Science.gov

Sample records for mcz-si strip detectors

  1. TCT and test beam results of irradiated magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-Si) detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Luukka, P.; Harkonen, J.; Maenpaa, T.; Betchart, B.; Czellar, S.; Demina, R.; Furgeri, A.; Gotra, Y.; Frey, M.; Hartmann, F.; Korjenevski, S.; ,

    2009-01-01

    Pad and strip detectors processed on high resistivity n-type magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-Si) were irradiated to several different fluences with protons. The pad detectors were characterized with the transient current technique (TCT) and the full-size strip detectors with a reference beam telescope and a 225 GeV muon beam. The TCT measurements indicate a double junction structure and space charge sign inversion in MCz-Si detectors after 6x1014 1 MeV neq/cm2 fluence. In the beam test a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 50 was measured for a non-irradiated MCz-Si sensor, and a S/N ratio of 20 for the sensors irradiated to the fluences of 1x1014 1 and 5x1014 1 MeV neq/cm2.

  2. Processing of n+/p-/p+ strip detectors with atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown Al2O3 field insulator on magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-si) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härkönen, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Luukka, P.; Gädda, A.; Mäenpää, T.; Tuominen, E.; Arsenovich, T.; Junkes, A.; Wu, X.; Li, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Detectors manufactured on p-type silicon material are known to have significant advantages in very harsh radiation environment over n-type detectors, traditionally used in High Energy Physics experiments for particle tracking. In p-type (n+ segmentation on p substrate) position-sensitive strip detectors, however, the fixed oxide charge in the silicon dioxide is positive and, thus, causes electron accumulation at the Si/SiO2 interface. As a result, unless appropriate interstrip isolation is applied, the n-type strips are short-circuited. Widely adopted methods to terminate surface electron accumulation are segmented p-stop or p-spray field implantations. A different approach to overcome the near-surface electron accumulation at the interface of silicon dioxide and p-type silicon is to deposit a thin film field insulator with negative oxide charge. We have processed silicon strip detectors on p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon (MCz-Si) substrates with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) thin film insulator, grown with Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method. The electrical characterization by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurement shows reliable performance of the aluminum oxide. The final proof of concept was obtained at the test beam with 200 GeV/c muons. For the non-irradiated detector the charge collection efficiency (CCE) was nearly 100% with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of about 40, whereas for the 2×1015 neq/cm2 proton irradiated detector the CCE was 35%, when the sensor was biased at 500 V. These results are comparable with the results from p-type detectors with the p-spray and p-stop interstrip isolation techniques. In addition, interestingly, when the aluminum oxide was irradiated with Co-60 gamma-rays, an accumulation of negative fixed oxide charge in the oxide was observed.

  3. Observation of Gamma Irradiation-Induced Suppression of Reversed Annealing in Neutron Irradiated MCZ Si Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Gul, R.; Harkonen, J.; Kierstead, J.; Metcalfe, J.; Seidel, S.

    2009-02-06

    For the development of radiation-hard Si detectors for the SiD BeamCal program for the future ILC (International Linear Collider), n-type MCZ Si detectors have been irradiated first by fast neutrons to flueneces of 1.5 x 1014 and 3 x 1014 neq/cm2, and then by gamma up to 500 Mrad. The motivation of this mixed radiation project is to develop a Si detector that can utilize the gamma/electron radiation that exists in the ICL radiation environment, which also includes neutrons. By using the positive space charge (SC) created by gamma radiation in MCZ Si detectors, one can cancel the negative space charge created by neutrons, thus reducing the overall/net space charge density and therefore the full depletion voltage of the detector.

  4. Complete suppression of reverse annealing of neutron radiation damage during active gamma irradiation in MCZ Si detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Verbitskaya, E.; Chen, W.; Eremin, V.; Gul, R.; Härkönen, J.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Kierstead, J.; Metcalfe, J.; Seidel, S.

    2013-01-01

    For the development of radiation-hard Si detectors for the SiD BeamCal (Si Detector Beam Calorimeter) program for International Linear Collider (ILC), n-type Magnetic Czochralski Si detectors have been irradiated first by fast neutrons to fluences of 1.5×1014 and 3×1014 neq/cm2, and then by gamma up to 500 Mrad. The motivation of this mixed radiation project is to test the radiation hardness of MCZ detectors that may utilize the gamma/electron radiation to compensate the negative effects caused by neutron irradiation, all of which exists in the ILC radiation environment. By using the positive space charge created by gamma radiation in MCZ Si detectors, one can cancel the negative space charge created by neutrons, thus reducing the overall net space charge density and therefore the full depletion voltage of the detector. It has been found that gamma radiation has suppressed the room temperature reverse annealing in neutron-irradiated detectors during the 5.5 month of time needed to reach a radiation dose of 500 Mrad. The room temperature annealing (RTA) was verified in control samples (irradiated to the same neutron fluences, but going through this 5.5 month RTA without gamma radiation). This suppression is in agreement with our previous predictions, since negative space charge generated during the reverse annealing was suppressed by positive space charge induced by gamma radiation. The effect is that regardless of the received neutron fluence the reverse annealing is totally suppressed by the same dose of gamma rays (500 Mrad). It has been found that the full depletion voltage for the two detectors irradiated to two different neutron fluences stays the same before and after gamma radiation. Meanwhile, for the control samples also irradiated to two different neutron fluences, full depletion voltages have gone up during this period. The increase in full depletion voltage in the control samples corresponds to the generation of negative space charge, and this

  5. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher L.; Idzorek, George C.; Atencio, Leroy G.

    1987-01-01

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  6. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOEpatents

    Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

    1985-02-19

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10/sup 6/. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  7. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiano, R.; Ejrnaes, M.; Casaburi, A.; Zen, N.; Ohkubo, M.

    2015-12-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2-5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications.

  8. TCT measurements with slim edge strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandić, Igor; Cindro, Vladimir; Gorišek, Andrej; Kramberger, Gregor; Mikuž, Marko; Zavrtanik, Marko; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Sadrozinski, Hartmut F.-W.; Christophersen, Marc; Phlips, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Transient current technique (TCT) measurements with focused laser light on miniature silicon strip detectors (n+-type strips on p-type bulk) with one inactive edge thinned to about 100 μm using the Scribe-Cleave-Passivate (SCP) method are presented. Pulses of focused IR (λ=1064 nm) laser light were directed to the surface of the detector and charge collection properties near the slim edge were investigated. Measurements before and after irradiation with reactor neutrons up to 1 MeV equivalent fluence of 1.5×1015 neq/cm2 showed that SCP thinning of detector edge does not influence its charge collection properties. TCT measurements were done also with focused red laser beam (λ=640 nm) directed to the SCP processed side of the detector. The absorption length of red light in silicon is about 3 μm so with this measurement information about the electric field at the edge can be obtained. Observations of laser induced signals indicate that the electric field distribution along the depth of the detector at the detector edge is different than in the detector bulk: electric field is higher near the strip side and lower at the back side. This is a consequence of negative surface charge caused by passivation of the cleaved edge with Al2O3. The difference between bulk and edge electric field distributions gets smaller after irradiation.

  9. Preliminary studies using silicon strip detectors in digital autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Sanghera, B.; Ott, R.J. . Inst. of Cancer Research)

    1993-08-01

    A prototype 1-D silicon strip detector system for applications in autoradiography is described. The commercially available detector allows 2-D imaging to be achieved by acquiring projection data at multiple angles as the source is rotated above the detector. Standard image reconstruction techniques are employed to produce the final 2-D image. The first test performed is presented showing that tomography is possible with 1-D silicon strip detectors.

  10. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.

    2011-07-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will extend its current physics program by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, one of the two general-purpose experiments of the LHC, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of its internal tracker due to the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. New radiation-hard prototype n-in-p silicon sensors have been produced for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS tracker. The sensors have been irradiated up to the fluences expected in the high-luminous LHC collider. This paper summarizes recent results on the performance of the irradiated n-in-p detectors. (authors)

  11. Characterization and Calibration of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lösel, Philipp; ATLAS Muon Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Resistive strip Micromegas detectors have been tested extensively as small detectors of about 10×10 cm2 in size and they work reliably at high rates of 100 kHz/cm2 and above. Tracking resolution well below 100 μm has been observed for 100 GeV muons and pions. Micromegas detectors are meanwhile proposed as large area muon precision trackers of 2-3 m2 in size. To investigate possible differences between small and large detectors, a 1 m2 detector with 2048 resistive strips at a pitch of 450 μm was studied in the LMU Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility (CRMF) using two 4×2.2 m2 large Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for cosmic muon reference tracking. A segmentation of the resistive strip anode plane in 57.6 mm×93 mm large areas has been realized by the readout of 128 strips with one APV25 chip each and by eleven 93 mm broad trigger scintillators placed along the readout strips. This allows for mapping of homogeneity in pulse height and efficiency, determination of signal propagation along the 1 m long anode strips and calibration of the position of the anode strips.

  12. Gamma Ray Interactions in Planar Germanium Strip Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, E. G.; Lakshmi, S.; Chowdhury, P.; Deo, A. Y.; Guess, C. J.; Hota, S.; Lister, C. J.

    2011-10-01

    The position resolution of the interaction point of a gamma ray within the volume of a planar germanium crystal is under investigation. A 16x16 planar double-sided strip detector of high-purity germanium, measuring 92×92×20 mm, with 16 horizontal strips on one face and 16 vertical strips on the other, is used. Comparing the strongest strip signal from each side of the detector allows for a X-Y pixelation of the gamma ray interaction in the crystal. Energy and efficiency calibrations are performed with standard 152Eu and 133Ba sources placed at fixed distances from the detector face. The measured efficiency of each pixel is compared to calculated geometric efficiencies. Next steps involve the analysis of two-pixel events which pick out Compton scatters within the planar crystal. Results and status report will be presented. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Quasiparticle Trapping in Microwave Kinetic Inductance Strip Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D. C.; Mazing, B. A.; Golwala, S.; Bumble, B.; Gao, J.; Young, B. A.; McHugth, S.; Day, P. K.; LeDuc, H. G.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2009-12-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) are thin-film, superconducting resonators, which are attractive for making large detector arrays due to their natural frequency domain multiplexing at GHz frequencies. For X-ray to IR wavelengths, MKIDs can provide high-resolution energy and timing information for each incoming photon. By fabricating strip detectors consisting of a rectangular absorber coupled to MKIDs at each end, high quantum efficiency and spatial resolution can be obtained. A similar geometry is being pursued for phonon sensing in a WIMP dark matter detector. Various materials have been tested including tantalum, tin, and aluminum for the absorbing strip, and aluminum, titanium, and aluminum manganese for the MKID. Initial Ta/Al X-ray devices have shown energy resolutions as good as 62 eV at 6 keV. A Ta/Al UV strip detector with an energy resolution of 0.8 eV at 4.9 eV has been demonstrated, but we find the coupling of the MKIDs to the absorbers is unreliable for these thinner devices. We report on progress probing the thicknesses at which the absorber/MKID coupling begins to degrade by using a resonator to inject quasiparticles directly into the absorber. In order to eliminate the absorber/MKID interface, a modified design for implanted AlMn/Al UV strip detectors was developed, and results showing good transmission of quasiparticles from the absorber to MKID in these devices are presented.

  14. The silicon strip vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuki, Yoshiyuki

    2014-11-01

    The Belle II upgrade of the Belle experiment will extend the search for physics beyond the standard model. The upgrade is currently under construction, and foreseen to complete in time for the physics run scheduled for 2016. The vertex detector of the Belle II comprises two types of silicon detectors: the pixel detector (PXD) and the strip detector (SVD) using double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD). One of the most characteristic features of the SVD is a unique chip-on-sensor scheme which enabling good signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio while reducing the material budget. This paper describes the implementation of the scheme, status and future prospects of the Belle II SVD.

  15. Optimization of Single-Sided Charge-Sharing Strip Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamel, L.A.; Benoit, M.; Donmez, B.; Macri, J. R.; McConnell, M. L.; Ryan, J. M.; Narita, T.

    2006-01-01

    Simulation of the charge sharing properties of single-sided CZT strip detectors with small anode pads are presented. The effect of initial event size, carrier repulsion, diffusion, drift, trapping and detrapping are considered. These simulations indicate that such a detector with a 150 m pitch will provide good charge sharing between neighboring pads. This is supported by a comparison of simulations and measurements for a similar detector with a coarser pitch of 225 m that could not provide sufficient sharing. The performance of such a detector used as a gamma-ray imager is discussed.

  16. Fabrication of double-sided thallium bromide strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitomi, Keitaro; Nagano, Nobumichi; Onodera, Toshiyuki; Kim, Seong-Yun; Ito, Tatsuya; Ishii, Keizo

    2016-07-01

    Double-sided strip detectors were fabricated from thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals grown by the traveling-molten zone method using zone-purified materials. The detectors had three 3.4-mm-long strips with 1-mm widths and a surrounding electrode placed orthogonally on opposite surfaces of the crystals at approximately 6.5×6.5 mm2 in area and 5 mm in thickness. Excellent charge transport properties for both electrons and holes were observed from the TlBr crystals. The mobility-lifetime products for electrons and holes in the detector were measured to be ~3×10-3 cm2/V and ~1×10-3 cm2/V, respectively. The 137Cs spectra corresponding to the gamma-ray interaction position were obtained from the detector. An energy resolution of 3.4% of full width at half maximum for 662-keV gamma rays was obtained from one "pixel" (an intersection of the strips) of the detector at room temperature.

  17. A silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass for IMRT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J. H. D.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Khanna, S.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows the delivery of escalated radiation dose to tumor while sparing adjacent critical organs. In doing so, IMRT plans tend to incorporate steep dose gradients at interfaces between the target and the organs at risk. Current quality assurance (QA) verification tools such as 2D diode arrays, are limited by their spatial resolution and conventional films are nonreal time. In this article, the authors describe a novel silicon strip detector (CMRP DMG) of high spatial resolution (200 {mu}m) suitable for measuring the high dose gradients in an IMRT delivery. Methods: A full characterization of the detector was performed, including dose per pulse effect, percent depth dose comparison with Farmer ion chamber measurements, stem effect, dose linearity, uniformity, energy response, angular response, and penumbra measurements. They also present the application of the CMRP DMG in the dosimetric verification of a clinical IMRT plan. Results: The detector response changed by 23% for a 390-fold change in the dose per pulse. A correction function is derived to correct for this effect. The strip detector depth dose curve agrees with the Farmer ion chamber within 0.8%. The stem effect was negligible (0.2%). The dose linearity was excellent for the dose range of 3-300 cGy. A uniformity correction method is described to correct for variations in the individual detector pixel responses. The detector showed an over-response relative to tissue dose at lower photon energies with the maximum dose response at 75 kVp nominal photon energy. Penumbra studies using a Varian Clinac 21EX at 1.5 and 10.0 cm depths were measured to be 2.77 and 3.94 mm for the secondary collimators, 3.52 and 5.60 mm for the multileaf collimator rounded leaf ends, respectively. Point doses measured with the strip detector were compared to doses measured with EBT film and doses predicted by the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The differences were 1

  18. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    SciTech Connect

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.; Lozano, M.; Martinez, C.; Pellegrini, G.; Rafi, J.M.; Ullan, M.; Johansen, L.; Pommeresche, B.; Stugu, B.; Ciocio, A.; Fadeyev, V.; Gilchriese, M.; Haber, C.; Siegrist,J.; Spieler, H.; Vu, C.; Bell, P.J.; Charlton, D.G.; Dowell, J.D.; Gallop, B.J.; Homer, R.J.; Jovanovic, P.; Mahout, G.; McMahon, T.J.; Wilson, J.A.; Barr, A.J.; Carter, J.R.; Fromant, B.P.; Goodrick, M.J.; Hill, J.C.; Lester, C.G.; Palmer, M.J.; Parker, M.A.; Robinson, D.; Sabetfakhri, A.; Shaw, R.J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Chesi, E.; Chouridou, S.; Fortin, R.; Grosse-Knetter, M.; Gruwe, M.; Ferrari, P.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Macpherson, A.; Niinikoski, T.; Pernegger, H.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Ruggiero, G.; Wallny, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Bialas, W.; Dabrowski, W.; Grybos, P.; Koperny, S.; Blocki, J.; Bruckman, P.; Gadomski, S.; Godlewski, J.; Gornicki, E.; Malecki, P.; Moszczynski, A.; Stanecka, E.; Stodulski, M.; Szczygiel, R.; Turala, M.; Wolter, M.; Ahmad, A.; Benes, J.; Carpentieri, C.; Feld, L.; Ketterer, C.; Ludwig,J.; Meinhardt, J.; Runge, K.; Mikulec, B.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; D'Onofrio,M.; Donega, M.; Moed, S.; Sfyrla, A.; Ferrere, D.; Clark, A.G.; Perrin,E.; Weber, M.; Bates, R.L.; Cheplakov, A.; Saxon, D.H.; O'Shea, V.; Smith, K.M.; Iwata, Y.; Ohsugi, T.; Kohriki, T.; Kondo, T.; Terada, S.; Ujiie, N.; Ikegami, Y.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Brodbeck, T.; Chilingarov, A.; Hughes, G.; Ratoff, P.; Sloan, T.; Allport, P.P.; Casse,G.-L.; Greenall, A.; Jackson, J.N.; Jones, T.J.; King, B.T.; Maxfield,S.J.; Smith, N.A.; Sutcliffe, P.; Vossebeld, J.; Beck, G.A.; Carter,A.A.; Lloyd, S.L.; Martin, A.J.; Morris, J.; Morin, J.; Nagai, K.; Pritchard, T.W.; Anderson, B.E.; Butterworth, J.M.; Fraser, T.J.; Jones,T.W.; Lane, J.B.; Postranecky, M.; Warren, M.R.M.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandic, I.; Mikuz, M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Freestone, J.; Foster, J.M.; Ibbotson, M.; Loebinger, F.K.; Pater, J.; Snow, S.W.; Thompson, R.J.; Atkinson, T.M.; et al.

    2004-08-18

    The design and technology of the silicon strip detector modules for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment have been finalized in the last several years. Integral to this process has been the measurement and verification of the tracking performance of the different module types in test beams at the CERN SPS and the KEK PS. Tests have been performed to explore the module performance under various operating conditions including detector bias voltage, magnetic field, incidence angle, and state of irradiation up to 3 1014 protons per square centimeter. A particular emphasis has been the understanding of the operational consequences of the binary readout scheme.

  19. Fast Probabilistic Particle Identification algorithm using silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fino, L.; Zaconte, V.; Ciccotelli, A.; Larosa, M.; Narici, L.

    2012-08-01

    Active detectors used as radiation monitors in space are not usually able to perform Particle Identification (PID). Common techniques need energy loss spectra with high statistics to estimate ion abundances. The ALTEA-space detector system is a set of silicon strip particle telescopes monitoring the radiation environment on board the International Space Station since July 2006 with real-time telemetry capabilities. Its large geometrical factor due to the concurrent use of six detectors permits the acquisition of good energy loss spectra even in a short period of observation. In this paper we present a novel Fast Probabilistic Particle Identification (FPPI) algorithm developed for the ALTEA data analysis in order to perform nuclear identification with low statistics and, with some limitations, also in real time.

  20. EMC Diagnosis and Corrective Actions for Silicon Strip Tracker Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Arteche, F.; Rivetta, C.; /SLAC

    2006-06-06

    The tracker sub-system is one of the five sub-detectors of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment under construction at CERN for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator. The tracker subdetector is designed to reconstruct tracks of charged sub-atomic particles generated after collisions. The tracker system processes analogue signals from 10 million channels distributed across 14000 silicon micro-strip detectors. It is designed to process signals of a few nA and digitize them at 40 MHz. The overall sub-detector is embedded in a high particle radiation environment and a magnetic field of 4 Tesla. The evaluation of the electromagnetic immunity of the system is very important to optimize the performance of the tracker sub-detector and the whole CMS experiment. This paper presents the EMC diagnosis of the CMS silicon tracker sub-detector. Immunity tests were performed using the final prototype of the Silicon Tracker End-Caps (TEC) system to estimate the sensitivity of the system to conducted noise, evaluate the weakest areas of the system and take corrective actions before the integration of the overall detector. This paper shows the results of one of those tests, that is the measurement and analysis of the immunity to CM external conducted noise perturbations.

  1. A Proposal to Upgrade the Silicon Strip Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Matis, Howard; Michael, LeVine; Jonathan, Bouchet; Stephane, Bouvier; Artemios, Geromitsos; Gerard, Guilloux; Sonia, Kabana; Christophe, Renard; Howard, Matis; Jim, Thomas; Vi Nham, Tram

    2007-11-05

    The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) was built by a collaboration of Nantes, Strasbourg and Warsaw collaborators. It is a beautiful detector; it can provide 500 mu m scale pointing resolution at the vertex when working in combination with the TPC. It was first used in Run 4, when half the SSD was installed in an engineering run. The full detector was installed for Run 5 (the Cu-Cu run) and the operation and performance of the detector was very successful. However, in preparation for Run 6, two noisy ladders (out of 20) were replaced and this required that the SSD be removed from the STAR detector. The re-installation of the SSD was not fully successful and so for the next two Runs, 6 and 7, the SSD suffered a cooling system failure that allowed a large fraction of the ladders to overheat and become noisy, or fail. (The cause of the SSD cooling failure was rather trivial but the SSD could not be removed betweens Runs 6 and 7 due to the inability of the STAR detector to roll along its tracks at that time.)

  2. The readout chain for the bar PANDA MVD strip detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, R.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Di Pietro, V.; Kleines, H.; Goerres, A.; Riccardi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Sohlbach, H.; Zaunick, H.-G.

    2015-02-01

    The bar PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt) experiment will study the strong interaction in annihilation reactions between an antiproton beam and a stationary gas jet target. The detector will comprise different sub-detectors for tracking, particle identification and calorimetry. The Micro-Vertex Detector (MVD) as the innermost part of the tracking system will allow precise tracking and detection of secondary vertices. For the readout of the double-sided silicon strip sensors a custom-made ASIC is being developed, employing the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique for digitization and utilize time-to-digital converters (TDC) to provide a high-precision time stamp of the hit. A custom-made Module Data Concentrator ASIC (MDC) will multiplex the data of all front-ends of one sensor towards the CERN-developed GBT chip set (GigaBit Transceiver). The MicroTCA-based MVD Multiplexer Board (MMB) at the off-detector site will receive and concentrate the data from the GBT links and transfer it to FPGA-based compute nodes for global event building.

  3. Radiation damage effects in CZT drift strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Joergensen, Carl; Korsbech, Uffe; Jensen, H. J.

    2003-03-01

    At DSRI, in collaboration with the cyclotron facility at Copenhagen University Hospital, we have performed a study of radiation effects exposing a 2.7 mm thick CZT drift strip detector to 30 MeV protons. The detector characteristics were evaluated after exposure to a number of dose loads in the range from 2*108 to 60*108 p+/cm2. Even for the highest dose loads, which had a dramatic effect on the spectroscopic performance, we were able to recover the detectors after an appropriate annealing procedure. The radiation damage was studied as function of depth inside the detector material. A numerical model that emulates the physical processes of the charge transport in the CZT detector was used to derive the charge trapping parameter , μτe (the product of charge mobility and trapping time) as function of dose. The analysis showed that the electron trapping increased proportional with the proton dose. The radiation contribution to the electron trapping was found to obey the following relation: (μτe)-1rad =(2.5±0.2)*10-7*Φ (V/cm2) with the proton fluence, Φ in p+/cm2. The trapping depth dependence, however, did not agree well the damage profile calculated using the standard Monte Carlo simulations, TRIM for the proton induced radiation effects. The present results suggest that proton induced nuclear reactions contribute significantly to the radiation damage. Further work will elaborate on these effects. The detector energy resolution was investigated as function of proton dose. It was found that the observed degradation is well explained by the decrease of μτe when the fluctuations of the electron path length are taken into account. The proton irradiation produced In meta stable isotopes in the CZT material. Their decay and production yield as function of depth were analyzed.

  4. Efficient data transmission from silicon wafer strip detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, B.J.; Lackner, K.S.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Sharp, D.H.; Winter, L.; Ziock, H.J.

    1991-12-31

    An architecture for on-wafer processing is proposed for central silicon-strip tracker systems as they are currently designed for high energy physics experiments at the SSC, and for heavy ion experiments at RHIC. The data compression achievable with on-wafer processing would make it possible to transmit all data generated to the outside of the detector system. A set of data which completely describes the state of the wafer for low occupancy events and which contains important statistical information for more complex events can be transmitted immediately. This information could be used in early trigger decisions. Additional data packages which complete the description of the state of the wafer vary in size and are sent through a second channel. By buffering this channel the required bandwidth can be kept far below the peak data rates which occur in rate but interesting events. 18 refs.

  5. Position sensitive and energy dispersive x-ray detector based on silicon strip detector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.; Fink, J.; Fiutowski, T.; Krane, H.-G.; Loyer, F.; Schwamberger, A.; Świentek, K.; Venanzi, C.

    2015-04-01

    A new position sensitive detector with a global energy resolution for the entire detector of about 380 eV FWHM for 8.04 keV line at ambient temperature is presented. The measured global energy resolution is defined by the energy spectra summed over all strips of the detector, and thus it includes electronic noise of the front-end electronics, charge sharing effects, matching of parameters across the channels and other system noise sources. The target energy resolution has been achieved by segmentation of the strips to reduce their capacitance and by careful optimization of the front-end electronics. The key design aspects and parameters of the detector are discussed briefly in the paper. Excellent noise and matching performance of the readout ASIC and negligible system noise allow us to operate the detector with a discrimination threshold as low as 1 keV and to measure fluorescence radiation lines of light elements, down to Al Kα of 1.49 keV, simultaneously with measurements of the diffraction patterns. The measurement results that demonstrate the spectrometric and count rate performance of the developed detector are presented and discussed in the paper.

  6. Development of the RAIDS extreme ultraviolet wedge and strip detector. [Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detector System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, D. C.; Chater, W. T.; Christensen, A. B.; Howey, C. K.; Pranke, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    In the next few years the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detector System (RAIDS) package will be flown on a Tiros spacecraft. The EUV spectrometer experiment contains a position-sensitive detector based on wedge and strip anode technology. A detector design has been implemented in brazed alumina and kovar to provide a rugged bakeable housing and anode. A stack of three 80:1 microchannel plates is operated at 3500-4100 V. to achieve a gain of about 10 to the 7th. The top MCP is to be coated with MgF for increased quantum efficiency in the range of 50-115 nm. A summary of fabrication techniques and detector performance characteristics is presented.

  7. Readout of silicon strip detectors with position and timing information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, M.; Irmler, C.; Pernicka, M.

    2009-01-01

    Low-noise front-end amplifiers for silicon strip detectors are already available for decades, providing excellent signal-to-noise ratio and thus very precise spatial resolution, but at the cost of a long shaping time in the microsecond range. Due to occupancy and pile-up issues, modern experiments need much faster electronics. With submicron ASICs, adequate readout and data processing, it is possible to obtain not only spatial hit data, but also accurate timing information—a feature which is rarely exploited so far. We present the concept of a silicon vertex detector readout system intended for an upgrade of the Belle experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan). The APV25 front-end chip, originally developed for CMS at CERN, is used in a way where it delivers multiple samples along the shaped waveform, such that not only the analog pulse height, but also the timing of each particle hit can be determined. We developed a complete readout system including an FADC +Processor VME module which performs zero-suppression in FPGAs. The hit time measurement is also planned on the same module. As fast amplifiers are inherently more susceptible to noise, which largely depends on the load capacitance, the front-end chips should be located as close to the detector as possible. On the other hand, the material budget, especially in a low-energy electron-positron machine such as Belle, should be minimized. We tried to merge those demands with a fully functional "Flex_Module", where thinned APV25 readout chips are mounted on the silicon sensor.

  8. Evaluation of FOXFET biased ac-coupled silicon strip detector prototypes for CDF SVX upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Laakso, M. Research Inst. for High Energy Physics , Helsinki )

    1992-03-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors for high-precision charged particle position measurements have been used in nuclear and particle physics for years. The detectors have evolved from simple surface barrier strip detectors with metal strips to highly complicated double-sided AC-coupled junction detectors. The feature of AC-coupling the readout electrodes from the diode strips necessitates the manufacture of a separate biasing structure for the strips, which comprises a common bias line together with a means for preventing the signal from one strip from spreading to its neighbors through the bias line. The obvious solution to this is to bias the strips through individual high value resistors. These resistors can be integrated on the detector wafer by depositing a layer of resistive polycrystalline silicon and patterning it to form the individual resistors. To circumvent the extra processing step required for polysilicon resistor processing and the rather difficult tuning of the process to obtain uniform and high enough resistance values throughout the large detector area, alternative methods for strip biasing have been devised. These include the usage of electron accumulation layer resistance for N{sup +}{minus} strips or the usage of the phenomenon known as the punch-through effect for P{sup +}{minus} strips. In this paper we present measurement results about the operation and radiation resistance of detectors with a punch-through effect based biasing structure known as a Field OXide Field-Effect Transistor (FOXFET), and present a model describing the FOXFET behavior. The studied detectors were prototypes for detectors to be used in the CDF silicon vertex detector upgrade.

  9. Optimizing the Intrinsic Signal-to-Noise Ratio of MRI Strip Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ananda; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    An MRI detector is formed from a conducting strip separated by a dielectric substrate from a ground plane, and tuned to a quarter-wavelength. By distributing discrete tuning elements along the strip, the geometric design may be adjusted to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for a given application. Here a numerical electromagnetic (EM) method of moments (MoM) is applied to determine the length, width, substrate thickness, dielectric constant, and number of tuning elements that yield the best intrinsic SNR (ISNR) of the strip detector at 1.5 Tesla. The central question of how strip performance compares with that of a conventional optimized loop coil is also addressed. The numerical method is validated against the known ISNR performance of loop coils, and its ability to predict the tuning capacitances and performance of seven experimental strip detectors of varying length, width, substrate thickness, and dielectric constant. We find that strip detectors with low-dielectric constant, moderately thin-substrate, and length about 1.3 (±0.2) times the depth of interest perform best. The ISNR of strips is comparable to that of loops (i.e., higher close to the detector but lower at depth). The SNR improves with two inherently-decoupled strips, whose sensitivity profile is well-suited to parallel MRI. The findings are summarized as design “rules of thumb.” PMID:16724302

  10. Thick Silicon Double-Sided Strip Detectors for Low-Energy Small-Animal SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhi, Sepideh; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Durko, Heather L.; Fritz, Mark A.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Peterson, Todd E.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents characterization studies of thick silicon double-sided strip detectors for a high-resolution small-animal SPECT. The dimension of these detectors is 60.4 mm × 60.4 mm × 1 mm. There are 1024 strips on each side that give the coordinates of the photon interaction, with each strip processed by a separate ASIC channel. Our measurement shows that intrinsic spatial resolution equivalent to the 59 μm strip pitch is attainable. Good trigger uniformity can be achieved by proper setting of a 4-bit DAC in each ASIC channel to remove trigger threshold variations. This is particularly important for triggering at low energies. The thick silicon DSSD (Double-sided strip detector) shows high potential for small-animal SPECT. PMID:20686626

  11. Quasiparticle Self-Recombination in Double STJs Strip X-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, V. A.; Gorkov, V. P.

    2009-12-16

    The quasiparticle self-recombination was considered in the frame of 2D diffusion model of the strip X-ray detectors. The detector consists of a long superconducting strip, which is ended by the trapping layers and superconducting tunnel junctions at each end. The model takes into account the 2D-diffusion of the excess quasiparticles, quasiparticle trapping at the tunnel junctions and quasiparticle losses in the volume of the strip and at the strip boundaries. Self-recombination was described by a quadratic term. As the analytical solution is absent, the numeric calculations were carried out. It has been shown that the self-recombination as well as quasiparticle losses at the strip boundaries caused the dependence of the signals on the photon absorption site in transverse direction. The latter worsens the energy resolution and transforms the spectral line of the detector to nongaussian shape.

  12. Characterization of Single-Sided Charge-Sharing CZT Strip Detectors for Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donmez, Burcin; Macri, John R.; Ryan, James M.; Legere, Jason S.; McConnell, Mark L.; Widholm, Mark; Narita, Tomohiko; Hamel, Louis-Andre

    2006-01-01

    We report progress in the study of thick single-sided charge-sharing cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) strip detector modules designed to perform spectroscopy and 3-D imaging of gamma-rays. We report laboratory measurements including spectroscopy, efficiency and 3-D imaging capability of prototype detectors (15 15 7.5 cu mm) with 11x11 unit cells. We also report on Monte Carlo simulations (GEANT4 v7.1) to investigate the effect of multihits on detector performance in both spectroscopy and imaging. We compare simulation results with data obtained from laboratory measurements and discuss the implications for future strip detector designs. Keywords: CZT, strip detectors, gamma-ray

  13. Correlation between sensors' signals and internal resolution of a strip detector

    SciTech Connect

    Samedov, V. V.

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the theory of branching cascade processes is applied to the description of signal formation in a strip detector for soft X-rays. The theory is applicable to detectors' absorbers that have a single type of intrinsic particles. Intrinsic particles are particles that are generated by incident particle in detector's absorber and cause signals at the strip detector sensors' electronics. From this theory, it follows the new method of experimental determination of the Fano factor. It is shown, that the relative covariance between two signals of a strip detector depends on the fundamental combination of the Fano factor and the effective energy of the intrinsic particle creation in the absorber material. The important advantage of proposed method is its independence from the sensors' electronic gains and noises. (authors)

  14. Optical/UV and X-Ray Microwave Kinetic Inductance Strip Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, B. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Bumble, B.; Golwala, S.; Day, P. K.; Gao, J.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2008-04-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) are superconducting detectors that sense the change in the surface impedance of a thin superconducting film when Cooper Pairs are broken by using a high quality factor resonant circuit. We are developing strip detectors that have aluminum MKID sensors on both ends of a rectangular tantalum strip. These devices can provide one dimensional spatial imaging with high quantum efficiency, energy resolution, and microsecond time resolution for single photons from the IR to the X-ray. We have demonstrated X-ray strip detectors with an energy resolution of 62 eV at 6 keV, and hope to improve this substantially. We will also report on our progress towards optical arrays for a planned camera for the Palomar 200″ telescope.

  15. Observation of charge-sharing in an HPGe double-sided strip detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayward, Jason; Wehe, David

    2007-08-01

    In double-sided strip high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, improved position resolution can be obtained through axial and lateral strip interpolation by means of pulse shape analysis. Yet, only a small fraction of events can be interpolated in both the axial and lateral dimensions, meaning that the best possible imaging performance is delivered at the cost of low imaging efficiency. Lateral position interpolation is complicated by the bipolar nature of induced bystander signals, charge-sharing between neighboring strips, and close interaction sequences. The first two complications were observed in our HPGe double-sided strip detector, and their significance is explored. An algorithm has been developed to calculate detector signals for clouds of drifting charge in three dimensions. Simulated bystander signals are in agreement with the family of waveforms produced in our detector. Based upon simulation, the nature of the bipolar signals and fundamental limits on position resolution are discussed. To determine the significance of charge-sharing, our detector was irradiated with high-energy gamma-ray sources, and then preamplifier signals were digitized and analyzed offline. Charge-sharing between adjacent strips was found to increase with gamma-ray energy, occurring for approximately 18% of all Ba-133 interactions (356 keV) and 30% of all Co-60 interactions (1173 and 1333 keV).

  16. Performance updating of CdZnTe strip-drift detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorohov, M.; Tsirkunova, I.; Loupilov, A.; Gostilo, V.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Kuvvetli, I.

    2007-06-01

    Efficiency of strip-drift structure of contacts for improvement of charge collection conditions in CdZnTe detectors was shown some years ago. For such detector with area 10×10 mm 2 and thickness 3 mm of crystal, produced by eV products we obtained energy resolution 1.9 and 12.0 keV on energies 59.6 and 662 keV correspondingly. Recently, significant progress was done in CdZnTe crystals growth technology. In the present paper we present preliminary result of performance updating of CdZnTe strip-drift detectors based on crystal of 10×10×6 mm 3 produced by Yinnel Tech company. Results of crystal input characterization, the value of leakage current and inter-strip resistivity for all strips and energy resolution for collecting strips of detector are presented. The energy resolutions 1.8 and 11.0 keV on energies 59.6 and 662 keV correspondingly were obtained although the thickness of detector was two times more than earlier.

  17. Beam test of silicon strip sensors for the ZEUS micro vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Borsato, E.; Burgard, C.; Carli, T.; Carlin, R.; Casaro, M.; Chiochia, V.; Dal Corso, F.; Dannheim, D.; Garfagnini, A.; Kappes, A.; Klanner, R.; Koffeman, E.; Koppitz, B.; Kötz, U.; Maddox, E.; Milite, M.; Moritz, M.; Ng, J. S. T.; Petrucci, M. C.; Redondo, I.; Rautenberg, J.; Tiecke, H.; Turcato, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Weber, A.

    2003-04-01

    For the HERA upgrade, the ZEUS experiment has designed and installed a high precision Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) using single sided μ-strip sensors with capacitive charge division. The sensors have a readout pitch of 120 μm, with five intermediate strips ( 20 μm strip pitch). An extensive test program has been carried out at the DESY-II testbeam facility. In this paper we describe the setup developed to test the ZEUS MVD sensors and the results obtained on both irradiated and non-irradiated single sided μ-strip detectors with rectangular and trapezoidal geometries. The performances of the sensors coupled to the readout electronics (HELIX chip, version 2.2) have been studied in detail, achieving a good description by a Monte Carlo simulation. Measurements of the position resolution as a function of the angle of incidence are presented, focusing in particular on the comparison between standard and newly developed reconstruction algorithms.

  18. Improvement in bias current redistribution in superconducting strip ion detectors with parallel configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobuyuki, Zen; Go, Fujii; Shigetomo, Shiki; Masahiro, Ukibe; Masaki, Koike; Masataka, Ohkubo

    2015-09-01

    In time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS), superconducting strip ion detectors (SSIDs) in the parallel configuration are promising for ideal ion detection with a nanosecond-scale time response and a practical large sensitive area. In the parallel configuration, the bias current in one strip is diverted into other parallel strips after each detection event. Under high bias current conditions, the diverted bias current induces cascade switching of all parallel strips. Studies show that cascade switching degrades the ion count rate of SSIDs made from niobium and hence is disliked in TOF MS applications. To suppress the bias current redistribution, we connected resistors in a series with the individual parallel strips using aluminum-bonding wires. Their effect was studied by measuring the pulse height distributions. Project supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) and (C) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Grant Nos. 22246056 and 24619013).

  19. Spectra distortion by the interstrip gap in spectroscopic silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.; Eremin, I.; Tuboltsev, Yu; Fadeeva, N.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov, S.; Chen, W.; Li, Z.

    2012-07-01

    The NUSTAR experiments to be carried out as the part of the FAIR program (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) now under development in GSI, Germany, require unique spectrometers for heavy ions, for an energy range between a hundred keV up to hundreds of MeV. These spectrometers are constructed on the basis of silicon double sided detectors capable of providing simultaneously the energy spectrum of the particles and the position of hit points. The double sided Si strip detectors for high resolution ion spectroscopy and tracking were developed by the PTI-RIMST consortium. Reduced sized detectors were studied with alpha-particles from a 238Pu source to define the spectral response of their p+ side. The energy resolution was measured and found to be the highest, 9.6 keV, in the p+ strips area. The energy spectrum for the particles hit at the interstrip gap was shown to be much broader and have a maximum at the low energy edges. In this study the alpha-particle spectra were measured on the p+ side of strip detector and their shape was found to depend on the p+ strip structure and potential distribution under the strip and in the interstrip gap, where the surface is passivated by SiO2 layer. Therefore, the 2D potential distribution in the interstrip gap was simulated and interpreted through the effective entrance window for alpha-particles. The calculated spectrum of a detector from alpha-particle source has a shape specific to the experimental detector spectral response, i.e., the peak at low energies. These findings are to be taken into account in the analysis of short range particle spectra and may well contribute to further development of spectroscopic single sided and double sided Si strip detectors to be used in investigations in nuclear physics.

  20. Si-strip photon counting detectors for contrast-enhanced spectral mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Buxin; Reiser, Ingrid; Wessel, Jan C.; Malakhov, Nail; Wawrzyniak, Gregor; Hartsough, Neal E.; Gandhi, Thulasi; Chen, Chin-Tu; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Barber, William C.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the development of silicon strip detectors for energy-resolved clinical mammography. Typically, X-ray integrating detectors based on scintillating cesium iodide CsI(Tl) or amorphous selenium (a-Se) are used in most commercial systems. Recently, mammography instrumentation has been introduced based on photon counting Si strip detectors. The required performance for mammography in terms of the output count rate, spatial resolution, and dynamic range must be obtained with sufficient field of view for the application, thus requiring the tiling of pixel arrays and particular scanning techniques. Room temperature Si strip detector, operating as direct conversion x-ray sensors, can provide the required speed when connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at fast peaking times with multiple fixed thresholds per pixel, provided that the sensors are designed for rapid signal formation across the X-ray energy ranges of the application. We present our methods and results from the optimization of Si-strip detectors for contrast enhanced spectral mammography. We describe the method being developed for quantifying iodine contrast using the energy-resolved detector with fixed thresholds. We demonstrate the feasibility of the method by scanning an iodine phantom with clinically relevant contrast levels.

  1. Study of anomalous charge collection efficiency in heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuž, M.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2011-04-01

    Anomalous charge collection efficiency observed in heavily irradiated silicon strip detectors operated at high bias voltages has been studied in terms of a simple model and experimentally using 25 ns shaping electronics and transient current technique (TCT) with edge-on laser injection. The model confirmed qualitatively the explanation by electron impact ionization in the high electric field close to the strips, but failed in the quantitative description of the collected charge. First results on a Hamamatsu strip detector irradiated to 5×1015 neq/cm2 and operated at bias voltages in excess of 1000 V exhibit charge collection similar to what obtained on Micron devices. TCT tests with local charge injection by a laser confirm the validity of a linear extrapolation of trapping to very high fluences and reveal significant charge collection from the non-depleted volume of the detector.

  2. Effects of the interstrip gap on the efficiency and response of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresi, D.; Forneris, J.; Grassi, L.; Acosta, L.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Grilj, V.; Jakic, M.; Lattuada, M.; Mijatovic, T.; Milin, M.; Prepolec, L.; Skukan, N.; Soic, N.; Stanko, D.; Tokic, V.; Uroic, M.; Zadro, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this work the effects of the segmentation of the electrodes of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs) are investigated. In order to characterize the response of the DSSSDs we perform a first experiment by using tandem beams of different energies directly sent on the detector and a second experiment by mean of a proton microbeam. Results show that the effective width of the inter-strip region and the efficiency for full energy detection, varies with both detected energy and bias voltage. The experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by a simplified model based on the Shockley-Ramo-Gunn framework.

  3. Development of a silicon micro-strip detector for tracking high intensity secondary beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, R.; Asano, H.; Hasegawa, S.; Honda, R.; Ichikawa, Y.; Imai, K.; Joo, C. W.; Nakazawa, K.; Sako, H.; Sato, S.; Shirotori, K.; Sugimura, H.; Tanida, K.; Watabe, T.

    2014-11-01

    A single-sided silicon micro-strip detector (SSD) has been developed as a tracking detector for hadron experiments at J-PARC where secondary meson beams with intensities of up to 108 Hz are available. The performance of the detector has been investigated and verified in a series of test beam experiments in the years 2009-2011. The hole mobility was deduced from the analysis of cluster events. The beam rate dependence was measured in terms of timing resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and hit efficiency. This paper describes the detector with its read-out system, details of the test experiments, and discusses the performance achieved.

  4. Performance of a large-area GEM detector read out with wide radial zigzag strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aiwu; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Hansen, Eric; Hohlmann, Marcus; Khanal, Shreeya; Phipps, Michael; Starling, Elizabeth; Twigger, Jessie; Walton, Kimberly

    2016-03-01

    A 1-meter-long trapezoidal Triple-GEM detector with wide readout strips was tested in hadron beams at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility in October 2013. The readout strips have a special zigzag geometry and run radially with an azimuthal pitch of 1.37 mrad to measure the azimuthal ϕ-coordinate of incident particles. The zigzag geometry of the readout reduces the required number of electronic channels by a factor of three compared to conventional straight readout strips while preserving good angular resolution. The average crosstalk between zigzag strips is measured to be an acceptable 5.5%. The detection efficiency of the detector is (98.4±0.2)%. When the non-linearity of the zigzag-strip response is corrected with track information, the angular resolution is measured to be (193±3) μrad, which corresponds to 14% of the angular strip pitch. Multiple Coulomb scattering effects are fully taken into account in the data analysis with the help of a stand-alone Geant4 simulation that estimates interpolated track errors.

  5. Thicker, more efficient superconducting strip-line detectors for high throughput macromolecules analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Casaburi, A.; Ejrnaes, M.; Cristiano, R.; Zen, N.; Ohkubo, M.; Pagano, S.

    2011-01-10

    Fast detectors with large area are required in time-of-flight mass spectrometers for high throughput analysis of biological molecules. We fabricated and characterized subnanosecond 1x1 mm{sup 2} NbN superconducting strip-line detectors. The influence of the strip-line thickness on the temporal characteristics and efficiency of the detector for the impacts of keV accelerated molecules is investigated. We find that the increase of thickness improves both efficiency and response time. In the thicker sample we achieved a rise time of 380 ps, a fall time of 1.38 ns, and a higher count rate. The physics involved in this behavior is investigated.

  6. Monolithic front-end ICs for interpolating cathode pad and strip detectors for GEM

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1993-05-01

    We are developing CMOS circuits for readout of interpolating cathode strip and pad chambers for the GEM experiment at the SSC. Because these detectors require position resolution of about 1% of the strip pitch, the electronic noise level must be less than 2000 electrons. Several test chips have been fabricated to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving the combination of low noise, speed, and wide dynamic range in CMOS. Results to date show satisfactory noise and linearity performance. Future development will concentrate on radiation-hardening the central tracker ASIC design, optimizing the shaper peaking time and noise contribution, providing more user-configurable output options, and packaging and test issues.

  7. The Mark II Silicon Strip Vertex Detector and performance of a silicon detector telescope in the Mark II detector at the SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Labarga, L.; Adolphsen, C.; Gratta, G.; Litke, A.; Turala, M.; Zaccardelli, C. . Inst. for Particle Physics); Breakstone, A.; Parker, S. ); Barnett, B.; Dauncey, P.; Drewer, D.; Matthews, J. ); Jacobsen, R.; Lueth, V. )

    1989-12-01

    A Silicon Strip Vertex Detector (SSVD) consisting of 36 independent silicon detector modules has been built for use in the Mark II detector at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). We discuss the performance of the individual modules and the stability and accuracy of their placement in the mechanical support. To gain operational experience at the SLC, we have assembled and placed inside the Mark II a telescope made of three Silicon Detector Modules. We present results from the first data run of the SLC on the overall performance of the Telescope, including backgrounds, charged particle tracking and spatial resolution. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Recent Developments in Transition-Edge Strip Detectors for Solar X-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rausch, Adam J.; Deiker, Steven W.; Hilton, Gene; Irwin, Kent D.; Martinez-Galarce, Dennis S.; Shing, Lawrence; Stern, Robert A.; Ullom, Joel N.; Vale, Leila R.

    2008-01-01

    LMSAL and NIST are developing position-sensitive x-ray strip detectors based on Transition Edge Sensor (TES) microcalorimeters optimized for solar physics. By combining high spectral (E/ delta E approximately equals 1600) and temporal (single photon delta t approximately equals 10 micro s) resolutions with imaging capabilities, these devices will be able to study high-temperature (>l0 MK) x-ray lines as never before. Diagnostics from these lines should provide significant new insight into the physics of both microflares and the early stages of flares. Previously, the large size of traditional TESs, along with the heat loads associated with wiring large arrays, presented obstacles to using these cryogenic detectors for solar missions. Implementing strip detector technology at small scales, however, addresses both issues: here, a line of substantially smaller effective pixels requires only two TESs, decreasing both the total array size and the wiring requirements for the same spatial resolution. Early results show energy resolutions of delta E(sub fwhm) approximately equals 30 eV and spatial resolutions of approximately 10-15 micron, suggesting the strip-detector concept is viable.

  9. Silicon strip detector for a novel 2D dosimetric method for radiotherapy treatment verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocci, A.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Espino, J. M.; Arráns, R.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Abou-Haïdar, Z.; Quesada, J. M.; Pérez Vega-Leal, A.; Pérez Nieto, F. J.

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize a silicon strip detector and its associated data acquisition system, based on discrete electronics, to obtain in a near future absorbed dose maps in axial planes for complex radiotherapy treatments, using a novel technique. The experimental setup is based on two phantom prototypes: the first one is a polyethylene slab phantom used to characterize the detector in terms of linearity, percent depth dose, reproducibility, uniformity and penumbra. The second one is a cylindrical phantom, specifically designed and built to recreate conditions close to those normally found in clinical environments, for treatment planning assessment. This system has been used to study the dosimetric response of the detector, in the axial plane of the phantom, as a function of its angle with respect to the irradiation beam. A software has been developed to operate the rotation of this phantom and to acquire signals from the silicon strip detector. As an innovation, the detector was positioned inside the cylindrical phantom parallel to the beam axis. Irradiation experiments were carried out with a Siemens PRIMUS linac operating in the 6 MV photon mode at the Virgen Macarena Hospital. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using Geant4 toolkit and results were compared to Treatment Planning System (TPS) calculations for the absorbed dose-to-water case. Geant4 simulations were used to estimate the sensitivity of the detector in different experimental configurations, in relation to the absorbed dose in each strip. A final calibration of the detector in this clinical setup was obtained by comparing experimental data with TPS calculations.

  10. Low power readout electronics for a UV MCP detector with cross strip anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, M.; Diebold, S.; Barnstedt, J.; Hermanutz, S.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kappelmann, N.; Schanz, T.; Werner, K.

    2014-03-01

    After the shutdown of the Hubble Space Telescope in a few years, new astronomical missions for the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range between 91 and 300 nm with improved optics and detectors will be necessary. This fact drives our development of solar blind photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) UV detectors with high quantum efficiency, high spatial resolution, and low power readout electronics. We plan to use a cross-strip anode (XSA), which has a high spatial resolution and additionally allows a low gain operation of the MCPs which leads to an increased lifetime of the MCPs compared to detectors with other anode types. The main difficulty in implementing an XSA in a detector for space applications is the need for a (pre-) amplifier, a shaper, and an ADC for each of the strips, which means large power consumption and spatial requirements. The solution we are studying is the application of the so-called Beetle chip. This allows for an implementation of a readout electronics for an XSA with a power consumption of less then 10 W. For the tests of our readout electronics prototype, and for the burn-in of the MCPs, we recently finished a setup in a vacuum chamber that is similar to the configuration in the final detector. We present a brief overview of our detector design and details of the readout electronics setup as well as details of the setup in our vacuum chamber.

  11. System characteristics of SPECT with a slat collimated strip detector.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Van Holen, Roel; Staelens, Steven; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2006-01-21

    In classical SPECT with parallel hole collimation, the sensitivity is constant over the field of view (FOV). This is no longer the case if a rotating slat collimator with planar photon collection is used: there will be a significant variation of the sensitivity within the FOV. Since not compensating for this inhomogeneous sensitivity distribution would result in non-quantitative images, an accurate knowledge of the sensitivity is mandatory to account for it during reconstruction. On the other hand, the spatial resolution versus distance dependency remains unaltered compared to parallel hole collimation. For deriving the sensitivity, different factors have to be taken into account: a first factor concerns the intrinsic detector properties and will be incorporated into the calculations as a detection efficiency term depending on the incident angle. The calculations are based on a second and more pronounced factor: the collimator and detector geometry. Several assumptions will be made for the calculation of the sensitivity formulae and it will be proven that these calculations deliver a valid prediction of the sensitivity at points far enough from the collimator. To derive a close field model which also accounts for points close to the collimator surface, a modified calculation method is used. After calculating the sensitivity in one plane it is easy to obtain the tomographic sensitivity. This is done by rotating the sensitivity maps for spin and camera rotation. The results derived from the calculations are then compared to simulation results and both show good agreement after including the aforementioned detection efficiency term. The validity of the calculations is also proven by measuring the sensitivity in the FOV of a prototype rotating slat gamma camera. An expression for the resolution of these planar collimation systems is obtained. It is shown that for equal collimator dimensions the same resolution-distance relationship is obtained as for parallel hole

  12. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-04-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5˜TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii r<45 cm is done by the Inner Tracking System (ITS), consisting of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The outer two layers of the ITS use double-sided silicon strip detectors. This thesis focuses on testing of these detectors and performance studies of the detector module prototypes at the beam test. Silicon strip detector layers will require about 20 thousand HAL25 front-end readout chips and about 3.5 thousand hybrids each containing 6 HAL25 chips. During the assembly procedure, chips are bonded on a patterned TAB aluminium microcables which connect to all the chip input and output pads, and then the chips are assembled on the hybrids. Bonding failures at the chip or hybrid level may either render the component non-functional or deteriorate its the performance such that it can not be used for the module production. After each bonding operation, the component testing is done to reject the non-functional or poorly performing chips and hybrids. The LabView-controlled test station for this operation has been built at Utrecht University and was successfully used for mass production acceptance tests of chips and hybrids at three production labs. The functionality of the chip registers, bonding quality and analogue functionality of the chips and hybrids are addressed in the test. The test routines were optimized to minimize the testing time to make sure that testing is not a bottleneck of the mass production. For testing of complete modules the laser scanning station with 1060 nm diode laser has been assembled at Utrecht University. The testing method relies of the fact that a response of the detector module to a short collimated laser beam pulse resembles a response to a minimum ionizing particle. A small beam spot size (˜7 μm ) allows to deposit the charge in a narrow region and measure the

  13. Event pre processor for the CdZnTe-strip detector on MIRAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchy, Slawomir; Schanz, Thomas; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Distratis, Giuseppe; Heindl, William A.; Wilms, Jörn; Braga, João; Santiago, Valdivino; Staubert, Rüdiger; Rothschild, Richard E.

    2004-09-01

    We present the Event Pre Processor (EPP) for the Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride-strip detector of the Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) onboard of the MIRAX satellite. The purpose of the EPP is to provide an onboard data reduction and event filtering by applying a non linear energy gain correction for each detector strip. This data reduction is necessary because of the limited telemetry capacity of the MIRAX satellite. We decided to use hardwired data processing electronics based on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip designed in VHDL. This solution allows us to combine high computation power with low power consumption. We discuss the functionality and status of the EPP design developed in Tübingen.

  14. THREE-DIMENSIONAL POSITION SENSING AND FIELD SHAPING IN ORTHOGONAL-STRIP GERMANIUM GAMMA-RAY DETECTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have fabricated a prototype orthogonal-strip germanium detector for gamma-ray imaging studies. With this detector we demonstrate that a gamma-ray interaction event in the detector can be located in three dimensions. In particular we determine the interaction depth from the dif...

  15. Development of Silicon Strip Detector for the measurement of the {Xi}-atom X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimura, H.; Adachi, S.; Imai, K.; Sako, H.; Sato, S.; Tanida, K.; Kiuchi, R.; Joo, C. W.

    2011-10-21

    We have developed the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) for the experiment to measure X-ray from {Xi}-atom. The feature of the SSD is to measure positions of particles and energy deposit. We have carried out the test experiment at J-PARC K1.8 beam line. The three SSDs were installed in front of the target and we tested by using kaon beam. In this paper, the results of the test experiment is presented.

  16. Elemental Discrimination of Low-energy Ions Using Risetime Analysis of Silicon-strip Detector Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Bardayan, Daniel W; Moazen, Brian; Pain, Steven D; Smith, Michael Scott

    2009-01-01

    To make measurements with the intense (but often contaminated) radioactive beams available today, one often needs to identify the reaction products to determine the events of interest. The low energies required for many astrophysics measurements make impossible the use of traditional energy loss techniques, and additional constraints are required. We demonstrate a simple technique to measure the risetimes of silicon strip-detector signals and show partial discrimination can be obtained even at energies below 1 MeV/u.

  17. Expert System for the LHC CMS Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapsevicius, Valdas; Juska, Evaldas

    2014-02-01

    Modern High Energy Physics experiments are of high demand for a generic and consolidated solution to integrate and process high frequency data streams by applying experts' knowledge and inventory configurations. In this paper we present the Expert System application that was built for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) aiming to support the detector operations and to provide integrated monitoring. The main building blocks are the integration platform, rule-based complex event processing engine, ontology-based knowledge base, persistent storage and user interfaces for results and control.

  18. High energy X-ray photon counting imaging using linear accelerator and silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Shimazoe, K.; Yan, X.; Ueda, O.; Ishikura, T.; Fujiwara, T.; Uesaka, M.; Ohno, M.; Tomita, H.; Yoshihara, Y.; Takahashi, H.

    2016-09-01

    A photon counting imaging detector system for high energy X-rays is developed for on-site non-destructive testing of thick objects. One-dimensional silicon strip (1 mm pitch) detectors are stacked to form a two-dimensional edge-on module. Each detector is connected to a 48-channel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The threshold-triggered events are recorded by a field programmable gate array based counter in each channel. The detector prototype is tested using 950 kV linear accelerator X-rays. The fast CR shaper (300 ns pulse width) of the ASIC makes it possible to deal with the high instant count rate during the 2 μs beam pulse. The preliminary imaging results of several metal and concrete samples are demonstrated.

  19. Centroiding algorithms for high speed crossed strip readout of microchannel plate detectors.

    PubMed

    Vallerga, John; Tremsin, Anton; Raffanti, Rick; Siegmund, Oswald

    2011-05-01

    Imaging microchannel plate (MCP) detectors with cross strip (XS) readout anodes require centroiding algorithms to determine the location of the amplified charge cloud from the incident radiation, be it photon or particle. We have developed a massively parallel XS readout electronic system that employs an amplifier and ADC for each strip and uses this digital data to calculate the centroid of each event in real time using a field programmable gate array (FPGA). Doing the calculations in real time in the front end electronics using an FPGA enables a much higher input event rate, nearly two orders of magnitude faster, by avoiding the bandwidth limitations of the raw data transfer to a computer. We report on our detailed efforts to optimize the algorithms used on both an 18 mm and 40 mm diameter XS MCP detector with strip pitch of 640 microns and read out with multiple 32 channel "Preshape32" ASIC amplifiers (developed at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory). Each strip electrode is continuously digitized to 12 bits at 50 MHz with all 64 digital channels (128 for the 40 mm detector) transferred to a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA. We describe how events are detected in the continuous data stream and then multiplexed into firmware modules that spatially and temporally filter and weight the input after applying offset and gain corrections. We will contrast a windowed "center of gravity" algorithm to a convolution with a special centroiding kernel in terms of resolution and distortion and show results with < 20 microns FWHM resolution at input rates > 1 MHz. PMID:21918588

  20. Integrated USB based readout interface for silicon strip detectors of the ATLAS SCT module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masek, P.; Linhart, V.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.; Husak, M.

    2011-12-01

    An integrated portable USB based readout interface for the ATLAS semiconductor trackers (SCT) has been built. The ATLAS SCT modules are large area silicon strip detectors designed for tracking of high-energy charged particles resulting in collisions on Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in CERN. These modules can be also used on small accelerators for medical or industry applications where a compact and configurable readout interface would be useful. A complete custom made PC-host software tool was written for Windows platform for control and DAQ with build-in online visualization. The new constructed interface provides integrated power, control and DAQ and configurable communication between the detector module and the controlling PC. The interface is based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and the high speed USB 2.0 standard. This design permits to operate the modules under high particle fluence while minimizing the dead time of the whole detection system. Utilization of the programmable device simplifies the operation and permits future expansion of the functionality without any hardware changes. The device includes the high voltage source for detector bias up to 500 V and it is equipped with number of devices for monitoring the operation and conditions of measurement (temperature, humidity, voltage). These features are particularly useful as the strip detector must be operated in a well controlled environment. The operation of the interface will be demonstrated on data measured with different particles from radiation sources.

  1. Extracting the Position from a Silicon Resistive Strip Detector using Digital Shaping Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Harrison; Lonsdale, Sarah; Ratkiewicz, Andrew; Pain, Steven; Cizewski, Jolie

    2015-10-01

    Transfer reactions can be used to study single-particle structure of radioactive nuclei which are important for energy generation and nucleosynthesis in explosive astrophysical environments. The resolution of such measurements performed in inverse kinematics are dependent on the position resolution of the detected ejectile. The Oak Ridge Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) of Silicon Resistive Strip Detectors (SRSD) was developed to measure light-ion products from transfer reactions in inverse kinematics with radioactive ion beams. The rise times of signals from resistive detectors are dependent upon the position of the incident charged particle; using analog electronics, the shaping time must be matched to the average response. By using a digital data acquisition system, event-by-event rise time information can be recorded, allowing for better optimized readout of resistive strip detectors. Investigations were made into the effectiveness of different shaping algorithms, such as smoothing filters and derivative filters, on the position resolution. Preliminary results demonstrate that improved position resolution can be obtained from the fast rise slope of the signals. Preliminary results and the first in-beam tests with the Gammasphere ORRUBA Dual Detector for Experimental Structure Studies (GODDESS). This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

  2. Cross strip anode readouts for microchannel plate detectors: developing flight qualified prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, John; Cooney, M.; Raffanti, R.; Varner, G.; Siegmund, O.; McPhate, J. B.; Tremsin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last two decades (eg. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.). Over this duration, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x 1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x 10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. One such technology is the parallel cross strip (PXS) readout. The PXS anode is a set of orthogonal conducting strips (80 x 80), typically spaced at a 635 micron pitch onto which charge clouds from MCP amplified events land. Each strip has its own charge sensitive amplifier that is sampled continuously by a dedicated analog to digital (ADC) converter at 50MHz. All of the 160 ADC digital output lines are fed into a field programmable gate array (FGPA) which can detect charge events landing on the strips, measure the peak amplitudes of those charge events and calculate their spatial centroid along with their time of arrival (X,Y,T). Laboratory versions of these electronics have demonstrated < 20 microns FWHM spatial resolution, count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of ~ 1ns. In 2012 the our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant to raise the TRL of the PXS detector from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the 19" rack mounted, high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass and volume requirements of the PXS detector. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration). This detector design could then be modified for individual flight opportunities with a higher level of confidence than

  3. Energy-resolved CT imaging with a photon-counting silicon-strip detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Mats; Huber, Ben; Karlsson, Staffan; Liu, Xuejin; Chen, Han; Xu, Cheng; Yveborg, Moa; Bornefalk, Hans; Danielsson, Mats

    2014-11-01

    Photon-counting detectors are promising candidates for use in the next generation of x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanners. Among the foreseen benefits are higher spatial resolution, better trade-off between noise and dose and energy discriminating capabilities. Silicon is an attractive detector material because of its low cost, mature manufacturing process and high hole mobility. However, it is sometimes overlooked for CT applications because of its low absorption efficiency and high fraction of Compton scatter. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that silicon is a feasible material for CT detectors by showing energy-resolved CT images acquired with an 80 kVp x-ray tube spectrum using a photon-counting silicon-strip detector with eight energy thresholds developed in our group. We use a single detector module, consisting of a linear array of 50 0.5 × 0.4 mm detector elements, to image a phantom in a table-top lab setup. The phantom consists of a plastic cylinder with circular inserts containing water, fat and aqueous solutions of calcium, iodine and gadolinium, in different concentrations. By using basis material decomposition we obtain water, calcium, iodine and gadolinium basis images and demonstrate that these basis images can be used to separate the different materials in the inserts. We also show results showing that the detector has potential for quantitative measurements of substance concentrations.

  4. Count rate performance of a silicon-strip detector for photon-counting spectral CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Grönberg, F.; Sjölin, M.; Karlsson, S.; Danielsson, M.

    2016-08-01

    A silicon-strip detector is developed for spectral computed tomography. The detector operates in photon-counting mode and allows pulse-height discrimination with 8 adjustable energy bins. In this work, we evaluate the count-rate performance of the detector in a clinical CT environment. The output counts of the detector are measured for x-ray tube currents up to 500 mA at 120 kV tube voltage, which produces a maximum photon flux of 485 Mphotons/s/mm2 for the unattenuated beam. The corresponding maximum count-rate loss of the detector is around 30% and there are no saturation effects. A near linear relationship between the input and output count rates can be observed up to 90 Mcps/mm2, at which point only 3% of the input counts are lost. This means that the loss in the diagnostically relevant count-rate region is negligible. A semi-nonparalyzable dead-time model is used to describe the count-rate performance of the detector, which shows a good agreement with the measured data. The nonparalyzable dead time τn for 150 evaluated detector elements is estimated to be 20.2±5.2 ns.

  5. Comparison Between Two Monte Carlo Simulations of Angiographic Phantom Coupled to Silicon Strip Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaño, L. M.; Sanchez, D.; Avila, C.; Sanabria, J.; Baldazzi, G.; Bollini, D. D.; Cabal, A.; Ceballos, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Díaz García, A.; Gambaccini, M.; Giubellino, P.; Gombia, M.; Grybos, P.; Idzik, M.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Prino, F.; Ramello, L.; Sitta, M.; Swientek, K.; Taibi, A.; Tomassi, E.; Tuffanelli, A.; Wiacek, P.

    2004-09-01

    Preliminary results of a dual energy angiography simulation using the Monte Carlo package GEANT 3.2113 are presented and compared to Monte Carlo MCNP-4C results reported before. The simulation is based on an experimental set up consisting of a Plexiglas-aluminium step wedge phantom with 4 cylindrical cavities filled with iodated contrast medium. The silicon 384 microstrip detector was set into edge-on configuration (incoming X-rays parallel to longitudinal axis of the strips) and the properties of the simulated detector just resemble the ones of the real detector. Monochromatic photon beams of 31.5keV and 35.5keV are used to take advantage of the discontinuous variation of the iodine photon absorption at the energy of the K-shell, the key to dual energy subtraction imaging.

  6. Energy-resolved CT imaging with a photon-counting silicon-strip detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Mats; Huber, Ben; Karlsson, Staffan; Liu, Xuejin; Chen, Han; Xu, Cheng; Yveborg, Moa; Bornefalk, Hans; Danielsson, Mats

    2014-03-01

    Photon-counting detectors are promising candidates for use in the next generation of x-ray CT scanners. Among the foreseen benefits are higher spatial resolution, better trade-off between noise and dose, and energy discriminating capabilities. Silicon is an attractive detector material because of its low cost, mature manufacturing process and high hole mobility. However, it is sometimes claimed to be unsuitable for use in computed tomography because of its low absorption efficiency and high fraction of Compton scatter. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that high-quality energy-resolved CT images can nonetheless be acquired with clinically realistic exposure parameters using a photon-counting silicon-strip detector with eight energy thresholds developed in our group. We use a single detector module, consisting of a linear array of 50 0.5 × 0.4 mm detector elements, to image a phantom in a table-top lab setup. The phantom consists of a plastic cylinder with circular inserts containing water, fat and aqueous solutions of calcium, iodine and gadolinium, in different concentrations. We use basis material decomposition to obtain water, calcium, iodine and gadolinium basis images and demonstrate that these basis images can be used to separate the different materials in the inserts. We also show results showing that the detector has potential for quantitative measurements of substance concentrations.

  7. A feasibility study of a PET/MRI insert detector using strip-line and waveform sampling data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Chen, C.-T.; Eclov, N.; Ronzhin, A.; Murat, P.; Ramberg, E.; Los, S.; Wyrwicz, A. M.; Li, L.; Kao, C.-M.

    2015-06-01

    We are developing a time-of-flight Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detector by using silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) on a strip-line and high speed waveform sampling data acquisition. In this design, multiple SiPMs are connected on a single strip-line and signal waveforms on the strip-line are sampled at two ends of the strip to reduce readout channels while fully exploiting the fast time response of SiPMs. In addition to the deposited energy and time information, the position of the hit SiPM along the strip-line is determined by the arrival time difference of the waveform. Due to the insensitivity of the SiPMs to magnetic fields and the compact front-end electronics, the detector approach is highly attractive for developing a PET insert system for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner to provide simultaneous PET/MR imaging. To investigate the feasibility, experimental tests using prototype detector modules have been conducted inside a 9.4 T small animal MRI scanner (Bruker BioSpec 94/30 imaging spectrometer). On the prototype strip-line board, 16 SiPMs (5.2 mm pitch) are installed on two strip-lines and coupled to 2×8 LYSO scintillators (5.0×5.0×10.0 mm3 with 5.2 mm pitch). The outputs of the strip-line boards are connected to a Domino-Ring-Sampler (DRS4) evaluation board for waveform sampling. Preliminary experimental results show that the effect of interference on the MRI image due to the PET detector is negligible and that PET detector performance is comparable with the results measured outside the MRI scanner.

  8. A feasibility study of a PET/MRI insert detector using strip-line and waveform sampling data acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H.; Chen, C.-T.; Eclov, N.; Ronzhin, A.; Murat, P.; Ramberg, E.; Los, S.; Wyrwicz, Alice M.; Li, Limin; Kao, C.-M.

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a time-of-flight Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detector by using silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM) on a strip-line and high speed waveform sampling data acquisition. In this design, multiple SiPMs are connected on a single strip-line and signal waveforms on the strip-line are sampled at two ends of the strip to reduce readout channels while fully exploiting the fast time response of SiPMs. In addition to the deposited energy and time information, the position of the hit SiPM along the strip-line is determined by the arrival time difference of the waveform. Due to the insensitivity of the SiPMs to magnetic fields and the compact front-end electronics, the detector approach is highly attractive for developing a PET insert system for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner to provide simultaneous PET/MR imaging. To investigate the feasibility, experimental tests using prototype detector modules have been conducted inside a 9.4 Tesla small animal MRI scanner (Bruker BioSpec 94/30 imaging spectrometer). On the prototype strip-line board, 16 SiPMs (5.2 mm pitch) are installed on two strip-lines and coupled to 2 × 8 LYSO scintillators (5.0 × 5.0 × 10.0 mm3 with 5.2 mm pitch). The outputs of the strip-line boards are connected to a Domino-Ring-Sampler (DRS4) evaluation board for waveform sampling. Preliminary experimental results show that the effect of interference on the MRI image due to the PET detector is negligible and that PET detector performance is comparable with the results measured outside the MRI scanner. PMID:25937685

  9. The silicon micro-strip detector plane for the LOFT/wide-field monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldwurm, A.; Ferrando, P.; Götz, D.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Limousin, O.; Basa, S.; Bertoli, W.; Delagnes, Eric; Dolgorouky, Y.; Gevin, O.; Gros, A.; Gouiffes, C.; Jeanneau, F.; Lachaud, C.; Llored, M.; Olivetto, C.; Prevot, G.; Renaud, D.; Rodriguez, J.; Rossin, C.; Schanne, S.; Soldi, S.; Varniere, P.

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of the Wide Field Monitor (WFM) on the LOFT mission is to provide unambiguous detection of the high-energy sources in a large field of view, in order to support science operations of the LOFT primary instrument, the LAD. The monitor will also provide by itself a large number of results on the timing and spectral behavior of hundreds of galactic compact objects, Active Galactic Nuclei and Gamma-Ray Bursts. The WFM is based on the coded aperture concept where a position sensitive detector records the shadow of a mask projected by the celestial sources. The proposed WFM detector plane, based on Double Sided micro-Strip Silicon Detectors (DSSD), will allow proper 2-dimensional recording of the projected shadows. Indeed the positioning of the photon interaction in the detector with equivalent fine resolution in both directions insures the best imaging capability compatible with the allocated budgets for this telescope on LOFT. We will describe here the overall configuration of this 2D-WFM and the design and characteristics of the DSSD detector plane including its imaging and spectral performances. We will also present a number of simulated results discussing the advantages that this configuration offers to LOFT. A DSSD-based WFM will in particular reduce significantly the source confusion experienced by the WFM in crowded regions of the sky like the Galactic Center and will in general increase the observatory science capability of the mission.

  10. A new inner layer silicon micro-strip detector for D0

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael S.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The D{O} experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron is building a new inner layer detector (Layer-0) to be installed inside the existing D{O} Silicon Micro-strip Tracker (SMT). The Layer-0 detector is based on R&D performed for the RunIIb silicon upgrade, which was canceled in the fall of 2003. Layer-0 will be installed between the bean pipe and the the 2.2cm radius opening available in the SMT support structure. The radius of the first sampling will be reduced from 2.7cm to 1.6cm. Layer-0 will be radiation harder than the current SMT, thus ensuring that the silicon tracker remains viable through Tevatron RunII.

  11. Compton-edge-based energy calibration of double-sided silicon strip detectors in Compton camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hee; Park, Jin Hyung; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Lee, Ju Hahn; Lee, Chun Sik; Sung Lee, Jae

    2011-05-01

    Accurate energy calibration of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) is very important, but challenging for high-energy photons. In the present study, the calibration was improved by considering the Compton edge additionally to the existing low-energy calibration points. The result, indeed, was very encouraging. The energy-calibration errors were dramatically reduced, from, on average, 15.5% and 16.9% to 0.47% and 0.31% for the 356 (133Ba) and 662 keV (137Cs) peaks, respectively. The imaging resolution of a double-scattering-type Compton camera using DSSDs as the scatterer detectors, for a 22Na point-like source, also was improved, by ˜9%.

  12. Silicon strip tracking detector development and prototyping for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, S.

    2016-07-01

    In about ten years from now, the Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will be carried out. Due to increased luminosity, a severe radiation dose and high particle rates will occur for the experiments. In consequence, several detector components will have to be upgraded. In the ATLAS experiment, the current inner detector will be replaced by an all-silicon tracking detector with the goal of at least delivering the present detector performance also in the harsh Phase-II LHC conditions. This report presents the current planning and results from first prototype measurements of the upgrade silicon strip tracking detector.

  13. Volumetric CT with sparse detector arrays (and application to Si-strip photon counters)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Stayman, J. W.; Xu, J.; Taguchi, K.; Fredenberg, E.; Lundqvist, Mats; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Novel x-ray medical imaging sensors, such as photon counting detectors (PCDs) and large area CCD and CMOS cameras can involve irregular and/or sparse sampling of the detector plane. Application of such detectors to CT involves undersampling that is markedly different from the commonly considered case of sparse angular sampling. This work investigates volumetric sampling in CT systems incorporating sparsely sampled detectors with axial and helical scan orbits and evaluates performance of model-based image reconstruction (MBIR) with spatially varying regularization in mitigating artifacts due to sparse detector sampling. Volumetric metrics of sampling density and uniformity were introduced. Penalized-likelihood MBIR with a spatially varying penalty that homogenized resolution by accounting for variations in local sampling density (i.e. detector gaps) was evaluated. The proposed methodology was tested in simulations and on an imaging bench based on a Si-strip PCD (total area 5 cm  ×  25 cm) consisting of an arrangement of line sensors separated by gaps of up to 2.5 mm. The bench was equipped with translation/rotation stages allowing a variety of scanning trajectories, ranging from a simple axial acquisition to helical scans with variable pitch. Statistical (spherical clutter) and anthropomorphic (hand) phantoms were considered. Image quality was compared to that obtained with a conventional uniform penalty in terms of structural similarity index (SSIM), image uniformity, spatial resolution, contrast, and noise. Scan trajectories with intermediate helical width (~10 mm longitudinal distance per 360° rotation) demonstrated optimal tradeoff between the average sampling density and the homogeneity of sampling throughout the volume. For a scan trajectory with 10.8 mm helical width, the spatially varying penalty resulted in significant visual reduction of sampling artifacts, confirmed by a 10% reduction in minimum SSIM (from 0.88 to 0.8) and a 40

  14. Fisher Information Analysis of Depth-of-Interaction Estimation in Double-Sided Strip Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Salçin, Esen; Barrett, Harrison H.; Barber, H. Bradford; Takeda, Shin’ichiro; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-01-01

    In very-high-spatial-resolution gamma-ray imaging applications, such as preclinical PET and SPECT, estimation of 3D interaction location inside the detector crystal can be used to minimize parallax error in the imaging system. In this work, we investigate the effect of bias voltage setting on depth-of-interaction (DOI) estimates for a semiconductor detector with a double-sided strip geometry. We first examine the statistical properties of the signals and develop expressions for likelihoods for given gamma-ray interaction positions. We use Fisher Information to quantify how well (in terms of variance) the measured signals can be used for DOI estimation with different bias-voltage settings. We performed measurements of detector response versus 3D position as a function of applied bias voltage by scanning with highly collimated synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Experimental and theoretical results show that the optimum bias setting depends on whether or not the estimated event position will include the depth of interaction. We also found that for this detector geometry, the z-resolution changes with depth. PMID:26160984

  15. Development and testing of a prototype mosaic wedge-and-strip anode detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, A.; Martin, C.

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary laboratory study of a prototype mosaic wedge-and-strip anode, a new class of readout system that will furnish large format, high resolution microchannel plate detectors with comparatively simple readout electronics is described. The goals of this study were to demonstrate the linearity of the mosaic anode algorithm, and to verify the predicted resolution performance in a realistic detector configuration. It is found that the nonlinearity introduced at the boundary between two anodes is limited to 50-100 microns. It is also shown that the spatial resolution of the detector is limited mainly by partition noise to about 35 microns (FWHM) at a gain of 2 x 10 to the 7th. A systematic investigation of the charge distribution arriving at the anode is also described. Using the relative charges arriving on the two anodes of the mosaic pattern, the detailed shape of the distribution and its dependence on MCP-anode voltage, MCP voltage, and pulse height are determined. A significant dependence of the profile on pulse height, which can introduce a pulse height dependence to the centroid calculation, particularly near the anode edges is found. Improved anode designs which will achieve the optimal performance are discussed.

  16. SALT, a dedicated readout chip for high precision tracking silicon strip detectors at the LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugiel, Sz.; Dasgupta, R.; Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kuczynska, M.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.; Szumlak, T.

    2016-02-01

    The Upstream Tracker (UT) silicon strip detector, one of the central parts of the tracker system of the modernised LHCb experiment, will use a new 128-channel readout ASIC called SALT. It will extract and digitise analogue signals from the UT sensors, perform digital signal processing and transmit a serial output data. The SALT is being designed in CMOS 130 nm process and uses a novel architecture comprising of analog front-end and fast (40 MSps) ultra-low power (<0.5 mW) 6-bit ADC in each channel. The prototype ASICs of important functional blocks, like analogue front-end, 6-bit SAR ADC, PLL, and DLL, were designed, fabricated and tested. A prototype of an 8-channel version of the SALT chip, comprising all important functionalities was also designed and fabricated. The architecture and design of the SALT, together with the selected preliminary tests results, are presented.

  17. Study of spatial resolution of proton computed tomography using a silicon strip detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraya, Y.; Izumikawa, T.; Goto, J.; Kawasaki, T.; Kimura, T.

    2014-01-01

    Proton computed tomography (CT) is an imaging technique using a high-energy proton beam penetrating the human body and shows promise for improving the quality of cancer therapy with high-energy particle beams because more accurate electron density distribution measurements can be achieved with proton CT. The deterioration of the spatial resolution owing to multiple Coulomb scattering is, however, a crucial issue. The control of the radiation dose and the long exposure time are also problems to be solved. We have developed a prototype system for proton CT with a silicon strip detector and performed a beam test for imaging. The distribution of the electron density has been measured precisely. We also demonstrated an improvement in spatial resolution by reconstructing the proton trajectory. A spatial resolution of 0.45 mm is achieved for a 25-mm-thick polyethylene object. This will be a useful result for upgrading proton CT application for practical use.

  18. Contrast cancellation technique applied to digital x-ray imaging using silicon strip detectors.

    PubMed

    Avila, C; Lopez, J; Sanabria, J C; Baldazzi, G; Bollini, D; Gombia, M; Cabal, A E; Ceballos, C; Diaz Garcia, A; Gambaccini, M; Taibi, A; Sarnelli, A; Tuffanelli, A; Giubellino, P; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Prino, F; Tomassi, E; Grybos, P; Idzik, M; Swientek, K; Wiacek, P; Montaño, L M; Ramello, L; Sitta, M

    2005-12-01

    Dual-energy mammographic imaging experimental tests have been performed using a compact dichromatic imaging system based on a conventional x-ray tube, a mosaic crystal, and a 384-strip silicon detector equipped with full-custom electronics with single photon counting capability. For simulating mammal tissue, a three-component phantom, made of Plexiglass, polyethylene, and water, has been used. Images have been collected with three different pairs of x-ray energies: 16-32 keV, 18-36 keV, and 20-40 keV. A Monte Carlo simulation of the experiment has also been carried out using the MCNP-4C transport code. The Alvarez-Macovski algorithm has been applied both to experimental and simulated data to remove the contrast between two of the phantom materials so as to enhance the visibility of the third one. PMID:16475775

  19. Contrast cancellation technique applied to digital x-ray imaging using silicon strip detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, C.; Lopez, J.; Sanabria, J. C.; Baldazzi, G.; Bollini, D.; Gombia, M.; Cabal, A.E.; Ceballos, C.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Gambaccini, M.; Taibi, A.; Sarnelli, A.; Tuffanelli, A.; Giubellino, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Prino, F.; Tomassi, E.; Grybos, P.; Idzik, M.; Swientek, K.

    2005-12-15

    Dual-energy mammographic imaging experimental tests have been performed using a compact dichromatic imaging system based on a conventional x-ray tube, a mosaic crystal, and a 384-strip silicon detector equipped with full-custom electronics with single photon counting capability. For simulating mammal tissue, a three-component phantom, made of Plexiglass, polyethylene, and water, has been used. Images have been collected with three different pairs of x-ray energies: 16-32 keV, 18-36 keV, and 20-40 keV. A Monte Carlo simulation of the experiment has also been carried out using the MCNP-4C transport code. The Alvarez-Macovski algorithm has been applied both to experimental and simulated data to remove the contrast between two of the phantom materials so as to enhance the visibility of the third one.

  20. Non-invasive characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip detectors using pulsed infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of roughly 1300 double sided silicon micro-strip detectors of 3 different dimensions. For the quality assurance of prototype micro-strip detectors a non-invasive detector charaterization is developed. The test system is using a pulsed infrared laser for charge injection and characterization, called Laser Test System (LTS). The system is aimed to develop a set of characterization procedures which are non-invasive (non-destructive) in nature and could be used for quality assurances of several silicon micro-strip detectors in an efficient, reliable and reproducible way. The procedures developed (as reported here) uses the LTS to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype detector modules which are tested with the LTS so far have 1024 strips with a pitch of 58 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with a duration of ≈ 10 ns and power ≈ 5 mW of the laser pulse is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensor produces ≈ 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. The laser scans different prototype sensors and various non-invasive techniques to determine characteristics of the detector modules for the quality assurance is reported.

  1. Development of a Broad High-Energy Gamma-Ray Telescope using Silicon Strip Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, Peter F.

    1998-01-01

    The research effort has led to the development and demonstration of technology to enable the design and construction of a next-generation high-energy gamma-ray telescope that operates in the pair-production regime (E greater than 10 MeV). In particular, the technology approach developed is based on silicon-strip detector technology. A complete instrument concept based on this technology for the pair-conversion tracker and the use of CsI(T1) crystals for the calorimeter is now the baseline instrument concept for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission. GLAST is NASA's proposed high-energy gamma-ray mission designed to operate in the energy range from 10 MeV to approximately 300 GeV. GLAST, with nearly 100 times the sensitivity of EGRET, operates through pair conversion of gamma-rays and measurement of the direction and energy of the resulting e (+) - e (-) shower. The baseline design, developed with support from NASA includes a charged particle anticoincidence shield, a tracker/converter made of thin sheets of high-Z material interspersed with Si strip detectors, a CsI calorimeter and a programmable data trigger and acquisition system. The telescope is assembled as an array of modules or towers. Each tower contains elements of the tracker, calorimeter, and anticoincidence system. As originally proposed, the telescope design had 49 modules. In the more optimized design that emerged at the end of the grant period the individual modules are larger and the total number in the GLAST array is 25. Also the calorimeter design was advanced substantially to the point that it has a self-contained imaging capability, albeit much cruder than the tracker.

  2. Development of a 512-Channel Module for Digital X-Ray Imaging Systems with Silicon Strip Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bolanos, L.; Cabal, A. E.; Grybos, P.; Maj, P.; Swientek, K.; Szczygiel, R.; Marzari, A.; Prino, F.; Ramello, L.

    2008-08-11

    We present the development of a 512-channel module for high counting rate digital X-ray imaging systems. The module consists of 512 silicon micro-strips equipped with 8 64-channel readout ASICs called DEDIX. The detectors of 300 {mu}m thickness have strips with 100 micron pitch and strip length of 1 or 2 cm. Detectors were designed with the possibility of choosing the cutting edge distance from the active area in the range from 60 {mu}m down to 20 {mu}m. To obtain good detection efficiency at the relevant energies (10-50 keV) the module works in edge-on configuration: strips are oriented parallel to the incoming X-ray beam. The DEDIX ASIC has a binary readout architecture. Each channel is built of a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) with pole-zero cancellation circuit, a shaper, two independent discriminators and two independent 20-bit counters. Internal correction DAC implemented in each channel independently ensures a low spread of discriminator effective threshold. This module has been characterized for noise and matching performance having in mind possible future applications like dual energy mammography and angiography. An equivalent noise charge is below 210 el rms for a 1 cm long strip detector and below 250 el. rms for 2 cm long strip detector with 100 {mu}m pitch. The spread of discriminator effective threshold for 512 channels is 16 el. rms, while the high counting rate performance has been demonstrated by the measurement up to 1 MHz average rate of input signals per single channel.

  3. Physical characterization of a scanning photon counting digital mammography system based on Si-strip detectors.

    PubMed

    Aslund, Magnus; Cederström, Björn; Lundqvist, Mats; Danielsson, Mats

    2007-06-01

    The physical performance of a scanning multislit full field digital mammography system was determined using basic image quality parameters. The system employs a direct detection detector comprised of linear silicon strip sensors in an edge-on geometry connected to photon counting electronics. The pixel size is 50 microm and the field of view 24 x 26 cm2. The performance was quantified using the presampled modulation transfer function, the normalized noise power spectrum and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Compared to conventional DQE methods, the scanning geometry with its intrinsic scatter rejection poses additional requirements on the measurement setup, which are investigated in this work. The DQE of the photon counting system was found to be independent of the dose level to the detector in the 7.6-206 microGy range. The peak DQE was 72% and 73% in the scan and slit direction, respectively, measured with a 28 kV W-0.5 mm Al anode-filter combination with an added 2 mm Al filtration. PMID:17654894

  4. NINA: a lightweight silicon strip detector for cosmic ray research in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbiellini, G.; Bartalucci, S.; Bellotti, R.; Bidoli, V.; Bocciolini, M.; Boezio, M.; Cafagna, F.; Casolino, Marco; Candusso, M.; Castellano, Marcello; Circella, M.; de Marzo, C.; Depascale, M. P.; Galper, A. M.; Koldashov, S.; Korotkov, M.; Mikhailov, V.; Moiseev, A.; Morselli, Aldo; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Popov, A. V.; Ricci, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Spinelli, P.; Vacchi, A.; Voronov, S.; Zampa, Nicola

    1995-06-01

    NINA is the first of three telescopes of the Russian Italian Mission (RIM), devoted through the detection of cosmic rays to the study of galactic and extragalactic astrophysical phenomena. The detector of RIM-1 mission consists of 16 double sided silicon strips. The use of silicon technology is space applications has several advantages thanks to its low consumption, high signal to noise ratio, low dead area, and no use of gas refueling systems. Indeed these detectors and the electronics used comes from balloon cosmic ray research carried out by the Wizard collaboration in the past years. NINA will be placed in a 700 km polar orbit on the Russian Resource-01 n. 4 satellite by the end of 1996. Solar and galactic cosmic ray nuclei from Hydrogen to Iron in the 10-100 MeV/n region will be studied. In addition to the physical goals, which include the study of anomalous component nuclei inside and outside the radiation belts, technological aspects of this low cost (1.5M dollars) mission will be equally important to the development of the following two steps of RIM mission: PAMELA and GILDA missions--devoted to antimatter and gamma ray research respectively--will make extensive use of the research and development performed with NINA.

  5. Physical characterization of a scanning photon counting digital mammography system based on Si-strip detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aaslund, Magnus; Cederstroem, Bjoern; Lundqvist, Mats; Danielsson, Mats

    2007-06-15

    The physical performance of a scanning multislit full field digital mammography system was determined using basic image quality parameters. The system employs a direct detection detector comprised of linear silicon strip sensors in an edge-on geometry connected to photon counting electronics. The pixel size is 50 {mu}m and the field of view 24x26 cm{sup 2}. The performance was quantified using the presampled modulation transfer function, the normalized noise power spectrum and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Compared to conventional DQE methods, the scanning geometry with its intrinsic scatter rejection poses additional requirements on the measurement setup, which are investigated in this work. The DQE of the photon counting system was found to be independent of the dose level to the detector in the 7.6-206 {mu}Gy range. The peak DQE was 72% and 73% in the scan and slit direction, respectively, measured with a 28 kV W-0.5 mm Al anode-filter combination with an added 2 mm Al filtration.

  6. Monte Carlo Simulation of a Silicon Strip Detector Response For Angiography Applications. First approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, C.; Baldazzi, G.; Bollini, D.; Cabal Rodríguez, A. E.; Dabrowski, W.; Días García, A.; Gambaccini, M.; Giubellino, P.; Gombia, M.; Grybos, P.; Idzik, M.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Montaño, L. M.; Prino, F.; Ramello, L.; Sitta, M.; Swientek, K.; Taibi, A.; Tomassi, E.; Tuffanelli, A.; Wiacek, P.

    2003-09-01

    We present First results of Monte Carlo simulation by the general purpose MCNP-4C transport code of an experimental facility at Bologna S. Orsola hospital for studying the possible application of a X-Ray detection system based on a silicon strip detector on a dual energy angiography. The quasi-monochromatic X-ray beam with the detector in the edge-on configuration has been used to acquire images of a test object at two different energies (namely 31 and 35 keV) suitable for the K-edge subtraction angiography application. As a test object a Plexiglas step wedge phantom with four cylindrical cavities, having 1 mm diameter was used. The cavities have been drilled and filled, with iodated contrast medium, whose concentration varied from 370 mg/ml to 92 mg/ml. Both the profiles obtained from measurements and the generated images where reproduced by computer simulation on a first approach to use this technique as an evaluation tool for future developments on the experimental setup.

  7. Modeling and simulation of Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) based on double-sided CdTe strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsahin, I.; Unlu, M. Z.

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common leading cause of cancer death among women. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Mammography, also known as Positron Emission Mammography (PEM), is a method for imaging primary breast cancer. Over the past few years, PEMs based on scintillation crystals dramatically increased their importance in diagnosis and treatment of early stage breast cancer. However, these detectors have significant limitations like poor energy resolution resulting with false-negative result (missed cancer), and false-positive result which leads to suspecting cancer and suggests an unnecessary biopsy. In this work, a PEM scanner based on CdTe strip detectors is simulated via the Monte Carlo method and evaluated in terms of its spatial resolution, sensitivity, and image quality. The spatial resolution is found to be ~ 1 mm in all three directions. The results also show that CdTe strip detectors based PEM scanner can produce high resolution images for early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  8. A low noise front end electronics for micro-channel plate detector with wedge and strip anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, K.; Li, F.; Liang, F.; Chen, L.; Jin, G.

    2016-03-01

    A low noise Front End Electronics (FEE) for two-dimensional position sensitive Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) detector has been developed. The MCP detector is based on Wedge and Strip Anode (WSA) with induction readout mode. The WSA has three electrodes, the wedge electrode, the strip electrode, and the zigzag electrode. Then, three readout channels are designed in the Printed Circuit Board (PCB). The FEE is calibrated by a pulse generator from Agilent. We also give an analysis of the charge loss from the CSA. The noise levels of the three channels are less than 1 fC RMS at the shaping time of 200 ns. The experimental result shows that the position resolution of the MCP detector coupled with the designed PCB can reach up to 110 μm.

  9. Characterization of a double-sided silicon strip detector autoradiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Örbom, Anders Ahlstedt, Jonas; Östlund, Karl; Strand, Sven-Erik; Serén, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro; Kotiluoto, Petri; Hauge, Håvard; Olafsen, Tove; Wu, Anna M.; Dahlbom, Magnus

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The most commonly used technology currently used for autoradiography is storage phosphor screens, which has many benefits such as a large field of view but lacks particle-counting detection of the time and energy of each detected radionuclide decay. A number of alternative designs, using either solid state or scintillator detectors, have been developed to address these issues. The aim of this study is to characterize the imaging performance of one such instrument, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) system for digital autoradiography. A novel aspect of this work is that the instrument, in contrast to previous prototype systems using the same detector type, provides the ability for user accessible imaging with higher throughput. Studies were performed to compare its spatial resolution to that of storage phosphor screens and test the implementation of multiradionuclide ex vivo imaging in a mouse preclinical animal study. Methods: Detector background counts were determined by measuring a nonradioactive sample slide for 52 h. Energy spectra and detection efficiency were measured for seven commonly used radionuclides under representative conditions for tissue imaging. System dead time was measured by imaging {sup 18}F samples of at least 5 kBq and studying the changes in count rate over time. A line source of {sup 58}Co was manufactured by irradiating a 10 μm nickel wire with fast neutrons in a research reactor. Samples of this wire were imaged in both the DSSD and storage phosphor screen systems and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) measured for the line profiles. Multiradionuclide imaging was employed in a two animal study to examine the intratumoral distribution of a {sup 125}I-labeled monoclonal antibody and a {sup 131}I-labeled engineered fragment (diabody) injected in the same mouse, both targeting carcinoembryonic antigen. Results: Detector background was 1.81 × 10{sup −6} counts per second per 50 × 50 μm pixel. Energy spectra and

  10. Spectral CT of the extremities with a silicon strip photon counting detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Stayman, J. W.; Xu, J.; Taguchi, K.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) are an important emerging technology for spectral imaging and material differentiation with numerous potential applications in diagnostic imaging. We report development of a Si-strip PCXD system originally developed for mammography with potential application to spectral CT of musculoskeletal extremities, including challenges associated with sparse sampling, spectral calibration, and optimization for higher energy x-ray beams. Methods: A bench-top CT system was developed incorporating a Si-strip PCXD, fixed anode x-ray source, and rotational and translational motions to execute complex acquisition trajectories. Trajectories involving rotation and translation combined with iterative reconstruction were investigated, including single and multiple axial scans and longitudinal helical scans. The system was calibrated to provide accurate spectral separation in dual-energy three-material decomposition of soft-tissue, bone, and iodine. Image quality and decomposition accuracy were assessed in experiments using a phantom with pairs of bone and iodine inserts (3, 5, 15 and 20 mm) and an anthropomorphic wrist. Results: The designed trajectories improved the sampling distribution from 56% minimum sampling of voxels to 75%. Use of iterative reconstruction (viz., penalized likelihood with edge preserving regularization) in combination with such trajectories resulted in a very low level of artifacts in images of the wrist. For large bone or iodine inserts (>5 mm diameter), the error in the estimated material concentration was <16% for (50 mg/mL) bone and <8% for (5 mg/mL) iodine with strong regularization. For smaller inserts, errors of 20-40% were observed and motivate improved methods for spectral calibration and optimization of the edge-preserving regularizer. Conclusion: Use of PCXDs for three-material decomposition in joint imaging proved feasible through a combination of rotation-translation acquisition trajectories and

  11. The use of a silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass in stereotactic radiotherapy QA and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J. H. D.; Knittel, T.; Downes, S.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Jackson, M.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery/therapy (SRS/SRT) is the use of radiation ablation in place of conventional surgical excision to remove or create fibrous tissue in small target volumes. The target of the SRT/SRS treatment is often located in close proximity to critical organs, hence the requirement of high geometric precision including a tight margin on the planning target volume and a sharp dose fall off. One of the major problems with quality assurance (QA) of SRT/SRS is the availability of suitable detectors with the required spatial resolution. The authors present a novel detector that they refer to as the dose magnifying glass (DMG), which has a high spatial resolution (0.2 mm) and is capable of meeting the stringent requirements of QA and dosimetry in SRS/SRT therapy. Methods: The DMG is an array of 128 phosphor implanted n{sup +} strips on a p-type Si wafer. The sensitive area defined by a single n{sup +} strip is 20x2000 {mu}m{sup 2}. The Si wafer is 375 {mu}m thick. It is mounted on a 0.12 mm thick Kapton substrate. The authors studied the dose per pulse (dpp) and angular response of the detector in a custom-made SRS phantom. The DMG was used to determine the centers of rotation and positioning errors for the linear accelerator's gantry, couch, and collimator rotations. They also used the DMG to measure the profiles and the total scatter factor (S{sub cp}) of the SRS cones. Comparisons were made with the EBT2 film and standard S{sub cp} values. The DMG was also used for dosimetric verification of a typical SRS treatment with various noncoplanar fields and arc treatments when applied to the phantom. Results: The dose per pulse dependency of the DMG was found to be <5% for a dpp change of 7.5 times. The angular response of the detector was investigated in the azimuthal and polar directions. The maximum polar angular response was 13.8% at the gantry angle of 320 deg., which may be partly due to the phantom geometry. The maximum azimuthal angular response

  12. NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors stripping procedure for air kerma measurements of diagnostic X-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. S. R.; Conti, C. C.; Amorim, A. S.; Balthar, M. C. V.

    2013-03-01

    Air kerma is an essential quantity for the calibration of national standards used in diagnostic radiology and the measurement of operating parameters used in radiation protection. Its measurement within the appropriate limits of accuracy, uncertainty and reproducibility is important for the characterization and control of the radiation field for the dosimetry of the patients submitted to diagnostic radiology and, also, for the assessment of the system which produces radiological images. Only the incident beam must be considered for the calculation of the air kerma. Therefore, for energy spectrum, counts apart the total energy deposition in the detector must be subtracted. It is necessary to establish a procedure to sort out the different contributions to the original spectrum and remove the counts representing scattered photons in the detector's materials, partial energy deposition due to the interactions in the detector active volume and, also, the escape peaks contributions. The main goal of this work is to present spectrum stripping procedure, using the MCNP Monte Carlo computer code, for NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors to calculate the air kerma due to an X-ray beam usually used in medical radiology. The comparison between the spectrum before stripping procedure against the reference value showed a discrepancy of more than 63%, while the comparison with the same spectrum after the stripping procedure showed a discrepancy of less than 0.2%.

  13. Characterisation of micro-strip and pixel silicon detectors before and after hadron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allport, P. P.; Ball, K.; Casse, G.; Chmill, V.; Forshaw, D.; Hadfield, K.; Pritchard, A.; Pool, P.; Tsurin, I.

    2012-01-01

    The use of segmented silicon detectors for tracking and vertexing in particle physics has grown substantially since their introduction in 1980. It is now anticipated that roughly 50,000 six inch wafers of high resistivity silicon will need to be processed into sensors to be deployed in the upgraded experiments in the future high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) at CERN. These detectors will also face an extremely severe radiation environment, varying with distance from the interaction point. The volume of required sensors is large and their delivery is required during a relatively short time, demanding a high throughput from the chosen suppliers. The current situation internationally, in this highly specialist market, means that security of supply for large orders can therefore be an issue and bringing additional potential vendors into the field can only be an advantage. Semiconductor companies that could include planar sensors suitable for particle physics in their product lines will, however, need to prove their products meet all the stringent technical requirements. A semiconductor company with very widespread experience of producing science grade CCDs (including deep depletion devices) has adapted their CCD process to fabricate for the first time several wafers of pixel and micro-strip radiation hard sensors, suitable for future high energy physics experiments. The results of the pre-irradiation characterization of devices fabricated with different processing parameters and the measurements of charge collection properties after different hadron irradiation doses up to those anticipated for the (larger area) outer pixel layers at the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are presented and compared with results from more established particle physics suppliers.

  14. Development of a novel depth of interaction PET detector using highly multiplexed G-APD cross-strip encoding

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, A. Parl, C.; Liu, C. C.; Pichler, B. J.; Mantlik, F.; Lorenz, E.; Renker, D.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a prototype PET detector module for a combined small animal positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) system. The most important factor for small animal imaging applications is the detection sensitivity of the PET camera, which can be optimized by utilizing longer scintillation crystals. At the same time, small animal PET systems must yield a high spatial resolution. The measured object is very close to the PET detector because the bore diameter of a high field animal MR scanner is limited. When used in combination with long scintillation crystals, these small-bore PET systems generate parallax errors that ultimately lead to a decreased spatial resolution. Thus, we developed a depth of interaction (DoI) encoding PET detector module that has a uniform spatial resolution across the whole field of view (FOV), high detection sensitivity, compactness, and insensitivity to magnetic fields. Methods: The approach was based on Geiger mode avalanche photodiode (G-APD) detectors with cross-strip encoding. The number of readout channels was reduced by a factor of 36 for the chosen block elements. Two 12 × 2 G-APD strip arrays (25μm cells) were placed perpendicular on each face of a 12 × 12 lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystal block with a crystal size of 1.55 × 1.55 × 20 mm. The strip arrays were multiplexed into two channels and used to calculate the x, y coordinates for each array and the deposited energy. The DoI was measured in step sizes of 1.8 mm by a collimated {sup 18}F source. The coincident resolved time (CRT) was analyzed at all DoI positions by acquiring the waveform for each event and applying a digital leading edge discriminator. Results: All 144 crystals were well resolved in the crystal flood map. The average full width half maximum (FWHM) energy resolution of the detector was 12.8% ± 1.5% with a FWHM CRT of 1.14 ± 0.02 ns. The average FWHM DoI resolution over 12 crystals was 2.90

  15. Thin silicon strip detectors for beam monitoring in Micro-beam Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povoli, M.; Alagoz, E.; Bravin, A.; Cornelius, I.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Fournier, P.; Hansen, T. E.; Kok, A.; Lerch, M.; Monakhov, E.; Morse, J.; Petasecca, M.; Requardt, H.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Röhrich, D.; Sandaker, H.; Salomé, M.; Stugu, B.

    2015-11-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) is an emerging cancer treatment that is currently being developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. This technique uses a highly collimated and fractionated X-ray beam array with extremely high dose rate and very small divergence, to benefit from the dose-volume effect, thus sparing healthy tissue. In case of any beam anomalies and system malfunctions, special safety measures must be installed, such as an emergency safety shutter that requires continuous monitoring of the beam intensity profile. Within the 3DMiMic project, a novel silicon strip detector that can tackle the special features of MRT, such as the extremely high spatial resolution and dose rate, has been developed to be part of the safety shutter system. The first prototypes have been successfully fabricated, and experiments aimed to demonstrate their suitability for this unique application have been performed. Design, fabrication and the experimental results as well as any identified inadequacies for future optimisation are reported and discussed in this paper.

  16. Diagnostic Analysis of Silicon Strips Detector Readout in the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker Module Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ciocio, Alessandra; ATLAS SCT Collaboration

    2004-10-31

    The ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) Collaboration is currently in the production phase of fabricating and testing silicon strips modules for the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider being built at the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. A small but relevant percentage of ICs developed a new set of defects after being mounted on hybrids that were not detected in the wafer screening. To minimize IC replacement and outright module failure, analysis methods were developed to study IC problems during the production of SCT modules. These analyses included studying wafer and hybrid data correlations to finely tune the selection of ICs and tests to utilize the ability to adjust front-end parameters of the IC in order to reduce the rejection and replacement rate of fabricated components. This paper will discuss a few examples of the problems encountered during the production of SCT hybrids and modules in the area of ICs performance, and will demonstrate the value of the flexibility built into the ABCD3T chip.

  17. A detector to measure transverse profiles and energy of an H- beam using gas stripping and laser photo neutralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, R.; Degen, C.; DeSanto, L.; Raparia, D.

    2012-02-01

    A detector has been developed at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) [1] and installed in the exit beam line of the BNL H- linear accelerator (linac) to measure transverse beam profiles, average beam energy and beam-energy spread. These beam properties are found by deflecting beam electrons, produced by both gas stripping and laser neutralization, into a detector. An H- ion, with a first ionization potential of 0.756 eV, can be neutralized by collisions with background gas and by absorbing the energy of a photon of wavelength shorter than 1.64 m. Free electrons produced by both mechanisms are deflected out of the H- beam by a dipole magnet and into a chamber which measures electron charge vs. energy. Ion-beam profiles are measured by scanning a laser beam across the H- beam and measuring the laser-stripped electron charge vs. laser position. Beam energy is deduced by measuring either the laser-stripped or gas-stripped electron charge which passes through a retarding-voltage grid vs. the grid voltage. Since beam electrons have the same velocities as beam protons, the beam proton energy is the electron energy multiplied by mp/me=1836, [E=(γ-1)mc2].

  18. Gamma Large Area Silicon Telescope (GLAST): Applying silicon strip detector technology to the detection of gamma rays in space

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, W.B.; The GLAST Collaboration

    1993-06-01

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by space satellite experiment EGRET (presently operating on Compton Gamma Ray Observatory -- CGRO) have prompted an investigation into modern detector technologies for the next generation space based gamma ray telescopes. The GLAST proposal is based on silicon strip detectors as the {open_quotes}technology of choice{close_quotes} for space application: no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggerable. The GLAST detector basically has two components: a tracking module preceding a calorimeter. The tracking module has planes of crossed strip (x,y) 300 {mu}m pitch silicon detectors coupled to a thin radiator to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. The gap between the layers ({approximately}5 cm) provides a lever arm for track fitting resulting in an angular resolution of <0.1{degree} at high energy. The status of this R & D effort is discussed including details on triggering the instrument, the organization of the detector electronics and readout, and work on computer simulations to model this instrument.

  19. Parallel Configuration For Fast Superconducting Strip Line Detectors With Very Large Area In Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Casaburi, A.; Zen, N.; Suzuki, K.; Ohkubo, M.; Ejrnaes, M.; Cristiano, R.; Pagano, S.

    2009-12-16

    We realized a very fast and large Superconducting Strip Line Detector based on a parallel configuration of nanowires. The detector with size 200x200 {mu}m{sup 2} recorded a sub-nanosecond pulse width of 700 ps in FWHM (400 ps rise time and 530 ps relaxation time) for lysozyme monomers/multimers molecules accelerated at 175 keV in a Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer. This record is the best in the class of superconducting detectors and comparable with the fastest NbN superconducting single photon detector of 10x10 {mu}m{sup 2}. We succeeded in acquiring mass spectra as the first step for a scale-up to {approx}mm pixel size for high throughput MS analysis, while keeping a fast response.

  20. Characterisation of edgeless technologies for pixellated and strip silicon detectors with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Christophersen, M.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gimenez, E.; Kachkanov, V.; Kalliopuska, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Maneuski, D.; Phlips, B. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Stewart, G.; Tartoni, N.; Zain, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced edge or ``edgeless'' detector design offers seamless tileability of sensors for a wide range of applications from particle physics to synchrotron and free election laser (FEL) facilities and medical imaging. Combined with through-silicon-via (TSV) technology, this would allow reduced material trackers for particle physics and an increase in the active area for synchrotron and FEL pixel detector systems. In order to quantify the performance of different edgeless fabrication methods, 2 edgeless detectors were characterized at the Diamond Light Source using an 11 μm FWHM 15 keV micro-focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were: a 150 μm thick silicon active edge pixel sensor fabricated at VTT and bump-bonded to a Medipix2 ROIC; and a 300 μm thick silicon strip sensor fabricated at CIS with edge reduction performed by SCIPP and the NRL and wire bonded to an ALiBaVa readout system. Sub-pixel resolution of the 55 μm active edge pixels was achieved. Further scans showed no drop in charge collection recorded between the centre and edge pixels, with a maximum deviation of 5% in charge collection between scanned edge pixels. Scans across the cleaved and standard guard ring edges of the strip detector also show no reduction in charge collection. These results indicate techniques such as the scribe, cleave and passivate (SCP) and active edge processes offer real potential for reduced edge, tiled sensors for imaging detection applications.

  1. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poley, L.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Gallop, B.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.-M.; Hara, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lohwasser, K.; Maneuski, D.; Nagorski, S.; Pape, I.; Phillips, P. W.; Sperlich, D.; Sawhney, K.; Soldevila, U.; Ullan, M.; Unno, Y.; Warren, M.

    2016-07-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity up to 6·1034 cm‑2s‑1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb‑1 after ten years of operation, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand fluences to over 1·1016 1 MeV neq/cm2. In order to cope with the consequent increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (end-cap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). A resolution better than the inter strip pitch of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. The effect of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips was investigated in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stop regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch.

  2. A Level-1 Tracking Trigger for the CMS upgrade using stacked silicon strip detectors and advanced pattern technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudoul, G.

    2013-01-01

    Experience at high luminosity hadrons collider experiments shows that tracking information enhances the trigger rejection capabilities while retaining high efficiency for interesting physics events. The design of a tracking based trigger for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is an extremely challenging task, and requires the identification of high-momentum particle tracks as a part of the Level 1 Trigger. Simulation studies show that this can be achieved by correlating hits on two closely spaced silicon strip sensors, and reconstructing tracks at L1 by employing an Associative Memory approach. The progresses on the design and development of this micro-strip stacked prototype modules and the performance of few prototype detectors will be presented. Preliminary results of a simulated tracker layout equipped with stacked modules are discussed in terms of pT resolution and triggering capabilities. Finally, a discussion on the L1 architecture will be given.

  3. Characterisation of low power readout electronics for a UV microchannel plate detector with cross-strip readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, M.; Barnstedt, J.; Diebold, S.; Hermanutz, S.; Kalkuhl, C.; Kappelmann, N.; Schanz, T.; Schütze, B.; Werner, K.

    2014-07-01

    Astronomical observations in the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range between 91 and 300nm are fundamental for the progress in astrophysics. Scientific success of future UV observatories raises the need for technology development in the areas of detectors, optical components, and their coatings. We develop solar blind and photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) UV detectors as a contribution to the progress in UV observation technology. New combinations of materials for the photocathode (see paper No. 9144-111, this volume, for details) as well as a cross-strip (XS) anode, having 64 strips on each layer, are used. Pre-amplification of the charge deposited onto the anode is performed by the Beetle chip designed at the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg for LHCb at CERN. It features 128 pre-amplifiers on one die and provides the analogue output in a four-fold serial stream. This stream is digitised by only four ADCs and is processed in an FPGA. This concept results in a reduced power consumption well below 10W as well as a reduced volume, weight and complexity of the readout electronics compared to existing cross-strip readouts. We developed an electronics prototype assembly and a setup in a vacuum chamber that is similar to the configuration in the final detector. The setup in the chamber is used for the burn-in of the MCPs as well as for tests of the readout electronics prototype assembly incorporating realistic signals. In this paper, information on the XS anodes as well as on the hybrid PCB carrying the Beetle pre-amplifier chip is shown. Details on the readout electronics design as well as details of the setup in the vacuum chamber are presented. An outlook to the next steps in the development process is given.

  4. Tests of the radiation hardness of VLSI Integrated Circuits and Silicon Strip Detectors for the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) under neutron, proton, and gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, H.J.; Milner, C.; Sommer, W.F. ); Carteglia, N.; DeWitt, J.; Dorfan, D.; Hubbard, B.; Leslie, J.; O'Shaughnessy, K.F.; Pitzl, D.; Rowe, W.A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E. . Inst. for Particle Physics); Ellison, J.A. ); Ferguson, P. ); Giubellino

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to develop a silicon strip central tracking detector system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) we are studying the effects of radiation damage in silicon detectors and their associated front-end readout electronics. We report on the results of neutron and proton irradiations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and {gamma}-ray irradiations at UC Santa Cruz (UCSC). Individual components on single-sided AC-coupled silicon strip detectors and on test structures were tested. Circuits fabricated in a radiation hard CMOS process and individual transistors fabricated using dielectric isolation bipolar technology were also studied. Results indicate that a silicon strip tracking detector system should have a lifetime of at least one decade at the SSC. 17 refs., 17 figs.

  5. Tests of the radiation hardness of VLSI integrated circuits and silicon strip detectors for the SSC under neutron, proton, and gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, H.J.; Milner, C.; Sommer, W.F. ); Cartiglia, N.; DeWitt, J.; Dorfan, D.; Hubbard, B.; Leslie, J.; O'Shaughnesy, K.F.; Pitzl, D.; Rowe, W.A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Tennenbaum, P. . Inst. for Particle Physics); Ellison, J.; Jerger, S.; Lietzke, C.; Wimpenny, S.J. ); Ferguson, P. ); Giubellino, P. )

    1991-04-01

    As part of a program to develop a silicon strip central tracking detector system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) we are studying the effects of radiation damage in silicon detectors and their associated front-end readout electronics. In this paper, the authors report on the results of neutron and proton irradiations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and {gamma}-ray irradiations at U.C. Santa Cruz (UCSC). Individual components on single-sided AC-coupled silicon strip detectors and on test structures were tested. Circuits fabricated in a radiation hard CMOS process and individual transistors fabricated using dielectric isolation bipolar technology were also studied. Results indicate that a silicon strip tracking detector system should have a lifetime of at least one decade at the SSC.

  6. Design, fabrication and characterization of multi-guard-ring furnished p+n-n+ silicon strip detectors for future HEP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalwani, Kavita; Jain, Geetika; Dalal, Ranjeet; Ranjan, Kirti; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh

    2016-07-01

    Si detectors, in various configurations (strips and pixels), have been playing a key role in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments due to their excellent vertexing and high precision tracking information. In future HEP experiments like upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN and the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), the Si tracking detectors will be operated in a very harsh radiation environment, which leads to both surface and bulk damage in Si detectors which in turn changes their electrical properties, i.e. change in the full depletion voltage, increase in the leakage current and decrease in the charge collection efficiency. In order to achieve the long term durability of Si-detectors in future HEP experiments, it is required to operate these detectors at very high reverse biases, beyond the full depletion voltage, thus requiring higher detector breakdown voltage. Delhi University (DU) is involved in the design, fabrication and characterization of multi-guard-ring furnished ac-coupled, single sided, p+n-n+ Si strip detectors for future HEP experiments. The design has been optimized using a two-dimensional numerical device simulation program (TCAD-Silvaco). The Si strip detectors are fabricated with eight-layers mask process using the planar fabrication technology by Bharat Electronic Lab (BEL), India. Further an electrical characterization set-up is established at DU to ensure the quality performance of fabricated Si strip detectors and test structures. In this work measurement results on non irradiated Si Strip detectors and test structures with multi-guard-rings using Current Voltage (IV) and Capacitance Voltage (CV) characterization set-ups are discussed. The effect of various design parameters, for example guard-ring spacing, number of guard-rings and metal overhang on breakdown voltage of test structures have been studied.

  7. FPGA-based signal processing for the LHCb silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haefeli, G.; Bay, A.; Gong, A.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed an electronic board (TELL1) to interface the DAQ system of the LHCb experiment at CERN. Two hundred and eighty-nine TELL1 boards are needed to read out the different subdetectors including the silicon VEertex LOcator (VELO) (172 k strips), the Trigger Tracker (TT) (147 k strips) and the Inner Tracker (129 k strips). Each board can handle either 64 analog or 24 digital optical links. The TELL1 mother board provides common mode correction, zero suppression, data formatting, and a large network interface buffer. To satisfy the different requirements we have adopted a flexible FPGA design and made use of mezzanine cards. Mezzanines are used for data input from digital optical and analog copper links as well as for the Gigabit Ethernet interface to DAQ.

  8. Developments and tests of double-sided silicon strip detectors and read-out electronics for the Internal Tracking System of ALICE at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, J. P.; Alice Collaboration

    1999-12-01

    The internal-tracking-system (ITS) of the ALICE detector at LHC, consists of six concentrical barrels of silicon detectors. The outmost two layers are made of double-sided strip detectors (SSD). In the framework of a R&D, the characteristics and performances of these devices, manufactured by two different companies, associated with their designed read-out electronics, have been studied off- and in-beam at the SPS (CERN). The results are presented and discussed.

  9. Cross strip anode readouts for large format, photon counting microchannel plate detectors: developing flight qualified prototypes of the detector and electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, John; Raffanti, Rick; Cooney, Michael; Cumming, Harley; Varner, Gary; Seljak, Andrej

    2014-07-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last two decades (e.g. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.). Over this duration, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x 10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. One such technology is the parallel cross strip (PXS) readout. Laboratory versions of PXS electronics have demonstrated < 20 μm FWHM spatial resolution, count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of ~ 1ns. In 2012 our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant to raise the TRL of the PXS detector and electronics from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass and volume requirements of the PXS detector. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration). The first ASICs designed for this program have been fabricated and are undergoing testing. We present the latest progress on these ASIC designs and performance and show imaging results from the new 50 x 50 mm XS detector.

  10. Development of the multi-purpose gamma-ray detection system consisting of a double-sided silicon strip detector and a 25-segmented germanium detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Kim, N. Y.; Lee, C. S.; Jang, Z. H.

    2005-07-01

    We developed a position-sensitive gamma-ray detection system consisting of a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) and a 25-segmented germanium detector (25-SEGD). Two major applications of the system are gamma-ray imaging (Compton camera) and linear polarization measurement for gamma rays emitted from oriented nuclei. Customized electronics were developed in order to handle multi-channel signals of both the DSSD and the 25-SEGD. Images for a 133Ba-based compound source in a square shape with areal dimensions of 1.5 × 1.5 mm2 are presented. Comparison between experimental images and a Monte Carlo simulation yielded the overall imaging resolution within 1 cm for the present system.

  11. Gamma large area silicon telescope: Applying SI strip detector technology to the detection of gamma rays in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, W. B.; Bloom, E. D.; Godfrey, G. L.; Hertz, P. L.; Lin, Ying-Chi; Nolan, P. L.; Snyder, A. E.; Taylor, R. E.; Wood, K. S.; Michelson, P. F.

    1992-12-01

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by EGRET (Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope) (presently operating on CGRO (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory)) has prompted an investigation into modern technologies ultimately leading to the next generation space based gamma ray telescope. The goal is to design a detector that would increase the data acquisition rate by almost two orders of magnitude beyond EGRET, while at the same time improving on the angular resolution, the energy measurement of reconstructed gamma rays and the triggering capability of the instrument. The proposed GLAST (Gamma Ray Large Area Silicon Telescope) instrument is based on silicon particle detectors that offer the advantages of no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggering. The GLAST detector is roughly modeled after EGRET in that a tracking module precedes a calorimeter. The GLAST tracker has planes of cross strip (x, y) 300 micrometer match silicon detectors coupled to a thin radiator to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. An angular resolution of 0.1 deg at high energy is possible (the low energy angular resolution 100 MeV would be about 2 deg, limited by multiple scattering). The increased depth of the GLAST calorimeter over EGRET's extends the energy range to about 300 GeV.

  12. Imaging and spectral performance of CdTe double-sided strip detectors for the hard x-ray imager onboard ASTRO-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, Kouichi; Odaka, Hirokazu; Sato, Goro; Watanabe, Shin; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Kokubun, Motohide; Fukuyama, Taro; Saito, Shinya; Sato, Tamotsu; Ichinohe, Yuto; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Nakano, Toshio; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Makishima, Kazuo; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Takaaki; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Miyazawa, Takuya; Sakai, Michito; Sakanobe, Karin; Kato, Hiroyoshi; Takizawa, Shunya; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2012-09-01

    The imaging and spectral performance of CdTe double-sided strip detectors (CdTe-DSDs) was evaluated for the ASTRO-H mission. The charcterized CdTe-DSDs have a strip pitch of 0.25 mm, an imaging area of 3.2 cm × 3.2 cm and a thickness of 0.75 mm. The detector was successfully operated at a temperature of -20°C and with an applied bias voltage of 250 V. By using two-strip events as well as one-strip events for the event reconstruction, a good energy resolution of 2.0 keV at 59.5 keV and a sub-strip spatial resolution was achieved. The hard X-ray and gamma-ray response of CdTe-DSDs is complex due to the properties of CdTe and the small pixel effect. Therefore, one of the issues to investigate is the response of the CdTe-DSD. In order to investigate the spatial dependence of the detector response, we performed fine beam scan experiments at SPring-8, a synchrotron radiation facility. From these experiments, the depth structure of the electric field was determined as well as properties of carriers in the detector and successfully reproduced the experimental data with simulated spectra.

  13. Developing silicon strip detectors with a large-scale commercial foundry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, A.; Bartl, U.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Hacker, J.; Treberspurg, W.

    2016-07-01

    Since 2009 the Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) in Vienna is developing a production process for planar silicon strip sensors on 6-in. wafers together with the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies. Four runs with several batches of wafers, each comprising six different sensors, were manufactured and characterized. A brief summary of the recently completed 6-in. campaign is given. Milestones in sensor development as well as techniques to improve the sensor quality are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on a failure causing areas of defective strips which accompanied the whole campaign. Beam tests at different irradiation facilities were conducted to validate the key capability of particle detection. Another major aspect is to prove the radiation hardness of sensors produced by Infineon. Therefore, neutron irradiation studies were performed.

  14. A double-sided silicon micro-strip Super-Module for the ATLAS Inner Detector upgrade in the High-Luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Affolder, A. A.; Allport, P. P.; Anghinolfi, F.; Barbier, G.; Bates, R.; Beck, G.; Benitez, V.; Bernabeu, J.; Blanchot, G.; Bloch, I.; Blue, A.; Booker, P.; Brenner, R.; Buttar, C.; Cadoux, F.; Casse, G.; Carroll, J.; Church, I.; Civera, J. V.; Clark, A.; Dervan, P.; Díez, S.; Endo, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Farthouat, P.; Favre, Y.; Ferrere, D.; Friedrich, C.; French, R.; Gallop, B.; García, C.; Gibson, M.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.; Grillo, A.; Haber, C. H.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Hauser, M.; Haywood, S.; Hessey, N.; Hill, J.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ikegami, Y.; Jones, T.; Kaplon, J.; Kuehn, S.; Lacasta, C.; La Marra, D.; Lynn, D.; Mahboubin, K.; Marco, R.; Martí-García, S.; Martínez-McKinney, F.; Matheson, J.; McMahon, S.; Nelson, D.; Newcomer, F. M.; Parzefall, U.; Phillips, P. W.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Santoyo, D.; Seiden, A.; Soldevila, U.; Spencer, E.; Stanitzki, M.; Sutcliffe, P.; Takubo, Y.; Terada, S.; Tipton, P.; Tsurin, I.; Ullán, M.; Unno, Y.; Villani, E. G.; Warren, M.; Weber, M.; Wilmut, I.; Wonsak, S.; Witharm, R.; Wormald, M.

    2014-02-01

    The ATLAS experiment is a general purpose detector aiming to fully exploit the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is foreseen that after several years of successful data-taking, the LHC physics programme will be extended in the so-called High-Luminosity LHC, where the instantaneous luminosity will be increased up to 5 × 1034 cm-2 s-1. For ATLAS, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of its internal tracker, as the existing detector will not provide the required performance due to the cumulated radiation damage and the increase in the detector occupancy. The current baseline layout for the new ATLAS tracker is an all-silicon-based detector, with pixel sensors in the inner layers and silicon micro-strip detectors at intermediate and outer radii. The super-module is an integration concept proposed for the strip region of the future ATLAS tracker, where double-sided stereo silicon micro-strip modules are assembled into a low-mass local support structure. An electrical super-module prototype for eight double-sided strip modules has been constructed. The aim is to exercise the multi-module readout chain and to investigate the noise performance of such a system. In this paper, the main components of the current super-module prototype are described and its electrical performance is presented in detail.

  15. TU-F-18C-08: Micro-Calcification Detectability Using Spectral Breast CT Based On a Si Strip Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H; Ding, H; Molloi, S; Barber, W; Iwanczyk, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of micro-calcification (μCa) detectability by using an energy-resolved photon-counting Si strip detector for spectral breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: A bench-top CT system was constructed using a tungsten anode x-ray source with a focal spot size of 0.8 mm and a single line 256-pixel Si strip photon counting detector with a pixel pitch of 100 μm. The slice thickness was 0.5 mm. Five different size groups of calcium carbonate grains, from 105 to 215 μm in diameter, were embedded in a cylindrical resin phantom with a diameter of 16 mm to simulate μCas. The phantoms were imaged at 65 kVp with an Entrance Skin Air Kerma (ESAK) of 1.2, 3, 6, and 8 mGy. The images were reconstructed using a standard filtered back projection (FBP) with a ramp filter. A total of 200 μCa images (5 different sizes of μCas × 4 different doses × 10 images for each setting) were combined with another 200 control images without μCas, to ultimately form 400 images for the reader study. The images were displayed in random order to three blinded observers, who were asked to give a binary score on each image regarding the presence of μCas. The μCa detectability for each image was evaluated in terms of binary decision theory metrics. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated to study the size and dose-dependence for μCa detectability. Additionally, the influence of the partial volume effect on the μCa detectability was investigated by simulation. Results: For a μCa larger than 140 μm in diameter, detection accuracy of above 90 % was achieved with the investigated prototype spectral CT system at ESAK of 1.2 mGy. Conclusion: The proposed Si strip detector is expected to offer superior image quality with the capability to detect μCas for low dose breast imaging.

  16. Application of neural networks to digital pulse shape analysis for an array of silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, J. L.; Martel, I.; Jiménez, R.; Galán, J.; Salmerón, P.

    2016-09-01

    The new generation of nuclear physics detectors that used to study nuclear reactions is considering the use of digital pulse shape analysis techniques (DPSA) to obtain the (A,Z) values of the reaction products impinging in solid state detectors. This technique can be an important tool for selecting the relevant reaction channels at the HYDE (HYbrid DEtector ball array) silicon array foreseen for the Low Energy Branch of the FAIR facility (Darmstadt, Germany). In this work we study the feasibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for particle identification with silicon detectors. Multilayer Perceptron networks were trained and tested with recent experimental data, showing excellent identification capabilities with signals of several isotopes ranging from 12C up to 84Kr, yielding higher discrimination rates than any other previously reported.

  17. Characteristic performance evaluation of a photon counting Si strip detector for low dose spectral breast CT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyo-Min; Barber, William C.; Ding, Huanjun; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The possible clinical applications which can be performed using a newly developed detector depend on the detector's characteristic performance in a number of metrics including the dynamic range, resolution, uniformity, and stability. The authors have evaluated a prototype energy resolved fast photon counting x-ray detector based on a silicon (Si) strip sensor used in an edge-on geometry with an application specific integrated circuit to record the number of x-rays and their energies at high flux and fast frame rates. The investigated detector was integrated with a dedicated breast spectral computed tomography (CT) system to make use of the detector's high spatial and energy resolution and low noise performance under conditions suitable for clinical breast imaging. The aim of this article is to investigate the intrinsic characteristics of the detector, in terms of maximum output count rate, spatial and energy resolution, and noise performance of the imaging system. Methods: The maximum output count rate was obtained with a 50 W x-ray tube with a maximum continuous output of 50 kVp at 1.0 mA. A109Cd source, with a characteristic x-ray peak at 22 keV from Ag, was used to measure the energy resolution of the detector. The axial plane modulation transfer function (MTF) was measured using a 67 μm diameter tungsten wire. The two-dimensional (2D) noise power spectrum (NPS) was measured using flat field images and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) were calculated using the MTF and NPS results. The image quality parameters were studied as a function of various radiation doses and reconstruction filters. The one-dimensional (1D) NPS was used to investigate the effect of electronic noise elimination by varying the minimum energy threshold. Results: A maximum output count rate of 100 million counts per second per square millimeter (cps/mm2) has been obtained (1 million cps per 100 × 100 μm pixel). The electrical noise floor was less than 4 keV. The energy resolution

  18. Characteristic performance evaluation of a photon counting Si strip detector for low dose spectral breast CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Hyo-Min; Ding, Huanjun; Molloi, Sabee; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The possible clinical applications which can be performed using a newly developed detector depend on the detector's characteristic performance in a number of metrics including the dynamic range, resolution, uniformity, and stability. The authors have evaluated a prototype energy resolved fast photon counting x-ray detector based on a silicon (Si) strip sensor used in an edge-on geometry with an application specific integrated circuit to record the number of x-rays and their energies at high flux and fast frame rates. The investigated detector was integrated with a dedicated breast spectral computed tomography (CT) system to make use of the detector's high spatial and energy resolution and low noise performance under conditions suitable for clinical breast imaging. The aim of this article is to investigate the intrinsic characteristics of the detector, in terms of maximum output count rate, spatial and energy resolution, and noise performance of the imaging system. Methods: The maximum output count rate was obtained with a 50 W x-ray tube with a maximum continuous output of 50 kVp at 1.0 mA. A{sup 109}Cd source, with a characteristic x-ray peak at 22 keV from Ag, was used to measure the energy resolution of the detector. The axial plane modulation transfer function (MTF) was measured using a 67 μm diameter tungsten wire. The two-dimensional (2D) noise power spectrum (NPS) was measured using flat field images and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) were calculated using the MTF and NPS results. The image quality parameters were studied as a function of various radiation doses and reconstruction filters. The one-dimensional (1D) NPS was used to investigate the effect of electronic noise elimination by varying the minimum energy threshold. Results: A maximum output count rate of 100 million counts per second per square millimeter (cps/mm{sup 2}) has been obtained (1 million cps per 100 × 100 μm pixel). The electrical noise floor was less than 4 keV. The energy

  19. MEDUSA-32: A low noise, low power silicon strip detector front-end electronics, for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicuttin, Andres; Colavita, Alberto; Cerdeira, Alberto; Fratnik, Fabio; Vacchi, Andrea

    1997-02-01

    In this report we describe a mixed analog-digital integrated circuit (IC) designed as the front-end electronics for silicon strip-detectors for space applications. In space power consumption, compactness and robustness become critical constraints for a pre-amplifier design. The IC is a prototype with 32 complete channels, and it is intended for a large area particle tracker of a new generation of gamma ray telescopes. Each channel contains a charge sensitive amplifier, a pulse shaper, a discriminator and two digital buffers. The reference trip point of the discriminator is adjustable. This chip also has a custom PMOSFET transistor per channel, included in order to provide the high dynamic resistance needed to reverse-bias the strip diode. The digital part of the chip is used to store and serially shift out the state of the channels. There is also a storage buffer that allows the disabling of non-functioning channels if it is required by the data acquisition system. An input capacitance of 30 pF introduced at the input of the front-end produces less than 1000 electrons of RMS equivalent noise charge (ENC), for a total power dissipation of only 60 μW per channel. The chip was made using Orbit's 1.2 μm double poly, double metal n-well low noise CMOS process. The dimensions of the IC are 2400 μm × 8840 μm.

  20. Alternative glues for the production of ATLAS silicon strip modules for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poley, L.; Bloch, I.; Edwards, S.; Friedrich, C.; Gregor, I.-M.; Jones, T.; Lacker, H.; Pyatt, S.; Rehnisch, L.; Sperlich, D.; Wilson, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS detector for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) includes the replacement of the current Inner Detector with an all-silicon tracker consisting of pixel and strip detectors. The current Phase-II detector layout requires the construction of 20,000 strip detector modules consisting of sensor, circuit boards and readout chips, which are connected mechanically using adhesives. The adhesive used initially between readout chips and circuit board is a silver epoxy glue as was used in the current ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). However, this glue has several disadvantages, which motivated the search for an alternative. This paper presents a study of six ultra-violet (UV) cure glues and a glue pad for possible use in the assembly of silicon strip detector modules for the ATLAS upgrade. Trials were carried out to determine the ease of use, thermal conduction and shear strength. Samples were thermally cycled, radiation hardness and corrosion resistance were also determined. These investigations led to the exclusion of three UV cure glues as well as the glue pad. Three UV cure glues were found to be possible better alternatives than silver loaded glue. Results from electrical tests of first prototype modules constructed using these glues are presented.

  1. New contact development for Si(Li) orthogonal-strip detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, Ionel D.; Tindall, Craig T.; Luke, Paul N.

    2002-05-17

    At present, the contacts generally used for lithium-drifted silicon detectors consist of a diffused lithium layer (n-type) and a gold surface barrier (p-type). These contacts work well for unsegmented detectors. However, they both have disadvantages if used for segmented detectors. For this reason, we are developing new types of contacts that will be more robust and easier to segment. To replace the lithium n-type contact, we are using a thin layer of amorphous silicon (a-Si) with metalization on top. The new p-type contact consists of boron implanted into the silicon and annealed at the relatively low temperature of 500 degrees C. The implantation and annealing is carried out as the first step in the process, prior to lithium drifting. Detectors have been fabricated using the new contacts both with and without a guard ring. They performed as well as detectors with standard contacts at operating temperatures between 80K and 240K. We will present data on the leakage current vs. temperature, isolation resistance between the guard ring and the center contact versus temperature and bias voltage, electronic noise and energy resolution versus temperature, as well as 57Co spectra.

  2. Wedge-and-strip anodes for centroid-finding position-sensitive photon and particle detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C.; Jelinsky, P.; Lampton, M.; Malina, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    The paper examines geometries employing position-dependent charge partitioning to obtain a two-dimensional position signal from each detected photon or particle. Requiring three or four anode electrodes and signal paths, images have little distortion and resolution is not limited by thermal noise. An analysis of the geometrical image nonlinearity between event centroid location and the charge partition ratios is presented. In addition, fabrication and testing of two wedge-and-strip anode systems are discussed. Images obtained with EUV radiation and microchannel plates verify the predicted performance, with further resolution improvements achieved by adopting low noise signal circuitry. Also discussed are the designs of practical X-ray, EUV, and charged particle image systems.

  3. Mechanical studies towards a silicon micro-strip super module for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade at the high luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, G.; Cadoux, F.; Clark, A.; Endo, M.; Favre, Y.; Ferrere, D.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Iacobucci, G.; Ikegami, Y.; Jinnouchi, O.; La Marra, D.; Nakamura, K.; Nishimura, R.; Perrin, E.; Seez, W.; Takubo, Y.; Takashima, R.; Terada, S.; Todome, K.; Unno, Y.; Weber, M.

    2014-04-01

    It is expected that after several years of data-taking, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) physics programme will be extended to the so-called High-Luminosity LHC, where the instantaneous luminosity will be increased up to 5 × 1034 cm-2 s-1. For the general-purpose ATLAS experiment at the LHC, a complete replacement of its internal tracking detector will be necessary, as the existing detector will not provide the required performance due to the cumulated radiation damage and the increase in the detector occupancy. The baseline layout for the new ATLAS tracker is an all-silicon-based detector, with pixel sensors in the inner layers and silicon micro-strip detectors at intermediate and outer radii. The super-module (SM) is an integration concept proposed for the barrel strip region of the future ATLAS tracker, where double-sided stereo silicon micro-strip modules (DSM) are assembled into a low-mass local support (LS) structure. Mechanical aspects of the proposed LS structure are described.

  4. A time-based front-end ASIC for the silicon micro strip sensors of the bar PANDA Micro Vertex Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Pietro, V.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Riccardi, A.; Ritman, J.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Stockmanns, T.; Zambanini, A.

    2016-03-01

    The bar PANDA (Antiproton Annihilation at Darmstadt) experiment foresees many detectors for tracking, particle identification and calorimetry. Among them, the innermost is the MVD (Micro Vertex Detector) responsible for a precise tracking and the reconstruction of secondary vertices. This detector will be built from both hybrid pixel (two inner barrels and six forward disks) and double-sided micro strip (two outer barrels and outer rim of the last two disks) silicon sensors. A time-based approach has been chosen for the readout ASIC of the strip sensors. The PASTA (bar PANDA Strip ASIC) chip aims at high resolution time-stamping and charge information through the Time over Threshold (ToT) technique. It benefits from a Time to Digital Converter (TDC) allowing a time bin width down to 50 ps. The analog front-end was designed to serve both n-type and p-type strips and the performed simulations show remarkable performances in terms of linearity and electronic noise. The TDC consists of an analog interpolator, a digital local controller, and a digital global controller as the common back-end for all of the 64 channels.

  5. Microcalcification detectability using a bench-top prototype photon-counting breast CT based on a Si strip detector

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyo-Min; Ding, Huanjun; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Molloi, Sabee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of detecting breast microcalcification (μCa) with a dedicated breast computed tomography (CT) system based on energy-resolved photon-counting silicon (Si) strip detectors. Methods: The proposed photon-counting breast CT system and a bench-top prototype photon-counting breast CT system were simulated using a simulation package written in matlab to determine the smallest detectable μCa. A 14 cm diameter cylindrical phantom made of breast tissue with 20% glandularity was used to simulate an average-sized breast. Five different size groups of calcium carbonate grains, from 100 to 180 μm in diameter, were simulated inside of the cylindrical phantom. The images were acquired with a mean glandular dose (MGD) in the range of 0.7–8 mGy. A total of 400 images was used to perform a reader study. Another simulation study was performed using a 1.6 cm diameter cylindrical phantom to validate the experimental results from a bench-top prototype breast CT system. In the experimental study, a bench-top prototype CT system was constructed using a tungsten anode x-ray source and a single line 256-pixels Si strip photon-counting detector with a pixel pitch of 100 μm. Calcium carbonate grains, with diameter in the range of 105–215 μm, were embedded in a cylindrical plastic resin phantom to simulate μCas. The physical phantoms were imaged at 65 kVp with an entrance exposure in the range of 0.6–8 mGy. A total of 500 images was used to perform another reader study. The images were displayed in random order to three blinded observers, who were asked to give a 4-point confidence rating on each image regarding the presence of μCa. The μCa detectability for each image was evaluated by using the average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) across the readers. Results: The simulation results using a 14 cm diameter breast phantom showed that the proposed photon-counting breast CT system can achieve high detection

  6. Design of the readout IC for the CDF SVX-II silicon strip detector

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, B.T.; CDF Collaboration

    1994-08-16

    Future colliding beam runs at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory will involve bunch spacings of protons and antiprotons at 132 ns intervals. Due to finite processing time, a pipelined architecture is needed to store events until a trigger decision can reach the detector. A single ported pipeline design has been implemented in a 1.2 micron rad soft CMOS technology and partially tested. Results are presented of the performance of that design. The chip supports a level 1 accept rate of 5 kHz. Because high statistics B physics experiments will require level 1 accept rates of 50 kHz, a new dual ported pipeline device has been proposed which would make the readout virtually deadtimeless for trigger rates approaching 50 kHz. The operation of the proposed deadtimeless device is explained.

  7. Nanoparticle-Based Immunochromatographic Test Strip with Fluorescent Detector for Quantification of Phosphorylated Acetycholinesterase: An Exposure Biomarker of Organophosphorous Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weiying; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Tang, Yong; Du, Dan; Liu, Deli; Lin, Yuehe

    2013-09-21

    A nanoparticle-based fluorescence immunochromatographic test strip (FITS) coupled with a hand-held detector for highly selective and sensitive detection of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an exposure biomarker of organophosphate (OP) pesticides and nerve agents, is reported. In this approach, OP-AChE adducts were selectively captured by quantum dot-tagged anti-AChE antibodies (Qdot-anti-AChE) and zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs). The sandwich-like immunoreactions were performed among the Qdot-anti-AChE, OP-AChE and ZrO2 NPs to form Qdot-anti-AChE/OP-AChE/ZrO2 complex, which was detected by recording the fluorescence intensity of Qdot captured on the test line. Paraoxon was used as the model OP pesticides. Under optimal conditions, this portable FITS immunosensor demonstrates a highly linear absorption response over the range of 0.01 nM to 10 nM OP-AChE, with a detection limit of 4 pM, coupled with a good reproducibility. Moreover, the FITS immunosensor has been validated with OP-AChE spiked human plasma samples. This is the first report on the development of ZrO2 NPs-based FITS for detection of OP-AChE adduct. The FITS immunosensor provides a sensitive and low-cost sensing platform for on-site screening/evaluating OP pesticides and nerve agents poisoning.

  8. Beta-Decay Spectroscopy of Neutron-Rich Isotopes Utilizing a Planar Ge Double-Sided Strip Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, N.; Liddick, S. N.; Prokop, C. J.; Kondev, F. G.; Kumar, S.; Crider, B. P.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Suchyta, S.

    2015-10-01

    In nuclear science, rapid changes in the structure of the atomic nucleus have been inferred with small changes in the neutron and proton numbers. These changes are manifested in variations of the low-energy level schemes of exotic isotopes. One region of the nuclear chart where rapid changes in deformation have been suggested based on the behavior of the first excited 2 + states is in neutron-rich nuclei near A = 110. Beta-decay spectroscopy is a sensitive and selective technique that can be used to investigate the low-energy level schemes exotic nuclei at low production rates. At the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), a recently commissioned planar Ge double-sided strip detector (GeDSSD) is used in a novel application for these studies. Preliminary results from the decay of Tc isotopes in an experiment aimed at nuclei near A = 110 will be presented. This work was supported by the DOE NNSA DE-NA0000979 and the NSF Grant PHY1102511.

  9. D0 Silicon Strip Detector Upgrade Project SVX Sequencer Controller Board

    SciTech Connect

    Utes, M.; /Fermilab

    2001-05-29

    The Sequencer Controller boards are 9U by 340mm circuit boards that will reside in slot 1 of each of eight Sequencer crates in the D0 detector platform. The primary purpose is to control the Sequencers during data acquisition based on trigger information from the D0 Trigger Framework. Functions and features are as follows: (1) Receives the Serial Command Link (SCL) from the D0 Trigger System and controls the operation of the Sequencers by forming a custom serial control link (NRZ/Clock) which is distributed individually to each Sequencer via the 11 Backplane; (2) Controllable delays adjust NRZ control link phasing to compensate for the various cable-length delays between the Sequencers and SVX chips, delay control is common for slots 2-11, and for slots 12-21 of the crate; (3) Each NRZ control link is phase controlled so that commands reach each Sequencer in a given half-crate simultaneously, i.e., the link is compensated for backplane propagation delays; (4) External communication via MIL-STD-1553; (5) Stand-alone operation via 1553 trigger commands in absence of an SCL link; (6) 1553-writeable register for triggering a laser, etc. followed by an acquisition cycle; (7) TTL front panel input to trigger an acquisition cycle, e.g. from a scintillator; (8) Synch Trig, Veto, Busy and Preamp Reset TTL outputs on front panel LEMOs; (9) On-board 53.104 MHz oscillator for stand-alone operation; (10) 1553 or SCL-triggerable Cal-inject cycle; (11) Front-panel inputs to accept NRZ/Clock link from the VRB Controller; (12) Front panel displays and LEDs show the board status at a glance; and (13) In-system programmable EPLDs are programmed via Altera's 'Byteblaster'.

  10. Assessment of nicotine uptake from cigarette smoke: comparison of a colorimetric test strip (NicCheck I™) and gas chromatography/mass selective detector.

    PubMed

    Thomas Karnes, H; James, J R; March, C; Leyden, D E; Koller, K

    2001-01-01

    Colorimetric test strip assays are a convenient and inexpensive means for the determination of cotinine in human urine because they can be performed in a nonlaboratory environment using a trained technician. Four hundred human urine samples were separated into four categories: (1) heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes smoked per day), (2) light smokers (<20 cigarettes smoked per day), (3) non-smokers, and (4) vegetarian non-smokers. Samples were evaluated by a gas chromatography/mass selective detector (GC/MSD) method as a reference and using NicCheck I™ (DynaGen, Inc.). Colour intensity can range from 0 (no colour) to 14 (deep pink). Qualitative values were assigned as negative (0), low (1-6) and high (7-14). Comparison of the test strip and GC/MSD results showed: (1) 43 (10.75%) false negatives using the criterion of a GC/MSD cotinine level above 200 ng ml(-1) and test strip reading of 0, (2) 31 (7.75%) false positives using the criterion of a GC/MSD cotinine level below 1 ng ml(-1) and a test strip reading of 1 or greater, and (3) no correlation between the test strip and GC/MSD results (r = 0.597, p < 0.05). The fact that the colorimetric reaction is sensitive to many nicotine metabolites and/or heterocyclic amine structures whereas the GC/MSD method measures nicotine and cotinine selectively might explain the false positive results. False negative results were likely to be due to a lack of sensitivity of the test strip. PMID:23886310

  11. TOT01, a time-over-threshold based readout chip in 180nm CMOS technology for silicon strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinski, K.; Szczygiel, R.; Gryboś, P.

    2011-01-01

    This work is focused on the development of the TOT01 prototype front-end ASIC for the readout of long silicon strip detectors in the STS (Silicon Tracking System) of the CBM experiment at FAIR - GSI. The deposited charge measurement is based on the Time-over-Threshold method which allows integration of a low-power ADC into each channel. The TOT01 chip comprises 30 identical channels and 1 test channel which is supplied with additional test pads. The major blocks of each channel are the CSA (charge sensitive amplifier) with two switchable constant-current discharge circuits and additional test features. The architecture of the CSA core is based on the folded cascode. The input p-channel MOSFET device, biased at a drain current 500 μA, was optimized for 30 pF detector capacitance while keeping in mind the area constraints — W/L = 1800 μm / 0.180 μm. The main advantage of this solution is high gain (GBW = 1.2 GHz) and low power consumption at the same time. The amplifier is followed by the discriminator circuit. The discriminator allows for a global (multi-channel) differential threshold setting and independent compensation for the CSA output DC-level deviations in each channel by means of a 6-bit digital to analog converter (DAC). The output pulse of this processing chain is fed through a 31:1 multiplexer structure to the output of the chip for further processing. The TOT01 chip has been fabricated in the UMC 0.18 μm CMOS process (Europractice mini@sic). It has 78 pads, measures approximately 1.5x3.2 mm2 and dissipates 33 mW. The channels have 50 μm pitch and each consumes 1.05 mW of power. The chip has been successfully tested. Charge sensitivity parameters, noise performance and first X-ray acquisitions are presented.

  12. Total dose dependence of oxide charge, interstrip capacitance and breakdown behavior of sLHC prototype silicon strip detectors and test structures of the SMART collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Betancourt, C.; Heffern, R.; Henderson, I.; Pixley, J.; Polyakov, A.; Wilder, M.; Boscardin, M.; Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Zorzi, N.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Resta, G.; Bruzzi, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Borrello, L.; Messineo, A.; Creanza, D.; Manna, N.

    2007-09-01

    Within the R&D Program for the luminosity upgrade proposed for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), silicon strip detectors (SSD) and test structures (TS) were manufactured on several high-resistivity substrates: p-type Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) and Float Zone (FZ), and n-type FZ. To test total dose (TID) effects they were irradiated with 60Co gammas and the impact of surface radiation damage on the detector properties was studied. Selected results from the pre-rad and post-rad characterization of detectors and TS are presented, in particular interstrip capacitance and resistance, break-down voltage, flatband voltage and oxide charge. Surface damage effects show saturation after 150 krad and breakdown performance improves considerably after 210 krad. Annealing was performed both at room temperature and at 60 °C, and large effects on the surface parameters observed.

  13. Particle impact location detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O.

    1974-01-01

    Detector includes delay lines connected to each detector surface strip. When several particles strike different strips simultaneously, pulses generated by each strip are time delayed by certain intervals. Delay time for each strip is known. By observing time delay in pulse, it is possible to locate strip that is struck by particle.

  14. SU-F-18C-05: Characterization of a Silicon Strip Photon-Counting Detector in the Presence of Compton Scatter: A Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemer, B; Ding, H; Cho, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Compton scatter on detection efficiency and charge-sharing for a Si strip photon-counting detector as a function of pixel pitch, slice thickness and total pixel length. Methods: A CT imaging system employing a silicon photon-counting detector was implemented using the GATE Monte Carlo package. A focal spot size of 300 µm, magnification of 1.33, and pixel pitches of 0.1 and 0.5mm were initially investigated. A 60 kVp spectrum with 3 mm Al filter was used and energy spectral degradation based on a prototype detector was simulated. To study charge-sharing, a single pixel was illuminated, and the detector response in neighboring pixels was investigated. A longitudinally semiinfinite detector was simulated to optimize the quantum detection efficiency of the imaging system as a function of pixel pitch, slice thickness and depth of interaction. A 2.5 mm thick tungsten plate with a 0.01 mm by 1.5 mm slit was implemented to calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF) from projection-based images. A threshold of 15 keV was implemented in the detector simulation. The preliminary charge sharing investigation results considered only scattering effects and the detector electronics related factors were neglected. Results: Using a 15 keV threshold, 1% of the pixel charge migrated into neighboring pixels with a pixel size of 0.1×0.1 mm{sup 2}. The quantum detection efficiency was 77%, 84%, 87% and 89% for 15 mm, 22.5 mm, 30 mm, and 45 mm length silicon detector pixels, respectively. For a pixel pitch of 0.1 mm, the spatial frequency at 10% of the maximum MTF was found to be 5.2 lp/mm. This agreed with an experimental MTF measurement of 5.3 lp/mm with a similar detector configuration. Conclusion: Using optimized design parameters, Si strip photon-counting detectors can offer high detection efficiency and spatial resolution even in the presence of Compton scatter.

  15. Performance in test beam of a large-area and light-weight GEM detector with 2D stereo-angle (U-V) strip readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanvo, Kondo; Bai, Xinzhan; Gu, Chao; Liyanage, Nilanga; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Zhao, Yuxiang

    2016-02-01

    A large-area and light-weight gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector was built at the University of Virginia as a prototype for the detector R&D program of the future Electron Ion Collider. The prototype has a trapezoidal geometry designed as a generic sector module in a disk layer configuration of a forward tracker in collider detectors. It is based on light-weight material and narrow support frames in order to minimize multiple scattering and dead-to-sensitive area ratio. The chamber has a novel type of two dimensional (2D) stereo-angle readout board with U-V strips that provides (r,φ) position information in the cylindrical coordinate system of a collider environment. The prototype was tested at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility in October 2013 and the analysis of the test beam data demonstrates an excellent response uniformity of the large area chamber with an efficiency higher than 95%. An angular resolution of 60 μrad in the azimuthal direction and a position resolution better than 550 μm in the radial direction were achieved with the U-V strip readout board. The results are discussed in this paper.

  16. Evaluation of a 512-Channel Faraday-Strip Array Detector Coupled to an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mattauch-Herzog Mass Spectrograph

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, G. D.; Ray, Steven J.; Rubinshtein, Arnon A.; Felton, Jermey; Sperline, Roger P.; Denton, Bonner M.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2009-07-01

    A 512-channel Faraday-strip array detector has been developed and fitted to a Mattauch-Herzog geometry mass spectrograph for the simultaneous acquisition of multiple mass-to-charge values. Several advantages are realized by using simultaneous detection methods, including higher duty cycles, removal of correlated noise, and multianalyte transient analyses independent of spectral skew. The new 512-channel version offers narrower, more closely spaced pixels, providing improved spectral peak sampling and resolution. In addition, the electronics in the amplification stage of the new detector array incorporate a sample-and-hold feature that enables truly simultaneous interrogation of all 512 channels. While sensitivity and linear dynamic range remain impressive for this Faraday-based detector system, limits of detection and isotope ratio data have suffered slightly from leaky p-n junctions produced during the manufacture of the semiconductor-based amplification and readout stages. This paper describes the new 512-channel detector array, the current dominant noise sources, and the figures of merit for the device as pertaining to inductively coupled plasma ionization.

  17. An efficient, FPGA-based, cluster detection algorithm implementation for a strip detector readout system in a Time Projection Chamber polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Kyle J.; Hill, Joanne E.; Black, J. Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Jahoda, Keith

    2016-05-01

    A fundamental challenge in a spaceborne application of a gas-based Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for observation of X-ray polarization is handling the large amount of data collected. The TPC polarimeter described uses the APV-25 Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to readout a strip detector. Two dimensional photo- electron track images are created with a time projection technique and used to determine the polarization of the incident X-rays. The detector produces a 128x30 pixel image per photon interaction with each pixel registering 12 bits of collected charge. This creates challenging requirements for data storage and downlink bandwidth with only a modest incidence of photons and can have a significant impact on the overall mission cost. An approach is described for locating and isolating the photoelectron track within the detector image, yielding a much smaller data product, typically between 8x8 pixels and 20x20 pixels. This approach is implemented using a Microsemi RT-ProASIC3-3000 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), clocked at 20 MHz and utilizing 10.7k logic gates (14% of FPGA), 20 Block RAMs (17% of FPGA), and no external RAM. Results will be presented, demonstrating successful photoelectron track cluster detection with minimal impact to detector dead-time.

  18. An Efficient, FPGA-Based, Cluster Detection Algorithm Implementation for a Strip Detector Readout System in a Time Projection Chamber Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Kyle J.; Hill, Joanne E. (Editor); Black, J. Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Jahoda, Keith

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in a spaceborne application of a gas-based Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for observation of X-ray polarization is handling the large amount of data collected. The TPC polarimeter described uses the APV-25 Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to readout a strip detector. Two dimensional photoelectron track images are created with a time projection technique and used to determine the polarization of the incident X-rays. The detector produces a 128x30 pixel image per photon interaction with each pixel registering 12 bits of collected charge. This creates challenging requirements for data storage and downlink bandwidth with only a modest incidence of photons and can have a significant impact on the overall mission cost. An approach is described for locating and isolating the photoelectron track within the detector image, yielding a much smaller data product, typically between 8x8 pixels and 20x20 pixels. This approach is implemented using a Microsemi RT-ProASIC3-3000 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), clocked at 20 MHz and utilizing 10.7k logic gates (14% of FPGA), 20 Block RAMs (17% of FPGA), and no external RAM. Results will be presented, demonstrating successful photoelectron track cluster detection with minimal impact to detector dead-time.

  19. Noise determination in silicon micro strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dubbs, T.; Kashigin, S.; Kratzer, M.

    1996-06-01

    The authors report the study of amplifier noise on silicon micro strip detectors. They have used a fast, low noise amplifier-comparator VLSI chip with 22ns shaping time developed for the LHC to determine the noise at the pre-amp as a function of strip length and strip geometry, i.e., interstrip capacitance and ohmic strip resistance. In addition, they have tested the noise in irradiated detectors. They have compared the results with simulations using SPICE.

  20. Recent T980 Crystal Collimation Studies at the Tevatron Exploiting a Pixel Detector System and a Multi-Strip Crystal Array

    SciTech Connect

    Still, D.; Annala, G.E.; Carrigan, R.A.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Johnson, T.R.; Mokhov, N.V.; Previtali, V.; Rivera, R.; Shiltsev, V.; Zagel, J.; Zvoda, V.V.; / /CERN /INFN, Pisa / /

    2012-05-15

    With the shutdown of the Tevatron, the T-980 crystal collimation experiment at Fermilab has been successfully completed. Results of dedicated beam studies in May 2011 are described in this paper. For these studies, two multi-strip crystals were installed in the vertical goniometer and an O-shaped crystal installed in a horizontal goniometer. A two-plane CMS pixel detector was also installed in order to enhance the experiment with the capability to image the profile of crystal channeled or multiple volume reflected beam. The experiment successfully imaged channeled beam from a crystal for 980-GeV protons for the first time. This new enhanced hardware yielded impressive results. The performance and characterization of the crystals studied have been very reproducible over time and consistent with simulations.

  1. About NICADD extruded scintillating strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, A.; Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Chakraborty, D.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Lima, J.G.; Rykalin, V.; Zutshi, v.; Baldina, E.; Bross, A.; Deering, P.; Nebel, T.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Schellpfeffer, J.; Serritella, C.; Zimmerman, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    The results of control measurements of extruded scintillating strip responses to a radioactive source Sr-90 are provided, and details of strip choice, preparation, and method of measurement are included. About four hundred one meter long extruded scintillating strips were measured at four different points. These results were essential for prototyping a tail catcher and muon tracker for a future international electron positron linear collider detector.

  2. A fast, low-power, 6-bit SAR ADC for readout of strip detectors in the LHCb Upgrade experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.

    2014-07-01

    The readout of silicon strip sensors in the upgraded Tracker System of Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) experiment will require a novel complex Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). The ASIC will extract and digitise analogue signal from the sensor and subsequently will perform digital processing and serial data transmission. One of the key processing blocks, placed in each channel, will be an Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC). A prototype of fast, low-power 6-bit Successive Approximation Register (SAR) ADC was designed, fabricated and tested. The measurements of ADC prototypes confirmed simulation results showing excellent overall performance. In particular, very good resolution with Effective Number Of Bits (ENOB) 5.85 was obtained together with very low power consumption of 0.35 mW at 40 MS/s sampling rate. The results of the performed static and dynamic measurements confirm excellent ADC operation for higher sampling rates up to 80 MS/s.

  3. Demonstration of single-flux-quantum readout circuits for time-of-flight mass spectrometry systems using superconducting strip ion detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Kyosuke; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki; Zen, Nobuyuki; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2015-07-01

    We have been developing a superconducting time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) system that consists of a superconducting strip ion detector (SSID) and a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) time-to-digital converter. In this study, we implement a prototype TOF-MS system using an SSID and an SFQ readout circuit in which output signals from the SSID are read out by the SFQ readout circuit and output to room-temperature electronics. The SFQ readout circuit, which consists of a current discriminator, a Josephson transmission line and an SFQ/dc converter, was fabricated using the AIST Nb standard process (STP2), and installed in a 4.2 K cryostat with a meander-shaped NbN SSID measuring 200 μm square. The dark count rate for the SSID was measured as increasing exponentially with the increase in the bias current of the SSID by using the SFQ readout circuit. Mass spectrum measurements of biomolecules, Angiotensin I, which has a molecular weight of 1296 Da, were demonstrated by using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization method, and a clear corresponding peak was observed in the mass spectrum.

  4. Detectors

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Allander, Krag

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

  5. Studies of NICADD Extruded Scintillator Strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dychkant, Alexandre; et al.

    2005-03-01

    About four hundred one meter long, 10 cm wide and 5 mm thick extruded scintillating strips were measured at four different points. The results of measurements strip responses to a radioactive source {sup 90}Sr are provided, and details of strip choice, preparation, and method of measurement are included. This work was essential for prototyping a tail catcher and muon tracker for a future international electron positron linear collider detector.

  6. Stripping Voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovrić, Milivoj

    Electrochemical stripping means the oxidative or reductive removal of atoms, ions, or compounds from an electrode surface (or from the electrode body, as in the case of liquid mercury electrodes with dissolved metals) [1-5]. In general, these atoms, ions, or compounds have been preliminarily immobilized on the surface of an inert electrode (or within it) as the result of a preconcentration step, while the products of the electrochemical stripping will dissolve in the electrolytic solution. Often the product of the electrochemical stripping is identical to the analyte before the preconcentration. However, there are exemptions to these rules. Electroanalytical stripping methods comprise two steps: first, the accumulation of a dissolved analyte onto, or in, the working electrode, and, second, the subsequent stripping of the accumulated substance by a voltammetric [3, 5], potentiometric [6, 7], or coulometric [8] technique. In stripping voltammetry, the condition is that there are two independent linear relationships: the first one between the activity of accumulated substance and the concentration of analyte in the sample, and the second between the maximum stripping current and the accumulated substance activity. Hence, a cumulative linear relationship between the maximum response and the analyte concentration exists. However, the electrode capacity for the analyte accumulation is limited and the condition of linearity is satisfied only well below the electrode saturation. For this reason, stripping voltammetry is used mainly in trace analysis. The limit of detection depends on the factor of proportionality between the activity of the accumulated substance and the bulk concentration of the analyte. This factor is a constant in the case of a chemical accumulation, but for electrochemical accumulation it depends on the electrode potential. The factor of proportionality between the maximum stripping current and the analyte concentration is rarely known exactly. In fact

  7. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  8. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  9. Robotic Stripping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    UltraStrip Systems, Inc.'s M-200 removes paint from the hulls of ships faster than traditional grit-blasting methods. And, it does so without producing toxic airborne particles common to traditional methods. The M-2000 magnetically attaches itself to the hull of the ship. Its water jets generate 40,000 pounds of pressure per square inch, blasting away paint down to the ships steel substrate. The only by product is water and dried paint chips and these are captured by a vacuum system so no toxic residue can escape. It was built out of a partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the National Robotics Engineering Consortium.

  10. The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Christian Holm; Gaardhøje, Jens Jørgen; Gulbrandsen, Kristján; Nielsen, Børge Svane; Søgaard, Carsten

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range -3.4 < η < 5.1. It is placed around the beam pipe at small angles to extend the charged particle acceptance of ALICE into the forward regions, not covered by the central barrel detectors.

  11. Pyroelectric detector arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fripp, A. L.; Robertson, J. B.; Breckenridge, R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A pyroelectric detector array and the method for using it are described. A series of holes formed through a silicon dioxide layer on the surface of a silicon substrate forms the mounting fixture for the pyroelectric detector array. A series of nontouching strips of indium are formed around the holes to make contact with the backside electrodes and form the output terminals for individual detectors. A pyroelectric detector strip with front and back electrodes, respectively, is mounted over the strips. Biasing resistors are formed on the surface of the silicon dioxide layer and connected to the strips. A metallized pad formed on the surface of layer is connected to each of the biasing resistors and to the film to provide the ground for the pyroelectric detector array.

  12. Pyroelectric detector arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fripp, A. L.; Robertson, J. B.; Breckenridge, R. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A pryoelectric detector array and the method for making it are described. A series of holes formed through a silicon dioxide layer on the surface of a silicon substrate forms the mounting fixture for the pyroelectric detector array. A series of nontouching strips of indium are formed around the holes to make contact with the backside electrodes and form the output terminals for individual detectors. A pyroelectric detector strip with front and back electrodes, respectively, is mounted over the strip. Biasing resistors are formed on the surface of the silicon dioxide layer and connected to the strips. A metallized pad formed on the surface of the layer is connected to each of the biasing resistors and to the film to provide the ground for the pyroelectric detector array.

  13. MAMA Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, Stuart

    1998-01-01

    Work carried out under this grant led to fundamental discoveries and over one hundred publications in the scientific literature. Fundamental developments in instrumentation were made including all the instrumentation on the EUVE satellite, the invention of a whole new type of grazing instrument spectrometer and the development of fundamentally new photon counting detectors including the Wedge and Strip used on EUVE and many other missions and the Time Delay detector used on OREFUS and FUSE. The Wedge and Strip and Time Delay detectors were developed under this grant for less than two million dollars and have been used in numerous missions most recently for the FUSE mission. In addition, a fundamentally new type of diffuse spectrometer has been developed under this grant which has been used in instrumentation on the MMSAT spacecraft and the Lewis spacecraft. Plans are underway to use this instrumentation on several other missions as well.

  14. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  15. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  16. Varicose vein stripping

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002952.htm Varicose vein stripping To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. Vein stripping is surgery to remove varicose veins in the legs. Description Varicose veins are swollen, ...

  17. Lateral flow strip assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  18. Large strip RPCs for the LEPS2 TOF system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomida, N.; Niiyama, M.; Ohnishi, H.; Tran, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Chu, M.-L.; Chang, W.-C.; Chen, J.-Y.

    2014-12-01

    High time-resolution resistive plate chambers (RPCs) with large-size readout strips are developed for the time-of-flight (TOF) detector system of the LEPS2 experiment at SPring-8. The experimental requirement is a 50-ps time resolution for a strip size larger than 100 cm2/channel. We are able to achieve 50-ps time resolutions with 2.5×100 cm2 strips by directly connecting the amplifiers to strips. With the same time resolution, the number of front-end electronics (FEE) is also reduced by signal addition.

  19. Anatomy comic strips.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists. PMID:21634024

  20. Anatomy Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  1. Prefix Stripping Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Marcus

    1981-01-01

    Presents and analyzes three experiments on prefix stripping. Results show that pseudoprefixed words are indiscriminately treated as prefixed words and concludes that prefix stripping does occur in word recognition and that prefixed words are accessed through a representation of their stem. (Author/BK)

  2. Science Comic Strips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  3. Detectors for Particle Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinknecht, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    This textbook provides a clear, concise and comprehensive review of the physical principles behind the devices used to detect charged particles and gamma rays, and the construction and performance of these many different types of detectors. Detectors for high-energy particles and radiation are used in many areas of science, especially particle physics and nuclear physics experiments, nuclear medicine, cosmic ray measurements, space sciences and geological exploration. This second edition includes all the latest developments in detector technology, including several new chapters covering micro-strip gas chambers, silicion strip detectors and CCDs, scintillating fibers, shower detectors using noble liquid gases, and compensating calorimeters for hadronic showers. This well-illustrated textbook contains examples from the many areas in science in which these detectors are used. It provides both a coursebook for students in physics, and a useful introduction for researchers in other fields.

  4. Vertex detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lueth, V.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10{sup {minus}13} s, among them the {tau} lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation.

  5. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.; /SLAC

    2005-12-15

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate ({phi} coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m{sup 2}) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints.

  6. Excimer laser photoresist stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genut, Menachem; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Iskevitch, Eli; Livshits, Boris

    1996-06-01

    A new method for stripping the most challenging photoresists on deep sub-micron technology semiconductor wafers has been developed. The method uses a combination of UV excimer laser ablation and reactive chemistry to strip the photoresist in a single dry process, eliminating the wet acids or solvents often used following ashing of high dose implantation (HDI) and reactive ion etching (RIE). The stripping process combines new removal mechanisms: chemical assisted UV excimer laser ablation/etching, laser induced chemical etching of side walls and residues, and enhanced combustion. During the laser pulses photolysis of the process gas occurs, UV laser radiation breaks the photoresist polymer chain bonds, and the photoresist (including foreign materials imbedded in it) is ablated. The combustion is ignited by the ablative impact of laser radiation and enhanced by the radicals formed during photo-thermal decomposition of the process gases. Following this process, the volatilized products and gases are evacuated. The optimum laser stripping conditions were developed to provide a wide process window for the most challenging stripping conditions, such as after HDI and RIE (metal, polysilicon), without causing damage to the wafer devices. A photoresist stripping system based on the described technology was designed and built. The system has been designated as the L-StripperTM and provides stripping time of 0.15 s/(micrometer cm2).

  7. Geometrical deuteron stripping revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Neoh, Y. S.; Yap, S. L.

    2014-03-05

    We investigate the reality of the idea of geometrical deuteron stripping originally envisioned by Serber. By taking into account of realistic deuteron wavefunction, nuclear density, and nucleon stopping mean free path, we are able to estimate inclusive deuteron stripping cross section for deuteron energy up to before pion production. Our semiclassical model contains only one global parameter constant for all nuclei which can be approximated by Woods-Saxon or any other spherically symmetric density distribution.

  8. Directional detector of gamma rays

    DOEpatents

    Cox, Samson A.; Levert, Francis E.

    1979-01-01

    A directional detector of gamma rays comprises a strip of an electrical cuctor of high atomic number backed with a strip of a second electrical conductor of low atomic number. These elements are enclosed within an electrical conductor that establishes an electrical ground, maintains a vacuum enclosure and screens out low-energy gamma rays. The detector exhibits a directional sensitivity marked by an increased output in the favored direction by a factor of ten over the output in the unfavored direction.

  9. Method of "Active Correlations" for DSSSD detector application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, Yu. S.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time PC based algorithm is developed for DSSSD ( Double Side Silicon Strip Detector) detector. Brief description of the detection system is also presented. Complete fusion nuclear reaction nat Yt + 48 Ca → 217 Th is used to test this algorithm at 48Ca beam. Example of successful application of a former algorithm for resistive strip PIPS (resistive strip Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon) detector is presented too.

  10. The CDFII Silicon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Julia Thom

    2004-07-23

    The CDFII silicon detector consists of 8 layers of double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors totaling 722,432 readout channels, making it one of the largest silicon detectors in present use by an HEP experiment. After two years of data taking, we report on our experience operating the complex device. The performance of the CDFII silicon detector is presented and its impact on physics analyses is discussed. We have already observed measurable effects from radiation damage. These results and their impact on the expected lifetime of the detector are briefly reviewed.

  11. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; McQueen, Miles A.

    1996-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests stable in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use.

  12. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Barker, Stacey G.; Wowczuk, Andrew; Vellenoweth, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    A portable barrier strip having retractable tire-puncture spikes for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture spikes have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture spikes removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The plurality of barrier blocks hare hingedly interconnected by complementary hinges integrally formed into the side of each barrier block which allow the strip to be rolled for easy storage and retrieval, but which prevent irregular or back bending of the strip. The shafts of adjacent barrier blocks are pivotally interconnected via a double hinged universal joint to accommodate irregularities in a roadway surface and to transmit torsional motion of the shaft from block to block. A single flexshaft cable is connected to the shaft of an end block to allow a user to selectively cause the shafts of a plurality of adjacently connected barrier blocks to rotate the tire-puncture spikes to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire, and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. The flexshaft is provided with a resiliently biased retracting mechanism, and a release latch for allowing the spikes to be quickly retracted after the intended vehicle tire is punctured.

  13. Retractable barrier strip

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.; McQueen, M.A.

    1996-04-16

    A portable barrier strip is described having retractable tire-puncture means for puncturing a vehicle tire. The tire-puncture means, such as spikes, have an armed position for puncturing a tire and a retracted position for not puncturing a tire. The strip comprises a plurality of barrier blocks having the tire-puncture means removably disposed in a shaft that is rotatably disposed in each barrier block. The shaft removably and pivotally interconnects the plurality of barrier blocks. Actuation cables cause the shaft to rotate the tire-puncture means to the armed position for puncturing a vehicle tire and to the retracted position for not puncturing the tire. Each tire-puncture means is received in a hollow-bed portion of its respective barrier block when in the retracted position. The barrier strip rests in its deployed position and substantially motionless as a tire rolls thereon and over. The strip is rolled up for retrieval, portability, and storage purposes, and extended and unrolled in its deployed position for use. 13 figs.

  14. Strip and load data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The method of taking batch data files and loading these files into the ADABAS data base management system (DBMS) is examined. This strip and load process allows the user to quickly become productive. Techniques for data fields and files definition are also included.

  15. Spiral Galaxies Stripped Bare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Six spectacular spiral galaxies are seen in a clear new light in images from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. The pictures were taken in infrared light, using the impressive power of the HAWK-I camera, and will help astronomers understand how the remarkable spiral patterns in galaxies form and evolve. HAWK-I [1] is one of the newest and most powerful cameras on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is sensitive to infrared light, which means that much of the obscuring dust in the galaxies' spiral arms becomes transparent to its detectors. Compared to the earlier, and still much-used, VLT infrared camera ISAAC, HAWK-I has sixteen times as many pixels to cover a much larger area of sky in one shot and, by using newer technology than ISAAC, it has a greater sensitivity to faint infrared radiation [2]. Because HAWK-I can study galaxies stripped bare of the confusing effects of dust and glowing gas it is ideal for studying the vast numbers of stars that make up spiral arms. The six galaxies are part of a study of spiral structure led by Preben Grosbøl at ESO. These data were acquired to help understand the complex and subtle ways in which the stars in these systems form into such perfect spiral patterns. The first image shows NGC 5247, a spiral galaxy dominated by two huge arms, located 60-70 million light-years away. The galaxy lies face-on towards Earth, thus providing an excellent view of its pinwheel structure. It lies in the zodiacal constellation of Virgo (the Maiden). The galaxy in the second image is Messier 100, also known as NGC 4321, which was discovered in the 18th century. It is a fine example of a "grand design" spiral galaxy - a class of galaxies with very prominent and well-defined spiral arms. About 55 million light-years from Earth, Messier 100 is part of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies and lies in the constellation of Coma Berenices (Berenice's Hair, named after the ancient Egyptian queen Berenice II). The third

  16. The silicon tracker of the H1 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    List, Benno

    2006-10-01

    The H1 experiment at HERA is equipped with a silicon vertex detector, comprising a barrel part and two endcaps with disks. The barrel part uses double sided, DC coupled strip sensors, whereas the endcap parts use two types of wedge-shaped sensors, both single sided and AC coupled: u/v-sensors have strips parallel to one edge of the sensor, r-sensors have circular strips. Additional pad detectors provide fast triggering signals in the backward part.

  17. Wide field strip-imaging optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Arthur H. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A strip imaging wide angle optical system is provided. The optical system is provided with a 'virtual' material stop to avoid aberrational effects inherent in wide angle optical systems. The optical system includes a spherical mirror section for receiving light from a 180-degree strip or arc of a target image. Light received by the spherical mirror section is reflected to a frusto-conical mirror section for subsequent rereflection to a row of optical fibers. Each optical fiber transmits a portion of the received light to a detector. The optical system exploits the narrow cone of acceptance associated with optical fibers to substantially eliminate vignetting effects inherent in wide-angle systems. Further, the optical system exploits the narrow cone of acceptance of the optical fibers to substantially limit spherical aberration. The optical system is ideally suited for any application wherein a 180-degree strip image need be detected, and is particularly well adapted for use in hostile environments such as in planetary exploration.

  18. Hybrid superconducting neutron detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Merlo, V.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Salvato, M.; Cirillo, M.; Scherillo, A.; Celentano, G.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2015-03-16

    A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction, {sup 10}B + n → α + {sup 7}Li, with α and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current I{sub c}, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the superconducting state, thus resetting the detector. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed.

  19. Hybrid superconducting neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, V.; Salvato, M.; Cirillo, M.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Scherillo, A.; Celentano, G.; Pietropaolo, A.

    2015-03-01

    A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction, 10B + n → α + 7Li, with α and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current Ic, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the superconducting state, thus resetting the detector. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed.

  20. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  1. Paresev on Taxi Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Test pilot Milton Thompson sitting in NASA Flight Research Center-built Paresev 1 (Paraglider Research Vehicle) on the taxi strip in front of the NASA Flight Research Center in 1962. In this photo the control stick can be seen coming from overhead and hanging in front of the pilot. The control system was a direct link with the wing membrane made of doped Irish linen. By maintaining simplicity during construction, it was possible to make control and configuration changes overnight and, in many instances, in minutes.

  2. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  3. Strip casting apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert S.; Baker, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip.

  4. Operation of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuri, Gotra; CMS Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), comprising 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules covering an area of about 200 m², needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly interpret and reconstruct the events recorded from the detector, ensuring that the SST performance fully meets the physics research program of the CMS experiment. Calibration constants may be derived from promptly reconstructed events as well as from pedestal runs gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. These calibration procedures were exercised in summer and winter 2009, when the CMS detector was commissioned using cosmic muons and proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV. During these data taking periods the performance of the SST was carefully studied: the noise of the detector, the data integrity, the signal-to-noise ratio, the hit reconstruction efficiency, the calibration workflows have been all checked for stability and for different conditions, at the module level. The calibration procedures and the detector performance results from recent physics runs are described.

  5. Microtube Strip Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, F.D.

    1990-12-27

    Doty Scientific (DSI) believes their Microtube-Strip Heat Exchanger will contribute significantly to (a) the closed Brayton cycles being pursued at MIT, NASA, and elsewhere; (b) reverse Brayton cycle cryocoolers, currently being investigated by NASA for space missions, being applied to MRI superconducting magnets; and (c) high-efficiency cryogenic gas separation schemes for CO{sub 2} removal from exhaust stacks. The goal of this current study is to show the potential for substantial progress in high-effectiveness, low-cost, gas-to-gas heat exchangers for diverse applications at temperatures from below 100 K to above 1000 K. To date, the highest effectiveness measured is about 98%, and relative pressure drops below 0.1% with a specific conductance of about 45 W/kgK are reported. During the pre-award period DSI built and tested a 3-module heat exchanger bank using 103-tube microtube strip (MTS) modules. To add to their analytical capabilities, DSI has acquired computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This report describes the pre-award work and the status of the ten tasks of the current project, which are: analyze flow distribution and thermal stresses within individual modules; design a heat exchanger bank of ten modules with 400 microtube per module; obtain production quality tubestrip die and AISI 304 tubestrips; obtain production quality microtubing; construct revised MTS heat exchanger; construct dies and fixtures for prototype heat exchanger; construct 100 MTS modules; assemble 8-10 prototype MTS heat exchangers; test prototype MTS heat exchanger; and verify test through independent means. 7 refs., 9 figs. 1 tab. (CK)

  6. Bismuth-based electrochemical stripping analysis

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Method and apparatus for trace metal detection and analysis using bismuth-coated electrodes and electrochemical stripping analysis. Both anodic stripping voltammetry and adsorptive stripping analysis may be employed.

  7. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-06-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  8. Recent developments in semiconductor gamma-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, Paul N.; Amman, Mark; Tindall, Craig; Lee, Julie S.

    2003-10-28

    The successful development of lithium-drifted Ge detectors in the 1960's marked the beginning of the significant use of semiconductor crystals for direct detection and spectroscopy of gamma rays. In the 1970's, high-purity Ge became available, which enabled the production of complex detectors and multi-detector systems. In the following decades, the technology of semiconductor gamma-ray detectors continued to advance, with significant developments not only in Ge detectors but also in Si detectors and room-temperature compound-semiconductor detectors. In recent years, our group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed a variety of gamma ray detectors based on these semiconductor materials. Examples include Ge strip detectors, lithium-drifted Si strip detectors, and coplanar-grid CdZnTe detectors. These advances provide new capabilities in the measurement of gamma rays, such as the ability to perform imaging and the realization of highly compact spectroscopy systems.

  9. Extruded plastic scintillation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Anna Pla-Dalmau, Alan D. Bross and Kerry L. Mellott

    1999-04-16

    As a way to lower the cost of plastic scintillation detectors, commercially available polystyrene pellets have been used in the production of scintillating materials that can be extruded into different profiles. The selection of the raw materials is discussed. Two techniques to add wavelength shifting dopants to polystyrene pellets and to extrude plastic scintillating strips are described. Data on light yield and transmittance measurements are presented.

  10. The CMS muon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, P.

    2002-02-01

    The muon detection system of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is described. It consists of three different detector technologies: drift tubes in the barrel region, cathode strip chambers in the endcap region and resistive plate chambers in both barrel and endcap regions. The CMS muon detection system ensures excellent muon detection and efficient triggering in the pseudorapidity range 0< η<2.4. The most recent developments and some results from the R&D program will also be discussed.

  11. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites /strip hybrids/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Results are described which were obtained by applying advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends. This was done in order to illustrate the use of these methods for the apriori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-Glass/Random Composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle, and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  12. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites (strip hybrids)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics were applied to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends to illustrate the use of these methods for the a priori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-glass random composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  13. Modulated voltage metastable ionization detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, G. C.; Kojiro, D. R.; Humphrey, D. E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The output current from a metastable ionization detector (MID) is applied to a modulation voltage circuit. An adjustment is made to balance out the background current, and an output current, above background, is applied to an input of a strip chart recorder. For low level concentrations, i.e., low detected output current, the ionization potential will be at a maximum and the metastable ionization detector will operate at its most sensitive level. When the detected current from the metastable ionization detector increases above a predetermined threshold level, a voltage control circuit is activated which turns on a high voltage transistor which acts to reduce the ionization potential. The ionization potential applied to the metastable ionization detector is then varied so as to maintain the detected signal level constant. The variation in ionization potential is now related to the concentration of the constituent and a representative amplitude is applied to another input of said strip chart recorder.

  14. Architecture of a Silicon Strip Beam Position Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Angstadt, R.; Cooper, W.; Demarteau, M.; Green, J.; Jakubowski, S.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Turqueti, M.; Utes, M.; Cai, X.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

    2010-10-01

    A collaboration between Fermilab and the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP), Beijing, has developed a beam position monitor for the IHEP test beam facility. This telescope is based on 5 stations of silicon strip detectors having a pitch of 60 microns. The total active area of each layer of the detector is about 12 x 10 cm{sup 2}. Readout of the strips is provided through the use of VA1 ASICs mounted on custom hybrid printed circuit boards and interfaced to Adapter Cards via copper-over-kapton flexible circuits. The Adapter Cards amplify and level-shift the signal for input to the Fermilab CAPTAN data acquisition nodes for data readout and channel configuration. These nodes deliver readout and temperature data from triggered events to an analysis computer over gigabit Ethernet links.

  15. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1989-01-01

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  16. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-07-28

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

  17. The Dark Side of the Moebius Strip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Gideon E.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are various models proposed for the Moebius strip. Included are a discussion of a smooth flat model and two smooth flat algebraic models, some results concerning the shortest Moebius strip, the Moebius strip of least elastic energy, and some observations on real-world Moebius strips. (KR)

  18. Sex and stripping

    PubMed Central

    Pellecchia, Marco; Grève, Pierre; Daffonchio, Daniele; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis is known to infect only arthropods and nematodes (mainly filarial worms). A unique feature shared by the two Phyla is the ability to replace the exoskeleton, a process known as ecdysis. This shared characteristic is thought to reflect a common ancestry. Arthropod moulting is induced by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and a role for ecdysteroids in nematode ecdysis has also been suggested. Removing Wolbachia from filarial worms impairs the host’s development. From analyses of the genome of Wolbachia harbored by the filarial nematode Brugia malayi and that of its host, the bacterium may provide a source of heme, an essential component of cytochrome P450’s that are necessary for steroid hormone biosynthetic pathways. In arthropods, Wolbachia is a reproductive manipulator, inducing various phenotypic effects that may be due to differences in host physiology, in particular, endocrine-related processes governing development and reproduction. Insect steroids have well-defined roles in the coordination of multiple developmental processes, and in adults they control important aspects of reproduction, including ovarian development, oogenesis, sexual behavior, and in some taxa vitellogenin biosynthesis. According to some authors ecdysteroids may also act as sex hormones. In insects sex differentiation is generally thought to be a strictly genetic process, in which each cell decides its own sexual fate based on its sex chromosome constitution, but, surprisingly, recent data demonstrate that in Drosophila sex determination is not cell-autonomous, as it happens in mammals. Thus the presence of signals coordinating the development of a gender-specific phenotype cannot be excluded. This could explain why Wolbachia interferes with insect reproduction; and also could explain why Wolbachia interferes with insect development. Thus, is “sex (=reproduction) and stripping (=ecdysis)” the key to the intimate relationship between Wolbachia and its

  19. Front End Spectroscopy ASIC for Germanium Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulf, Eric

    Large-area, tracking, semiconductor detectors with excellent spatial and spectral resolution enable exciting new access to soft (0.2-5 MeV) gamma-ray astrophysics. The improvements from semiconductor tracking detectors come with the burden of high density of strips and/or pixels that require high-density, low-power, spectroscopy quality readout electronics. CMOS ASIC technologies are a natural fit to this requirement and have led to high-quality readout systems for all current semiconducting tracking detectors except for germanium detectors. The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI), formerly NCT, at University of California Berkeley and the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) at Goddard Space Flight Center utilize germanium cross-strip detectors and are on the forefront of NASA's Compton telescope research with funded missions of long duration balloon flights. The development of a readout ASIC for germanium detectors would allow COSI to replace their discrete electronics readout and would enable the proposed Gamma-Ray Explorer (GRX) mission utilizing germanium strip-detectors. We propose a 3-year program to develop and test a germanium readout ASIC to TRL 5 and to integrate the ASIC readout onto a COSI detector allowing a TRL 6 demonstration for the following COSI balloon flight. Our group at NRL led a program, sponsored by another government agency, to produce and integrate a cross-strip silicon detector ASIC, designed and fabricated by Dr. De Geronimo at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ASIC was designed to handle the large (>30 pF) capacitance of three 10 cm^2 detectors daisy-chained together. The front-end preamplifier, selectable inverter, shaping times, and gains make this ASIC compatible with a germanium cross-strip detector as well. We therefore have the opportunity and expertise to leverage the previous investment in the silicon ASIC for a new mission. A germanium strip detector ASIC will also require precise timing of the signals at

  20. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    DOEpatents

    McGregor, Douglas S.; Rojeski, Ronald A.

    2001-01-16

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  1. The HERMES recoil detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Belostotski, S.; Borisenko, A.; Bowles, J.; Brodski, I.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capitani, G. P.; Carassiti, V.; Ciullo, G.; Clarkson, A.; Contalbrigo, M.; De Leo, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Guler, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Hartig, M.; Hill, G.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Jo, H. S.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Kisselev, A.; Krause, B.; Krauss, B.; Lagamba, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, S.; Lu, X.-G.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Murray, M.; Mussgiller, A.; Nowak, W.-D.; Naryshkin, Y.; Osborne, A.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Petrov, A.; Pickert, N.; Prahl, V.; Protopopescu, D.; Reinecke, M.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rubacek, L.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Schnell, G.; Seitz, B.; Shearer, C.; Shutov, V.; Statera, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Van Haarlem, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Varanda, M.; Veretennikov, D.; Vilardi, I.; Vikhrov, V.; Vogel, C.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yu, W.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.

    2013-05-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with a field strength of 1T. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  2. The CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Tkaczyk, S.; Carter, H.; Flaugher, B.

    1993-09-01

    A silicon strip vertex detector was designed, constructed and commissioned at the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. The mechanical design of the detector, its cooling and monitoring are presented. The front end electronics employing a custom VLSI chip, the readout electronics and various components of the SVX system are described. The system performance and the experience with the operation of the detector in the radiation environment are discussed. The device has been taking colliding beams data since May of 1992, performing at its best design specifications and enhancing the physics program of CDF.

  3. Intrabeam stripping in H- Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.; Solyak, N.; Ostigy, J.-F.; Alexandrov, A.; Shishlo, A.; /Oak Ridge

    2010-09-01

    A beam loss in the superconducting part of the SNS linac has been observed during its commissioning and operation. Although the loss does not prevent the SNS high power operation, it results in an almost uniform irradiation of linac components and increased radiation levels in the tunnel. Multi-particle tracking could neither account for the magnitude of the observed loss nor its dependence on machine parameters. It was recently found that the loss is consistent with the intrabeam particle collisions resulting in stripping of H{sup -} ions. The paper describes experimental observations and corresponding analytical estimates of the intrabeam stripping.

  4. Characteristics of laminates with delamination control strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. T.; Goering, J. C.; Alper, J. M.; Gause, L. W.

    1992-01-01

    Tough resin is needed to resist delamination crack propagation. However, modulus often has to be compromised because it is difficult to retain both high modulus and toughness in a matrix material. A potential solution is to use a hybrid system in which tough resin strips are included within a conventional matrix composite. By adjusting the spacing of the tough resin strips, maximum delamination size can be controlled. Experimental results for impact damage and subsequent damage propagation in laminates containing tough resin strips are reported. Plain adhesive strips and fiber-reinforced tough resin composite strips were used in constructing the hybrid laminates. Test results indicated that size of delamination inflicted by impact was confined between the tough resin strips. As a result, significantly increased residual compressive strength was obtained. Impacted laminates containing tough resin strips were also fatigue tested. It was found that these strips reduced the growth of the impact damage area relative to the growth seen in coupons with no tough resin strips. Damage growth from an open hole under tension fatigue was evaluated using both tough resin strips and glass fiber reinforced tough resin strips. Unreinforced tough resin strips retarded delamination growth from the open hole, but did not stop matrix cracks growing in the fiber direction. Fiber reinforced tough resin strips did not contain axial delamination growth from the open hole. However, they did act as crack arresters, stopping the through-the-thickness tension crack originating from the hole.

  5. Characteristics of laminates with delamination control strips

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C.T.; Goering, J.C.; Alper, J.M.; Gause, L.W.

    1992-09-01

    Tough resin is needed to resist delamination crack propagation. However, modulus often has to be compromised because it is difficult to retain both high modulus and toughness in a matrix material. A potential solution is to use a hybrid system in which tough resin strips are included within a conventional matrix composite. By adjusting the spacing of the tough resin strips, maximum delamination size can be controlled. Experimental results for impact damage and subsequent damage propagation in laminates containing tough resin strips are reported. Plain adhesive strips and fiber-reinforced tough resin composite strips were used in constructing the hybrid laminates. Test results indicated that size of delamination inflicted by impact was confined between the tough resin strips. As a result, significantly increased residual compressive strength was obtained. Impacted laminates containing tough resin strips were also fatigue tested. It was found that these strips reduced the growth of the impact damage area relative to the growth seen in coupons with no tough resin strips. Damage growth from an open hole under tension fatigue was evaluated using both tough resin strips and glass fiber reinforced tough resin strips. Unreinforced tough resin strips retarded delamination growth from the open hole, but did not stop matrix cracks growing in the fiber direction. Fiber reinforced tough resin strips did not contain axial delamination growth from the open hole. However, they did act as crack arresters, stopping the through-the-thickness tension crack originating from the hole.

  6. The Perils of Strip Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Every year, a few administrators mishandle school searches and create spectacles similar to the New Castle, Pennsylvania, incident involving six illegally strip-searched students. Principals using "cops-and-robber" techniques to unearth contraband may not realize the potential for infringing on students' constitutional privacy rights. Strip…

  7. BUFFERS AND VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buffers and filter strips are areas of permanent vegetation located within and between agricultural fields and the water courses to which they drain. These buffers are intended to intercept and slow runoff thereby providing water quality benefits. In addition, in many settings they are intended to...

  8. Bimaterial Thermal Strip With Increased Flexing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Andrew D.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed bimaterial thermal strip, one layer has negative coefficient of thermal expansion, thereby increasing difference between coefficients of thermal expansion of two outer layers and consequently increasing flexing caused by change in temperature. Proposed bimaterial strips used in thermostats.

  9. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF GROUNDWATER STRIPPING EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the applicability of catalytic oxidation to control ground-water air stripping gaseous effluents, with special attention to system designs and case histories. The variety of contaminants and catalyst poisons encountered in stripping operations are also reviewed....

  10. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stripped bond or stripped coupon is less than the amount computed under subparagraphs (A) and (B) of...)) shall be considered to be zero. For purposes of this computation, the number of complete years to maturity is measured from the date the stripped bond or stripped coupon is purchased. (b) Treatment...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. 1.1286-1 Section 1.1286-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gains and Losses § 1.1286-1 Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. (a) De...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. 1.1286-1 Section 1.1286-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gains and Losses § 1.1286-1 Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. (a) De...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1286-1 - Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. 1.1286-1 Section 1.1286-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Gains and Losses § 1.1286-1 Tax treatment of certain stripped bonds and stripped coupons. (a) De...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  15. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  16. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  17. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  18. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  19. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  20. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  1. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  2. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  3. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  4. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  5. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  7. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  8. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  9. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  10. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  12. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  13. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  14. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  15. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  16. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  17. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  18. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  19. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  20. 7 CFR 29.3551 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.3551 Section 29.3551 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3551 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  1. 21 CFR 886.1800 - Schirmer strip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Schirmer strip. 886.1800 Section 886.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1800 Schirmer strip. (a) Identification. A Schirmer strip is...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2304 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strips. 29.2304 Section 29.2304 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2304 Strips... strips....

  3. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  4. 7 CFR 29.3062 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.3062 Section 29.3062 Agriculture... Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed; or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  5. 7 CFR 29.2556 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strips. 29.2556 Section 29.2556 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2556 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed or a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  6. 7 CFR 29.1063 - Strips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.1063 Section 29.1063 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1063 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has been removed from a lot of tobacco composed of strips....

  7. Decoding algorithms and spatial resolution Monte Carlo simulation of cross strip anode for UV astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guobao; Zhu, Xiangping

    2015-02-01

    The development decoding algorithms of two-dimensional cross strip anodes image readouts for applications in UV astronomy are described. We present results with Monte Carlo simulation by GEANT4 toolkit, the results show that when the cross strip anode period is 0.5mm and the electrode width is 0.4mm, the spatial resolution accuracy is sufficient to reach better than 5 μm, the temporal resolution accuracy of the event detection can be as low as 100 ps. The influences of the cross strip detector parameters, such as the anode period, the width of anode fingers (electrode), the width of the charge footprint at the anode (determined by the distance and the field between the MCP and the anode), the gain of the MCP and equivalent noise charge (ENC) are also discussed. The development decoding algorithms and simulation results can be useful for the designing and performance improvement of future photon counting imaging detectors for UV Astronomy.

  8. Overview of Silicon Detectors in STAR: Present and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Kabana, Sonia; Collaboration: The SVT, SSD and HFT detector groups of the STAR experiment at RHIC

    2011-12-13

    The STAR experiment at RHIC aims to study the QCD phase transition and the origin of the spin of the proton. Its main detector for charged particle track reconstruction is a Time Projection Chamber, which has been supplemented with a silicon detector involving two different technologies, in particular double-sided silicon strip and silicon drift technology. STAR is preparing now for a new Silicon Vertex Detector, using double-sided silicon strip, single-sided silicon strip-pads, and CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors technology, planned to take data in 2014. We give an overview of the design, calibration and performances of the silicon detectors used by the STAR experiment in the past and the expected performances of the future silicon detector upgrade.

  9. Bonded orthotropic strips with cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1978-01-01

    The elastostatic problem for a nonhomogeneous plane which consists of two sets of periodically arranged dissimilar orthotropic strips is considered. First, the problem of cracks fully imbedded into the homogeneous strips is considered. Then, the singular behavior of the stresses for two special crack geometries is studied in some detail. The first is the case of a broken laminate in which the crack tips touch the interfaces. The second is the case of cracks crossing the interfaces. A number of numerical examples are worked out in order to separate the primary material parameters influencing the stress intensity factors and the powers of stress singularity, and to determine the trends regarding the influence of the secondary parameters. Finally, some numerical results are given for the stress intensity factors in certain basic crack geometries and for typical material combinations.

  10. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-10-21

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.