the best-known projects might be Harvard University's own Iranian Oral History Project (IOHP). The collection consists of the personal accounts of over 150 individuals who were eyewitnesses (or active participants) to a range of crucial political events in Iran from the 1920s to the 1980s. Visitors can start their journey through this site by going to the "About" section, where they can learn about the history of the IHOP and the interviewing process. After that, visitors can go the actual "Transcripts" area, where they can view an index of interviews, and in certain cases, they can listen to audio recordings of these conversations.

356

African American Oral History Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Telling the story of Louisville's African American community is an ambitious goal and the University of Louisville's Oral History Center has done a fine job with this website. The process began in the 1970s with funding from the Kentucky Oral History Commission, which supported the collection's first batch of interviews. A wide range of people was interviewed for the project, including politicians, doctors, musicians, and educators as well as "regular folks." Currently, there are 27 interviews, and visitors can browse through them to get a sense of the offerings. One particularly fascinating interviewee is Dr. Jesse Bell, a longtime physician in Louisville. The collection will intrigue historians, urbanologists, and others with a passion for the American experience.

2010-01-01

357

Human Oral Mucosa and Gingiva  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a heterogeneous population of progenitor cells with self-renewal and multipotent differentiation potential. Aside from their regenerative role, extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that MSCs are capable of potent immunomodulatory effects on a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells. In this article, we will review recent experimental studies on the characterization of a unique population of MSCs derived from human oral mucosa and gingiva, especially their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions and their application in the treatment of several in vivo models of inflammatory diseases. The ease of isolation, accessible tissue source, and rapid ex vivo expansion, with maintenance of stable stem-cell-like phenotypes, render oral mucosa- and gingiva-derived MSCs a promising alternative cell source for MSC-based therapies. PMID:22988012

Zhang, Q.Z.; Nguyen, A.L.; Yu, W.H.; Le, A.D.

2012-01-01

358

Oral cysticercosis: a diagnostic difficulty.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis is a rare disease caused by the ingestion of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae, a larval stage of Taenia solium. The definitive host is human who harbors the adult worm and may accidentally or incidentally become the host. The larval form of cyst is commonly seen in the brain, meninges and eyes. Cases in the maxillofacial region including oral cavity and cheek muscles are rarely reported. Cysticercosis is not commonly considered in the diagnosis of swellings of the head and neck and a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for clinicians. Hence, they are of utmost interest to the practitioner and have to be studied. We present an unusual case of cysticercosis presenting as a solitary cystic nodule in the upper left vestibule of the oral cavity in an 18 year male and the diagnosis was made on histopathological examination. PMID:25478466

Joshi, Jaya; Sharanesha, Manjunatha Bhari; Jatwa, Rameshwar; Khetrapal, Shaleen

2014-10-01

359

Oral Cysticercosis: A Diagnostic Difficulty  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis is a rare disease caused by the ingestion of the parasite Cysticercus cellulosae, a larval stage of Taenia solium. The definitive host is human who harbors the adult worm and may accidentally or incidentally become the host. The larval form of cyst is commonly seen in the brain, meninges and eyes. Cases in the maxillofacial region including oral cavity and cheek muscles are rarely reported. Cysticercosis is not commonly considered in the diagnosis of swellings of the head and neck and a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for clinicians. Hence, they are of utmost interest to the practitioner and have to be studied. We present an unusual case of cysticercosis presenting as a solitary cystic nodule in the upper left vestibule of the oral cavity in an 18 year male and the diagnosis was made on histopathological examination. PMID:25478466

Sharanesha, Manjunatha Bhari; Jatwa, Rameshwar; Khetrapal, Shaleen

2014-01-01

360

African American Alumni Oral Histories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Digital Collections has tackled everything from Golda Meir to historic street maps in its quest to offer a diverse and wonderful view of the city's rich history. This particular collection brings together a clutch of oral histories that celebrate the African American experience at the institution. Visitors can look over a panel discussion with a range of recent alums titled, "African American Alumni and Students: Stories of Education and Success." Moving on, visitors can hear Clayborn Benson talk about his long career as a photojournalist or watch and listen to G. Spencer Coggs, who has been a prominent member of the Democratic Political Party in Wisconsin for many years. This is quite a trove of first-hand memories and a great tribute to the cityâ??s oral traditions.

361

Oral immunotherapy for food allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current management of food allergy involves strict avoidance, education on recognizing and managing allergic reactions, and\\u000a carrying an adrenaline autoinjector. This approach is burdensome and associated with reduced quality of life. Patients with\\u000a food allergy would benefit greatly from a treatment that could achieve desensitization or long-term tolerance. Recent studies\\u000a have shown that oral immunotherapy (OIT) can induce desensitization and

Mimi L. K. Tang

2009-01-01

362

Oral Anticoagulation: Preparing for Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thromboembolic disorders—stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE)—pose a substantial risk for mortality and morbidity. Primarily affecting individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF) in their 7th and 8th decades of life, these disorders will represent a growing burden as aging baby boomers expand the pool of at-risk patients in coming decades, underscoring the need for effective, well tolerated long-term prophylactic therapy. Oral warfarin,

Edith A. Nutescu; Alex C. Spyropoulos; Kerry W. Cranmer

2004-01-01

363

[Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].  

PubMed

The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. PMID:25732946

Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

2014-12-01

364

Anaerobic oral and dental infection.  

PubMed

Anaerobes make up a significant part of the oral and dental indigenous and pathogenic flora. Their role in periodontal disease, root canal infections, infections of the hard and soft oral tissue, as well as their importance as foci for disseminated infectious disease is well established. Despite the ubiquitous involvement of bacteria, significant progress in our understanding of specific microbial etiologies has occurred only in the past decade. Estimates of the number of species recovered from samples of subgingival plaque range from 250 to 400, a large portion made up by anaerobes. Common anaerobic isolates include Fusobacterium, Bacteroides, Actinomyces, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Selenomonas, Eubacterium, Propionibacterium, and Treponema. Recently, several significant advances in our knowledge have set the stage for future research. First, circulating levels of hormones in pregnant women were shown to be stimulatory to Bacteroides species, which were associated with increased levels of gingival infection. Second, bacterial invasion of the soft and hard periodontal tissues has been documented in gingivitis, advanced periodontitis, and localized juvenile periodontitis. The frequency and identity of invading bacteria will determine the implications for diagnosis and treatment. Third, antibacterial "probes" aimed at anaerobic (and capnophilic) bacteria have had promising results in controlling and arresting oral, dental, and peridontal anaerobic infections. PMID:6372018

Newman, M G

1984-01-01

365

The oral mucosal surface and blood vessels  

PubMed Central

Introduction Detailed information about the size of the oral mucosa is scarce in the literature, and those studies that do exist do not take into account the size of the tongue or the enlargement of the surface by the papillae. Because of the various functions of the oral mucosa in the maintenance of oral health, knowledge of its true size may provide a better understanding of the physiology of the oral cavity and some oral diseases and direct future therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the total size of the oral mucosa. Methods Five human adult cadaver heads were cut in the median sagittal plane, and the total area of the oral surface was determined using silicon casts. The surface of the tongue was measured with quantitative profilometry. Photographs of oral blood vessels were taken in different areas of the oral mucosa of adult test subjects using intravital microscopy, and the pictures were compared with vessel casts of the oral mucosal capillaries of a maccaca fasciculrais monkey, which was studied using a scanning electron microscope. Results The results showed that the dorsal side of the tongue comprises a large proportion of the total oral mucosal surface. The surface area of the epithelium increases moving from anterior to posterior on the tongue, and the number of underlying blood vessels increases proportionally. Conclusions It can be concluded that the back of the tongue plays an important role in the oral resorption of drugs. Clinical relevance: The results may be of relevance for the delivery and development of oral drug application. PMID:23497446

2013-01-01

366

Extra-oral halitosis: an overview.  

PubMed

Halitosis can be subdivided into intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis, depending on the place where it originates. Most reports now agree that the most frequent sources of halitosis exist within the oral cavity and include bacterial reservoirs such as the dorsum of the tongue, saliva and periodontal pockets, where anaerobic bacteria degrade sulfur-containing amino acids to produce the foul smelling volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), especially hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and methyl mercaptan (CH(3)SH). Tongue coating is considered to be the most important source of VSCs. Oral malodor can now be treated effectively. Special attention in this overview is given to extra-oral halitosis. Extra-oral halitosis can be subdivided into non-blood-borne halitosis, such as halitosis from the upper respiratory tract including the nose and from the lower respiratory tract, and blood-borne halitosis. The majority of patients with extra-oral halitosis have blood-borne halitosis. Blood-borne halitosis is also frequently caused by odorous VSCs, in particular dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3). Extra-oral halitosis, covering about 5-10% of all cases of halitosis, might be a manifestation of a serious disease for which treatment is much more complicated than for intra-oral halitosis. It is therefore of utmost importance to differentiate between intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis. Differences between intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis are discussed extensively. The importance of applying odor characterization of various odorants in halitosis research is also highlighted in this article. The use of the odor index, odor threshold values and simulation of bad breath samples is explained. PMID:21386205

Tangerman, A; Winkel, E G

2010-03-01

367

Evaluating awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral hygiene is intimated in health of all parts of the body including oral cavity. The understanding of actual practices in keeping the oral heath at standard based on patient's perceptions of oral health care is vital. Understanding the effect of gender on oral health would facilitate the development of successful attitude and behavior modification approach towards sustainable oral health. Purpose of Study: To evaluate awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 250 patients attending the department of periodontology, Maulana Azad institute of dental sciences for oral prophylaxis. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding practices and perception about oral hygiene. Results: Majority of the patients (60.4%) felt that oral hygiene is mandatory for overall health of the body. The use of toothpaste and toothbrush (83.6%) was the most preferred cleaning aid among the study population in the present study. The major constraint for avoiding dental examination was no felt need (41.2%) followed by cost of dental treatment (26.8%) and time constraints (24.0%). Conclusions: Professional plaque removal and regular follow-up combined with oral hygiene instructions to the patients can minimize the level of gingival inflammation and swelling. The poor resources for dental care, common malpractices and nonavailability of professional care are the main barriers in seeking optimum oral hygiene. PMID:25024553

Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Mohanty, Vikrant; Mahajan, Ananya; Oberoi, Avneet

2014-01-01

368

Oral medicine and the ageing population.  

PubMed

The oral cavity is subject to age related processes such as cellular ageing and immunosenescence. The ageing population bears an increased burden of intraoral pathology. In oral medicine, the majority of presenting patients are in their fifth to seventh decade of life. In this review, we discuss the ageing population's susceptibility to mucosal disorders and the increased prevalence of potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma, as well as dermatoses including oral lichen planus and immunobullous conditions. We also address the ageing population's susceptibility to oral discomfort and explore salivary secretion, ulceration and the symptoms of oral burning. Finally, we will describe orofacial pain conditions which are more likely encountered in an older population. This update highlights clinical presentations which are more likely to be encountered in the ageing population in a general practice setting and the importance of screening both new and long-term patients. PMID:25762041

Yap, T; McCullough, M

2015-03-01

369

Malnutrition and its Oral Outcome – A Review  

PubMed Central

Malnutrition affects the oral health and a poor oral health in turn, may lead to malnutrition. This interdependent relationship sees good nutritional health, thus promoting good oral health and vice versa. Malnutrition may alter the homeostasis, which can lead to disease progression of the oral cavity, reduce the resistance to the microbial biofilm and reduce the capacity of tissue healing. It may even affect the development of the oral cavity. Protein-energy malnutrition occurs when there is a deficiency of protein, energy foods or both, which are relative to a body’s need. Studies have suggested that enamel hypoplasia, salivary gland hypofunction and saliva compositional changes may be the mechanisms through which the malnutrition is associated with caries, while an altered eruption timing may create a challenge in the analysis of the age specific caries rates. This paper gives an insight on the relationship of the malnutrition and the protein-energy malnutrition with the oral health status. PMID:23449967

Sheetal, Aparna; Hiremath, Vinay Kumar; Patil, Anand G; Sajjansetty, Sangmeshwar; Kumar, Sheetal R

2013-01-01

370

The Bila Muuji oral health promotion partnership.  

PubMed

In western NSW in 2006, a group of Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations identified oral health as a priority need in their regions, considering the lack of regular dental services, poor access to oral health information, and high dental disease rates. A regional oral health promotion program was developed and implemented under the guidance of a regional coordinator who supports local staff in oral health promotion activities such as school-based toothbrushing and the provision of oral health information to targeted groups (e.g. young mothers and carers) and staff of chronic disease programs. The program's strength in its planning and continuity is due to many factors, one of the main being the active involvement of local Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation staff in its genesis, planning and implementation. Combined with strong management support, local partnerships and regional coordination, the program continues to provide collaborative approaches to community-based oral health promotion programs. PMID:24360210

Meihubers, Sandra

2013-12-01

371

Chemotherapy or radiation-induced oral mucositis.  

PubMed

Oral mucositis is a significant toxicity of systemic chemotherapy and of radiation therapy to the head and neck region. The morbidity of oral mucositis can include pain, nutritional compromise, impact on quality of life, alteration in cancer therapy, risk for infection, and economic costs. Management includes general symptomatic support and targeted therapeutic interventions for the prevention or treatment of oral mucositis. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are available to guide clinicians in the selection of effective management strategies. PMID:24655526

Lalla, Rajesh V; Saunders, Deborah P; Peterson, Douglas E

2014-04-01

372

Promoting oral health through community engagement.  

PubMed

Persistent health disparities still exist in the U.S. despite decades of focus on the importance of prevention. Individual behaviors are the major contributor to oral health. By partnering and linking with community organizations, oral health professionals can expand their reach, overcome the obstacles to delivering effective prevention activities in dental offices and improve the oral health of the most underserved and vulnerable populations, who bear the greatest burden of dental disease. PMID:25076629

Glassman, Paul; Harrington, Maureen; Namakian, Maysa

2014-07-01

373

Oral phosphate binders: history and prospects.  

PubMed

The use of an oral phosphate binder is a promising and most practical strategy for the prevention of vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To secure the safety: 1) the oral phosphate binder must not cause adverse effects in the gastrointestinal tract; 2) the oral phosphate binder should be non-absorbable or barely absorbable through the gastrointestinal tract, or 3) if partially absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, it must be eliminated from circulation through a pathway other than urinary excretion, and 4) even if it accumulates in the body, it should not cause organ dysfunctions. Metal salt type oral phosphate binder is the most classical type of oral phosphate binders that includes aluminum hydroxide gel and lanthanum carbonate. These oral phosphate binders effectively adsorb phosphate ions, however, have a potential risk for accumulation and intoxication. Calcium salt type oral phosphate binder was the most widely prescribed oral phosphate binder in the last decade but is now believed to exert potential harm, favoring progression of vascular calcification through excessive intestinal calcium load. However, recent studies failed to detect an inferiority of calcium salt type oral phosphate binders as compared to non-calcium salt type oral phosphate binders in terms of mortality and/or morbidity of hemodialysis patients. Polymerized resin type is a safe and relatively effective oral phosphate binder, which is supported by many clinical evidences. However, it sometimes causes severe constipation, especially in Japanese patients. Among metal compound type oral phosphate binder, other promising compounds include boehmite-type aluminum and hydrotalcite-like compounds but they are not yet available in the clinical setting. PMID:19442621

Kazama, Junichiro James

2009-07-01

374

Marathon Maternity Oral History Project  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Design Oral history research. Setting The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. Participants A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Methods Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Main findings Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project’s findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women’s voices. The project’s narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Conclusion Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon’s stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing maternity services in rural Canada. PMID:24452565

Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah

2014-01-01

375

Aboriginal Oral Traditions of Australian Impact Craters  

E-print Network

We explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records, and fieldtrip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool, and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff and Wolfe Creek craters and non-impact origins of Liverpool and Henbury craters, with Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have formed during human habitation of Australia - Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole - do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

Hamacher, Duane W

2013-01-01

376

Oral surgery in patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy.  

PubMed

Oral health care in patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy can be complex. Care delivered by a multidisciplinary approach is timely and streamlines the allocation of resources to provide prompt care and to attain favorable outcomes. A hospital dentist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, and a maxillofacial prosthodontist must be involved early to prevent avoidable oral complications. Prevention and thorough preparation are vital before the start of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Oral complications must be addressed immediately and, even with the best management, can cause delays and interruption in treatment, with serious consequences for the outcome and prognosis. PMID:24794266

Demian, Nagi M; Shum, Jonathan W; Kessel, Ivan L; Eid, Ahmed

2014-05-01

377

Oral submucous fibrosis and its dermatological relation.  

PubMed

Oral submucous fibrosis is a chronic insidious disease and is well-recognized as a premalignant condition. It is a collagen related disorder associated with betel quid chewing and characterized by progressive hyalinization of the submucosa. The oral submucous fibrosis needs to be differentiated from scleroderma showing oral manifestations, as these diseases have different pathogenesis and prognostic aspects. The patients of oral submucous fibrosis can approach the dermatologist. The aim of this article is to present concise overview of the disease and its dermatological relation. PMID:25165640

Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Patil, Ashok; Patil, Kishor; Prasant, M C

2014-07-01

378

Oral treprostinil diethanolamine for pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

The approval of oral treprostinil is a landmark event in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Nineteen years after epoprostenol was approved we now have an oral prostanoid available in the USA. Although the current data in prostanoid naïve patients are unimpressive, emerging data suggest that in carefully selected patients oral treprostinil may be able to replace continuously infused treprostinil; however, many hurdles exist for this new medication including overcoming a complex side effect profile, astronomical cost and perhaps other entrants into the oral prostanoid space. PMID:25409915

Feldman, Jeremy; Im, Yunhee; Gill, Kirat

2015-01-01

379

Caltech Archives Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Caltech Archives Oral History Project "began in 1978 for the purpose of recording the personal memoirs of the distinguished scientists, teachers and administrators of the Institute." The archive currently includes about 170 interviews, for many of which transcipts are provided. The Online project makes selected interviews available to the public in digital form. Approximately 40 interviews, mostly from the fields of biology and environmental science, are available now and more will be posted in the future. Visitors can browse the archive online by name or by subject, as well as use an online search form.

380

Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP)  

PubMed Central

Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P), on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P) randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg) to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees) of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study provides an opportunity for huge savings in not only money but the overall quality of life. This may help establish more specific clinical guidelines for oral cleft prevention so that the intervention can be better tailored for at-risk women. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00397917 PMID:23181832

2012-01-01

381

Self-Reported Oral Hygiene Habits and Oral Health Problems of Kuwaiti Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aims of this study were to examine self-reported oral hygiene habits and oral health problems of a sample of adult Kuwaitis. Materials and Methods: A self-administered, anonymous, structured questionnaire was distributed to 2,400 adult Kuwaiti nationals from all 6 governates of Kuwait assessing socio-demographic variables, oral hygiene habits, and oral health problems. Results: Of the 2,400 questionnaires, 1,925

Khalaf F. Al-Shammari; Jassem M. Al-Ansari; Areej K. Al-Khabbaz; Asmahan Dashti; Eino J. Honkala

2007-01-01

382

Tetratrichomonads from the oral cavity and respiratory tract of humans  

E-print Network

trichomonad strains isolated from the oral cavity and bronchi of patients from pulmonary diseases clinics of 5 and 2 strains isolated from bronchi and `oral' cavity, respectively, and oral consisting of 3 oral and bronchi. Key words: Trichomonas tenax, Tetratrichomonas sp., human, respiratory tract, oral cavity, ITS1

Flegr, Jaroslav

383

Developing a Pediatric Oral Health Therapist to Help Address Oral Health Disparities Among Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General documented the profound and significant disparities that exist in the oral health of children in the United States. Recently, the country has been issued a National Call to Action to Promote Oral Health, under the leadership of the Office of the Surgeon General. Among the significant factors contributing to the

David A. Nash

384

An Oral History Bibliography A Research Guide by the Columbia University Center for Oral History  

E-print Network

An Oral History Bibliography *** A Research Guide by the Columbia University Center for Oral History #12;2 Table of Contents I. Manuals and Practical Guides 3 II. Methodology and Theory 4 III. Education 18 X. Human Rights and the Law 19 XI. Memory 22 XII. Narrative, Orality and History 25 XIII

Salzman, Daniel

385

Oral Reading Skills of Children with Oral Language (Word-Finding) Difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined how children with and without oral language (word-finding) difficulties (WFD) perform on oral reading (OR) versus silent reading recognition (SRR) tasks when reading the same words and how lexical factors influenced OR accuracy, error patterns, and nature of miscues. Primary-grade students were administered an experimental reading measure. Words were controlled for lexical factors known to influence oral language,

Diane J. German; Rochelle S. Newman

2007-01-01

386

The portable gas chromatograph OralChroma™: a method of choice to detect oral and extra-oral halitosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. Gas chromatography using a specific sulfur detector is the most appropriate method to detect halitosis of different origin (intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis) and should be considered as the gold standard. However, a

A Tangerman; E G Winkel

2008-01-01

387

The portable gas chromatograph OralChroma™: a method of choice to detect oral and extra-oral halitosis.  

PubMed

It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. Gas chromatography using a specific sulfur detector is the most appropriate method to detect halitosis of different origin (intra-oral and extra-oral halitosis) and should be considered as the gold standard. However, a gas chromatograph is an expensive apparatus and needs trained personnel. The less specific Halimeter is the most used apparatus in halitosis research. In this study a newly developed portable gas chromatograph, the OralChroma™ (Abilit Corporation, Japan), was evaluated for use in the field of halitosis. The results show that the OralChroma is a very sensitive apparatus for measuring VSCs. Just like standard gas chromatography, it can perfectly differentiate between intra-oral and extra-oral blood-borne halitosis, while the Halimeter can only detect intra-oral halitosis. The hardware of the OralChroma meets all the needs for becoming the apparatus of choice in the field of halitosis. However, the software needs a major revision. Sometimes, the concentrations given for the different VSCs are completely incorrect due to a wrong assignment of the place of the VSCs in the chromatogram. PMID:21386154

Tangerman, A; Winkel, E G

2008-03-01

388

Individual differences in oral thermosensation.  

PubMed

Although oral thermosensation is critical to the perception of food and drinks, little information is available on the organization of individual differences in these abilities. We examined the relationship between measures of cooling and warming on the tongue and lip and the association of these measures to taste sensitivity in a sample of 76 healthy subjects. Thermal abilities were assessed with a computer-controlled, 1.5 cm2 peltier plate that was placed on the anterior dorsal surface of the tongue or the lower lip. Thermal testing consisted of both cooling and warming threshold detection, and intensity ratings of warm and cool suprathreshold temperatures. Intensity ratings of different temperatures were highly correlated, especially for temperatures in the same class. Similarly, warming and cooling thresholds were highly correlated. In contrast, thermal detection abilities were largely dissociable from suprathreshold intensity ratings, especially in the cooling direction. Suprathreshold ratings of cooling on the tongue were also modestly associated with ratings of the taste intensity of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). However, a similar association was observed for the lower lip, indicating that the effect does not reflect an isolated characteristic of lingual physiology. Unexpectedly, two subjects with no history of oral trauma demonstrated abnormally deficient (4 S.D. below the mean) cool threshold detection abilities for the tongue, suggesting that there may exist subjects in the population who have profoundly poor lingual temperature processing. PMID:16733061

Manrique, Suzanna; Zald, David H

2006-07-30

389

Oral submucous fibrosis: an update  

PubMed Central

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant condition caused by betel chewing. It is very common in Southeast Asia but has started to spread to Europe and North America. OSF can lead to squamous cell carcinoma, a risk that is further increased by concomitant tobacco consumption. OSF is a diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and confirmation by histopathology. Hypovascularity leading to blanching of the oral mucosa, staining of teeth and gingiva, and trismus are major symptoms. Major constituents of betel quid are arecoline from betel nuts and copper, which are responsible for fibroblast dysfunction and fibrosis. A variety of extracellular and intracellular signaling pathways might be involved. Treatment of OSF is difficult, as not many large, randomized controlled trials have been conducted. The principal actions of drug therapy include antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxygen radical mechanisms. Potential new drugs are on the horizon. Surgery may be necessary in advanced cases of trismus. Prevention is most important, as no healing can be achieved with available treatments.

Wollina, Uwe; Verma, Shyam B; Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Patil, Kishor

2015-01-01

390

Ageing, dementia and oral health.  

PubMed

Neurocognitive decline and delirium, frailty, incontinence, falls, hearing and vision impairment, medication compliance and pharmacokinetics, skin breakdown, impaired sleep and rest are regarded as geriatric giants by gerontologists, geriatricians and nursing home staff. As these are all interrelated in the elderly, failure to act on one can impact on the others. However, the implications of poor oral health have for too long been ignored and deserve equal status. Mouth pain can be devastating for the elderly, compound psychosocial problems, frustrate carers and nursing home staff and disrupt family dynamics. As appearance, function and comfort suffer, so may a person's self-esteem and confidence. The contributing factors for poor oral health such as rapid dental decay, acute and chronic periodontal infections and compromised systemic health on a background of a dry mouth, coupled with xerostomia-inducing medications, reduced fine motor function, declining cognition and motivation will not only lead to an increase in both morbidity and mortality but also impact on quality of life. PMID:25762045

Foltyn, P

2015-03-01

391

Oral health survey and oral health questionnaire for high school students in Tibet, China  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study is to identify the oral health status as well as oral health practices and access for care of graduating senior high school Tibetan students in Shannan prefecture of Tibet. Methods Based on standards of the 3rd Chinese National Oral Epidemiological Survey and WHO Oral Health Surveys, 1907 graduating students from three senior high schools were examined for caries, periodontitis, dental fluorosis, and oral hygiene status. The questionnaire to the students addressed oral health practices and present access to oral medical services. Results Dental caries prevalence (39.96%) and mean DMFT (0.97) were high in Tibetan students. In community periodontal indexes, the detection rate of gingivitis and dental calculus were 59.50% and 62.64%, respectively. Oral hygiene index-simplified was 0.69, with 0.36 and 0.33 in debris index-simplified and calculus index-simplified, respectively. Community dental fluorosis index was 0.29, with 8.13% in prevalence rate. The questionnaire showed students had poor oral health practices and unawareness for their needs for oral health services. It was also noted that the local area provides inadequate oral medical services. Conclusions Tibetan students had higher prevalence of dental diseases and lower awareness of oral health needs. The main reasons were geographical environment, dietary habit, students’ attitude to oral health, and lack of oral health promotion and education. Oral health education and local dentists training should be strengthened to get effective prevention of dental diseases. PMID:24884668

2014-01-01

392

Differential Transmission of HIV Traversing Fetal Oral/Intestinal Epithelia and Adult Oral Epithelia  

PubMed Central

While human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission through the adult oral route is rare, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) through the neonatal/infant oral and/or gastrointestinal route is common. To study the mechanisms of cell-free and cell-associated HIV transmission across adult oral and neonatal/infant oral/intestinal epithelia, we established ex vivo organ tissue model systems of adult and fetal origin. Given the similarity of neonatal and fetal oral epithelia with respect to epithelial stratification and density of HIV-susceptible immune cells, we used fetal oral the epithelium as a model for neonatal/infant oral epithelium. We found that cell-free HIV traversed fetal oral and intestinal epithelia and infected HIV-susceptible CD4+ T lymphocytes, Langerhans/dendritic cells, and macrophages. To study the penetration of cell-associated virus into fetal oral and intestinal epithelia, HIV-infected macrophages and lymphocytes were added to the surfaces of fetal oral and intestinal epithelia. HIV-infected macrophages, but not lymphocytes, transmigrated across fetal oral epithelia. HIV-infected macrophages and, to a lesser extent, lymphocytes transmigrated across fetal intestinal epithelia. In contrast to the fetal oral/intestinal epithelia, cell-free HIV transmigration through adult oral epithelia was inefficient and virions did not infect intraepithelial and subepithelial HIV-susceptible cells. In addition, HIV-infected macrophages and lymphocytes did not transmigrate through intact adult oral epithelia. Transmigration of cell-free and cell-associated HIV across the fetal oral/intestinal mucosal epithelium may serve as an initial mechanism for HIV MTCT. PMID:22205732

Herrera, Rossana; Veluppillai, Piri; Greenspan, Deborah; Soros, Vanessa; Greene, Warner C.; Levy, Jay A.; Palefsky, Joel M.

2012-01-01

393

Does maternal oral health predict child oral health-related quality of life in adulthood?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  A parental\\/family history of poor oral health may influence the oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) of adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To determine whether the oral health of mothers of young children can predict the OHRQOL of those same children when they\\u000a reach adulthood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Oral examination and interview data from the Dunedin Study's age-32 assessment, as well as maternal self-rated oral health\\u000a data from

Dara M Shearer; W Murray Thomson; Jonathan M Broadbent; Richie Poulton

2011-01-01

394

47 CFR 1.277 - Exceptions; oral arguments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Exceptions; oral arguments. 1.277 Section...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE... § 1.277 Exceptions; oral arguments. (a...filed, any party may request oral argument not later than...

2012-10-01

395

47 CFR 1.423 - Oral argument and other proceedings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Oral argument and other proceedings...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE...Rulemaking Proceedings § 1.423 Oral argument and other proceedings...Commission determines that an oral argument, hearing or...

2012-10-01

396

47 CFR 1.423 - Oral argument and other proceedings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Oral argument and other proceedings...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE...Rulemaking Proceedings § 1.423 Oral argument and other proceedings...Commission determines that an oral argument, hearing or...

2011-10-01

397

47 CFR 1.277 - Exceptions; oral arguments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Exceptions; oral arguments. 1.277 Section...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE... § 1.277 Exceptions; oral arguments. (a...filed, any party may request oral argument not later than...

2011-10-01

398

47 CFR 1.277 - Exceptions; oral arguments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Exceptions; oral arguments. 1.277 Section...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE... § 1.277 Exceptions; oral arguments. (a...filed, any party may request oral argument not later than...

2010-10-01

399

47 CFR 1.277 - Exceptions; oral arguments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Exceptions; oral arguments. 1.277 Section...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE... § 1.277 Exceptions; oral arguments. (a...filed, any party may request oral argument not later than...

2013-10-01

400

47 CFR 1.423 - Oral argument and other proceedings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Oral argument and other proceedings...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE...Rulemaking Proceedings § 1.423 Oral argument and other proceedings...Commission determines that an oral argument, hearing or...

2013-10-01

401

47 CFR 1.277 - Exceptions; oral arguments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Exceptions; oral arguments. 1.277 Section...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE... § 1.277 Exceptions; oral arguments. (a...filed, any party may request oral argument not later than...

2014-10-01

402

47 CFR 1.423 - Oral argument and other proceedings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Oral argument and other proceedings...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE...Rulemaking Proceedings § 1.423 Oral argument and other proceedings...Commission determines that an oral argument, hearing or...

2010-10-01

403

47 CFR 1.423 - Oral argument and other proceedings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Oral argument and other proceedings...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE...Rulemaking Proceedings § 1.423 Oral argument and other proceedings...Commission determines that an oral argument, hearing or...

2014-10-01

404

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2011-10-01

405

42 CFR 493.1220 - Condition: Oral pathology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Condition: Oral pathology. 493.1220 Section 493.1220... § 493.1220 Condition: Oral pathology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Oral pathology, the laboratory must meet the...

2010-10-01

406

21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510 Section 872.6510...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is an AC-powered device...

2014-04-01

407

21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510 Section 872.6510...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is an AC-powered device...

2013-04-01

408

21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510 Section 872.6510...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is an AC-powered device...

2010-04-01

409

21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510 Section 872.6510...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is an AC-powered device...

2011-04-01

410

21 CFR 872.6510 - Oral irrigation unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral irrigation unit. 872.6510 Section 872.6510...Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6510 Oral irrigation unit. (a) Identification. An oral irrigation unit is an AC-powered device...

2012-04-01

411

19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3...Application for Relief § 171.3 Oral presentations seeking relief. (a) For...filing a petition, may make an oral presentation seeking relief in...

2010-04-01

412

48 CFR 1352.215-71 - Instructions for oral presentations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Instructions for oral presentations. 1352.215-71 Section...215-71 Instructions for oral presentations. As prescribed in 48 CFR...provision: Instructions for Oral Presentations (APR 2010) The...

2010-10-01

413

16 CFR 1052.3 - Conduct of oral presentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Conduct of oral presentation. 1052.3 Section 1052...PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS FOR INFORMAL ORAL PRESENTATIONS IN PROCEEDINGS BEFORE THE...COMMISSION § 1052.3 Conduct of oral presentation. (a) The purpose of...

2010-01-01

414

21 CFR 520.2158c - Dihydrostreptomycin oral suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Dihydrostreptomycin oral suspension. 520.2158c...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...2158c Dihydrostreptomycin oral suspension. (a) Specifications...this chapter. (c) Related tolerances. See §§ 556.120 and...

2010-04-01

415

Oral Microbiology: Past, Present and Future  

PubMed Central

Since the initial observations of oral bacteria within dental plaque by van Leeuwenhoek using his primitive microscopes in 1680, an event that is generally recognized as the advent of oral microbiological investigation, oral microbiology has gone through phases of “reductionism” and “holism”. From the small beginnings of the Miller and Black period, in which microbiologists followed Koch's postulates, took the reductionist approach to try to study the complex oral microbial community by analyzing individual species; to the modern era when oral researchers embrace “holism” or “system thinking”, adopt new concepts such as interspecies interaction, microbial community, biofilms, poly-microbial diseases, oral microbiological knowledge has burgeoned and our ability to identify the resident organisms in dental plaque and decipher the interactions between key components has rapidly increased, such knowledge has greatly changed our view of the oral microbial flora, provided invaluable insight into the etiology of dental and periodontal diseases, opened the door to new approaches and techniques for developing new therapeutic and preventive tools for combating oral poly-microbial diseases. PMID:20687296

He, Xue-song; Shi, Wen-yuan

2009-01-01

416

Genetics of Acid Adaptation in Oral Streptococci  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of information has provided insights into the mechanisms by which the oral streptococci maintain their niches in the human mouth. In at least one case, Streptococcus mutans, the organism apparently uses a panel of proteins to survive in acidic conditions while it promotes the formation of dental caries. Oral streptococci, which are not as inherently resistant to

Robert G. Quivey; Wendi L. Kuhnert; Kristina Hahn

2001-01-01

417

Oral History as a Teaching Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book presents information on the use of oral history as a classroom device. The first chapter discusses the evolution of oral history from a practice intended to preserve information on noted Americans to a way of preserving recollections of older Americans about the past. The second chapter explains why interviewing members of their own…

Neuenschwander, John A.

418

Orality in Northern Cree Indigenous Worlds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the importance and centrality of orality, rather than literacy, in the shared lives of the Cree of northern Alberta. Discusses orality consciousness related to the practice of shared memories and personal and communal healing during the "dance of the ancestors" or "ghost dance." Includes a short history of the Cree people and their…

Weber-Pillwax, Cora

2001-01-01

419

Britannia Mine Oral History Project Collection /  

E-print Network

Britannia Mine Oral History Project Collection / UBC Department of History (collector) Last revised Catalogue entry (UBC Library catalogue) #12;Fonds Description Britannia Mine Oral History Project Collection. Designed to provide students with a first-hand understanding of life in a mining community, this project

Handy, Todd C.

420

The Dangerous Waters of Advocacy Oral History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the author's use of advocacy oral history in interviews of people devoted to Montana's wilderness preservation. Discusses the use of questions to elicit broad humanistic responses as opposed to striking journalistic quotations. Examines the differences between traditional and advocacy oral history and the benefits of the latter. (GEA)

Lang, William L.

1987-01-01

421

Oral Language and Reading in Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the question: Do lexical, syntactic, fluency, and discourse measures of oral language collected under narrative conditions predict reading achievement both within and across languages for bilingual children? More than 1,500 Spanish-English bilingual children attending kindergarten-third grade participated. Oral narratives…

Miller, Jon F.; Heilmann, John; Nockerts, Ann; Iglesias, Aquiles; Fabiano, Leah; Francis, David J.

2006-01-01

422

Speak up! Oral Examinations and Political Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testing assessments of undergraduate political science students is predictable and stagnant. A missing, yet valuable, testing assessment tool that can contribute to the repertoire of political science is the oral examination. Borrowing this testing tool largely from foreign language departments, oral exams require students to "think on their feet"…

Buehler, Melissa J.; Schneider, Laura U.

2009-01-01

423

Oral Assessment in Mathematics: Implementation and Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we report the planning and implementation of an oral assessment component in a first-year pure mathematics module of a degree course in mathematics. Our aim was to examine potential barriers to using oral assessments, explore the advantages and disadvantages compared to existing common assessment methods and document the outcomes…

Iannone, P.; Simpson, A.

2012-01-01

424

Oral and nonoral sources of halitosis.  

PubMed

Oral malodor (halitosis, bad breath) is a condition affecting millions of Americans. In healthy individuals complaining of bad breath, the mouth is the main source of their oral malodor, more specifically the posterior dorsum of the tongue. Nonoral sources should also be considered. It is always easy to recognize halitosis, but identifying the exact cause is more complex. PMID:9534442

Messadi, D V

1997-02-01

425

Oral History in the Social Studies Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the importance of oral history in the social studies classroom. Concludes that oral history makes history more human and meaningful in everyday life and that it helps students gain insights into their heritage. Tips are offered on comparing life styles among generations; using songs, legends, and myths in the classroom; and analyzing…

Kachaturoff, Grace; Greenebaum, Frances

1981-01-01

426

Oral rehabilitation and management of mentally retarded.  

PubMed

High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today's world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals. PMID:25738098

Solanki, Jitender; Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

2015-01-01

427

Validation of Automated Scoring of Oral Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-part experiment is presented that validates a new measurement tool for scoring oral reading ability. Data collected by the U.S. government in a large-scale literacy assessment of adults were analyzed by a system called VersaReader that uses automatic speech recognition and speech processing technologies to score oral reading fluency. In the…

Balogh, Jennifer; Bernstein, Jared; Cheng, Jian; Van Moere, Alistair; Townshend, Brent; Suzuki, Masanori

2012-01-01

428

College of Dentistry OBI Oral Biology  

E-print Network

College of Dentistry OBI Oral Biology KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped of the College of Dentistry or consent of instructor. OBI 651 ORAL BIOLOGY FOR POSTGRADUATE DENTAL STUDENTS II to the College of Dentistry. (Same as BCH 812). OBI 813 NEUROPHYSIOLOGY. (1) The brain uses electrical signals

MacAdam, Keith

429

Pharmacy Benefit Spending on Oral Chemotherapy Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pharmacy benefits have historically excluded injectable drugs, resulting in coverage of injectable drugs under the medical benefit. High-cost biologics and other new drug therapies are often injectables and therefore have not presented cost threats to pharmacy benefits. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of capecitabine, an oral form of fluorouracil, in 1998, and imatinib mesylate in oral dose

FREDERIC R. CURTISS

2006-01-01

430

Hearing Her: New Feminist Oral Histories  

E-print Network

with The China Women's University, has collected 100 lives of women aged 70 or above, including women's rights been privileged as a methodology for capturing women activists' experience in very different countries://www.sussex.ac.uk/clhlwr/ Featuring seven innovative feminist oral history projects Sisterhood and After: The Women's Liberation Oral

Sussex, University of

431

Oral microbial habitat a dynamic entity  

PubMed Central

Oral microbial habitat is composed of wide variety of species. These species play a significant role in maintaining the well being of the oral cavity by contributing in various ways. However the proper functioning of these oral microbes can be detrimental for the human oral cavity if the conditions are not suitable such as redox potential (Eh), pH of a site, the activity of the host defenses, and the presence of antimicrobial agents. The oral microbial community represents the best-characterized group associated with the human host. There are strong correlations between the qualitative composition of the oral microbiota and clinically healthy or diseased states. Amongst the bacteria of more than 700 species now identified within the human oral microbiota, it is the streptococci that are numerically predominant. Interactions between mucosal surfaces and microbial microbiota are key to host defense, health, and disease. These surfaces are exposed to high numbers of microbes and must be capable of distinguishing between those that are beneficial or avirulent and those that will invade and cause disease. Our understanding of the mechanisms involved in these discriminatory processes has recently begun to expand as new studies bring to light the importance of epithelial cells and novel immune cell subsets such as T(h)17 T cells in these processes. In this review article we have tried to find out the factors responsible for maintaining oral microbial habitat intact and the reasons which cause changes in its composition.

Faran Ali, Syed Muhammad; Tanwir, Farzeen

2012-01-01

432

Oral Corrective Feedback in Second Language Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research on oral corrective feedback (CF) in second language (L2) classrooms. Various types of oral CF are first identified, and the results of research revealing CF frequency across instructional contexts are presented. Research on CF preferences is then reviewed, revealing a tendency for learners to prefer receiving CF more…

Lyster, Roy; Saito, Kazuya; Sato, Masatoshi

2013-01-01

433

Oral History: A Voice for America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A singular means of blending the history, language arts, and journalism classes is by teaching oral history. By assigning students oral history projects, the teacher helps students place themselves within a living history in the United States. For example, Eliot Wigginton, a public high school English teacher in Rabun Gap, Georgia, whose classes…

Pass, Olivia McNeely

434

Teaching the Past through Oral History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses oral history as a means to connect national events with the lives of individual people. Relates the information from student oral term paper interviews, focusing on topics such as the Vietnam War, the Great Depression, civil rights and school integration, and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. (CMK)

Dillon, Pattie

2000-01-01

435

Chapter Oral Health Advocates: A Nationwide Model for Pediatrician Peer Education and Advocacy about Oral Health  

PubMed Central

Objective. (1) To describe an innovative program training US pediatricians to be Chapter Oral Health Advocates (COHAs). (2) To provide insight into COHAs' experiences disseminating oral health knowledge to fellow pediatricians. Patients and Methods. Interviews with 40 COHAs who responded to an email request, from a total of 64 (62% response). Transcripts were analyzed for common themes about COHA activities, facilitators, and barriers. Results. COHAs reported positive experiences at the AAP oral health training program. A subset of academic COHAs focused on legislative activity and another on resident education about oral health. Residents had an easier time adopting oral health activities while practicing pediatricians cited time constraints. COHAs provided insights into policy, barriers, and facilitators for incorporating oral health into practice. Conclusions. This report identifies factors influencing pediatricians' adoption of oral health care into practice. COHAs reported successes in training peers on integrating oral health into pediatric practice, identified opportunities and challenges to oral health implementation in primary care, and reported issues about the state of children's oral health in their communities. With ongoing support, the COHA program has a potential to improve access to preventive oral health services in the Medical Home and to increase referrals to a Dental Home. PMID:24228032

Lewis, Charlotte W.; Barone, Lauren; Quinonez, Rocio B.; Boulter, Suzanne; Mouradian, Wendy E.

2013-01-01

436

Oral graft-versus-host disease.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic cell transplantation is used to treat malignancies, hematologic and immune deficiency states, marrow failure syndromes, and autoimmune diseases. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a clinical syndrome seen following allogeneic transplantation where donorderived immunocompetent T cells and inflammatory responses attack host tissues. GVHD can cause significant morbidity and even result in mortality. The oral cavity is a frequently involved site with clinical changes resembling autoimmune collagen vascular diseases. Recognition, diagnosis, and monitoring of oral GVHD can help with diagnosis and grading of GVHD and judging responses to therapy. Topical and local management of symptomatic oral GVHD can reduce oral symptoms that can interfere with oral function and quality of life, and can reduce the need for more intensive immunosuppressive systemic therapies. PMID:18154866

Schubert, Mark M; Correa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti

2008-01-01

437

Laser treatment of oral mucosa tattoo.  

PubMed

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-12-01

438

Oral malodor: causes, assessment, and treatment.  

PubMed

Oral malodor has been recognized in the literature since ancient times. However, in the last 5 to 6 years, it has come to the forefront of public and dental professional awareness. Oral malodor is caused mainly by facultative bacteria on the tongue that produce volatile organic compounds. Traditional assessment methods include organoleptic measurements and gas chromatography. Newer techniques make diagnosis more convenient, and the electronic nose is in the early stages of development. After assessment, active practices of using proper oral hygiene products and making small lifestyle changes can reduce the amount of oral malodor significantly for an individual. Understanding causes, assessment, and treatment of oral malodor can help dental professionals find ways to decrease its prevalence and increase their patients' well-being. PMID:21462620

Nachnani, Sushma

2011-01-01

439

Bacterial and Host Interactions of Oral Streptococci  

PubMed Central

The oral microbial flora comprises one of the most diverse human-associated biofilms. Its development is heavily influenced by oral streptococci, which are considered the main group of early colonizers. Their initial attachment determines the composition of later colonizers in the oral biofilm and impacts the health or disease status of the host. Thus, the role of streptococci in the development of oral diseases is best described in the context of bacterial ecology, which itself is further influenced by interactions with host epithelial cells, the immune system, and salivary components. The tractability of the oral biofilm makes it an excellent model system for studies of complex, biofilm-associated polymicrobial diseases. Using this system, numerous cooperative and antagonistic bacterial interactions have been demonstrated to occur within the community and with the host. In this review, several recent identified interactions are presented. PMID:19435424

Merritt, Justin; Qi, Fengxia

2009-01-01

440

Laser Treatment of Oral Mucosa Tattoo  

PubMed Central

The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182

Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

2011-01-01

441

An effective oral health promoting message?  

PubMed

This paper questions the effectiveness of current oral health promoting activities in reducing social inequalities in oral health. An attempt is made to address the needs of dental professionals and nutritionists in communicating an understanding of biological aspects of the aetiology of caries and erosion. With a clear understanding of the disease process oral health promoters can possibly reduce social inequalities in oral health. A clear common message which satisfies both dental and nutritional professionals is presented. The issues of commonality and ambiguity are fundamental to effective behavioural/teaching practice. Currently the evidence base suggests that dietary messages are inconsistent and ambiguous. Therefore, a clear common and unambiguous dietary message, based on science, could go some way to improving oral health inequalities. PMID:22158167

Richards, W; Filipponi, T

2011-12-01

442

Clinical and microbiological diagnosis of oral candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Candidiasis or oral candidiasis is the most frequent mucocutaneous mycosis of the oral cavity. It is produced by the genus Candida, which is found in the oral cavity of 53% of the general population as a common commensal organism. One hundred and fifty species have been isolated in the oral cavity, and 80% of the isolates correspond to Candida albicans, which can colonize the oral cavity alone or in combination with other species. Transformation from commensal organism to pathogen depends on the intervention of different predisposing factors that modify the microenvironment of the oral cavity and favor the appearance of opportunistic infection. The present study offers a literature review on the diagnosis of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establishing when complementary microbiological techniques for the diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be used, and which techniques are most commonly employed in routine clinical practice in order to establish a definitive diagnosis. Materials and methods: A Medline-PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane search was made covering the last 10 years. Results: The diagnosis of oral candidiasis is fundamentally clinical. Microbiological techniques are used when the clinical diagnosis needs to be confirmed, for establishing a differential diagnosis with other diseases, and in cases characterized by resistance to antifungal drugs. Biopsies in turn are indicated in patients with hyperplastic candidiasis. Staining (10% KOH) and culture (Sabouraud dextrose agar) are the methods most commonly used for diagnosing primary candidiasis. Identification of the individual species of Candida is usually carried out with CHROMagar Candida®. For the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis, and in cases requiring differentiation between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, use is made of immunological and genetic techniques such as ELISA and PCR. Key words:Clinical, oral candidiasis, microbiology. PMID:24455095

Jiménez-Soriano, Yolanda

2013-01-01

443

Oral Tolerance: Therapeutic Implications for Autoimmune Diseases  

PubMed Central

Oral tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag) that have been administered previously by the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10) and Th3 (TGF-?) regulatory T cells (Tregs) plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-?, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to oral tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory conditions with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. Oral and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy. PMID:17162357

Faria, Ana M. C.; Weiner, Howard L.

2006-01-01

444

COMMUNICATION (Written communication, Oral communication): Students will produce written reports and oral presentations on topics relating to computing.  

E-print Network

COMMUNICATION (Written communication, Oral communication): Students will produce written reports to communicate effectively (oral, written, and graphic). · Preparation for realworld practice. COLLEGE and oral presentations on topics relating to computing. All students are required to complete COT 4935

Fernandez, Eduardo

445

Chicago Architects Oral History Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the artistic statements of Louis Sullivan to the brutally Modern statements of Walter Netsch, architecture in Chicago is nothing if not eclectic. Given the important legacy of those architects practicing in and around Chicago, it is refreshing to note that the Art Institute of Chicago has been collecting the oral histories of these men and women since 1983. With substantial financial support from the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts and the Illinois Humanities Council, the Art Institute of Chicago has placed complete transcripts for over fifty of these interviews online here for access by architectural historians and the general public. Here visitors will find the recollections of Stanley Tigerman, Harry Weese, Bertrand Goldberg, and Carter Manny. Visitors will also be glad to find that female architects are well-represented here, and include such individuals as Gertrude Lempp Kerbis and Natalie De Blois.

446

Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.  

PubMed

Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

2014-07-01

447

Treatment Options for Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options for Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment of recurrent lip ...

448

Stability of Celecoxib Oral Suspension  

PubMed Central

Background: Celecoxib is a selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitor that relieves pain without affecting platelet function, causing gastrointestinal toxic effects, or increasing the risk of bleeding. Objectives: To develop a suspension formulation for oral celecoxib and to determine its physical and chemical stability when packaged in amber polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bottles and stored with refrigeration (5°C) and at room temperature (23°C). Methods: The contents of celecoxib capsules were used to prepare a single suspension, with Ora-Blend used as the suspending and flavouring agent. The suspension (10 mg/mL) was then packaged in amber PVC bottles and stored at either 5°C or 23°C. Samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 27, 56, and 93. Chemical stability was determined using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. At each sampling time, the suspensions were checked visually for changes in appearance (i.e., colour, layering, caking, and ease of resuspension), odour, and pH. Results: All of the suspensions were stable for at least 93 days, regardless of storage conditions. There were no apparent changes in physical appearance, nor were there any substantial changes in odour or pH. Conclusions: Suspensions of celecoxib (10 mg/mL in Ora-Blend) packaged in amber PVC bottles were stable for up to 93 days when stored at 5°C or 23°C. A 3-month expiry date has been established for this oral suspension on the basis of physical compatibility and chemical stability. PMID:22478934

Donnelly, Ronald F; Pascuet, Elena; Ma, Carmen; Vaillancourt, Régis

2009-01-01

449

Oral health promotion interventions on oral reservoirs of staphylococcus aureus: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The oral cavity serves as a reservoir of Staphylococcus aureus for infection of the lower respiratory tract and cross-infection to other patients. This systematic review was designed to examine the effectiveness of oral health promotion interventions on this pathogen. The PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for clinical trials assessing the effect of oral health promotion interventions on oral and oropharyngeal carriage of S. aureus. Oral health promotion interventions on oral reservoirs of S. aureus in both systemically healthy and medically compromised groups consisted of oral hygiene interventions only. There was a lack of evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of mechanical oral hygiene interventions against this pathogen. Chlorhexidine delivered in oral hygiene products such as mouthrinses, gels, and sprays appeared to have some utility against S. aureus, although some studies found equivocal effects. There was a dearth of studies investigating the efficacy of other chemical agents. Although many chemical agents contained in oral hygiene products have proven in vitro activity against S. aureus, their clinical effectiveness and potential role as adjuncts or alternative therapies to conventional treatment remain to be confirmed by further high-quality randomized controlled trials. PMID:22126675

Lam, O L T; McGrath, C; Bandara, H M H N; Li, L S W; Samaranayake, L P

2012-04-01

450

Oral myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient  

PubMed Central

Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. Oral myiasis is still more “rare” and “unique” owing to the fact that oral cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor oral hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged conditions. Oral myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the oral cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent oral myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of oral myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly) in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture. PMID:23956607

Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Jayavelu, Perumal; Shrutha, Santhebachali Prakasha

2013-01-01

451

Oral health and elite sport performance  

PubMed Central

While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

2015-01-01

452

Oral health and elite sport performance.  

PubMed

While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

2015-01-01

453

Oral myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient.  

PubMed

Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. Oral myiasis is still more "rare" and "unique" owing to the fact that oral cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor oral hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged conditions. Oral myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the oral cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent oral myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of oral myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly) in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture. PMID:23956607

Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Jayavelu, Perumal; Shrutha, Santhebachali Prakasha

2013-07-01

454

[Aspects of complex oral rehabilitation with oral osseointegrated implants].  

PubMed

Dentists and patients become increasingly aware of the complex and predictible results offered by implant-supported dentures. These alternatives fulfill the demands of modern dentistry to rehabilitate the oral health condition according to the highest standards. A deficient residual crest represents a great challenge for the healing and osseointegration of the implants. Dental implants have an essential effect on stopping bone atrophy in the edentulous crest and preserving its condition. Function and esthetics and the patients comfort can be rehabilitated within normal limits. The prosthetic reconstruction based on osseointegration implants has better long-term prognosis if the therapeutic option is judiciously selected. The risk of relative movements at the bone-implant interface decreases according to the difference in value between the elasticity module of the implant and the bone. Prosthetic reconstruction based on implants has a better long-term prognosis if the therapeutic option is judiciously selected from all possibilities according to the osteointegration of an adequate number of implants. PMID:21495324

Balog, Cristiana; B?ciu?, Mihaela; B?ciu?, G

2009-01-01

455

Myofibroblasts in oral lesions: A review  

PubMed Central

Myofibroblasts (MFs) are modified fibroblasts that express features of smooth muscle differentiation and were first observed in granulation tissue during wound healing. These cells play a key role in physiologic and pathologic processes like wound healing and tumorigenesis. The presence of MFs has been reported in normal oral tissues and pathologic conditions like reactive lesions, benign tumors, locally aggressive tumors and malignancies affecting the oral cavity. This article briefly reviews the important hallmarks related to the discovery, characterization and tissue distribution of MFs in oral health and disease. PMID:24959038

Pinisetti, Soujanya; Manyam, Ravikanth; Suresh, Babburi; Aparna, V

2014-01-01

456

Oral hypoglycemics in cats with diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in cats. Similar to people, cats with diabetes mellitus often have type 2 disease. Oral hypoglycemic drugs can be a potential treatment option for affected cats, especially when cats or owners do not tolerate administration of injectable insulin. Several classes of oral hypoglycemic drugs have been evaluated in cats but these drugs have not been commonly used for treatment of diabetic cats. With the advent of newer oral hypoglycemic drugs, and a better understanding of diabetes mellitus in cats, further investigation may allow for better diabetic control for feline patients. PMID:23522179

Palm, Carrie A; Feldman, Edward C

2013-03-01

457

Intrinsic Differences between Oral and Skin Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

Keratinocytes cover both the skin and some oral mucosa, but the morphology of each tissue and the behavior of the keratinocytes from these two sites are different. One significant dissimilarity between the two sites is the response to injury. Oral mucosal wounds heal faster and with less inflammation than equivalent cutaneous wounds. We hypothesized that oral and skin keratinocytes might have intrinsic differences at baseline as well as in the response to injury, and that such differences would be reflected in gene expression profiles. PMID:25198578

Turabelidze, Anna; Guo, Shujuan; Chung, Allison Yen; Chen, Lin; Dai, Yang; Marucha, Phillip T.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

2014-01-01

458

Pathogenesis of postoperative oral surgical pain.  

PubMed Central

Pain is a major postoperative symptom in many oral surgical procedures. It is a complex and variable phenomenon that can be influenced by many factors. Good management of oral surgical pain requires a detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of surgical pain. This article aims at reviewing postoperative pain from a broad perspective by looking into the nociception, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropharmacology of pain. Therapeutic recommendations are made after reviewing the evidence from the literature for maximizing the efficacy of pain management techniques for oral surgical pain. PMID:12722900

Ong, Cliff K. S.; Seymour, R. A.

2003-01-01

459

Oral complications of cancer therapies. Oral complications in the pediatric population  

SciTech Connect

A number of acute oral complications may be associated with cancer therapy in children, but the extent and duration of these complications, and the most effective management techniques. have not been well described. The few studies differ in design, making comparisons difficult. Well-controlled, prospective clinical studies are needed to define the most effective strategies for the management of acute oral complications in children. However, it is clear that dental intervention prior to cancer therapy is an important factor in the optimal preparation of the patient. During cancer therapy, intensive supervised oral preventive protocols appear to be of benefit to the child's oral health, overall comfort, and well-being. Furthermore, the prevention of oral infection may significantly reduce the morbidity associated with cancer therapy. Long-term preventive oral care may help prevent dental disease and infection in medically compromised children and contribute to improving the quality of life. 41 references.

Leggott, P.J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

1990-01-01

460

Nanoparticles for oral delivery: Targeted nanoparticles with peptidic ligands for oral protein delivery  

PubMed Central

As the field of biotechnology has advanced, oral protein delivery has also made significant progress. Oral delivery is the most common method of drug administration with high levels of patient acceptance. Despite the preference of oral delivery, administration of therapeutic proteins has been extremely difficult. Increasing the bioavailability of oral protein drugs to the therapeutically acceptable level is still a challenging goal. Poor membrane permeability, high molecular weight, and enzymatic degradation of protein drugs have remained unsolved issues. Among diverse strategies, nanotechnology has provided a glimpse of hope in oral delivery of protein drugs. Nanoparticles have advantages, such as small size, high surface area, and modification using functional groups for high capacity or selectivity. Nanoparticles with peptidic ligands are especially worthy of notice because they can be used for specific targeting in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This article reviews the transport mechanism of the GI tract, barriers to protein absorption, current status and limitations of nanotechnology for oral protein delivery system. PMID:23123292

Yun, Yeonhee; Cho, Yong Woo; Park, Kinam

2012-01-01

461

Does maternal oral health predict child oral health-related quality of life in adulthood?  

PubMed Central

Background A parental/family history of poor oral health may influence the oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) of adults. Objectives To determine whether the oral health of mothers of young children can predict the OHRQOL of those same children when they reach adulthood. Methods Oral examination and interview data from the Dunedin Study's age-32 assessment, as well as maternal self-rated oral health data from the age-5 assessment were used. The main outcome measure was study members' short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) at age 32. Analyses involved 827 individuals (81.5% of the surviving cohort) dentally examined at both ages, who also completed the OHIP-14 questionnaire at age 32, and whose mothers were interviewed at the age-5 assessment. Results There was a consistent gradient of relative risk across the categories of maternal self-rated oral health status at the age-5 assessment for having one or more impacts in the overall OHIP-14 scale, whereby risk was greatest among the study members whose mothers rated their oral health as "poor/edentulous", and lowest among those with an "excellent/fairly good" rating. In addition, there was a gradient in the age-32 mean OHIP-14 score, and in the mean number of OHIP-14 impacts at age 32 across the categories of maternal self-rated oral health status. The higher risk of having one or more impacts in the psychological discomfort subscale, when mother rated her oral health as "poor/edentulous", was statistically significant. Conclusions These data suggest that maternal self-rated oral health when a child is young has a bearing on that child's OHRQOL almost three decades later. The adult offspring of mothers with poor self-rated oral health had poorer OHRQOL outcomes, particularly in the psychological discomfort subscale. PMID:21736754

2011-01-01

462

Oral Adverse Reactions Caused by Over-the-Counter Oral Agents  

PubMed Central

Over-the-counter products rarely cause unwanted reactions in the oral cavity. Oral reactions to these agents are not specific and might present with various clinical oral findings. Detailed medical history is a key to the proper diagnosis of these lesions and fortunately other diagnostic procedures are rarely needed. Lesions are usually managed with elimination of the offending agent and with topical steroids. In more severe cases systemic steroids should be applied.

Andabak Rogulj, Ana; Vidovic Juras, Danica; Gabric, Dragana; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

2015-01-01

463

Oral Health in Women During Preconception and Pregnancy: Implications for Birth Outcomes and Infant Oral Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouth is an obvious portal of entry to the body, and oral health reflects and influences general health and well being.\\u000a Maternal oral health has significant implications for birth outcomes and infant oral health. Maternal periodontal disease,\\u000a that is, a chronic infection of the gingiva and supporting tooth structures, has been associated with preterm birth, development\\u000a of preeclampsia, and

Kim A. Boggess; Burton L. Edelstein

2006-01-01

464

Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

2008-01-01

465

Cellular evaluation of oral chemotherapy carriers James Blanchette,1  

E-print Network

, and an overall improvement in quality of life are additional benefits of oral chemotherapy. A recent study conCellular evaluation of oral chemotherapy carriers James Blanchette,1 Nicholas A. Peppas1­3 1 cases im- proved, with oral administration.1­5 The advantages of oral chemotherapy go beyond survival

Peppas, Nicholas A.

466

Differential Injury Responses in Oral Mucosal and Cutaneous Wounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral mucosa heals faster than does skin, yet few studies have compared the repair at oral mucosal and cutaneous sites. To determine whether the privileged healing of oral injuries involves a differential inflammatory phase, we compared the inflammatory cell infiltrate and cytokine production in wounds of equivalent size in oral mucosa and skin. Significantly lower levels of macrophage, neutrophil, and

A. M. Szpaderska; J. D. Zuckerman; L. A. DiPietro

2003-01-01

467

Analysis of psychological barriers in oral English teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important status of oral English is obvious and psychological barriers are one of the most important factors that hinder learners ' oral expression and improvement. This paper analyzes the current situation of college oral English teaching in China, and points out the main psychological factors of the improvement of oral English. The writer studies the types and causes of

WU Guang; LIANG Jia-xia

468

Oral Fluids that Detect Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the utility of oral fluids for assessment of coronary and cardiovascular (CVD) health. Study Design Twenty-nine patients with pre-existing CVD disease underwent an invasive cardiac procedure (alcohol septal ablation or percutaneous coronary intervention) and provided unstimulated whole saliva (UWS), sublingual swabs (LS), gingival swabs (GS) and serum at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 hr. Concentrations of 13 relevant biomarkers were determined and correlated with levels in serum and the oral fluids. Results Concentrations of the majority of biomarkers were higher in UWS than LS and GS. Coronary and CVD disease biomarkers in UWS correlated better with serum than LS and GS based on group status and measures of time effect. Seven biomarkers demonstrated time effect changes consistent with serum biomarkers, including C-reactive protein and troponin I. Conclusions Changes in serum biomarker profiles are reflected in oral fluids suggesting that oral fluid biomarkers could aid in the assessment of cardiac ischemia/necrosis. PMID:22769406

Foley, Joseph D.; Sneed, J. Darrell; Steinhubl, Steven R; Kolasa, Justin; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Lin, Yushun; Kryscio, Richard J.; McDevitt, John T.; Campbell, Charles L.; Miller, Craig S.

2013-01-01

469

Rebekah Foster-Terry Oral History  

E-print Network

Oral history interview with Reverend Rebekah Foster-Terry conducted by Stephanie Meador in 2009. In this interview, Rev. Foster-Terry, pastor of the Victory Tabernacle Church in Topeka, Kansas, discusses the history of the church and her family...

Foster-Terry, Rebekah; Meador, Stephanie Rae

2009-01-01

470

An introduction to oral health care reform.  

PubMed

Oral health care reform is made up of several components, but access to care is central. Health care reform will occur in some fashion at some point, and how it will impact the entire dental sector is unclear. In the short term, there is likely to be a dental component during the reauthorization of State Children's Health Insurance Program in early 2009, and several federal oral health bills are expected to be reintroduced as well. Additional public funding for new programs and program expansions remains questionable, as federal funding will be tight. Fiscal conservancy will be occurring in the states as well; however, various proposals to expand dental hygienists' duties are likely, as are proposals related to student grants for dental schools. Regardless of one's political stance, the profile of oral health care has been elevated, offering countless opportunities for improvement in the oral health of the nation. PMID:19482130

Hathaway, Kristen L

2009-07-01

471

[Pharmacoeconomic aspects of oral cytostatic agents].  

PubMed

When validating oral chemotherapy, pharmacists should confirm the suitability and correctness of the prescription, applying the same safety standards as those used for parenteral cytostatic drugs. There are an increasing number of cancers for which orally administered drugs are available, which increases patient satisfaction as these drugs can be taken at home without the need to visit a hospital. As oral cytostatic treatments increase, so does the importance of ensuring optimal treatment compliance. The new oral cytostatic agents are less toxic, reduce indirect costs and imply less loss of time for patients and their families. However, the cost of these agents should be below a threshold acceptable for society. As an aid to decision making, pharmacoeconomic tools should be used. PMID:22445506

Poquet Jornet, J E; Carrera-Hueso, F J; Gasent Blesa, J M; Peris Godoy, M

2011-05-01

472

46 CFR 201.166 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument...should confine their argument to points of controlling importance and shall limit their argument to...

2013-10-01

473

46 CFR 201.166 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument...should confine their argument to points of controlling importance and shall limit their argument to...

2014-10-01

474

46 CFR 201.166 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument...should confine their argument to points of controlling importance and shall limit their argument to...

2011-10-01

475

46 CFR 201.166 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument...should confine their argument to points of controlling importance and shall limit their argument to...

2012-10-01

476

Wound biofilms: lessons learned from oral biofilms  

PubMed Central

Biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many chronic infections. Oral biofilms, more commonly known as dental plaque,are a primary cause of oral diseases including caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. Oral biofilms are commonly studied as model biofilm systems as they are easily accessible, thus biofilm research in oral diseases is advanced with details of biofilm formation and bacterial interactions being well-elucidated. In contrast, wound research has relatively recently directed attentionto the role biofilms have in chronic wounds. This review discusses the biofilms in periodontal disease and chronic wounds with comparisons focusing on biofilm detection, biofilm formation, the immune response to biofilms, bacterial interaction and quorum sensing. Current treatment modalities used by both fields as well as future therapies are also discussed. PMID:23551419

Mancl, Kimberly A.; Kirsner, Robert S.; Ajdic, Dragana

2013-01-01

477

21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...or dissolving in 2 to 4 pints of water and administering by stomach tube. The drug is compatible with carbon disulfide, which... (c ) Oral suspension. The drug is administered by stomach tube. Not for horses intended for food use. Federal...

2014-04-01

478

21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or dissolving in 2 to 4 pints of water and administering by stomach tube. The drug is compatible with carbon disulfide, which... (c ) Oral suspension. The drug is administered by stomach tube. Not for horses intended for food use. Federal...

2013-04-01

479

21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or dissolving in 2 to 4 pints of water and administering by stomach tube. The drug is compatible with carbon disulfide, which... (c ) Oral suspension. The drug is administered by stomach tube. Not for horses intended for food use. Federal...

2012-04-01

480

[Carcinoma of the oral cavity: integrated treatment].  

PubMed

An integrated chemoradio-surgical technique for treating carcinoma of the oral cavity is described. The results obtained are particularly promising. Longer-term follow-ups are needed for final assessment. PMID:2682178

Vercellino, V; Pomatto, E; Solazzo, L; Vallino, S

1989-08-01

481

Probiotics in oral health--a review.  

PubMed

Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeasts. Probiotics are live microorganisms thought to be beneficial to the host organism and, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria are the most common types of microbes used as probiotics. Probiotics strengthen the immune system to combat allergies, stress, exposure to toxic substances and other diseases. There are reports of beneficial use in HIV infections and cancers.These products help in stimulating oral health promoting flora, and suppress the pathologic colonization and disease spread. Probiotics can be bacteria, molds and yeast, but most probiotics are bacteria. In recent years, there has been a lot of interest in the use of probiotics in maintaining good oral health and treating oral infections. Their use in premalignant and malignant oral disorders is yet to be probed. PMID:22866427

Rao, Yadav; Lingamneni, Benhur; Reddy, Deepika

2012-01-01

482

Developing oral probiotics from Streptococcus salivarius.  

PubMed

Considerable human illness can be linked to the development of oral microbiota disequilibria. The predominant oral cavity commensal, Streptococcus salivarius has emerged as an important source of safe and efficacious probiotics, capable of fostering more balanced, health-associated oral microbiota. Strain K12, the prototype S. salivarius probiotic, originally introduced to counter Streptococcus pyogenes infections, now has an expanded repertoire of health-promoting applications. K12 and several more recently proposed S. salivarius probiotics are now being applied to control diverse bacterial consortia infections including otitis media, halitosis and dental caries. Other potential applications include upregulation of immunological defenses against respiratory viral infections and treatment of oral candidosis. An overview of the key steps required for probiotic development is also presented. PMID:23231486

Wescombe, Philip A; Hale, John D F; Heng, Nicholas C K; Tagg, John R

2012-12-01

483

Adverse drug events in the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Adverse reactions to medications are common and may have a variety of clinical presentations in the oral cavity. Targeted therapies and the new biologic agents have revolutionized the treatment of cancers, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory and rheumatologic diseases but have also been associated with adverse events in the oral cavity. Some examples include osteonecrosis, seen with not only bisphosphonates but also antiangiogenic agents, and the distinctive ulcers caused by mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. As newer therapeutic agents are approved, it is likely that more adverse drug events will be encountered. This review describes the most common clinical presentations of oral mucosal reactions to medications, namely, xerostomia, lichenoid reactions, ulcers, bullous disorders, pigmentation, fibrovascular hyperplasia, white lesions, dysesthesia, osteonecrosis, infection, angioedema, and malignancy. Oral health care providers should be familiar with such events, as they will encounter them in their practice. PMID:25442252

Yuan, Anna; Woo, Sook-Bin

2015-01-01

484

Interleukin-6 in oral diseases: a review.  

PubMed

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleomorphic cytokine involved in a number of physiologic and pathologic processes including response to trauma and infection and development and progression of inflammation and malignancy. IL-6 is emerging as an important mediator and novel therapeutic target for chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. The present study reviews the available evidence regarding the association between IL-6 and a range of oral diseases including infections (periodontal disease and endodontic infections), immunologically mediated disorders (oral lichen planus and Sjögren's syndrome) and malignancy (oral cancer and precancer). The role of common genetic variants of IL-6 in determining individual susceptibility to certain oral diseases, as well as novel therapeutic strategies based on IL-6 inhibition are also discussed. PMID:22050374

Nibali, L; Fedele, S; D'Aiuto, F; Donos, N

2012-04-01

485

Efficacy of Miswak on Oral Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The oral cavity harbors a diverse and abundant number of complex oral pathogens causing different oral diseases. The development of dental caries and periodontal diseases has been found to be closely associated with various gram positive and gram negative microrganisms. Miswak, a natural toothbrush, has been documented as a potent antibacterial aid and its use is encouraged in different countries because of its good taste, texture, availability, cost and beneficial effect on teeth and supporting tissues. Different researches have been carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Miswak. This review encompasses the efficacy of Miswak on suppression of oral pathogens with respect to conducted on fungi as well as cariogenic, periodontal and endodontic bacteria. PMID:24019798

Sukkarwalla, Adnan; Ali, Salima Mehboob; Lundberg, Pranee; Tanwir, Farzeen

2013-01-01

486

Personality traits in patients with oral malodor.  

PubMed

Many patients presenting at oral malodor clinics have psychological halitosis, which is characterized as being obsessive about having oral malodor or being distressed from a keen awareness of oral odor. We used the Tokyo University Egogram (TEG) to evaluate personality traits in patients presenting at the oral malodor clinic of this institute. The incidence of each TEG personality type was compared between a total of 600 patients presenting at the clinic and a cohort of healthy individuals. Differences were found between the malodor patient and healthy groups. Nurturing Parent (NP)-dominant, Adult (A)-dominant, inverse N (NP low, Free Child high), showed a significant decrease of 6.7, 11.3, and 3.6%, respectively; whereas N (A low) and N (NP high, Free Child low) showed a significant increase of 3.3 and 6.4%, respectively (p < 0.01). PMID:25477041

Sugiyama, Toshiko; Yamakura, Daiki; Tomita, Sachiyo; Kameyama, Atsushi; Morinaga, Kazuki; Tsunoda, Masatake

2014-01-01

487

Impact of inhalation therapy on oral health  

PubMed Central

Inhalation therapy has been employed as the mainstay of the treatment in chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Beta-2 agonists, anticholinergic bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and sodium cromoglycate are often used alone or in combination in an inhaled form. Studies have shown that inhaled drugs used in the treatment have some adverse effects on the oral health based on their dosage, frequency, and duration of use. Several oral conditions such as xerostomia, dental caries, candidiasis, ulceration, gingivitis, periodontitis, and taste changes have been associated with inhalation therapy. Since the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is rising, it is important to provide optimal oral care to the individuals receiving inhalation therapy. This article will review the influence of inhaled drugs on the oral health of individuals and adequate management and prevention of the same. PMID:22084541

Godara, Navneet; Godara, Ramya; Khullar, Megha

2011-01-01

488

Chem I Supplement: Chemistry in Oral Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents chemical information related to dental health: (1) the composition of toothpaste, (2) dental diseases, (3) the role of fluoride, (4) proper oral health care, (5) mouthwashes, and (6) adhesive sealants. (MA)

Journal of Chemical Education, 1978

1978-01-01

489

10 CFR 2.1507 - Oral hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...forth the grouping and order of appearance of the witnesses at the oral hearing. The order shall be filed upon all participants by email or facsimile transmission if possible, otherwise by overnight mail. (b) The Commission or presiding officer...

2010-01-01

490

Oral Vowel Reduction in Brazilian Portuguese  

E-print Network

In Brazilian Portuguese, there are at least two types of unstressed syllables: pretonic and final. Phonologically, this is shown by the fact that the system of 7 phonemic oral vowels in stressed syllables is decreased to ...

Nobre, Maria Alzira; Ingemann, Frances

1983-01-01

491

Respiratory Diseases and Conditions (and Oral Health)  

MedlinePLUS

... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Bronchitis and Emphysema Tuberculosis Sinusitis If you have a respiratory condition, make ... dental office and make sure it is full. Tuberculosis Oral Effects If you have tuberculosis, you may ...

492

[Oral kinesiology and the quality of life].  

PubMed

In a comparative study, the influence of oral health on the quality of life was investigated for people with temporomandibular pain, people with tooth wear and people with complete dentures. To this end, the study made use of the Oral Health Impact Profile. Both the total score and the scores on 4 of the 7 domains of the Oral Health Impact Profile were significantly higher in the research group with temporomandibular pain than in the research groups with tooth wear and complete dentures. These results suggest that among people with temporomandibular pain the influence of oral health on the quality of life is more negative than among people with tooth wear and among people with complete dentures. This result can probably be linked with the general finding that patients with temporomandibular pain bear a relatively high psycho-social burden. PMID:21491765

Papagianni, C E; van der Meulen, M J; Naeije, M; Lobbezoo, F

2011-03-01

493

21 CFR 520.1320 - Mebendazole oral.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for use in horses intended for food. Consult your veterinarian for assistance in the diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitism. (c ) Oral suspension. The drug is administered by stomach tube. Not for horses intended for food use....

2011-04-01

494

[Erosive oral lichen planus: case report].  

PubMed

Erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology associated with cell-mediated immunological dysfunction. Rare among Blacks and Asian subjects, it is at the origin of symptoms ranging from burning pain during meals up to the inability to absorb solid foods or to ensure adequate oral hygiene. Its diagnosis is before all clinical, then confirmed by histopathological examination. Chronic and recurrent forms developments can cause malignant transformation where the importance of being known by any clinicians compared to other oral diseases. Treatment is difficult and aimed at palliation rather than cure. We report the only case of erosive oral lichen planus received and supported in the service of Stomatology of General Hospital in Douala during the last ten years and whose etiology is discussed. PMID:24380118

Belinga, L Essama Eno; Njifou, A; Noa, S Ananga; Ateba, G R; Ngan, W Bell

2013-09-01

495

10 CFR 2.1113 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE...Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1113 Oral...

2011-01-01

496

10 CFR 2.1113 - Oral argument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2.1113 Section 2.1113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF...Hearing Procedures for Expansion of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Capacity at Civilian Nuclear Power Reactors § 2.1113 Oral...

2013-01-01

497