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Sample records for mcg oral misoprostol

  1. Oral misoprostol is an effective and acceptable alternative to vaginal administration for cervical priming before first trimester pregnancy termination

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Madhusudan

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical priming agents mainly prostaglandins in different doses and routes are used during first trimester vaccum aspiration to prevent cervical injury and shorten the abortion procedure. This study was carried out to assess women's acceptability, the efficacy and side effects of oral versus vaginal administration of misoprostol in facilitating cervical dilatation prior to first trimester vaccum aspiration. Methods A randomised control study where 120 women were divided in oral (51) and vaginal (69) group. Each group received 400mcg of misoprostol either orally or vaginally 04h prior to first trimester pregnancy termination. Baseline cervical dilatation, women's acceptability and side effects and complications were noted in both the groups. Results There was no difference between the oral and vaginal misoprostol groups with respect to mean cervical dilatation (5.53mm vs 5.43mm; p>0.05). A total of 88% of women in the oral group expressed satisfaction with the route of misoprostol administration as compared to 74% in the vaginal route. The women in the vaginal group were experienced more preoperative vaginal bleeding (43% vs 25%). Conclusion Oral administration of misoprostol is an effective alternative to vaginal administration in preinduction cervical ripening prior to first trimester pregnancy termination. PMID:24532930

  2. Early termination of pregnancy with mifepristone (RU 486) and the orally active prostaglandin misoprostol.

    PubMed

    Peyron, R; Aubény, E; Targosz, V; Silvestre, L; Renault, M; Elkik, F; Leclerc, P; Ulmann, A; Baulieu, E E

    1993-05-27

    Between June and October 1991 health workers administered 1 dose of 600 mg mifepristone (RU-486) and a single oral dose of 400 mcg misoprostol on day 3 to at least 488 women at 25 centers in France to terminate pregnancy of less than 50 days duration. Pregnancy termination occurred within 48 hours in 2.9% of all women. They had only received RU-486. 1% vomited after taking the first dose of misoprostol, necessitating a second dose. The overall success rate for this regimen was 96.9%. 12 hours was the mean time between taking misoprostol and expulsion of the conceptus. The median time was 3 hours. The types of failure were incomplete expulsion of the conceptus (1.8%), ongoing pregnancy (0.8%), and prolonged bleeding (0.4%). Mean duration of bleeding following the regimen was 9 days. A second study occurred between March 1991 and March 1992 among at least 385 women at 1 center in France. They received RU-486 and misoprostol in the same manner as the women in study 1, but those who did not experience pregnancy termination within 4 hours after the initial dose received another 200 mcg dose of misoprostol. 5/5% experienced pregnancy termination before administration of misoprostol. 69.1% experienced termination within 4 hours. Pregnancy termination occurred within the first 3 hours in almost 90% of them. 27 women who did not abort within 4 hours did not take the additional dose and 26 of them aborted completely. The sole woman with a continued pregnancy underwent vacuum aspiration. 67 of the 71 women who took the second dose completely expelled the conceptus within 48 hours. Thus, 79.2% of all women aborted while being monitored at the center. The overall success rate was 98.7% . The leading side effects in both studies in order of frequency were uterine cramps and nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. These results showed that oral administration of misoprostol is as effective and well tolerated as other prostaglandins administered parenterally or vaginally. PMID:8479487

  3. Effectiveness of a single dose of oral misoprostol 600 ?g for treatment in early pregnancy failure.

    PubMed

    Benchamanon, R; Phupong, V

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness, side-effects and acceptability of a single dose of oral misoprostol 600 ?g for treatment of 1st trimester pregnancy failure. A prospective descriptive study was conducted on pregnant women of < 13 weeks' gestation, diagnosed as 1st trimester pregnancy failure. Patients were assigned to receive a single dose of misoprostol 600 ?g orally and then evaluated 48 h after drug administration for complete abortion. A total of 55 women were recruited to the study. The complete abortion rate was 65.5%. Pain and diarrhoea were the most common side-effects. Acceptability and satisfactory rates were 70.9% and 70.9%, respectively. In conclusion, a single dose of oral misoprostol 600 ?g is a fair method for the management of 1st trimester pregnancy failure. Side-effects are tolerable and satisfaction is high. Thus, this method may be used as an alternative treatment. PMID:24988526

  4. Comparison of two doses of oral misoprostol with one, after mifepristone in early abortion.

    PubMed

    Jha, Tulika; Das, Anindya; Bhattacharya, Ajit Ranjan; Ganguly, Rajendra Prasad; Patra, Kajal Kumar; Das, Bibekananda

    2013-12-01

    A prospective randomised controlled study was conducted at RG Kar Medical College and hospital to compare the efficacy and side-effects of two doses of oral misoprostol, with one dose following mifepristone in early abortion. Two randomly allocated groups of seventy-five women each were formed, which were comparable in all respects and also conformed to the inclusion and exclusion criteria laid down in this study. Both groups received 200 mg of mifepristone on day one. After 48 hours, both groups received 400 microg of misoprostol and 3 hours later one group received 3 tablets of 200 microg misoprostol and the other group received 3 tablets of placebo. The women were then followed up to note the time of expulsion, completeness of the process, amount of bleeding encountered, side-effects if any or any other observation. The most important parameter ie, the completeness of the expulsion when compared showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p-value = 0.1025). PMID:25154152

  5. Randomized Trial of Oral Misoprostol Treatment for Cervical Ripening Before Tandem Application in Cervix Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cepni, Kimia; Gul, Sule; Cepni, Ismail; Gueralp, Onur; Sal, Veysel; Mayadagli, Alpaslan

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of oral misoprostol administered to facilitate tandem application to the cervix as a part of brachytherapy in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty patients with cervical cancer who had been planned to undergo brachytherapy at Dr. Luetfi Kirdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital were evaluated in a double-blind, prospective, randomized trial. Patients were divided randomly into two groups of 40 patients. The first and second groups received 400 {mu}g of misoprostol orally and placebo, respectively, 3 h before tandem application. The two groups were compared in terms of age, diameter of tumor, parity, age at first intercourse, amount of bleeding and pain at first tandem application, length of endometrial cavity measured by hysterometer, and size of Hegar dilators used for cervical dilatation. Results: Of all cases, 63.6%, 16.3%, 10%, 6.3%, 2.5%, and 1.3% were Stage IIB, IIIB, IIIA, IVA, IIA and IIC, respectively. Mean ({+-}SD) age (range) was 49.3 {+-} 13.1 (25-83) years and 56.6 {+-} 13.2 (30-78) years in the study and control groups, respectively (p = 0.015). Age at first intercourse, diameter of tumor, parity, amount of bleeding at first tandem application, and length of endometrial cavity measured by hysterometer were not significantly different between the two groups. Pain score was significantly higher in the control group (p < 0.001). Application was significantly easier in the study group compared with controls (p < 0.001). Average size of initial Hegar dilators used for cervical dilatation was significantly higher in the study group compared with controls (p = 0.017). Conclusion: Administration of misoprostol 400 {mu}g orally for cervical ripening before tandem application facilitates the procedure, increases patient tolerability and comfort, and may decrease complication rates.

  6. Inhibition of food stimulated acid secretion by misoprostol, an orally active synthetic E1 analogue prostaglandin.

    PubMed Central

    Ramage, J K; Denton, A; Williams, J G

    1985-01-01

    The effect of 200 micrograms misoprostol (a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analogue) on food stimulated intragastric acidity has been monitored over a 9 h period in 16 normal volunteers. Misoprostol caused a significant inhibition of intragastric acidity for 2 h post-dosing, but no significant effect was seen thereafter on either basal or food stimulated acidity. PMID:3919751

  7. Cervical Priming Before Diagnostic Operative Hysteroscopy in Infertile Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Comparison of 2 Vaginal Misoprostol Doses

    PubMed Central

    Bastu, Ercan; Celik, Cem; Nehir, Asli; Dogan, Murat; Yuksel, Bahar; Ergun, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vaginal misoprostol for cervical priming at doses of 200 mcg and 400 mcg, 12 to 15 hours before diagnostic office hysteroscopy (OH) without anesthesia in patients with infertility. Sixty infertile patients requiring a diagnostic office hysteroscopy for investigation of infertility were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated into 3 vaginally administered misoprostol groups: (1) control group, (2) 200-mcg dose group, and (3) 400-mcg dose group. Misoprostol significantly facilitated the procedure of OH: cervical entry was easier; procedural time was shorter; baseline cervical width was larger; and pain scoring was lower in the misoprostol groups compared with the control group. Increasing the dose of misoprostol from 200 mcg to 400 mcg did not improve the effect on cervical dilation. Misoprostol is a promising analog to use for cervical priming before OH. Since doses of 200 mcg and 400 mcg vaginal misoprostol 12 hours before the OH both have proven to be effective regimens, 200 mcg may be preferred. However, before routine clinical usage, further research is needed through large, randomized, controlled trials powered to detect a difference in complications to determine whether misoprostol reduces complications in OH. PMID:23701149

  8. Safety and efficacy of misoprostol versus oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Minoo; Karimi, Samieh; Shahboodaghi, Zohreh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Khorgoei, Tahereh; Rajaei, Farzam

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the commonest cause of maternal death worldwide. Studies suggest that the use of misoprostol may be beneficial in clinical settings where oxytocin is unavailable. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of oxytocin and misoprostol when used in the prevention of PPH. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, 400 pregnant women who had a vaginal delivery were assigned into two groups: to receive either 20 IU of oxytocin in 1000 mL Ringer's solution and two placebo tablets or 400 mcg oral misoprostol (as two tablets) and 2 mL normal saline in 1000 mL Ringer's solution. The quantity of blood loss was higher in the oxytocin group in comparison to the misoprostol group. There was no significant difference in the decrease in hematocrit and hemoglobin between the two groups. Although there was no significant difference in the need for transfusions between the two groups, the patients in the oxytocin group had greater need for additional oxytocin. Results from this study indicate that it may be considered as an alternative for oxytocin in low resource clinical settings. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01863706. PMID:24734184

  9. Vaginal misoprostol for pre-abortion cervical priming: is there an optimal evacuation time interval?

    PubMed

    Singh, K; Fong, Y F; Prasad, R N; Dong, F

    1999-03-01

    The optimal evacuation time interval for vaginal misoprostol administration for cervical priming before first-trimester pregnancy termination was investigated in a prospective study conducted at the National University of Singapore Medical Institute. 60 healthy nulliparous women requesting pregnancy termination at 6-11 weeks of gestation were randomly assigned to receive either 400 mcg or 600 mcg of misoprostol. Vacuum aspiration was performed after 3 hours in the 400 mcg group and after 2 hours in the 600 mcg group. The degree of cervical dilatation before the procedure was measured through use of a Hegar's dilator. Only 5 women (16.7%) in the 600 mcg group, compared with 28 women (93.3%) in the 400 mcg group, achieved a cervical dilatation of 8 mm or more. When the 400 mcg group was used as a baseline, the odds ratio for successful dilatation (8 mm or above) was 0.014 (95% confidence interval, 0.003-0.080) for 600 mcg of misoprostol. Mean cervical dilatation was 8.1 mm for 400 mcg and 6.6 mm for 600 mcg (p 0.001). Despite the shorter evacuation time interval, the 600 mcg misoprostol dose was associated with an increase in side effects such as vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, and fever above 38 C. These findings indicate that 400 mcg of misoprostol with a minimal evacuation time interval of 3 hours is most effective. However, a further evaluation with a larger sample size with adequate power to evaluate side effects is recommended. PMID:10426647

  10. Oral toxicity of isotretinoin, misoprostol, methotrexate, mifepristone and levonorgestrel as pregnancy category X medications in female mice

    PubMed Central

    KIM, SEONG-KWAN; SHIN, SOO-JEONG; YOO, YOHAN; KIM, NA-HYUN; KIM, DONG-SOON; ZHANG, DAN; PARK, JIN-A; YI, HEE; KIM, JIN-SUK; SHIN, HO-CHUL

    2015-01-01

    An oral toxicity study of several pregnancy category X drugs was performed in female ICR mice. The drugs were administered orally once daily for 3 days at doses of 1, 10 and 100 ?g/kg for isotretinoin; 6.7, 67 and 670 ?g/kg for misoprostol; 83, 830 and 8,300 ?g/kg for methotrexate; 3.3, 33 and 330 ?g/kg for mifepristone; and 25, 250 and 2,500 ?g/kg for levonorgestrel. During the test period, clinical signs, mortality, body weight, hematology, serum biochemistry and necropsy findings were examined. Following administration of methotrexate at 8,300 ?g/kg, a number of animals exhibited decreased spontaneous activity, and one animal died. In the hematological analysis, compared with those treated with the control, the animals treated with the drugs exhibited similar significant decreases in the number of granulocytes and granulocyte differentiation, and increases in lymphocyte differentiation. In the serum biochemical analysis, animals receiving high doses of the five drugs demonstrated significant changes in uric acid, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, lipase, total cholesterol and calcium. At necropsy, intestinal redness was frequently observed in animals that received the high dose of methotrexate. Uterus enlargement and ovary dropsy were also detected in the groups receiving mifepristone and levonorgestrel. Despite the short-term exposure, these drugs exhibited significant side effects, including white blood cell toxicity, in the mouse model. Category X drugs can be traded illegally via the internet for the purpose of early pregnancy termination. Thus, illegal abuse of the drugs should be further discouraged to protect mothers. PMID:25667641

  11. Congenital abnormalities in Brazilian children associated with misoprostol misuse in first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, C H; Marques-Dias, M J; Kim, C A; Sugayama, S M; Da Paz, J A; Huson, S M; Holmes, L B

    1998-05-30

    In Brazil and other South and Central American countries where abortion is illegal, misoprostol is widely available and commonly used to induce abortion. However, misoprostol is not very effective as an abortifacient agent and can cause fetal abnormalities. The present study reviewed the cases of 42 infants from Sao Paulo, Brazil, who were exposed to misoprostol during the first trimester of pregnancy and then born with a congenital abnormality. 17 children had equinovarus with cranial nerve deficiencies and 10 had equinovarus as part of a more extensive arthrogryposis. The most distinctive phenotypes were arthrogryposis confined to the legs (5 cases) and terminal transverse limb defects (9 cases). Congenital hydrocephalus was present in 8 children. The most commonly taken dose of misoprostol was 800 mcg (range, 200-16,000 mcg). Greater awareness of the widespread use of misoprostol to induce abortion should lead to public health interventions to prevent teratogenic effects. PMID:9620717

  12. Misoprostol: the experience of women in Fortaleza, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Colho, H L; Teixeira, A C; Cruz, M de F; Gonzaga, S L; Arrais, P S; Luchini, L; La Vecchia, C; Tognoni, G

    1994-02-01

    Misoprostol is used by women in Brazil in case of unwanted pregnancy to attempt abortion. This paper reports the characteristics, pattern of misoprostol use and opinions of a group of 102 women (median age 25 years, range 16-49 years), from Fortaleza, capital of Cear state, who had used misoprostol to attempt abortion. Seventy-five percent were women of lower social class, 58% had less than 8 years of education and 46% were never married. Misoprostol was used for the first induced abortion by 65 women. Modal dose was 4 tablets--200 micrograms of misoprostol each--most frequently 2 tablets by oral route and 2 tablets by intravaginal route. This pattern of use was associated with the highest rate of abortion, mainly at 9-12 weeks of amenorrhea. Fifty-five percent of women had no pregnancy test; 41% had 8 weeks or less of amenorrhea. Curettage was performed in 49 of 84 women who reported abortion and in 41 of 43 women who entered the hospital. Infection and uterine perforation were the complications described. Seventy-two percent of women were in favor of legalization of abortion, but 52% were also in favor of the prohibition of misoprostol sales; 66% would not repeat misoprostol use and 53% would not suggest it to a friend. The poorest women were less favorable to misoprostol ban. Despite the current lack of safer alternatives, misoprostol does not seem a satisfactory solution to illegal abortion in Brazil. PMID:8143449

  13. A combined oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 3.0 mg drospirenone does not impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation

    PubMed Central

    Meendering, Jessica R.; Torgrimson, Britta N.; Miller, Nicole P.; Kaplan, Paul F.; Minson, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ethinyl estradiol (EE) increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation in young women, but certain progestins paired with EE in combination OCPs have been shown to antagonize the vasodilatory effects of EE. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how endothelial function, serum biomarkers, and resting blood pressures change across an OCP cycle in women using a monophasic OCP formulation containing the progestin drospirenone. Study Design Twelve women were studied during two hormone phases of their OCP cycle; once at the end of three weeks of active pills (30 mcg EE and 3.0 mg drospirenone), and once at the end of a week of placebo pills (no exogenous hormones). Results Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was greater during the active phase compared to the placebo phase (p < 0.001). In contrast, there was no difference in endothelium-independent dilation between hormone phases. Conclusion These data suggest that the combination of 30 mcg EE and 3.0 mg drospirenone used in the active phase of this OCP increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation compared to a placebo phase. PMID:20851231

  14. Effects of a combined oral contraceptive containing 20?mcg of ethinylestradiol and 3?mg of drospirenone on the blood pressure, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, insulin resistance, and androgenic profile of healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Giribela, Cassiana Rosa Galvo; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda Marciano; Nisenbaum, Marcelo Gil; Moraes, Tercio Lemos de; Giribela, Aricia Helena Galvo; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Melo, Nilson Roberto de

    2015-11-01

    Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease depending on the ethynyl estradiol (EE) dose and the androgenicity of the progestogens. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of a COC containing 20?mcg EE?+?3?mg drospirenone on blood pressure (BP), renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, insulin resistance, and androgenic profile of healthy young women. Eighty-one healthy young women aged 30??1 years (case group, n?=?49, received COC; control group, n?=?32, used no COC) were assessed twice, before and after the 6-month study. Statistical analysis employed the paired t-tests and expressed the data in mean and standard deviation. Results were as follows: no changes in BP or in BMI; a significant increase in aldosterone, plasma renin activity, triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels, but a non-significant increase in HDL and no significant changes in LDL levels (these parameters remained within normal ranges); a significant increase in the HOMA-IR index and a significant decrease in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (SDHEA), androstenedione, total testosterone, and free testosterone levels; no significant variations in the control group parameters. An oral contraceptive combination of a low EE dose and an anti-androgenic progestogen does not negatively influence the risk factors for a cardiovascular disease. PMID:26172927

  15. [The 20 mcg ethinylestradiol and 150 mcg desogestrel pill: six month, multicenter study in 235 women].

    PubMed

    Serfaty, D

    1990-06-01

    The efficacy and clinical acceptability of a new oral contraceptive (OC) Mercilon (20 mcg ethinyl estradiol + 150 mcg desogestrel) was investigated in 235 women during 1305 cycles in an open, noncomparative, multicenter study carried out by 37 French gynecologists. No pregnancies occurred and cycle control was good. Only 5.5% of the women studied discontinued this OC because of irregular bleeding. The incidence of subjective side effects such as breast tenderness, known to be estrogen-dependent, was very low. Total continuation rate for Mercilon was very high for a low-dose contraceptive at 86%. Because of its clinical characteristics, along with its already proven excellent metabolic acceptability, this OC can be prescribed as a 1st choice for women without contraindication against combined OCs. (author's modified) PMID:12283254

  16. Diclofenac and Misoprostol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to diclofenac (Cataflam, Voltaren XR), misoprostol (Cytotec), aspirin or other NSAIDs such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn); prostaglandins such ...

  17. Effects of misoprostol on cisplatin-induced renal damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Mehmet Kaya; Asci, Halil; Oncu, Meral; Calapoglu, Mustafa; Savran, Mehtap; Yesilot, Sukriye; Candan, Ibrahim Aydin; Cicek, Ekrem

    2011-07-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a potent anticancer drug. However, it has side effects on kidney such as nephrotoxicity. Abnormal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been accused in the etiology of CP-induced nephrotoxicity. Several ROS scavengers have been reported to prevent nephrotoxicity after CP administration. In this study, we used prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) analogues misoprostol (MP) to reduce this damage. MP has gained considerable interest as a ROS scavenger. Rats were received a single injection of CP (5 mg/kg, i.p.) with or without MP pretreatment (200 mcg/kg, orally). The renal tissue morphology was investigated by light microscopy. Trunk blood was also obtained to determine lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT). CP administration increased MDA production and decreased SOD and CAT levels in the kidney tissue when compared to the control group. Morphological damage in CP administrated rats was also severe in the kidney tissue. MP treatment after CP application protected the renal tissues from CP's side effect. These findings indicate that MP has beneficial effects on CP induced nephrotoxicity in rats. PMID:21458517

  18. Misoprostol for Labour Induction after Previous Caesarean Section Forever a No Go?

    PubMed Central

    Rath, W.; Tsikouras, P.

    2015-01-01

    Misoprostol in oral or vaginal form is an established method of labour induction worldwide. Its use after previous caesarean section is associated with a high rate of uterine rupture; according to international guidelines it is therefore contraindicated in this setting. However the evidence base for this recommendation comprises case reports, one randomised trial that was discontinued prematurely, and numerous low quality retrospective data analyses published between 1997 and 2004. New insights into e.g. resorption kinetics, dosage and application intervals, dose dependant uterine hyperstimulation rates, as well as increasing clinical experience with misoprostol have lead to a critical reappraisal of these historical studies. Accordingly the evidence supporting a ban on vaginal and particularly oral misoprostol for labour induction in the context of a scarred uterus is currently insufficient for a convincing guideline recommendation. In view of the clear advantages of misoprostol over prostaglandin E2 (cheaper, more effective) a retrospective review of registry data should be conducted to determine the incidence of uterine rupture following misoprostol and the circumstances in which it occurs. A prospective, randomised trial could then be conducted on the basis of these findings (e.g. oral misoprostol vs. vaginal prostaglandin E2); known risk factors for uterine rupture including the type of uterine scar would need to be taken into account when selecting patients for vaginal delivery. Until new data from well-designed studies are available, misoprostol will continue to be contraindicated in clinical guidelines for use in labour induction after previous caesarean section. PMID:26719597

  19. MISOPROSTOL TO REDUCE INTRAOPERATIVE AND POSTOPERATIVE HEMORRHAGE DURING CESAREAN DELIVERY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    CONDE-AGUDELO, Agustn; NIETO, Anbal; ROSAS-BERMUDEZ, Anyeli; ROMERO, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic misoprostol use at cesarean delivery for reducing intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. RESULTS Seventeen studies (3174 women) were included of which 7 evaluated misoprostol versus oxytocin and 8 evaluated misoprostol plus oxytocin versus oxytocin. Overall, there were no significant differences in intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage between sublingual or oral misoprostol and oxytocin. Rectal misoprostol, compared with oxytocin, was associated with a significant reduction in intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage. The combined use of sublingual misoprostol and oxytocin, compared with the use of oxytocin alone, was associated with a significant reduction in the mean decrease in hematocrit (mean difference, ?2.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], ?3.4 to ?0.8) and use of additional uterotonic agents (relative risk, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.18-0.62). Compared with oxytocin alone, buccal misoprostol plus oxytocin reduced the use of additional uterotonic agents; rectal misoprostol plus oxytocin decreased intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, mean fall in hematocrit, and use of additional uterotonic agents; and intrauterine misoprostol plus oxytocin reduced the mean fall in hemoglobin and hematocrit. Women receiving misoprostol, alone or combined with oxytocin, had a higher risk of shivering and pyrexia. CONCLUSION Misoprostol combined with oxytocin appears to be more effective than oxytocin alone in reducing intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage during caesarean section. There were no significant differences in intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage when misoprostol was compared to oxytocin. However, these findings were based on a few trials with methodological limitations. PMID:23507545

  20. Cervical ripening prior to hysteroscopy: is the application of misoprostol useful?

    PubMed

    Arena, S; Zupi, E; Affronti, G

    2011-10-01

    Cervical dilatation has to be considered a fundamental step in operative hysteroscopy. Different methods are used to facilitate cervical dilatation. The aim of this review is to evaluate the efficacy of Misoprostol in cervical ripening prior to operative hysteroscopy through the evaluation of published studies. Initially designed for the treatment of peptic ulcers caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue, is commonly used for medical abortion in the first and second trimesters, cervical priming before vacuum aspiration or dilation and curettage, induction of labor, and the prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage. Misoprostol was licensed for oral administration, but a large number of clinical studies have reported that vaginal administration is more effective in cervical ripening. Misoprostol is effective in inducing an adequate cervical dilatation prior to an operative hysteroscopy. Vaginal administration could be necessary for all conditions where cervical ripening is difficult to perform. Patients given GnRH analogue therapy before hysteroscopy may benefit from the application of Misoprostol. However, its use in postmenopausal patients may not be efficacious. As far as the application of Misoprostol prior to diagnostic hysteroscopy is concerned, the number of patients that may find an advantage in the treatment is probably very small. Misoprostol has some important advantages, such as easy application, very low price, and greater acceptability by doctors and patients. PMID:21926953

  1. Misoprostol for induction of labor.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Megan L; Wing, Deborah A

    2015-10-01

    Labor-induction rates have increased considerably in the United States as well as around the world. With up to half of all induced labors requiring cervical ripening, prostaglandins have been utilized to increase induction success and achieve vaginal delivery. Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog has the ability to mimic the changes of spontaneous labor and has been used off label for over 30 years as a labor-induction agent. In the following article, cervical ripening and induction of labor with misoprostol will be discussed. The risks and benefits of misoprostol for ripening and induction and routes of administration will be reviewed, as well as future directions and new developments for its use. PMID:26601733

  2. Reduction of aspirin-induced fecal blood loss with low-dose misoprostol tablets in man

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.M.; Clark, L.; Armstrong, L.; D'Souza, J.

    1985-07-01

    Misoprostol (SC-29333), a synthetic prostaglandin E1 methyl ester analog, was given simultaneously with acetylsalicylic acid in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized prospective study of 32 healthy human male subjects. Fecal blood loss was measured for eight days using the /sup 51/Cr-labeled red blood cell technique. Aspirin (650 mg qid) and misoprostol (25 micrograms qid) or placebo were given during days 3, 4, and 5. There was a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in median blood loss (modified Friedman test) from 0.81 to 6.05 ml/day in the aspirin with placebo group (N = 16). Median blood loss was increased (from 0.75 to 3.75 ml/day) in the aspirin with misoprostol group (N = 16), but this was significantly less (Mann-Whitney U test, P less than 0.01) than the placebo group. Mean serum salicylate concentrations in the placebo and misoprostol groups were similar (7.8 and 6.8 micrograms/ml, respectively). There were no significant changes in laboratory values in any of the subjects studied, nor were any major side-effects encountered. This study demonstrates that oral misoprostol reduces aspirin-induced gastrointestinal bleeding even when administered simultaneously and at a dose level below its threshold for significant acid inhibition. This indicates a potential role for misoprostol in the prevention of gastric mucosal damage in selected patients.

  3. Umbilical vein injection of misoprostol versus normal saline for the treatment of retained placenta: intrapartum placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The third stage of labour may be complicated by retained placenta, which should be managed promptly because it may cause severe bleeding and infection, with a potentially fatal outcome. This study evaluated the effectiveness of umbilical vein injection of misoprostol for the treatment of retained placenta in a hospital setting. Methods This hospital-based placebo-controlled trial was conducted at the Maternity Teaching Hospital, Erbil City, Kurdistan region, Northern Iraq from April 2011 to February 2012. The inclusion criteria were: gestational age of at least 28 weeks, vaginal delivery, and failure of the placenta to separate within 30 minutes after delivery of the infant despite active management of the third stage of labour. Forty-six women with retained placentas were eligible for inclusion. After informed consent was obtained, the women were alternately allocated to receive umbilical vein injection of either 800 mcg misoprostol dissolved in 20 mL of normal saline (misoprostol group) or 20mL of normal saline only (saline group). The women were blinded to the group allocation, but the investigator who administered the injection was not. The trial was registered by the Research Ethics Committee of Hawler Medical University. Results After umbilical vein injection, delivery of the placenta occurred in 91.3% of women in the misoprostol group and 69.5% of women in the saline group, which was not a significant difference between the two groups. The median vaginal blood loss from the time of injection until delivery of the placenta was significantly less in the misoprostol group (100mL) than in the saline group (210mL) (p value?misoprostol is an effective treatment for retained placenta, and reduces the volume of vaginal blood loss with few adverse effects. Clinical Trial Registration Current Controlled Trial HMU: N252.1.2011 PMID:24444360

  4. Misoprostol: serious cardiovascular events, even after a single dose.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    A French Regional Pharmacovigilance Centre identified serious cardiovascular adverse effects linked to misoprostol and reported worldwide up to the end of 2012. Dozens of cases of myocardial infarction, angina and stroke had been reported, including after a single dose in gynaecology and obstetrics, for instance in elective abortion. This risk appears higher in smokers, women aged over 35 years, obese women, and after high-dose vaginal administration. The incidence is unknown. The bioavailability of misoprostol is higher with the vaginal than the oral route, especially when water is added to the tablet before vaginal administration. In practice, this risk must be taken into account, especially in women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, or when using high doses or the vaginal route. When a high cardiovascular risk is identified, it is best to warn patients of the cardiac effects of this drug and advise them to consult a doctor if they experience chest tightness, or to propose an alternative method. Whenever possible, these women should not be alone when they take misoprostol. PMID:26240884

  5. Sublingual versus Vaginal Misoprostol for the Induction of Labor at Term: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Bahia Namavar; Poorgholam, Foroogh; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Salarian, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: We sought to compare the effectiveness and safety of sublingual versus vaginal misoprostol for the termination of pregnancy with a live full-term fetus. Methods: This randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 200 primiparous women with normal, singleton, full-term pregnancies candidated for the induction of labor. Sublingual and vaginal tablets containing misoprostol (25 mcg) or placebo in similar shapes were administered every 4 hours until the Bishop score reached above 8. Maternal and neonatal complications and outcomes were compared. Results: There were 100 parturient women in each group. The mean maternal age, gestational age, and Bishop score at the commencement of misoprostol had no statistical differences between the sublingual and vaginal groups. The mean time interval between misoprostol commencement and delivery was 497.10±291.49 and 511.67±08.46 minutes for the sublingual and vaginal groups, correspondingly. Twenty-two women had Cesarean deliveries in the sublingual group versus 14 in the vaginal group. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid was seen in 12 women in the sublingual group and 4 in the vaginal group (P=0.03). Late fetal heart rate deceleration was observed in 8 women in the sublingual group and 4 in the vaginal group (P=0.22). The mean neonatal birth weight, blood gas value at birth, Apgar score, and length of admission time in the neonatal intensive care unit were not different between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Sublingual and vaginal misoprostol had similar effectiveness; however, meconium-stained liquor was observed considerably more frequently with sublingual misoprostol than with vaginal misoprostol. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201402096541N3 PMID:26989277

  6. Overview and expert assessment of off-label use of misoprostol in obstetrics and gynaecology: review and report by the Collge national des gyncologues obsttriciens franais.

    PubMed

    Marret, H; Simon, E; Beucher, G; Dreyfus, M; Gaudineau, A; Vayssire, C; Lesavre, M; Pluchon, M; Winer, N; Fernandez, H; Aubert, J; Bejan-Angoulvant, T; Jonville-Bera, A P; Clouqueur, E; Houfflin-Debarge, V; Garrigue, A; Pierre, F

    2015-04-01

    The literature suggests that misoprostol can be offered to patients for off-label use as it has reasonable efficacy, risk/benefit ratio, tolerance and patient satisfaction, according to the criteria for evidence-based medicine. Both the vaginal and sublingual routes are more effective than the oral route for first-trimester cervical dilatation. Vaginal misoprostol 800?g, repeated if necessary after 24 or 48h, is a possible alternative for management after early pregnancy failure. However, misoprostol has not been demonstrated to be useful for the evacuation of an incomplete miscarriage, except for cervical dilatation before vacuum aspiration. Oral mifepristone 200mg, followed 24-48h later by vaginal, sublingual or buccal misoprostol 800?g (followed 3-4h later, if necessary, by misoprostol 400?g) is a less efficacious but less aggressive alternative to vacuum aspiration for elective or medically-indicated first-trimester terminations; this alternative becomes increasingly less effective as gestational age increases. In the second trimester, vaginal misoprostol 800-2400?g in 24h, 24-48h after at least 200mg of mifepristone, is an alternative to surgery, sulprostone and gemeprost. Data for the third trimester are sparse. For women with an unripe cervix and an unscarred uterus, vaginal misoprostol 25?g every 3-6h is an alternative to prostaglandin E2 for cervical ripening at term for a live fetus. When oxytocin is unavailable, misoprostol can be used after delivery for prevention (sublingual misoprostol 600?g) and treatment (sublingual misoprostol 800?g) of postpartum haemorrhage. The use of misoprostol to promote cervical dilatation before diagnostic hysteroscopy or surgical procedures is beneficial for premenopausal women but not for postmenopausal women. Nonetheless, in view of the side effects of misoprostol, its use as a first-line treatment is not indicated, and it should be reserved for difficult cases. Misoprostol is not useful for placing or removing the types of intra-uterine devices used in Europe, regardless of parity. PMID:25701235

  7. [Misoprostol in case of termination of pregnancy in the second and third trimesters. Trials].

    PubMed

    Pluchon, M; Winer, N

    2014-02-01

    Termination of pregnancies (TOP), in the second and third trimesters, require feasibility to induce labour with unfavorable cervix. Combination therapy is then usually necessary. Misoprostol use is out of marketing authorization in obstetrics but is widely used for many years in TOP in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy. Most randomized trials comparing misoprostol to other molecules available for TOP (gemeprost, dinoprostone, sulprostone) show that misoprostol is at least as effective with fewer side effects often especially if using adapted doses and routes of administration. Sometimes, products with a marketing authorization have been used with caution due to adverse effects more or less reported with misoprostol. There is, however, no conclusive evidence in the literature showing the superiority of a dose or route of administration of misoprostol compared to another. However, sublingual and oral seem to be preferred by patients than the vaginal route which remains the most evaluated and effective route. In summary, the use of vaginal misoprostol is the first-line treatment in medical abortion in the 2nd and third trimester, in combination with at least 200mg of mifepristone 36 to 48 hours before, at a dose of 400 ?g every 4 to 6 hours. However, its use must be given with caution in cases of uterine scar, but cannot be forbidden for the sole justification of not having a marketing authorization. It will nevertheless warrant information to patients and allow a reduction at least half doses. The multi-scarred uterus still justifies a lower starting dose in the minimum effective doses (100 ?g or less) as a corollary, increased induction-expulsion delay. The risk-benefit balance must be discussed with the patient. The agent without any pharmacological action solely or in combination (laminar dilapans, Foley catheter or double balloon) is particularly interesting in the case of uterine scar or maternal vascular risk but requires further evaluation by other research with adequate power and methodology before recommending for systematic routine use. PMID:24440001

  8. Ethynilestradiol 20 mcg plus Levonorgestrel 100 mcg: Clinical Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Estroprogestins (EPs) are combinations of estrogen and progestin with several actions on women's health. The different pharmacological composition of EPs is responsible for different clinical effects. One of the most used low-dose EP associations is ethinylestradiol 20 mcg plus levonorgestrel 100 mcg in monophasic regimen (EE20/LNG100). This review summarizes clinical pharmacology, cycle control, and effects on lipid and glucose metabolism, coagulation, body weight/body composition, acne, and sexuality of EE20/LNG100. Overall, EE20/LNG100 combination is safe and well tolerated, and in several studies the incidence of adverse events in the treated group was comparable to that of the placebo group. Cycle control was effective and body weight/body composition did not vary among treated and untreated groups in most studies. The EE20/LNG100 combination shows mild or no effect on lipid and glucose metabolism. Lastly, EE20/LNG100 is associated with a low risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). In conclusion, in the process of decision making for the individualization of EPs choice, EE20/LNG100 should be considered for its favorable clinical profile. PMID:25477960

  9. Programmes for advance distribution of misoprostol to prevent post-partum haemorrhage: a rapid literature review of factors affecting implementation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Helen J; Colvin, Christopher J; Richards, Esther; Roberson, Jeffrey; Sharma, Geeta; Thapa, Kusum; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2016-02-01

    Recent efforts to prevent post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) in low-income countries have focused on providing women with access to oral misoprostol during home birth. The WHO recommends using lay health workers (LHWs) to administer misoprostol in settings where skilled birth attendants are not available. This review synthesizes current knowledge about the barriers and facilitators affecting implementation of advance community distribution of misoprostol to prevent PPH, where misoprostol may be self-administered or administered by an LHW.We searched for and summarized available empirical evidence, and collected primary data from programme stakeholders about their experiences of programme implementation.We present key outcomes and features of advanced distribution programmes that are in operation or have been piloted globally. We categorized factors influencing implementation into those that operate at the health system level, factors related to the community and policy context and those factors more closely connected to the end user.Debates around advance distribution have centred on the potential risks and benefits of making misoprostol available to pregnant women and community members during pregnancy for administration in the home. However, the risks of advance distribution appear manageable and the benefits of self-administration, especially for women who have little chance of expert care for PPH, are considerable. PMID:25797470

  10. [Developmental toxicity of misoprostol: an update].

    PubMed

    Cavieres, Mara Fernanda

    2011-04-01

    Misoprostol, a synthetic analog of prostaglandin E1, is currently used in Chile and other countries as an antiulcer medication, mainly for the prevention of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory-induced gastric ulcers. Due to its uterotonic properties, it is also indicated in obstetrics for induction of labor and termination of pregnancy. In this last case, misoprostol is either used alone or in combination with other oxytocic drugs such as methotrexate or mifepristone. The use of misoprostol as an abortifacient agent is considered to be safe since it rarely causes serious side effects. However up to 15 % of misoprostol-induced-abortions may not be successful, even under medical supervision, leading to in utero exposure to the drug and to the induction of a series of birth defects including limb and joints defects and Moebius syndrome. Reports from the nineties failed to show a strong epidemiological association between in utero drug exposure and induction of defects, a situation that has changed now that the number of cases reported has increased. Since the practice of abortion is illegal in Chile, many women turn to off-medical procedures to interrupt their pregnancy and use misoprostol as an easy and cheap alternative, readily available in the INTERNET. The lack of medical supervision in these cases may lead to situations that favor the induction of congenital defects. Here, we present an updated review of scientific data, to evaluate the risk of birth defects in babies exposed to the drug during pregnancy termination failed attempts. PMID:21879192

  11. Misoprostol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... who take certain arthritis or pain medicines, including aspirin, that can cause ulcers. It protects the stomach ... and nonprescription medications you are taking, especially antacids, aspirin, arthritis medications, and vitamins.tell your doctor if ...

  12. Randomized Double Masked Trial of Zhi Byed 11, a Tibetan Traditional Medicine, Versus Misoprostol to Prevent Postpartum Hemorrhage in Lhasa, Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Suellen; Tudor, Carrie; Thorsten, Vanessa; Nyima; Kalyang; Sonam; Lhakpen; Droyoung; Quzong, Karma; Dekyi, Tsering; Hartwell, Ty; Wright, Linda L.; Varner, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare a Tibetan traditional medicine (the uterotonic Zhi Byed 11 [ZB11]) to oral misoprostol for prophylaxis of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled trial at three hospitals in Lhasa, Tibet, Peoples Republic of China. Women (N = 967) were randomized to either ZB11 or misoprostol groups. Postpartum blood loss was measured in a calibrated blood collection drape. The primary combined outcome was incidence of PPH, defined as measured blood loss (MBL) ? 500 mL, administration of open label uterotonics, or maternal death. We found that the rate of the combined outcome was lower among the misoprostol group (16.1% versus 21.8% for ZB11; P = .02). Frequency of PPH was lower with misoprostol (12.4% versus 17.4%; P = .02). There were no significant differences in MBL > 1000 mL or mean or median MBL. Fever was significantly more common in the misoprostol group (P = .03). The rate of combined outcome was significantly lower among women receiving misoprostol. However, other indices of obstetric hemorrhage were not significantly different. PMID:19249659

  13. Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of oncogenic transformation

    SciTech Connect

    LaNasa, P. ); Miller, R.C. Columbia Univ., New York, NY ); Hanson, W.R. ); Hall, E.J. )

    1994-05-15

    Prostaglandins are associated with a variety of both pathologic and normal physiological effects in mammals. Among this broad array of effects, prostaglandins have been shown to provide protection of tissues from a variety of injurious agents including ionizing radiation. Of the prostaglandins tested to date, an analogue of prostaglandins E[sub 1], misoprostol (cytotec[sup [trademark

  14. Abortion induced with methotrexate and misoprostol.

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, E R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome and side effects of a new drug protocol to induce abortion. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: An urban primary care practice. PATIENTS: One hundred consecutive patients who requested elective termination of pregnancies of less than 8 weeks' gestation. INTERVENTION: Subjects received methotrexate (50 mg/m2 body surface area, administered intramuscularly) and, 3 days afterward, misoprostol (800 micrograms, given vaginally). OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of abortions induced within 24 hours and within 10 days of misoprostol administration, number of surgical aspirations conducted because of incomplete abortion, mean amount of bleeding and pain and the number of women who, if faced with the same situation, said they would again choose a drug-induced abortion over a surgical one. RESULTS: Abortion occurred within 24 hours of misoprostol administration among 48 women and within 10 days among 69 women. In total, 89 women had an abortion without surgical aspiration. Of these women, 71 said they would choose a drug-induced abortion if faced with the choice again. CONCLUSION: Abortion induced with methotrexate and misoprostol appears to be a feasible alternative to surgical abortion and deserves further study. PMID:8548705

  15. Effectiveness and Safety of Lower Doses of Mifepristone Combined With Misoprostol for the Termination of Ultra-Early Pregnancy: A Dose-Ranging Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Cui-Lan; Chen, Dun-Jin; Song, Li-Ping; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Zhong-Fang; Liu, Ming-Xing; Chen, Wei-Ling

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of lower doses of mifepristone combined with misoprostol for the termination of ultra-early pregnancy. A total of 2500 women with ultra-early pregnancy (amenorrhea ? 35 days) were randomly divided into 5 groups with gradually decreased dose of oral mifepristone from 150 to 50 mg followed by 200 g of oral misoprostol 24 hours later. The primary end point was complete abortion without surgical intervention. Secondary end points were vaginal bleeding, return of menses, and side effects. Rates of complete abortion were high in all groups. Moreover, the lower doses of mifepristone led to shorter vaginal bleeding period, the return of menses on the expected date, and fewer side effects. Lower doses of mifepristone combined with 200 g of misoprostol are as effective and safe as higher doses of this combination for the termination of ultra-early pregnancy with lower possibility of vaginal bleeding and side effects. PMID:25394644

  16. The effectiveness of using misoprostol with and without letrozole for successful medical abortion: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Naghshineh, Elham; Allame, Zahra; Farhat, Faezah

    2015-01-01

    Background: In developing countries it is important to the exploration of available and safe regimens for medical abortion. The present study was designed to assess the effect of letrozole compared to placebo pretreatment followed by sublingual misoprostol for therapeutic abortion in eligible women with gestational age less than 17 weeks. Materials and Methods: In this randomized control trail, 130 women eligible for legal abortions were randomly divided into two groups of case and controls. Cases received daily oral dose of 10 mg letrozole 10 mg letrozole for three days followed by sublingual misoprostol. Controls received daily oral dose of placebo followed by sublingual misoprostol. The dose of misoprostol was administrated according to ACOG guidelines based on patients gestational age. The rate of complete abortion, induction-of-abortion time, and side-effects were assessed as main outcomes. Results: Complete abortion was observed in 46 (76.7%) letrozole group and 26 (42.6%) controls (P < 0.0001). Also, in 14 subjects of letrozole group and 35 subjects in placebo group, the placenta was not delivered during follow-up and curettage was performed. The mean interval induction-to-abortion was 5.1 h in letrozole group and 8.9 h in control (P < 0.0001). The cumulative rates of the induction-of-abortion time were a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.0001). The incidence and severity of side-effects was comparable for the two groups (P = 0.9). Conclusion: Letrozole could be a quite beneficial adjuvant to misoprostol for induction of complete abortion in those who are candidates for legal medical abortion. PMID:26600834

  17. Effects of misoprostol on cell migration and transit in the dog stomach

    SciTech Connect

    Goodlad, R.A.; Madgwick, A.J.; Moffatt, M.R.; Levin, S.; Allen, J.L.; Wright, N.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Prostaglandins of the E series increase stomach mucosal mass by inducing hyperplasia, which could be the result either of increased cell production or of decreased cell loss. This report describes an investigation of the effect of the prostaglandin E1 analogue, misoprostol, on cell migration and transit. 3H-thymidine was used to label those cells synthesizing deoxyribonucleic acid in dogs that had been given an oral dose of 300 micrograms/kg per day misoprostol for 11 weeks. The animals were killed at timed intervals, and tissue from the gastric fundus was prepared for autoradiography. The distribution of labeled cells at various times after labeling was used to follow the movement of the wave of label and to calculate median cell migration rates and transit times. The migration rate of cells toward the gastric lumen was significantly increased from 1.4 +/- 0.3 to 3.6 +/- 0.6 cell positions per day in the misoprostol-treated group (p less than 0.001); however, the gland length (from the most basal mucous neck cell to the luminal surface) was also increased (from 52.1 +/- 1.1 to 74.0 +/- 1.6; p less than 0.001), thus there was no significant difference in the (transit) time taken for cells to reach the top of the gland (control, 17.5 +/- 9.8 days; test, 12.2 +/- 7.1 days).

  18. Effectiveness of Misoprostol for Induction of First-Trimester Miscarriages

    PubMed Central

    Ambusaidi, Qamariya; Zutshi, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Non-invasive methods of inducing a miscarriage are now considered an effective alternative to surgical evacuation (dilatation and curettage). This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of misoprostol in the termination of first-trimester miscarriages. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between October 2009 and September 2010 and assessed all patients admitted to the Royal Hospital in Muscat, Oman, for the termination of first-trimester miscarriages during the study period. All patients received misoprostol and the rates of successful termination were measured. Patient satisfaction was assessed using a short questionnaire. Results: A total of 290 women were included in the study. Termination with misoprostol was successful in 61.38% of the subjects. Of the remaining subjects requiring additional surgical evacuation (n = 112), 58.93% required evacuation due to failed termination with misoprostol and 65.18% underwent early evacuation (?24 hours since their last misoprostol dose). The majority of patients experienced no side-effects due to misoprostol (89.66%). Pain was controlled with simple analgesics in 70.00% of the subjects. A high satisfaction rate (94.83%) with the misoprostol treatment was reported. Conclusion: Misoprostol was a well-tolerated drug which reduced the rate of surgical evacuation among the study subjects. This medication can therefore be used safely in the management of incomplete miscarriages. PMID:26629383

  19. Discussion of Source Reconstruction Models Using 3D MCG Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Massimo De; Uchikawa, Yoshinori

    In this study we performed the source reconstruction of magnetocardiographic signals generated by the human heart activity to localize the site of origin of the heart activation. The localizations were performed in a four compartment model of the human volume conductor. The analyses were conducted on normal subjects and on a subject affected by the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Different models of the source activation were used to evaluate whether a general model of the current source can be applied in the study of the cardiac inverse problem. The data analyses were repeated using normal and vector component data of the MCG. The results show that a distributed source model has the better accuracy in performing the source reconstructions, and that 3D MCG data allow finding smaller differences between the different source models.

  20. Termination of early pregnancy (up to 63 days of amenorrhea) with mifepristone and increasing doses of misoprostol [corrected].

    PubMed

    Aubény, E; Peyron, R; Turpin, C L; Renault, M; Targosz, V; Silvestre, L; Ulmann, A; Baulieu, E E

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of mifepristone in combination with misoprostol for termination of early pregnancy (up to 49 days of amenorrhea) are established. We studied the efficacy and tolerability of this combination therapy for termination of pregnancy in women up to 63 days of amenorrhea. We also examined the effect of an additional dose of misoprostol in cases of nonexpulsion within 3 hours after the first dose. The multicenter trial included 1,108 women, mean age 27.9 +/- 6.2 years. The mean duration of pregnancy was 51.7 +/- 9.2 days. On day 1, the women received an oral dose of mifepristone, 600 mg. On day 3, they received an oral dose of misoprostol, 400 micrograms, and were monitored for up to 3 hours. If they did not expel the conceptus within 3 hours, an additional dose of 200 micrograms of misoprostol was given and they were monitored for 2 more hours. From days 10 to 18, the women were followed up with clinical examination, human chorionic gonadotropin measurement, or ultrasound examination. Overall, the procedure was successful in 92.9% of women. Efficacy decreased with the duration of pregnancy, especially after 56 days of amenorrhea. Up to 42 days of amenorrhea, the success rate was 97.6%; between days 42 and 49, 94.8%; between days 50 and 56, 93.4%; between days 57 and 63, 86.8%; and after day 63, 83.3%. The most common side effects were moderate uterine cramps (80.5%) and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (34.9%), especially vomiting (18.3%) and diarrhea (10.5%). GI symptoms were generally mild. A second dose of misoprostol was given to 61.6% of the women. In a subgroup analysis, we assessed the efficacy of 600 mg of mifepristone plus 400 or 600 micrograms of misoprostol (one or two doses) in women with up to 49 days of amenorrhea and compared it with the efficacy in women who received mifepristone plus only 400 micrograms (one dose) of misoprostol in a previous study. The overall rate of success (termination of pregnancy) was 95.5% in the current study compared with 95.4% in the previous study. The additional dose of misoprostol did not significantly increase the overall rate of success, but did increase the rate of termination within the monitoring period (69.7% versus 64.9% (and within 72 hours after administration of mifepristone (92.7% versus 90.4%). We have confirmed that the combination of mifepristone and misoprostol was effective, safe, and well tolerated for termination of pregnancies at 49 or fewer days of amenorrhea. The efficacy decreased slightly between 49 and 56 days, and then decreased significantly between 56 and 63 days. For maximal safety and tolerability, we recommend this method only for women with 49 or fewer days of amenorrhea. A second dose of misoprostol did not improve overall efficacy, but did increase the rate of early termination. PMID:8574255

  1. Novel Cultivation-Based Approach To Understanding the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG) Archaea from Sedimentary Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Harald; Meador, Travis; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Thomm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The uncultured miscellaneous crenarchaeotic group (MCG) archaea comprise one of the most abundant microbial groups in the Earth's subsurface environment. However, very little information is available regarding the lifestyle, physiology, and factors controlling the distribution of members of this group. We established a novel method using both cultivation and molecular techniques, including a pre-PCR propidium monoazide treatment, to investigate viable members of the MCG in vitro. Enrichment cultures prepared from estuarine sediment were provided with one of a variety of carbon substrates or cultivation conditions and incubated for 3 weeks. Compared with the samples from time zero, there was an order-of-magnitude increase in the number of MCG 16S rRNA genes in almost all cultures, indicating that MCG archaea are amenable to in vitro cultivation. None of the tested substrates or conditions significantly stimulated growth of MCG archaea more than the basal medium alone; however, glycerol (0.02%) had a significantly inhibitory effect (P < 0.05). Diversity analysis of populations resulting from four culture treatments (basal medium, addition of amino acids, H2-CO2 as the gas phase, or initial aerobic conditions) revealed that the majority of viable MCG archaea were affiliated with the MCG-8 and MCG-4 clusters. There were no significant differences in MCG diversity between these treatments, also indicating that some members of MCG-4 and MCG-8 are tolerant of initially oxic conditions. The methods outlined here will be useful for further investigation of MCG archaea and comparison of substrates and cultivation conditions that influence their growth in vitro. PMID:23934495

  2. Focus on misoprostol: review of worldwide safety data.

    PubMed

    Wildeman, R A

    1987-05-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms have been the most frequently reported adverse experiences in the misoprostol (Cytotec) studies of both patients with peptic ulcer disease, and healthy subjects. There have been relatively few cardiovascular, genito-urinary, or other adverse effects. This is similar to the results of animal studies in which misoprostol had little, if any, effects on cardiovascular, central nervous, and endocrine systems. The predominant activity of misoprostol in the gastrointestinal tract, essential to its ulcer-healing activity, may also account in part for the association of misoprostol with gastrointestinal adverse experiences. Abnormal bowel movements were the most common complaint (9-13%) of patients in pivotal controlled studies. In patients taking misoprostol 200 micrograms four times daily, 7.1% had diarrhea, with less than 1% stopping therapy because of diarrhea. Abdominal pain in these patients was reported in an incidence of 12.8%, was mild, and only rarely resulted in stopping therapy. Other adverse reactions reported in these patients were nausea, headache, and dizziness. In pregnant women, undergoing a legal termination of pregnancy, it has been shown that misoprostol has a greater incidence of uterine bleeding, and partial or complete expulsion of uterine contents, than placebo. Misoprostol (Cytotec) has received government approval for marketing in 12 countries, since the first gave its approval in June, 1984. It has been launched in 6 of those markets to date, with an estimated 100,000 patients having taken the drug. No serious adverse experiences attributed to misoprostol have been reported, but mild adverse experiences have occurred. Those most frequently reported were gastrointestinal in nature, and included diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nausea.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3113801

  3. Effect of misoprostol and cimetidine on gastric cell labeling index

    SciTech Connect

    Fich, A.; Arber, N.; Sestieri, M.; Zajicek, G.; Rachmilewitz, D.

    1985-07-01

    The effect of misoprostol and cimetidine on gastric cell turnover was studied. Endoscopic biopsy specimens of fundic and antral mucosa were obtained from duodenal ulcer patients before and after 4 wk of therapy with cimetidine 1.2 g/day or misoprostol 800 micrograms/day. Biopsy specimens were incubated with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. Glandular column length and number of labeled cells were determined after autoradiography. There was no significant difference in column length of antral or fundic glands before or after therapy with cimetidine and misoprostol. The number of antral and fundic labeled cells was significantly decreased after misoprostol treatment (3.6 +/- 0.3 and 4.6 +/- 0.4, mean +/- SE), as opposed to their respective number before therapy (6.9 +/- 0.5 and 8.3 +/- 0.8) (p less than 0.01). On the other hand, after treatment with cimetidine, the number of antral and fundic labeled cells was significantly higher (11.8 +/- 0.9 and 7.5 +/- 1.0, respectively) as compared with their number before therapy (5.7 +/- 0.5 and 5.6 +/- 0.6, respectively). The decreased gastric cell turnover induced by misoprostol indicates that the trophic effect of prostanoids on gastric mucosa is not due to an increase in cellular kinetics. The increased gastric cell turnover induced by cimetidine may contribute to its therapeutic effect in peptic ulcer disease.

  4. Foley Catheter versus Vaginal Misoprostol for Labour Induction

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Nasreen; Ansari, Mehkat; Ali, S. Manazir; Parveen, Shazia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the efficacy and safety of intravaginal misoprostol with transcervical Foley catheter for labour induction. Material and Methods. One hundred and four women with term gestation, with Bishop score < 4, and with various indications for labour induction were randomly divided into two groups. In Group I, 25??g of misoprostol tablet was placed intravaginally, 4 hourly up to maximum 6 doses. In Group II, Foley catheter 16F was placed through the internal os of the cervix under aseptic condition and then inflated with 50 cc of sterile saline. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results. The induction to delivery interval was 14.03 7.61 hours versus 18.40 8.02 hours (p < 0.01). The rate of vaginal delivery was 76.7% versus 56.8% in misoprostol and transcervical Foley catheter group, respectively. Uterine hyperstimulation was more common with misoprostol. Neonatal outcome was similar in both the groups. Conclusion. Intravaginal misoprostol is associated with a shorter induction to delivery interval as compared to Foley's catheter and it increases the rate of vaginal delivery in cases of unripe cervix at term. Transcervical Foley catheter is associated with a lower incidence of uterine hyperstimulation during labour. PMID:26557725

  5. Foley Catheter versus Vaginal Misoprostol for Labour Induction.

    PubMed

    Noor, Nasreen; Ansari, Mehkat; Ali, S Manazir; Parveen, Shazia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the efficacy and safety of intravaginal misoprostol with transcervical Foley catheter for labour induction. Material and Methods. One hundred and four women with term gestation, with Bishop score < 4, and with various indications for labour induction were randomly divided into two groups. In Group I, 25??g of misoprostol tablet was placed intravaginally, 4 hourly up to maximum 6 doses. In Group II, Foley catheter 16F was placed through the internal os of the cervix under aseptic condition and then inflated with 50 cc of sterile saline. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results. The induction to delivery interval was 14.03 7.61 hours versus 18.40 8.02 hours (p < 0.01). The rate of vaginal delivery was 76.7% versus 56.8% in misoprostol and transcervical Foley catheter group, respectively. Uterine hyperstimulation was more common with misoprostol. Neonatal outcome was similar in both the groups. Conclusion. Intravaginal misoprostol is associated with a shorter induction to delivery interval as compared to Foley's catheter and it increases the rate of vaginal delivery in cases of unripe cervix at term. Transcervical Foley catheter is associated with a lower incidence of uterine hyperstimulation during labour. PMID:26557725

  6. Rethinking WHO guidance: review of evidence for misoprostol use in the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Christina S; Brhlikova, Petra; Pollock, Allyson M

    2012-01-01

    This article describes and critically appraises clinical trials assessing misoprostol effectiveness in preventing primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in home and community settings in low- and middle-income countries. Of 172 identified studies of misoprostol use in labour only six fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All trials used 600?g misoprostol in the intervention arm; three assessed misoprostol alongside components of active management of the third-stage labour (AMTSL), two used expectant management of labour and one allowed birth attendants to choose management practice. The three AMTSL studies showed no significant differences in PPH incidence or referral to higher centres and only one study showed significant decrease in severe PPH using misoprostol. One expectant management study and the choice of management by birth attendants study found significant decreases in PPH incidence with misoprostol. All studies showed significantly increased risk of shivering with misoprostol. Studies were biased by use of alternative uterotonics in the control arm, confounding management practices, and subjective assessment and, with one exception, exclusion of high-risk women. PPH incidence fell in both the control and intervention groups in both the landmark papers that informed the World Health Organization (WHO) decision to admit misoprostol to the Essential Medicines List. This suggests factors other than misoprostol use are crucial. Current evidence does not support misoprostol use in home and community settings in low- and middle-income countries for PPH prevention. WHO should rethink its recent decision to include misoprostol on the Essential Medicines List. PMID:22907551

  7. Dependence of Flux Losses on MCG Helix Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuber, Andreas A.; Holt, Thomas; Hernandez, Juan-Carlos; Dickens, James C.; Kristiansen, M.

    2002-12-01

    While Magneto Cumulative Generators (MCGs) differ widely in size and operating regimes, it is apparent that the helical flux compression generator is the most promising concept with respect to current amplification and compactness. Though the geometry of the helical generator (dynamically expanding armature in the center of a current carrying helix) seems to be basic, it turns out that the understanding of all involved processes is rather difficult. This fact is apparent from the present lack of a computer model that would be solely based on physical principles and manage without heuristic factors. This means, all programs known to the authors utilize an additional parameter that adjusts for the loss in flux that is currently unexplained. Experimental efforts revealed that the unexplained loss in flux becomes smaller the larger the generator volume is. Specifically, for generators with constant diameter helix and armature, the figure of merit, ?, for generator performance exhibits a distinct decline with the angular frequency, ?, of the progressing contact between end-initiated armature and helix. Since ? is proportional to the square root of the ratio of initial MCG inductance to compressed volume, it becomes apparent that the generator performance is limited by size. For large generators on a meter scale, a ? of approximately 0.95 has been reported (? = 1 means no flux loss at all), and own tests indicate that ? drops quickly to about 0.7 to 0.6 for generator on the 10 cm scale. Still, even very small generators with about 30 mm outer diameter can have a ? of around 0.6. Tapered generators, with tapered helix or tapered armature might perform differently and can be used to further assess the situation. Preliminary results for MCGs with a tapered helix show a performance that is somewhat superior to the straight helix generator.

  8. Comparison of sensor arrangements of MCG and ECG with respect to information content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbach, M.; Dssel, O.

    2002-08-01

    Magnetocardiography (MCG) deals with the measurement of biomagnetic fields due to electrical excitation of the heart. The solution of the inverse problem of MCG and electrocardiography (ECG) is the reconstruction and visualization of the excitation process. The calculation is performed from MCG data recorded by multichannel systems. For a maximum of information content an optimized magnetometer arrangement is determined which is not realized at present. The information content with respect to imaging of bioelectric sources is defined by the slope of the singular values, respective the signal-to-noise ratio and the dimension of the nullspace. Reconstruction errors due to modelling errors are not taken into account in this work. The nullspace describes the set of non-detectable source patterns in MCG and ECG. A conventional commercial sensor arrangement will be compared to an improved sensor composition. Recent publications show evidence that MCG contains more or different diagnostic information in cardiac arrhythmia and infarction diagnosis than electrocardiography. Therefore, first results of a general comparison of the information content of MCG and ECG are presented.

  9. Investigations of sensitivity and resolution of ECG and MCG in a realistically shaped thorax model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mntynen, Ville; Konttila, Teijo; Stenroos, Matti

    2014-12-01

    Solving the inverse problem of electrocardiography (ECG) and magnetocardiography (MCG) is often referred to as cardiac source imaging. Spatial properties of ECG and MCG as imaging systems are, however, not well known. In this modelling study, we investigate the sensitivity and point-spread function (PSF) of ECG, MCG, and combined ECG+MCG as a function of source position and orientation, globally around the ventricles: signal topographies are modelled using a realistically-shaped volume conductor model, and the inverse problem is solved using a distributed source model and linear source estimation with minimal use of prior information. The results show that the sensitivity depends not only on the modality but also on the location and orientation of the source and that the sensitivity distribution is clearly reflected in the PSF. MCG can better characterize tangential anterior sources (with respect to the heart surface), while ECG excels with normally-oriented and posterior sources. Compared to either modality used alone, the sensitivity of combined ECG+MCG is less dependent on source orientation per source location, leading to better source estimates. Thus, for maximal sensitivity and optimal source estimation, the electric and magnetic measurements should be combined.

  10. Factors Related to Successful Misoprostol Treatment for Early Pregnancy Failure

    PubMed Central

    Creinin, Mitchell D.; Huang, Xiangke; Westhoff, Carolyn; Barnhart, Kurt; Gilles, Jerry M.; Zhang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify potential predictors for treatment success in medical management with misoprostol for early pregnancy failure. METHODS We conducted a planned secondary analysis of data from a multicenter trial that compared medical and surgical management of early pregnancy failure. Medical management consisted of misoprostol 800 ?g vaginally on study day 1, with a repeat dose if indicated on day 3. Women returned on days 3 and 15, and a telephone interview was conducted on day 30. Failure was defined as suction aspiration for any reason within 30 days. Demographic, historical, and outcome variables were included in univariable analyses of success. Multivariable analyses were conducted using clinical site, gestational age, and variables for which the univariable analysis resulted in a P < .1 to determine predictors of overall treatment success and first-dose success. RESULTS Of the 491 women who received misoprostol, 485 met the criteria for this secondary analysis. Lower abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding within the last 24 hours, Rh-negative blood type, and nulliparity were predictive of overall success. However, only vaginal bleeding within the last 24 hours and parity of 0 or 1 were predictive of first-dose success. Overall success exceeds 92% in women who have localized abdominal pain within the last 24 hours, Rh-negative blood type, or the combination of vaginal bleeding in the past 24 hours and nulliparity. CONCLUSION Misoprostol treatment for early pregnancy failure is highly successful in select women, primarily those with active bleeding and nulliparity. Clinicians and patients should be aware of these differences when considering misoprostol treatment. PMID:16582130

  11. Modeling maternal mortality in Bangladesh: the role of misoprostol in postpartum hemorrhage prevention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bangladesh is one of the few countries that may actually achieve the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in time, despite skilled birth attendance remaining low. The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential role misoprostol can play in the decline of maternal deaths attributed to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in Bangladesh. Methods Using data from a misoprostol and blood loss measurement tool feasibility study in Bangladesh, observed cause specific maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) were estimated and contrasted with expected ratios using estimates from the Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Survey (BMMS) data. Using Crystal Ball 7 we employ Monte Carlo simulation techniques to estimate maternal deaths in four scenarios, each with different levels of misoprostol coverage. These scenarios include project level misoprostol coverage (69%), no (0%), low (40%), and high (80%) misoprostol coverage. Data on receipt of clean delivery kit, use of misoprostol, experience of PPH, and cause of death were used in model assumptions. Results Using project level misoprostol coverage (69%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 40 (standard deviation?=?8.01) per 100,000 live births. Assuming no misoprostol coverage (0%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 51 (standard deviation?=?9.30) per 100,000 live births. For low misoprostol coverage (40%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 45 (standard deviation?=?8.26) per 100,000 live births, and for high misoprostol coverage (80%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 38 (standard deviation?=?7.04) per 100,000 live births. Conclusion This theoretical exercise hypothesizes that prophylactic use of misoprostol at home births may contribute to a reduction in the risk of death due to PPH, in addition to reducing the incidence of PPH. If findings from this modeling exercise are accurate and uterotonics can prevent maternal death, misoprostol could be the tool countries need to further reduce maternal mortality at home births. PMID:24555848

  12. Recommendations for scale-up of community-based misoprostol distribution programs.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nuriya; Kapungu, Chisina; Carnahan, Leslie; Geller, Stacie

    2014-06-01

    Community-based distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in resource-poor settings has been shown to be safe and effective. However, global recommendations for prenatal distribution and monitoring within a community setting are not yet available. In order to successfully translate misoprostol and PPH research into policy and practice, several critical points must be considered. A focus on engaging the community, emphasizing the safe nature of community-based misoprostol distribution, supply chain management, effective distribution, coverage, and monitoring plans are essential elements to community-based misoprostol program introduction, expansion, or scale-up. PMID:24680582

  13. A randomized trial of saline solutionmoistened misoprostol versus dry misoprostol for first-trimester pregnancy failure

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, Jerry M.; Creinin, Mitchell D.; Barnhart, Kurt; Westhoff, Carolyn; Frederick, Margaret M.; Zhang, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to estimate whether the efficacy of treatment with intravaginal misoprostol for first-trimester pregnancy failure is enhanced by the addition of saline solution. Study design Eighty women with embryonic/fetal death or anembryonic pregnancy were assigned randomly to receive either 800 ?g of misoprostol with saline solution (group I, 41 women) or without (group II, 39 women). Treatment was repeated on day 3 if the gestational sac remained. Curettage was performed if the gestational sac remained on day 8 or as necessary during at least 30 days of follow-up. Data were analyzed with the Student t test and the ?2 or Fisher exact test. Results By the first follow-up visit, 73% (group I) and 64% (group II) of women passed the gestational sac (P = .38). By the second follow-up visit, expulsion rates were 83% and 87%, respectively (P = .59). Five subjects in each group underwent curettage. Conclusion Misoprostol is effective for the treatment of failed first-trimester pregnancy. The expulsion rate is not improved by adding saline solution. PMID:14981379

  14. Isosorbide Mononitrate versus Misoprostol for Cervical Ripening and Induction of Labour at Term.

    PubMed

    Guha, K; Fatema, A; Biswas, P K; Haque, E

    2015-04-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of isosorbide mononitrate (IMN) compared with misoprostol for cervical ripening and labour induction at term. In this comparative study two hundred term pregnant women with indication for induction of labour were randomly divided to receive either 40 mg IMN tablet vaginally (n=100) or 50 ?g misoprostol tablet vaginally (n=100) every 6 hours interval for a maximum of 4 doses. Progress & outcome of cervical ripening, labour induction and adverse effects were assessed. Change in cervical score was higher in misoprostol group than IMN group. Time from start of medication to vaginal delivery in IMN group was significantly longer, 28.66 5.283 hours, than in misoprostol group, 16.12 5.581 hours. Vaginal delivery occurred in 77% in IMN group and 69% in misoprostol group. There were no tachysystole or uterine hyper stimulation in the IMN group while in misoprostol group it was 17% and 11% respectively. Maternal satisfaction was higher in IMN group. Cervical ripening is satisfactory with IMN. Though misoprostol is singly more effective than IMN but IMN with oxytocin results in more vaginal delivery. Fetal and maternal side effects are less in IMN group. PMID:26007264

  15. Misoprostol modulates cytokine expression through a cAMP pathway: Potential therapeutic implication for liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gobejishvili, Leila; Ghare, Smita; Khan, Rehan; Cambon, Alexander; Barker, David F; Barve, Shirish; McClain, Craig; Hill, Daniell

    2015-12-01

    Dysregulated cytokine metabolism plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of many forms of liver disease, including alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease. In this study we examined the efficacy of Misoprostol in modulating LPS-inducible TNFα and IL-10 expression in healthy human subjects and evaluated molecular mechanisms for Misoprostol modulation of cytokines in vitro. Healthy subjects were given 14day courses of Misoprostol at doses of 100, 200, and 300μg four times a day, in random order. Baseline and LPS-inducible cytokine levels were examined ex vivo in whole blood at the beginning and the end of the study. Additionally, in vitro studies were performed using primary human PBMCs and the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, to investigate underlying mechanisms of misoprostol on cytokine production. Administration of Misoprostol reduced LPS inducible TNF production by 29%, while increasing IL-10 production by 79% in human subjects with no significant dose effect on ex vivo cytokine activity; In vitro, the effect of Misoprostol was largely mediated by increased cAMP levels and consequent changes in CRE and NFκB activity, which are critical for regulating IL-10 and TNF expression. Additionally, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies demonstrated that Misoprostol treatment led to changes in transcription factor and RNA Polymerase II binding, resulting in changes in mRNA levels. In summary, Misoprostol was effective at beneficially modulating TNF and IL-10 levels both in vivo and in vitro; these studies suggest a potential rationale for Misoprostol use in ALD, NASH and other liver diseases where inflammation plays an etiologic role. PMID:26408955

  16. Overcoming entrenched disagreements: the case of misoprostol for post-partum haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ghinea, Narcyz; Lipworth, Wendy; Little, Miles; Kerridge, Ian; Day, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The debate about whether misoprostol should be distributed to low resource communities to prevent post-partum haemorrhage (PPH), recognized as a major cause of maternal mortality, is deeply polarised. This is in spite of stakeholders having access to the same evidence about the risks and benefits of misoprostol. To understand the disagreement, we conducted a qualitative analysis of the values underpinning debates surrounding community distribution of misoprostol. We found that different moral priorities, epistemic values, and attitudes towards uncertainty were the main factors sustaining the debate. With this understanding, we present a model for ethical discourse that might overcome the current impasse. PMID:25897445

  17. Rule Extracting based on MCG with its Application in Helicopter Power Train Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Hu, N. Q.; Qin, G. J.

    2011-07-01

    In order to extract decision rules for fault diagnosis from incomplete historical test records for knowledge-based damage assessment of helicopter power train structure. A method that can directly extract the optimal generalized decision rules from incomplete information based on GrC was proposed. Based on semantic analysis of unknown attribute value, the granule was extended to handle incomplete information. Maximum characteristic granule (MCG) was defined based on characteristic relation, and MCG was used to construct the resolution function matrix. The optimal general decision rule was introduced, with the basic equivalent forms of propositional logic, the rules were extracted and reduction from incomplete information table. Combined with a fault diagnosis example of power train, the application approach of the method was present, and the validity of this method in knowledge acquisition was proved.

  18. NOTE: Entropy-based automated classification of independent components separated from fMCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comani, S.; Srinivasan, V.; Alleva, G.; Romani, G. L.

    2007-03-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is a noninvasive technique suitable for the prenatal diagnosis of the fetal heart function. Reliable fetal cardiac signals can be reconstructed from multi-channel fMCG recordings by means of independent component analysis (ICA). However, the identification of the separated components is usually accomplished by visual inspection. This paper discusses a novel automated system based on entropy estimators, namely approximate entropy (ApEn) and sample entropy (SampEn), for the classification of independent components (ICs). The system was validated on 40 fMCG datasets of normal fetuses with the gestational age ranging from 22 to 37 weeks. Both ApEn and SampEn were able to measure the stability and predictability of the physiological signals separated with ICA, and the entropy values of the three categories were significantly different at p <0.01. The system performances were compared with those of a method based on the analysis of the time and frequency content of the components. The outcomes of this study showed a superior performance of the entropy-based system, in particular for early gestation, with an overall ICs detection rate of 98.75% and 97.92% for ApEn and SampEn respectively, as against a value of 94.50% obtained with the time-frequency-based system.

  19. Does an acidic medium enhance the efficacy of vaginal misoprostol for pre-abortion cervical priming?

    PubMed

    Singh, K; Fong, Y F; Prasad, R N; Dong, F

    1999-06-01

    Absorption pharmacokinetics reveal a relationship between plasma concentrations of misoprostol and its therapeutic effect. To achieve a constant plasma profile and optimal efficacy, it is important to develop a medium that ensures complete dissolution of vaginal misoprostol tablets. Vaginal misoprostol is said to liquefy better in an acidic medium; thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether a 200 microg misoprostol tablet dissolved in acetic acid would be more efficacious than 200 microg misoprostol dissolved in water for pre-abortion cervical priming. A total of 120 healthy nulliparous women requesting legal termination of pregnancy between 6-12 weeks gestation were allocated randomly to either of the study groups. Vacuum aspiration was performed 3-4 h after insertion of the misoprostol tablet. Using Hegar's dilator, the degree of cervical dilatation before operation was measured. Of 60 women, 14 (23%) achieved a cervical dilatation of >/=8 mm when the misoprostol dose was dissolved in acetic acid; 12 (20%) achieved a similar cervical dilatation when the dose was dissolved in water. The mean cervical dilatation for the acid and water media used was 6.3 mm and 6.2 mm respectively; these differences were not statistically significant, neither were pre-operative and intra-operative blood losses statistically different between the two groups. Twenty-four (40%) and four (7%) respectively of women in whom a water medium was used experienced vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain; 20 (33%) and 0 women respectively among those in whom an acetic acid medium was used experienced vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain. These differences in side effects were not statistically significant. Our study shows that the use of acetic acid to dissolve vaginal misoprostol does not improve the efficacy in achieving successful cervical dilatation for pre-abortion cervical priming. PMID:10357990

  20. Histopathology and oxidative stress analysis of concomitant misoprostol and celecoxib administration

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Derek E.; Denham, James W.; Harirforoosh, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), non-selective or selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2), reduce pain and inflammation associated with arthritic diseases. Celecoxib, a COX-2-selective inhibitor providing decreased gastric injury relative to non-selective NSAIDs, is commonly prescribed. Misoprostol, a prostaglandin analog, supplements NSAID-inhibited prostaglandin levels. As concomitant celecoxib and misoprostol administration has been shown to intensify renal adverse effects, this article examined the influence of concomitant administration on hepatic histopathology, oxidative stress, and celecoxib concentration. On days 1 and 2, rat groups (n = 6) were gavaged twice daily (two groups with vehicle and two groups with 100 ?g/kg misoprostol). From day 3 to day 9, one celecoxib dose (40 mg/kg) replaced a vehicle dose of one group and one group received celecoxib in addition to misoprostol. Livers were harvested on day 10. No hepatic abnormalities were observed denoting a lack of influence by either drug. Also no change in mean biomarker levels was detected. The changes in hepatic celecoxib concentration in the misoprostol-receiving group compared to control were not significant. Thus misoprostol does not influence hepatic celecoxib effects in terms of histopathology, oxidative stress, or celecoxib concentration level at the dosage and duration examined. PMID:26441478

  1. Instability of Misoprostol Tablets Stored Outside the Blister: A Potential Serious Concern for Clinical Outcome in Medical Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Berard, Veronique; Fiala, Christian; Cameron, Sharon; Bombas, Teresa; Parachini, Mirella; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Misoprostol (Cytotec) is recognised to be effective for many gynaecological indications including termination of pregnancy, management of miscarriage and postpartum haemorrhage. Although not licensed for such indications, it has been used for these purposes by millions of women throughout the world. Misoprostol tablets are most often packaged as multiple tablets within an aluminium strip, each within an individual alveolus. When an alveolus is opened, tablets will be exposed to atmospheric conditions. Objective To compare the pharmaco technical characteristics (weight, friability), water content, misoprostol content and decomposition product content (type A misoprostol, type B misoprostol and 8-epi misoprostol) of misoprostol tablets Cytotec (Pfizer) exposed to air for periods of 1 hour to 720 hours (30 days), to those of identical non exposed tablets. Methods Four hundred and twenty (420) tablets of Cytotec (Pfizer) were removed from their alveoli blister and stored at 25°C/60% relative humidity. Water content, and misoprostol degradation products were assayed in tablets exposed from 1 to 720 hours (30 days). Comparison was made with control tablets (N = 60) from the same batch stored in non-damaged blisters. Statistical analyses were carried out using Fisher’s exact test for small sample sizes. Results By 48 hours, exposed tablets demonstrated increased weight (+4.5%), friability (+1 300%), and water content (+80%) compared to controls. Exposed tablets also exhibited a decrease in Cytotec active ingredient dosage (−5.1% after 48 hours) and an increase in the inactive degradation products (+25% for type B, +50% for type A and +11% for 8-epi misoprostol after 48 hours) compared to controls. Conclusion Exposure of Cytotec tablets to ‘typical’ European levels of air and humidity results in significant time-dependent changes in physical and biological composition that could impact adversely upon clinical efficacy. Health professionals should be made aware of the degradation of misoprostol with inappropriate storage of misoprostol tablets. PMID:25502819

  2. Birth defects after exposure to misoprostol in the first trimester of pregnancy: prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Vauzelle, Catherine; Beghin, Delphine; Cournot, Marie-Pierre; Elefant, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    Misoprostol during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with a specific malformative pattern (Moebius sequence and limb defects) whose incidence remains unknown. Data originate mostly from illegal use for abortion and are mainly retrospective. The present prospective controlled study analyses outcomes of first trimester misoprostol exposures after medical prescriptions. Malformation rate was higher among 236 pregnancies exposed before 12 gestational weeks (4%) than in 255 controls (1.8%), although not statistically significant (OR=2.2 [95% CI=0.6-7.7]). Three malformations (2%) in the exposed group were consistent with the misoprostol malformative pattern. This is the largest prospective study on first trimester misoprostol exposure and the first one relying on prescriptions. A trend toward a doubling of the overall rate of malformations was observed and for the first time an estimation of the incidence of misoprostol specific spectrum is proposed (2%). Brainstem injuries including severe trismus might be added to this specific pattern. PMID:23207166

  3. Does Induction with Misoprostol Impact the Small for Gestational Age Neonate?

    PubMed

    Foeller, Megan E; Cruz, Meredith O; Kominiarek, Michelle A; Hibbard, Judith U

    2015-12-01

    Objective?To compare outcomes in small for gestational age neonates induced with misoprostol to other cervical ripening agents. We hypothesized that misoprostol use will demonstrate no significant difference in outcomes compared with alternative agents. Study Design?Small for gestational age neonates (<10th percentile for gestational age) from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) sponsored Consortium on Safe Labor database were analyzed. Neonates induced with misoprostol??oxytocin (n?=?451) were compared with neonates induced with prostaglandin E2??oxytocin and/or mechanical dilation??oxytocin (n?=?663). Primary outcomes included intrapartum fetal distress, cesarean section for fetal distress, cesarean section for any reason, neonatal intensive care unit admission, low 5-minute Apgar, and composite neonatal morbidity. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs). Data were analyzed using SAS. Results?Small for gestational age neonates induced with misoprostol??oxytocin compared with alternative agents had decreased low 5-minute Apgar scores (aOR 0.27 [0.10-0.71]). No significant differences were demonstrated among very small for gestational age neonates (<5th percentile for gestational age). Conclusion?Our results suggest that misoprostol does not increase risk of adverse outcomes in small for gestational age neonates; however, prospective studies are warranted to further assess optimal cervical ripening agents in this population. PMID:26352682

  4. Lack of Evidence for Neonatal Misoprostol Neurodevelopmental Toxicity in C57BL6/J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Claire M.; Walker, Cheryl K.; Qi, Lihong; Pessah, Isaac N.; Berman, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1 that is administered to women at high doses to induce uterine contractions for early pregnancy termination and at low doses to aid in cervical priming during labor. Because of the known teratogenic effects of misoprostol when given during gestation and its effects on axonal growth in vitro, we examined misoprostol for its potential as a neurodevelopmental toxicant when administered to neonatal C57BL6/J mice. Mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 0.4, 4 or 40 g/kg misoprostol on postnatal day 7, the approximate developmental stage in mice of human birth, after which neonatal somatic growth, and sensory and motor system development were assessed. These doses were selected to span the range of human exposure used to induce labor. In addition, adult mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism including tests for anxiety, stereotyped behaviors, social communication and interactions, and learning and memory. No significant effects of exposure were found for any measure of development or behavioral endpoints. In conclusion, the results of the present study in C57BL/6J mice do not provide support for neurodevelopmental toxicity after misoprostol administration approximating human doses and timed to coincide with the developmental stage of human birth. PMID:22719983

  5. Safety and tolerability of once-daily umeclidinium/vilanterol 125/25 mcg and umeclidinium 125 mcg in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from a 52-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) umeclidinium (UMEC) and the combination of UMEC with the long-acting ?2-agonist (LABA) vilanterol (UMEC/VI) are approved maintenance treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the US and EU. They are not indicated for the treatment of asthma. Methods In this 52-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group safety study (GSK study DB2113359; NCT01316887), patients were randomized 2:2:1 to UMEC/VI 125/25 mcg, UMEC 125 mcg, or placebo. Study endpoints included adverse events (AEs), clinical chemistry and hematology parameters, vital signs, 12-lead, and 24-hour Holter electrocardiograms. COPD exacerbations and rescue medication use were assessed as safety parameters; lung function was also evaluated. Results The incidence of on-treatment AEs, serious AEs (SAEs), and drug-related AEs was similar between treatment groups (AEs: 5258%; SAEs: 67%; drug-related AEs: 1213%). Headache was the most common AE in each treatment group (811%). AEs associated with the LAMA and LABA pharmacologic classes occurred at a low incidence across treatment groups. No clinically meaningful effects on vital signs or laboratory assessments were reported for active treatments versus placebo. The incidences of atrial arrhythmias with UMEC/VI 125/25 mcg were similar to placebo; for UMEC 125 mcg, the incidences of ectopic supraventricular beats, sustained supraventricular tachycardia, and ectopic supraventricular rhythm were ?2% greater than placebo. With active treatments, COPD exacerbations were fewer (1315% of patients reporting ?1 exacerbation) and on average less rescue medication was required (1.62.2 puffs/day) versus placebo (24% reporting ?1 exacerbation, 2.6 puffs/day). Both active treatments improved lung function versus placebo. Conclusion UMEC/VI 125/25 mcg and UMEC 125 mcg were well tolerated over 12months in patients with COPD. PMID:25015176

  6. Medical management of missed abortion and anembryonic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    el-Refaey, H; Hinshaw, K; Henshaw, R; Smith, N; Templeton, A

    1992-12-01

    Mifepristone (an antiprogesterone) and misoprostol (a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1) were administered to 60 women diagnosed with missed abortion or anembryonic pregnancy (gestation sac present but no developing embryo) equivalent to 13 weeks' gestation or less who were recruited after counselling. The median age was 227 (range 15-44), and the median duration of amenorrhoea was 71 (42-110) days. 25 of the women had been referred for ultrasound scanning because of bleeding in early pregnancy, while the rest were diagnosed by routine scanning. 29 patients had anembryonic pregnancies, and 31 had a missed abortion. Each patient received a 600 mg single oral dose of mifepristone, and 36-48 hours later misoprostol 600 mcg was given orally (400 mcg and, 2 hours later, 200 mcg). If the products of conception were not expelled within 4 hours, vaginal ultrasonography was performed. 8 patients aborted with mifepristone alone, 43 aborted after taking 600 mcg of misoprostol, and 5 more aborted after receiving a 2nd divided dose of 600 mcg misoprostol. In 3 patients the treatment failed, and they underwent evacuation of the uterus under general anaesthesia. Exploratory curettage was performed in 2 other patients at 14 and 22 days after treatment with misoprostol, but no products of conception were obtained. The median time from administration of misoprostol to abortion was 4 (1-11) hours. The median duration of bleeding after abortion was 10 (2-22) days. Side effects included nausea, vomiting (5 patients received antiemetic drugs), and diarrhoea (7 patients) from misoprostol treatment. 39 women did not want any pain relief, 13 asked for oral analgesia, and 7 obtained parenteral analgesia. PMID:1486304

  7. Advance distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) at home births in two districts of Liberia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A postpartum hemorrhage prevention program to increase uterotonic coverage for home and facility births was introduced in two districts of Liberia. Advance distribution of misoprostol was offered during antenatal care (ANC) and home visits. Feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness of distribution mechanisms and uterotonic coverage were evaluated. Methods Eight facilities were strengthened to provide PPH prevention with oxytocin, PPH management and advance distribution of misoprostol during ANC. Trained traditional midwives (TTMs) as volunteer community health workers (CHWs) provided education to pregnant women, and district reproductive health supervisors (DRHSs) distributed misoprostol during home visits. Data were collected through facility and DRHS registers. Postpartum interviews were conducted with a sample of 550 women who received advance distribution of misoprostol on place of delivery, knowledge, misoprostol use, and satisfaction. Results There were 1826 estimated deliveries during the seven-month implementation period. A total of 980 women (53.7%) were enrolled and provided misoprostol, primarily through ANC (78.2%). Uterotonic coverage rate of all deliveries was 53.5%, based on 97.7% oxytocin use at recorded facility vaginal births and 24.9% misoprostol use at home births. Among 550 women interviewed postpartum, 87.7% of those who received misoprostol and had a home birth took the drug. Sixty-three percent (63.0%) took it at the correct time, and 54.0% experienced at least one minor side effect. No serious adverse events reported among enrolled women. Facility-based deliveries appeared to increase during the program. Conclusions The program was moderately effective at achieving high uterotonic coverage of all births. Coverage of home births was low despite the use of two channels of advance distribution of misoprostol. Although ANC reached a greater proportion of women in late pregnancy than home visits, 46.3% of expected deliveries did not receive education or advance distribution of misoprostol. A revised community-based strategy is needed to increase advance distribution rates and misoprostol coverage rates for home births. Misoprostol for PPH prevention appears acceptable to women in Liberia. Correct timing of misoprostol self-administration needs improved emphasis during counseling and education. PMID:24894566

  8. A Variable Partial Covering Model for the Seyfert 1 Galaxy MCG -6-30-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Takehiro; Ebisawa, Ken; Inoue, Hajime

    2012-12-01

    We propose a simple spectral model for the Seyfert 1 Galaxy MCG -6-30-15 that can explain most of the 1-40 keV spectral variation by a change of the partial covering fraction, similar to that proposed by Miller, Turner, and Reeves (2008, A&A, 483, 437). Our spectral model is composed of three continuum components: (1) a direct power-law component, (2) a heavily absorbed power-law component by mildly ionized intervening matter, and (3) a cold-disk reflection component far from the black hole with a moderate solid-angle (Ω/2π ≃ 0.3) accompanying a narrow fluorescent iron line. The first two components are affected by the surrounding thin highly ionized absorber with NH ≃ 1023.4 cm-2 and log ξ ≃ 3.4. The heavy absorber in the second component is fragmented into many clouds, each of which is composed of radial zones with different ionization states and different column densities, a main body (NH ≃1024.2 cm-2, log ξ ≃ 1.6), an envelope (NH ≃ 1022.1 cm-2, log ξ ≃ 1.9), and presumably a completely opaque core. Not only the intrinsic spectral shape of the X-ray source but also these parameters of the ionized absorbers are unchanged at all. The central X-ray source extends moderately, and its luminosity is not significantly variable. The observed flux and spectral variations are mostly explained by the variation of the geometrical partial covering fraction of the central source ranging from 0 (uncovered) to ˜0.63 by the intervening ionized clouds in the line of sight. The ionized iron K-edge of the heavily absorbed component explains most of the seemingly broad line-like features, a well-known spectral characteristic of MCG -6-30-15. The direct component and the absorbed one are negatively correlated, and their variations cancel out each other, so that the fractional spectral variation becomes the minimum at the iron-energy band; thus, another observational characteristic of MCG -6-30-15 is explained.

  9. Cervical Priming by Misoprostol before Diagnostic Dilatation and Curettage: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadian, Shima; Tavana, Anahita; Tavana, Shahrzad; Mohammadian, Aida; Fallahian, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Difficulty in cervical dilatation is a hard situation during the procedure of diagnostic dilatation and curettage in some cases. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of vaginal misoprostol for cervical priming before diagnostic dilatation and curettage. Methods: In this study 56 women were selected as the candidates for dilatation and curettage. The study was double blind and was performed for two parallel groups. One misoprostol tablet (200 ?g) was administered in posterior fornix of vagina 24 hr before operation in 28 patients whereas in other 28 patients, placebo (VitB6) was used. Then, the two groups were compared according to the patency of the cervix measured by No. 5 Hegar dilators and the duration of dilatation and curettage procedure as well. Chi-square test, t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparing two groups, and a p-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Before the procedure of dilatation and curettage, the patency of the cervix was measured by passing Hegar dilator number 5 through the cervical canal in fifteen (53.6%) patients in the misoprostol group and 8 patients (28.6%) in the placebo group (p=0.05) which their difference was statistically significant. The effect of misoprostol was not significant in nulliparous women and postmenopausal period either. Conclusion: Vaginal misoprostol is a useful drug for ripening and dilating the cervix. It also facilitates the procedure of dilatation and curettage in premenopausal and multiparous women. Misoprostol was less effective in nulliparous women and in postmenopausal period. PMID:26913235

  10. Intracervical versus vaginal misoprostol for cervical dilatation prior to operative hysteroscopya comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, BK; Roy, Premansu; Bhat, PM; Das, NK; Paul, KG; Duggal, BS

    2012-01-01

    Background Hysteroscopic surgery requires pre-operative cervical ripening to facilitate adequate dilatation of the cervix for insertion of operative hysteroscope. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of intracervical misoprostol with vaginal misoprostol in achieving cervical ripening before operative hysteroscopy. Methods In this randomised comparative study conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital, 56 patients needing operative hysteroscopy were divided into two groups of 28 patients, one for intracervical misoprostol and the other for vaginal misoprostol. Four hundred microgram of misoprostol was inserted on the night before and in the morning of operative hysteroscopy intracervically in group I and vaginally in group II. Results Primary outcome measure was number of patients achieving 7 mm preoperative dilatation of cervix. Largest Hegar dilator that could be passed into the uterine cavity past the internal optic sheath without resistance was noted in each case. Mean cervical dilatation prior to operative hysteroscopy was calculated. In addition, incidence of slipping of vulsellum and cervical laceration was also noted. Time to achieve full cervical dilatation was recorded. In 23/28 cases of group I and 5/28 in group II, size 7 Hegar dilator could be passed without effort. Mean cervical dilatation was 7.5 mm in group I and 5.7 mm in group II. Slipping of the vulsellum and cervical lacerations were seen in significantly less patients in group I. Mean time to achieve cervical dilatation to 10 mm was 43.39 seconds in group I and 103.96 seconds in group II (P<0.0001). Conclusion Intracervical administration of misoprostol is an effective method of achieving cervical ripening for easy cervical dilatation up to 10 mm prior to operative hysteroscopy. PMID:24669051

  11. A Chandra-HETG view of MCG +8-11-11

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, K. D.; Nowak, M. A.

    2014-12-10

    We present a spectral analysis of the 118 ks Chandra High Energy Transmission Gratings (HETG) observation of the X-ray bright Seyfert 1.5 galaxy MCG +8-11-11, in conjunction with 100 ks of archival Suzaku data, aimed at investigating the signatures of warm absorption and Compton reflection reported from previous Suzaku and XMM-Newton studies of the source. Contrary to previous results, we find that warm absorption is not required by the data. Instead, we report upper limits on absorption lines that are below previous (marginal) detections. Fe Kα line emission is clearly detected and is likely resolved with σ ∼ 0.02 keV with the HETG data. We applied self-consistent, broadband spectral-fitting models to the Chandra and Suzaku data to investigate this and other signatures of distant absorption and reflection. Utilizing in particular the MYTorus model, we find that the data are consistent with reprocessing by a distant, neutral torus that is marginally Compton-thick ( N {sub H} ∼10{sup 24}cm{sup –2}) and out of the line of sight. However, we do not find compelling evidence of a relativistically broadened Fe K emission line, which is often expected from type 1 active galactic nuclei. This is consistent with some, although not all, previous studies of MCG +8-11-11. A well-measured edge is identified by the HETG near 0.5 keV, indicating neutral absorption in the line of sight that is consistent with galactic absorption; however, the absorption may be partially intrinsic to the source. The HETG data are consistent with the presence of a soft excess, a feature that may be missed by considering the Suzaku data alone.

  12. Reconstructing Merger Timelines Using Star Cluster Age Distributions: The Case of MCG+08-11-002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Rebecca L.; Medling, Anne M.; U, Vivian; Max, Claire E.; Sanders, David; Kewley, Lisa. J.

    2016-02-01

    We present near infrared imaging and integral field spectroscopy of the centre of the dusty luminous infrared galaxy merger MCG+08-11-002, taken using the Near InfraRed Camera 2 (NIRC2) and the OH-Suppressing InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (OSIRIS) on Keck II. We achieve a spatial resolution of 25 pc in the K band, allowing us to resolve 41 star clusters in the NIRC2 images. We calculate the ages of 22/25 star clusters within the OSIRIS field using the equivalent widths of the CO 2.3?m absorption feature and the Br? nebular emission line. The star cluster age distribution has a clear peak at ages ? 20 Myr, indicative of current starburst activity associated with the final coalescence of the progenitor galaxies. There is a possible second peak at 65 Myr which may be a product of the previous close passage of the galaxy nuclei. We fit single and double starburst models to the star cluster age distribution and use Monte Carlo sampling combined with two-sided K-S tests to calculate the probability that the observed data are drawn from each of the best fit distributions. There is a >90 per cent chance that the data are drawn from either a single or double starburst star formation history, but stochastic sampling prevents us from distinguishing between the two scenarios. Our analysis of MCG+08-11-002 indicates that star cluster age distributions provide valuable insights into the timelines of galaxy interactions and may therefore play an important role in the future development of precise merger stage classification systems.

  13. Principal component analysis of MCG-06-30-15 with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, M. L.; Marinucci, A.; Brenneman, L.; Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E.; Matt, G.; Walton, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the spectral variability of MCG-06-30-15 with 600 k s of XMM-Newton data, including 300 k s of new data from the joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR 2013 observational campaign. We use principal component analysis to find high-resolution, model-independent spectra of the different variable components of the spectrum. We find that over 99 per cent of the variability can be described by just three components, which are consistent with variations in the normalization of the power-law continuum (˜97 per cent), the photon index (˜2 per cent) and the normalization of a relativistically blurred reflection spectrum (˜0.5 per cent). We also find a fourth significant component but this is heavily diluted by noise, and we can attribute all the remaining spectral variability to noise. All three components are found to be variable on time-scales from 20 down to 1 k s, which corresponds to a distance from the central black hole of less than 70 gravitational radii. We compare these results with those derived from spectral fitting, and find them to be in very good agreement with our interpretation of the principal components. We conclude that the observed relatively weak variability in the reflected component of the spectrum of MCG-06-30-15 is due to the effects of light-bending close to the event horizon of the black hole, and demonstrate that principal component analysis is an effective tool for analysing spectral variability in this regime.

  14. Performance comparison of independent component analysis algorithms for fetal cardiac signal reconstruction: a study on synthetic fMCG data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantini, D.; Hild, K. E., II; Alleva, G.; Comani, S.

    2006-02-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms have been successfully used for signal extraction tasks in the field of biomedical signal processing. We studied the performances of six algorithms (FastICA, CubICA, JADE, Infomax, TDSEP and MRMI-SIG) for fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). Synthetic datasets were used to check the quality of the separated components against the original traces. Real fMCG recordings were simulated with linear combinations of typical fMCG source signals: maternal and fetal cardiac activity, ambient noise, maternal respiration, sensor spikes and thermal noise. Clusters of different dimensions (19, 36 and 55 sensors) were prepared to represent different MCG systems. Two types of signal-to-interference ratios (SIR) were measured. The first involves averaging over all estimated components and the second is based solely on the fetal trace. The computation time to reach a minimum of 20 dB SIR was measured for all six algorithms. No significant dependency on gestational age or cluster dimension was observed. Infomax performed poorly when a sub-Gaussian source was included; TDSEP and MRMI-SIG were sensitive to additive noise, whereas FastICA, CubICA and JADE showed the best performances. Of all six methods considered, FastICA had the best overall performance in terms of both separation quality and computation times.

  15. Severe morbidities associated with induced abortions among misoprostol users and non-users in a tertiary public hospital in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Misoprostol has become a popular over the counter self-administered abortifacient in Ghana. This study aimed to compare the socio-demographic characteristics and clinical complications associated with misoprostol and non-misoprostol induced abortions among patients admitted to a tertiary public health facility in Ghana. Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted at the gynaecological ward of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), over a four-month period using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analysed using Chi-square, Fishers exact and student t-tests. Factors associated with severe morbidity were examined using Poisson regression with robust error variance to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Overall, 126 misoprostol users and 126 misoprostol non-users were recruited into the study. About 71% of the clients had self-induced abortions. Misoprostol users were more likely to be younger (p < 0.001), single (p < 0.001), nulliparous (p = 0.001), of higher educational background (p = 0.001), and unemployed (p < 0.001), than misoprostol non-users. Misoprostol users were more likely than non-users to undergo termination of pregnancy because they wanted to continue schooling (p < 0.001) or were not earning regular income to support a family (p = 0.001). Overall, 182 (72.2%) of the women (79.4% misoprostol users vs. 65.1% misoprostol non-users; p = 0.01) suffered severe morbidity. Nulliparous women (adjusted RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.08-1.52) and those who had induced abortion after 12 weeks gestation (adjusted RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.18-1.57) were at increased risks of experiencing severe morbidity. The association between mode of abortion induction and severe morbidity was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Conclusion Self-induced abortions using misoprostol is a common practice among women in this study; nearly three quarters of them suffered severe morbidity. Nonetheless, severe morbidity among misoprostol users and non-users did not differ significantly but was directly related to the gestational age at which the induced abortions occurred. Health education on the dangers of self-induced abortions and appropriate use of medication abortion could help reduce complications associated with induced abortions in Ghana. PMID:25074294

  16. Effect of vaginal misoprostol on pregnancy rate after intrauterine insemination: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zahiri sorouri, Ziba; Asgharnia, Maryan; Gholampoor, Ameneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is one of the most appropriate and cost-effective methods in infertility treatment. Objective: We aimed to investigate effect of vaginal misoprostol on pregnancy rate after IUI. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and ten infertile women who were referred to Infertility Clinic of Alzahra Hospital by an indication of IUI during 2012-2013 were randomly assigned to receive 200 g vaginal misoprostol (n=105) or vaginal placebo (n=105) after IUI. For detecting pregnancy, past 2 weeks, beta human chorionic gonadotropin evaluation was made and if positive, transvaginal sonography was done for evaluation of pregnancy 2-3 weeks later and clinical pregnancy was recorded. Results: Pregnancy had been noted in 24 patients in misoprotol (22.9%) and 27 patients in placebo (25.7%) groups that this difference was not significant (p=0.748). In misoprostol group, 3 case of nausea and vomiting (2.9%) had been observed. Conclusion: According to the results, administering 200 g vaginal misoprostol after IUI doesnt have significant effect on the success rate of IUI. PMID:25653670

  17. Potential Cost-Effectiveness of Prenatal Distribution of Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Lubinga, Solomon J.; Atukunda, Esther C.; Wasswa-Ssalongo, George; Babigumira, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In settings where home birth rates are high, prenatal distribution of misoprostol has been advocated as a strategy to increase access to uterotonics during the third stage of labor to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Our objective was to project the potential cost-effectiveness of this strategy in Uganda from both governmental (the relevant payer) and modified societal perspectives. Methods and Findings To compare prenatal misoprostol distribution to status quo (no misoprostol distribution), we developed a decision analytic model that tracked the delivery pathways of a cohort of pregnant women from the prenatal period, labor to delivery without complications or delivery with PPH, and successful treatment or death. Delivery pathway parameters were derived from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. Incidence of PPH, treatment efficacy, adverse event and case fatality rates, access to misoprostol, and health resource use and cost data were obtained from published literature and supplemented with expert opinion where necessary. We computed the expected incidence of PPH, mortality, disability adjusted life years (DALYs), costs and incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). We conducted univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to examine robustness of our results. In the base-case analysis, misoprostol distribution lowered the expected incidence of PPH by 1.0% (95% credibility interval (CrI): 0.55%, 1.95%), mortality by 0.08% (95% CrI: 0.04%, 0.13%) and DALYs by 0.02 (95% CrI: 0.01, 0.03). Mean costs were higher with prenatal misoprostol distribution from governmental by US$3.3 (95% CrI: 2.1, 4.2) and modified societal (by US$1.3; 95% CrI: -1.6, 2.8) perspectives. ICERs were US$191 (95% CrI: 82, 443) per DALY averted from a governmental perspective, and US$73 (95% CI: -86, 256) per DALY averted from a modified societal perspective. Conclusions Prenatal distribution of misoprostol is potentially cost-effective in Uganda and should be considered for national-level scale up for prevention of PPH. PMID:26560140

  18. Comparing vaginal and sublingual administration of misoprostol for labour induction in women with intra-uterine fetal death.

    PubMed

    Geels, Yvette Pernella; de Gouberville, Marije Carlijn Gordinou; Visser, Lucia; van Asten, Hendrikus Arnoldus

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare complications and effectiveness of induction after vaginal and sublingual administration of misoprostol for labor induction in women with intra-uterine fetal death (IUFD). In a district hospital in Ghana, 23 women with IUFD who underwent labor induction with sublingual misoprostol were compared with a control group of 21 women who received vaginal misoprostol. In the vaginal group 28.6% had one or more complications compared to 21.7% in the sublingual group. In the sublingual group three inductions did not lead to delivery within 48 hours (13%), compared to four in the other group (19%). The mean induction-to-delivery time in the sublingual group was 13 hours and 17 hours in the vaginal group. In this study, both sublingual and vaginal misoprostol were safe and efficient for labor induction in women with IUFD. However, more research on larger numbers of patients is needed, in order to compare complications. PMID:20305098

  19. Civil Society Organizations and medicines policy change: a case study of registration, procurement, distribution and use of misoprostol in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Atukunda, Esther Cathyln; Brhlikova, Petra; Agaba, Amon Ganafa; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-04-01

    Misoprostol use for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) has been promoted by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) since the early 2000s. Yet, CSOs' role in improving access to misoprostol and shaping health policy at global and national levels is not well understood. We document the introduction of misoprostol in Uganda in 2008 from its registration, addition to treatment guidelines and national Essential Medicines List (EML), to its distribution and use. We then analyse the contribution of CSOs to this health policy change and service provision. Policy documents, procurement data and 82 key informant interviews with government officials, healthcare providers, and CSOs in four Ugandan districts of Kampala, Mbarara, Apac, Bundibugyo were collected between 2010 and 2013. Five key CSOs promoted and accelerated the rollout of misoprostol in Uganda. They supported the registration of misoprostol with the National Drug Authority, the development of clinical guidelines, and the piloting and training of health care providers. CSOs and National Medical Stores were procuring and distributing misoprostol country-wide to health centres two years before it was added to the clinical guidelines and EML of Uganda and in the absence of good evidence. The evidence suggests an increasing trend of misoprostol procurement and availability over the medicine of choice, oxytocin. This shift in national priorities has serious ramifications for maternal health care that need urgent evaluation. The absence of clinical guidelines in health centres and the lack of training preclude rational use of misoprostol. CSOs shifted their focus from the public to the private sector, where some of them continue to promote its use for off-label indications including induction of labour and abortion. There is an urgent need to build capacity to improve the robustness of the national and local institutions in assessing the safety and effectiveness of all medicines and their indications in Uganda. PMID:25728484

  20. Supernova 2011at = PSN J09285756-1448206 in MCG -02-24-27

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2011-03-01

    Announces the discovery of SN 2011at = PSN J09285756-1448206 in MCG -02-24-27 by Lou Cox, Jack Newton, and Tim Puckett (Ellijay, GA, in the course of the Puckett Observatory Supernova Search) on 2011 March 10.214 UT at unfiltered CCD magnitude 14.5. Spectra obtained March 11.81 UT with the Swift satellite (+UVOT) by F. Bufano (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Osservatorio Astronomico di Catania), S. Benetti (INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova), and A. Pastorello (Queen's University, Belfast, et al.); and on March 12 UT with the F. L. Whipple Observatory 1.5-m telescope (+FAST) by M. Calkins (reported by G. H. Marion, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), on behalf of the CfA Supernova Group) show SN 2011at to be a type-Ia supernova a few days before/around maximum. The object was designated PSN J09285756-1448206 when posted on the Central Bureau's Transient Objects Confirmation Page (TOCP) webpage. Initially announced in CBET 2676 (Daniel W. ! E. Green, ed.). Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  1. Baseline drift removal and denoising of MCG data using EEMD: role of noise amplitude and the thresholding effect.

    PubMed

    Mariyappa, N; Sengottuvel, S; Parasakthi, C; Gireesan, K; Janawadkar, M P; Radhakrishnan, T S; Sundar, C S

    2014-10-01

    We adopt the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) method, with an appropriate thresholding on the Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs), to denoise the magnetocardiography (MCG) signal. To this end, we discuss the two associated problems that relate to: (i) the amplitude of noise added to the observed signal in the EEMD method with a view to prevent mode mixing and (ii) the effect of direct thresholding that causes discontinuities in the reconstructed denoised signal. We then denoise the MCG signals, having various signal-to-noise ratios, by using this method and compare the results with those obtained by the standard wavelet based denoising method. We also address the problem of eliminating the high frequency baseline drift such as the sudden and discontinuous changes in the baseline of the experimentally measured MCG signal using the EEMD based method. We show that the EEMD method used for denoising and the elimination of baseline drift is superior in performance to other standard methods such as wavelet based techniques and Independent Component Analysis (ICA). PMID:25074650

  2. Performance comparison of six independent components analysis algorithms for fetal signal extraction from real fMCG data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hild, Kenneth E.; Alleva, Giovanna; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Comani, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    In this study we compare the performance of six independent components analysis (ICA) algorithms on 16 real fetal magnetocardiographic (fMCG) datasets for the application of extracting the fetal cardiac signal. We also compare the extraction results for real data with the results previously obtained for synthetic data. The six ICA algorithms are FastICA, CubICA, JADE, Infomax, MRMI-SIG and TDSEP. The results obtained using real fMCG data indicate that the FastICA method consistently outperforms the others in regard to separation quality and that the performance of an ICA method that uses temporal information suffers in the presence of noise. These two results confirm the previous results obtained using synthetic fMCG data. There were also two notable differences between the studies based on real and synthetic data. The differences are that all six ICA algorithms are independent of gestational age and sensor dimensionality for synthetic data, but depend on gestational age and sensor dimensionality for real data. It is possible to explain these differences by assuming that the number of point sources needed to completely explain the data is larger than the dimensionality used in the ICA extraction.

  3. A SUZAKU OBSERVATION OF MCG -2-58-22: CONSTRAINING THE GEOMETRY OF THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard

    2011-05-01

    We have analyzed a long-look Suzaku observation of the active galactic nucleus MCG -2-58-22, a type 1.5 Seyfert with very little X-ray absorption in the line of sight and prominent features arising from reflection off circumnuclear material: the Fe line and Compton reflection hump. We place tight constraints on the power-law photon index ({Gamma} = 1.80 {+-} 0.02), the Compton reflection strength (R = 0.69 {+-} 0.05), and the Fe K emission line energy centroid and width (E = 6.40 {+-} 0.02 keV, v{sub FWHM} < 7100 km s{sup -1}). We find no significant evidence either for emission from strongly ionized Fe, or for a strong, relativistically broadened Fe line, indicating that perhaps there is no radiatively efficient accretion disk very close in to the central black hole. In addition, we test a new self-consistent physical model from Murphy and Yaqoob, the 'MYTORUS' model, consisting of a donut-shaped torus of material surrounding the central illuminating source and producing both the Compton hump and the Fe K line emission. From the application of this model we find that the observed spectrum is consistent with a Compton-thick torus of material (column density N{sub H} = 3.6{sup +1.3}{sub -0.8} x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}) lying outside of the line of sight to the nucleus, leaving it bare of X-ray absorption in excess of the Galactic column. We calculate that this material is sufficient to produce all of the Fe line flux without the need for any flux contribution from additional Compton-thin circumnuclear material.

  4. A Suzaku Observation of MCG -2-58-22: Constraining the Geometry of the Circumnuclear Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard

    2011-05-01

    We have analyzed a long-look Suzaku observation of the active galactic nucleus MCG -2-58-22, a type 1.5 Seyfert with very little X-ray absorption in the line of sight and prominent features arising from reflection off circumnuclear material: the Fe line and Compton reflection hump. We place tight constraints on the power-law photon index (? = 1.80 0.02), the Compton reflection strength (R = 0.69 0.05), and the Fe K emission line energy centroid and width (E = 6.40 0.02 keV, v FWHM < 7100 km s-1). We find no significant evidence either for emission from strongly ionized Fe, or for a strong, relativistically broadened Fe line, indicating that perhaps there is no radiatively efficient accretion disk very close in to the central black hole. In addition, we test a new self-consistent physical model from Murphy and Yaqoob, the "MYTORUS" model, consisting of a donut-shaped torus of material surrounding the central illuminating source and producing both the Compton hump and the Fe K line emission. From the application of this model we find that the observed spectrum is consistent with a Compton-thick torus of material (column density N H = 3.6+1.3 - 0.8 1024 cm-2) lying outside of the line of sight to the nucleus, leaving it bare of X-ray absorption in excess of the Galactic column. We calculate that this material is sufficient to produce all of the Fe line flux without the need for any flux contribution from additional Compton-thin circumnuclear material.

  5. Attenuation of Ischemic Liver Injury by Prostaglandin E1 Analogue, Misoprostol, and Prostaglandin I2 Analogue, OP-41483

    PubMed Central

    Totsuka, Eishi; Todo, Satoru; Zhu, Yue; Ishizaki, Naoki; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Jin, Maeng Bong; Urakami, Atsushi; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Starzl, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin has been reported to have protective effects against liver injury. Use of this agent in clinical settings, however, is limited because of drug-related side effects. This study investigated whether misoprostol, prostaglandin E1 analogue, and OP-41483, prostaglandin I2 analogue, which have fewer adverse effects with a longer half-life, attenuate ischemic liver damage. Study Design Thirty beagle dogs underwent 2 hours of hepatic vascular exclusion using venovenous bypass. Misoprostol was administered intravenously for 30 minutes before ischemia and for 3 hours after reperfusion. OP-41483 was administered intraportally for 30 minutes before ischemia (2 μg/kg/min) and for 3 hours after reperfusion (0.5 μg/kg/min). Animals were divided into five groups: untreated control group (n = 10); high-dose misoprostol (total 100 μg/kg) group (MP-H, n = 5); middle-dose misoprostol (50 μg/kg) group (MP-M, n = 5); low-dose misoprostol (25 μg/kg) group (MP-L, n = 5); and OP-41483 group (OP, n = 5). Animal survival, hepatic tissue blood flow (HTBF), liver function, and histology were analyzed. Results Two-week animal survival rates were 30% in control, 60% in MP-H, 100% in MP-M, 80% in MP-L, and 100% in OP. The treatments with prostaglandin analogues improved HTBF, and attenuated liver enzyme release, adenine nucleotrides degradation, and histologic abnormalities. In contrast to the MP-H animals that exhibited unstable cardiovascular systems, the MP-M, MP-L, and OP animals experienced only transient hypotension. Conclusions These results indicate that misoprostol and OP-41483 prevent ischemic liver damage, although careful dose adjustment of misoprostol is required to obtain the best protection with minimal side effects. PMID:9740185

  6. A critical appraisal of the misoprostol removable, controlled-release vaginal delivery system of labor induction

    PubMed Central

    Patte, Charlotte; Deruelle, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Induction of labor is a major issue in pregnancy management. Finding strategies to increase rate and decrease time to vaginal delivery is an important goal, but maternal or neonatal safety must remain the primary objective. Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin used off label to ripen the cervix and induce labor. The misoprostol vaginal insert (MVI) was designed to allow a controlled-release delivery of misoprostol (from 50 to 200 μg) with a removal tape. The objective of this review was to make a critical appraisal of this device referring to the literature. Methods A literature search was performed in the PubMed and Cochrane databases using the keywords “vaginal misoprostol insert”. Results Several studies compared different doses of MVI (50, 100, 150, and 200 μg) with the 10 mg dinoprostone insert. The 100 μg MVI compared with the dinoprostone vaginal insert (DVI) showed similar efficacy and no significant differences in cesarean delivery rate. MVI 200 μg compared with DVI showed a reduced time to vaginal delivery and oxytocin need but had an increased risk of uterine hyperstimulation. The rate of hyperstimulation syndrome was two to three times more frequent with the 200 μg MVI than the 100 μg. Conclusion Current data suggest that the 100 μg MVI would provide the best balance between efficacy and safety. Further studies should be performed to evaluate this dose, especially in high-risk situations needing induction of labor. PMID:26648758

  7. Medical abortion with mifepristone and home administration of misoprostol up to 63days gestation

    PubMed Central

    Lkeland, Mette; Iversen, Ole Erik; Engeland, Anders; kland, Ingrid; Bjrge, Line

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acceptability and efficacy of medical abortion at home up to 63days gestation without limits on travel distance to a registered institution. Design Observational prospective study. Setting Haukeland University Hospital between May 2006 and May 2009. Population A total of 1018 women requesting abortion before 63days gestation who chose medical termination with mifepristone and home administration of misoprostol. Methods The women took 200mg mifepristone under nurse supervision and self-administered 800?g misoprostol vaginally 3648h later at home. All were contacted by phone for follow-up and assessment of bleeding, pain and acceptability. Main outcome measures Evacuation rate, pain, bleeding, acceptability, influence of distance on treatment. Results Median gestational age was 50 (range 3563)days and 70 (7.1%) of the women lived more than 60min travel from the clinic. The rate of completed abortion was 93.6% and surgical evacuation was performed in 50 (4.9%) cases. Two women requested treatment on the day of misoprostol use. Moderate to strong pain was experienced by 68.4%, and 74.7% reported moderate to heavy bleeding. Parous women experienced less pain than nulliparous women (odds ratio 0.27; 95% confidence interval 0.190.34). In all, 95.1% of the women were satisfied with staying at home. Travel distance did not influence treatment outcome variables. Conclusions In our experience, home administration of misoprostol is an effective and acceptable method for abortion up to 63days of gestation and women should be eligible for this treatment option regardless of their travel distance from hospital. PMID:24766569

  8. A novel misoprostol delivery system for induction of labor: clinical utility and patient considerations

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Megan L; Wing, Deborah A

    2015-01-01

    Induction of labor is one of the most commonly performed obstetric procedures and will likely become more common as the reproductive population in developed nations changes. As the proportion of women undergoing induction grows, there is a constant search for more efficacious ways to induce labor while maintaining fetal and maternal safety as well as patient satisfaction. With almost half of induced labors requiring cervical ripening, methods for achieving active labor and vaginal delivery are constantly being investigated. Prostaglandins have been shown to be effective induction agents, and specifically vaginal misoprostol, used off-label, have been widely utilized to initiate cervical ripening and active labor. The challenge is to administer this medication accurately while maintaining the ability to discontinue the medication when needed. The misoprostol vaginal insert initiates cervical ripening utilizing a delivery system that controls medication release and can be rapidly removed. This paper reviews the design, development, and clinical utility of the misoprostol vaginal insert for induction of labor as well as patient considerations related to the delivery system. PMID:25960635

  9. A high performance liquid radiochromatographic assay for the simultaneous analysis of iloprost and misoprostol.

    PubMed

    Womack, I M; Lee, A S; Kamath, B; Agrawal, K C; Kishore, V

    1996-10-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method utilizing ultraviolet absorbance coupled with radioisotove detection was developed for the precise and simultaneous determination of iloprost and misoprostol. This assay allows complete resolution of iloprost diastereoisomers and has a total run time of approximately twenty minutes. Samples were prepared for chromatographic analysis by extracting a mixture of tritiated drugs from rat plasma with acetonitrile. The resulting solutions were chromatographed on a reversed phase Zorbax Rx-C8 column using 0.02M potassium phosphate (pH 3.0), acetonitrile, and methanol (46:30:24, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.7 mL/min. 2-Naphthoic acid was employed as an internal standard. The correlation coefficient for varying concentrations of tritiated iloprost (12.7 Ci/mmol specific activity) from 2.18 ng/mL to 21.8 ng/mL was 0.995, and the correlation coefficient for concentrations of tritiated misoprostol (50 Ci/mmol specific activity) from 0.617 ng/mL to 6.17 ng/mL was 0.993. The high selectivity and sensitivity of this assay make it useful for the simultaneous quantitation of iloprost and misoprostol. PMID:8936581

  10. Comparison of gemeprost and vaginal misoprostol in first trimester mifepristone-induced abortion.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Svendsen PF; Rrbye C; Vejborg T; Nilas L

    2005-07-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare efficacy and side effects of gemeprost and vaginal misoprostol in mifepristone-induced abortions in women up to 63 days of gestation.METHODS: A retrospective study of 833 consecutive patients admitted for medical termination of first trimester pregnancy was conducted. Four-hundred ten patients received mifepristone 600 mg, followed 48 h later by gemeprost 1 mg (regimen I), and 423 patients received mifepristone 200 mg followed by vaginal misoprostol 800 microg (regimen II). Success rates were evaluated after 2 weeks and after 3 months. The severity of bleeding and side effects (pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea) was scored by the patients, and requests for supplementary analgesic treatment were recorded by the attending nurse.RESULTS: Success rates were 99% in both groups after 2 weeks of follow-up. At 3 months of follow-up, success rates had declined to 94% for regimen I and 96% for regimen II. The frequency of severe pain was higher in regimen I compared to regimen II (72% vs. 60%, p < .001), but the severity of bleeding and gastrointestinal side effects was similar in the two regimens.CONCLUSION: When combined with mifepristone, gemeprost and vaginal misoprostol are equally effective for termination of first trimester abortion, but may be associated with varying intensity of side effects.

  11. Comparison of two dosing regimens of vaginal misoprostol for labour induction: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Girija, Shivarudraiah; Manjunath, Attibele Palaksha

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy of two different dosing regimens of vaginal misoprostol for labour induction. Material and Methods This is an open label randomised controlled trial of 100 eligible women with obstetrical or medical indications for labour induction at a secondary level care hospital on the west coast of India. Women were randomised to receive either a single 50 ?g dose or multiple 25 ?g doses (maximum of three doses) of misoprostol in the posterior vaginal fornix. The main outcome measure was induction to vaginal delivery interval. Results Mean induction delivery interval was 18.5813.73 and 14.4213.2 hours (P=0.73) in the 50 ?g and 25 ?g misoprostol group respectively. Delivery rate within 24 hours were 60% (30/50), in 50 ?g group and 68% (34/50) in 25 ?g group (P=0.53). The rates of caesarean section and operative vaginal delivery were similar in both groups. There was no significant difference in maternal side effects and neonatal outcome among regimens. Conclusion There was no statistically significant difference between the two regimens in terms of clinical efficacy. PMID:24591876

  12. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Programme Effectiveness of Misoprostol for Prevention of Postpartum Haemorrhage in Rural Bangladesh: A Quasiexperimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Quaiyum, Abdul; Gazi, Rukhsana; Hossain, Shahed; Wirtz, Andrea; Saha, Nirod Chandra

    2014-01-01

    We explored the feasibility of distributing misoprostol tablets using two strategies in prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) among women residing in the Abhoynagar subdistrict of Bangladesh. We conducted a quasiexperimental study with a posttest design and nonequivalent comparison and intervention groups. Paramedics distributed three misoprostol tablets, one delivery mat (Quaiyum's delivery mat), a packet of five standardized sanitary pads, and one lidded plastic container with detailed counseling on their use. All materials except misoprostol were also provided with counseling sessions to the control group participants. Postpartum blood loss was measured by paramedics using standardized method. This study has demonstrated community acceptability to misoprostol tablets for the prevention of PPH that reduced overall volume of blood loss after childbirth. Likewise, the delivery mat and pad were found to be useful to mothers as tools for assessing the amount of blood loss after delivery and informing care-seeking decisions. Further studies should be undertaken to explore whether government outreach health workers can be trained to effectively distribute misoprostol tablets among rural women of Bangladesh. Such a study should explore and identify the programmatic requirements to integrate this within the existing reproductive health program of the Government of Bangladesh. PMID:25763402

  13. Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of Syrian hamster embryo cells in utero from cell death and oncogenic transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.C.; LaNasa, P.; Hanson, W.R.

    1994-07-01

    Misoprostol, a PGE analog, is an effective radioprotector of murine intestine and hematopoietic and hair cell renewal systems. The radioprotective nature of misoprostol was extended to examine its ability to influence clonogenic cell survival and induction of oncogenic transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to X rays in utero and assayed in vitro. Hamsters in their 12th day of pregnancy were injected subcutaneously with misoprostal, and 2 h later the pregnant hamsters were exposed to graded doses of X rays. Immediately after irradiation, hamsters were euthanized and embryonic tissue was explanted into culture dishes containing complete growth medium. After a 2-week incubation period, clongenic cell survival and morphologically transformed foci were determined. Survival of misoprostol-treated SHE cells was increased and yielded a dose reduction factor of 1.5 compared to SHE cells treated with X rays alone. In contrast, radiation-induced oncogenic transformation of misoprostol-treated cells was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to cells treated with X rays alone. These studies suggest that misoprostol not only protects normal tissues in vivo from acute radiation injury, but also protects cells, to a large extent, from injury leading to transforming events. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Analysis of misoprostol and chlorhexidine policy gains in Pakistan: the advocacy experience of Mercy Corps Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Zahida; Cutherell, Andrea; Noor, Arif; Naureen, Farah; Norman, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    While Pakistan has made progress toward achieving Millennium Development Goal 5 for maternal health, it is unlikely to achieve the target; further, it is also not on track for Millennium Development Goal 4 regarding child health. Two low-cost, temperature stable and life-saving drugs, misoprostol and chlorhexidine, can respectively avert maternal and newborn deaths, and are particularly pertinent for poor and marginalized areas which bear the brunt of maternal and newborn deaths in Pakistan. In response, Mercy Corps led focused advocacy efforts to promote changes in policies, protocols, and regulatory environments for misoprostol (2012-2014) and for chlorhexidine (2014). These short-duration advocacy projects facilitated significant policy gains, such as inclusion of misoprostol and chlorhexidine into province-specific essential drug lists, development and endorsement of clinical protocols for the two drugs by provincial health departments, inclusion of misoprostol into pre-service training curriculum for several health cadres, and application for registration of chlorhexidine (at the concentration required for newborn care) by two pharmaceutical companies. These results were achieved by a consultative and evidence-based process which generated feedback from community members, program implementers, and policymakers, and ultimately put the government in the driver's seat to facilitate change. Community Action Dialogue forums were linked with provincial-level Technical Working Groups and Provincial Steering Committees, who passed on endorsed recommendations to the Health Secretary. The key factors which facilitated change were the identification of champions within the provincial health departments, prioritization of relationship building and follow-up, focus on concrete advocacy aims rather than broad objectives, and the use of multi-stakeholder forums to secure an enabling environment for the policy changes to take root. While these advocacy initiatives resulted in significant policy changes in Pakistan's devolved health system, to ensure these policy changes have an impact on health outcomes, Pakistan should focus on the scale-up of appropriate use of chlorhexidine and misoprostol. Further, future policy initiatives in Pakistan should make use of similar multi-stakeholder policy forums, while ensuring a third party to facilitate the process so that civil society and community voices are not lost in the policy development discussion. PMID:26792198

  15. Soft X-Ray Emission Lines from a Relativistic Accretion Disk in MCG -6-30-15 and Mrk 766

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Sako, M.; Kahn, S. M.; Brinkman, A. C.; Kaastra, J. S.; Page, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectra of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies MCG -6-30-15 and Mrk 766 are physically and spectroscopically inconsistent with standard models comprising a power-law continuum absorbed by either cold or ionized matter. We propose that the remarkably similar features detected in both objects in the 5 - 35 A band are H-like oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon emission lines, gravitation- ally redshifted and broadened by relativistic effects in the vicinity of a Kerr black hole. We discuss the implications of our interpretation, and demonstrate that the derived parameters can be physically self-consistent.

  16. RXTE and BeppoSAX Observations of MCG-5-23-16: Reflection From Distant Cold Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, B. J.; Weaver, K. A.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the spectral variability of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-5-23-16 using RXTE and BeppoSAX observations spanning 2 years from April 1996 to April 1998. During the first year the X-ray source brightens by a factor of approximately 25% on timescales of days to months. During this time, the reprocessed continuum emission seen with RXTE does not respond measurably to the continuum increase. However, by the end of the second year during the BeppoSAX epoch the X-ray source has faded again. This time, the reprocessed emission has also faded, indicating that the reprocessed flux has responded to the continuum. If these effects are caused by time delays due to the distance between the X-ray source and the reprocessing region, we derive a light crossing time of between approximately 1 light day and approximately 1.5 light years. This corresponds to a distance of 0.001 pc to 0.55 pc, which implies that the reprocessed emission originates between 3 x 10(exp 15) cm and 1.6 x 10(exp l8) cm from the X-ray source. In other words, the reprocessing in MCG-5-23-16 is not dominated by the inner regions of a standard accretion disk.

  17. Implementation of misoprostol for postabortion care in Kenya and Uganda: a qualitative evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Osur, Joachim; Baird, Traci L.; Levandowski, Brooke A.; Jackson, Emily; Murokora, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate implementation of misoprostol for postabortion care (MPAC) in two African countries. Design Qualitative, program evaluation. Setting Twenty-five public and private health facilities in Rift Valley Province, Kenya, and Kampala Province, Uganda. Sample Forty-five MPAC providers, health facility managers, Ministry of Health officials, and non-governmental (NGO) staff involved in program implementation. Methods and main outcome measures In both countries, the Ministry of Health, local health centers and hospitals, and NGO staff developed evidence-based service delivery protocols to introduce MPAC in selected facilities; implementation extended from January 2009 to October 2010. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews evaluated the implementation process, identified supportive and inhibitive policies for implementation, elicited lessons learned during the process, and assessed provider satisfaction and providers impressions of client satisfaction with MPAC. Project reports were also reviewed. Results In both countries, MPAC was easy to use, and freed up provider time and health facility resources traditionally necessary for provision of PAC with uterine aspiration. On-going support of providers following training ensured high quality of care. Providers perceived that many women preferred MPAC, as they avoided instrumentation of the uterus, hospital admission, cost, and stigma associated with abortion. Appropriate registration of misoprostol for use in the pilot, and maintaining supplies of misoprostol, were significant challenges to service provision. Support from the Ministry of Health was necessary for successful implementation; lack of country-based standards and guidelines for MPAC created challenges. Conclusions MPAC is simple, cost-effective and can be readily implemented in settings with high rates of abortion-related mortality. PMID:23618341

  18. X-ray observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxies AKN120 and MCG8-11-11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R.; Marshall, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    A new X-ray source, H0523-00, with the optically variable Seyfert 1 galaxy AKN 120 is identified. The source has a 2-10 keV X-ray flux of 2 x 10 to the -11th ergs/sq cm s which corresponds to a 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity of 10 to the 44th ergs/s. X-ray observations over a 1.5 year time span combined with contemporaneous optical photometry show a decrease in the optical with no corresponding decrease in the X-ray. In contrast, similar observations of MCG 8-11-11 show a contemporaneous decrease in optical and X-ray fluxes. It is noted that the infrared and X-ray spectral slopes for these two objects are similar, with the optical being steeper by roughly one unit.

  19. ASCA observations of the warm absorber in MCG-6-30-15: The discovery of a change in column density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabian, Andrew C.; Kunieda, Hideyo; Inoue, Shigeru; Matsuoka, Masaru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Miyamoto, Sigenori; Otani, Chiko; Ricker, George; Tanaka, Yasuo; Yamauchi, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    We report the first X-ray observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15 obtained at medium spectral resolution. The partially-ionized, 'warm' absorber is resolved and shown to be due to O VII and O VIII. The main absorption edge agrees with that of O VII at the redshift of the galaxy to within 1%. The column density of the absorbing material is greater by a factor of 2 in the first of our two obsevations, which were 3 weeks apart, while the mean flux is slightly lower and the ionization parameter slightly higher. We also discuss the flourescent iron emssion line seen in the source, which is at 6.40 keV. The line is significantly broadened, with a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of about 0.4 keV.

  20. Social networks and health policy: the case of misoprostol and the WHO model essential medicine list.

    PubMed

    Millard, Colin; Brhlikova, Petra; Pollock, Allyson

    2015-05-01

    The WHO Essential Medicines List (EML) was established to help countries prioritise medicines according to their health care needs. Selection for the List is based on rigorous scrutiny of public health relevance, evidence on efficacy and safety, and comparative cost effectiveness. The WHO ideal is that a medicine and its efficacy are based on science, but in reality a medicine has a social life and the acceptance of a pharmaceutical intervention involves the interaction of a wide array of governmental and civil society organisations, and industry. Misoprostol is a medicine widely used for both abortion and prevention of postpartum haemorrhage in low income countries. Although the evidence for the latter is highly contested it was nevertheless added to the WHO EML in 2011. We use social network analysis to examine the social, political and economic field surrounding the WHO EML applications and health policy. We describe a chronology of the drug's use and of the applications to the WHO EML and carry out a social network analysis of the organisations and individuals involved in the applications, research and dissemination. The research identified a network of 238 organisations and individuals involved in the promotion of misoprostol for postpartum haemorrhage and present at the time of the WHO EML applications. There is a strong interdependency between the funding bodies, civil society organisations, researchers and clinician organisations. The research was part of an EU FP7 funded project on Accessing Medicines in Africa and South Asia (2010-2013). PMID:25818380

  1. The effect of the prostaglandin analogue-misoprostol on rat liver mitochondria after chronic alcohol feeding.

    PubMed

    Dlugosz, J W; Korsten, M A; Lieber, C S

    1991-01-01

    Rats fed ethanol (36% of total calories in a nutritionally adequate liquid diet) for 5 weeks develop functional alterations of hepatic mitochondria and steatosis of the liver. At the fatty liver stage, ADP-stimulated respiration of mitochondria was depressed in ethanol fed rats by 30% (p less than 0.001) with glutamate + malate and by 23% (p less than 0.001) with succinate as substrates. A similar decrease was noted in the respiratory control ratio (RCR) (34% and 29%, respectively). The total lipid content of the liver increased 2.6 fold (p less than 0.001). Mitochondrial dysfunction could be prevented, in part, by the treatment with a synthetic derivative of prostaglandin E1, misoprostol, at a mean daily dose of 80 micrograms/kg of body weight. The RCR with glutamate + malate as substrates was improved by 36% (p less than 0.05). We conclude that misoprostol attenuates several functional alterations in liver mitochondria during alcohol feeding. PMID:1909412

  2. Acetaminophen-induced microvascular injury in the rat liver: protection with misoprostol.

    PubMed

    Lim, S P; Andrews, F J; O'Brien, P E

    1995-12-01

    Studies into the mechanism of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity have focused mainly at the hepatocellular level. This study aimed to investigate the effect of acetaminophen on the hepatic microvasculature using a vascular casting technique. Acetaminophen was administered at a dose of 650 mg/kg body weight (intraperitoneally) to fasted male Long Evans rats. Microvascular casting was performed at various points after drug administration. Liver casts from control rats showed good patency with normal hepatic microvasculature. Thirty-six hours after overdose with acetaminophen, liver casts showed rounded centrilobular cavities of various sizes, representing regions in which cast-filled sinusoids were absent with relatively normal microvasculature within periportal regions. Evidence of microvascular injury occurred as early as 5 hours after acetaminophen overdose. This injury consisted of changes to centrilobular sinusoids including areas of incomplete filling and dilated centrilobular sinusoids. Misoprostol (a prostaglandin E1 analog) treatment (6 x 25 micrograms/kg) given before and after acetaminophen administration markedly reduced the extent of microvascular injury with only small focal unfilled areas in the casts and a generally intact microvasculature. In conclusion, this study shows that overdosage with APAP resulted in an extensive, characteristic pattern of hepatic microvascular injury in the centrilobular region. The results also suggest that microvascular injury is an early event in the pathogenesis of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Misoprostol was found to protect against injury occurring at the microvascular level. PMID:7489988

  3. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.J.; Zhang, x.J.; Gu, x.A.; Clark, D.A. )

    1991-07-01

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of {sup 51}Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in {sup 51}Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal {sup 51}Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol.

  4. Improvement of fertility in artificially inseminated ewes following vaginal treatment with misoprostol plus terbutaline sulphate.

    PubMed

    Horta, A E M; Barbas, J P; Marques, C C; Baptista, M C; Vasques, M I; Pereira, R M; Mascarenhas, R D; Cavaco-Gonalves, S

    2010-12-01

    The effect of vaginal administration of misoprostol plus terbutaline sulphate 6?h prior to artificial insemination (AI) upon the site of AI (vaginal or cervical) and fertility was studied using a total of 87 estrous synchronized Serra da Estrela ewes (control n?=?42 and treated n?=?45). Artificial insemination was performed using refrigerated semen at 54-55?h after sponge removal. Lambing rate (fertility) and prolificacy were compared between control and treated ewes. The effect of the site of semen deposition on fertility was also evaluated. Prolificacy rate was not different between control (1.5) and treated (1.59) ewes. The proportion of cervical AI achieved in control (45.2%) and treated (37.8%) ewes was not significantly different. Overall, fertility was significantly lower in control than in treated ewes (42.9% vs 64.4%; p?misoprostol plus terbutaline sulphate 6?h prior to artificial insemination did not affect the proportion of cervical inseminations but significantly improved the fertility of treated ewes. Although needing confirmation, it was hypothesized that drugs might have induced local secretory modifications leading to an increase of cervical ability to retain more viable spermatozoa for fertilization. PMID:20210884

  5. Small-angle neutron scattering study of Bence-Jones protein Mcg: comparison of structures in solution and in crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, M.; Stevens, F.J.; Westholm, F.A.; Kim, S.S.; Carlson, R.D.

    1982-06-08

    Small-angle neutron scattering measurements in dilute solution were performed on the Mcg Bence-Jones protein dimer, for which accurate atomic coordinates have been determined by crystallographic methods. The measured radius of gyration (R/sub g/) in H/sub 2/O buffer is 24.0 +/- 0.4 angstrom and in D/sub 2/O buffer is 23.3 +/- O.1 angstrom; the calculated value of R/sub v/ (R/sub g/ in vacuo) is 24.0 angstrom. On the basis of a match point of 44.2% D/sub 2/O concentration, the experimental partial specific volume is 0.74 cm/sup 3//g. The experimentally derived molecular weight of 47 000 is in very good agreement with that (45 500) calculated from the amino acid composition. For comparisons with different Fab's (antigen binding fragments) exhibiting various ''elbow bends'' due to the flexibility of the switch peptide between variable and constant domains of the immunoglobulin chains, calculation of the R/sub g/ value of the Mcg dimer was performed as a function of the elbow bend. The R/sub g/ varied from 22.8 to 26.0 angstrom as the elbow bend was opened from 100/sup 0/ to 180/sup 0/; the maximum radius of gyration of the particle was 26.5 angstrom with the switch peptide stretched by separating the variable and constant domains by an additional 1.5 angstrom at an elbow bend of 180/sup 0/.

  6. Relativistic Iron K Emission and Absorption in the Seyfert 1.9 Galaxy MCG-05-23-16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braito, V.; Reeves, J. N.; Dewangan, G. C.; George, I.; Griffiths, R.; Markowitz, A.; Nandra, K.; Porquet, D.; Ptak, A.; Turner, T. J.; Yaqoob, T.; Weaver, K.

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of the simultaneous deep XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the bright Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-5-23-16, which is thought to have one of the best known examples of a relativistically broadened iron Kalpha line. We detected a narrow sporadic absorption line at 7.7 keV which appears to be variable on a time-scale of 20 ksec. If associated with FeXXVI this absorption is indicative of a possible variable high ionization, high velocity outflow. The time averaged spectral analysis shows that the iron K-shell complex is best modeled with an unresolved narrow emission component (FWHM less than 5000 kilometers per second, EW approx. 60 eV) plus a broad component. This latter component has FWHM approx. 44000 kilometers per second, an EW approx. 50 eV and its profile is well described with an emission line originating from the accretion disk viewed with an inclination angle approx. 40 deg. and with the emission arising from within a few tens of gravitational radii of the central black hole. The time-resolved spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton EPIC-pn spectrum shows that both the narrow and broad components of the Fe K emission line appear to be constant within the errors. The analysis of the XMM-Newton/RGS spectrum reveals that the soft X-ray emission of MCG-5-23-16 is likely dominated by several emission lines superimposed on an unabsorbed scattered power-law continuum. The lack of strong Fe L shell emission together with the detection of a strong forbidden line in the O VII triplet supports a scenario where the soft X ray emission lines are produced in a plasma photoionized by the nuclear emission.

  7. A combination of misoprostol and estradiol for preoperative cervical ripening in postmenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Oppegaard, KS; Lieng, M; Berg, A; Istre, O; Qvigstad, E; Nesheim, B-I

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the impact of 1000 ?g of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus self-administered vaginal placebo on preoperative cervical ripening after 2 weeks of pretreatment with estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women prior to day-care operative hysteroscopy. Design Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled sequential trial. Setting Norwegian university teaching hospital. Population Sixty-seven postmenopausal women referred for day-care operative hysteroscopy. Methods The women were randomised to receive either 1000 ?g of self-administered vaginal misoprostol or self-administered vaginal placebo on the evening before day-care operative hysteroscopy. All women had administered a 25-?g vaginal estradiol tablet daily for 14 days prior to the operation. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: preoperative cervical dilatation at hysteroscopy. Secondary outcomes: difference in dilatation at recruitment and before hysteroscopy, number of women who achieved a preoperative cervical dilatation of 5 mm or more, acceptability, complications and adverse effects. Results The mean cervical dilatation was 5.7 mm (SD, 1.6 mm) in the misoprostol group and 4.7 mm (SD, 1.5 mm) in the placebo group, the mean difference in cervical dilatation being 1.0 mm (95% CI, 0.21.7 mm). Self-administered vaginal misoprostol of 1000 ?g at home on the evening before day-care hysteroscopy is safe and highly acceptable, although a small proportion of women experienced lower abdominal pain. Conclusions One thousand micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol, 12 hours prior to day-care hysteroscopy, after 14 days of pretreatment with vaginal estradiol, has a significant cervical ripening effect compared with placebo in postmenopausal women. PMID:20002369

  8. Comparison of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus placebo for cervical ripening prior to operative hysteroscopy using a sequential trial design*

    PubMed Central

    Oppegaard, KS; Nesheim, B-I; Istre, O; Qvigstad, E

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the impact of 1000 micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus self-administered vaginal placebo at home on preoperative cervical ripening in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women before operative hysteroscopy. Design Two separate but identical parallel, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled sequential trials, one in premenopausal women and one in postmenopausal women. The boundaries for the sequential trials were calculated on the primary outcomes of a difference of cervical dilatation ?1 mm, with the assumption of a type 1 error of 0.05 and a power of 0.95. Setting Norwegian university teaching hospital. Sample Eighty-six women referred to outpatient operative hysteroscopy. Methods The women were randomised to either 1000 micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol or self-administered vaginal placebo the evening before outpatient operative hysteroscopy. Main outcome measures Preoperative cervical dilatation (primary outcome), number of women who achieve a preoperative cervical dilatation ?5 mm, acceptability, complications and adverse effects (secondary outcomes). Results In premenopausal women, the mean cervical dilatation was 6.4 mm (SD 2.4) in the misoprostol group and 4.8 mm (SD 2.0) in the placebo group, the mean difference in cervical dilatation being 1.6 mm (95% CI 0.52.7). Among the premenopausal women receiving misoprostol, 88% achieved a cervical dilatation of ?5 mm compared with 65% in the placebo group. Twelve percent of the women who received misoprostol were difficult to dilate compared with 32% who received placebo. Dilatation was also quicker in the misoprostol group. Misoprostol had no effect on cervical ripening in postmenopausal women compared with placebo, and 43% of the women were difficult to dilate. The trials were terminated after analysis of 21 postmenopausal women and 65 premenopausal women after reaching a conclusion on the primary outcome with only 28% of the number of women needed in a fixed sample size trial. Three of 45 women who received misoprostol experienced severe lower abdominal pain, and there was an increased occurrence of light preoperative bleeding in the misoprostol group. Most women did not experience misoprostol-related adverse effects. The majority (83% of premenopausal and 76% of postmenopausal women) found self-administered vaginal misoprostol at home to be acceptable. There were two serious complications in the premenopausal misoprostol group: uterine perforation with subsequent peritonitis and heavy postoperative bleeding requiring blood transfusion, but these were not judged to be misoprostol related. Complications were otherwise comparatively minor and distributed equally between the two dosage groups. Conclusions One thousand micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol 12 hours prior to operative hysteroscopy has a significant cervical ripening effect compared with placebo in premenopausal but not in postmenopausal women. Self-administered vaginal misoprostol of 1000 micrograms at home the evening before operative hysteroscopy is safe and highly acceptable, although a small proportion of women experienced severe lower abdominal pain. There is a risk of lower abdominal pain and light preoperative bleeding with this regimen, which is very cheap and easy to use. Please cite this paper as: Oppegaard K, Nesheim B, Istre O, Qvigstad E. Comparison of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus placebo for cervical ripening prior to operative hysteroscopy using a sequential trial design. BJOG 2008;115:663e9. PMID:18201279

  9. MCG+00-32-16: An Irregular Galaxy Close to the Lowest Redshift Absorber on the 3C 273 Line of Sight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, G. L.; Lu, N. Y.; Salpeter, E. E.; Connell, B. M.; Fromhold-Treu, R.

    1998-01-01

    We present H I synthesis array mapping and CCD photometry in B and R for MCG+00-32-16. The H I disk is rotating in such a way that the side of the galaxy closer to the sight-line to the quasar has the larger velocity difference from the absorber.

  10. USDA DATABASE OF VITAMIN A (MCG RAE) AND VITAMIN E (MG AT) FOR NATIONAL HEALTH AND NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY 1999-2000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current dietary reference intakes (DRI) for recommended intakes for individuals for vitamin A are expressed as micrograms of retinol activity equivalents (mcg RAE), and for vitamin E as milligrams of alpha-tocopherol (mg AT). Previously, recommendations were expressed as micrograms of retinol equi...

  11. ASASSN-16az and ASASSN-16ba: Discovery of Two Probable Supernovae in 2MASX J11303364-4233359 and MCG -03-25-015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Godoy-Rivera, D.; Basu, U.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Chen, Ping; Brimacombe, J.

    2016-01-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" telescope in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered two new transient sources, most likely supernovae, in the galaxies 2MASX J11303364-4233359 and MCG -03-25-015.

  12. A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of misoprostol rectal suppositories to prevent acute radiation proctitis in patients with prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hille, Andrea . E-mail: ahille@med.uni-goettingen.de; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hermann, Robert M.; Christiansen, Hans; Saile, Bernhard; Pradier, Olivier; Hess, Clemens F.

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis is the most relevant complication of pelvic radiation and is still mainly treated supportively. Considering the negative impact of acute proctitis symptoms on patients' daily activities and the potential relationship between the severity of acute radiation injury and late damage, misoprostol was tested in the prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 patients who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer were entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. Radiation-induced toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy using the Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Between the placebo and the misoprostol groups, no significant differences in proctitis symptoms occurred: 76% of patients in each group had Grade 1 toxicity, and 26% in the placebo group and 36% in the misoprostol group had Grade 2 toxicity. No differences were found in onset or symptom duration. Comparing the peak incidence of patients' toxicity symptoms, significantly more patients experienced rectal bleeding in the misoprostol group (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Misoprostol given as a once-daily suppository did not decrease the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis and may increase the incidence of acute bleeding.

  13. A case of toxic shock due to clandestine abortion by misoprostol self-administration.

    PubMed

    Cittadini, Francesca; Loyola, Giovanni; Caradonna, Letizia; Minelli, Natalia; Rossi, Riccardo

    2014-11-01

    Maternal mortality and morbidity are the leading causes of death and illness, respectively, among women of reproductive age in many countries throughout the world. Of all maternal deaths, those related to unsafe abortions are the most widely underestimated, but they are also the most largely preventable. Medical abortion is a safe and reliable method for termination of a pregnancy in early gestation, although it is important to be aware of signs and symptoms of severe infection and toxic shock syndrome after the medical termination of pregnancy; case studies in literature are rarely fatal events. We report the first case of septic shock syndrome following a clandestine pregnancy termination with a misoprostol-only regimen (12 tablets 200?g each). Autopsy findings and histopathological examination proved that the woman died from septic shock. This case suggests to improve the forensic investigations in case of unsafe, often clandestine, abortion is suspected. PMID:25041279

  14. Improving the gastrointestinal safety of NSAIDs: the development of misoprostol--from hypothesis to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, F E

    1998-03-01

    Arthritis is a major source of disability for the American population. It results in significant morbidity for the millions of patients affected and costs billions of dollars yearly for diagnosis and management. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the principal therapy for the majority of arthritis patients. It has been estimated that more than 15 million people with arthritis take these drugs daily. This use is predicted to increase greatly not only as a result of an aging population, with the consequent increase in the prevalence of arthritis, but also because NSAIDs may prove to have a role in decreasing colonic neoplasia and in reducing the likelihood of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. It is therefore increasingly important to understand the nature of the side effects associated with these agents as well as ways of decreasing or preventing their occurrence. NSAIDs inhibit the enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2. This reduces the synthesis of prostaglandins and therefore decreases joint inflammation, but it may also lead to the development of gastric and duodenal ulcers. For this reason, exogenous prostaglandins have been studied for their potential role in preventing NSAID-associated ulcers and ulcer complications. This paper reviews the development of the prostaglandin E1 analog misoprostol, the theory behind its use as a mucosal protective agent, and the results of studies in animals as well as in normal volunteers and patients with arthritis. Ultimately, a study was performed to evaluate whether misoprostol reduces the incidence of serious ulcer complications in patients taking NSAIDs. It is an interesting story, which promises to be of increasing importance as NSAID use expands to new indications while concern remains about their associated complications, especially those related to the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:9539636

  15. Improving manual vacuum aspiration service delivery, introducing misoprostol for cases of incomplete abortion, and strengthening postabortion contraception in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Begum, Ferdousi; Zaidi, Shahida; Fatima, Parveen; Shamsuddin, Latifa; Anowar-ul-Azim, A K M; Begum, Rowshan Ara

    2014-07-01

    The Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society of Bangladesh was an important advocate in mobilizing government authorities to adopt new techniques for postabortion care and provide long-acting contraceptives post abortion. With the support of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), the Society provided commodities and training to increase the use of these techniques in 7 private and public hospitals and clinics. Data from two of these institutes for the January 2012 to June 2013 period showed a rapid decrease in the use of dilation and curettage, an increase in the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and misoprostol, and the progressive adoption of long-acting reversible contraceptives, permanent contraception, and injectable contraceptives in one of these two hospitals. The Directorates General of Health and Family Planning incorporated training in the use of MVA and misoprostol in their national operation plans. The success in these hospitals shows that the proposed changes have been well accepted by providers and clients. PMID:24792403

  16. The Broadband Spectral Variability of MCG-6-30-15 Observed by Nustar and XMM-NEWTON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Miniutti, G.; Guainazzi, M.; Parker, M. L.; Brenneman, L.; Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E.; Arevalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boggs, S. E.; Cappi, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Elvis, M.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Reynolds, C. S.; Risaliti, G.; Stern, D. K; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W.

    2014-01-01

    MCG-6-30-15, at a distance of 37 Mpc (z = 0.008), is the archetypical Seyfert 1 galaxy showing very broad Fe K(alpha) emission. We present results from a joint NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observational campaign that, for the first time, allows a sensitive, time-resolved spectral analysis from 0.35 keV up to 80 keV. The strong variability of the source is best explained in terms of intrinsic X-ray flux variations and in the context of the light-bending model: the primary, variable emission is reprocessed by the accretion disk, which produces secondary, less variable, reflected emission. The broad Fe K(alpha) profile is, as usual for this source, well explained by relativistic effects occurring in the innermost regions of the accretion disk around a rapidly rotating black hole. We also discuss the alternative model in which the broadening of the Fe K(alpha) is due to the complex nature of the circumnuclear absorbing structure. Even if this model cannot be ruled out, it is disfavored on statistical grounds.We also detected an occultation event likely caused by broad-line region clouds crossing the line of sight.

  17. Surgical versus expectant management in women with an incomplete evacuation of the uterus after treatment with misoprostol for miscarriage: the MisoREST trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical treatment with misoprostol is a non-invasive and inexpensive treatment option in first trimester miscarriage. However, about 30% of women treated with misoprostol have incomplete evacuation of the uterus. Despite being relatively asymptomatic in most cases, this finding often leads to additional surgical treatment (curettage). A comparison of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of surgical management versus expectant management is lacking in women with incomplete miscarriage after misoprostol. Methods/Design The proposed study is a multicentre randomized controlled trial that assesses the costs and effects of curettage versus expectant management in women with incomplete evacuation of the uterus after misoprostol treatment for first trimester miscarriage. Eligible women will be randomized, after informed consent, within 24 hours after identification of incomplete evacuation of the uterus by ultrasound scanning. Women are randomly allocated to surgical or expectant management. Curettage is performed within three days after randomization. Primary outcome is the sonographic finding of an empty uterus (maximal diameter of any contents of the uterine cavity < 10 millimeters) six weeks after study entry. Secondary outcomes are patients’ quality of life, surgical outcome parameters, the type and number of re-interventions during the first three months and pregnancy rates and outcome 12 months after study entry. Discussion This trial will provide evidence for the (cost) effectiveness of surgical versus expectant management in women with incomplete evacuation of the uterus after misoprostol treatment for first trimester miscarriage. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register: NTR3110 PMID:23638956

  18. Effects of a single rectal dose of Misoprostol prior to abdominal hysterectomy in women with symptomatic leiomyoma: a randomized double blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Afsarosadat; Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Meibodi, Bahare; Vaghefi, Marzie; Yazdian, Pouria; Zeidabadi, Mahbube; Dehghani, Atefe; Teimoori, Soraya; Jamali, Azadeh; Akhondi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibroma, the most common benign pelvic tumor in women, affects 25 to 30% of women of reproductive age. Primary treatment for patients with symptomatic or large fibroma is surgery. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single rectal dose of Misoprostol on bleeding during abdominal hysterectomy. Methods This double blind randomized clinical trial was conducted with 80 candidates for abdominal hysterectomy, due to uterine myoma, in the Shahid Sadoughi hospital of Yazd in 2012. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of single rectal dose of Misoprostol on peri-operational abdominal hysterectomy bleeding. Following administration of 400 micrograms of Misoprostol in the case group (n=40), predetermined criteria were compared with control group (n=40). Results Volume of bleeding during the operation was significantly lower in cases where Misoprostol was used. (268.71 156.85 vs. 350.38 152.61 cc in the case and control groups, respectively). Our findings also showed that Hemoglobin (Hb) levels before, 8, and 30 hours following the operation differed significantly (p=0.001), but these changes were similar in both groups. Pre-operative Hb levels were 11.90 1.7 and 11.90 2.0 in the case and control groups, respectively. Conclusion A single rectal dose of Misoprostol has positive effect on reducing peri-operational bleeding in women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy due to symptomatic leiomyoma. PMID:26516444

  19. Oral Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease ...

  20. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease ...

  1. Oral Warts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease ...

  2. Oral myiasis.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  3. Oral Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  4. Morphological Findings in Trophozoites during Amoebic Abscess Development in Misoprostol-Treated BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aceves-Cano, Andrés; Gaytán-Ochoa, Rocío; Ramos-Martínez, Ernesto; Erosa de la Vega, Gilberto; González-Horta, Carmen; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca

    2015-01-01

    During amoebic liver abscess (ALA) formation in susceptible animals, immune response is regulated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) dependent mechanisms. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of misoprostol (MPL), a PGE1 analogue, on ALA formation in BALB/c mice. Male mice from BALB/c strain were intrahepatically infected with 7.5 × 105 trophozoites of E. histolytica strain HM1:IMSS and treated with 10−4 M of MPL daily until sacrifice at 2, 4, and 7 days postinfection (p.i.). ALA formation was evaluated at 2, 4, and 7 days postinfection; trophozoite morphology was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Results showed an increase in frequency of ALA formation in infected and MPL-treated mice only at 2 days p.i. (P = 0.03). A significant diminution in the size of trophozoites was detected in abscesses from mice independently of MPL treatment (from 5.8 ± 1.1 µm at 2 days p.i. to 2.7 ± 1.9 µm at 7 days p.i.) compared with trophozoites dimensions observed in susceptible hamsters (9.6 ± 2.7 µm) (P < 0.01). These results suggest that MPL treatment may modify the adequate control of inflammatory process to allow the persistence of trophozoites in the liver; however, natural resistance mechanisms cannot be discarded. PMID:26090455

  5. Morphological Findings in Trophozoites during Amoebic Abscess Development in Misoprostol-Treated BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Aceves-Cano, Andrs; Gaytn-Ochoa, Roco; Ramos-Martnez, Ernesto; Erosa de la Vega, Gilberto; Gonzlez-Horta, Carmen; Talams-Rohana, Patricia; Snchez-Ramrez, Blanca

    2015-01-01

    During amoebic liver abscess (ALA) formation in susceptible animals, immune response is regulated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) dependent mechanisms. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of misoprostol (MPL), a PGE1 analogue, on ALA formation in BALB/c mice. Male mice from BALB/c strain were intrahepatically infected with 7.5 10(5) trophozoites of E. histolytica strain HM1:IMSS and treated with 10(-4)?M of MPL daily until sacrifice at 2, 4, and 7 days postinfection (p.i.). ALA formation was evaluated at 2, 4, and 7 days postinfection; trophozoite morphology was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Results showed an increase in frequency of ALA formation in infected and MPL-treated mice only at 2 days p.i. (P = 0.03). A significant diminution in the size of trophozoites was detected in abscesses from mice independently of MPL treatment (from 5.8 1.1?m at 2 days p.i. to 2.7 1.9?m at 7 days p.i.) compared with trophozoites dimensions observed in susceptible hamsters (9.6 2.7?m) (P < 0.01). These results suggest that MPL treatment may modify the adequate control of inflammatory process to allow the persistence of trophozoites in the liver; however, natural resistance mechanisms cannot be discarded. PMID:26090455

  6. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martnez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gmez, Germn Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

  7. [Misoprostol: pathways, mediation and social networks for access to abortion using medication in the context of illegality in the State of Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Arilha, Margareth Martha

    2012-07-01

    The scope of this article is to discuss the commercialization and use of misoprostol for abortion purposes in the illegal contexts that still persist in Brazil. The information presented was collected through case studies conducted with two young women who aborted using medication - one successfully and one unsuccessfully - and two adult women who have close ties with women who used misoprostol. The study confirms the hypothesis that the diffusion and expansion of the use of misoprostol outside the hospital context is associated with the decision of women who seek lower costs, lower risks to their health and privacy. It also permits examination of the interpretation that this increase in consumption is linked to the inclusion of the medication in a set of goods that are illegally traded in Brazil, in different ways and in different contexts. As a result, women are exposed to different degrees of vulnerability depending directly on the steps taken, types of mediation used and social networks they belong to. These are the ways in which women and men obtain access to the use of misoprostol for abortion, the outcome of which may be successful or not. PMID:22872340

  8. [The illegal market for gender-related drugs as portrayed in the Brazilian news media: the case of misoprostol and women].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Castro, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes how the Brazilian news media covers the illegal market for misoprostol, the main drug used to induce abortion. A total of 1,429 news stories were retrieved from 220 print and electronic media channels from 2004 to 2009. The analysis included 524 stories from 62 regional and national newspapers. Misoprostol appeared repeatedly in the news, but was usually approached from a criminal perspective, unlike abortion as a whole, which the Brazilian media routinely covers as a religious, political, and public health issue. Misoprostol is part of the illegal gender-related drug market, along with drugs for weight loss and erectile dysfunction and anabolic steroids. Sixty-four (12%) of the news stories told life histories of women who had aborted with misoprostol. The women's ages ranged from 13 to 46 years, and socioeconomic status was associated with different experiences with abortion. Three characters appeared in the women's abortion itineraries: girlfriends (confidantes), go-betweens, and physicians. Stories of late-stage abortion are confused with the criminal characterization of infanticide and provide the extreme cases in the media's narrative on abortion. PMID:21340108

  9. DISCOVERY OF Fe K{alpha} X-RAY REVERBERATION AROUND THE BLACK HOLES IN MCG-5-23-16 AND NGC 7314

    SciTech Connect

    Zoghbi, A.; Reynolds, C.; Cackett, E. M.; Miniutti, G.; Kara, E.; Fabian, A. C.

    2013-04-20

    Several X-ray observations have recently revealed the presence of reverberation time delays between spectral components in active galactic nuclei. Most of the observed lags are between the power-law Comptonization component, seen directly, and the soft excess produced by reflection in the vicinity of the black hole. NGC 4151 was the first object to show these lags in the iron K band. Here, we report the discovery of reverberation lags in the Fe K band in two other sources: MCG-5-23-16 and NGC 7314. In both objects, the 6-7 keV band, where the Fe K{alpha} line peaks, lags the bands at lower and higher energies with a time delay of {approx}1 ks. These lags are unlikely to be due to the narrow Fe K{alpha} line. They are fully consistent with reverberation of the relativistically broadened iron K{alpha} line. The measured lags, their time scale, and spectral modeling indicate that most of the radiation is emitted at {approx}5 and 24 gravitational radii for MCG-5-23-16 and NGC 7314, respectively.

  10. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... consistency to exercises for weak oral muscles to learning totally new ways to swallow. In many cases, improvement is evident within several months. What other organizations have information about oral cancer? This list is ...

  11. Abortion after deliberate Arthrotec addition to food. Mass spectrometric detection of diclofenac, misoprostol acid, and their urinary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Watzer, Bernhard; Lusthof, Klaas J; Schweer, Horst

    2015-07-01

    Arthrotec() (AT) is a combination of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and misoprostol (MP), a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). MP is a lipophilic methyl ester prodrug. It is readily metabolized to the biologically active misoprostol acid (MPA). During the last few years, medical studies exhibited MP to be an excellent abortive. In this paper, we describe a rare criminal case of MP abortion, initiated by the expectant father. After the abortion, samples of vomit and urine were collected. Systemic exposure to MP is difficult to prove, because both MP and the active metabolite MPA are hardly excreted in urine. Therefore, in addition to routine toxicological analysis, we used slightly modified, well-established liquid and gas chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS) methods, for the direct and the indirect detection of MPA and its metabolites. In this case, we were able to demonstrate the presence of the major MP metabolites 2,3-dinor-MPA and 2,3,4,5-tetranor-MPA in the urine of the victim. We also detected paracetamol, 3-methoxyparacetamol and diclofenac-glucuronide in the urine. In the vomit of the victim, we detected diclofenac and MPA. These results, combined with the criminal investigations, showed that the accused had mixed MP into the food of his pregnant girlfriend. Finally, these investigations contributed to a confession of the accused. PMID:25524762

  12. Cycle-Related Changes in Mood, Sexual Desire, and Sexual Activity in Oral Contraception-Using and Nonhormonal-Contraception-Using Couples.

    PubMed

    Elaut, Els; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra; Gerris, Jan; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Findings on women's sexuality across the menstrual cycle are inconsistent. One relatively consistent finding is a midcycle and premenstrual peak in sexual desire in freely cycling women. Results on the cycle-related effects on sexual behavior are less clear. Large proportions of reproductive-aged women use combined oral contraception (COC), but studies on potential cycle-related shifts in sexual desire and behavior are sparse. A prospective diary study assessed sexual desire, sexual behavior, and mood in 89 heterosexual couples. Women were using one of four contraceptive methods: (1) nonhormonal contraception, (2) low-dose COC containing 20 mcg ethinylestradiol and 75 mcg gestoden or desogestrel, (3) COC containing 35 mcg ethinylestradiol and 2 mg cyproteronacetate, and (4) COC containing 30 mcg ethinylestradiol and 3 mg drospirenone. No cycle effects of sexual desire were established in the COC group, but frequency of sexual intercourse declined in the last days of active pill taking. These results were similar in both female and male partners. Negative affect did not covary with sexual desire. PMID:25420716

  13. Factors in the choice of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate dose for adult burns dressings.

    PubMed

    Shah, H; Smythe, J; Hanafiah, Z; Williams, G J P; Holdcroft, A

    2009-09-01

    Factors that influenced the choice of dose of oral transmucosal fentanyl at the time of burns dressing change were investigated in a prospective study. After Ethics committee approval, data was analysed from 29 consecutive patients who had been recruited and consented for a study of pain associated with burns dressings. Patients had completed an 11-point verbal pain intensity score (VRS) prior to and after the dressing change. Analgesic use during for this period was documented. Doses of 600 to 1200 mcg of transmucosal fentanyl (Actiq) were given based on individual assessment. The pre-dressing VRS (median [range]) in the 15 patients who received 600 mcg was 8 [3-10] and was higher than the VRS of 6 [2-9] in the 800-1200 mcg group. The time since the burn was longer in the low dose group at 7 [1-22] days compared with 5 [0-50] days in the higher dose group. In addition 73% of the low dose group was prescribed opioids regularly prior to the dressing compared with 57% of the high dose group. The choice of a lower transmucosal fentanyl dose was based on prior use of opioids and the age of the burn rather than on the patient's pain intensity. PMID:19167829

  14. Effects on acne of two oral contraceptives containing desogestrel and cyproterone acetate.

    PubMed

    Charoenvisal, C; Thaipisuttikul, Y; Pinjaroen, S; Krisanapan, O; Benjawang, W; Koster, A; Doesburg, W

    1996-01-01

    In Thailand, at the Prince of Sonkhla University in Sonkhla (Center A) and Rajvithi Hospital in Bangkok (Center B), researchers compared data on 32 women using a low-dose combined oral contraceptive (OC) containing 150 mcg desogestrel plus 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol (Marvelon) with data on 34 women using an OC containing 2000 mcg cyproterone acetate plus 50 mcg ethinyl estradiol (Diane) to examine their efficacy in acne treatment. All the women presented with acne and were between 16 and 30 years old. The study consisted of a baseline cycle and 6 successive treatment cycles. The mean objective acne score decreased with both OCs in Center A. This decrease was significant with Diane after 3 and 6 treatment cycles (p 0.05). At cycle 6, the mean objective score for Diane was much lower than that for Marvelon (p 0.05). At Center B, the mean objective score consistently and significantly decreased with Marvelon after 3 and 6 treatment cycles (p 0.05 and p 0.01, respectively) and with Diane after 6 treatment cycles (p 0.001). No significant between-group differences existed for Center B. The percentage of women with moderate/severe acne decreased significantly with Marvelon at Center B (p = 0.002) and with Diane in Centers A (p = 0.014) and B (p = 0.004). Both Diane and Marvelon significantly increased plasma levels of sex hormone binding globulin at 3 and 6 treatment cycles (p 0.01). They tended to reduce plasma levels of total and free testosterone. This decrease only reached significance with Marvelon, however (p 0.05). There were no significant associations between acne severity and biochemical variables. These findings suggest that both OCs cause significant improvement in acne in most Asian women who also may need a reliable contraceptive. There were no significant differences between the two OCs. PMID:8894800

  15. Sublingual Misoprostol versus Intramuscular Oxytocin for Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Uganda: A Double-Blind Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial

    PubMed Central

    Atukunda, Esther C.; Siedner, Mark J.; Obua, Celestino; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R.; Twagirumukiza, Marc; Agaba, Amon G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the World Health Organization recommends use of oxytocin for prevention of PPH, misoprostol use is increasingly common owing to advantages in shelf life and potential for sublingual administration. There is a lack of data about the comparative efficacy of oxytocin and sublingual misoprostol, particularly at the recommended dose of 600 g, for prevention of PPH during active management of labor. Methods and Findings We performed a double-blind, double-dummy randomized controlled non-inferiority trial between 23 September 2012 and 9 September 2013 at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda. We randomized 1,140 women to receive 600 g of misoprostol sublingually or 10 IU of oxytocin intramuscularly, along with matching placebos for the treatment they did not receive. Our primary outcome of interest was PPH, defined as measured blood loss ?500 ml within 24 h of delivery. Secondary outcomes included measured blood loss ?1,000 ml; mean measured blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 h after delivery; death; requirement for blood transfusion; hemoglobin changes; and use of additional uterotonics. At 24 h postpartum, primary PPH occurred in 163 (28.6%) participants in the misoprostol group and 99 (17.4%) participants in the oxytocin group (relative risk [RR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.05, p<0.001; absolute risk difference 11.2%, 95% CI 6.44 to 16.1). Severe PPH occurred in 20 (3.6%) and 15 (2.7%) participants in the misoprostol and oxytocin groups, respectively (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.58, p?=?0.391; absolute risk difference 0.9%, 95% CI ?1.12 to 2.88). Mean measured blood loss was 341.5 ml (standard deviation [SD] 206.2) and 304.2 ml (SD 190.8, p?=?0.002) at 2 h and 484.7 ml (SD 213.3) and 432.8 ml (SD 203.5, p<0.001) at 24 h in the misoprostol and oxytocin groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups in any other secondary outcomes. Women in the misoprostol group more commonly experienced shivering (RR 1.91, 95% CI 1.65 to 2.21, p<0.001) and fevers (RR 5.20, 95% CI 3.15 to 7.21, p?=?0.005). This study was conducted at a regional referral hospital with capacity for emergency surgery and blood transfusion. High-risk women were excluded from participation. Conclusions Misoprostol 600 g is inferior to oxytocin 10 IU for prevention of primary PPH in active management of labor. These data support use of oxytocin in settings where it is available. While not powered to do so, the study found no significant differences in rate of severe PPH, need for blood transfusion, postpartum hemoglobin, change in hemoglobin, or use of additional uterotonics between study groups. Further research should focus on clarifying whether and in which sub-populations use of oxytocin would be preferred over sublingual misoprostol. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01866241 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25369200

  16. Observations of MCG-5-23-16 with Suzaku, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR: Disk tomography and compton hump reverberation

    SciTech Connect

    Zoghbi, A.; Reynolds, C.; Lohfink, A.; Cackett, E. M.; Kara, E.; Fabian, A. C.; Harrison, F. A.; Balokovic, M.; Matt, G.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W.; Christensen, F. E.; Hailey, C. J.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-07-01

    MCG-5-23-16 is one of the first active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where relativistic reverberation in the iron K line originating in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole was found, based on a short XMM-Newton observation. In this work, we present the results from long X-ray observations using Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR designed to map the emission region using X-ray reverberation. A relativistic iron line is detected in the lag spectra on three different timescales, allowing the emission from different regions around the black hole to be separated. Using NuSTAR coverage of energies above 10 keV reveals a lag between these energies and the primary continuum, which is detected for the first time in an AGN. This lag is a result of the Compton reflection hump responding to changes in the primary source in a manner similar to the response of the relativistic iron K line.

  17. Observations of MCG-5-23-16 with Suzaku, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR: Disk Tomography and Compton Hump Reverberation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoghbi, A.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C.; Kara, E.; Harrison, F. A.; Fabian, A. C.; Lohfink, A.; Matt, G.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    MCG-5-23-16 is one of the first active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where relativistic reverberation in the iron K line originating in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole was found, based on a short XMM-Newton observation. In this work, we present the results from long X-ray observations using Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR designed to map the emission region using X-ray reverberation. A relativistic iron line is detected in the lag spectra on three different timescales, allowing the emission from different regions around the black hole to be separated. Using NuSTAR coverage of energies above 10 keV reveals a lag between these energies and the primary continuum, which is detected for the first time in an AGN. This lag is a result of the Compton reflection hump responding to changes in the primary source in a manner similar to the response of the relativistic iron K line.

  18. DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 is involved in (m)CG and (m)CCG DNA methylation and is essential for sporophyte development in Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Yaari, Rafael; Noy-Malka, Chen; Wiedemann, Gertrud; Auerbach Gershovitz, Nitzan; Reski, Ralf; Katz, Aviva; Ohad, Nir

    2015-07-01

    DNA methylation has a crucial role in plant development regulating gene expression and silencing of transposable elements. Maintenance DNA methylation in plants occurs at symmetrical (m)CG and (m)CHG contexts ((m) = methylated) and is maintained by DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1) and CHROMOMETHYLASE (CMT) DNA methyltransferase protein families, respectively. While angiosperm genomes encode for several members of MET1 and CMT families, the moss Physcomitrella patens, serving as a model for early divergent land plants, carries a single member of each family. To determine the function of P. patens PpMET we generated ΔPpmet deletion mutant which lost (m)CG and unexpectedly (m)CCG methylation at loci tested. In order to evaluate the extent of (m)CCG methylation by MET1, we reexamined the Arabidopsis thaliana Atmet1 mutant methylome and found a similar pattern of methylation loss, suggesting that maintenance of DNA methylation by MET1 is conserved through land plant evolution. While ΔPpmet displayed no phenotypic alterations during its gametophytic phase, it failed to develop sporophytes, indicating that PpMET plays a role in gametogenesis or early sporophyte development. Expression array analysis revealed that the deletion of PpMET resulted in upregulation of two genes and multiple repetitive sequences. In parallel, expression analysis of the previously reported ΔPpcmt mutant showed that lack of PpCMT triggers overexpression of genes. This overexpression combined with loss of (m)CHG and its pleiotropic phenotype, implies that PpCMT has an essential evolutionary conserved role in the epigenetic control of gene expression. Collectively, our results suggest functional conservation of MET1 and CMT families during land plant evolution. A model describing the relationship between MET1 and CMT in CCG methylation is presented. PMID:25944663

  19. CORONAL PROPERTIES OF THE SEYFERT 1.9 GALAXY MCG-05-23-016 DETERMINED FROM HARD X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY WITH NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Balokovi?, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Esmerian, C. J.; Frst, F.; Walton, D. J.; Matt, G.; Marinucci, A.; Zoghbi, A.; Reynolds, C. S.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Fabian, A. C.; Parker, M. L.; Hailey, C. J.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-02-10

    Measurements of the high-energy cut-off in the coronal continuum of active galactic nuclei have long been elusive for all but a small number of the brightest examples. We present a direct measurement of the cut-off energy in the nuclear continuum of the nearby Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-05-23-016 with unprecedented precision. The high sensitivity of NuSTAR up to 79 keV allows us to clearly disentangle the spectral curvature of the primary continuum from that of its reflection component. Using a simple phenomenological model for the hard X-ray spectrum, we constrain the cut-off energy to 116{sub ?5}{sup +6} keV with 90% confidence. Testing for more complex models and nuisance parameters that could potentially influence the measurement, we find that the cut-off is detected robustly. We further use simple Comptonized plasma models to provide independent constraints for both the kinetic temperature of the electrons in the corona and its optical depth. At the 90% confidence level, we find kT{sub e} = 29 2 keV and ? {sub e} = 1.23 0.08 assuming a slab (disk-like) geometry, and kT{sub e} = 25 2 keV and ? {sub e} = 3.5 0.2 assuming a spherical geometry. Both geometries are found to fit the data equally well and their two principal physical parameters are correlated in both cases. With the optical depth in the ? {sub e} ? 1 regime, the data are pushing the currently available theoretical models of the Comptonized plasma to the limits of their validity. Since the spectral features and variability arising from the inner accretion disk have been observed previously in MCG-05-23-016, the inferred high optical depth implies that a spherical or disk-like corona cannot be homogeneous.

  20. Oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Faria, Ana M C; Weiner, Howard L

    2005-08-01

    Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral antigen. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral antigen induces T-helper 2 [interleukin (IL)-4/IL-10] and Th3 [transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta] T cells plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and latency-associated peptide+ T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-beta, cholera toxin B subunit, Flt-3 ligand, and anti-CD40 ligand. Oral (and nasal) antigen administration suppresses animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental autoimmune encephalitis, uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis, and diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, graft rejection, allergy, colitis, stroke, and models of Alzheimer's disease. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), arthritis, uveitis, and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and nickel allergy. Although positive results have been observed in phase II trials, no effect was observed in phase III trials of CII in rheumatoid arthritis or oral myelin and glatiramer acetate (GA) in MS. Large placebo effects were observed, and new trials of oral GA are underway. Oral insulin has recently been shown to delay onset of diabetes in at-risk populations, and confirmatory trials of oral insulin are being planned. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time, and antigen-specific mechanisms of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy, and early therapy. PMID:16048553

  1. Oral Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... navigation ePublications Our ePublications For health professionals Federal report page Subscribe to ePublications email updates. Enter ... information in Spanish (en español) Print this fact sheet Oral health fact sheet (PDF, 856 KB) Related information Anxiety disorders fact sheet Body image Diabetes fact sheet Fitness and nutrition HIV/AIDS Pregnancy What is oral health? What ...

  2. If we can do it for misoprostol, why not for mifepristone? The case for taking mifepristone out of the office in medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Gold, Marji; Chong, Erica

    2015-09-01

    Given the highly political nature of abortion in the United States, the provision of medical abortion with mifepristone (Mifeprex) and misoprostol has always occurred under a unique set of circumstances. The Food and Drug Administration-approved regimen requires clinicians to administer the mifepristone in the office and also requires women to return to the office for the misoprostol. In the US, where off-label drug use is an accepted practice when supportive evidence exists, most clinicians give women the misoprostol at the initial visit for her to take at home, eliminating an unnecessary visit to the office. This commentary suggests that, based on current studies, there is also enough evidence to offer women the option to self-administer mifepristone out of the office and that this is just another feature of off-label use. Six studies, enrolling over 1800 women, found that the option of taking mifepristone out of the office was popular and acceptable among women and providers. Given that it is safe, highly acceptable and not burdensome on providers, outside-office-use of mifepristone should be offered to all women as part of routine medical abortion services. PMID:26093187

  3. Oral calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Maricic, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    Both injectable and nasal spray calcitonins have been utilized in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis for over 25years. More widespread use of calcitonin in the treatment of osteoporosis has been hampered in part due to poor patient acceptability and compliance and the inability of patients to take this medication as an oral pill. In recent years, an oral preparation of calcitonin has been developed that combines the active peptide hormone with a caprylic acid derivative to enhance bioavailability. Clinical trials with oral calcitonin in patients with osteoarthritis are currently being conducted. A recent phase 3 study failed to demonstrate significant vertebral fracture reduction, and as a result the clinical program for oral calcitonin in osteoporosis is under review for further consideration. PMID:22281725

  4. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  5. Oral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    Oral vaccines are safe and easy to administer and convenient for all ages. They have been successfully developed to protect from many infectious diseases acquired through oral transmission. We recently found in animal models that formulation of oral vaccines in a nanoparticle-releasing microparticle delivery system is a viable approach for selectively inducing large intestinal protective immunity against infections at rectal and genital mucosae. These large-intestine targeted oral vaccines are a potential substitute for the intracolorectal immunization, which has been found to be effective against rectogenital infections but is not feasible for mass vaccination. Moreover, the newly developed delivery system can be modified to selectively target either the small or large intestine for immunization and accordingly revealed a regionalized immune system in the gut. Future applications and research endeavors suggested by the findings are discussed. PMID:23493163

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate 50/250 mcg combination therapy in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Kazuhisa; Kobayashi, Akihiro; Makihara, Yukio; Johnson, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Using sputum neutrophils as the primary measure, and other inflammation biomarkers, this study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of the combination salmeterol 50 mcg and fluticasone propionate 250 mcg (SFC 250) in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients and methods Patients were treated in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled trial with SFC 250 twice daily (n=26) or placebo (n=26) for 12 weeks. At the start and end of treatment, inflammation biomarkers (sputum and serum), lung function, and health status (COPD Assessment Test [CAT] questionnaire) were measured. Results Although a numerical decrease in differential neutrophil count was observed from baseline, SFC 250 did not significantly reduce sputum neutrophils compared with placebo, nor were there significant changes from baseline in the other biomarkers (sputum or serum), lung function, or CAT, versus placebo. Squamous epithelial cell contamination in some sputum samples rendered them unacceptable for analysis, which reduced the sample size to n=19 (SFC 250) and n=10 (placebo). However, inclusion of contaminated samples did not affect the overall trend of the outcome. Ad hoc bootstrap statistical analysis showed a 27.9% (SFC 250) and 1.3% (placebo) decrease in sputum neutrophils. Sputum IL-8 decreased by 43.2% after SFC 250 but increased by 48.3% with placebo. Responder analyses showed 42% of patients had ?20% decrease in neutrophils from baseline; and 47% of patients had a ?200 pg/mL change in sputum IL-8 following SFC 250 versus 20% after placebo; both changes are considered clinically relevant. Conclusion This study provides additional information about inflammation in Japanese COPD patients and is the first to study the anti-inflammatory effects of SFC 250 in this context and population. In the primary analysis, SFC 250 did not produce significant changes from baseline in sputum neutrophil levels or other sputum or serum inflammatory markers compared with placebo. Secondary ad hoc statistical analysis showed that SFC 250 reduced the number of sputum neutrophils and IL-8 compared with placebo. PMID:25945045

  7. [Oral contraceptives and metabolic changes].

    PubMed

    Lara Ricalde, R; Aznar Ramos, R

    1986-08-01

    Sufficient evidence has accumulated to relate oral contraceptives (OCs) to various cardiovascular diseases in which metabolic alterations play a role. Although epidemiological studies have shown OC users to be at greater risk of venous thrombosis than nonusers, blood coagulation studies of OC users have yielded conflicting results due to variations in the methodologies used, the factors studied, the different formulations and doses of OCs, and the duration of use. Moreover, no satisfactory method exists of measuring coagulability in its totality, which is the sum of the effects of individual variations in coagulation factors, fibrinolysis, and platelet function. Numerous studies have shown that OC users have increased levels of several coagulation factors, which are believed to indicate hypercoagulability and increased risk of thrombosis, but the pathogenesis of venous thrombosis is complex. Accompanying changes in the fibrinolytic system can be interpreted as attempts to equilibrate the hypercoagulability induced by OCs. Further, there is no proof that in vitro changes are related to thrombosis in vivo. The alterations appear to be dose-related, produced primarily by estrogens, unrelated to duration of use, and to disappear a few months after termination of OC use. OC users have been shown repeatedly to have elevated levels of glucose and insulin, which are especially pronounced in glucose tolerance tests. The changes vary in intensity according to the dose and progestational components and the existence of other risk factors for diabetes. Deterioration of glucose tolerance appears related to duration of OC use, but serum insulin levels maintain the same initial elevations. The estrogens have been shown to have few effects on carbohydrate metabolism in the lower doses currently used. Norgestrel has the most marked effects on glucose and insulin levels, ethynodiol diacetate has moderate effects, and norethindrone has the least effect. The combination of .15 mg levonorgestrel and 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol has no effect on oral glucose tolerance and little effect on insulin secretion. It is hypothesized that OCs affect carbohydrate metabolism by decreasing the number and affinity of insulin receptors in target tissues. The mechanisms by which OCs produce undesirable effects on the cardiovascular system are not completely understood, but are believed to be related to alterations in lipid metabolism. The majority of laboratory studies have shown that OC users had elevated levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and the (LDL) fractions, and a diminution of the high density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction, which has antiatherogenic properties. The changes are atherogenic in nature and produce a lipid profile similar to that of men and postmenopausal women, who are at greater risk of thrombotic cardiovascular disease that premenopausal women who are protected by estrogens. . PMID:3781292

  8. Oral physicians.

    PubMed

    Giddon, D B

    2012-11-01

    In response to Stephen Hancocks' editorial Sawbones no longer, this paper examines the future role of oral physicians and patients' need for dental professionals to play a larger part in overall healthcare. Whilst the financial structures behind the US and UK dental systems differ, it can be questioned whether the outcomes of impending change will be as diverse. PMID:23175071

  9. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people over the age of 40. Sun Exposure. Cancer of the lip can be caused by sun exposure. Diet. A diet low in fruits and vegetables may play a role in oral cancer development. Possible Signs & Symptoms See a dentist or ...

  10. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... these cancers by doing monthly self-examinations. Treatment   Radiation therapy and surgery are the main methods of treating ... either by itself. •  Sun exposure   Many patients with cancers of the lip have outdoor jobs associated with prolonged Oral cancer ...

  11. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePLUS

    Oral herpes most often goes away by itself in 1 to 2 weeks. However, it may come back. Herpes infection may be severe and dangerous if: It occurs in or near the eye You have a weakened immune system due to certain diseases and medications

  12. Oral care.

    PubMed

    Hitz Lindenmller, Irne; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  13. Disparities in Oral Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Well Water and Fluoride Bottled Water Dental Sealants Infection Control Journal Articles Adult Oral Health Children's Oral Health Community Water Fluoridation Dental Sealants Infection Control Oral Cancer Oral Health and Pregnancy Periodontal ...

  14. Children's Oral Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Well Water and Fluoride Bottled Water Dental Sealants Infection Control Journal Articles Adult Oral Health Children's Oral Health Community Water Fluoridation Dental Sealants Infection Control Oral Cancer Oral Health and Pregnancy Periodontal ...

  15. Women's Acceptability of Misoprostol Treatment for Incomplete Abortion by Midwives and Physicians - Secondary Outcome Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Equivalence Trial at District Level in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Cleeve, Amanda; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Mbona Tumwesigye, Nazarius; Atuhairwe, Susan; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess women´s acceptability of diagnosis and treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives, compared with physicians. Methods This was an analysis of secondary outcomes from a multi-centre randomized controlled equivalence trial at district level in Uganda. Women with first trimester incomplete abortion were randomly allocated to clinical assessment and treatment with misoprostol by a physician or a midwife. The randomisation (1:1) was done in blocks of 12 and stratified for health care facility. Acceptability was measured in expectations and satisfaction at a follow up visit 14–28 days following treatment. Analysis of women’s overall acceptability was done using a generalized linear mixed-effects model with an equivalence range of -4% to 4%. The study was not masked. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.org, NCT 01844024. Results From April 2013 to June 2014, 1108 women were assessed for eligibility of which 1010 were randomized (506 to midwife and 504 to physician). 953 women were successfully followed up and included in the acceptability analysis. 95% (904) of the participants found the treatment satisfactory and overall acceptability was found to be equivalent between the two study groups. Treatment failure, not feeling calm and safe following treatment, experiencing severe abdominal pain or heavy bleeding following treatment, were significantly associated with non-satisfaction. No serious adverse events were recorded. Conclusions Treatment of incomplete abortion with misoprostol by midwives and physician was highly, and equally, acceptable to women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01844024 PMID:26872219

  16. Safety, efficacy and acceptability of outpatient mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion through 70 days since last menstrual period in public sector facilities in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza Smith, Patricio; Pea, Melanie; Dzuba, Ilana G; Garca Martinez, Mara Laura; Arangur Peraza, Ana Gabriela; Bousiguez, Manuel; Shochet, Tara; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-02-01

    Extensive evidence exists regarding the efficacy and acceptability of medical abortion through 63 days since last menstrual period (LMP). In Mexico City's Secretariat of Health (SSDF) outpatient facilities, mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion is the first-line approach for abortion care in this pregnancy range. Recent research demonstrates continued high rates of complete abortion through 70 days LMP. To expand access to legal abortion services in Mexico City (where abortion is legal through 12 weeks LMP), this study sought to assess the efficacy and acceptability of the standard outpatient approach through 70 days in two SSDF points of service. One thousand and one women seeking pregnancy termination were enrolled and given 200 mg mifepristone followed by 800 ?g misoprostol 24-48 hours later. Women were asked to return to the clinic one week later for evaluation. The great majority of women (93.3%; 95% CI: 91.6-94.8) had complete abortions. Women with pregnancies ? 8 weeks LMP had significantly higher success rates than women in the 9th or 10th weeks (94.9% vs. 90.5%; p = 0.01). The difference in success rates between the 9th and 10th weeks was not significant (90.0% vs. 91.2%; p = 0.71). The majority of women found the side effects (82.9%) and the use of misoprostol (84.4%) to be very acceptable or acceptable. This study provides additional evidence supporting an extended outpatient medical abortion regimen through 10 weeks LMP. PMID:25702071

  17. Première expérience de l'utilisation du Misoprostol comme soin après avortement (SAA) à Libreville, Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Mayi-Tsonga, Sosthène; Minkobame, Ulysse; Mbila, Arielle; Assoumou, Pamphile; Diop, Ayisha; Winikoff, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Une étude a été menée afin de déterminer le taux d'acceptabilité de 400µg de misoprostol par voie sublinguale comme traitement de première intention de l'avortement incomplet et de préciser le taux d'avortement complet ou vacuité utérine. Méthodes Les femmes éligibles avaient un diagnostic clinique d'avortement incomplet avec une taille utérine inférieure à celle d'un utérus de 12 semaines d'aménorrhées (SA). Chacune a reçu 400µg de misoprostol par voie sublinguale. Les femmes ont été revues après une semaine. A J7, celles qui n'avaient pas complètement expulsé ont eu le choix entre une nouvelle consultation de suivi à J14 et la pratique d'une évacuation chirurgicale immédiate. Résultats 145 patientes ont été éligibles et ont toutes accepté la méthode (100%). L’âge moyen était de 25,9 ± 6 ans. A J7, 120 patientes étaient guéries (85,7%). A J14, le taux de réussitea été de 95,7% soit 134 patientes guéries. Les patientes guéries ont déclaré être très satisfaites (57,5%), satisfaites (41,8%) et insatisfaite (0,7%). Au total,128 femmes (95,5%) ont dit être prêtes à utiliser de nouveau le misoprostol comme méthode d’évacuation utérine en cas d'avortement incomplet. Conclusion L’étude démontre que le 400µg misoprostol par voie sublinguale nous permet de prendre en charge d'une manière adéquate l'avortement incomplet surtout dans les pays à faible ressource et notamment dans les structures sanitaires de première ligne ou éloignées. PMID:25469194

  18. [Oral anticoagulation].

    PubMed

    Durn Parrondo, C; Rodrguez Moreno, C; Tato Herrero, F; Alonso Vence, N; Lado Lado, F L

    2003-07-01

    The use of oral anticoagulants in the prevention of thrombotics processes, has experienced a considerable increase. In addition, there are a growing experience on the medical and socials consequences of the use of this drug. This has originated a much more pragmatic vision of the daily handling of the anticoagulated patient. In this article, we made are vision about the indications and the practical use, including some useful advices and criteria for the concomitant drug selection. PMID:12968582

  19. Oral Sex, Oral Health and Orogenital Infections

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:20300419

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease ...

  1. Does self-administered vaginal misoprostol result in cervical ripening in postmenopausal women after 14 days of pre-treatment with estradiol? Trial protocol for a randomised, placebo-controlled sequential trial*

    PubMed Central

    Oppegaard, KS; Lieng, M; Berg, A; Istre, O; Qvigstad, E; Nesheim, B-I

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the impact of 1000 micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus self-administered vaginal placebo on preoperative cervical ripening after pre-treatment with estradiol vaginal tablets at home in postmenopausal women prior to day-care operative hysteroscopy. Design Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled sequential trial. The boundaries for the sequential trial were calculated on the primary outcomes of a difference of cervical dilatation ?1 millimetre, with the assumption of a type 1 error of 0.05 and a power of 0.95. Setting Norwegian university teaching hospital. Population Postmenopausal women referred for day-care operative hysteroscopy. Methods The women were randomised to either 1000 micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol or self-administered vaginal placebo the evening before day-care operative hysteroscopy. All women had administered a 25-microgram vaginal estradiol tablet daily for 14 days prior to the operation. Main outcome measures Preoperative cervical dilatation (difference between misoprostol and placebo group, primary outcome), difference in dilatation before and after administration of misoprostol or placebo, number of women who achieve a preoperative cervical dilatation ?5 millimetres, acceptability, complications and side effects (secondary outcomes). Results Intra-operative findings and distribution of cervical dilatation in the two treatment groups: values are given as median (range) or n(%). Difference in dilatation before and after administration of misoprostol and placebo: values are given as median (range) of intraindividual differences. Percentage of women who achieve a cervical dilatation of ?5 mm, percentage of women who were difficult to dilate. Acceptability in the two treatment groups: values are given as completely acceptable n(%), fairly acceptable n(%), fairly unacceptable n(%), completely unacceptable n(%). Pain in the two treatment groups: pain was measured with a visual analogue scale ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (unbearable pain): values are given as median (range). Occurrence of side effects in the two treatment groups. Values are given as n(%). Complications given as n(%). Funding sources No pharmaceutical company was involved in this study. A research grant from the regional research board of Northern Norway has been awarded to finance Dr K.S.O.'s leave from Hammerfest hospital as well as travel expenses between Hammerfest and Oslo, and research courses. The research grant from Prof B.I.N. (Helse st) funded the purchase of estradiol tablets, the manufacturing costs of misoprostol and placebo capsules from the hospital pharmacy, as well as the costs incurred for preparing the randomisation schedule and distribution of containers containing capsules to hospital. Prof B.I.N.'s research grant also funded insurance for the study participants. Conclusions Estimated completion date 31 December 2008. PMID:18485172

  2. Oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; Sonis, S; Diz, P D

    2006-05-01

    Mucositis and xerostomia are the most common oral complications of the non-surgical therapy of cancer. Mucositis, a common sequel of radio- (DXR), chemo-(CXR) and radiochemo-therapy in patients with cancer, or patients requiring haemopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT), has a direct and significant impact on the quality of life and cost of care, and also affects survival--because of the risk of infection. Apart from dose reduction, preventive and treatment options for mucositis are scarce, although multiple agents have been tested. Evidence suggests that cryotherapy, topical benzydamine and amifostine might provide some benefit in specific situations. The recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor Palifermin (Kepivance) was recently approved as a mucositis intervention in patients receiving conditioning regimens before HSCT for the treatment of haematological malignancies. A number of mechanistically based interventions are in various stages of development. Unfortunately, many other approaches have not been rigorously tested. This paper reviews the clinical features, prevalence, diagnosis, complications, pathogenesis, prophylaxis and management of mucositis. PMID:16700732

  3. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral

  4. Training Traditional Birth Attendants on the Use of Misoprostol and a Blood Measurement Tool to Prevent Postpartum Haemorrhage: Lessons Learnt from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Passano, Paige; Bohl, Daniel D.; Islam, Arshadul; Prata, Ndola

    2014-01-01

    A consensus emerged in the late 1990s among leaders in global maternal health that traditional birth attendants (TBAs) should no longer be trained in delivery skills and should instead be trained as promoters of facility-based care. Many TBAs continue to be trained in places where home deliveries are the norm and the potential impacts of this training are important to understand. The primary objective of this study was to gain a more nuanced understanding of the full impact of training TBAs to use misoprostol and a blood measurement tool (mat) for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at home deliveries through the perspective of those involved in the project. This qualitative study, conducted between July 2009 and July 2010 in Bangladesh, was nested within larger operations research, testing the feasibility and acceptability of scaling up community-based provision of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool for prevention of PPH. A total of 87 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with TBAs, community health workers (CHWs), managers, and government-employed family welfare visitors (FWVs) at three time points during the study. Computer-assisted thematic data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti (version 5.2). Four primary themes emerged during the data analysis, which all highlight changes that occurred following the training. The first theme describes the perceived direct changes linked to the two new interventions. The following three themes describe the indirect changes that interviewees perceived: strengthened linkages between TBAs and the formal healthcare system; strengthened linkages between TBAs and the communities they serve; and improved quality of services/service utilization. The data indicate that training TBAs and CHW supervisors resulted in perceived broader and more nuanced changes than simply improvements in TBAs’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Acknowledgeing TBAs’ important role in the community and in home deliveries and integrating them into the formal healthcare system has the potential to result in changes similar to those seen in this study. PMID:24847601

  5. Training traditional birth attendants on the use of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool to prevent postpartum haemorrhage: lessons learnt from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne; Passano, Paige; Bohl, Daniel D; Islam, Arshadul; Prata, Ndola

    2014-03-01

    A consensus emerged in the late 1990s among leaders in global maternal health that traditional birth attendants (TBAs) should no longer be trained in delivery skills and should instead be trained as promoters of facility-based care. Many TBAs continue to be trained in places where home deliveries are the norm and the potential impacts of this training are important to understand. The primary objective of this study was to gain a more nuanced understanding of the full impact of training TBAs to use misoprostol and a blood measurement tool (mat) for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at home deliveries through the perspective of those involved in the project. This qualitative study, conducted between July 2009 and July 2010 in Bangladesh, was nested within larger operations research, testing the feasibility and acceptability of scaling up community-based provision of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool for prevention of PPH. A total of 87 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with TBAs, community health workers (CHWs), managers, and government-employed family welfare visitors (FWVs) at three time points during the study. Computer-assisted thematic data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti (version 5.2). Four primary themes emerged during the data analysis, which all highlight changes that occurred following the training. The first theme describes the perceived direct changes linked to the two new interventions. The following three themes describe the indirect changes that interviewees perceived: strengthened linkages between TBAs and the formal healthcare system; strengthened linkages between TBAs and the communities they serve; and improved quality of services/service utilization. The data indicate that training TBAs and CHW supervisors resulted in perceived broader and more nuanced changes than simply improvements in TBAs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Acknowledgeing TBAs' important role in the community and in home deliveries and integrating them into the formal healthcare system has the potential to result in changes similar to those seen in this study. PMID:24847601

  6. Oral cavity and leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Pallagatti, Shambulingappa; Sheikh, Soheyl; Kaur, Anupreet; Aggarwal, Amit; Singh, Ravinder

    2012-01-01

    Although leprosy involves the oral cavity in up to 60% of the patients, examination of the oral cavity in leprosy clinics or oral health science clinics is often neglected. Oral involvement in leprosy can broadly be divided into non-specific and specific lesions. In this review, we discuss various oral manifestations in leprosy patients so as to increase the awareness about this aspect among dermatologists and dental surgeons. PMID:23130281

  7. Long-term monitoring of the archetype Seyfert galaxy MCG-6-30-15: X-ray, optical and near-IR variability of the corona, disc and torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, P.; Arévalo, P.; Uttley, P.; McHardy, I. M. M.; Videla, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present long-term monitoring of MCG-6-30-15 in X-rays, optical and near-IR wavelengths, collected over 5 yr of monitoring. We determine the power spectrum density of all the observed bands and show that after taking into account the host contamination similar power is observed in the optical and near-IR bands. There is evidence for a correlation between the light curves of the X-ray photon flux and the optical B band, but it is not possible to determine a lag with certainty, with the most likely value being around 0 d. Strong correlation is seen between the optical and near-IR bands. Cross-correlation analysis shows some complex probability distributions and lags that range from 10 to 20 d, with the near-IR following the optical variations. Filtering the light curves in frequency space shows that the strongest correlations are those corresponding to the shortest time-scales. We discuss the nature of the X-ray variability and conclude that this is intrinsic and cannot be accounted for by absorption episodes due to material intervening in the line of sight. It is also found that the lags agree with the relation τ ∝ λ4/3, as expected for an optically thick geometrically thin accretion disc, although for a larger disc than that predicted by the estimated black hole mass and accretion rate in MCG-6-30-15. The cross-correlation analysis suggests that the torus is located at ˜20 light-days from the central source and at most at ˜50 light-days from the central region. This implies an active galactic nucleus bolometric luminosity of ˜3 × 1043 erg s-1 cm-2.

  8. Olodaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePLUS

    Olodaterol oral inhalation is used to control wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive ... airways, which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema). Olodaterol oral inhalation is in a class of medications called ...

  9. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the country. View all Events Current Campaigns Rodeo Anti-Tobacco Campaign Learn More "I'm Part Of ... Resources Overview Oral Cancer News OCF Press Releases Social © 2016 The Oral Cancer Foundation. All rights reserved. ...

  10. Effect of oral glucose on serum zinc in the elderly

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.L.; Kohrs, M.B.; Horwitz, D.L.; Cyborski, C.K.; Czajka-Narins, D.M.; Kamath, S.

    1986-03-05

    To determine the effect of glucose loading on serum zinc concentrations, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-86 y were studied. Anthropometric data, medical and dietary histories were obtained. Serum zinc and glucose concentrations were obtained fasting and 1/2, 1, 1 1/2, 2 and 3 h after 75 g oral glucose load; glycohemoglobin and fasting serum lipids were also determined. For comparison, the subjects were categorized as: normal or low serum zinc concentrations; normal or high body mass index BMI; normal or high sum of skinfolds and normal or high serum cholesterol. Results showed that low serum zinc concentrations increased significantly over baseline values after the glucose load and did not return to fasting levels. On the other hand, mean serum zinc concentrations significantly declined without recovery for those with normal zinc values. For the total group, no significant differences were noted between fasting values and subsequent time periods. No correlations were noted between fasting serum zinc and area under the curve for zinc except in the high BMI group (positive correlation observed). For the high BMI group, fasting serum zinc differed significantly from the succeeding measurements except for 30 min. For the group as a whole, mean serum zinc concentration was within normal limits (76.9 +/- 2.8 mcg/ml): mean zinc intake was less than 2/3rds the RDA. They conclude that glucose ingestion may alter serum zinc and should be considered in interpreting these levels.

  11. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Oral Thrush Symptoms Prevention Treatment en español Candidiasis bucal About Oral Thrush Oral thrush is a very common infection ... rash and vaginal (yeast) infections. Candida overgrowth (or candidiasis ) can happen after a baby ... thrush can affect anyone, although it's most common ...

  12. Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troiano, Claire A.

    2010-01-01

    An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral

  13. Women's oral health issues.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, B J

    2000-09-01

    Hormonal fluctuations affect more than a woman's reproductive system. They have a surprisingly strong influence on the oral cavity. Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause all influence women's oral health and the way in which a dentist should approach their treatment. This paper will review aspects of a woman's life when hormonal fluctuations may affect oral tissues. PMID:11324047

  14. The effects of rifampin and rifabutin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a combination oral contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Barditch-Crovo, P; Trapnell, C B; Ette, E; Zacur, H A; Coresh, J; Rocco, L E; Hendrix, C W; Flexner, C

    1999-04-01

    The relative effects of rifampin and rifabutin (a related rifamycin) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and norethindrone were evaluated in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded crossover study in 12 premenopausal women who were on a stable oral contraceptive regimen that contained 35 mcg EE and 1 mg norethindrone. Subjects were randomized to receive 14 days of rifampin or rifabutin from days 7 through 21 of their menstrual cycle. After a 1-month washout period (only the oral contraceptives were taken), subjects were crossed over to the other rifamycin. Findings showed that rifampin significantly decreased the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to 24 hours [AUC (0-24)] of EE and the mean AUC (0-24) of norethindrone. Rifabutin significantly decreased the mean AUC (0-24) of EE and the mean AUC (0-24) of norethindrone. The effect of rifampin was significantly greater than rifabutin on each AUC (0-24). Despite these changes, subjects did not ovulate (as determined by progesterone concentrations) during the cycle in which either rifamycin was administered. Levels of mean follicle-stimulating hormone increased 69% after rifampin. This study suggests that rifampin (600 mg daily) was a more important inducer of EE and norethindrone clearance than rifabutin, but none of these agents were able to reverse the suppression of ovulation done by oral contraceptives. PMID:10223781

  15. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  16. Use of Simulated Patients to Evaluate Combined Oral Contraceptive Dispensing Practices of Community Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Obreli-Neto, Paulo Roque; Pereira, Leonardo Rgis Leira; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Baldoni, Andr de Oliveira; Marusic, Srecko; de Lyra-Jnior, Divaldo Pereira; de Almeida, Kelsen Luis; Pazete, Ana Claudia Montolezi; do Nascimento, Janaina Dutra; Kos, Mitja; Girotto, Edmarlon; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Background Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use is the most commonly used reversible method of birth control. The incorrect use of COCs is frequent and one of the most common causes of unintended pregnancies. Community pharmacists (CPs) are in a strategic position to improve COC use because they are the last health professional to interact with patients before drug use. Objective To evaluate the COC dispensing practices of CPs in a developing country. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies of Assis and Ourinhos microregions, Brazil, between June 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012. Four simulated patients (SPs) (with counseled audio recording) visited community pharmacies with a prescription for Ciclo 21 (a COC containing ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg + levonorgestrel 15 mcg). The audio recording of every SP visit was listened to independently by 3 researchers to evaluate the COC dispensing practice. The percentage of CPs who performed a screening for safe use of COCs (i.e., taking of patients medical and family history, and measuring of blood pressure) and provided counseling, as well as the quality of the screening and counseling, were evaluated. Results Of the 185 CPs contacted, 41 (22.2%) agreed to participate in the study and finished the study protocol. Only 3 CPs asked the SP a question (1 question asked by each professional), and all of the questions were closed-ended, viz., do you smoke? (n = 2) and what is your age? (n = 1). None of the CPs measured the patients blood pressure. Six CPs provided counseling when dispensing COCs (drug dosing, 5 CPs; possible adverse effects, 2 CPs), and one CP provided counseling regarding both aspects. Conclusion The CPs evaluated did not dispense COC appropriately and could influence in the occurrence of negatives therapeutic outcomes such as adverse effects and treatment failure. PMID:24324584

  17. Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

  18. Mechanisms of Oral Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Commins, Scott P

    2015-12-01

    Oral tolerance is an active process of local and systemic immune unresponsiveness to orally ingested antigens such as food. The gut immune system must balance responses to commensal bacteria (microbiome), innocuous antigens, and pathogens. Although it is clear that specialized populations of immune cells and lymph nodes create a unique environment in the gut, there remains evidence to suggest that systemic effector sites also are critical to establishing and maintaining oral tolerance. PMID:26456448

  19. Oral microbiota and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meurman, Jukka H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion. PMID:21523227

  20. Chrysomya bezziana oral myiasis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gs Vijay; Sowmya, Gs; Shivananda, S

    2011-10-01

    Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae) were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly. PMID:22224006

  1. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... retromolar trigone (the small area behind the wisdom teeth ). Enlarge Anatomy of the oral cavity. The oral cavity includes the lips, hard palate (the bony front portion of the roof of the mouth), soft ... behind the wisdom teeth), front two-thirds of the tongue, gingiva (gums), ...

  2. Oral Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... retromolar trigone (the small area behind the wisdom teeth ). Enlarge Anatomy of the oral cavity. The oral cavity includes the lips, hard palate (the bony front portion of the roof of the mouth), soft ... behind the wisdom teeth), front two-thirds of the tongue, gingiva (gums), ...

  3. Oral amelanotic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Adisa, A O; Olawole, W O; Sigbeku, O F

    2012-06-01

    Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic. No etiologic factors or risk factors have been recognized for oral melanomas. Some authors have suggested that oral habits and selfmedication may be of etiological significance. Oral melanoma is rare but it is relatively frequent in countries like Japan, Uganda, and India. It is rarely identified under the age of 20 years. In Australia where cutaneous melanomas are relatively common primary melanoma of the oral mucosa is rare. The surface architecture of oral melanomas ranges from macular to ulcerated and nodular. The lesion is said to be asymptomatic in the early stages but may become ulcerated and painful in advanced lesions. The diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma is more difficult than that of pigmented lesions. The neoplasm consists of spindle-shaped cells with many mitotic figures and no cytoplasmic melanin pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry using S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and MART-1 will help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Radical surgery with ample margins and adjuvant chemotherapy are appropriate management protocol for malignant melanoma. Oral melanoma is associated with poor prognosis but its amelanotic variant has even worse prognosis because it exhibits a more aggressive biology and because of difficulty in diagnosis which leads to delayed treatment. PMID:25161399

  4. Migraine and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Mousa, G Y

    1982-10-01

    Migraine is a common complaint in optometric practice. Three cases of migrainous patients taking oral contraceptives are presented in this report. The role of oral contraceptives in triggering a migraine attack and possibly elevating the risk of a stroke in a patient with migraine is discussed. The counseling an optometrist can provide in such cases in discussed. PMID:7148975

  5. Oral manifestations of syphilis.

    PubMed

    Leo, Jair Carneiro; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino; Porter, Stephen R

    2006-04-01

    The past decade has shown a significant rise in the prevalence of infective syphilis in the developed world, and striking increases in its frequency have occurred in Eastern Europe, particularly the UK, and in the US. Although oral manifestations of syphilis are most likely to be observed during secondary disease, all stages of the disease can give rise to oral lesions. Significant oral lesions such as gumma-associated bony destruction and a possible predisposition to oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with tertiary disease. Since the prevalence of infective syphilis in heterosexuals has been increasing, there has now been a gradual rise in the number of children born with congenital syphilis. Consequently, the congenital disease gives rise to dental anomalies as well as bone, skin, and neurological anomalies of the face. The aim of this report is to review syphilis-related oral lesions, as well as to summarize the relations between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. PMID:16680334

  6. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A White, slightly ... candidiasis), also known as oral moniliasis, is a yeast infection of the mouth or throat (the oral cavity). The yeast that ...

  7. Curricular Guidelines for Oral Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for oral biology curriculum cover its scope, primary educational goals, prerequisites, sequencing, faculty, course content in each subarea (oral tissues and systems and oral diagnostic methodology), and specific behavioral objectives. (MSE)

  8. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Register Now! AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

  9. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17 "chistes" (jokes), 1…

  10. Haloperidol-stomach lesions attenuation by pentadecapeptide BPC 157, omeprazole, bromocriptine, but not atropine, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, ranitidine, cimetidine and misoprostol in mice.

    PubMed

    Bilic, I; Zoricic, I; Anic, T; Separovic, J; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Mikus, D; Buljat, G; Ivankovic, D; Aralica, G; Prkacin, I; Perovic, D; Mise, S; Rotkvic, I; Petek, M; Rucman, R; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

    2001-03-01

    The focus was on haloperidol (central dopamine antagonist)-stomach lesion, a longly described suitable counterpart of dopamine blocker cysteamine-duodenal lesion. In this, the contribution of blockade of central/peripheral dopamine receptors and prostaglandins synthesis, along with influence of antiulcer agents was evaluated in mice. Male NMRI Hannnover mice were sacrificed 24 h after haloperidol (25 mg/kg b.w. i.p., given alone or with saline (haloperidol+saline) (i) or in combination (ii,iii)). Supporting central dopamine predominance for haloperidol stomach lesion induction, co-administration of peripheral dopamine receptor antagonist domperidone (5 mg/kg i.p.) (haloperidol+ domperidone) (ii), or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin (10 mg/kg s.c.) (haloperidol+ indomethacin) (iii) did not aggravate this lesion. (i) In haloperidol+saline challenged mice the lesions were inhibited by co-administration (/kg i.p.) of a gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, GlyGluProProProGlyLysProAlaAspAspAlaGlyLeuVal, M.W. 1419 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg, but not 1 pg, 100 fg, 10 fg), bromocriptine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg, 100 mg, but not 1 mg). Atropine (10, 100, 200 mg), pirenzepine (10, 100, 200 mg), misoprostol (10, 100, 200 microg), pantoprazole (1, 10, 100 mg), lansoprazole (0.1, 1, 10 mg), cimetidine (10, 100, 200 mg) and ranitidine (10, 100, 200 mg) were not effective. (ii) Dopamine peripheral blockade influence: in haloperidol+domperidone mice, previously effective bromocriptine, pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg) or omeprazole (10 mg) did not attenuate stomach lesions. (iii) Prostaglandins synthesis blockade effect: in haloperidol+indomethacin mice, previously effective agents, bromocriptine or omeprazole were not active, while BPC 157 effect was only lessened. PMID:11292068

  11. [Off-label drug use of the misoprostol in gynecology & obstetrics: From a medico-economics benefit to a potential legal risk].

    PubMed

    Decamps-Mini, D; Pelofi, J; Treisser, A

    2015-06-01

    The scandal of the Mediator® case led the legislature to take measures in order to regulate off-label drugs prescriptions. Indeed the law issued in December 29th, 2011 on strengthening the safety of drugs and all derivative health products came to pave the way for an "over-cautious" practice of medicine in line with the precautionary principle erected as a constitutional principle. The supervision of off-label prescribing has had a direct impact on the exercise of the medical profession and has resurrected the issues related to the freedom of prescription, the obligation to provide information to patients and in general their whole responsibility. It is important to mention that the prescribing act is part of the freedom and the strict prerogative of those skilled in the art: the physician in this case. The off-label prescription is commonly accepted in certain specialties, such as anesthesia and intensive care, oncology or pediatrics where it is even subject of a memorandum of use because of concerns regarding the availability of forms adapted to children. However, the physician must ensure that no appropriate therapeutic alternative is available and inform the patient, fundamental principle of the right to respect for the will of the person. Off-label use of the prostaglandin-E1 analogue misoprostol in obstetrics and gynecology is a good example. In fact, this drug obtained a marketing authorization for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcers and other stomach disorders, is commonly used off-label when inducing labour or intrauterine device insertion. These are the issues that need to be clarify and carefully assessed in order to help physicians to understand the impact of the law and the state of the jurisprudence on the exercise of their profession. PMID:26032707

  12. Absorption, retention and urinary excretion of chromium-51 in rats pretreated with indomethacin and dosed with dimethylprostaglandin E2, misoprostol or prostacyclin.

    PubMed

    Kamath, S M; Stoecker, B J; Davis-Whitenack, M L; Smith, M M; Adeleye, B O; Sangiah, S

    1997-03-01

    Drug-nutrient interactions affecting chromium were investigated in this study. Rats were injected with indomethacin to reduce endogenous prostaglandin synthesis and dosed with prostaglandin analogues or prostacyclin. Effects on absorption, tissue distribution and urinary excretion of 51Cr from 51CrCl3 were evaluated using a 2 x 4 factorial experimental design. Forty-eight adult male rats were food deprived for 12 h and then injected intraperitoneally with indomethacin (5 mg/kg body wt) or placebo. Thirty minutes later, rats were intubated and dosed with one of four treatments: a prostaglandin E1 analogue (misoprostol) at 50 microg/kg body wt; a prostaglandin E2 analogue (16,16-dimethylprostaglandin E2) at 7.5 microg/kg body wt; prostacyclin at 20 microg/kg body wt; or control (7.64 mmol/L Tween-80 suspended in 0.15 mol/L NaCl containing 0.48 mol/L ethanol). Immediately after intubation, rats were dosed with 3.7 mBq of 51CrCl3 by micropipette. Blood was collected from the tail at intervals after 51Cr dosing. Six hours after dosing, 51Cr rats were exsanguinated by cardiac puncture. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, significantly increased (P < 0.05) 51Cr in blood at all time periods tested except at 15 min. In tissues, indomethacin significantly increased 51Cr retention. Urinary 51Cr excretion at 6 h was higher (P < 0.05) in indomethacin-pretreated rats than in control rats. Administration of indomethacin, which blocks prostaglandin synthesis, enhanced 51Cr absorption, whereas dosing with 16,16-dimethylprostaglandin E2 decreased 51Cr absorption. PMID:9082033

  13. Oral sex and oral health: An enigma in itself

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Tarun; Puri, Gagan; Aravinda, Konidena; Arora, Neha; Patil, Deepa; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active couples of various age groups, including male-female and same-gender adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus, and analingus. Oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital infections from one site in body to the other. Oral health has a direct correlation on the transmission of infection; a cut in the mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of life-threatening infections. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues, and oral hygiene and dental issues. The ulcerations or unhealthy periodontium in mouth accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus, consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex. PMID:26692602

  14. Oral Melanotic Macule

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Oral melanotic macule is a non-cancerous (benign), dark spot found on the lips or inside the ... are more common in middle-aged people, in dark-skinned people, and in females. Signs and Symptoms ...

  15. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  16. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  17. Maintaining women's oral health.

    PubMed

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices. PMID:11486666

  18. Menopause and oral health.

    PubMed

    Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

    2014-07-01

    Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

  19. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight. PMID:24313740

  20. Telediagnosis of oral disease.

    PubMed

    Leao, J C; Porter, S R

    1999-01-01

    Computers have increasingly found application in dentistry over the past 15 years, but at present there has been no investigation of the application of the Internet for distance diagnosis purposes in oral medicine. As a consequence, the objective of this article was to determine the acceptability to patient and clinician of the distant diagnosis of common orofacial diseases using the Internet. The study group comprised 20 patients who attended the Oral Medicine unit of the Eastman Dental Institute and Hospital, London, UK, for the diagnosis and management of oral mucosal diseases. Digital images of each patient's oral mucosal lesion were captured and stored on a personal computer and later transmitted via the Internet to a distant site. Patients were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire detailing their opinion of the use of an intra-oral camera and a group of clinicians were asked to compare and contrast the original and transmitted images. The majority of patients found the procedure of recording images of their mouth very comfortable, were happy to view the inside of their mouths, and found the procedure generally useful in understanding their clinical problem. The clinicians were often not able to differentiate between the original and transmitted image but were able to accurately diagnose the patient's oral mucosal problems in 64% of the instances. The results of the present study suggest that telediagnosis of orofacial disease may be a feasible prospect. PMID:10863389

  1. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat ?nan; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  2. Menopause and oral health

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Vanita; Suri, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Different phases of a woman's life: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause have varied influence on her oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production, affecting their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels directly affect the oral cavity. A few oral conditions and or diseases are seen more frequently during post menopausal years. Role of hormones affecting the health of oro-dental tissues, as well as treatment by HRT in ameliorating these conditions is not clear. There is paucity of randomized controlled trials in this field and more data is needed, before the recommendations for oral health care in post menopausal women can be made. A gynecologist sitting in menopausal clinic should be aware of oral changes happening during this period, and dental needs of these women and should refer them to the dental specialists accordingly. On the other hand, a dentist should also be sensitized about the menopausal status of the woman, her HRT status and special preventive and treatment needs. PMID:25316996

  3. Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

  4. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  5. Oral Insulin Reloaded

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Plum-Mrschel, Leona

    2014-01-01

    Optimal coverage of insulin needs is the paramount aim of insulin replacement therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. To apply insulin without breaking the skin barrier by a needle and/or to allow a more physiological provision of insulin are the main reasons triggering the continuous search for alternative routes of insulin administration. Despite numerous attempts over the past 9 decades to develop an insulin pill, no insulin for oral dosing is commercially available. By way of a structured approach, we aim to provide a systematic update on the most recent developments toward an orally available insulin formulation with a clear focus on data from clinical-experimental and clinical studies. Thirteen companies that claim to be working on oral insulin formulations were identified. However, only 6 of these companies published new clinical trial results within the past 5 years. Interestingly, these clinical data reports make up a mere 4% of the considerably high total number of publications on the development of oral insulin formulations within this time period. While this picture clearly reflects the rising research interest in orally bioavailable insulin formulations, it also highlights the fact that the lions share of research efforts is still allocated to the preclinical stages. PMID:24876606

  6. Communication among Oral Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities. PMID:12209001

  7. Oral health during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lisa Winters; Moses, Donna Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore how poor oral health affects pregnancy and to review current recommendations for dental care during pregnancy. While nurses are concerned with numerous aspects of the health of pregnant women, the health of maternal and fetal dentition may be overlooked. However, due to recent findings that periodontal disease may be a risk factor for preterm low birthweight, nurses and other maternal healthcare providers are becoming more aware of oral health during pregnancy. It is important to understand that establishing a healthy oral environment is the most important objective in planning the dental care for the pregnant patient. This objective is achieved by adequate plaque control (brushing and flossing) and professional prophylaxis including coronal scaling, root planing, and polishing. Nurses, nurse practitioners, and nurse-midwives should include assessment of maternal dentition and referral for dental problems as part of their prenatal practice. Patients should be encouraged to schedule elective dental treatment during the second trimester but seek prompt care for acute dental problems. Teaching related to oral health during pregnancy should include the importance of proper nutrition to ensure maternal and fetal oral health, including taking prenatal vitamins and eating foods high in protein, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and D. Potential teratogens that may be encountered during dental care should also be discussed. Nurses can be vital in improving perinatal outcomes and maternal/fetal dental health through screening, referral, and education of their pregnant clients. PMID:12209058

  8. Recurrent oral thrush.

    PubMed

    Sivabalan, Somu; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Srinath, M V

    2014-04-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is characterized by the presence of at least two out of three clinical features, which include chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), Addison's disease and hypoparathyroidism. The authors' present an one and a half year old girl with recurrent oral thrush who presented with generalised afebrile seizure. Evaluation revealed severe hypocalcemia with low parathormone and normal vitamin D level consistent with hypoparathyroidism. In view of the oral candidiasis and hypoparathyroidism, a clinical possibility of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (type 1) was strongly considered. Her mother, on subsequent pregnancy was subjected to gene analysis of the fetus (chorionic villus sampling) and also for this child (index case). Both the fetus and index child were confirmed to have the AIRE gene mutation of APS1. After detailed counseling the parents opted for medical termination of the pregnancy. In children who present with recurrent oral thrush we need to consider but also look beyond immunodeficiency. PMID:24081895

  9. Oral Leukoplakia an Update

    PubMed Central

    PARLATESCU, Ioanina; GHEORGHE, Carmen; COCULESCU, Elena; TOVARU, Serban

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to assess the current state of science on oral leukoplakia. Although it is considered a potentially malignant disorder the overall malignant progression of oral leukoplakia is of the order of 5% and even more. Nowadays there are no currently accepted markers to distinguish those that may progress to cancer from those that may not. The current golden standard is considered the presence of epithelial dysplasia on the tissue biopsy of the lesion. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is a rare form of OL which has multiple recurrences, is refractory to treatment and has malignant transformation in a short period. It is considered a true premalignant lesion. The management of oral leukoplakia varies from a "wait and see" attitude and topical chemopreventive agents to complete surgical removal. PMID:25553134

  10. Khat and oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Soufi, H E; Kameswaran, M; Malatani, T

    1991-08-01

    Oral cancers in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia have been observed to occur mostly among patients who have been long-term khat users. In a survey that reviewed cancers for the past two years there were 28 head and neck cancer patients, 10 of whom presented with a history of having chewed khat. One of these was a case of metastatic cervical lymph node and unknown primary, one was a parotid tumour, and the remaining eight presented with oral cancers. All were non-smoking khat chewers and all of them had used it over a period of 25 years or longer. We conclude that this strong correlation between khat chewing and oral cancer warrants attention. PMID:1919319

  11. Oral manifestations of systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Long, R G; Hlousek, L; Doyle, J L

    1998-01-01

    Many systemic diseases have oral manifestations. The oral cavity might well be thought of as the window to the body because oral manifestations accompany many systemic diseases. These oral manifestations must be properly recognized if the patient is to receive appropriate diagnosis and referral for treatment. We have reviewed a series of recent articles and summarized known and newly described oral manifestations of several systemic diseases. The lesions of the oral mucosa, tongue, gingiva, dentition, periodontium, salivary glands, facial skeleton, extraoral skin and other related structures caused by some of the more common systemic diseases are highlighted. PMID:9844357

  12. Per-oral cholangioscopy

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429

  13. Oral and perioral candidosis.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Ray, T L

    1994-06-01

    The following article has been assembled from the current literature and our clinical experience to provide a comprehensive review of oral and perioral candidal infections. A brief review of the epidemiology and pathogenesis is followed by a description of the various clinical signs and symptoms associated with oral candidosis. Methods useful in arriving at a diagnosis of candidal infection as well as a number of effective therapeutic modalities are discussed. In addition, special considerations relating to the treatment of patients with other concurrent mucosal diseases and long-term antifungal maintenance regimes are addressed. PMID:8060823

  14. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takuji; Tanaka, Mayu; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21660266

  15. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  16. Oral Communication in Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binnion, John E.; Thomas, Edward G.

    Helping young executives develop oral communication skills is an important task of business schools. A course that requires informal, timed, extemporaneous talks as well as extended formal presentations allows students the opportunity to be evaluated by their peers and by faculty members as they grow in their ability to communicate. Formal

  17. Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

  18. Choosing an oral contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, E

    1988-10-01

    This article serves as a summary of the principles of prescription, hormone content, minor side effects, prescriptions for atypical individuals and significant drug interactions for oral contraceptives. There are 5 principles for prescribing oral contraceptives: the lowest possible dose should be given that is effective and produces the least side effects: adequate instructions should be given about the mode of action, taking the medication and possible side effects; adequate instructions about managing missed pills should be given; adequate supervision and explanations should be given if side effects occur; remember that each woman is different and idiosyncratic reactions to different formulations can occur. Possible side effects include: breakthrough bleeding, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, breast fullness and tenderness, nausea, chloasma, depression, acne, migraines and weight gain. Certain individuals such as epileptics, diabetics, women over 35 and women who have recently given birth need special care. Rifampicin, the phenytoins and barbiturates can all decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. Oral contraceptives may effect the action of anticoagulants, antidiabetic agents and imipramine. PMID:3071312

  19. Imaging in oral cancers

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

    2012-01-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist. PMID:23599568

  20. Oral Health Glossary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Oral Health Glossary air abrasion: a method of tooth-structure removal considered to be an effective alternative to the standard dental drill ; amalgam: a mixture of mercury, silver, tin and copper used to fill cavities bleaching: cosmetic whitening of teeth burning mouth syndrome: a ...

  1. Oral Communication in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Noting that oral communication skills need continuous refinement, this document outlines various methods of practicing these skills, such as literature circles in reading; a reader's theater; presentations of book reports; story telling; a poetry reading club; and choral reading. The document describes literature circles as small groups of readers…

  2. Lakota Oral Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Vivian

    Course objectives for the three credit hour Lakota Oral Literature (college level English) course presented in this publication are to: perceive through the reading and hearing of Lakota legends a better understanding of the known world of the Lakota people which existed prior to white contact; understand the origin of the laws which the Lakota

  3. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY

  4. History of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product. PMID:21091163

  5. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A In oral candidiasis, normal mouth yeast overgrows, causing white, slightly elevated lesions. Overview ...

  6. Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin. PMID:25657420

  7. Oral Lichen Planus in Children

    PubMed Central

    Mohan Das, Usha; JP, Beena

    2009-01-01

    Oral lichen planus which is one of the most common oral mucosal diseases in adults, it has been rarely described in children. There are very reports in the literature regarding oral lichen planus in children, here we report a case of intraoral lesions of lichen planus. Lichen planus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperkeratotic or erosive lesions of the oral mucosa in children. PMID:25206101

  8. A History of Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

    This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's

  9. 47 CFR 1.297 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oral argument. 1.297 Section 1.297... Actions in Hearing Proceedings 1.297 Oral argument. Oral argument with respect to any contested... oral argument....

  10. 47 CFR 1.297 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oral argument. 1.297 Section 1.297... Actions in Hearing Proceedings 1.297 Oral argument. Oral argument with respect to any contested... oral argument....

  11. 47 CFR 1.297 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 1.297 Section 1.297... Actions in Hearing Proceedings 1.297 Oral argument. Oral argument with respect to any contested... oral argument....

  12. 47 CFR 1.297 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oral argument. 1.297 Section 1.297... Actions in Hearing Proceedings 1.297 Oral argument. Oral argument with respect to any contested... oral argument....

  13. 47 CFR 1.297 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oral argument. 1.297 Section 1.297... Actions in Hearing Proceedings 1.297 Oral argument. Oral argument with respect to any contested... oral argument....

  14. Proinflammatory cytokine levels in oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to identify salivary and serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in patients with oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and healthy controls. Materials and Methods Patients selected included 54 oral lichen planus (41 to 65 years), 50 oral leukoplakia (42 to 65 years), 51 oral submucous fibrosis (41 to 65 years), and 50 healthy controls (42 to 65 years). Oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis cases were diagnosed using histopathological analysis. Salivary and serum cytokine concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay kits in all subjects. Results The levels of serum and salivary TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 were statistically significantly increased in oral leukoplakia, submucous fibrosis, and lichen planus in contrast to normal healthy subjects (P<0.05). Serum and salivary correlation analysis revealed strong and highly significant correlations for TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 in all groups (r=0.72-0.82, P<0.05). Conclusion Salivary and serum cytokines were also elevated when analyzed in oral precancerous lesions. Thus, salivary and serum IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α levels might act as diagnostic markers for detection of oral precancer. PMID:26339574

  15. Damaging Oral Habits

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results. PMID:25954079

  16. Damaging oral habits.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results. PMID:25954079

  17. Good Oral Health and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

    2012-01-01

    An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174

  18. Skylab oral health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

  19. Oral Cavity Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Oral Cavity Lip C000C009, Base of Tongue C019, Other Parts of Tongue C020C029, Gum C030C039, Floor of Mouth C040C049, Palate C050C059, Other Parts of Mouth C060C069 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967,

  20. The relevance of the pharmacologic properties of a progestational agent to its clinical effects as a combination oral contraceptive.

    PubMed Central

    Upton, G. V.; Corbin, A.

    1989-01-01

    Levonorgestrel (LNg) is known for its marked progestational/contraceptive activity. As shown in animal experiments, however, high doses of LNg are required to elicit an androgenic response; in contrast, considerably lower doses of LNg are required for antiovulatory (contraceptive) action. Thus, a large dose separation exists between androgenic and contraceptive activity. When LNg is combined with an estrogen, as in the contraceptive formulations, the androgenic response is attenuated or negated. The results of recent clinical trials have demonstrated that the androgenic activity of LNg is not expressed at contraceptive doses, particularly when LNg is combined with ethinyl estradiol (EE), as in the low-dose monophasic/triphasic formulations (monophasic [Nordette]: 150 mcg LNg/30 mcg EE; triphasic [Triphasil/Trinordiol]: six days, 50 mcg LNg/30 mcg EE; five days, 75 mcg LNg/40 mcg EE; ten days, 125 mcg LNg/30 mcg EE). Clinical evidence from several trials confirms that sex hormone-binding globulin levels are increased, plasma androgen levels are decreased, and acne is markedly improved with the use of Triphasil and Nordette, suggesting a non-androgenic profile. Images FIG. 4 PMID:2534253

  1. Oral manifestations in transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458

  2. Oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Huber, Michaell A; Tantiwongkosi, Bundhit

    2014-11-01

    Oral and oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is a complex and often relentless malignancy prone to local invasion and dissemination. Despite advances in understanding of the disease and improved therapeutic interventions, it continues to be diagnosed at an advanced stage and the survival rate remains poor. The financial cost of treating OPC may be the highest of all cancers in the United States and survivors often experience major detriments to quality of life. Major risk factors for OPC are tobacco, alcohol, areca nut, and human papillomavirus infection. This article updates medical practitioners on the causes, presentation, diagnosis, and management of OPC. PMID:25443678

  3. Sublingual and oral immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Compalati, Enrico; Fumagalli, Federica; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2004-11-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a viable alternative to the subcutaneous route for the treatment of respiratory allergy, whereas the pure oral route has been abandoned because of its lack of efficacy. The main distinctive feature of SLIT is its optimal safety profile, which has been demonstrated in adults and children. The indications for SLIT are similar to those for the subcutaneous route. A long-lasting effect has been demonstrated for the sublingual route, but data are needed to determine the optimal dose and the preventive effect in asthma. PMID:15474866

  4. [Heroin and oral health].

    PubMed

    Brand, H S; Van Zalingen, D; Veerman, E C I

    2009-09-01

    Heroin is a half synthetic opiate with. It is used by a relatively small number of the general population, but relatively frequently by homeless people and prisoners. Since heroin has an inhibitory effect on the nervous system and on breathing, an overdose of heroin can have fatal consequences. Sudden abstinence of heroin results in general discomfort, restlessness, muscle cramps, perspiration, nausea, shivers and goose bumps. Oral effects of heroin include increased risks of caries, periodontitis and bruxism. Saliva has the potential of detecting heroin abuse. PMID:19791491

  5. Oral complications in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, W.

    1983-02-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

  6. Pediatric oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Kutcipal, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric oral and maxillofacial surgery is rarely seen as a separate entity from adult oral and maxillofacial surgery. Many procedures are similar on adults and children; however, children have unique behavioral, anatomic, and physiologic considerations. Children also have a propensity for certain injuries and pathologic lesions. Children born with congenital anomalies may also have a special subset of needs. This article is a brief review of oral and maxillofacial surgery on the pediatric population. PMID:23174612

  7. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine: guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum.

    PubMed

    Kragelund, C; Reibel, J; Hietanen, J; Hadler-Olsen, E; Johannessen, A C; Kenrad, B; Nylander, K; Puranen, M; Salo, T; Syrjnen, S; Sland, T M; van der Waal, I; van der Wal, J E; Warfvinge, G

    2012-11-01

    In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must have knowledge of clinical symptoms, local and systemic signs and clinical differential diagnoses to make an accurate diagnosis. The dentist must be competent in selecting appropriate diagnostic tests, for example, tissue biopsy and microbiological samples, and conducting them correctly, as well as in interpreting test results and taking appropriate action accordingly. Furthermore, the dentist must be aware of diseases demanding multidisciplinary cooperation and be able to recognise his/her professional limitation, and to refer to other specialists when required. The dental curriculum changes over time as new approaches, treatments and diagnostic possibilities develop. Likewise, the role of the dentist in the community changes and may vary in different countries. As members of the Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and subject representatives of oral pathology and oral medicine, we feel obliged to contribute to the discussion of how the guidelines of the dental curriculum support the highest possible standards of dental education. This article is meant to delineate a reasonable standard of oral pathology and oral medicine in the European dental curriculum and to guide subject representatives in curriculum development and planning. We have created an advisory topic list in oral pathology and oral medicine. PMID:23050507

  8. [Oral jewelry: a review].

    PubMed

    Jeger, Franziska; Lussi, Adrian; Zimmerli, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Oral jewelry is popular. One of the most widely spread types are so-called tooth diamonds made of composite materials which are applied to the teeth with an adhesive. Note that parents are required to sign a release form for under-aged patients in Switzerland. Tooth cap grills and gold teeth are considered status symbols within the Hip-Hop fashion scene. However, tooth ornaments favour the accumulation of plaque and can diminish the ability to articulate. With respect to jewelry in oral soft tissue especially tongue and lip piercings are of significance to dentists. Besides the systemic complications, which are mostly caused by a lack of hygiene or the failure of noting medical contraindications by the piercer, local complications occur frequently. After surgery, pain, swelling, infections as well as hemorrhages or hematomas can be observed. Long-term effects can be problematic: gingival recession can be discernes mainly in the case of lip piercings the loss of hard tooth substance in the case of tongue piercings. Because of that, conservation therapies can become indespensable. Patients wearing dental jewelry have to be aware of risks of tooth damage, and they regularly have to undergo dental check-ups. Information campaigns--for dentists as well as patients--are necessary. PMID:20112640

  9. Apixaban and oral implications

    PubMed Central

    Bagn, Jose V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thrombotic disorders remain a leading cause of death in the Western world, and in this regard a number of anticoagulation treatment have been used, including heparins, fondaparinux, vitamin K antagonists (warfarin, acenocoumarol), and new oral anticoagulants such as apixaban. For years there has been great controversy regarding the use of anticoagulants in planning dental treatments that imply bleeding. The main concerns about using new oral anticoagulants in invasive dental procedures are bleeding due to the lack of an antidote, and the thrombotic risk of the disease for which anticoagulation was indicated in the first place. Material and Methods A literature search was conducted through May 2014 using the keyword apixaban for publications in the ISI Web of Knowledge. The search was extended to other databases (PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library). Results Based on the results of the different studies, apixaban seems to be a good alternative to conventional anticoagulation and a reasonable treatment option, though its main and most common adverse effect is bleeding. Dose adjustment is needed in some patients, though regular laboratory monitoring is not required. The use of the drug in different patient populations will define its final indications and doses. Conclusions Regarding the use of apixaban in the dental setting, there is a compelling need for further clinical studies in order to establish more evidence-based guidelines for patients requiring antithrombotic treatment. Key words:Apixaban, dental treatment, dental implications. PMID:26535102

  10. Reversal of Oral Anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Limdi, Nita A.

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of dabigatran and rivaroxaban are increasing, data on reversal of their effects are limited. The lack of reliable monitoring methods and specific reversal agents renders treatment strategies empirical and as a result, , treatment consists mainly of supportive measures. Therefore, we performed a systematic search of the PubMed database to find studies and reviews pertaining to oral anticoagulation reversal strategies. This review discusses current anticoagulation reversal recommendations for the oral anticoagulants warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban for patients at a heightened risk of bleeding, actively bleeding or those in need for pre-procedural anticoagulation reversal. We highlight the literature that shaped these recommendations and provide directions for future research to address knowledge gaps. While reliable recommendations are available for anticoagulation reversal in patients treated with warfarin, guidance on reversal of dabigatran and rivaroxaban is varied and equivocal. Given the increasing use of the newer agents, focused research is needed to identify effective reversal strategies and develop and implement an accurate method (assay) to guide reversal of the newer agents. Determining patient-specific factors that influence the effectiveness of reversal treatments and comparing the effectiveness of various treatment strategies are pertinent areas for future anticoagulation reversal research. PMID:23606318

  11. Oral Conversations Online: Redefining Oral Competence in Synchronous Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamy, Marie-Noelle

    2004-01-01

    In this article the focus is on methodology for analysing learner-learner oral conversations mediated by computers. With the increasing availability of synchronous voice-based groupware and the additional facilities offered by audio-graphic tools, language learners have opportunities for collaborating on oral tasks, supported by visual and textual

  12. 39 CFR 3001.116 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral argument. 3001.116 Section 3001.116 Postal... of Postal Service Determinations To Close or Consolidate Post Offices 3001.116 Oral argument. Oral... circumstances, oral argument is a necessary addition to the written filings. Any request for oral argument...

  13. 39 CFR 3001.116 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oral argument. 3001.116 Section 3001.116 Postal... of Postal Service Determinations To Close or Consolidate Post Offices 3001.116 Oral argument. Oral... circumstances, oral argument is a necessary addition to the written filings. Any request for oral argument...

  14. Compounded oral ketamine.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Jack P; Hahn, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The nonnarcotic nonaddictive neuropathic pain reliever ketamine, which was synthesized in the early 1960s by Parke-Davis, was first administered to human patients in 1965. Used by the U. S. military as a field anesthetic during the Vietnam War, it slowly became popular as both an induction and maintenance agent for the general anesthesia required during brief surgical procedures. The use of ketamine in the past has been limited primarily to intravenous administration in hospitalized patients. Very recently, several published reports have described the use of low-dose ketamine for the relief of pain, refractory depression, and anxiety in patients with or without cancer. Because chronic pain, depression, and anxiety often occur in hospice patients with or without cancer and in palliative care patients who are not eligible for hospice, the discovery of new and effective uses for an established drug to treat those conditions has excited interest in the palliative care community. We support that interest with this case report, which describes our experience in treating a 44-year-old male hospice patient with severe constant anxiety, fear, and depression in addition to multiple near-terminal comorbid physical conditions that produce chronic pain. Prior treatments prescribed to resolve this patient's pain, anxiety, and depression had proven ineffective. However, a single low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) subcutaneous test injection of ketamine provided dramatic relief from those symptoms for 80 hours, although the anesthetic effects of that drug are not of long duration. This good outcome has been sustained to date by daily treatment with a compounded flavored oral ketamine solution (40 mg/5 mL) that is not commercially available. Flavoring the solution masks the bitter taste of ketamine and renders the treatment palatable. We found ketamine to be a well-tolerated and effective treatment for the triad of severe anxiety, chronic pain, and severe depression in a hospice patient with multiple comorbid conditions. To our knowledge, this report chronicles the first use of compounded oral ketamine for home-based palliative or hospice care in Louisiana. A formulation for a flavored oral ketamine solution is provided for easy reference. PMID:23072195

  15. Nutrition and oral mucosal diseases.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Danielle Marie; Mirowski, Ginat W

    2010-01-01

    Oral manifestations of nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissue, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This contribution reviews how the water-soluble vitamins (B(2), B(3), B(6), B(12), C, and folic acid), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E), and minerals (calcium, fluoride, iron, and zinc) can affect the oral mucosa. PMID:20620760

  16. Oral History in Louisiana Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Joel, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Theme issue shares experiences of librarians who have done oral history projects in school, parish, and university libraries throughout Louisiana. Articles cover the roles of the library and of oral history, how to begin projects, and how to involve students in the production of tapes and their organization for retrieval. (CDD)

  17. RSVP: Classroom Oral Interview Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James W.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the "RSVP" pilot program which uses an oral interview procedure adapted from the ACTFL/ETS Oral Interview. This procedure, which was modified for use in the classroom, is easily administered with a forced mode scale reflecting a descending hierarchy among the four skills tested: response, structure, vocabulary, and pronunciation. (SED)

  18. Helping Children in Oral Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munkres, Alberta

    An attempt to answer questions surrounding the teaching of oral communication to children is presented. In each section, a pattern is followed. First comes the presentation of an example. Second, there is an explanation of the teaching efforts which led up to this oral product. Third, the author adds comments and raises questions to help the

  19. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  20. Progestin-Only Oral Contraceptives

    MedlinePLUS

    Progestin-only oral contraceptives are used to prevent pregnancy. Progestin is a female hormone. It works by preventing the release of eggs from ... the lining of the uterus. Progestin-only oral contraceptives are a very effective method of birth control, ...

  1. Embracing Plurality through Oral Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Bich; Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The transmission and dissemination of knowledge in Aboriginal societies for the most part occurs orally in an Aboriginal language or in Aboriginal English. However, whilst support is given to speaking skills in Indigenous communities, in our education system less emphasis is given to developing equivalent oral communicative competence in Standard

  2. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  3. Oral reconstruction with submental flap

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Submental flap is a useful technique for reconstruction of medium to large oral cavity defects. Hair bearing nature of this flap in men makes it less appropriate. Therefore, deepithelialized variant is introduced to overcome the problem of hair with this flap. Recently, application of this flap has been introduced in maxillofacial trauma patients. Materials and Methods: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is used for the reconstruction of oral cavity mucosal defects. Results: Four cases including two trauma patients and two squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of oral cavity were treated using deepithelialized orthograde submental flap. There were no complications in all four patients and secondary epithelialization occurred in raw surface of the flap which was exposed to oral cavity. Conclusion: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is very effective in reconstruction of oral cavity in men. The problem of hair is readily solved using this technique without jeopardizing flap blood supply. PMID:24205473

  4. Oral infections and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kholy, Karim El; Genco, Robert J; Van Dyke, Thomas E

    2015-06-01

    Oral infections are the most common diseases of mankind. Numerous reports have implicated oral infections, particularly periodontitis, as a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review we examine the epidemiology and biologic plausibility of this association with an emphasis on oral bacteria and inflammation. Longitudinal studies of incident cardiovascular events clearly show excess risk for CVD in individuals with periodontitis. It is likely that systemic exposure to oral bacteria impacts upon the initiation and progression of CVD through triggering of inflammatory processes. Given the high prevalence of periodontitis, any risk attributable to future CVD is important to public health. Unraveling the role of the oral microbiome in CVD will lead to new preventive and treatment approaches. PMID:25892452

  5. Oral and sublingual immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases have continued to increase throughout the developed world. Subcutaneous immunotherapy has been a mainstay of treatment for allergic rhinitis and asthma, however, some patients are precluded from treatment. On the other hand, in the case of food allergy, treatments simply do not exist. Oral and sublingual immunotherapy, with its superior safety and ease of administration, offers an alternative for patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and has also been promising as a potential treatment for food allergy. The review summarizes significant advances from the past year including further data on the effectiveness of existing treatments, preliminary data on novel treatments, and further understanding of the mechanisms of these new therapies. PMID:25133094

  6. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  7. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome. PMID:26519069

  8. Why Is Oral Health Important for Men?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... desktop! more... Why is Oral Health Important for Men? Article Chapters Why is Oral Health Important for ... then the other. Updated: February 2007 Related Articles: Men's Oral Health Is Kissing Dangerous to Your Health? ...

  9. Community interactions of oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Yassin, Sufian A; Rickard, Alexander H

    2014-01-01

    It is now clear that the most common oral diseases, dental caries and periodontitis, are caused by mixed-species communities rather than by individual pathogens working in isolation. Oral streptococci are central to these disease processes since they are frequently the first microorganisms to colonize oral surfaces and they are numerically the dominant microorganisms in the human mouth. Numerous interactions between oral streptococci and other bacteria have been documented. These are thought to be critical for the development of mixed-species oral microbial communities and for the transition from oral health to disease. Recent metagenomic studies are beginning to shed light on the co-occurrence patterns of streptococci with other oral bacteria. Refinements in microscopy techniques and biofilm models are providing detailed insights into the spatial distribution of streptococci in oral biofilms. Targeted genetic manipulation is increasingly being applied for the analysis of specific genes and networks that modulate interspecies interactions. From this work, it is clear that streptococci produce a range of extracellular factors that promote their integration into mixed-species communities and enable them to form social networks with neighboring taxa. These "community integration factors" include coaggregation-mediating adhesins and receptors, small signaling molecules such as peptides or autoinducer-2, bacteriocins, by-products of metabolism including hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid, and a range of extracellular enzymes. Here, we provide an overview of various types of community interactions between oral streptococci and other microorganisms, and we consider the possibilities for the development of new technologies to interfere with these interactions to help control oral biofilms. PMID:24581389

  10. Oral Sexual Behaviors Associated with Prevalent Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    DSouza, Gypsyamber; Agrawal, Yuri; Halpern, Jane; Bodison, Sacared; Gillison, Maura L.

    2015-01-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a cause of oropharyngeal cancer. We investigated whether sexual behaviors that elevated the odds of oropharyngeal cancer developing in a case-control study similarly elevated the odds of oral HPV infection developing among control patients. HPV infection was detected in 4.8% of 332 control patients from an outpatient clinic and in 2.9% of 210 college-aged men (age range, 1823 years). Among control patients, the odds of infection developing independently increased with increases in the lifetime number of oral (P = .007, for trend) or vaginal sex partners (P = .003, for trend). Among college-aged men, the odds of oral HPV infection developing increased with increases in the number of recent oral sex partners (P = .046, for trend) or open-mouthed kissing partners (P = .023, for trend) but not vaginal sex partners. Oral sex and open-mouthed kissing are associated with the development of oral HPV infection. PMID:19320589

  11. Quantitative Immunoexpression of EGFR in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Jyothi Meka, Naga; Ugrappa, Sridevi; Velpula, Nagalaxmi; Kumar, Sravan; Naik Maloth, Kotya; Kodangal, Srikanth; ch, Lalitha; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Many oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from potentially malignant disorders (PMDs)which include a variety of lesions and conditions characterized by an increased risk for malignant transformation. Thisstudy evaluated the quantitative expression of EGFR in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis to predict the malignant risk in compliance with the intensity of staining with EGFR. Materials and methods. Thirty subjects were included in the study, consisting of 10 oral leukoplakia (OL), 10 oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 10 normal oral mucosa (NOM) as the control group. Owing to the histopathological confirmation of precancerous state of tissue, 4-?m-thick sections of tissue were taken from paraffin-embedded wax blocks for immunohistochemical staining for EGFR. Results. All the control cases showed positive expression for EGFR, while 20% of oral leukoplakia and 40% of OSMF cases showed strong expression (3+), 40% of OL and 30% of OSMF cases showed weak expression (2+), and 40% of OLand 30% of OSMF cases showed poor expression (1+) compared to controls (P=0.012). Conclusion. EGFR expression levels in the premalignant lesion appear to be a sensitive factor in predicting the neoplastic potential. This suggests that EGFR may serve as a biological marker to identify high-risk subgroups and guide prophylactic therapy with chemopreventive drugs or surgical intervention to prevent progression to carcinoma. Hence, further investigations in the direction of chemopreventive trials with a larger sample size are suggested to determine its role in the head and neck tumorigenesis. PMID:26697149

  12. Quantitative Immunoexpression of EGFR in Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders: Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jyothi Meka, Naga; Ugrappa, Sridevi; Velpula, Nagalaxmi; Kumar, Sravan; Naik Maloth, Kotya; Kodangal, Srikanth; Ch, Lalitha; Goyal, Stuti

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Many oral squamous cell carcinomas develop from potentially malignant disorders (PMDs)which include a variety of lesions and conditions characterized by an increased risk for malignant transformation. Thisstudy evaluated the quantitative expression of EGFR in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis to predict the malignant risk in compliance with the intensity of staining with EGFR. Materials and methods. Thirty subjects were included in the study, consisting of 10 oral leukoplakia (OL), 10 oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 10 normal oral mucosa (NOM) as the control group. Owing to the histopathological confirmation of precancerous state of tissue, 4-?m-thick sections of tissue were taken from paraffin-embedded wax blocks for immunohistochemical staining for EGFR. Results. All the control cases showed positive expression for EGFR, while 20% of oral leukoplakia and 40% of OSMF cases showed strong expression (3+), 40% of OL and 30% of OSMF cases showed weak expression (2+), and 40% of OLand 30% of OSMF cases showed poor expression (1+) compared to controls (P=0.012). Conclusion. EGFR expression levels in the premalignant lesion appear to be a sensitive factor in predicting the neoplastic potential. This suggests that EGFR may serve as a biological marker to identify high-risk subgroups and guide prophylactic therapy with chemopreventive drugs or surgical intervention to prevent progression to carcinoma. Hence, further investigations in the direction of chemopreventive trials with a larger sample size are suggested to determine its role in the head and neck tumorigenesis. PMID:26697149

  13. Elite athletes and oral health.

    PubMed

    Bryant, S; McLaughlin, K; Morgaine, K; Drummond, B

    2011-09-01

    Elite athletes follow demanding training regimes to achieve optimal performance. Training incorporates strategies which coincide with risk factors for dental caries and erosion. The important role of a disease-free oral cavity for peak performance is often overlooked and oral health may be compromised. This initial exploratory study aimed to identify risk factors for dental caries and erosion in elite triathletes. Questionnaires regarding training, diet and oral health were distributed to a sample of elite triathletes in New Zealand. A further sample of 10 athletes was randomly selected from the Dunedin triathlon club to participate in a clinical oral examination. Sports drinks were consumed by 83.9% of the triathletes while training; for 48.4% consumption of both sports drinks and water was described as 'little sips often, from a bottle'. Eating during training sessions was reported by 93.5% of participants; of those 62.1% ate only during cycling training. Only 3.2% perceived training as high risk to oral health. All clinical examination cases were assessed as high risk for developing caries. The diet of elite triathletes is consistent with a high risk profile for caries and erosion. Future research should be aimed at oral health promotion programs for the athletes, coaches and oral-health providers. PMID:21590645

  14. Oral lichen planus to oral lichenoid lesions: Evolution or revolution

    PubMed Central

    Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26980966

  15. Management of oral melanin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Karydis, Anastasios; Bland, Paul; Shiloah, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Melanin is an endogenous pigment responsible for human tissue coloration of the skin, mucosa, hair, eyes and parts of the brain. In the skin, its function is protection from the harmful effects of UV radiation. Its purpose in oral tissues has not yet been determined. Oral pigmentation could be an esthetic issue for some patients, particularly when it is located on the anterior labial gingiva in individuals with a high smile line. This article presents and describes several different approaches for the management of oral melanin pigmentation. PMID:23420974

  16. Diabetes mellitus and oral health.

    PubMed

    Kudiyirickal, Marina George; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2015-05-01

    The oral health is influenced by systemic health, and one of the most common chronic diseases encountered in dental practice is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes can worsen oral infections and vice versa. In the literature, periodontitis and diabetes in the young to middle-aged adults have been the most widely researched area. Understanding the patho-physiology, clinical manifestations and management of different types of orofacial diseases in diabetic patients are important to the diabetologist and the dentist for the optimal care of patients with these diseases. This review explores the inter-link between diabetes and oral health. PMID:25487035

  17. Melanin: the biophysiology of oral melanocytes and physiological oral pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The presence of melanocytes in the oral epithelium is a well-established fact, but their physiological functions are not well defined. Melanin provides protection from environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation and reactive oxygen species; and melanocytes function as stress-sensors having the capacity both to react to and to produce a variety of microenvironmental cytokines and growth factors, modulating immune, inflammatory and antibacterial responses. Melanocytes also act as neuroendocrine cells producing local neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, catecholamines and opioids, and hormones of the melanocortin system such as proopiomelanocortin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, that participate in intracellular and in intercellular signalling pathways, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis. There is a wide range of normal variation in melanin pigmentation of the oral mucosa. In general, darker skinned persons more frequently have oral melanin pigmentation than light-skinned persons. Variations in oral physiological pigmentation are genetically determined unless associated with some underlying disease. In this article, we discuss some aspects of the biophysiology of oral melanocytes, of the functions of melanin, and of physiological oral pigmentation. PMID:24661309

  18. Nutrition and oral health.

    PubMed

    Budtz-Jørgensen, E; Chung, J P; Rapin, C H

    2001-12-01

    Reduced chewing function in community-dwelling older people with adequate general health is linked to having fewer than 20 teeth present or to wearing removable dentures. By chewing for longer periods of time or swallowing larger food particles they are normally able to compensate for the impaired function. The masticatory function can be restored by adequate prosthetic therapy, which results in increased activity of the masticatory muscles during chewing and reduces the chewing time and the number of chewing strokes until swallowing. In frail or dependent elderly people undernutrition is prevalent because of health problems, reduced appetite and poor quality of life. Poor oral health and xerostomia are often associated with a reduced body mass index and serum albumin level and the avoidance of difficult-to-chew foods. Maintenance or re-establishment of masticatory function is an integral part of the medical health care of these patients, with the aim of improving their nutritional status and quality of life. PMID:11866483

  19. As-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria: breadth and association with oral and extra-oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Jos F.; Ras, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that 4060% of the bacteria found in different healthy and diseased oral sites still remain to be grown in vitro, phenotypically characterized, and formally named as species. The possibility exists that these as-yet-uncultivated bacteria play important ecological roles in oral bacterial communities and may participate in the pathogenesis of several oral infectious diseases. There is also a potential for these as-yet-uncultivated oral bacteria to take part in extra-oral infections. For a comprehensive characterization of physiological and pathogenic properties as well as antimicrobial susceptibility of individual bacterial species, strains need to be grown in pure culture. Advances in culturing techniques have allowed the cultivation of several oral bacterial taxa only previously known by a 16S rRNA gene sequence signature, and novel species have been proposed. There is a growing need for developing improved methods to cultivate and characterize the as-yet-uncultivated portion of the oral microbiome so as to unravel its role in health and disease. PMID:23717756

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the face, mouth and gums to improve function, appearance and oral health. Click here to find out ... surgeon to the need for harmony between facial appearance and function. As a result, OMSs are uniqely ...

  1. The Importance of Oral Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetherington, M. Sue

    1982-01-01

    Offers the results of a survey taken at the College of Charleston in South Carolina indicating that faculty members, recent graduates, and employers all feel that college education in communication should stress training in oral communication skills. (JL)

  2. Estrogen and Progestin (Oral Contraceptives)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... many different brands. Different brands of oral contraceptives contain slightly different medications or doses, are taken in ... 28-tablet packets have certain color tablets that contain different amounts of estrogen and progestin, but also ...

  3. Oral agents in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorefice, L; Fenu, G; Frau, J; Coghe, G C; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Disease-modifying drugs licensed for MS treatment have been developed to reduce relapse rates and halt disease progression. The majority of current MS drugs involve regular, parenteral administration, affecting long-term adherence and thus reducing treatment efficacy. Over the last two decades great progress has been made towards developing new MS therapies with different modes of action and biologic effects. In particular, oral drugs have generated much interest because of their convenience and positive impact on medication adherence. Fingolimod was the first launched oral treatment for relapsing-remitting MS; recently, Teriflunomide and Dimethyl fumarate have also been approved as oral disease-modifying agents. In this review, we summarize and discuss the history, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of oral agents that have been approved or are under development for the selective treatment of MS. PMID:25924620

  4. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... do rural communities and populations face regarding oral healthcare? According to Pennsylvania Office of Rural Health Director ... provides basic dental care for children with special healthcare needs and other special populations in Missouri. Miles ...

  5. Oral health, taste, and olfaction.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Christine S

    2002-11-01

    Oral health, taste, and smell are critical components to an older person's overall sense of well-being and quality of life. Oral health problems can cause pain and discomfort and can hinder the maintenance of a satisfying and nutritious diet. Loss of taste and smell interferes with pleasure derived from food and food-related activities. Attention should be given to preserving teeth and optimizing oral function. Likewise, close evaluation of older adults' medications may identify the causes of taste and smell disorders. In instances in which nutrient intake is inadequate and chemosensory perception is considered a likely contributor, a trial of flavor enhancers or monosodium glutamate may improve both quality and quantity of intake. Much more information is needed to understand the interrelationship between chemosensory perception, food intake regulatory mechanisms, and nutritional status. Multidisciplinary studies will be required to understand how to improve nutrition through manipulation of oral characteristics, taste, and smell. PMID:12608499

  6. Oral Health and Bone Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Oral Health and Bone Disease Publication available in: PDF (58 KB) Related ... for Healthy Bones Resources For Your Information Skeletal Bone Density and Dental Concerns The portion of the ...

  7. Multicultural Issues in Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Raul I.; Cadoret, Cindy; Henshaw, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Demographic changes over the coming decades will heighten the challenges to the dental profession and to the nation. The expected growth in the numbers of racial and ethnic minorities, and the concomitant growth of immigrant populations are likely to lead to worsening of oral health disparities. Their consequences are becoming increasingly evident as the profession strives to improve the oral health of all Americans. The increasing diversity of the population, together with the importance of cultural beliefs and behaviors that affect health outcomes, will require ways to enhance provider-patient communications and oral health literacy. We discuss the nature and challenges presented by multicultural patient populations. One important means by which to promote oral health in diverse populations is to develop a dental workforce that is both culturally and linguistically competent, as well as one that is as culturally diverse as the American population. PMID:18329446

  8. Oral tuberculosis involving maxillary gingiva

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Rohit; Singh, Anil; Badni, Manjunath; Singh, Priyanka

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is transmitted by aerosolized saliva droplets among individuals in close contact with expelled sputum of a diseased patient. However, TB lesions of the oral cavity are often overlooked in the differential diagnosis. We report here a case of tuberculosis of oral cavity affecting the gingiva of a 24-year-old male. PMID:22639508

  9. 46 CFR 502.241 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.241 Section 502.241 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submission for Final Decision 502.241 Oral argument. (a) The Commission may hear oral argument either on its own motion or upon the...

  10. 46 CFR 201.166 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oral argument. 201.166 Section 201.166 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submittal for Final Decision (Rule 17) 201.166 Oral argument. If oral argument before...

  11. 36 CFR 214.16 - Oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral presentation. 214.16... 214.16 Oral presentation. (a) Purpose. The purpose of an oral presentation is to provide parties to an... Deciding Officer. (b) Procedure. Oral presentations are not evidentiary proceedings involving...

  12. 36 CFR 214.16 - Oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oral presentation. 214.16... 214.16 Oral presentation. (a) Purpose. The purpose of an oral presentation is to provide parties to an... Deciding Officer. (b) Procedure. Oral presentations are not evidentiary proceedings involving...

  13. 25 CFR 11.805 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral argument. 11.805 Section 11.805 Indians BUREAU OF... Appellate Proceedings 11.805 Oral argument. The appellate division shall assign all criminal cases for oral argument. The court may in its discretion assign civil cases for oral argument or may dispose...

  14. 37 CFR 41.124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oral argument. 41.124 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Contested Cases 41.124 Oral argument. (a) Request for oral argument. A party may request an oral argument on an issue raised in a...

  15. 13 CFR 134.311 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral hearings. 134.311 Section 134... NAICS Code Designations 134.311 Oral hearings. Oral hearings will not be held in appeals from NAICS... Judge of extraordinary circumstances. If such an oral hearing is ordered, the proceeding shall...

  16. 49 CFR 825.25 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oral argument. 825.25 Section 825.25....25 Oral argument. (a) If any party desires to argue a case orally before the Board, he should request leave to make such argument in his brief filed pursuant to 825.20. (b) Oral argument before the...

  17. 32 CFR 150.16 - Oral arguments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oral arguments. 150.16 Section 150.16 National... JUSTICE COURTS OF CRIMINAL APPEALS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE 150.16 Oral arguments. Oral arguments... the Court. The motion of a party for oral argument shall be made no later than 7 days after the...

  18. 13 CFR 134.311 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral hearings. 134.311 Section 134... NAICS Code Designations 134.311 Oral hearings. Oral hearings will not be held in appeals from NAICS... Judge of extraordinary circumstances. If such an oral hearing is ordered, the proceeding shall...

  19. 25 CFR 11.805 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Oral argument. 11.805 Section 11.805 Indians BUREAU OF... Appellate Proceedings 11.805 Oral argument. The appellate division shall assign all criminal cases for oral argument. The court may in its discretion assign civil cases for oral argument or may dispose...

  20. 10 CFR 2.1507 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral hearing. 2.1507 Section 2.1507 Energy NUCLEAR... Hearings 2.1507 Oral hearing. (a) Not less than five (5) days before the commencement of the oral hearing... witnesses at the oral hearing. The order shall be filed upon all participants by email or...

  1. 46 CFR 201.166 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oral argument. 201.166 Section 201.166 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submittal for Final Decision (Rule 17) 201.166 Oral argument. If oral argument before...

  2. 13 CFR 134.311 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral hearings. 134.311 Section 134... NAICS Code Designations 134.311 Oral hearings. Oral hearings will not be held in appeals from NAICS... Judge of extraordinary circumstances. If such an oral hearing is ordered, the proceeding shall...

  3. 46 CFR 201.166 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oral argument. 201.166 Section 201.166 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submittal for Final Decision (Rule 17) 201.166 Oral argument. If oral argument before...

  4. 37 CFR 42.70 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oral argument. 42.70 Section... COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Trial Practice and Procedure Oral Argument, Decision, and Settlement 42.70 Oral argument. (a) Request for oral argument. A party may request...

  5. 17 CFR 12.209 - Oral testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral testimony. 12.209 Section... REPARATIONS Rules Applicable to Summary Decisional Proceedings 12.209 Oral testimony. (a) Generally. When the Judgment Officer determines that an oral hearing is necessary and appropriate, such oral...

  6. 49 CFR 825.25 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oral argument. 825.25 Section 825.25....25 Oral argument. (a) If any party desires to argue a case orally before the Board, he should request leave to make such argument in his brief filed pursuant to 825.20. (b) Oral argument before the...

  7. 46 CFR 502.241 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.241 Section 502.241 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submission for Final Decision 502.241 Oral argument. (a) The Commission may hear oral argument either...

  8. 32 CFR 150.16 - Oral arguments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oral arguments. 150.16 Section 150.16 National... JUSTICE COURTS OF CRIMINAL APPEALS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE 150.16 Oral arguments. Oral arguments... the Court. The motion of a party for oral argument shall be made no later than 7 days after the...

  9. 29 CFR 2700.77 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oral argument. 2700.77 Section 2700.77 Labor Regulations... the Commission 2700.77 Oral argument. Oral argument may be ordered by the Commission on its own motion or on the motion of a party. A party requesting oral argument shall do so by separate motion...

  10. 10 CFR 2.1507 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oral hearing. 2.1507 Section 2.1507 Energy NUCLEAR... Hearings 2.1507 Oral hearing. (a) Not less than five (5) days before the commencement of the oral hearing... witnesses at the oral hearing. The order shall be filed upon all participants by email or...

  11. 32 CFR 150.16 - Oral arguments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral arguments. 150.16 Section 150.16 National... JUSTICE COURTS OF CRIMINAL APPEALS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE 150.16 Oral arguments. Oral arguments... the Court. The motion of a party for oral argument shall be made no later than 7 days after the...

  12. 13 CFR 134.311 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral hearings. 134.311 Section 134... NAICS Code Designations 134.311 Oral hearings. Oral hearings will not be held in appeals from NAICS... Judge of extraordinary circumstances. If such an oral hearing is ordered, the proceeding shall...

  13. 29 CFR 2700.77 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral argument. 2700.77 Section 2700.77 Labor Regulations... the Commission 2700.77 Oral argument. Oral argument may be ordered by the Commission on its own motion or on the motion of a party. A party requesting oral argument shall do so by separate motion...

  14. 49 CFR 825.25 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oral argument. 825.25 Section 825.25....25 Oral argument. (a) If any party desires to argue a case orally before the Board, he should request leave to make such argument in his brief filed pursuant to 825.20. (b) Oral argument before the...

  15. 37 CFR 41.124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oral argument. 41.124 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Contested Cases 41.124 Oral argument. (a) Request for oral argument. A party may request an oral argument on an issue raised in a...

  16. 20 CFR 501.5 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral argument. 501.5 Section 501.5 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION APPEALS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PROCEDURE 501.5 Oral argument. (a) Oral argument. Oral argument may be held in the discretion of the Board, on its...

  17. 32 CFR 150.16 - Oral arguments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oral arguments. 150.16 Section 150.16 National... JUSTICE COURTS OF CRIMINAL APPEALS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE 150.16 Oral arguments. Oral arguments... the Court. The motion of a party for oral argument shall be made no later than 7 days after the...

  18. 12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral presentations. 1102.36 Section 1102.36... Practice for Proceedings 1102.36 Oral presentations. (a) In general. A party does not have a right to an oral presentation. Under this section, a party's request to make an oral presentation may be denied...

  19. 49 CFR 825.25 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oral argument. 825.25 Section 825.25....25 Oral argument. (a) If any party desires to argue a case orally before the Board, he should request leave to make such argument in his brief filed pursuant to 825.20. (b) Oral argument before the...

  20. 12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oral presentations. 1102.36 Section 1102.36... Practice for Proceedings 1102.36 Oral presentations. (a) In general. A party does not have a right to an oral presentation. Under this section, a party's request to make an oral presentation may be denied...

  1. 25 CFR 11.805 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral argument. 11.805 Section 11.805 Indians BUREAU OF... Appellate Proceedings 11.805 Oral argument. The appellate division shall assign all criminal cases for oral argument. The court may in its discretion assign civil cases for oral argument or may dispose...

  2. 46 CFR 502.241 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.241 Section 502.241 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submission for Final Decision 502.241 Oral argument. (a) The Commission may hear oral argument either...

  3. 20 CFR 501.5 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral argument. 501.5 Section 501.5 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION APPEALS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PROCEDURE 501.5 Oral argument. (a) Oral argument. Oral argument may be held in the discretion of the Board, on its...

  4. 17 CFR 12.209 - Oral testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral testimony. 12.209 Section... REPARATIONS Rules Applicable to Summary Decisional Proceedings 12.209 Oral testimony. (a) Generally. When the Judgment Officer determines that an oral hearing is necessary and appropriate, such oral...

  5. 29 CFR 2700.77 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oral argument. 2700.77 Section 2700.77 Labor Regulations... the Commission 2700.77 Oral argument. Oral argument may be ordered by the Commission on its own motion or on the motion of a party. A party requesting oral argument shall do so by separate motion...

  6. 29 CFR 2700.77 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oral argument. 2700.77 Section 2700.77 Labor Regulations... the Commission 2700.77 Oral argument. Oral argument may be ordered by the Commission on its own motion or on the motion of a party. A party requesting oral argument shall do so by separate motion...

  7. 10 CFR 2.1507 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral hearing. 2.1507 Section 2.1507 Energy NUCLEAR... Hearings 2.1507 Oral hearing. (a) Not less than five (5) days before the commencement of the oral hearing... witnesses at the oral hearing. The order shall be filed upon all participants by email or...

  8. 49 CFR 825.25 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 825.25 Section 825.25....25 Oral argument. (a) If any party desires to argue a case orally before the Board, he should request leave to make such argument in his brief filed pursuant to 825.20. (b) Oral argument before the...

  9. 29 CFR 2700.77 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral argument. 2700.77 Section 2700.77 Labor Regulations... the Commission 2700.77 Oral argument. Oral argument may be ordered by the Commission on its own motion or on the motion of a party. A party requesting oral argument shall do so by separate motion...

  10. 25 CFR 11.805 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral argument. 11.805 Section 11.805 Indians BUREAU OF... Appellate Proceedings 11.805 Oral argument. The appellate division shall assign all criminal cases for oral argument. The court may in its discretion assign civil cases for oral argument or may dispose...

  11. 20 CFR 501.5 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral argument. 501.5 Section 501.5 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION APPEALS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PROCEDURE 501.5 Oral argument. (a) Oral argument. Oral argument may be held in the discretion of the Board, on its...

  12. 12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral presentations. 1102.36 Section 1102.36... Practice for Proceedings 1102.36 Oral presentations. (a) In general. A party does not have a right to an oral presentation. Under this section, a party's request to make an oral presentation may be denied...

  13. 17 CFR 12.209 - Oral testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral testimony. 12.209 Section... REPARATIONS Rules Applicable to Summary Decisional Proceedings 12.209 Oral testimony. (a) Generally. When the Judgment Officer determines that an oral hearing is necessary and appropriate, such oral...

  14. 20 CFR 501.5 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral argument. 501.5 Section 501.5 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION APPEALS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PROCEDURE 501.5 Oral argument. (a) Oral argument. Oral argument may be held in the discretion of the Board, on its...

  15. 42 CFR 423.2124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oral argument. 423.2124 Section 423.2124 Public... Judicial Review 423.2124 Oral argument. An enrollee may request to appear before the MAC to present oral argument. (a) The MAC grants a request for oral argument if it decides that the case raises an...

  16. 42 CFR 423.2124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oral argument. 423.2124 Section 423.2124 Public... review, and Judicial Review 423.2124 Oral argument. An enrollee may request to appear before the MAC to present oral argument. (a) The MAC grants a request for oral argument if it decides that the case...

  17. 32 CFR 150.16 - Oral arguments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral arguments. 150.16 Section 150.16 National... JUSTICE COURTS OF CRIMINAL APPEALS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE 150.16 Oral arguments. Oral arguments... the Court. The motion of a party for oral argument shall be made no later than 7 days after the...

  18. 20 CFR 501.5 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral argument. 501.5 Section 501.5 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION APPEALS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PROCEDURE 501.5 Oral argument. (a) Oral argument. Oral argument may be held in the discretion of the Board, on its...

  19. 37 CFR 41.124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oral argument. 41.124 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Contested Cases 41.124 Oral argument. (a) Request for oral argument. A party may request an oral argument on an issue raised in a paper within...

  20. 13 CFR 134.311 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oral hearings. 134.311 Section 134... NAICS Code Designations 134.311 Oral hearings. Oral hearings will not be held in appeals from NAICS... Judge of extraordinary circumstances. If such an oral hearing is ordered, the proceeding shall...

  1. 37 CFR 41.124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral argument. 41.124 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Contested Cases 41.124 Oral argument. (a) Request for oral argument. A party may request an oral argument on an issue raised in a paper within...

  2. 46 CFR 502.241 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.241 Section 502.241 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Oral Argument; Submission for Final Decision 502.241 Oral argument. (a) The Commission may hear oral argument either...

  3. 42 CFR 423.2124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oral argument. 423.2124 Section 423.2124 Public... review, and Judicial Review 423.2124 Oral argument. An enrollee may request to appear before the MAC to present oral argument. (a) The MAC grants a request for oral argument if it decides that the case...

  4. 37 CFR 41.124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral argument. 41.124 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Contested Cases 41.124 Oral argument. (a) Request for oral argument. A party may request an oral argument on an issue raised in a...

  5. 17 CFR 12.209 - Oral testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral testimony. 12.209 Section... REPARATIONS Rules Applicable to Summary Decisional Proceedings 12.209 Oral testimony. (a) Generally. When the Judgment Officer determines that an oral hearing is necessary and appropriate, such oral...

  6. 17 CFR 12.209 - Oral testimony.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral testimony. 12.209 Section... REPARATIONS Rules Applicable to Summary Decisional Proceedings 12.209 Oral testimony. (a) Generally. When the Judgment Officer determines that an oral hearing is necessary and appropriate, such oral...

  7. 25 CFR 11.805 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral argument. 11.805 Section 11.805 Indians BUREAU OF... Appellate Proceedings 11.805 Oral argument. The appellate division shall assign all criminal cases for oral argument. The court may in its discretion assign civil cases for oral argument or may dispose...

  8. 37 CFR 42.70 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral argument. 42.70 Section... COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Trial Practice and Procedure Oral Argument, Decision, and Settlement 42.70 Oral argument. (a) Request for oral argument. A party may request...

  9. 42 CFR 423.2124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oral argument. 423.2124 Section 423.2124 Public... review, and Judicial Review 423.2124 Oral argument. An enrollee may request to appear before the MAC to present oral argument. (a) The MAC grants a request for oral argument if it decides that the case...

  10. 12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral presentations. 1102.36 Section 1102.36... Practice for Proceedings 1102.36 Oral presentations. (a) In general. A party does not have a right to an oral presentation. Under this section, a party's request to make an oral presentation may be denied...

  11. 12 CFR 1102.36 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practice for Proceedings § 1102.36 Oral presentations. (a) In general. A party does not have a right to an oral presentation. Under this section, a party's request to make an oral presentation may be denied if such a denial is appropriate and reasonable under the circumstances. An oral presentation shall...

  12. Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songhui, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development

  13. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-12-16

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  14. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  15. Acute oral toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Walum, E

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of acute toxicity testing are to obtain information on the biologic activity of a chemical and gain insight into its mechanism of action. The information on acute systemic toxicity generated by the test is used in hazard identification and risk management in the context of production, handling, and use of chemicals. The LD50 value, defined as the statistically derived dose that, when administered in an acute toxicity test, is expected to cause death in 50% of the treated animals in a given period, is currently the basis for toxicologic classification of chemicals. For a classical LD50 study, laboratory mice and rats are the species typically selected. Often both sexes must be used for regulatory purposes. When oral administration is combined with parenteral, information on the bioavailability of the tested compound is obtained. The result of the extensive discussions on the significance of the LD50 value and the concomitant development of alternative procedures is that authorities today do not usually demand classical LD50 tests involving a large number of animals. The limit test, the fixed-dose procedure, the toxic class method, and the up-and-down methods all represent simplified alternatives using only a few animals. Efforts have also been made to develop in vitro systems; e.g., it has been suggested that acute systemic toxicity can be broken down into a number of biokinetic, cellular, and molecular elements, each of which can be identified and quantified in appropriate models. The various elements may then be used in different combinations to model large numbers of toxic events to predict hazard and classify compounds. PMID:9599698

  16. [Aphthous ulcers and oral ulcerations].

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Loïc; Samimi, Mahtab

    2016-02-01

    Aphthous ulcers are painful ulcerations located on the mucous membrane, generally in the mouth, less often in the genital area. Three clinical forms of aphthous ulcers have been described: minor aphthous ulcers, herpetiform aphthous ulcers and major aphthous ulcers. Many other conditions presenting with oral bullous or vesiculous lesions orulcerations and erosions can be mistaken for aphthous ulcers. Currently, treatment of aphthous ulcers is palliative and symptomatic. Topical treatments (topical anesthetics, topical steroids and sucralfate) are the first line therapy. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is defined by the recurrence of oral aphthous ulcers at least 4 times per year. RAS is often idiopathic but can be associated with gastro-intestinal diseases (i.e. celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases), nutritional deficiencies (iron, folates…), immune disorders (HIV infection, neutropenia) and rare syndromes. Behçet's disease is a chronic, inflammatory, disease whose main clinical feature is recurrent bipolar aphthosis. Colchicine associated with topical treatments constitutes a suitable treatment of most RAS. Thalidomide is the most effective treatment of RAS but its use is limited by frequent adverse effects. Oral ulcers can be related to a wide range of conditions that constitute the differential diagnoses of aphthous ulcers. Oral ulcers are classified into three main groups: acute ulcers with abrupt onset and short duration, recurrent ulcers (mainly due to postherpetic erythema multiforme) and chronic ulcers (with slow onset and insidious progression). Acute oral ulcers are due to trauma, bacterial infections (including acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis), deep fungal infection, gastro-intestinal (namely inflammatory bowel disease) or systemic diseases. Chronic oral ulcers may be drug-induced, or due to benign or malignant tumors. Every oral solitary chronic ulcer should be biopsied to rule out squamous cell carcinoma. A solitary palatal ulcer can be related with necrotizing sialometaplasia. PMID:26880080

  17. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development (autonomy, self-esteem, locus of control), life expectations (marriage, college, career), dating behavior, age at 1st intercourse, perceived risk for becoming pregnant, personal attributes (sex, birth control, acquisition of birth control, pregnancy, parents' and peers' feelings toward sex and birth control), and previous experiences with birth control. PMID:1679420

  18. Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.

    2014-01-01

    Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

  19. Graphite oral tattoo: case report.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Renata Mendona; Gouva Lima, Gabriela De Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more frequently in the region of the alveolar ridge. Graphite tattoos occur in younger patients when compared with the amalgam type. Histologically, amalgam lesions represent impregnation of the reticular fibers of vessels and nerves with silver, whereas in cases of graphite tattoos, this impregnation is not observed, but it is common to observe a granulomatous inflammatory response, less evident in cases of amalgam tattoos. Both types of lesions require no treatment, but in some cases a biopsy may be done to rule out melanocytic lesions. PMID:26632800

  20. A phase I and pharmacokinetics study of intravenous calcitriol in combination with oral dexamethasone and gefitinib in patients with advanced solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Muindi, Josephia R.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.; Christy, Renee; Engler, Kristie L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of intravenously (i.v.) calcitriol administered in combination with a fixed oral dose of dexamethasone and gefitinib in patients with refractory solid tumors. Methods A fixed oral dose of dexamethasone of 4 mg/day was given every 12 h × 3 doses starting 12 h prior to i.v. calcitriol administration. Calcitriol was administered i.v. over 1 h on weeks 1, 3, and weekly thereafter. The starting calcitriol dose level was 57 μg and escalation occurred in cohorts of three patients until the MTD was defined. Gefitinib was given at a fixed oral daily dose of 250 mg starting at week 2 (day 8). Serum calcitriol PK studies were performed on day 1 (calcitriol + dexamethasone) and on day 15 (calcitriol + dexamethasone + gefitinib). Results A total of 20 patients were treated. Dose-limiting hypercalcemia was observed in two out of the four patients receiving 163 mcg/week of calcitriol. Mean (±SE) peak serum calcitriol concentration (Cmax) at the MTD (125 μg/week calcitriol) was 11.17 ± 2.62 ng/ml and the systemic exposure (AUC0–72 h) of 53.30 ± 10.49 ng h/ml. The relationship between calcitriol dose and either Cmax or AUC was linear over the 57–163 μg dose range. Conclusions The addition of a low dose of dexamethasone allowed the safe escalation of calcitriol to the MTD of 125 μg/week. This dose level resulted in serum calcitriol concentrations that are associated with pre-clinical antitumor activity. However, no antitumor activity was noted clinically in patients with solid tumors. PMID:19396601

  1. [Oral candidiasis: clinical features and control].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-10-01

    Candidiasis is the most commonly encountered fungal infection, and oral candidiasis is often observed as a local opportunistic infection. Oral candidiasis is clinically divided into three types: acute forms, chronic forms, and Candida-associated lesions. Candida adhesion and multiplication are largely regulated by the local and systemic factors of the host. The local factors include impairment of the oral mucosal integrity, which is usually impaired by hyposalivation, anticancer drugs/radiation for head and neck cancers, denture wearing, a decrease in the oral bacterial population, and poor oral hygiene. Among Candida species, oral candidiasis is mostly caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, or C. tropicalis. Oral Candida induces a variety of symptoms, such as oral mucosal inflammation manifesting as an uncomfortable feeling, pain, erythema, erosion, taste abnormalities, and hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Candida overgrowth in the oral cavity may disseminate to distant organs. Therefore, in order to avoid the sequelae of systemic candidiasis, oral candidiasis should be rapidly controlled. Oral candidiasis is usually treated by the local application of antifungal drugs. However, oral candidiasis occasionally escapes the control of such local treatment due to the development of multi-drug resistant Candida strains and species or due to the suppression of salivation or cellular immune activity. When drug-resistant strains are suspected as the pathogens and when the host is generally compromised, the oral administration of combinations of antifungal drugs, enhancement of cellular immune activity, and improvement of the nutritional condition are recommended. PMID:21077293

  2. Child, neglect and oral health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advancements in oral health policies, dental caries still a problem. The lack of parents/caregiver’s care regarding child’s oral health, which characterizes neglect, may lead to a high prevalence of caries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the relation between dental caries and neglect in five year-old children. Methods Quantitative study performed in two different moments. First, the children underwent oral examinations and physical inspection. Then, a semi-structured interview was performed with parents of children with high and low caries rate. Results In all, 149 physical inspections and oral exams were performed. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth – dmf-t was 2.75 (SD 2.83); 16 children had extremely high values (dmf-t ≥7), 85 intermediate values (1 ≤ dmf-t ≥ 6) and 48 extremely low (dmf-t = 0). Nearly all caregivers were female (96.7%; n = 29), mostly mothers (93.3%; n = 28). Associations were found between caries experience and reason of the last consultation (p = 0.011), decayed teeth and child’s oral health perception (p = 0.001). There was a trend towards a significant association between general health and decayed teeth (p = 0.079), general hygiene and caries experience (p = 0.083), and caries experience and number of times the child brushes the teeth (p = 0.086). Conclusion There’s a relation between caries experience and children’s oral health perception by caregivers, as well as between caries experience and children’s access to dental care. There is a trend towards association between caries experience and risk factors suggestive of neglect. PMID:24238222

  3. Modified oral metronidazole desensitization protocol.

    PubMed

    Gendelman, Samantha R; Pien, Lily C; Gutta, Ravi C; Abouhassan, Susan R

    2014-03-01

    The Center for Disease Control guidelines recommend desensitization to metronidazole in patients with trichomoniasis and hypersensitivity to metronidazole. There is only one published oral metronidazole desensitization protocol. The purpose of this study was to design a new, more gradual oral desensitization protocol to decrease systemic reactions that may occur when using the previously published protocol. We present two patients with presumed IgE-mediated allergy to metronidazole who underwent oral desensitization using our modified protocol. Case 1 was a 65-year-old woman with trichomoniasis who presented for metronidazole desensitization with a history of intraoperative anaphylaxis and positive skin tests to metronidazole. The patient tolerated six doses of the modified desensitization but developed systemic symptoms of nasal congestion and diffuse pruritus after the 25- and 100-mg doses. Both reactions were treated with intravenous (i.v.) antihistamines. Because of gastrointestinal irritation, the desensitization was completed at a dose of 250 mg orally every 6 hours. Case 2 was a 42-year-old woman with trichomoniasis and a history of hives immediately after administration of i.v. metronidazole who presented for desensitization. The patient had negative skin-prick and intradermal testing to metronidazole. She developed lip tingling and pruritus on her arms 15 minutes after the 10-mg dose. Fexofenadine at 180 mg was given orally and symptoms resolved. She tolerated the rest of the protocol without reaction and received a total dose of 2 g of metronidazole. Our oral metronidazole desensitization for presumed IgE-mediated reactions offers a second option for physicians wishing to use a more gradual escalation in dose. PMID:24612959

  4. [Oral controlled release dosage forms].

    PubMed

    Mehuys, Els; Vervaet, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Several technologies to control drug release from oral dosage forms have been developed. Drug release can be regulated in several ways: sustained release, whereby the drug is released slowly over a prolonged period of time, postponed release, whereby drug release is delayed until passage from the stomach into the intestine (via enteric coating), and targeted release, whereby the drug is targeted to a specific location of the gastrointestinal tract. This article reviews the various oral controlled release dosage forms on the market. PMID:20623984

  5. Oral Cysticercosis- A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Palakurthy, Pavan; Muddana, Keerthi; Nandan, Rateesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cysticercosis, a helminthic disease commonly seen in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and Southern Africa, results from extraintestinal encystation of the larval form of Taenia solium. It is a condition in which man acts as intermediate host instead of definitive host. The most frequent sites of cysticercosis are subcutaneous layers, brain, muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and peritoneum. Oral cysticercosis is considered rare and cause cystic swellings or nodules in the mouth and a precise clinical diagnosis is not usually established. Here, we report a case of oral cysticercosis in a 32-year-old female occurring in the mentalis muscle presenting as asymptomatic nodule. PMID:26266222

  6. Oral complications of HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Leao, Jair C; Ribeiro, Camila M B; Carvalho, Alessandra A T; Frezzini, Cristina; Porter, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS. PMID:19488613

  7. Oral Complications of HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leao, Jair C.; Ribeiro, Camila M. B.; Carvalho, Alessandra A. T.; Frezzini, Cristina; Porter, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS. PMID:19488613

  8. Curriculum Guidelines for Postdoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' Curriculum Guidelines for oral diagnosis and medicine include a definition of the discipline, its interrelationships with other disciplines, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, and notes on sequencing, faculty, and

  9. Oral Motor Intervention Improved the Oral Feeding in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xu; Yi, Li-Juan; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Ma, Li; Ou, Yang-Xiang; Shuai, Ting; Zeng, Zi; Song, Guo-Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oral feeding for preterm infants has been a thorny problem worldwide. To improve the efficacy of oral feeding in preterm infants, oral motor intervention (OMI), which consists of nonnutritive sucking, oral stimulation, and oral support, was developed. Published studies demonstrated that OMI may be as an alternative treatment to solve this problem; however, these results remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) to objectively evaluate the potential of OMI for improving the current status of oral feeding in preterm infants. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure was performed to capture relevant citations until at the end of October, 2014. Lists of references of eligible studies and reviews were also hand-checked to include any latent studies. Two independent investigators screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the methodology, and then a meta-analysis and TSA was performed by using Reviewer Manager (RevMan) 5.3 and TSA 0.9 beta, respectively. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 855 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The meta-analyses suggested that OMI is associated with the reduced transition time (ie, the time needed from tube feeding to totally oral feeding) (mean difference [MD], ?4.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], ?5.22 to ?2.84), shorten hospital stays (MD, ?3.64; 95% CI, ?5.57 to ?1.71), increased feeding efficiency (MD, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.361.27), and intake of milk (MD, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.060.21) rather than weight gain. Results of TSA for each outcomes of interest confirmed these pooled results. With present evidences, OMI can be as an alternative to improve the condition of transition time, length of hospital stays, feeding efficiency, and intake of milk in preterm infants. However, the pooled results may be impaired due to low quality included, and thus, well-designed and large RCTs were needed to further established effects. PMID:26252313

  10. Correlations between Perceived Oral Malodor Levels and Self-Reported Oral Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Ishii, Kurumi; Tomita, Sachiyo; Tatsuta, Chihiro; Sugiyama, Toshiko; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Tsunoda, Masatake

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Even though objective data indicating the absence of oral malodor are presented to patients, they may be skeptical about the results, possibly due to the presence of some discomfort in the oral cavity. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is an association among self-perceptions of oral malodor, oral complaints, and the actual oral malodor test result. Materials and Methods. Questions concerning self-perceptions of oral malodor and subjective intraoral symptoms were extracted from a questionnaire on oral malodor completed by 363 subjects who visited the clinic for oral malodor of Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital and gave consent to this study. In addition, the association of self-perception of oral malodor with values obtained after organoleptic and OralChroma measurement was analyzed. Results. No correlation between 195 subjects (54%) who were judged “with oral malodor” (organoleptic score of ≥1) and 294 subjects (81.6%) who had a self-perceptions of oral malodor was observed. Self-perception of oral malodor was significantly correlated with tongue coating (p = 0.002) and a strange intraoral taste (p = 0.016). Conclusions. Subjects with a self-perception of oral malodor were not necessarily consistent with those actually having an oral malodor. In addition, it was suggested that patients became aware of oral malodor when they felt oral complaints. PMID:26273303

  11. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease and in health promotion may assist countries to implement effective public health programmes to the benefit of the poor and disadvantaged population groups worldwide. PMID:16211160

  12. [Effect of a combined oral contraceptive on lactation and growth of the infant].

    PubMed

    Peralta, O; Díaz, S; Juez, G; Herreros, C; Casado, M E; Salvatierra, A M; Miranda, P; Croxatto, H

    1983-01-01

    This work describes a study conducted in a University of Chile hospital to determine the influence of a combined oral contraceptive (OC) containing 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 150 mcg of norgestrel on lactation and infant growth. 103 women exclusively breastfeeding began using the OC on day 30-35 postpartum, 59 women exclusively breastfeeding whose infants gained at least 20 gm daily during the 3rd month of life began using the OC on day 90 postpartum, and 109 women exclusively breastfeeding received an injectable placebo on day 30 postpartum and an IUD or spermicides on day 90 if desired. A subgroup of 82 women from the 30-day control group who continued breastfeeding exclusively at day 90 postpartum and whose infants gained at least 20 gm daily during the 3rd month were a control group for the women beginning OCs on day 90. Follow-up visits were arranged every 10 days through the 3rd month and every 30 days subsequently through 1 year. At the beginning of the study, treatment and control groups were similar in age, parity, weight, maternal hemoglobin, and sex and weight of infants. 63 women were excluded from the study while still breastfeeding for a variety of reasons including loss to follow-up. The main reason for exclusion of OC users was termination of OC use or change of method. 11 pregnancies occurred in controls using spermicides or no contraception. Among women using OCs starting at day 30 postpartum, the percentage exclusively breastfeeding was significantly lower than among controls beginning in the 4th month, and a higher percentage of cases gave supplementary feedings on the advice of their physicians or their own decision. At 6 months, 61% of controls and 40% beginning OC use at 30 days were still breastfeeding exclusively. Fewer women beginning OC use at 90 days than controls were exclusively breastfeeding at 6 months, and a higher proportion were giving supplementary feedings on medical advice. The 2 treatment groups had smaller weight gains than their control groups in the 1st month of treatment. Total weight gain to the 6th month was significantly different for babies whose mothers began OC use at 30 days but not for those beginning use at 90 days. The average absolute weight of infants in the groups beginning treatment at 30 days was significantly lower at several ages but the differences were small. Growth of infants was good in most cases. Only 6 presented significant intercurrent illnesses. There were no deaths. No pregnancies occurred in women using OCs and tolerance was good. 1 woman discontinued use for metrorrhagia. It was concluded that the OC tested moderately inhibits lactation, especially when use is begun at the beginning of the 2nd postpartum month. PMID:6681210

  13. Pollen grains for oral vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Atwe, Shashwati U.; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Oral vaccination can offer a painless and convenient method of vaccination. Furthermore, in addition to systemic immunity it has potential to stimulate mucosal immunity through antigen-processing by the gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In this study we propose the concept that pollen grains can be engineered for use as a simple modular system for oral vaccination. We demonstrate feasibility of this concept by using spores of Lycopodium clavatum (clubmoss) (LSs). We show that LSs can be chemically cleaned to remove native proteins to create intact clean hollow LS shells. Empty pollen shells were successfully filled with molecules of different sizes demonstrating their potential to be broadly applicable as a vaccination system. Using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, LSs formulated with OVA were orally fed to mice. LSs stimulated significantly higher anti-OVA serum IgG and fecal IgA antibodies compared to those induced by use of cholera toxin as a positive-control adjuvant. The antibody response was not affected by pre-neutralization of the stomach acid, and persisted for up to seven months. Confocal microscopy revealed that LSs can translocate in to mouse intestinal wall. Overall, this study lays the foundation of using LSs as a novel approach for oral vaccination. PMID:25151980

  14. Assessing Proofs via Oral Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Johnson, Hortensia; Fuller, Evan

    2012-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we explored how oral interviews can inform instructors about students' understanding of abstract algebra and their ability to construct a proof in this setting. Our findings indicate that some students had a good understanding of the ideas needed for a subgroup proof, but could not write a coherent proof. On the other

  15. The Oral Accentuation of Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, W. Sidney

    1967-01-01

    A brief review of theory and traditional approaches to the problem of oral reading of Greek dating from the fall of Constantinople (1453) focuses on the importance of two major linguistic features of Byzantine pronunciation. The first examines the nature of the dynamic (stress) accent and the second is concerned with differences in vowel lengths

  16. Comprehending Oral and Written Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Rosalind, Ed.; Samuels, S. Jay, Ed.

    Written for researchers and graduate students, this book--a collection of essays by cognitive scientists, socio- and psycholinguists, and English, reading, and language arts educators--explores theoretical and research questions associated with the relationships among oral and written language, listening and reading, and speaking and writing. The

  17. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  18. Orality, Literacy, and Star Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havelock, Eric A.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the educational system should encourage "down to earth" language by including oral recitation in the curricula, particularly recitation of popular poetry with accompaniment. Using the shuttle disaster as a striking example, claims that the modern media overuses conceptual language to disguise the hard meaning of what is being

  19. ORAL NEMATODE INFECTION OF TARANTULAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oral nematode infection of Theraphosidae spiders, known as tarantulas, has been recently identified from several collections in the UK and mainland Europe. The disease has also been seen in captive and wild spiders from the Americas, Asia and Africa. Spider symptoms are described from anorexia until...

  20. Cancer risks of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Recently, concern has been raised on the connection between the use of oral contraceptives and cancer. When a patient confronts a doctor with such fears, he finds that information and research in the area is limited and often inaccurate. The latest epidemiological studies found no risk of breast cancer associated with the use of oral contraceptives. However, a subsequent study on the risk of breast cancer was twice that among pill users as compared to nonusers. It is known that oral contraception is a means of protection against the incidence of ovarian and endometrial cancers; however, a risk/benefit analysis of this needs to be pursued. More research on the etiology of breast cancer is needed. The findings of past research has been unreliable because it has been found that animal testing is not really accurate in the prediction of cancer. Post-marketing surveillance of oral contraceptives by manufacturers is rarely done because of expense and time although such a survey would allow for an assessment of risks and benefits. It is also known that advancing age at 1st full-term pregnancy increases the risk of breast cancer, and breast feeding for 6 months halves the chance for breast cancer in later life. A pill is needed to not only reduce the incidence of ovarian and endometrial cancer but also of breast cancer. PMID:2563004

  1. Gaelic Singing and Oral Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Mark; MacDonald, Iona; Byrne, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    A recent report by UNESCO placed Scots Gaelic on a list of 2500 endangered languages highlighting the perilous state of a key cornerstone of Scottish culture. Scottish Gaelic song, poems and stories have been carried through oral transmission for many centuries reflecting the power of indigenous peoples to preserve cultural heritage from

  2. 75 FR 62591 - Oral Argument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... invited amicus curiae to submit briefs in these matters, see 75 FR 20007, Apr. 16, 2010; 75 FR 29366, May... given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of: Hyginus U. Aguzie v. Office of Personnel Management, MSPB Docket Number DC-0731-09-0261-R-1; Jenee Ella Hunt-O'Neal v. Office of Personnel...

  3. 76 FR 73691 - Oral Argument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... to submit briefs. See 76 FR 44373, July 25, 2011. The Board also has invited OPM and the amici curiae... given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of: James C. Latham v. U.S. Postal Service, MSPB Docket Number DA-0353-10-0408-I-1; Ruby N. Turner v. U.S. Postal Service, MSPB Docket Number...

  4. Oral Communication across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Proficiency in oral communication is necessary in school and in society. To do well in the different curriculum areas, pupils must speak with clarity and understanding. For example, in a discussion group in the social studies involving the topic "the pros and cons of raising taxes," pupils need to express knowledgeable ideas with appropriate voice

  5. Oral Examinations. Pamphlet No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, C. J.

    This pamphlet reports on an investigation into the problem of standardizing the marking of oral examinations at the Ordinary Level of the General Certificate of Education. Investigations were made into two languages - German and Welsh. Language teachers received a list of 63 questions, of which 20 were to be presented to the examination candidate,…

  6. Focus: Oral Interpretation and Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullican, James S., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    The 12 articles in this issue of "Indiana English Journal" are concerned with drama and oral interpretation in the classroom. Titles of articles are: "Up in the Tree, Down in the Cave, and Back to Reading: Creative Dramatics"; "Pantomime: The Stepping Stone to Drama"; "The Living Literature of Readers' Theatre"; "Do-It-Yourself Drama"; "Drama for

  7. Understanding Carcinogenesis for Fighting Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takuji; Ishigamori, Rikako

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. Oral cancer development is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are able to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will give us important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, assessing cancer risk, and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from research using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as interventions with molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy. PMID:21772845

  8. Managing drug interactions with oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Stoehr, G P; White, J

    1983-01-01

    An increasing concern to nurses is the possibility of drug interactions involving oral contraceptives. Information regarding the mechanisms, significance, and management of drug interactions with oral contraceptives is provided. Approaches to counseling patients also are discussed. PMID:6355611

  9. National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS)

    MedlinePLUS

     National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Oral Health Resources Oral Health Home | Contact Us ... Health , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Privacy Policy | Accessibility Home | Glossary | Related Links | Contact ...

  10. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes the lips, the inside ... oropharynx. The oropharynx is the part of the throat just behind the mouth. It begins where the ...

  11. Treatment and Outcomes of Oral Candidiasis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Candidiasis Share Compartir Treatment & Outcomes of Oral Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth and throat must be ... infections that do not respond to these treatments. Candida esophagitis is typically treated with oral or intravenous ...

  12. 17 CFR 9.32 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral argument. 9.32 Section 9..., Access Denial or Other Adverse Action 9.32 Oral argument. (a) On motion of Commission. On its own motion, the Commission may, in its discretion, hear oral argument by the parties any time before...

  13. 46 CFR 502.317 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.317 Section 502.317 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims 502.317 Oral argument. No oral argument will be held...

  14. 46 CFR 502.317 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.317 Section 502.317 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims 502.317 Oral argument. No oral argument will be held...

  15. 13 CFR 134.222 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral hearing. 134.222 Section 134... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice 134.222 Oral hearing. (a) Availability. A party may obtain an oral hearing only if: (1) It is required by regulation; or (2) Following the...

  16. 48 CFR 570.107 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oral presentations. 570... CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.107 Oral presentations. The contracting officer may require oral presentations for acquisitions of leasehold interests in real...

  17. 10 CFR 2.1308 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart will be oral hearings, unless, within 15...

  18. 43 CFR 4.25 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oral argument. 4.25 Section 4.25 Public... General Rules Relating to Procedures and Practice 4.25 Oral argument. The Director or an Appeals Board may, in their discretion, grant an opportunity for oral argument....

  19. 46 CFR 502.317 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.317 Section 502.317 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims 502.317 Oral argument. No oral argument will be held...

  20. 42 CFR 405.1124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oral argument. 405.1124 Section 405.1124 Public... Appeals Under Original Medicare (Part A and Part B) Medicare Appeals Council Review 405.1124 Oral argument. A party may request to appear before the MAC to present oral argument. (a) The MAC grants...

  1. 19 CFR 148.12 - Oral declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral declarations. 148.12 Section 148.12 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations 148.12 Oral declarations. (a) Generally. Returning residents and nonresidents arriving in the United States may make an oral declaration under...

  2. 7 CFR 2901.3 - Oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral presentation. 2901.3 Section 2901.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR ADJUSTMENTS OF NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT PRIORITY 2901.3 Oral... oral presentation of data, views and arguments in support of the request for an adjustment,...

  3. 22 CFR 1429.6 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oral argument. 1429.6 Section 1429.6 Foreign... REQUIREMENTS Miscellaneous 1429.6 Oral argument. The Board or the General Counsel, in their discretion, may request or permit oral argument in any matter arising under this subchapter under such circumstances...

  4. 5 CFR 2429.6 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral argument. 2429.6 Section 2429.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Miscellaneous 2429.6 Oral argument. The Authority or the General Counsel, in their discretion, may request or permit oral argument...

  5. 48 CFR 570.107 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oral presentations. 570... CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.107 Oral presentations. The contracting officer may require oral presentations for acquisitions of leasehold interests in real...

  6. 37 CFR 41.73 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oral hearing. 41.73 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Inter Partes Appeals 41.73 Oral hearing. (a) An oral hearing should be requested only in those circumstances in which an appellant or...

  7. 7 CFR 2901.3 - Oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral presentation. 2901.3 Section 2901.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR ADJUSTMENTS OF NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT PRIORITY 2901.3 Oral... oral presentation of data, views and arguments in support of the request for an adjustment,...

  8. 42 CFR 405.1124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oral argument. 405.1124 Section 405.1124 Public... Appeals Under Original Medicare (Part A and Part B) Medicare Appeals Council Review 405.1124 Oral argument. A party may request to appear before the MAC to present oral argument. (a) The MAC grants...

  9. 7 CFR 15.139 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral argument. 15.139 Section 15.139 Agriculture..., Decisions and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Posthearing Procedures 15.139 Oral... oral argument on all parties and will set forth the order of presentation and the amount of...

  10. 14 CFR 211.16 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral hearing. 211.16 Section 211.16... REGULATIONS APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS General Requirements 211.16 Oral hearing. If an oral evidentiary hearing is convened, the applicant must make available witnesses who are competent...

  11. 24 CFR 1720.625 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral argument. 1720.625 Section... Proceedings Appeals 1720.625 Oral argument. Oral arguments will not be heard in cases on appeal to the appeals officer unless the officer otherwise orders, and stenographic or mechanical record of such...

  12. 17 CFR 10.83 - Oral arguments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral arguments. 10.83 Section... Hearing Procedures; Initial Decisions 10.83 Oral arguments. In his discretion the Administrative Law Judge may hear oral arguments by the parties any time before he files his initial decision with...

  13. 29 CFR 7.14 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oral proceedings. 7.14 Section 7.14 Labor Office of the... ASSISTED CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS Some General Procedural Matters 7.14 Oral proceedings. (a) With respect... a single presiding member, may permit oral argument in any proceeding. The Board or the...

  14. 42 CFR 405.1124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 405.1124 Section 405.1124 Public... Appeals Under Original Medicare (Part A and Part B) Medicare Appeals Council Review 405.1124 Oral argument. A party may request to appear before the MAC to present oral argument. (a) The MAC grants...

  15. 17 CFR 171.32 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral argument. 171.32 Section... Denial and Registration Actions 171.32 Oral argument. (a) On motion of Commission. On its own motion, the Commission may, in its discretion, hear oral argument in a proceeding. (b) On request of...

  16. 17 CFR 9.32 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral argument. 9.32 Section 9..., Access Denial or Other Adverse Action 9.32 Oral argument. (a) On motion of Commission. On its own motion, the Commission may, in its discretion, hear oral argument by the parties any time before...

  17. 14 CFR 314.15 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral proceedings. 314.15 Section 314.15... REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Determination of Qualifying Dislocation 314.15 Oral proceedings. The Department will provide for an oral evidentiary hearing, with notice published in the Federal Register...

  18. 46 CFR 502.317 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.317 Section 502.317 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims 502.317 Oral argument. No oral argument will be held...

  19. 24 CFR 1720.625 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral argument. 1720.625 Section... Proceedings Appeals 1720.625 Oral argument. Oral arguments will not be heard in cases on appeal to the appeals officer unless the officer otherwise orders, and stenographic or mechanical record of such...

  20. 5 CFR 2429.6 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oral argument. 2429.6 Section 2429.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Miscellaneous 2429.6 Oral argument. The Authority or the General Counsel, in their discretion, may request or permit oral argument...

  1. 7 CFR 2901.3 - Oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral presentation. 2901.3 Section 2901.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR ADJUSTMENTS OF NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT PRIORITY 2901.3 Oral... oral presentation of data, views and arguments in support of the request for an adjustment,...

  2. 48 CFR 15.102 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oral presentations. 15.102... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection Processes and Techniques 15.102 Oral presentations. (a) Oral presentations by offerors as requested by the Government may substitute for, or...

  3. 14 CFR 211.16 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral hearing. 211.16 Section 211.16... REGULATIONS APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS General Requirements 211.16 Oral hearing. If an oral evidentiary hearing is convened, the applicant must make available witnesses who are competent...

  4. 10 CFR 2.343 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral argument. 2.343 Section 2.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Rules of... Hearings 2.343 Oral argument. In its discretion, the Commission may allow oral argument upon the...

  5. 14 CFR 211.16 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oral hearing. 211.16 Section 211.16... REGULATIONS APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS General Requirements 211.16 Oral hearing. If an oral evidentiary hearing is convened, the applicant must make available witnesses who are competent...

  6. 10 CFR 2.1507 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral hearing. 2.1507 Section 2.1507 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Legislative Hearings 2.1507 Oral hearing. (a) Not less than five (5) days before the commencement of the oral hearing, the presiding officer...

  7. 10 CFR 2.1308 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR... for Hearings on License Transfer Applications 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart will be oral hearings, unless, within 15 days of the service of the notice or order granting the...

  8. 48 CFR 570.107 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral presentations. 570... CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.107 Oral presentations. You may use oral presentations for acquisitions of leasehold interests in real property. Follow...

  9. 43 CFR 4.25 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Oral argument. 4.25 Section 4.25 Public... General Rules Relating to Procedures and Practice 4.25 Oral argument. The Director or an Appeals Board may, in their discretion, grant an opportunity for oral argument....

  10. 43 CFR 4.25 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oral argument. 4.25 Section 4.25 Public... General Rules Relating to Procedures and Practice 4.25 Oral argument. The Director or an Appeals Board may, in their discretion, grant an opportunity for oral argument....

  11. 17 CFR 171.32 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral argument. 171.32 Section... Registration Actions 171.32 Oral argument. (a) On motion of Commission. On its own motion, the Commission may, in its discretion, hear oral argument in a proceeding. (b) On request of party. Any party may...

  12. 43 CFR 4.1608 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oral presentations. 4.1608 Section 4.1608... Special Procedural Rules Applicable to Appeals of Decisions Made Under OMB Circular A-76 4.1608 Oral presentations. (a) Upon request of the appellant, an opportunity for an oral presentation to the...

  13. 19 CFR 148.12 - Oral declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral declarations. 148.12 Section 148.12 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations 148.12 Oral declarations. (a) Generally. Returning residents and nonresidents arriving in the United States may make an oral declaration under...

  14. 17 CFR 171.32 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral argument. 171.32 Section... Registration Actions 171.32 Oral argument. (a) On motion of Commission. On its own motion, the Commission may, in its discretion, hear oral argument in a proceeding. (b) On request of party. Any party may...

  15. 22 CFR 1429.6 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Oral argument. 1429.6 Section 1429.6 Foreign... REQUIREMENTS Miscellaneous 1429.6 Oral argument. The Board or the General Counsel, in their discretion, may request or permit oral argument in any matter arising under this subchapter under such circumstances...

  16. 29 CFR 7.14 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Oral proceedings. 7.14 Section 7.14 Labor Office of the... ASSISTED CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS Some General Procedural Matters 7.14 Oral proceedings. (a) With respect... a single presiding member, may permit oral argument in any proceeding. The Board or the...

  17. 36 CFR 251.97 - Oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral presentation. 251.97... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands 251.97 Oral presentation. (a) Purpose. An oral presentation provides an additional opportunity for an appellant, and...

  18. 24 CFR 1720.625 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral argument. 1720.625 Section... Proceedings Appeals 1720.625 Oral argument. Oral arguments will not be heard in cases on appeal to the appeals officer unless the officer otherwise orders, and stenographic or mechanical record of such...

  19. 10 CFR 2.343 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oral argument. 2.343 Section 2.343 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Rules of... Hearings 2.343 Oral argument. In its discretion, the Commission may allow oral argument upon the...

  20. 37 CFR 41.73 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oral hearing. 41.73 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Inter Partes Appeals 41.73 Oral hearing. (a) An oral hearing should be requested only in those circumstances in which an appellant or...

  1. 14 CFR 211.16 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral hearing. 211.16 Section 211.16... REGULATIONS APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS General Requirements 211.16 Oral hearing. If an oral evidentiary hearing is convened, the applicant must make available witnesses who are competent...

  2. 17 CFR 10.83 - Oral arguments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral arguments. 10.83 Section 10.83 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Hearings 10.83 Oral arguments. In his discretion the Administrative Law Judge may hear oral arguments...

  3. 17 CFR 10.83 - Oral arguments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral arguments. 10.83 Section... Hearing Procedures; Initial Decisions 10.83 Oral arguments. In his discretion the Administrative Law Judge may hear oral arguments by the parties any time before he files his initial decision with...

  4. 17 CFR 10.83 - Oral arguments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral arguments. 10.83 Section... Hearing Procedures; Initial Decisions 10.83 Oral arguments. In his discretion the Administrative Law Judge may hear oral arguments by the parties any time before he files his initial decision with...

  5. 17 CFR 9.32 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral argument. 9.32 Section 9..., Access Denial or Other Adverse Action 9.32 Oral argument. (a) On motion of Commission. On its own motion, the Commission may, in its discretion, hear oral argument by the parties any time before...

  6. 7 CFR 15.139 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral argument. 15.139 Section 15.139 Agriculture..., Decisions and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Posthearing Procedures 15.139 Oral... oral argument on all parties and will set forth the order of presentation and the amount of...

  7. 13 CFR 134.222 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral hearing. 134.222 Section 134... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice for Most Cases 134.222 Oral hearing. (a) Availability. A party may obtain an oral hearing only if: (1) It is required by regulation; or (2)...

  8. 29 CFR 7.14 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Oral proceedings. 7.14 Section 7.14 Labor Office of the... ASSISTED CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS Some General Procedural Matters 7.14 Oral proceedings. (a) With respect... a single presiding member, may permit oral argument in any proceeding. The Board or the...

  9. Spoken Oral Language and Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiari, Dariush; Greenberg, Daphne; Patton-Terry, Nicole; Nightingale, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Oral language is a critical component to the development of reading acquisition. Much of the research concerning the relationship between oral language and reading ability is focused on children, while there is a paucity of research focusing on this relationship for adults who struggle with their reading. Oral language as defined in this paper

  10. 43 CFR 4.25 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oral argument. 4.25 Section 4.25 Public... General Rules Relating to Procedures and Practice 4.25 Oral argument. The Director or an Appeals Board may, in their discretion, grant an opportunity for oral argument....

  11. 48 CFR 15.102 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oral presentations. 15.102... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection Processes and Techniques 15.102 Oral presentations. (a) Oral presentations by offerors as requested by the Government may substitute for, or...

  12. 10 CFR 2.1308 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR... for Hearings on License Transfer Applications 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart will be oral hearings, unless, within 15 days of the service of the notice or order granting the...

  13. 43 CFR 4.1608 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Oral presentations. 4.1608 Section 4.1608... Special Procedural Rules Applicable to Appeals of Decisions Made Under OMB Circular A-76 4.1608 Oral presentations. (a) Upon request of the appellant, an opportunity for an oral presentation to the...

  14. 37 CFR 41.73 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral hearing. 41.73 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Inter Partes Appeals 41.73 Oral hearing. (a) An oral hearing should be requested only in those circumstances in which an appellant or a...

  15. 22 CFR 1429.6 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oral argument. 1429.6 Section 1429.6 Foreign... REQUIREMENTS Miscellaneous 1429.6 Oral argument. The Board or the General Counsel, in their discretion, may request or permit oral argument in any matter arising under this subchapter under such circumstances...

  16. 43 CFR 4.1608 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oral presentations. 4.1608 Section 4.1608... Special Procedural Rules Applicable to Appeals of Decisions Made Under OMB Circular A-76 4.1608 Oral presentations. (a) Upon request of the appellant, an opportunity for an oral presentation to the...

  17. 22 CFR 1429.6 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oral argument. 1429.6 Section 1429.6 Foreign... REQUIREMENTS Miscellaneous 1429.6 Oral argument. The Board or the General Counsel, in their discretion, may request or permit oral argument in any matter arising under this subchapter under such circumstances...

  18. 43 CFR 4.25 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oral argument. 4.25 Section 4.25 Public... General Rules Relating to Procedures and Practice 4.25 Oral argument. The Director or an Appeals Board may, in their discretion, grant an opportunity for oral argument....

  19. 13 CFR 134.222 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral hearing. 134.222 Section 134... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice 134.222 Oral hearing. (a) Availability. A party may obtain an oral hearing only if: (1) It is required by regulation; or (2) Following the...

  20. 17 CFR 10.83 - Oral arguments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral arguments. 10.83 Section... Hearing Procedures; Initial Decisions 10.83 Oral arguments. In his discretion the Administrative Law Judge may hear oral arguments by the parties any time before he files his initial decision with...

  1. 7 CFR 15.139 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral argument. 15.139 Section 15.139 Agriculture..., Decisions and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Posthearing Procedures 15.139 Oral... oral argument on all parties and will set forth the order of presentation and the amount of...

  2. 48 CFR 570.107 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oral presentations. 570... CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.107 Oral presentations. The contracting officer may require oral presentations for acquisitions of leasehold interests in real...

  3. 17 CFR 9.32 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral argument. 9.32 Section 9..., Access Denial or Other Adverse Action 9.32 Oral argument. (a) On motion of Commission. On its own motion, the Commission may, in its discretion, hear oral argument by the parties any time before...

  4. 29 CFR 7.14 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oral proceedings. 7.14 Section 7.14 Labor Office of the... ASSISTED CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS Some General Procedural Matters 7.14 Oral proceedings. (a) With respect... a single presiding member, may permit oral argument in any proceeding. The Board or the...

  5. 48 CFR 15.102 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oral presentations. 15.102... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection Processes and Techniques 15.102 Oral presentations. (a) Oral presentations by offerors as requested by the Government may substitute for, or...

  6. 37 CFR 41.73 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oral hearing. 41.73 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Inter Partes Appeals 41.73 Oral hearing. (a) An oral hearing should be requested only in those circumstances in which an appellant or a...

  7. 36 CFR 251.97 - Oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oral presentation. 251.97... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands 251.97 Oral presentation. (a) Purpose. An oral presentation provides an additional opportunity for an appellant, and...

  8. 17 CFR 171.32 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral argument. 171.32 Section... Registration Actions 171.32 Oral argument. (a) On motion of Commission. On its own motion, the Commission may, in its discretion, hear oral argument in a proceeding. (b) On request of party. Any party may...

  9. 7 CFR 15.139 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral argument. 15.139 Section 15.139 Agriculture..., Decisions and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Posthearing Procedures 15.139 Oral... oral argument on all parties and will set forth the order of presentation and the amount of...

  10. 7 CFR 2901.3 - Oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oral presentation. 2901.3 Section 2901.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR ADJUSTMENTS OF NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT PRIORITY 2901.3 Oral... oral presentation of data, views and arguments in support of the request for an adjustment,...

  11. 24 CFR 1720.625 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral argument. 1720.625 Section... Proceedings Appeals 1720.625 Oral argument. Oral arguments will not be heard in cases on appeal to the appeals officer unless the officer otherwise orders, and stenographic or mechanical record of such...

  12. 5 CFR 2429.6 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral argument. 2429.6 Section 2429.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Miscellaneous 2429.6 Oral argument. The Authority or the General Counsel, in their discretion, may request or permit oral argument...

  13. 19 CFR 148.12 - Oral declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral declarations. 148.12 Section 148.12 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations 148.12 Oral declarations. (a) Generally. Returning residents and nonresidents arriving in the United States may make an oral declaration under...

  14. 13 CFR 134.222 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral hearing. 134.222 Section 134... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice 134.222 Oral hearing. (a) Availability. A party may obtain an oral hearing only if: (1) It is required by regulation; or (2) Following the...

  15. 10 CFR 2.1507 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral hearing. 2.1507 Section 2.1507 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Legislative Hearings 2.1507 Oral hearing. (a) Not less than five (5) days before the commencement of the oral hearing, the presiding officer...

  16. 36 CFR 251.97 - Oral presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oral presentation. 251.97... Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands 251.97 Oral presentation. (a) Purpose. An oral presentation provides an additional opportunity for an appellant, and...

  17. 24 CFR 1720.625 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral argument. 1720.625 Section... Proceedings Appeals 1720.625 Oral argument. Oral arguments will not be heard in cases on appeal to the appeals officer unless the officer otherwise orders, and stenographic or mechanical record of such...

  18. 5 CFR 2429.6 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral argument. 2429.6 Section 2429.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Miscellaneous 2429.6 Oral argument. The Authority or the General Counsel, in their discretion, may request or permit oral argument...

  19. 37 CFR 41.47 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oral hearing. 41.47 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Ex Parte Appeals 41.47 Oral... oral hearing should be requested only in those circumstances in which appellant considers such...

  20. 19 CFR 148.12 - Oral declarations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral declarations. 148.12 Section 148.12 Customs... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Declarations 148.12 Oral declarations. (a) Generally. Returning residents and nonresidents arriving in the United States may make an oral declaration under...

  1. 10 CFR 2.343 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oral argument. 2.343 Section 2.343 Energy NUCLEAR... Officer Powers, and General Hearing Management for NRC Adjudicatory Hearings 2.343 Oral argument. In its discretion, the Commission may allow oral argument upon the request of a party made in a petition for...

  2. 10 CFR 2.1308 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart will be oral hearings, unless, within 15...

  3. 17 CFR 9.32 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral argument. 9.32 Section 9..., Access Denial or Other Adverse Action 9.32 Oral argument. (a) On motion of Commission. On its own motion, the Commission may, in its discretion, hear oral argument by the parties any time before...

  4. 46 CFR 502.317 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oral argument. 502.317 Section 502.317 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Procedure for Adjudication of Small Claims 502.317 Oral argument. No oral argument will be held...

  5. 48 CFR 570.107 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oral presentations. 570... CONTRACTING PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.107 Oral presentations. The contracting officer may require oral presentations for acquisitions of leasehold interests in real...

  6. 10 CFR 2.1308 - Oral hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral hearings. 2.1308 Section 2.1308 Energy NUCLEAR... for Hearings on License Transfer Applications 2.1308 Oral hearings. Hearings under this subpart will be oral hearings, unless, within 15 days of the service of the notice or order granting the...

  7. 42 CFR 405.1124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oral argument. 405.1124 Section 405.1124 Public... Appeals Under Original Medicare (Part A and Part B) Medicare Appeals Council Review 405.1124 Oral argument. A party may request to appear before the MAC to present oral argument. (a) The MAC grants...

  8. 37 CFR 41.47 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral hearing. 41.47 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Ex Parte Appeals 41.47 Oral hearing. (a) An oral hearing should be requested only in those circumstances in which appellant considers such...

  9. 22 CFR 1429.6 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral argument. 1429.6 Section 1429.6 Foreign... REQUIREMENTS Miscellaneous 1429.6 Oral argument. The Board or the General Counsel, in their discretion, may request or permit oral argument in any matter arising under this subchapter under such circumstances...

  10. 10 CFR 2.343 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oral argument. 2.343 Section 2.343 Energy NUCLEAR... Officer Powers, and General Hearing Management for NRC Adjudicatory Hearings 2.343 Oral argument. In its discretion, the Commission may allow oral argument upon the request of a party made in a petition for...

  11. 17 CFR 171.32 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral argument. 171.32 Section... Registration Actions 171.32 Oral argument. (a) On motion of Commission. On its own motion, the Commission may, in its discretion, hear oral argument in a proceeding. (b) On request of party. Any party may...

  12. 43 CFR 4.1608 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oral presentations. 4.1608 Section 4.1608... Special Procedural Rules Applicable to Appeals of Decisions Made Under OMB Circular A-76 4.1608 Oral presentations. (a) Upon request of the appellant, an opportunity for an oral presentation to the...

  13. 7 CFR 15.139 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oral argument. 15.139 Section 15.139 Agriculture..., Decisions and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Posthearing Procedures 15.139 Oral... oral argument on all parties and will set forth the order of presentation and the amount of...

  14. 42 CFR 405.1124 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oral argument. 405.1124 Section 405.1124 Public... Appeals Under Original Medicare (Part A and Part B) Medicare Appeals Council Review 405.1124 Oral argument. A party may request to appear before the MAC to present oral argument. (a) The MAC grants...

  15. 5 CFR 2429.6 - Oral argument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oral argument. 2429.6 Section 2429.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Miscellaneous 2429.6 Oral argument. The Authority or the General Counsel, in their discretion, may request or permit oral argument...

  16. 37 CFR 41.47 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oral hearing. 41.47 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Ex Parte Appeals 41.47 Oral hearing. (a) An oral hearing should be requested only in those circumstances in which appellant...

  17. 48 CFR 15.102 - Oral presentations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oral presentations. 15.102... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection Processes and Techniques 15.102 Oral presentations. (a) Oral presentations by offerors as requested by the Government may substitute for, or...

  18. 37 CFR 41.73 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral hearing. 41.73 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Inter Partes Appeals 41.73 Oral hearing. (a) An oral hearing should be requested only in those circumstances in which an appellant or...

  19. 37 CFR 41.47 - Oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oral hearing. 41.47 Section... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Ex Parte Appeals 41.47 Oral hearing. (a) An oral hearing should be requested only in those circumstances in which appellant considers such...

  20. 29 CFR 7.14 - Oral proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oral proceedings. 7.14 Section 7.14 Labor Office of the... ASSISTED CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS Some General Procedural Matters 7.14 Oral proceedings. (a) With respect... a single presiding member, may permit oral argument in any proceeding. The Board or the...