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Sample records for mdea methyldiethanolamine piperazine

  1. Aerobic biodegradability of methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) used in natural gas sweetening plants in batch tests and continuous flow experiments.

    PubMed

    Frhacker, M; Pressl, A; Allabashi, R

    2003-09-01

    Mixtures of different amines including tertiary amines (methyldiethanolamine, MDEA) are commonly used for the removal of CO2 from gas mixtures or in gas sweetening processes for the extraction of CO2 and H2S. The absorber solutions used can be released into the industrial waste water due to continuous substitution of degraded MDEA, periodically cleaning processes or an accidental spill. In this study, the aerobic biodegradability of MDEA was investigated in a standardised batch test and a continuous flow experiment (40 l/d). The results of the batch test indicated that the MDEA-solution was non-biodegradable during the test period of 28 days, whereas the continuous flow experiments showed biodegradation of more than 96% based on TOC-measurements. This was probably due to the adaptation of the microorganisms to this particular waste water contamination during continuous flow experiment. PMID:12871741

  2. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of absorption in piperazine activated MDEA solution.

    PubMed

    Farmahini, Amir Hajiahmadi; Kvamme, Bjørn; Kuznetsova, Tatiana

    2011-07-28

    Development of more efficient solvent solutions for removal of CO(2) from natural gas and flue gases is a major task, which contributes to improved design of process plants and leads to decreased costs for its removal. Understanding the mechanisms of CO(2) absorption as well as analysis of undesired simultaneous processes is crucially important in this regard. In this work, we have applied Molecular Dynamics (MD) to investigate the absorption of CO(2) from a binary mixture of CO(2) and CH(4) into aqueous piperazine activated MDEA solution. The MD simulations were performed at a constant temperature of 298 K for five different systems with a loading factor of 0.07 to provide insight into molecular distribution in the amine solution and to enhance understanding of absorption mechanisms on the molecular scale. Force field parameters that were missing from the OPLS-AA force field, as well as charge distribution of piperazine (PZ), protonated piperazine (PZH(+)), piperazine carbamate (PZCOO(-)) and MDEA were obtained by QM calculations. The results of our simulations emphasize the importance of piperazine and piperazine carbamate in accelerating the absorption process. For the first time, we have shown the undesirable trapping of CH(4) by the amine solution and revealed that amine groups are mainly responsible for both absorption of CO(2) and the undesired trapping of CH(4). PMID:21691636

  3. Modeling CO2 mass transfer in amine mixtures: PZ-AMP and PZ-MDEA.

    PubMed

    Puxty, Graeme; Rowland, Robert

    2011-03-15

    The most common method of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) capture is the absorption of CO(2) into a falling thin film of an aqueous amine solution. Modeling of mass transfer during CO(2) absorption is an important way to gain insight and understanding about the underlying processes that are occurring. In this work a new software tool has been used to model CO(2) absorption into aqueous piperazine (PZ) and binary mixtures of PZ with 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) or methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). The tool solves partial differential and simultaneous equations describing diffusion and chemical reaction automatically derived from reactions written using chemical notation. It has been demonstrated that by using reactions that are chemically plausible the mass transfer in binary mixtures can be fully described by combining the chemical reactions and their associated parameters determined for single amines. The observed enhanced mass transfer in binary mixtures can be explained through chemical interactions occurring in the mixture without need to resort to using additional reactions or unusual transport phenomena such as the "shuttle mechanism". PMID:21329341

  4. N-methyldiethanolamine: a multifunctional structure-directing agent for the synthesis of SAPO and AlPO molecular sieves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dehua; Tian, Peng; Fan, Dong; Yang, Miao; Gao, Beibei; Qiao, Yuyan; Wang, Chan; Liu, Zhongmin

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) is demonstrated to be a multifunctional structure-directing agent for the synthesis of aluminophosphate-based molecular sieves. Four types of molecular sieves, including SAPO-34, -35, AlPO-9 and -22, are for the first time acquired with MDEA as a novel template. The phase selectivity of the present synthesis is found to be condition-dependent. SAPO-34 (CHA) crystallizes from a conventional hydrothermal system with a higher MDEA concentration. When using MDEA as both the template and solvent, pure SAPO-35 (LEV) is obtained from the synthetic gel with a high P2O5/Al2O3 ratio of (2-3), in which the concentration of MDEA could be varied in a wide range. AlPO-9 and AlPO-22 (AWW) are synthesized under the similar conditions to SAPO-35, except without the addition of Si source. The physicochemical properties of the obtained samples are investigated by XRD, XRF, SEM, N2 physisorption, TG-DSC, and various NMR spectra ((13)C, (29)Si, (27)Al and (31)P). Both SAPO-34 and SAPO-35 show good thermal stability, large surface area, and high pore volume. The catalytic performance of SAPO-34 is evaluated by the methanol-to-olefins (MTO) reaction and a good (C2H4+C3H6) selectivity of 82.7% has been achieved. PMID:25616250

  5. Estimation of the CO{sub 2} absorption capacities in aqueous 2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethanol and its blends with MDEA and TEA in the presence of SO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Bonenfant, D.; Minleault, M.; Hausler, R.

    2007-12-15

    A study of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2})/CO{sub 2} mixtures absorption has been carried out in aqueous 2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethanol (AEE) solution and its blends with N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) to estimate the influence of SO{sub 2}, MDEA, and TEA on the CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of the AEE. The CO{sub 2} absorption loading has been estimated in 15 wt % AEE alone and in the presence of either 5 and 10 wt % MDEA or 5 and 10 wt % TEA solutions with 100 vol % CO{sub 2} and 5.03 and 15.02 vol % SO{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures at a starting temperature of 296 K and flow rates of 3.067, 3.229, and 3.605 L/min, respectively. The results revealed that the presence of SO{sub 2} in the gas decreases the CO{sub 2} absorption rate and loading in the AEE solution as a function of the concentration of SO{sub 2}. The additions of 5 and 10 wt % of MDEA and TEA do not seem to influence the CO{sub 2} absorption rate in the AEE solution. Moreover, the addition of MDEA increases slightly the CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of AEE, while TEA decreases the absorption capacity of AEE in the absence and presence Of SO{sub 2}. These effects were enhanced with increases of MDEA and TEA. Altogether, the results indicated that the blend of 15 wt % AEE + 10 wt % MDEA represents an interesting solvent which could be used as absorbent for the removal of CO{sub 2} from emission into the atmosphere by industries.

  6. Improvement of amine-modification with piperazine for the adsorption of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Quanmin; Wu, Di; Zhou, Yaping; Zhou, Li

    2012-02-01

    Both selectivity and capacity of CO2 adsorption were considerably increased when PZ (piperazine) was added in MDEA (methyldiethylamine) that used to modify the surface of silica gels. The adsorbent saturated with CO2 was regenerated at ambient temperature through nitrogen purge. A set of PSA (pressure swing adsorption) operation with 200 cycles was carried out and applicability of the modified adsorbent was thus illustrated. The CO2 content in the column-top stream decreased from 13% to below 0.05% at steady state.

  7. Some pharmacological properties of piperazine

    PubMed Central

    Mason, P. A.; Sturman, Gillian

    1972-01-01

    1. The action of piperazine on mammalian smooth, cardiac and skeletal muscles has been studied. 2. Piperazine increased tone and produced a dose dependent contraction of isolated smooth muscle, which was antagonized by atropine. 3. With cardiac muscle, piperazine depressed both the rate and force of contraction and was antagonized by atropine. At higher concentrations, a non-specific depression of cardiac muscle was found. The intravenous injection of piperazine produced a transient decrease in both heart rate and blood pressure and this was followed by an increase. 4. In about half of the mammalian skeletal muscle preparations, piperazine potentiated the twitch of the muscle evoked by electrical stimulation. 5. On the frog neuromuscular preparation, piperazine produced potentiation of the twitch but this was followed first by blockade of the effects of nerve stimulation and then by depression of the effects of direct muscle stimulation. PMID:4668588

  8. Piperazine-induced occupational asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmar, L.; Bellander, T.; Bergoeoe, B.; Simonsson, B.G.

    1982-03-01

    Asthmatic reactions were studied among some 130 factory workers who handled amines and other chemicals. Among present employees, we found 15 cases of asthma associated with occupational exposure to chemicals; among former employees there were at least 18. The inducing agent was judged to be piperazine in 29 persons and ethylenediamine (EDA) in three. The asthma was of the late or dual type; immediate reactions alone were to seen. No one had attacks of asthma before employment, and atopic subjects were not preferentially affected. Routine spirometry revealed airway obstruction in fewer than half of the recent cases. Tests of nonspecific bronchial reactivity with methacholine in six subjects with recent asthma showed hyperactivity in five, while tow subjects with earlier asthma did not have hyperactivity. Bronchial provocation tests with piperazine in one subject were positive both in the factory and in the laboratory. The level of piperazine was 1.2 mg/m3 time-weighted average (TWA) in a work place associated with induction of the asthmatic state, and 0.3 mg/m3 in a place connected with attacks in ''sensitized'' subjects.

  9. Adam (MDMA) and Eve (MDEA) misuse: an immunohistochemical study on three fatal cases.

    PubMed

    Fineschi, V; Centini, F; Mazzeo, E; Turillazzi, E

    1999-09-30

    Three fatal cases of MDMA/MDEA misuse have been examined. These referred to white males between 19 and 20 years of age, in which post-mortem toxicology showed the presence of MDMA (in one case), MDEA (in one case) and both (in one case). The clinical data were analysed and the histopathological findings were studied following immunohistochemical investigations. A complete immunohistochemical study has made it possible to demonstrate rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria with alterations of the organs typical of a DIC. Clinical, histopathological and toxicological data suggest that severe or fatal complications following ecstasy ingestion could be related to idiosyncratic response. PMID:10533279

  10. 21 CFR 520.1807 - Piperazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Piperazine. 520.1807 Section 520.1807 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1807 Piperazine. (a) Specifications. A soluble powder or liquid...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1806 - Piperazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine suspension. 520.1806 Section 520.1806 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1806 Piperazine...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1806 - Piperazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine suspension. 520.1806 Section 520.1806 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1806 Piperazine...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. 520....2380f Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. (a) Specifications. Each ounce of water dispersible powder contains 6.67 grams of thiabendazole and 8.33 grams of piperazine (as piperazine phosphate)....

  14. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. 520....2380f Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. (a) Specifications. Each ounce of water dispersible powder contains 6.67 grams of thiabendazole and 8.33 grams of piperazine (as piperazine phosphate)....

  15. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. 520....2380f Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. (a) Specifications. Each ounce of water dispersible powder contains 6.67 grams of thiabendazole and 8.33 grams of piperazine (as piperazine phosphate)....

  16. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. 520....2380f Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. (a) Specifications. Each ounce of water dispersible powder contains 6.67 grams of thiabendazole and 8.33 grams of piperazine (as piperazine phosphate)....

  17. 21 CFR 520.2380f - Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. 520....2380f Thiabendazole, piperazine phosphate powder. (a) Specifications. Each ounce of water dispersible powder contains 6.67 grams of thiabendazole and 8.33 grams of piperazine (as piperazine phosphate)....

  18. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Secondary and α-Tertiary Piperazin-2-ones and Piperazines by Catalytic Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Korch, Katerina M.; Eidamshaus, Christian; Behenna, Douglas C.; Nam, Sangkil; Horne, David

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of differentially N-protected piperazin-2-ones allows for the synthesis of a variety of highly enantioenriched tertiary piperazine-2-ones. Deprotection and reduction affords the corresponding tertiary piperazines, which can be employed for the synthesis of medicinally important analogs. The introduction of these chiral tertiary piperazines resulted in imatinib analogs that exhibited comparable antiproliferative activity to that of their corresponding imatinib counterparts. PMID:25382664

  19. Piperazine-based nucleic acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Jurgen; Silks, Louis A.; Michalczyk, Ryszard

    2005-01-11

    A novel nucleoside analog is disclosed which comprises a piperazine ring in the place of the ring ribose or deoxyribose sugar. Monomers utilizing a broad variety of nucleobases are disclosed, as well as oligomers comprising the monomers disclosed herein linked by a variety of linkages, including amide, phosphonamide, and sulfonamide linkages. A method of synthesizing the nucleoside analogs is also disclosed.

  20. Gene cloning and characterization of MdeA, a novel multidrug efflux pump in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Cho, Eun Ji; Joo, Seoung-Je; Chung, Jung-Min; Son, Byoung Yil; Yum, Jong Hwa; Kim, Young-Man; Kwon, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Byung-Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Eun-Woo

    2013-03-01

    Multidrug resistance, especially multidrug efflux mechanisms that extrude structurally unrelated cytotoxic compounds from the cell by multidrug transporters, is a serious problem and one of the main reasons for the failure of therapeutic treatment of infections by pathogenic microorganisms as well as of cancer cells. Streptococcus mutans is considered one of the primary causative agents of dental caries and periodontal disease, which comprise the most common oral diseases. A fragment of chromosomal DNA from S. mutans KCTC3065 was cloned using Escherichia coli KAM32 as host cells lacking major multidrug efflux pumps. Although E. coli KAM32 cells were very sensitive to many antimicrobial agents, the transformed cells harboring a recombinant plasmid became resistant to several structurally unrelated antimicrobial agents such as tetracycline, kanamycin, rhodamin 6G, ampicillin, acriflavine, ethidium bromide, and tetraphenylphosphonium chloride. This suggested that the cloned DNA fragment carries a gene encoding a multidrug efflux pump. Among 49 of the multidrug-resistant transformants, we report the functional gene cloning and characterization of the function of one multidrug efflux pump, namely MdeA from S. mutans, which was expressed in E. coli KAM32. Judging from the structural and biochemical properties, we concluded that MdeA is the first cloned and characterized multidrug efflux pump using the proton motive force as the energy for efflux drugs. PMID:23462018

  1. An experimental investigation into the atmospheric degradation of piperazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Stephen; Angove, Dennys; Azzi, Merched; Tibbett, Anne; Campbell, Ian; Patterson, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The atmospheric degradation of piperazine was investigated using an indoor smog chamber. Experiments were carried out in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone or nitric acid. Piperazine reacted rapidly under all evaluated conditions: irradiated in the presence of NOx and with ozone and nitric acid in the dark. Gas phase products from the oxidation of piperazine were identified by infrared spectroscopy, DNPH cartridges followed by HPLC analysis, and by sampling chamber gas through Tenax sorbent material followed by analysis using thermal desorption GC-ITMS (gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry). Eight compounds were positively identified, with a further nine compounds tentatively identified using GC-MS based on molecular weight and mass spectra. Ammonia formation was observed from piperazine oxidation, and its formation was from the subsequent reactions of photooxidation products of piperazine rather than directly from the reaction of piperazine. The nitrosamine and nitramine expected from piperazine, N-nitrosopiperazine, and N-nitropiperazine, were both identified and confirmed using 15NO, with a tentative maximum yield of nitrosamine of less than 5% observed. Aerosol yields, relative to total piperazine reacted not including that which absorbed to the walls, were considerably high but were not able to be quantified absolutely due to unusual behaviour of the scanning mobility particle sizer instrument to aerosol containing amines. The reaction of piperazine with gas phase nitric acid gave rise to immediate formation of aerosol.

  2. Engineering of copper molybdates: Piperazine dictated pseudopolymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavani, Katikaneani; Singh, Monika; Ramanan, Arunachalam; Lofland, Samuel E.; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V.

    2009-09-01

    The hydrothermal syntheses, crystal structures and magnetic behavior of two compositionally different piperazine pillared copper molybdates, [{Cu( pip) 0.5}MoO 4] ( 1) and a hitherto unknown [Cu( pip)MoO 4] ( pip = piperazine) ( 2), are reported. Both 1 and 2 exhibit three-dimensional covalent frameworks constructed from bimetallic oxide layers pillared by piperazine; however, the {CuMoO 4} networks are quite distinct. The Cu-Mo-O layers in 1 are made of edge-shared {CuO 4N} square pyramidal pairs linked through {MoO 4} tetrahedra, in contrast to the sheets in 2 that are built of corner-sharing {MoO 4} tetrahedra and {CuO 3N 2} square pyramids. Self assembly of the two pseudopolymorphs, 1 and 2, is interpreted in terms of molecular recognition between reasonable soluble molecular species in the supramolecular reaction along the mechanistic approach proposed by Ramanan and Whittingham for rationalizing metal-organic framework structures. Crystal data: 1, Triclinic, space group P-1, a = 5.5765(8) , b = 6.8304(10) , c = 9.2379(14) , ? = 100.688(2), ? = 101.462(2), ? = 112.624(2), Z = 2; 2, Orthorhombic, space group Pbca, a = 11.3899(11) , b = 10.7726(10) , c = 13.2541(12) , Z = 8.

  3. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  5. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  6. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  7. 21 CFR 520.1804 - Piperazine phosphate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate capsules. 520.1804 Section... phosphate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains 120, 300, or 600 milligrams of piperazine phosphate monohydrate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of...

  8. 21 CFR 520.1242c - Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... piperazine dihydrochloride equivalent to 3.98 grams of piperazine base. (2) The drug is a soluble powder... and piperazine dihydrochloride equivalent to 5.0 grams of piperazine base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 053501... 100 pounds of body weight. Reconstituted soluble powder: administer by stomach tube 1 fluid ounce...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1805 - Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate... § 520.1805 Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each scored tablet contains the equivalent of 250 milligrams piperazine hexahydrate (as piperazine phosphate) and...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1805 - Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate... § 520.1805 Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each scored tablet contains the equivalent of 250 milligrams piperazine hexahydrate (as piperazine phosphate) and...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1805 - Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate... § 520.1805 Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each scored tablet contains the equivalent of 250 milligrams piperazine hexahydrate (as piperazine phosphate) and...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1805 - Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate... § 520.1805 Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each scored tablet contains the equivalent of 250 milligrams piperazine hexahydrate (as piperazine phosphate) and...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1805 - Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate... § 520.1805 Piperazine phosphate with thenium closylate tablets. (a) Specifications. Each scored tablet contains the equivalent of 250 milligrams piperazine hexahydrate (as piperazine phosphate) and...

  14. Amiodarone and metabolite MDEA inhibit Ebola virus infection by interfering with the viral entry process.

    PubMed

    Salata, Cristiano; Baritussio, Aldo; Munegato, Denis; Calistri, Arianna; Ha, Huy Riem; Bigler, Laurent; Fabris, Fabrizio; Parolin, Cristina; Palù, Giorgio; Mirazimi, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one of the most lethal transmissible infections characterized by a high fatality rate, and a treatment has not been developed yet. Recently, it has been shown that cationic amphiphiles, among them the antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone, inhibit filovirus infection. In the present work, we investigated how amiodarone interferes with Ebola virus infection. Wild-type Sudan ebolavirus and recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus, pseudotyped with the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein, were used to gain further insight into the ability of amiodarone to affect Ebola virus infection. We show that amiodarone decreases Ebola virus infection at concentrations close to those found in the sera of patients treated for arrhythmias. The drug acts by interfering with the fusion of the viral envelope with the endosomal membrane. We also show that MDEA, the main amiodarone metabolite, contributes to the antiviral activity. Finally, studies with amiodarone analogues indicate that the antiviral activity is correlated with drug ability to accumulate into and interfere with the endocytic pathway. Considering that it is well tolerated, especially in the acute setting, amiodarone appears to deserve consideration for clinical use in EVD. PMID:25933611

  15. GC-MS studies on side chain regioisomers related to substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamines: MDEA, MDMMA, and MBDB.

    PubMed

    Awad, Tamer; Belal, Tarek; Maher, Hadir M; DeRuiter, Jack; Clark, C Randall

    2010-10-01

    Three regioisomeric 3,4-methylenedioxyphenethylamines having the same molecular weight and major mass spectral fragments of equal mass have been reported as drugs of abuse in forensic studies in recent years. These compounds are 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N,N-dimethylamphetamine (MDMMA), and N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MBDB). A series of seven additional side chain regioisomers have mass spectra essentially equivalent to the three controlled drug substances, all have molecular weight of 207 and major fragment ions in their electron ionization mass spectra at m/z 72 and 135/136. The trifluoroacetyl, pentafluoropropionyl, and heptafluorobutryl derivatives of the primary and secondary regioisomeric amines were evaluated in GC-MS studies. The mass spectra for these derivatives were significantly individualized, and the resulting unique fragment ions allowed for specific side chain identification. The trifluoroacetyl and heptafluorobutryl derivatives provided more specific fragment ions for molecular individualization among these regioisomeric substances. These perfluoroacyl derivatives showed reasonable resolution on the polar stationary phase Rtx-200. PMID:20875234

  16. Survey and Down-Selection of Acid Gas Removal Systems for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol with a Detailed Analysis of an MDEA System

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, California

    2011-05-01

    The first section (Task 1) of this report by Nexant includes a survey and screening of various acid gas removal processes in order to evaluate their capability to meet the specific design requirements for thermochemical ethanol synthesis in NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007, NREL/TP-510-41168). MDEA and selexol were short-listed as the most promising acid-gas removal agents based on work described in Task 1. The second report section (Task 2) describes a detailed design of an MDEA (methyl diethanol amine) based acid gas removal system for removing CO2 and H2S from biomass-derived syngas. Only MDEA was chosen for detailed study because of the available resources.

  17. 21 CFR 520.1802c - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with... ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1802c Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce contains 5 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex and 0.83 gram...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1802c - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with... ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1802c Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce contains 5 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex and 0.83 gram...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1802c - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with... ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1802c Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce contains 5 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex and 0.83 gram...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1802c - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with... ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1802c Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce contains 5 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex and 0.83 gram...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1802c - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with... ANIMAL DRUGS 520.1802c Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex with phenothiazine suspension. (a) Specifications. Each fluid ounce contains 5 grams of piperazine-carbon disulfide complex and 0.83 gram...

  2. The Piperazine Space in Isocyanide-based MCR Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yijun; Khoury, Kareem; Dmling, Alexander

    Piperazines and its congeners, (di)keto piperazines are valuable tools in drug discovery, providing a natural path for the process peptide > peptidomimetic > small molecule also called depeptisation. Moreover, they can provide molecular probes to understand molecular pathways for diseases of unmet medical need. However, in order to better understand the design of such value added compounds, the detailed understanding of scope and limitation of their synthesis as well as their 3D structures and associated physicochemical properties is indispensables. Isocyanide multicomponent reaction (MCR) chemistry provides a prime tool for entering the chemical space of (di)(keto)piperazines since not less then 20 different ways exist to access a diversity of related scaffolds.

  3. Theoretical study of differential enthalpy of absorption of CO2 with MEA and MDEA as a function of temperature.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mayuri; da Silva, Eirik F; Hartono, Ardi; Svendsen, Hallvard F

    2013-08-15

    Temperature dependent correlations for enthalpy of deprotonation, carbamate formation, and heat of absorption of the overall reaction between aqueous MEA and MDEA and gaseous CO2 are calculated on the basis of computational chemistry based ln K values input to the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. Temperature dependency of reaction equilibrium constants for deprotonation and carbamate formation reactions is calculated with the SM8T continuum solvation model coupled with density functional theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Calculated reaction equilibrium constants and enthalpies of individual reactions and overall heat of absorption are compared against experimental data in the temperature range 273.15-373 K. Temperature dependent correlations for different reaction equilibrium constants and enthalpies of reactions are given. These correlated results can be used in thermodynamic models such as UNIQUAC and NRTL for better understanding of post-combustion CO2 capture solvent chemistry. PMID:23855311

  4. Differences in binding affinities of MDA, MDMA, MDEA, Amphetamine, Methamphetamine, and their deuterated analogues to solid-phase extraction cartridges.

    PubMed

    Romberg, R W; Ntamack, A G; Blacik, L J; Kazarian, C M; Snyder, J Jacob; Welsh, E R

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential for partial separation of drugs from their deuterated internal standards using Cerex(®) Polycrom™ CLIN II solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. After elution from the column and derivatization, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results showed that the target compound eluted from the SPE cartridge prior to its deuterated form. This elution separation effect was greater for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine (MAMP) than for the other drugs studied. When the drugs were eluted in 0.5 mL increments from a 50 mg sorbent bed, no drug appeared in the first fraction. The drug to internal standard ratios (expected value 1.00) for subsequent fractions collected were 1.30, 1.07, and 0.83 for MDA/MDA-d(5); 1.65, 1.18, 0.67, and 0.56 for MDMA/MDMAd(5); and 1.37, 1.18, and 0.95 for MDEA/MDEA-d(6). For d-AMP and d-MAMP, the expected ratio was 0.40. The subsequent ratios were 0.63, 0.46, 0.35, and 0.34 for d-AMP/d-AMP-d(11); and 1.00, 0.59, 0.25, and 0.18 for d-MAMP/d-MAMP-d(14). The affinity of d-MAMPd(14) was shown to be greater than that of d-MAMP-d(5), and deuteration at the propyl end of the molecule was shown to increase binding more than deuteration on the phenyl group. PMID:21219698

  5. 21 CFR 520.2380d - Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension. 520.2380d Section 520.2380d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... by stomach tube or as a drench at the rate of 1 fluid ounce of suspension per 100 pounds of...

  6. 21 CFR 520.2380d - Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thiabendazole, piperazine citrate suspension. 520.2380d Section 520.2380d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... by stomach tube or as a drench at the rate of 1 fluid ounce of suspension per 100 pounds of...

  7. Investigations on the stereoselectivity of the phase II metabolism of the 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyethylamphetamine (DHEA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyethylamphetamine (HMEA).

    PubMed

    Schwaninger, Andrea E; Meyer, Markus R; Zapp, Josef; Maurer, Hans H

    2012-07-01

    Different elimination was reported for the two enantiomers of the designer drug 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in vivo. In the present work, the enantioselectivity of glucuronidation and sulfation of the MDEA phase I metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyethylamphetamine (DHEA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyethylamphetamine (HMEA) was investigated. First, glucuronide standards were synthesized using rat liver microsomes. Incubations were performed with recombinant human UDP-glucuronyltransferases (UGT) and pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM) for glucuronidation and using recombinant human sulfotransferases (SULT) and pooled human liver cytosol (pHLC) for sulfation. Product formation experiments were performed by quantification of the phase II metabolites using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Additionally, substrate depletion experiments were conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after chiral derivatization for sulfation. UGT2B7, 2B15, and 2B17 were involved in glucuronidation of HMEA and SULT1A1 and SULT1A3 and SULT1A3 and SULT1E1 in the sulfation of DHEA and HMEA, respectively. SULTs provided much higher affinity, whereas UGTs showed higher capacities. Marked stereoselectivity could be observed for UGT2B15, UGT2B17, and pHLM toward S-HMEA, for SULT1A3 and pHLC toward S-DHEA and for SULT1A3 and pHLC toward R-HMEA. In conclusion, the phase II metabolism might also contribute to the observed different pharmacokinetic properties of MDEA. PMID:22564759

  8. Virtual Screening and Biological Evaluation of Piperazine Derivatives as Human Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Varadaraju, Kavitha Raj; Kumar, Jajur Ramanna; Mallesha, Lingappa; Muruli, Archana; Mohana, Kikkeri Narasimha Shetty; Mukunda, Chethan Kumar; Sharanaiah, Umesha

    2013-01-01

    The piperazine derivatives have been shown to inhibit human acetylcholinesterase. Virtual screening by molecular docking of piperazine derivatives 1-(1,4-benzodioxane-2-carbonyl) piperazine (K), 4-(4-methyl)-benzenesulfonyl-1-(1,4-benzodioxane-2-carbonyl) piperazine (S1), and 4-(4-chloro)-benzenesulfonyl-1-(1,4-benzodioxane-2-carbonyl) piperazine (S3) has been shown to bind at peripheral anionic site and catalytic sites, whereas 4-benzenesulfonyl-1-(1,4-benzodioxane-2-carbonyl) piperazine (S4) and 4-(2,5-dichloro)-benzenesulfonyl-1-(1,4-benzodioxane-2-carbonyl) piperazine (S7) do not bind either to peripheral anionic site or catalytic site with hydrogen bond. All the derivatives have differed in number of H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The peripheral anionic site interacting molecules have proven to be potential therapeutics in inhibiting amyloid peptides aggregation in Alzheimer's disease. All the piperazine derivatives follow Lipinski's rule of five. Among all the derivatives 1-(1,4-benzodioxane-2-carbonyl) piperazine (K) was found to have the lowest TPSA value. PMID:24288651

  9. Synthesis and characterization of the novel phosphonates- and phosphonothioate-piperazine as flame retardants for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (PDP) and O,O,O',O'-tetramethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonothioate (PDSP) were synthesized in one simple step and their structures were confirmed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis (EA). Print cloth, twil...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1802 - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms. 520.1802 Section 520.1802 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... 520.1802 Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms....

  11. 21 CFR 520.1802 - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms. 520.1802 Section 520.1802 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... 520.1802 Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms....

  12. 21 CFR 520.1802 - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms. 520.1802 Section 520.1802 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... 520.1802 Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms....

  13. 21 CFR 520.1802 - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms. 520.1802 Section 520.1802 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... 520.1802 Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms....

  14. 21 CFR 520.1802 - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms. 520.1802 Section 520.1802 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... 520.1802 Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex oral dosage forms....

  15. GC-MS and GC-IRD analysis of ring and side chain regioisomers of ethoxyphenethylamines related to the controlled substances MDEA, MDMMA and MBDB.

    PubMed

    Al-Hossaini, Abdullah M; Awad, Tamer; DeRuiter, Jack; Clark, C Randall

    2010-07-15

    Three regioisomeric 3, 4-methylenedioxyphenethylamines having the same molecular weight and major mass spectral fragments of equal mass have been reported as drugs of abuse in recent years. These compounds are 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N,N-dimethylamphetamine (MDMMA), and N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MBDB). Ring substituted ethoxy phenethylamines having the same side chain are compounds with an isobaric relationship to these controlled drug substances, all have molecular weight of 207 and major fragment ions in their electron ionization mass spectra at m/z 72 and 135/136. The three methylenedioxyphenethylamines were resolved from the ethoxyphenethylamines by capillary gas chromatography using an Rxi-50 stationary phase. The trifluoroacetyl, pentafluoropropionyl and heptafluorobutryl derivatives of the secondary amines were evaluated in GC-MS studies. The mass spectra for these derivatives were significantly individualized and the resulting unique fragment ions allowed for specific side chain identification. The perfluoroacyl derivatives showed reasonable resolution on a non-polar stationary phase such as Rtx-1. GC-IRD studies provided structure-IR spectra relationships used for the discrimination of the three target drugs (MDEA, MDMMA and MBDB) from the other nine ring substituted ethoxyphenethylamine regioisomers. PMID:20427137

  16. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF NOVEL PIPERAZINE ANALOGUES BEARING QUINOLINE AND PYRIDINE MOIETIES.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghorbani, M; Rekha, N D; Ranganatha, V Lakshmi; Prashanth, V; Veerabasappagowda, T; Khanum, S A

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel piperazine analogues bearing quinolin-8-yloxy-butan--ones/pyridin-2-yloxy-ethanones were synthesized by a simple and convenient approach based on various substituted piperazine incorporating quinoline and pyridine moieties. The analogues were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferrous ion radical scavenging activities and anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of Vipera russelli venom (PLA2) and gastric K+/H(+)-ATPase activities. Most of the title compounds exhibited promising activity. Best antioxidant and PLA2-inhibiting activities were found for piperazine analogues with phenyl and nitro phenyl groups, whereas methoxy group on phenyl piperazine indicated selectivity for the H+/K(+)-ATPase. PMID:26762101

  17. 1-Phenylpiperazine-1,4-diium tetrachloridocobalt(II)

    PubMed Central

    Dhieb, Abdelhamid Chiheb; Janzen, Daron E.; Rzaigui, Mohamed; Smirani Sta, Wajda

    2014-01-01

    In the title molecular salt, (C10H16N2)[CoCl4], the piperazine ring of the phenylpiperazine dication adopts a chair conformation and the phenyl ring occupies an equatorial orientation. In the tetrachloridocobaltate(II) dianion, the CoCl bond lengths for the chloride ions not accepting hydrogen bonds are significantly shorter than those for the chloride ions accepting such bonds. In the crystal, the components are linked by NH?Cl hydrogen bonds, generating [001] chains. PMID:24826100

  18. Crystal structures of 4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)piperazin-1-ium chloride and 4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)piperazin-1-ium nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Yamuna, Thammarse S.; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Kaur, Manpreet; Anderson, Brian J.; Yathirajan, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    The title salts, C8H13N4 +Cl?, (I), and C8H13N4 +NO3 ?, (II), contain linked pyridiniumpiperazine heterocycles. In both salts, the piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation with protonation at the N atom not linked to the other ring. In the crystal of (I), weak NH?Cl interactions are observed, leading to zigzag chains along [100]. In the crystal of (II), both H atoms on the NH2 + group form bifurcated NH?(O,O) hydrogen bonds. Weak CH?O interactions are also observed. These bonds collectively link the components into infinite chains along [100]. PMID:25484652

  19. Thermal decomposition reactions of cotton fabric treated with piperazine-phosphonates derivatives as a flame retardant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a great scientific interest in exploring the great potential of the piperazine-phosphonates in flame retardant (FR) application on cotton fabric by investigating the thermal decomposition of cotton fabric treated with them. This research tries to understand the mode of action of the t...

  20. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder. 520.2520g Section 520.2520g Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF.... Administer by stomach tube. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in...

  1. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder. 520.2520g Section 520.2520g Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF.... Administer by stomach tube. Do not fast horses before or after treatment. Treatment of mares in...

  2. The influences of piperazine-phosphonates derivatives on flame retardancy and thermal behaviors of cotton cellulose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to create the environmentally-friendly flame retardants (FRs) for cotton cellulose, two phosphoramidates derivatives, tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (PDP) and diethyl 4-methylpiperazin-1-ylphosphoramidate (PAP), have been developed. Both were synthesized in high yield and ...

  3. Piperazine-phosphonate derivatives: their flame retardant and thermal degradation properties on cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been known that phosphorus-nitrogen system shows greater flame resistance in cotton textiles at a lower level than phosphorus used alone. This research aims to compare the effectiveness of Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (TEPP) as a flame retardant (FR) for cotton fabric to a prev...

  4. Replacement of cardiotoxic aminopiperidine linker with piperazine moiety reduces cardiotoxicity? Mycobacterium tuberculosis novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bobesh, Karyakulam Andrews; Renuka, Janupally; Srilakshmi, Rudraraju Reshma; Yellanki, Swapna; Kulkarni, Pushkar; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan

    2016-01-01

    Recently numerous non-fluoroquinolone-based bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitors from both the GyrA and GyrB classes have been reported as antibacterial agents. Inhibitors of the GyrA class include aminopiperidine-based novel bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitors (NBTIs). However, inhibition of the cardiac ion channel remains a serious liability for the aminopiperidine based NBTIs. In this paper we replaced central aminopiperidine linker with piperazine moiety and tested for its biological activity. We developed a series of twenty four compounds with a piperazine linker 1-(2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-1,5-naphthyridin-2(1H)-one, by following a multistep protocol. Among them compound 4-(2-(7-methoxy-2-oxo-1,5-naphthyridin-1(2H)-yl)ethyl)-N-(4-nitrophenyl)piperazine-1-carboxamide (11) was the most promising inhibitor with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) DNA gyrase enzyme supercoiling IC50 of 0.29±0.22μM, with a good MTB MIC of 3.45μM. These kind of compounds retains good potency and showed reduced cardiotoxicity compared to aminopiperidines. PMID:26678175

  5. Integration of enabling methods for the automated flow preparation of piperazine-2-carboxamide.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Richard J; Battilocchio, Claudio; Hawkins, Joel M; Ley, Steven V

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the use of a new open-source software package and a Raspberry Pi() computer for the simultaneous control of multiple flow chemistry devices and its application to a machine-assisted, multi-step flow preparation of pyrazine-2-carboxamide - a component of Rifater(), used in the treatment of tuberculosis - and its reduced derivative piperazine-2-carboxamide. PMID:24778715

  6. The mechanism of action of piperazine-phosphonates derivatives in cotton fabric

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piperazine-phosphonates additives are known to be very effective flame retardants on different polymeric systems, especially cotton cellulose. In order to understand their mechanism of action, we carried out the investigation of their thermal behavior on cotton fabric by, first, employing the attenu...

  7. N-dealkylation of arylpiperazine derivatives: disposition and metabolism of the 1-aryl-piperazines formed.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvio

    2007-08-01

    In recent years several arylpiperazine derivatives have reached the stage of clinical application, mainly for the treatment of depression, psychosis or anxiety. Examples are the pyrimidinylpiperazine buspirone, the chlorophenylpiperazine derivatives nefazodone and trazodone, the dichlorophenylpiperazine aripiprazole and the benzisothiazolyl derivatives perospirone and ziprasidone. Most of them undergo extensive pre-systemic and systemic metabolism including CYP3A4-dependent N-dealkylation to 1-aryl-piperazines. These metabolites are best known for the variety of serotonin receptor-related effects they cause in man and animals, although some have affinity for other neurotransmitter receptors; others, however, are still largely unexplored despite uncontrolled use as amphetamine-like designer drugs. Once formed they distribute extensively in tissues, including brain which is the target site of most arylpiperazine derivatives, and are then primarily biotransformed by CYP2D6-dependent oxidation to hydroxylates which are excreted as conjugates; only 1-(2-benzisothiazolyl)-piperazine is more susceptible to sulfur oxidation than to aromatic hydroxylation. In studies analysing animal brain and human blood, 1-aryl-piperazine concentrations were either higher or lower than the parent compound(s), although information is available only for some derivatives. At steady state, the metabolite-to-parent drug ratios varied widely among individuals taking the same dosage of the same arylpiperazine derivative. This is consistent with the known individual variability in the expression and activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. This review also surveys current published information on physiological and pathological factors affecting the 1-aryl-piperazine-to-parent drug ratios and examines the potential role of 1-aryl-piperazine formation in the pharmacological actions of the arylpiperazine derivatives that are already or will shortly be available in major markets. PMID:17691920

  8. Advanced Amine Solvent Formulations and Process Integration for Near-Term CO2 Capture Success

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Kevin S.; Searcy, Katherine; Rochelle, Gary T.; Ziaii, Sepideh; Schubert, Craig

    2007-06-28

    This Phase I SBIR project investigated the economic and technical feasibility of advanced amine scrubbing systems for post-combustion CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Numerous combinations of advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were screened for energy requirements, and three cases were selected for detailed analysis: a monoethanolamine (MEA) base case and two “advanced” cases: an MEA/Piperazine (PZ) case, and a methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) / PZ case. The MEA/PZ and MDEA/PZ cases employed an advanced “double matrix” stripper configuration. The basis for calculations was a model plant with a gross capacity of 500 MWe. Results indicated that CO2 capture increased the base cost of electricity from 5 cents/kWh to 10.7 c/kWh for the MEA base case, 10.1 c/kWh for the MEA / PZ double matrix, and 9.7 c/kWh for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. The corresponding cost per metric tonne CO2 avoided was 67.20 $/tonne CO2, 60.19 $/tonne CO2, and 55.05 $/tonne CO2, respectively. Derated capacities, including base plant auxiliary load of 29 MWe, were 339 MWe for the base case, 356 MWe for the MEA/PZ double matrix, and 378 MWe for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. When compared to the base case, systems employing advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were estimated to reduce reboiler steam requirements by 20 to 44%, to reduce derating due to CO2 capture by 13 to 30%, and to reduce the cost of CO2 avoided by 10 to 18%. These results demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in the overall economics of CO2 capture via advanced solvent formulations and process configurations.

  9. Synthesis and SAR of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonists containing substituted aryl-piperazines and piperidines.

    PubMed

    Civiello, Rita L; Han, Xiaojun; Beno, Brett R; Chaturvedula, Prasad V; Herbst, John J; Xu, Cen; Conway, Charles M; Macor, John E; Dubowchik, Gene M

    2016-02-15

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent neuropeptide implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine. In the course of seeking CGRP antagonists with improved oral bioavailability, metabolic stability, and pharmacokinetic properties, lower molecular weight, structurally simpler piperidine and piperazine analogs of BMS-694153 were prepared. Several were found to have nM binding affinity in vitro. The synthesis and SAR of these substituted piperidine and piperazine CGRP antagonists are discussed. PMID:26832218

  10. In vitro neurotoxicity evaluation of piperazine designer drugs in differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Arbo, M D; Silva, R; Barbosa, D J; da Silva, D Dias; Silva, S P; Teixeira, J P; Bastos, M L; Carmo, H

    2016-01-01

    Abuse of synthetic drugs is widespread worldwide. Studies indicate that piperazine designer drugs act as substrates at dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors and/or transporters in the brain. This work aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of N-benzylpiperazine, 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazine and 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl)piperazine in the differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. Cytotoxicity was evaluated after 24?h incubations through the MTT reduction and neutral red uptake assays. Oxidative stress (reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and glutathione content) and energetic (ATP content) parameters, as well as intracellular Ca(2+) , mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage (comet assay) and cell death mode were also evaluated. Complete cytotoxicity curves were obtained after 24?h incubations with each drug. A significant decrease in intracellular total glutathione content was noted for all the tested drugs. All drugs caused a significant increase of intracellular free Ca(2+) levels, accompanied by mitochondrial hyperpolarization. However, ATP levels remained unchanged. The investigation of cell death mode revealed a predominance of early apoptotic cells. No genotoxicity was found in the comet assay. Among the tested drugs, 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine was the most cytotoxic. Overall, piperazine designer drugs are potentially neurotoxic, supporting concerns on risks associated with the abuse of these drugs. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25900438

  11. Piperazine amide linker for cyclative cleavage from solid support: traceless synthesis of dihydroquinoxalin-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Neagoie, Cleopatra; Krch?k, Viktor

    2012-07-01

    A piperazine amide linker for cyclative cleavage from solid support and its use in the traceless solid-phase synthesis of dihydroquinoxalinones are described. Piperazine was attached to Wang resin via a carbamate linkage and acylated with Fmoc-amino acids. Following Fmoc group removal, resin-bound amines were reacted with 1-fluoro-2-nitrobenzenes. The nitro group of the resulting 2-nitroanilines was reduced, and acyclic precursors, in contrast to traditional ester-type linkage, remained attached to the resin. Target dihydroquinoxalinones were obtained either by acid- or microwave-mediated cyclative cleavage. The synthesis provided crude compounds of high purity and enabled the preparation of stable immobilized linear intermediates. The linker is suitable for combinatorial synthesis of compound libraries. PMID:22681195

  12. Screening of Transient Receptor Potential Canonical Channel Activators Identifies Novel Neurotrophic Piperazine Compounds.

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Seishiro; Hatano, Masahiko; Takada, Yoshinori; Hino, Kyosuke; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Tanikawa, Jun; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hase, Hideharu; Nakao, Akito; Hirano, Mitsuru; Rotrattanadumrong, Rachapun; Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Mori, Masayuki X; Nishida, Motohiro; Hu, Yaopeng; Inoue, Ryuji; Nagata, Ryu; Mori, Yasuo

    2016-03-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) proteins form Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels activated upon stimulation of metabotropic receptors coupled to phospholipase C. Among the TRPC subfamily, TRPC3 and TRPC6 channels activated directly by diacylglycerol (DAG) play important roles in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, promoting neuronal development and survival. In various disease models, BDNF restores neurologic deficits, but its therapeutic potential is limited by its poor pharmacokinetic profile. Elucidation of a framework for designing small molecules, which elicit BDNF-like activity via TRPC3 and TRPC6, establishes a solid basis to overcome this limitation. We discovered, through library screening, a group of piperazine-derived compounds that activate DAG-activated TRPC3/TRPC6/TRPC7 channels. The compounds [4-(5-chloro-2-methylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl](3-fluorophenyl)methanone (PPZ1) and 2-[4-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-N-(2-ethoxyphenyl)acetamide (PPZ2) activated, in a dose-dependent manner, recombinant TRPC3/TRPC6/TRPC7 channels, but not other TRPCs, in human embryonic kidney cells. PPZ2 activated native TRPC6-like channels in smooth muscle cells isolated from rabbit portal vein. Also, PPZ2 evoked cation currents and Ca(2+) influx in rat cultured central neurons. Strikingly, both compounds induced BDNF-like neurite growth and neuroprotection, which were abolished by a knockdown or inhibition of TRPC3/TRPC6/TRPC7 in cultured neurons. Inhibitors of Ca(2+) signaling pathways, except calcineurin, impaired neurite outgrowth promotion induced by PPZ compounds. PPZ2 increased activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent transcription factor, cAMP response element-binding protein. These findings suggest that Ca(2+) signaling mediated by activation of DAG-activated TRPC channels underlies neurotrophic effects of PPZ compounds. Thus, piperazine-derived activators of DAG-activated TRPC channels provide important insights for future development of a new class of synthetic neurotrophic drugs. PMID:26733543

  13. Scalable Synthesis of Piperazines Enabled by Visible-Light Irradiation and Aluminum Organometallics.

    PubMed

    Surez-Pantiga, Samuel; Colas, Kilian; Johansson, Magnus J; Mendoza, Abraham

    2015-11-16

    The development of more active C?H oxidation catalysts has inspired a rapid, scalable, and stereoselective assembly of multifunctional piperazines through a [3+3] coupling of azomethine ylides. A combination of visible-light irradiation and aluminum organometallics is essential to promote this transformation, which introduces visible-light photochemistry of main-group organometallics and sets the basis for new and promising catalysts. PMID:26337253

  14. Scalable Synthesis of Piperazines Enabled by Visible-Light Irradiation and Aluminum Organometallics

    PubMed Central

    Surez-Pantiga, Samuel; Colas, Kilian; Johansson, Magnus J; Mendoza, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The development of more active CH oxidation catalysts has inspired a rapid, scalable, and stereoselective assembly of multifunctional piperazines through a [3+3] coupling of azomethine ylides. A combination of visible-light irradiation and aluminum organometallics is essential to promote this transformation, which introduces visible-light photochemistry of main-group organometallics and sets the basis for new and promising catalysts. PMID:26337253

  15. Piperazine sulfonamide BACE1 inhibitors: Design, synthesis, and in vivo characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cumming, Jared; Babu, Suresh; Huang, Ying; Carrol, Carolyn; Chen, Xia; Favreau, Leonard; Greenlee, William; Guo, Tao; Kennedy, Matthew; Kuvelkar, Reshma; Le, Thuy; Li, Guoqing; McHugh, Nansie; Orth, Peter; Ozgur, Lynne; Parker, Eric; Saionz, Kurt; Stamford, Andrew; Strickland, Corey; Tadesse, Dawit; Voigta, Johannes; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Qi

    2010-08-17

    With collaboration between chemistry, X-ray crystallography, and molecular modeling, we designed and synthesized a series of novel piperazine sulfonamide BACE1 inhibitors. Iterative exploration of the non-prime side and S2{prime} sub-pocket of the enzyme culminated in identification of an analog that potently lowers peripheral A{beta}{sub 40} in transgenic mice with a single subcutaneous dose.

  16. [Immunomodulation in patients with cavernous kidney tuberculosis using piperazine adipinate and amniocene].

    PubMed

    Kozin, Iu I; Cherniavskii, V I

    1991-01-01

    Findings of a complex immunologic examination of 138 patients with active cavernous tuberculosis of the kidneys concurrent with secondary immunodeficiency are presented. Biostimulators and immunomodulating drugs were administered as conservative treatment in this case. Changes in cellular and humoral immunity indices as well as those of the mononuclear-phagocyte system before and after treatment were traced in the groups of patients receiving biogenic stimulators (such, as aloe extract, vitreous body, plasmol, Fibs) and immunoregulating drugs (like piperazine adipinate and injected amniocene). It was found that the biogenic stimulators fail to have a pronounced effect on the immunologic indices. The inclusion of piperazine adipinate and injected amniocene into a complex of antibiotic and chemotherapy brings about a significant improvement of the cellular immunity indices and the mononuclear-phagocyte system function which are inhibited to a greater extent in patients with active destructive nephrophthisis. A recommended use of piperazine adipinate and amniocene as adjuncts to a complex treatment has been proved in patients of this category by means of clinicoimmunologic correlations. PMID:1780305

  17. A case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with piperazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Yeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-10-01

    Fixed drug eruption is an uncommon adverse drug reaction caused by delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Levocetirizine is an active (R)-enatiomer of cetirizine and there have been a few reports of fixed drug eruption related to these antihistamines. We experienced a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with other piperazine derivatives confirmed by patch test. A 73-year-old female patient presented with recurrent generalized itching, cutaneous bullae formation, rash and multiple pigmentation at fixed sites after taking drugs for common cold. She took bepotastine besilate (Talion®) and levocetirizine (Xyzal®) as antihistamine. She took acetaminophen, pseudoephedrine 60 mg / triprolidine 2.5 mg (Actifed®), dihydrocodeinebitartrate 5 mg / di-methylephedrine hydrochloride 17.5 mg / chlorpheniramine maleate 1.5 mg / guaifenesin 50 mg (Codening®) and aluminium hydroxide 200 mg / magnesium carbonate 120 mg (Antad®) at the same time. Patch test was done with suspected drugs and the result was positive with levocetirizine. We additionally performed patch test for other antihistamines such as cetirizine, hydroxyzine, fexofenadine and loratadine. Piperazine derivatives (cetirizine and hydroxyzine) were positive, but piperidine derivatives (fexofenadine and loratadine) were negative to patch test. There was no adverse drug reaction when she was challenged with fexofenadine. We report a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption confirmed by patch test. Cross-reactions were only observed in the piperazine derivatives and piperidine antihistamine was tolerant to the patient. PMID:24260733

  18. Multicomponent Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a Piperazine-Based Dopamine Receptor Ligand Library.

    PubMed

    Stucchi, Mattia; Gmeiner, Peter; Huebner, Harald; Rainoldi, Giulia; Sacchetti, Alessandro; Silvani, Alessandra; Lesma, Giordano

    2015-08-13

    A series of 1,4-disubstituted piperazine-based compounds were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as dopamine D2/D3 receptor ligands. The synthesis relies on the key multicomponent split-Ugi reaction, assessing its great potential in generating chemical diversity around the piperazine core. With the aim of evaluating the effect of such diversity on the dopamine receptor affinity, a small library of compounds was prepared, applying post-Ugi transformations. Ligand stimulated binding assays indicated that some compounds show a significant affinity, with K i values up to 53 nM for the D2 receptor. Molecular docking studies with the D2 and D3 receptor homology models were also performed on selected compounds. They highlighted key interactions at the indole head and at the piperazine moiety, which resulted in good agreement with the known pharmacophore models, thus helping to explain the observed structure-activity relationship data. Molecular insights from this study could enable a rational improvement of the split-Ugi primary scaffold, toward more selective ligands. PMID:26288260

  19. A case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with piperazine derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Yeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

    2013-01-01

    Fixed drug eruption is an uncommon adverse drug reaction caused by delayed cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Levocetirizine is an active (R)-enatiomer of cetirizine and there have been a few reports of fixed drug eruption related to these antihistamines. We experienced a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption and cross-reaction with other piperazine derivatives confirmed by patch test. A 73-year-old female patient presented with recurrent generalized itching, cutaneous bullae formation, rash and multiple pigmentation at fixed sites after taking drugs for common cold. She took bepotastine besilate (Talion®) and levocetirizine (Xyzal®) as antihistamine. She took acetaminophen, pseudoephedrine 60 mg / triprolidine 2.5 mg (Actifed®), dihydrocodeinebitartrate 5 mg / di-methylephedrine hydrochloride 17.5 mg / chlorpheniramine maleate 1.5 mg / guaifenesin 50 mg (Codening®) and aluminium hydroxide 200 mg / magnesium carbonate 120 mg (Antad®) at the same time. Patch test was done with suspected drugs and the result was positive with levocetirizine. We additionally performed patch test for other antihistamines such as cetirizine, hydroxyzine, fexofenadine and loratadine. Piperazine derivatives (cetirizine and hydroxyzine) were positive, but piperidine derivatives (fexofenadine and loratadine) were negative to patch test. There was no adverse drug reaction when she was challenged with fexofenadine. We report a case of levocetirizine-induced fixed drug eruption confirmed by patch test. Cross-reactions were only observed in the piperazine derivatives and piperidine antihistamine was tolerant to the patient. PMID:24260733

  20. Enhanced CO2 Adsorption Affinity in a NbO-type MOF Constructed from a Low-Cost Diisophthalate Ligand with a Piperazine-Ring Bridge.

    PubMed

    Mu, Qian; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Liangjun; Wang, Chao; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Xuebo

    2015-09-01

    A metal-organic framework (NPC-6) with an NbO topology based on a piperazine ring-bridged diisophthalate ligand was synthesized and characterized. The incorporated piperazine group leads to an enhanced adsorption affinity for CO2 in NPC-6, in which the CO2 uptake is 4.83?mmol?g(-1) at 293?K and 1?bar, ranking among the top values of CO2 uptake on MOF materials. At 0.15?bar and 293?K, the NPC-6 adsorbs 1.07?mmol?g(-1) of CO2 , which is about 55.1?% higher than that of the analogue MOF NOTT-101 under the same conditions. The enhanced CO2 uptake combined with comparable uptakes for CH4 and N2 leads to much higher selectivities for CO2 /CH4 and CO2 /N2 gas mixtures on NPC-6 than on NOTT-101. Furthermore, an N-alkylation is used in the synthesis of the PDIA ligand, leading to a much lower cost compared with that in the synthesis of ligands in the NOTT series, as the former does not require a palladium-based catalyst and borate esters. Thus, we conclude that NPC-6 is a promising candidate for CO2 capture applications. PMID:26183114

  1. Nitrosamine formation in amine scrubbing at desorber temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fine, Nathan A; Goldman, Mark J; Rochelle, Gary T

    2014-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is a thermodynamically efficient and industrially proven method for carbon capture, but amine solvents can nitrosate in the desorber, forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines. The kinetics of reactions involving nitrite and monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methylethanolamine (MMEA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) were determined under desorber conditions. The nitrosations of MEA, DEA, and MMEA are first order in nitrite, carbamate species, and hydronium ion. Nitrosation of MDEA, a tertiary amine, is not catalyzed by the addition of CO2 since it cannot form a stable carbamate. Concentrated and CO2 loaded MEA was blended with low concentrations of N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine (HeGly), hydroxyethyl-ethylenediamine (HEEDA), and DEA, secondary amines common in MEA degradation. Nitrosamine yield was proportional to the concentration of secondary amine and was a function of CO2 loading and temperature. Blends of tertiary amines with piperazine (PZ) showed n-nitrosopiperazine (MNPZ) yields close to unity, validating the slow nitrosation rates hypothesized for tertiary amines. These results provide a useful tool for estimating nitrosamine accumulation over a range of amine solvents. PMID:24956458

  2. Ozonation of piperidine, piperazine and morpholine: Kinetics, stoichiometry, product formation and mechanistic considerations.

    PubMed

    Tekle-Rttering, Agnes; Jewell, Kevin S; Reisz, Erika; Lutze, Holger V; Ternes, Thomas A; Schmidt, Winfried; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-01-01

    Piperidine, piperazine and morpholine as archetypes for secondary heterocyclic amines, a structural unit that is often present in pharmaceuticals (e.g., ritalin, cetirizine, timolol, ciprofloxacin) were investigated in their reaction with ozone. In principle the investigated compounds can be degraded with ozone in a reasonable time, based on their high reaction rate constants with respect to ozone (1.9נ10(4)-2.4נ10(5)M(-1)s(-1)). However, transformation is insufficient (13-16%), most likely due to a chain reaction, which decomposes ozone. This conclusion is based on OH scavenging experiments, leading to increased compound transformation (18-27%). The investigated target compounds are similar in their kinetic and stoichiometric characteristics. However, the mechanistic considerations based on product formation indicate various reaction pathways. Piperidine reacts with ozone via a nonradical addition reaction to N-hydroxypiperidine (yield: 92% with and 94% without scavenging, with respect to compound transformation). However, piperazine degradation with ozone does not lead to N-hydroxypiperazine. In the morpholine/ozone reaction, N-hydroxymorpholine was identified. Additional oxidation pathways in all cases involved the formation of OH with high yields. One important pathway of piperazine and morpholine by ozonation could be the formation of C-centered radicals after ozone or OH radical attack. Subsequently, O2 addition forms unstable peroxyl radicals, which in one pathway loose superoxide radicals by generating a carbon-centered cation. Subsequent hydrolysis of the carbon-centered cation leads to formaldehyde, whereby ozonation of the N-hydroxy products can proceed in the same way and in addition give rise to hydroxylamine. A second pathway of the short-lived peroxyl radicals could be a dimerization to form short-lived tetraoxides, which cleave by forming hydrogen peroxide. All three products have been found. PMID:26624229

  3. Crystal structure and complexation and fluorescence behaviors of 1,4-bis (9-anthracenylmethyl) piperazine.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Kanji; Hayakawa, Akinori; Sakurai, Tadamitsu; Igarashi, Tetsutaro; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Takahashi, Hajime; Takechi, Haruko

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) fluoroionophore (3) was clarified by X-ray crystallographic analysis. A molecule 3 sits on a center of symmetry such that two anthracene ring systems are in an anti conformation with respect to one another across the piperazine ring. Intermolecular C-H? and ?? interactions are observed. It was found that 3 was displayed unique photophysical properties in the presence of guest cations. Complexation of 3 with Zn+ and NH?+ increased the fluorescence intensities of the host by a factor of 20. PMID:21099144

  4. Utility of chloranil in assay of naphazoline, clemizole, penicillin G sodium, and piperazine.

    PubMed

    Belal, S; Elsayed, M A; Abdel-Hamid, M E; Abdine, H

    1981-02-01

    A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for the assay of naphazoline, clemizole, penicillin G sodium, and piperazine. The method was based on the formation of a charge transfer complex between these drugs as n-donors and chloranil, the pi-acceptor. Conformity to Beer's law enabled the assay of dosage forms of these drugs. Compared with official methods, the results obtained were of equal accuracy. A more detailed investigation of th naphazoline-chloranil complex was made with respect to its composition, association constant, and free energy change. PMID:6110697

  5. 4-(Furan-2-carbonyl)piperazin-1-ium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Channappa N.; Kaur, Manpreet; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Butcher, Ray J.; Yathirajan, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    In the cation of the title salt, C9H13N2O2 +C7H3N2O6 ?, the piperazine ring adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation. Twofold rotational disorder is exhibited by the furan ring in a 0.430?(4):0.570?(4) ratio. In the crystal, NH?O hydrogen bonds link the ions into chains along [010]. Additional weak CH?O interactions are observed, leading to a supramolecular layer parallel to (011). PMID:24940274

  6. Piperazine N-substituted naphthyridines, pyridothienopyrimidines and pyridothienotriazines: new antiprotozoals active against Philasterides dicentrarchi.

    PubMed

    Quintela, Jos M; Peinador, Carlos; Gonzlez, Liliana; Iglesias, Ral; Param, Anabel; Alvarez, Francisca; Sanmartn, Manuel L; Riguera, Ricardo

    2003-03-01

    New antiprotozoals active against Philasterides dicentrarchi, the causative agent of scuticociliatosis in farmed turbot and Black Sea bass-bream, have been synthesised and tested. The most active compounds posses a piperazine ring, generally N-bonded to the heterocycle, and are the 1,8-naphthyridines, 2f and 5o, the pyridothienopyrimidine (7), and the pyridothienotriazines, 8, 9, 12d, 12f, 12h, 12m and 12k. Pyridothienotriazine (12k) presents the same activity (Lethal Dose, LD=0.8/1.5 mg L(-1)) as the well-known antiparasitics niclosamide and oxyclozanide. PMID:12667693

  7. Crystal structure of piperazine-1,4-diium bis(4-aminobenzenesulfonate)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. Sathesh; Ranjith, S.; Sudhakar, S.; Srinivasan, P.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C4H12N2 2+2C6H6NO3S?, consists of half a piperazindiium dication, located about an inversion centre, and a 4-aminobenzenesulfonate anion. The piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, the cations and anions are linked via NH?O and CH?O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional framework. Within the framework there are CH?? interactions and the NH?O hydrogen bonds result in the formation of R 4 4(22) and R 3 4(13) ring motifs.

  8. (4-(Bis(4-Fluorophenyl)Methyl)Piperazin-1-yl)(Cyclohexyl)Methanone Hydrochloride (LDK1229): A New Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Inverse Agonist from the Class of Benzhydryl Piperazine Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mariam M.; Olszewska, Teresa; Liu, Hui; Shore, Derek M.; Hurst, Dow P.; Reggio, Patricia H.; Lu, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Some inverse agonists of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) have been demonstrated to be anorectic antiobesity drug candidates. However, the first generation of CB1 inverse agonists, represented by rimonabant (SR141716A), otenabant, and taranabant, are centrally active, with a high level of psychiatric side effects. Hence, the discovery of CB1 inverse agonists with a chemical scaffold distinct from these holds promise for developing peripherally active CB1 inverse agonists with fewer side effects. We generated a new CB1 inverse agonist, (4-(bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)(cyclohexyl)methanone hydrochloride (LDK1229), from the class of benzhydryl piperazine analogs. This compound binds to CB1 more selectively than cannabinoid receptor type 2, with a Ki value of 220 nM. Comparable CB1 binding was also observed by analogs 1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-cinnamylpiperazine dihydrochloride (LDK1203) and 1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-tosylpiperazine hydrochloride (LDK1222), which differed by the substitution on the piperazine ring where the piperazine of LDK1203 and LDK1222 are substituted by an alkyl group and a tosyl group, respectively. LDK1229 exhibits efficacy comparable with SR141716A in antagonizing the basal G protein coupling activity of CB1, as indicated by a reduction in guanosine 5′-O-(3-thio)triphosphate binding. Consistent with inverse agonist behavior, increased cell surface localization of CB1 upon treatment with LDK1229 was also observed. Although docking and mutational analysis showed that LDK1229 forms similar interactions with the receptor as SR141716A does, the benzhydryl piperazine scaffold is structurally distinct from the first-generation CB1 inverse agonists. It offers new opportunities for developing novel CB1 inverse agonists through the optimization of molecular properties, such as the polar surface area and hydrophilicity, to reduce the central activity observed with SR141716A. PMID:25411367

  9. Excretion of N-mononitrosopiperazine after low level exposure to piperazine in air: effects of dietary nitrate and ascorbate

    SciTech Connect

    Bellander, T.; Osterdahl, B.G.; Hagmar, L.

    1988-04-01

    The secondary amine piperazine may be nitrosated in vivo, following oral intake or occupational exposure by inhalation. The suspected carcinogen N-mononitrosopiperazine could be formed in the human stomach, and in part excreted in the urine. In this study, 0.4 microgram N-mononitrosopiperazine, determined by gas chromatography-Thermal Energy Analysis, was observed in the urine in one of four volunteers, at an experimental exposure by inhalation of 0.3 mg piperazine/m3. The intake of spinach and beetroot caused an increased nitrosation of piperazine, and up to 1.7 microgram N-mononitrosopiperazine was excreted in the urine in the four individuals. This excretion indicates that about 5% of the absorbed piperazine dose was converted to N-mononitrosopiperazine. With the same nitrate-rich diet, but with the addition of citrus fruits and fresh vegetables, the highest excretion was 0.6 microgram N-mononitrosopiperazine. The excretion was significantly correlated with the ratio between the maximum level of nitrite in saliva and the ascorbate level in plasma. There was also a significant interindividual variation. N,N'-Dinitrosopiperazine was not found in any sample of urine.

  10. Synthesis and SAR of piperazine amides as novel c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Youseung; Chen, Weiming; Habel, Jeff; Duckett, Derek; Ling, Yuan Yuan; Koenig, Marcel; He, Yuanjun; Vojkovsky, Tomas; LoGrasso, Philip; Kamenecka, Theodore M.

    2009-09-14

    A novel series of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors were designed and developed from a high-throughput-screening hit. Through the optimization of the piperazine amide 1, several potent compounds were discovered. The X-ray crystal structure of 4g showed a unique binding mode different from other well known JNK3 inhibitors.

  11. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Piperazine Derivatives as CCR5 Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Weng, Zhiyong; Dong, Xiaowu; Chen, Linjie; Ma, Ling; Cen, Shan; Zhou, Naiming; Hu, Yongzhou

    2013-01-01

    By using a fragment-assembly strategy and bioisosteric-replacement principle, a series of novel piperazine derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their cellular target-effector fusion activities and in vitro antiviral activities against HIV-1. Preliminary structure-activity relationships (SARs) of target compounds were concluded in this study, and five compounds were found to exhibited medium to potent CCR5 fusion activities with IC50 values in low micromolar level. Among evaluated compounds, 23 h was found to be a CCR5 antagonist with an IC50 value of 6.29 M and an anti-HIV-1 inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.44 M. PMID:23308267

  12. Solubility of carbon dioxide in an aqueous blend of diethanolamine and piperazine

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, M.K.

    2009-09-15

    The solubility of CO{sub 2} in aqueous blends of diethanolamine (DEA) and piperazine (PZ), from mixtures of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, was measured for temperatures and CO{sub 2} partial pressures ranging from (303.14 to 353.14) K and (10.133 to 20.265) kPa, respectively. Measurements were made by a saturation method using a laboratory scale bubble column. The results of CO{sub 2} solubility in liquid are expressed as {alpha}(CO{sub 2}) (mol CO{sub 2}/mol amine) for all experimental runs. A solubility model is developed to correlate and predict the solubility data of CO{sub 2} in aqueous blends of DEA and PZ. There is all acceptable degree of agreement between the experimental data of the present study and predictions of the solubility model with an average absolute deviation of less than 4.5%.

  13. 2-(5-Fluoro-2,3-dioxoindolin-1-yl)ethyl 4-methylpiperazine-1-carbodithioate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao; Lin, Hui-Hui; Cao, Sheng-Li

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, C16H18FN3O2S2, the methylpiperazine ring adopts a chair conformation, while the (2,3-dioxoindolin-1-yl)ethyl unit is linked to one of the N atoms of the piperazine ring via the carbodithioate group. In the crystal, each molecule is linked to its neighbors within the (03) plane through weak CH(methylene)?O, CH(aryl)?O and CH(methylene)?S interactions. Perpendicular to this plane molecules are connected through intermolecular short N??(pyrrole ring) contacts [N?C centroid = 3.232?(2)?], another set of CH(methylene)?O interactions and through short contacts between carbodithioate S atoms and the pyrrole rings [C?centroid = 3.695?(3), S?centroid = 3.403?(2)?]. PMID:22259593

  14. Synthesis and antioxidant activity of some 1-aryl/aralkyl piperazine derivatives with xanthine moiety at N4

    PubMed Central

    Andonova, Lily; Zheleva-Dimitrova, Dimitrina; Georgieva, Maya; Zlatkov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Piperazine nucleus is one of the most important heterocyclic systems exhibiting remarkable pharmacological activities. Thus, in the current study six new aryl/aralkyl substituted piperazine derivatives, containing methylxanthine moiety were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by IR and 1H NMR analysis. All compounds were in vitro screened for their activity as antioxidants using DPPH (2,2′-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzo thiazine-6-sulfonic acid)) and FRAP (ferric reducing/antioxidant power) methods. The antioxidant activity of the studied compounds against lipid peroxidation was also measured. The highest antioxidant activity was demonstrated by compound 3c. It is obvious that the presence of a hydroxyl group in the structure is essential for the antioxidant properties and should be taken into consideration in further design of structures with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:26019603

  15. Substituted piperazines as nootropic agents: 2- or 3-phenyl derivatives structurally related to the cognition-enhancer DM235.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, Luca; Martino, Maria Vittoria; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Melani, Fabrizio; Malik, Ruchi; Dei, Silvia; Floriddia, Elisa; Manetti, Dina; Orlandi, Francesca; Teodori, Elisabetta; Ghelardini, Carla; Romanelli, Maria Novella

    2015-04-15

    A series of 2-phenyl- or 3-phenyl piperazines, structurally related to DM235 and DM232, two potent nootropic agents, have been prepared and tested in the mouse passive-avoidance test, to assess their ability to revert scopolamine-induced amnesia. Although the newly synthesized molecules were less potent than the parent compounds, some useful information has been obtained from structure-activity relationships. A small but significant enantioselectivity has been found for the most potent compound 5a. PMID:25813160

  16. New Urea and Thiourea Derivatives of Piperazine Doped with Febuxostat: Synthesis and Evaluation of Anti-TMV and Antimicrobial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Krishna Reddy, Reddivari Chenna; Rasheed, Syed; Subba Rao, Devineni; Adam, Shaik; Raju, Chamarthi Naga

    2013-01-01

    A series of new 4-(5-(3-cyano-4-isobutoxyphenyl)-4-methylthiazole-2-carbonyl)-N-(substituted phenyl)piperazine-1-carboxamides 8(ae)/carbothioamides 8(fj) were accomplished for biological interest by the simple addition of active functionalized arylisocyanates 7(ae)/arylisothiocyanates 7(fj) with 2-isobutoxy-5-(4-methyl-2-(piperazine-1-carbonyl)thiazol-5-yl)benzonitrile (4). Compound 4 was synthesized in high yields (94%) by the condensation reaction of febuxostat (1) with piperazine using a selective reagent such as propylphosphonic anhydride (T3P). Antiviral activity against Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compounds were evaluated. Biological data revealed that 4-nitrophenyl substituted urea 8d, and 3-bromophenyl substituted thiourea 8f exhibited promising antiviral activities. Moreover, 4-fluorophenyl substituted urea 8a, 4-nitrophenyl substituted urea 8d, 3-bromophenyl substituted thiourea 8f, and 2,4-dichlorophenyl substituted thiourea 8j exhibited potent antimicrobial activity. PMID:24453889

  17. A chemical genetic approach identifies piperazine antipsychotics as promoters of CNS neurite growth on inhibitory substrates

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, AL; Reierson, GW; Smith, RP; Goldberg, JL; Lemmon, VP; Bixby, JL

    2012-01-01

    Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) can result in lifelong loss of function due in part to the regenerative failure of CNS neurons. Inhibitory proteins derived from myelin and the astroglial scar are major barriers for the successful regeneration of injured CNS neurons. Previously, we described the identification of a novel compound, F05, which promotes neurite growth from neurons challenged with inhibitory substrates in vitro, and promotes axonal regeneration in vivo (Usher et al., 2010). To identify additional regeneration-promoting compounds, we used F05-induced gene expression profiles to query the Broad Institute Connectivity Map, a gene expression database of cells treated with >1,300 compounds. Despite no shared chemical similarity, F05-induced changes in gene expression were remarkably similar to those seen with a group of piperazine phenothiazine antipsychotics (PhAPs). In contrast to antipsychotics of other structural classes, PhAPs promoted neurite growth of CNS neurons challenged with two different glial derived inhibitory substrates. Our pharmacological studies suggest a mechanism whereby PhAPs promote growth through antagonism of calmodulin signaling, independent of dopamine receptor antagonism. These findings shed light on mechanisms underlying neurite-inhibitory signaling, and suggest that clinically approved antipsychotic compounds may be repurposed for use in CNS injured patients. PMID:22561309

  18. Quantitative determination of some pharmaceutical piperazine derivatives through complexation with iron(III) chloride.

    PubMed

    Abou-Attia, F M; Issa, Y M; Abdel-Gawad, F M; Abdel-Hamid, S M

    2003-08-01

    A simple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of three pharmaceutical piperazine derivatives, namely ketoconazole (KC), trimetazidine hydrochloride (TMH) and piribedil (PD). This method is based on the formation of yellow orange complexes between iron(III) chloride and the investigated drugs. The optimum reaction conditions, spectral characteristics, conditional stability constants and composition of the water soluble complexes have been established. The method permits the determination of KC, TMH and PD over a concentration range 1-15, 1-12 and 1-12 microg ml(-1), respectively. Sandell sensitivity is found to be 0.016, 0.013 and 0.013 microg cm(-2) for KC, TMH and PD, respectively. The method was sensitive, simple, reproducible and accurate within +/-1.5%. The method is applicable to the assay of the three drugs under investigation in different dosage forms and the results are in good agreement with those obtained by the official methods (USP and JP). PMID:12875888

  19. A chemical genetic approach identifies piperazine antipsychotics as promoters of CNS neurite growth on inhibitory substrates.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Andrea L; Reierson, Gillian W; Smith, Robin P; Goldberg, Jeffrey L; Lemmon, Vance P; Bixby, John L

    2012-06-01

    Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) can result in lifelong loss of function due in part to the regenerative failure of CNS neurons. Inhibitory proteins derived from myelin and the astroglial scar are major barriers for the successful regeneration of injured CNS neurons. Previously, we described the identification of a novel compound, F05, which promotes neurite growth from neurons challenged with inhibitory substrates in vitro, and promotes axonal regeneration in vivo (Usher et al., 2010). To identify additional regeneration-promoting compounds, we used F05-induced gene expression profiles to query the Broad Institute Connectivity Map, a gene expression database of cells treated with >1300 compounds. Despite no shared chemical similarity, F05-induced changes in gene expression were remarkably similar to those seen with a group of piperazine phenothiazine antipsychotics (PhAPs). In contrast to antipsychotics of other structural classes, PhAPs promoted neurite growth of CNS neurons challenged with two different glial derived inhibitory substrates. Our pharmacological studies suggest a mechanism whereby PhAPs promote growth through antagonism of calmodulin signaling, independent of dopamine receptor antagonism. These findings shed light on mechanisms underlying neurite-inhibitory signaling, and suggest that clinically approved antipsychotic compounds may be repurposed for use in CNS injured patients. PMID:22561309

  20. Mechanism of action of novel piperazine containing a toxicant against human liver cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanthimathi, MS; Haerian, Batoul Sadat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cytotoxic potential of a novel piperazine derivative (PCC) against human liver cancer cells. SNU-475 and 423 human liver cancer cell lines were used to determine the IC50 of PCC using the standard MTT assay. PCC displayed a strong suppressive effect on liver cancer cells with an IC50 value of 6.98 ± 0.11 µM and 7.76 ± 0.45 µM against SNU-475 and SNU-423 respectively after 24 h of treatment. Significant dipping in the mitochondrial membrane potential and elevation in the released of cytochrome c from the mitochondria indicated the induction of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by PCC. Activation of this pathway was further evidenced by significant activation of caspase 3/7 and 9. PCC was also shown to activate the extrinsic pathways of apoptosis via activation of caspase-8 which is linked to the suppression of NF-κB translocation to the nucleus. Cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase was confirmed by flow cytometry and up-regulation of glutathione reductase expression was quantified by qPCR. Results of this study suggest that PCC is a potent anti-cancer agent inducing both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis in liver cancer cell lines.

  1. Network formation and photoluminescence in copper(I) halide complexes with substituted piperazine ligands.

    PubMed

    Safko, Jason P; Kuperstock, Jacob E; McCullough, Shannon M; Noviello, Andrew M; Li, Xiaobo; Killarney, James P; Murphy, Caitlin; Patterson, Howard H; Bayse, Craig A; Pike, Robert D

    2012-10-14

    The synthesis, X-ray structures and photophysics of ten complexes of CuX (X = I or Br) with bridging N-substituted and N,N'-disubstituted piperazines (Pip) are presented. Depending on the steric demand of the Pip substituents, the complexes fall into four categories: (CuX)(4)(Pip)(2), which are networks of linked Cu(4)X(4) cubane units, (CuX)(2)(Pip), which are chains of linked Cu(2)X(2) rhombs, and (CuX)(2)(Pip)(2) or (CuX)(4)(Pip)(4), which are simple rhomboid dimers and cubane tetramers. A combination of spectroscopic studies and DFT calculations was used to investigate the luminescence of the products. The results suggest that the relatively high energy emission seen in dimers is due to cluster-centred (XMLT/metal-centred) excitations for the aliphatic amines and MLCT (d ??*) for aromatic amines, and low energy emission seen in the tetramers is the result of cluster-centred transitions. The (CuI)(2)(Pip) complexes act as sensor materials, undergoing irreversible reaction with aliphatic and aromatic amines (Nu) in the vapour state, irreversibly producing cubanes (CuI)(4)Nu(4), with corresponding production of long wavelength emission. PMID:22859067

  2. Quantum chemical studies on solvents for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture: calculation of pKa and carbamate stability of disubstituted piperazines.

    PubMed

    Gangarapu, Satesh; Wierda, Gerben J; Marcelis, Antonius T M; Zuilhof, Han

    2014-06-23

    Piperazine is a widely studied solvent for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture. To investigate the possibilities of further improving this process, the electronic and steric effects of -CH(3), -CH(2)F, -CH(2)OH, -CH(2)NH(2), -COCH3 , and -CN groups of 2,5-disubstituted piperazines on the pKa and carbamate stability towards hydrolysis are investigated by quantum chemical methods. For the calculations, B3LYP, M11L, and spin-component-scaled MP2 (SCS-MP2) methods are used and coupled with the SMD solvation model. The experimental pK(a) values of piperazine, 2-methylpiperazine, and 2,5-dimethylpiperazine agree well with the calculated values. The present study indicates that substitution of -CH(3), -CH(2) NH(2), and -CH(2) OH groups on the 2- and 5-positions of piperazine has a positive impact on the CO(2) absorption capacity by reducing the carbamate stability towards hydrolysis. Furthermore, their higher boiling points, relative to piperazine itself, will lead to a reduction of volatility-related losses. PMID:24782140

  3. Piperazine-derived designer drug 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP): GC-MS studies on its metabolism and its toxicological detection in rat urine including analytical differentiation from its precursor drugs trazodone and nefazodone.

    PubMed

    Staack, Roland F; Maurer, Hans H

    2003-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism and the toxicological analysis of the piperazine-derived designer drug 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) in rat urine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are described. mCPP was extensively metabolized, mainly by hydroxylation of the aromatic ring and by degradation of the piperazine moiety to the following metabolites: two hydroxy-mCPP isomers, N-(3-chlorophenyl)ethylenediamine, 3-chloroaniline, and two hydroxy-3-chloroaniline isomers. The hydroxy-mCPP metabolites were partially excreted as the corresponding glucuronides and/or sulfates, and the aniline derivatives were partially acetylated to N-acetyl-hydroxy-3-chloroaniline isomers and N-acetyl-3-chloroaniline. Our systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedure using full-scan GC-MS after acid hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and microwave-assisted acetylation allowed the detection of mCPP and its previously mentioned metabolites in rat urine after single administration of a dose calculated from the doses commonly taken by drug users. The hydroxy-mCPP metabolites should be used as target analytes being the major metabolites of mCPP. Assuming similar metabolism, our STA procedure should be suitable for detection of an intake of mCPP in human urine. Furthermore, possibilities for differentiating an intake of mCPP from that of its precursor drugs trazodone or nefazodone, two common antidepressants, are described. Within the context of these studies, N-(3-chlorophenyl)ethylenediamine was identified as a new metabolite of these two antidepressants. PMID:14670134

  4. Determination of piperazine-type stimulants in human urine by means of microextraction in packed sorbent and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.

    PubMed

    Moreno, I E D; da Fonseca, B M; Barroso, M; Costa, S; Queiroz, J A; Gallardo, E

    2012-03-01

    A method using microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) is described for the determination of piperazine-type stimulants in human urine. The studied compounds were 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP), 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP), 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine (mCPP) and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl) piperazine (MeOPP); 1-(2-chlorophenyl)-piperazine (oCPP) was used as internal standard (IS). The factors which might influence the extraction were screened previously using the fractional factorial design approach, and none of them influenced significantly the process. The procedure was linear for concentrations ranging from 0.1 (lower limit of quantitation--LLOQ) to 5 ?g/mL, with determination coefficients (R(2)) higher than 0.99 for all analytes in all runs. The limits of detection were 0.1 ?g/mL for BZP and TFMPP, while for MeOPP and mCPP 0.05 ?g/mL was obtained. Intra- and interday precision ranged from 1 to 14%, and accuracy was within a 15% interval for all analytes, fulfilling the criteria normally accepted in bioanalytical method validation. Under the optimized conditions, extraction efficiency was higher than 80% for all analytes, except BZP (50%). MEPS showed to be a rapid (<2 min) and simple procedure for the determination of piperazine-type stimulants in human urine, allowing reducing the handling time and costs usually associated to this type of analysis. Furthermore, the fact that only 0.1 mL of sample is required make this method a valuable and powerful tool for drug monitoring in human urine in situations where those compounds are involved, for instance in forensic scenarios. PMID:22221903

  5. Control of water molecule aggregations in copper 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate coordination polymers containing pyridyl-piperazine type ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiblawi, Sultan H.; LaDuca, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    A series of layered divalent copper coordination polymers containing 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and long-spanning pyridyl-piperazine type ligands exhibits greatly different co-crystallized water molecule aggregations depending on the specific ligands used. Both [Cu(t-14cdc)(4-bpmp)]n (1, t-14cdc = trans-1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate, 4-bpmp = bis(4-pyridylmethyl)piperazine) and {[Cu(t-14cdc)(4-bpfp)(H2O)2]6H2O}n (2, 4-bpfp = bis(4-pyridylformyl)piperazine) possess 2D (4,4) coordination polymer grids. However 1 lacks any co-crystallized water and has pinched grid apertures, while 2 manifests infinite water tapes with T6(2)4(2) classification and rectangular grid apertures. {[Cu2(c-14cdc)2(4-bpmp)]2H2O}n (3, c-14cdc = cis-1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate) has [Cu2(c-14cdc)]2 ribbons with paddlewheel dimeric units linked into 2D slabs by 4-bpmp tethers, along with isolated water molecule pairs. In contrast, {[Cu2(c-14cdc)2(4-bpfp)]10H2O}n (4) shows a very similar underlying coordination polymer topology but entrains unique decameric water molecule clusters. The minor product {[Cu2(c-14cdcH)2(t-1,4-cdc)(4-bpfp)2(H2O)2]2H2O}n (5) was isolated along with 4; this compound underwent some in situ cis to trans cyclohexane-dicarboxylate ligand isomerization and exhibits a ladder polymer motif.

  6. Proton-transfer supramolecular salts of D-/L-tartaric acid and 1-(2-Pyrimidyl)piperazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xue-Hua; Li, Yong-Hua; Wang, Shi; Huang, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Ionic supramolecular salts 1 and 2 were prepared by single-proton transfer reactions between 1-(2-pyrimidyl)piperazine and D-/L-tartaric acid. An interesting feature in the tartrate is the head-to-tail arrangement and very wide range of anionic substructures observed through hydrogen-bonding interactions, including ring motifs, infinite double zigzag chain and three-dimensional supramolecular framework. Thermal analysis revealed that salts 1 and 2 undergo an irreversible phase transition at about 158 C, which is ascribed to the loss of water molecule. The temperature- and frequency-dependent dielectric constants in 2 suggested a low-frequency thermal fluctuation above 100 C.

  7. Piperazine and piperidine carboxamides and carbamates as inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL).

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Jani; Kuusisto, Anne; van Bruchem, John; Patel, Jayendra Z; Laitinen, Tuomo; Navia-Paldanius, Dina; Laitinen, Jarmo T; Savinainen, Juha R; Parkkari, Teija; Nevalainen, Tapio J

    2014-12-01

    The key hydrolytic enzymes of the endocannabinoid system, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), are potential targets for various therapeutic applications. In this paper, we present more extensively the results of our previous work on piperazine and piperidine carboxamides and carbamates as FAAH and MAGL inhibitors. The best compounds of these series function as potent and selective MAGL/FAAH inhibitors or as dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors at nanomolar concentrations. This study revealed that MAGL inhibitors should comprise leaving-groups with a conjugate acid pKa of 8-10, while diverse leaving groups are tolerated for FAAH inhibitors. PMID:25282655

  8. Development of piperazine-tethered heterodimers as potent antimalarials against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum strains. Synthesis and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Gemma, Sandra; Kukreja, Gagan; Campiani, Giuseppe; Butini, Stefania; Bernetti, Matteo; Joshi, Bhupendra P; Savini, Luisa; Basilico, Nicoletta; Taramelli, Donatella; Yardley, Vanessa; Bertamino, Alessia; Novellino, Ettore; Persico, Marco; Catalanotti, Bruno; Fattorusso, Caterina

    2007-07-01

    The design, synthesis, and antiplasmodial activity of antimalarial heterodimers based on the 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine linker is reported. In this series key structural elements derived from quinoline antimalarials were coupled to fragments capable of coordinating metal ions. Biological evaluation included determination of activity against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains. Some of the novel compounds presented high activity in vitro against chloroquine-resistant strains, more potent than chloroquine and clotrimazole. Computational studies revealed that the activity is likely due to the ability of the compounds to assume a multisite iron coordinating geometry. PMID:17493808

  9. Synthesis and an angiolytic role of novel piperazine-benzothiazole analogues on neovascularization, a chief tumoral parameter in neoplastic development.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghorbani, Mohammed; Pavankumar, G S; Naveen, P; Thirusangu, Prabhu; Prabhakar, B T; Khanum, Shaukath Ara

    2016-04-01

    A novel series of benzoic acid N'-[2-(4-benzothiazol-2-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-acetyl]-hydrazides 6a-j were synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR, elemental and mass spectral analyses. The in-vitro cytotoxicity and cell viability assay of the synthesized compounds 6a-j were evaluated against Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells. Our results showed that compound 6c with a bromo group on phenyl ring has showed promising antiproliferative efficacy. Further investigation of compound 6c on in-vivo treatment model depicts the increased tumor suppression through inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:26918263

  10. Dimethyl phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) induces glioma regression by inhibiting angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yan-qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu; He, Xiao-dong; Jun, Li; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wang, Ju; Wang, Li-jing; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-15

    1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) is a synthetic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that could reduce airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that DMPP could dramatically inhibit glioma size maintained on the chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We first performed MTT and BrdU incorporation experiments on U87 glioma cells in vitro to understand the mechanism involved. We established that DMPP did not significantly affect U87 cell proliferation and survival. We speculated that DMPP directly caused the tumor to regress by affecting the vasculature in and around the implanted tumor on our chick CAM model. Hence, we conducted detailed analysis of DMPP's inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. Three vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in vivo models were used in the study which included (1) early chick blood islands formation, (2) chick yolk-sac membrane (YSW) and (3) CAM models. The results revealed that DMPP directly suppressed all developmental stages involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis – possibly by acting through Ang-1 and HIF-2α signaling. In sum, our results show that DMPP could induce glioma regression grown on CAM by inhibiting vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. - Highlights: ●We demonstrated that DMPP inhibited the growth of glioma cells on chick CAM. ●DMPP did not significantly affect the proliferation and survival of U87 cells. ●We revealed that DMPP suppressed vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in chick embryo. ●Angiogenesis in chick CAM was inhibited by DMPP via most probably Ang-1 and HIF-2α. ●DMPP could be potentially developed as an anti-tumor drug in the future.

  11. Effect of Piperazine Dithioctate on the Oral Pharmacokinetics of Glimepiride in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Yeong; Yu, Keewon; Choi, Kyungmi; Yu, Hyung Eun; Oh, Soo Jin; Lee, Kiho

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to investigate the potential for pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions between glimepiride (GMP) and piperazine dithioctate (PDT) in rats to support the development of an orally combined product of the two drugs. An LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method was developed for simultaneous quantification of GMP and thioctic acid (TA) in rat plasma. The accuracy, precision, linearity, selectivity, and recovery were all within an acceptable range. The oral plasma exposure of the GMP solution was more than 14-times greater than that of the GMP suspension at a dose of 0.5?mg/kg, suggesting a dissolution-limited absorption of the GMP suspension. Oral co-administration of PDT (72?mg/kg) with GMP suspension (0.5?mg/kg) reduced the plasma GMP exposure by approximately 80% without a significant change in t1/2 and tmax. Oral co-administration of PDT with GMP solution had no significant effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics of GMP. PDT lowered the pH (from ca. 7 to 5.6) and the dissolved GMP concentration in the GMP suspension. It was also shown that GMP was more soluble at pH 7 than at 5.7 in an aqueous solution, and the oral plasma exposure of a GMP suspension at pH 7.0 was substantially higher than that of a suspension at pH 5.7. These results suggest that the pH-dependent solubility of GMP was likely responsible for PDT's effect on the oral absorption of GMP. In conclusion, the current work suggests a possibility of drug-drug interaction between GMP and PDT upon oral co-administration. PMID:26235578

  12. Piperazine as counter ion for insulin-enhancing anions [VO2(dipic-OH)]-: Synthesis, characterization and X-ray crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Fatemeh; Ghasemi, Khaled; Rezvani, Ali Reza; Graiff, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The new complex [H2Pipz][VO2(dipic-OH)]2·2H2O (1), where H2dipic-OH = 4-hydroxypyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and Pipz = piperazine, was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal system is triclinic with space group Pī. In this compound, piperazine is diprotonated and acts as counter ion.

  13. Carbon capture and sequestration: an exploratory inhalation toxicity assessment of amine-trapping solvents and their degradation products.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jacob D; Kracko, Dean; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Garner, C Edwin; Wegerski, Chris; Senft, Al; Knipping, Eladio; Shaw, Stephanie; Rohr, Annette

    2014-09-16

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption with aqueous amine solvents is a method of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) from flue gases. One concern is the possible release of amine solvents and degradation products into the atmosphere, warranting evaluation of potential pulmonary effects from inhalation. The CCS amines monoethanolamine (MEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and piperazine (PIP) underwent oxidative and CO2-mediated degradation for 75 days. C57bl/6N mice were exposed for 7 days by inhalation of 25 ppm neat amine or equivalant concentration in the degraded mixture. The aqueous solutions were nebulized to create the inhalation atmospheres. Pulmonary response was measured by changes in inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cytokine expression in lung tissue. Ames mutagenicity and CHO-K1 micronucleus assays were applied to assess genotoxicity. Chemical analysis of the test atmosphere and liquid revealed complex mixtures, including acids, aldehydes, and other compounds. Exposure to oxidatively degraded MEA increased (p < 0.05) total cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes compared to control mice and caused inflammatory cytokine expression (statistical increase at p < 0.05). MEA and CO2-degraded MEA were the only atmospheres to show statistical (p < 0.05) increase in oxidative stress. CO2 degradation resulted in a different composition, less degradation, and lower observed toxicity (less magnitude and number of effects) with no genotoxicity. Overall, oxidative degradation of the amines studied resulted in enhanced toxicity (increased magnitude and number of effects) compared to the neat chemicals. PMID:25167095

  14. HEAT OF DISSOLUTION MEASUREMENTS FOR CO2 IN MIXED ALKANOLAMINE SOLVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2004-04-27

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80 C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  15. Heat of Dissolution Measurements for CO2 in Mixed Alkanolamine Solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2006-05-29

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  16. HEAT OF DISSOLUTION MEASUREMENTS FOR CO2 IN MIXED ALKANOLAMINE SOLVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2005-05-23

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  17. Heat of Dissolution Measurements for CO2 in Mixed Alkanolamine Solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2006-09-30

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  18. HEAT OF DISSOLUTION MEASUREMENTS FOR CO2 IN MIXED ALKANOLAMINE SOLVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2004-11-15

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80 C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  19. Heat of Dissolution Measurements for CO2 in Mixed Alkanolamine Solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2007-03-31

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}- alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  20. Heat of Dissolution Measurements for CO2 in Mixed Alkanolamine Solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2005-12-01

    The main objective of this project is to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully selected mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture processes, or for better understanding of thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}- alkanolamine systems. Carbon dioxide is one of the major greenhouse gases, and the need for stabilization of its composition in earth's atmosphere is vital for the future of mankind. Although technologies are available for capture and storage of CO{sub 2}, these technologies are far too expensive for economical commercialization. Reduction of cost would require research for refinement of the technology. For more economical CO{sub 2} capture and regeneration, there is a need for development of more efficient solvent systems. In this project we will extend the thermodynamic database by measuring heat of solution data of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA (monoethanolamine), MDEA (methyldiethanolamine), piperazine, and water. Mixed solvents of different compositions will be selected and in each case data will be measured at temperatures 40 and 80C and various partial pressures of CO{sub 2}. At the end of the project, observations, conclusions, and recommendations will be derived for the choice of mixed solvents for efficient CO{sub 2} capture with potential for commercialization.

  1. Temperature- and pH-responsive nanoparticles of biocompatible polyurethanes for doxorubicin delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anning; Gao, Hui; Sun, Yanfang; Sun, Yu-long; Yang, Ying-Wei; Wu, Guolin; Wang, Yinong; Fan, Yunge; Ma, Jianbiao

    2013-01-30

    A series of temperature- and pH-responsive polyurethanes based on hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) were synthesized by a coupling reaction with bis-1,4-(hydroxyethyl) piperazine (HEP), N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and N-butyldiethanolamine (BDEA), respectively. The chemical structure, molecular weight, thermal property and crystallization properties were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The resulting polyurethanes were then used to prepare nanoparticles either by direct dispersion method or dialysis method. Their pH and temperature responsibilities were evaluated by optical transmittance and size measurement in aqueous media. Interestingly, HDI-based and MDI-based polyurethanes exhibited different pH and temperature responsive properties. Nanoparticles based on HDI-HEP and HDI-MDEA were temperature-responsive, while MDI-based biomaterials were not. All of them showed pH-sensitive behavior. The possible responsive mechanism was investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the polyurethanes was evaluated using methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) assay in vitro. It was shown that the HDI-based polyurethanes were non-toxic, and could be applied to doxorubicin (DOX) encapsulation. The experimental results indicated that DOX could be efficiently encapsulated into polyurethane nanoparticles and uptaken by Huh-7 cells. The loaded DOX molecules could be released from the drug-loaded polyurethane nanoparticles upon pH and temperature changes, responsively. PMID:23262421

  2. Protective effects of a piperazine derivative [N-{4-[4-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-phenyl} carbamic acid ethyl ester] against aluminium-induced neurotoxicity: insights from in silico and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Meena, Poonam; Manral, Apra; Saini, Vikas; Tiwari, Manisha

    2015-04-01

    The cholinergic hypothesis associated with Alzheimer's disease has spurred the development of numerous structural classes of compounds with different pharmacological profiles aimed at increasing central cholinergic neurotransmission. In the present study, six synthetic piperazine derivatives D1-D6 were screened for their efficacy as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) through in silico and in vitro studies. Compound D2 was found to be a potential AChEI with adequate pharmacokinetic properties, as supported by in silico study. Further, in vivo studies were designed to examine the protective effect of piperazine derivative D2 (3 and 5 mg/kg for 6 weeks) in ameliorating the alterations induced by aluminium chloride (AlCl(3)) on behavioural and neurochemical indices. Behavioural tests (Morris water maze and elevated plus maze) revealed significant alterations in the short-term memory and anxiety levels in rats treated with AlCl(3), which was further improved after D2 treatment. Further, D2 treatment attenuated the neurotoxic effects of AlCl(3) as shown by the improvement in rats performance in Water maze test and in lowering AChE activity. Besides preventing lipid peroxidation and protein damage, changes in the levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (GST, GPx, GR and GSH) associated with AlCl3 administration were also restored upon treatment with D2. Thus, our results support the neuroprotective potential of compound D2, thus validating its use in alleviating toxic effects of aluminium. PMID:25403519

  3. Preparation, spectral and biological investigation of formaldehyde-based ligand containing piperazine moiety and its various polymer metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shamim Ahmad; Nishat, Nahid; Parveen, Shadma; Rasool, Raza

    2011-10-01

    A novel tetradentate salicylic acid-formaldehyde ligand containing piperazine moiety (SFP) was synthesized by condensation of salicylic acid, formaldehyde and piperazine in presence of base catalyst, which was subjected for the preparation of coordination polymers with metal ions like manganese(II), cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II). All the synthesized polymeric compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and electronic spectral studies. The thermal stability was determined by thermogravimetric analysis and thermal data revealed that all the polymer metal complexes show good thermal stability than their parent ligand. Electronic spectral data and magnetic moment values revealed that polymer metal complexes of Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) show an octahedral geometry while Cu(II) and Zn(II) show distorted octahedral and tetrahedral geometry respectively. The antimicrobial screening of the ligand and coordination polymers was done by using Agar well diffusion method against various bacteria and fungi. It was evident from the data that antibacterial and antifungal activity increased on chelation and all the polymer metal complexes show excellent antimicrobial activity than their parent ligand.

  4. Preparation, spectral and biological investigation of formaldehyde-based ligand containing piperazine moiety and its various polymer metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shamim Ahmad; Nishat, Nahid; Parveen, Shadma; Rasool, Raza

    2011-10-15

    A novel tetradentate salicylic acid-formaldehyde ligand containing piperazine moiety (SFP) was synthesized by condensation of salicylic acid, formaldehyde and piperazine in presence of base catalyst, which was subjected for the preparation of coordination polymers with metal ions like manganese(II), cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II). All the synthesized polymeric compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR and electronic spectral studies. The thermal stability was determined by thermogravimetric analysis and thermal data revealed that all the polymer metal complexes show good thermal stability than their parent ligand. Electronic spectral data and magnetic moment values revealed that polymer metal complexes of Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) show an octahedral geometry while Cu(II) and Zn(II) show distorted octahedral and tetrahedral geometry respectively. The antimicrobial screening of the ligand and coordination polymers was done by using Agar well diffusion method against various bacteria and fungi. It was evident from the data that antibacterial and antifungal activity increased on chelation and all the polymer metal complexes show excellent antimicrobial activity than their parent ligand. PMID:21757398

  5. Piperazine and its carboxylic acid derivatives-functionalized mesoporous silica as nanocarriers for gemcitabine: adsorption and release study.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Zohreh; Badiei, Alireza; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Darabi, Hossein Reza; Mehravi, Bita

    2015-04-01

    Piperazine-functionalized SBA-15 nanorods were synthesized by post grafting method with methyldimethoxysilylpropylpiperazine (MDSP). The carboxylic acid derivatives of piperazine-functionalized SBA-15 nanorods were obtained using two different kinds of precursors (bromoacetic acid and succinic anhydride). The prepared materials were used as nanocarriers for the anticancer drug (gemcitabine). The obtained samples were characterized by SAXS, N2 adsorption-desorption, SEM, TEM, DLS, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR, Raman and UV spectroscopies. The adsorption and release properties of all samples were investigated. In vitro study included cell toxicity. It was found that the surface functionalization increases the interaction between the carrier and gemcitabine and results in the loading enhancement of the drug. In addition, the adsorption of gemcitabine on the modified mesoporous matrix depends on the type of the introduced functional groups. The carboxylic acid-modified samples have higher loading content, due to the strong interaction with gemcitabine. The maximum content of deposited drug in the modified SBA-15 nanorods is close to 36wt.% that it is related to PC2-SBA-15 sample which obtained using succinic anhydride. The obtained results reveal that the surface functionalization leads toward a significant decrease of the drug release rate without any appreciable cytotoxicity. No significant differences are observed among the drug release rate from the modified samples. PMID:25686928

  6. Fire self-extinguishing cotton fabric: development of piperazine derivatives containing phosphorous-sulfur-nitrogen and their flame retardant and thermal behaviors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have shown interest in flame retardants containing phosphorus, nitrogen and sulfur a combination small molecule with a promising new approach in preparing an important class of flame retardant materials. Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (TEPP) and O,O,O',O'-tetramethyl pip...

  7. Bis[N-(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)-N-iso-propyl-dithio-carbamato-?(2) S,S'](piperazine-?N)cadmium: crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Safbri, Siti Artikah M; Halim, Siti Nadiah Abdul; Jotani, Mukesh M; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2016-02-01

    The title compound, [Cd(C6H12NOS2)2(C4H10N2)], features a distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry about the central Cd(II) atom. The di-thio-carbamate ligands are chelating, forming similar Cd-S bond lengths and define the approximate basal plane. One of the N atoms of the piperazine mol-ecule, which adopts a chair conformation, occupies the apical site. In the crystal, supra-molecular layers propagating in the ac plane are formed via hy-droxy-O-H?O(hy-droxy), hy-droxy-O-H?N(terminal-piperazine) and coordinated-piperazine-N-H?O(hy-droxy) hydrogen bonds; the layers also feature methine-C-H?S inter-actions and S?S [3.3714?(10)?] short contacts. The layers stack along the b-axis direction with very weak terminal-piperazine-N-H?O(hy-droxy) inter-actions between them. An evaluation of the Hirshfeld surfaces confirms the importance of inter-molecular inter-actions involving oxygen and sulfur atoms. PMID:26958378

  8. Temperature-dependence of the influence of the position-2-methyl group on the structure-directing effect of piperazine in the synthesis of open-framework aluminophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pai; Xu, Jun; Qi, Guodong; Deng, Feng; Xu, Ruren; Yan, Wenfu

    2016-01-01

    The temperature-dependence of the influence of the position-2-methyl group on the structure-directing effect of piperazine in the synthesis of open-framework aluminophosphates was investigated. By heating the initial mixture with the composition of Al2O3:1.5 P2O5:R:125 H2O at 160 °C, where R is the structure-directing agent of 2-methylpiperazine or piperazine, layered aluminophosphates APMeP150 (R = 2-methylpiperazine) and AP2pip (R = piperazine) were obtained. When the same initial reaction mixture was heated at 190 °C, layered aluminophosphates APMeP200 (R = 2-methylpiperazine) and AP2pip (R = piperazine) were crystallized. APMeP200 and AP2pip have the same inorganic sheet topology. We investigated the crystallization processes of the four open-framework aluminophosphates and found that increasing the heating temperature slowed the crystallization of the initial mixtures. The non-bonding interactions between the inorganic layers of the four open-framework aluminophosphates and the experimental or theoretically generated structure-directing agents were calculated. The possible starting points of the crystallization of the four open-framework aluminophosphates were analysed and compared. The temperature-dependence of the influence of the position-2-methyl group on the structure-directing effect of piperazine revealed that the structure-directing effect, the most important factor in the synthesis of zeolites and related open-framework materials, is determined by multiple factors. The structural parameters of the same compound can be affected by the synthesis conditions. PMID:26912387

  9. Influence of silica nanospheres on the separation performance of thin film composite poly(piperazine-amide) nanofiltration membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Yihua; Song, Jie; Guan, Yipeng; Yu, Hui; Pan, Xianhui; Wu, Feiyang; Zhang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    A novel thin film nanocomposite nanofiltration (TFNN) membrane was fabricated by introducing silica nanospheres (ca. 235 ± 11 nm) in the interfacial polymerization process of trimesoyl chloride (TMC) and piperazine (PIP) over polysulfone (PS) support for investigating the effect of silica nanofiller on the separation performance (i.e., permeability and salt rejection) of conventional thin film composite poly(piperazine-amide) nanofiltration (TFCN) membrane. The physicochemical characterization results show that all of the silica nanospheres are uniformly embedded on the surface of TFNN membrane. The introduction of silica nanospheres improves the hydrophilicity of the TFCN membrane and also causes its isoelectric point shift to a lower pH value. Moreover, the active poly(piperazine-amide) barrier layer of TFNN membrane (60.8 ± 2.3 nm) is thinner than that of the pristine TFCN membrane (72.1 ± 2.5 nm) as a control sample. The separation performance tests reveal that the addition of silica nanospheres can obviously elevate the salt rejection of the pristine TFCN membrane from 87.58 ± 0.15 to 94.81 ± 0.17% under 2000 ppm of MgSO4 solution and 0.5 MPa operating pressure, simultaneously accompanied by the increases of permeate flux from 19.36 ± 0.75 to 22.65 ± 0.68 L/m2 h. Additionally, compared with pristine TFCN membrane, the fabricated TFNN membrane has relatively low salt rejection (43.20 ± 0.27%) in 0.5 MPa operating pressure for 500 ppm of NaCl aqueous solution, which demonstrates that the introduction of silica nanospheres can dramatically promote the divalent-ionic separation selectivity. Furthermore, the experimental results suggest that the nanocomposite TFNN membrane possesses stable filtration performance in the softening process of MgSO4 aqueous solution. The separation performance improvement should be attributed to the optimizations of microstructures and surface features of active barrier layer of TFNN membrane, caused by the addition of silica nanospheres.

  10. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt.

    PubMed

    Sanphui, Palash; Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini; Chernyshev, Vladimir

    2014-03-01

    Acemetacin (ACM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM), isonicotinamide (INA), and picolinamide (PAM)], caprolactam (CPR), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and piperazine (PPZ). The structures of an ACM-INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM-PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM-PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM-INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid⋯pyridine heterosynthon and N-H⋯O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid⋯amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM-PAM cocrystal, while ACM-CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid-carbonyl (ACM) hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM-INA, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl⋯carboxyl synthon in ACM-PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM-PPZ salt and ACM-nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM-PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable piperazine salt of acemetacin exhibits superior stability, faster dissolution rate and is able to overcome the hydration tendency of the reference drug. PMID:25075330

  11. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt

    PubMed Central

    Sanphui, Palash; Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini; Chernyshev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Acemetacin (ACM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM), isonicotinamide (INA), and picolinamide (PAM)], caprolactam (CPR), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and piperazine (PPZ). The structures of an ACM–INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM–PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM–PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM–INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid⋯pyridine heterosynthon and N—H⋯O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid⋯amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM–PAM cocrystal, while ACM–CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid–carbonyl (ACM) hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM–INA, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl⋯carboxyl synthon in ACM–PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM–PPZ salt and ACM–nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM–PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable piperazine salt of acemetacin exhibits superior stability, faster dissolution rate and is able to overcome the hydration tendency of the reference drug. PMID:25075330

  12. Enhanced mechanical properties of linear segmented shape memory poly(urethane-urea) by incorporating flexible PEG400 and rigid piperazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Yu-Fei; Li, Yong-Gang; Wang, Pin-Pin; Wang, Yuan-Liang; Luo, Yan-Feng

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study is to design and synthesize a linear segmented shape memory poly(urethane-urea) (SMPUU) that possesses near-body-temperature shape memory temperature ( T tran) and enhanced mechanical properties by incorporating flexible poly(ethylene glycol) 400 (PEG400) to form poly(D,L-lactic acid)-based macrodiols (PDLLA-PEG400-PDLLA) and then rigid piperazine (PPZ) as a chain extender to form the desired SMPUUs (PEG400-PUU-PPZ). PEG400 increased M n while maintaining a lower T g of PDLLA-PEG400-PDLLA, which together with PPZ improved the mechanical properties of PEG400-PUU-PPZ. The obtained optimum SMPUU with enhanced mechanical properties ( ? y = 24.28 MPa; ? f = 698%; U f = 181.5 MJ/m3) and a T g of 40.62C exhibited sound shape memory properties as well, suggesting a promising SMPUU for in vivo biomedical applications.

  13. Atypical antipsychotic agents: patterns of activity in a series of 3-substituted 2-pyridinyl-1-piperazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    New, J S; Yevich, J P; Temple, D L; New, K B; Gross, S M; Schlemmer, R F; Eison, M S; Taylor, D P; Riblet, L A

    1988-03-01

    A series of 3-substituted 2-pyridinyl-1-piperazine derivatives have been appended to cyclic imide groups and evaluated for their potential antipsychotic activity. The dopamine receptor affinities of these target molecules, as well as their ability to block apomorphine-induced stereotypy or reverse neuroleptic-induced catalepsy, was dependent on the lipophilic and electronic characteristics of the substituent situated on the pyridine ring. Groups with + omega and - phi values were most consistent with the desired biological profile of the target molecules, the cyano moiety being the optimum choice. Evaluation of compound 12 in a monkey model of amphetamine psychosis, and the regional selectivity it expresses for the A10 dopaminergic cell bodies in electrophysiological experiments, suggest this compound would be an atypical antipsychotic agent with few side effects. PMID:2894466

  14. (4-Methyl-piperazin-1-yl)(2,3,4-tri-meth-oxy-benzyl-idene)amine.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Channappa N; Jasinski, Jerry P; Kaur, Manpreet; Yathirajan, H S

    2014-04-01

    In the title compound, C15H23N3O3, the piperazine ring is in a slightly distorted chair conformation and is twisted from the mean plane of the benzene ring making a dihedral angle of 14.94?(6). The 4-meth-oxy substituent is almost co-planar with the benzene ring [C-C-O-C torsion angle = 5.4?(1)], while the meth-oxy groups at positions 2 and 3 [C-C-O-C torsion angles of 122.6?(4) and -66.1?(4), respectively] are twisted away from the mean plane of the benzene ring in anti-clinical and synclinical conformations, respectively. No classical hydrogen bonds or any weak inter-molecular inter-actions are observed in the crystal structure. PMID:24826188

  15. Structure-dependent inhibition of the human ?1?2?2 GABAA receptor by piperazine derivatives: A novel mode of action.

    PubMed

    Hondebrink, Laura; Hermans, Elise J P; Schmeink, Stijn; van Kleef, Regina G D M; Meulenbelt, Jan; Westerink, Remco H S

    2015-12-01

    Piperazine derivatives are a class of psychoactive substances applied in prescription medicines like antidepressants as well as in drugs of abuse. They are known to increase brain levels of catecholamines, likely via reversal of reuptake transporters. However, other mechanisms could also contribute to increased neurotransmitter levels, e.g., reduced inhibitory inputs on catecholaminergic neurons. Inhibition of the main inhibitory input in the brain, the GABAergic system, by piperazine derivatives could contribute to increased neurotransmitter levels. Our previous studies support this by demonstrating that 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (3CPP/mCPP) is an antagonist of the human ?1?2?2 GABAA receptor (GABAA-R). We therefore investigated the effect of 12 additional piperazine derivatives on the function of the human ?1?2?2 GABAA-R expressed in Xenopus oocytes, using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Tested derivatives included benzylpiperazine (BZP), methylbenzylpiperazines (2/3MBP), phenylpiperazine (PP), methoxyphenylpiperazines (2/3/4MPP/MeOPP), chlorophenylpiperazines (2/4CPP) and fluorophenylpiperazines (4FPP/TFMPP). All derivatives concentration-dependently inhibited the GABA-evoked ion current. Chlorophenylpiperazines were the most potent GABAA-R antagonists; the IC20 value for 1-(2-chlorophenyl)piperazine (2CPP) was 46?M and 2CPP induced a maximum inhibition of ?90% at 1mM. Derivatives can be ranked as follows from highest to lowest potency based on IC20 values: 2CPP>3MPP>4CPP>4MPP>2MBP>3CPP>PP>4FPP>2MPP>TFMPP>3MBP>BZP. This study demonstrates a novel mode of action of piperazine derivatives, i.e., antagonism of the GABAA-R. This mechanism can result in increased catecholamine levels that indirectly contribute to toxicity, e.g., adverse effects during overdoses. Therefore, this important mode of action is not only relevant for therapeutic psychiatric interventions, but could also proof valuable for therapeutic interventions in intoxications. PMID:26344803

  16. 3-(aminomethyl)piperazine-2,5-dione as a novel NMDA glycine site inhibitor from the chemical universe database GDB.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kong Thong; Luethi, Erika; Syed, Salahuddin; Urwyler, Stephan; Bertrand, Sonia; Bertrand, Daniel; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2009-07-15

    Docking of randomly selected compounds from the chemical universe database GDB-11, which contains all organic molecules up to 11 atoms of C, N, O, F possible under consideration of simple chemical stability and synthetic feasibility rules, into the NMDA receptor glycine site (1pb7.pdb) lead to the identification of 3-(aminomethyl)piperazine-2,5-dione 3 and its close analog 5-(aminomethyl)piperazine-2,3-dione 4 as possible new ligands for this drug target, which is implicated in synaptic plasticity, neuronal development, learning and memory. Synthesis of these compounds in 4 and 6 steps, respectively, and testing by radioligand displacement assays and electrophysiological measurements in Xenopus oocytes show that while 4 is inactive, 3 is indeed an inhibitor of glycine, with an estimated K(D) of 50 microM. PMID:19394821

  17. Inhibitors of HIV-1 attachment: The discovery and structure-activity relationships of tetrahydroisoquinolines as replacements for the piperazine benzamide in the 3-glyoxylyl 6-azaindole pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Swidorski, Jacob J; Liu, Zheng; Yin, Zhiwei; Wang, Tao; Carini, David J; Rahematpura, Sandhya; Zheng, Ming; Johnson, Kim; Zhang, Sharon; Lin, Pin-Fang; Parker, Dawn D; Li, Wenying; Meanwell, Nicholas A; Hamann, Lawrence G; Regueiro-Ren, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    6,6-Fused ring systems including tetrahydroisoquinolines and tetrahydropyrido[3,4-d]pyrimidines have been explored as possible replacements for the piperazine benzamide portion of the HIV-1 attachment inhibitor BMS-663068. In initial studies, the tetrahydroisoquinoline compounds demonstrate sub-nanomolar activity in a HIV-1 pseudotype viral infection assay used as the initial screen for inhibitory activity. Analysis of SARs and approaches to optimization for an improved drug-like profile are examined herein. PMID:26584882

  18. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies of 2-piperazin-1-yl-quinazolines as platelet aggregation inhibitors and ligands of integrin αIIbβ3.

    PubMed

    Krysko, Andrei A; Kornylov, Alexander Yu; Polishchuk, Pavel G; Samoylenko, Georgiy V; Krysko, Olga L; Kabanova, Tatyana A; Kravtsov, Victor Ch; Kabanov, Vladimir M; Wicher, Barbara; Andronati, Sergei A

    2016-04-01

    A series of 2-piperazin-1-yl-quinazolines were synthesized and evaluated for their antiaggregative activity. The synthesized small molecule compounds have potently inhibited platelet aggregation in vitro and blocked FITC-Fg binding to αIIbβ3 integrin in a suspension of washed human platelets. The key αIIbβ3 protein-ligand interactions were determined in docking experiments and some correlations have been observed between values of the affinity and docking scores. PMID:26912112

  19. Apoptosis of human Burkitt's lymphoma cells induced by 2-N,N-diethylaminocarbonyloxymethyl-1-diphenylmethyl-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl) piperazine hydrochloride (PMS-1077).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-di; Xu, Xi-ming; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Peng; Dong, Chang-zhi; Wang, Qin

    2009-12-01

    Piperazine is one of the heterocycles which are associated with diverse pharmacological activities. 2-N,N-Diethylaminocarbonyloxymethyl-1-diphenylmethyl-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl) piperazine hydrochloride (PMS-1077) is a trisubstituted piperazine which contains a trimethoxybenzene ring and a benzhydrylpiperazine fragment, both of which can induce cell proliferation regression by different mechanisms. We have therefore examined the effects of PMS-1077 on Human Burkitt's lymphoma cells (Raji). The viability of Raji cells was determined by MTT assay and also assessed by trypan blue dye exclusion method. The results demonstrate that PMS-1077 can suppress the proliferation of Raji cells in a dose- and timedependent manner, while inhibit colony formation ability of Raji cells merely in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Meanwhile, morphological changes were observed using fluorescence microscope. Flow cytometric analysis through PI stains showed that PMS-1077 blocked the growth of Raji cells in the G(0)/G(1) period, and induced apoptosis of Raji cells after 48 h of incubation. Cell apoptosis induced by PMS-1077 was further confirmed by staining with Annexin-V FITC and PI. Preliminary study by molecular docking suggests that PMS-1077 may inhibit tubulin polymerization. More experiments are in progress in our laboratory to reveal the mode of action of PMS-1077 in the induction of apoptosis of Raji cells. PMID:20162401

  20. Synthesis and bioactivities of novel piperazine-containing 1,5-Diphenyl-2-penten-1-one analogues from natural product lead.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gaofei; Yang, Xinling; Jiang, Biaobiao; Lei, Peng; Liu, Xili; Wang, Qingmin; Zhang, Xuebo; Ling, Yun

    2016-04-01

    A series of novel 1,5-Diphenyl-2-penten-1-one analogues (7a-h, 8a-h) with piperazine moiety have been designed and synthesized on the basis of natural product 1,5-Diphenyl-2-penten-1-one (I). All the synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for anti-plant pathogenic fungi activities and insecticidal activities. The results indicated that most of these analogues exhibited moderate antifungal activities and moderate to good insecticidal activities. Amongst them, the most potent 7c, 7e and 7h keep a mortality of 100% against larva of mosquito at the concentration of 1mg/L. Initial structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis showed that, a methyl group can influence the biological activities of these compounds significantly, the compounds with N'-unsubstituted piperazine showed much better antifungal activities and larvicidal activity against mosquito than the compounds with N'-methylated piperazine. In addition, the larvicidal activity against mosquito had sharply decline when the substituent on benzene ring was changed from 4-position to 2 or 3-position. PMID:26906636

  1. Development of a high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method for quantification of piperazine in animal products by using precolumn derivatization.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-A; Zhang, Dan; Kim, Dong-Soon; Kim, Seong-Kwan; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Jeong, Daun; Kim, Jin-Suk; Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2016-04-01

    A new high-performance liquid chromatography with ​fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was developed for determination of piperazine residues in food animal products. Samples were extracted with formic acid in water and purified using the PCX cartridge. Following purification, the samples were derivatized using dansyl chloride, and the analyte was separated using water/acetonitrile as a mobile phase. The calibration curves showed good linearity over a concentration range of 20-120 ng/g with coefficient of determination (R(2))⩾0.996. The intra-day accuracy (presented as recovery %) and precision (presented as relative standard deviation, RSD %) were 81-97.3% and 0.83-6.87%, whereas, the inter-day values were 80.5-96.8% and 1.7-6.8%, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 20 ng/g, which was considerably lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL). The developed method was used to monitor market samples, and piperazine was not detected in any of the samples. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which the detection of piperazine in various food and animal products by using a sensitive and reliable analytical method has been described. PMID:26593624

  2. Structures of CoII and ZnII complexes of the proton-transfer compound derived from pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid and piperazine.

    PubMed

    Ghadermazi, Mohammad; Gharamaleki, Jafar Attar; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Almasi, Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    The reaction of the proton-transfer compound piperazine-1,4-diium pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylate 4.5-hydrate, C4H12N2(2+)C6H2N2O4(2-)4.5H2O or (pipzH2)(pyzdc)4.5H2O (pyzdcH2 is pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid and pipz is piperazine), (I), with Zn(NO3)26H2O and CoCl26H2O results in the formation of bis(piperazine-1,4-diium) bis(?-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylato)-?(3)N(1),O(2):O(3);?(3)O(3):N(1),O(2)-bis[aqua(pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylato-?(2)N(1),O(2))zinc(II)] decahydrate, (C4H12N2)2[Zn2(C6H2N2O4)4(H2O)2]10H2O or (pipzH2)2[Zn(pyzdc)2(H2O)]210H2O, (II), and catena-poly[piperazine-1,4-diium [cobalt(II)-bis(?-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylato)-?(3)N(1),O(2):O(3);?(3)O(3):N(1),O(2)] hexahydrate], {(C4H12N2)[Co(C6H2N2O4)2]6H2O}n or {(pipzH2)[Co(pyzdc)2]6H2O}n, (III), respectively. In (I), pyzdcH2 is doubly deprotonated on reaction with piperazine as a base. Compound (II) crystallizes as a dimer, whereas compound (III) exists as a one-dimensional coordination polymer. In (II), two pyzdc(2-) groups chelate to each of the two Zn(II) atoms through a ring N atom and an O atom of the 2-carboxylate group. In one ligand, the adjacent 3-carboxylate group bridges to a neighbouring metal atom. A water molecule ligates in the sixth coordination site. The structure of (II) can be described as a commensurate superlattice due to an ordering in the hydrogen-bonded network. In (III), no water is coordinated to the metal atom and the coordination sphere is comprised of two N,O-chelates plus two bridging O atoms. A large number of hydrogen bonds are observed in all three compounds. These interactions, as well as ?-? and C=O...? stacking interactions, play important structural roles. PMID:26146390

  3. A novel piperazine derivative potently induces caspase-dependent apoptosis of cancer cells via inhibition of multiple cancer signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    She, Edward X; Hao, Zhonglin

    2013-01-01

    Despite rapid progress in anticancer drug development and improvement in clinical outcomes, the survival rate for many types of cancer is still unacceptably low. Therefore, it is crucial to discover novel anticancer drugs to both prevent and treat the disease. In recent years, the advent of combinatorial chemistry allows the design and parallel synthesis of millions of small compounds that have drug-like properties. In vitro high throughput screening of such compound libraries has allowed the identification of many new drug candidates that may be further evaluated for their efficacy and mechanism of action. The overall objective of this study was to identify small molecule compounds as candidates for anti-cancer drug development. We first used cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assays to identify compounds exhibiting anti-cancer activity in vitro in a leukemia cell line (K562). Six top compounds selected from the initial screening of a library of 2,560 compounds were further evaluated in multiple cancer cell lines to rank the drug candidates. The top candidate was further investigated to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying its anticancer activity. Our studies suggest that this piperazine derivative effectively (GI50 = 0.06-0.16 μM) inhibits cancer cell proliferation and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis via inhibiting multiple cancer signaling pathways including the PI3K/AKT, the Src family kinases and the BCR-ABL pathways. PMID:24093059

  4. Spectrophotometric determination of some pharmaceutical piperazine derivatives through charge-transfer and ion-pair complexation reactions.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, F M

    1997-07-01

    Simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are described for the assay of three piperazine derivatives; ketoconazole, piribedil and prazosin hydrochloride based on charge-transfer and ion-pair complexation reactions. The first method is based on the reaction of the basic drug with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone (DDQ) in acetonitrile. The orange-red colour formed due to the formation of charge-transfer complex showed maximum absorbance at 460 nm. The second method is based upon the interaction of the basic drug in dry chloroform with bromophenol blue (BPB) in the same solvent to produce a stable yellow ion-pair complex which absorbs at 410 nm. Beer's law was obeyed for both methods and the relative standard deviations were found to be less than 1%. The two methods can be applied to the analysis of tablets, with no evidence of interference from excipients. A more detailed investigation of the complex was made with respect to its composition, association constant and free energy change. PMID:9260663

  5. Piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid Derivatives as Dual Antagonists of NMDA and GluK1-Containing Kainate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Mark W.; Costa, Blaise M.; Dlaboga, Daniel; Culley, Georgia; Hulse, Richard; Scholefield, Caroline L.; Atlason, Palmi; Fang, Guangyu; Eaves, Richard; Morley, Richard; Mayo-Martin, Maria B.; Amici, Mascia; Bortolotto, Zuner A.; Donaldson, Lucy; Collingridge, Graham L.; Molnr, Elek; Monaghan, Daniel T.; Jane, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists bind to the GluN2 subunit, of which there are four types (GluN2A-D). We report that some N1-substituted derivatives of cis-piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid display improved relative affinity for GluN2C and GluN2D versus GluN2A and GluN2B. These derivatives also display subtype-selectivity among the more distantly related kainate receptor family. Compounds 18i and (?)-4 were the most potent kainate receptor antagonists and 18i was selective for GluK1 versus GluK2, GluK3 and AMPA receptors. Modeling studies revealed structural features required for activity at GluK1 subunits and suggested that S674 was vital for antagonist activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, replacing the equivalent residue in GluK3 (alanine) with a serine imparts 18i antagonist activity. Antagonists with dual GluN2D and GluK1 antagonist activity may have beneficial effects in various neurological disorders. Consistent with this idea, antagonist 18i (30 mg/Kg i.p.) showed antinociceptive effects in an animal model of mild nerve injury. PMID:22111545

  6. 2-Benzazolyl-4-Piperazin-1-Ylsulfonylbenzenecarbohydroxamic Acids as Novel Selective Histone Deacetylase-6 Inhibitors with Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Kofler, Marina; Brosch, Gerald; Melesina, Jelena; Sippl, Wolfgang; Martinez, Elisabeth D.; Easmon, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    We have screened our compound collection in an established cell based assay that measures the derepression of an epigenetically silenced transgene, the locus derepression assay. The screen led to the identification of 4-[4-(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl]sulfonylbenzenecarbohydroxamic acid (9b) as an active which was found to inhibit HDAC1. In initial structure activity relationships study, the 1-methylbenzimidazole ring was replaced by the isosteric heterocycles benzimidazole, benzoxazole, and benzothiazole and the position of the hydroxamic acid substituent on the phenyl ring was varied. Whereas compounds bearing a para substituted hydroxamic acid (9a-d) were active HDAC inhibitors, the meta substituted analogues (8a-d) were appreciably inactive. Compounds 9a-d selectively inhibited HDAC6 (IC50 = 0.1–1.0μM) over HDAC1 (IC50 = 0.9–6μM) and moreover, also selectively inhibited the growth of lung cancer cells vs. patient matched normal cells. The compounds induce a cell cycle arrest in the S-phase while induction of apoptosis is neglible as compared to controls. Molecular modeling studies uncovered that the MM-GBSA energy for interaction of 9a-d with HDAC6 was higher than for HDAC1 providing structural rationale for the HDAC6 selectivity. PMID:26698121

  7. Effect of an original piperazine derivative of tetraline on the adrenergically mediated metabolic responses in cats and rats.

    PubMed

    Bogoslovova, T; Staneva-Stoytcheva, D

    1988-01-01

    One piperazine derivative of tetraline (with code P11), possessing hypotensive and anti-hypertensive activity, is studied. Its alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blocking properties are characterized by using indicators of adrenergically mediated metabolic responses in cats and rats. The parameters studied are: glucose and lactate in the blood, free fatty acids in the plasma and the activity of phosphorylase "a" in rat myocardium. The alpha- and beta-adrenergic properties of P11 are characterized by using adrenergic and dopaminergic agonists and antagonists (adrenaline, isoproterenol, phenylephrine, propranolol, phentolamine, apomorphine and pimozide) in the different experimental setups. Compound P11 studied inhibits the effect of phenylephrine on the glucose level in the blood of rats in a definite dose interval (1-4 mg/kg) which suggests that it possesses alpha-adrenoblocking properties. P11 decreases slightly the effects of isoproterenol or does not change these effects on the levels of glucose, lactate and free fatty acids in cats. There are no changes in the effect of adrenaline on the glucose content in rat blood and the isoproterenol-activated phosphorylase in rat myocardium is not inhibited. This gives grounds to assume that P11 possesses slight beta-adrenoblocking properties. From the analysis of the proper hyperglycaemizing action of P11 in rats in the 1-8 mg/kg dose range it may be assumed that dopamine-agonistic mechanisms are involved. PMID:2907712

  8. N-aryl piperazine metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 positive allosteric modulators possess efficacy in preclinical models of NMDA hypofunction and cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K J; Herman, E J; Ramsey, A J; Hammond, A S; Byun, N E; Stauffer, S R; Manka, J T; Jadhav, S; Bridges, T M; Weaver, C D; Niswender, C M; Steckler, T; Drinkenburg, W H; Ahnaou, A; Lavreysen, H; Macdonald, G J; Bartolom, J M; Mackie, C; Hrupka, B J; Caron, M G; Daigle, T L; Lindsley, C W; Conn, P J; Jones, C K

    2013-11-01

    Impaired transmission through glutamatergic circuits has been postulated to play a role in the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, inhibition of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDAR) induces a syndrome that recapitulates many of the symptoms observed in patients with schizophrenia. Selective activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) may provide a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of symptoms associated with schizophrenia through facilitation of transmission through central glutamatergic circuits. Here, we describe the characterization of two novel N-aryl piperazine mGlu5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs): 2-(4-(2-(benzyloxy)acetyl)piperazin-1-yl)benzonitrile (VU0364289) and 1-(4-(2,4-difluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-((4-fluorobenzyl)oxy)ethanone (DPFE). VU0364289 and DPFE induced robust leftward shifts in the glutamate concentration-response curves for Ca(2+) mobilization and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 phosphorylation. Both PAMs displayed micromolar affinity for the common mGlu5 allosteric binding site and high selectivity for mGlu5. VU0364289 and DPFE possessed suitable pharmacokinetic properties for dosing in vivo and produced robust dose-related effects in reversing amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, a preclinical model predictive of antipsychotic-like activity. In addition, DPFE enhanced acquisition of contextual fear conditioning in rats and reversed behavioral deficits in a mouse model of NMDAR hypofunction. In contrast, DPFE had no effect on reversing apomorphine-induced disruptions of prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. These mGlu5 PAMs also increased monoamine levels in the prefrontal cortex, enhanced performance in a hippocampal-mediated memory task, and elicited changes in electroencephalogram dynamics commensurate with procognitive effects. Collectively, these data support and extend the role for the development of novel mGlu5 PAMs for the treatment of psychosis and cognitive deficits observed in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:23965381

  9. N-Aryl Piperazine Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 Positive Allosteric Modulators Possess Efficacy in Preclinical Models of NMDA Hypofunction and Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, K.J.; Herman, E.J.; Ramsey, A.J.; Hammond, A.S.; Byun, N.E.; Stauffer, S.R.; Manka, J.T.; Jadhav, S.; Bridges, T.M.; Weaver, C.D.; Niswender, C.M.; Steckler, T.; Drinkenburg, W.H.; Ahnaou, A.; Lavreysen, H.; Macdonald, G.J.; Bartolom, J.M.; Mackie, C.; Hrupka, B.J.; Caron, M.G.; Daigle, T.L.; Lindsley, C.W.; Conn, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired transmission through glutamatergic circuits has been postulated to play a role in the underlying pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, inhibition of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDAR) induces a syndrome that recapitulates many of the symptoms observed in patients with schizophrenia. Selective activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) may provide a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of symptoms associated with schizophrenia through facilitation of transmission through central glutamatergic circuits. Here, we describe the characterization of two novel N-aryl piperazine mGlu5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs): 2-(4-(2-(benzyloxy)acetyl)piperazin-1-yl)benzonitrile (VU0364289) and 1-(4-(2,4-difluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-((4-fluorobenzyl)oxy)ethanone (DPFE). VU0364289 and DPFE induced robust leftward shifts in the glutamate concentration-response curves for Ca2+ mobilization and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 phosphorylation. Both PAMs displayed micromolar affinity for the common mGlu5 allosteric binding site and high selectivity for mGlu5. VU0364289 and DPFE possessed suitable pharmacokinetic properties for dosing in vivo and produced robust dose-related effects in reversing amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, a preclinical model predictive of antipsychotic-like activity. In addition, DPFE enhanced acquisition of contextual fear conditioning in rats and reversed behavioral deficits in a mouse model of NMDAR hypofunction. In contrast, DPFE had no effect on reversing apomorphine-induced disruptions of prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex. These mGlu5 PAMs also increased monoamine levels in the prefrontal cortex, enhanced performance in a hippocampal-mediated memory task, and elicited changes in electroencephalogram dynamics commensurate with procognitive effects. Collectively, these data support and extend the role for the development of novel mGlu5 PAMs for the treatment of psychosis and cognitive deficits observed in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:23965381

  10. The 5-substituted piperazine as a novel secondary pharmacophore greatly improving the physical properties of urea-based inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Yi; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D; Long, Ya-Qiu

    2006-10-01

    The inhibition of the mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a promising new therapy in the treatment of hypertention and inflammation. The problems of limited water solubility and high melting points commonly displayed by the active 1,3-disubstituted ureas prevent the further development of potent urea-based sEH inhibitors. Therefore, a new class of potent inhibitors of sEH were designed and synthesized by the introduction of a polar constrained piperazino group in the right side of adasmantyl urea to increase the water solubility. A facile and general synthesis was established to prepare a series of 1-adamantan-1-yl-3-(2-piperazin-2-yl-ethyl)-ureas (1a-d) with various 5-substitutions on the 2-piperazino ring, which will advance the SAR study by the efficient making of structurally diverse analogs. The effect of the 5-substitution on the activity and the water solubility was examined. The best potency was exhibited by the 5-benzyl-substituted-piperazine-containing urea with an IC50 value of 1.37 microM against human sEH and good water solubility (S=7.46 mg/mL) and low melting point, in which the 5-substituted piperazine serves as a favorable secondary pharmacophore and a water-solubility enhancing group. Our present work provides a promising new template for the design of orally available therapeutic agents for the disorders that can be addressed by changing the in vivo concentration of the chemical mediators that contain an epoxide. PMID:16784862

  11. New class of methyl tetrazole based hybrid of (Z)-5-benzylidene-2-(piperazin-1-yl)thiazol-4(%H)-one as potent antitubercular agents.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Kuldeep; Sharma, Moni; Trivedi, Priyanka; Chaturvedi, Vinita; Chauhan, Prem M S

    2014-09-01

    In search of potential therapeutics for tuberculosis, we describe here the synthesis and in vitro antitubercular activity of a novel series of thiazolone piperazine tetrazole derivatives. Among all the synthesized derivatives, four compounds (10, 14, 20 and 33) exhibited more potent activity (MIC=3.08, 3.01, 2.62 and 2.51 ?M) than ethambutol (MIC=9.78 ?M) and pyrazinamide (MIC=101.53 ?M) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Furthermore, they displayed no toxicity against Vero cells (C1008) and mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (MBMDM?). These investigated analogues have emerged as possible lead molecule to enlarge the scope of the study. PMID:25127167

  12. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection in the rat: effect of iron and protein deficiency on the anthelmintic efficacy of mebendazole, pyrantel, piperazine, and levamisole.

    PubMed Central

    Duncombe, V M; Bolin, T D; Davis, A E; Fagan, M R; Kelly, J D

    1979-01-01

    The benzimidazole anthelmintics mebendazole and fenbendazole have been shown to be much less effective against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infections in the rat on a combined iron and protein deficient diet. In the present experiments it was shown that the anthelmintic efficacy of mebendazole was significantly impaired in the rat on either an iron deficient or a protein deficient diet. Furthermore, iron and protein deficiency reduced the efficacy of the anthelmintics pyrantel and piperazine but not levamisole. The finding that nutritional deficiencies reduce anthelmintic efficacy may well be relevant to worm eradication programmes in iron deficient and protein calorie malnourished populations. PMID:447110

  13. Investigation of the mode of binding of a novel series of N-benzyl-4-heteroaryl-1-(phenylsulfonyl)piperazine-2-carboxamides to the hepatitis C virus polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Gentles, Robert G.; Sheriff, Steven; Beno, Brett R.; Wan, Changhong; Kish, Kevin; Ding, Min; Zheng, Xiaofan; Chupak, Louis; Poss, Michael A.; Witmer, Mark R.; Morin, Paul; Wang, Ying-Kai; Rigat, Karen; Lemm, Julie; Voss, Stacey; Liu, Mengping; Pelosi, Lenore; Roberts, Susan B.; Gao, Min; Kadow, John F.

    2013-11-20

    Structure based rationales for the activities of potent N-benzyl-4-heteroaryl-1-(phenylsulfonyl)piperazine-2-carboxamide inhibitors of the hepatitis C viral polymerase are described herein. These compounds bind to the hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 5B (NS5B), and co-crystal structures of select examples from this series with NS5B are reported. Comparison of co-crystal structures of a potent analog with both NS5B genotype 1a and genotype 1b provides a possible explanation for the genotype-selectivity observed with this compound class and suggests opportunities for the further optimization of the series.

  14. Piperazine-1,4-diium bis(2-carboxy-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate) tetrahydrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C4H12N2 2+2C5H3N2O4 ?4H2O, comprises one-half of a piperazine-1,4-diium cation, which lies on an inversion centre, a 2-carboxy-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate anion and two water molecules. An extensive network of intermolecular OH?O, NH?O, NH?N and CH?O hydrogen bonds between the cations, anions and water molecules leads to a three-dimensional supramolecular framework. PMID:21587560

  15. Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 by Two Piperazine-Containing Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Bolles, Amanda K.; Fujiwara, Rina; Briggs, Erran D.; Nomeir, Amin A.

    2014-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is responsible for the metabolism of more than half of pharmaceutic drugs, and inactivation of CYP3A4 can lead to adverse drug-drug interactions. The substituted imidazole compounds 5-fluoro-2-[4-[(2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-1-piperazinyl]pyrimidine (SCH 66712) and 1-[(2-ethyl-4-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-[4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]piperazine (EMTPP) have been previously identified as mechanism-based inactivators (MBI) of CYP2D6. The present study shows that both SCH 66712 and EMTPP are also MBIs of CYP3A4. Inhibition of CYP3A4 by SCH 66712 and EMTPP was determined to be concentration, time, and NADPH dependent. In addition, inactivation of CYP3A4 by SCH 66712 was shown to be unaffected by the presence of electrophile scavengers. SCH 66712 displays type I binding to CYP3A4 with a spectral binding constant (Ks) of 42.9 2.9 M. The partition ratios for SCH 66712 and EMTPP were 11 and 94, respectively. Whole protein mass spectrum analysis revealed 1:1 binding stoichiometry of SCH 66712 and EMTPP to CYP3A4 and a mass increase consistent with adduction by the inactivators without addition of oxygen. Heme adduction was not apparent. Multiple mono-oxygenation products with each inactivator were observed; no other products were apparent. These are the first MBIs to be shown to be potent inactivators of both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. PMID:25273356

  16. Mechanism-based inactivation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 by two piperazine-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Bolles, Amanda K; Fujiwara, Rina; Briggs, Erran D; Nomeir, Amin A; Furge, Laura Lowe

    2014-12-01

    Human cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is responsible for the metabolism of more than half of pharmaceutic drugs, and inactivation of CYP3A4 can lead to adverse drug-drug interactions. The substituted imidazole compounds 5-fluoro-2-[4-[(2-phenyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-1-piperazinyl]pyrimidine (SCH 66712) and 1-[(2-ethyl-4-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-[4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]piperazine (EMTPP) have been previously identified as mechanism-based inactivators (MBI) of CYP2D6. The present study shows that both SCH 66712 and EMTPP are also MBIs of CYP3A4. Inhibition of CYP3A4 by SCH 66712 and EMTPP was determined to be concentration, time, and NADPH dependent. In addition, inactivation of CYP3A4 by SCH 66712 was shown to be unaffected by the presence of electrophile scavengers. SCH 66712 displays type I binding to CYP3A4 with a spectral binding constant (Ks) of 42.9 2.9 M. The partition ratios for SCH 66712 and EMTPP were 11 and 94, respectively. Whole protein mass spectrum analysis revealed 1:1 binding stoichiometry of SCH 66712 and EMTPP to CYP3A4 and a mass increase consistent with adduction by the inactivators without addition of oxygen. Heme adduction was not apparent. Multiple mono-oxygenation products with each inactivator were observed; no other products were apparent. These are the first MBIs to be shown to be potent inactivators of both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. PMID:25273356

  17. Solid-state variable-temperature NMR study of the phase separation of polybutadiene polyurethane zwitterionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G.; Chen, Q.; Wang, Y.; Yang, C.; Wu, X.

    1994-07-01

    Polybutadiene polyurethane (PBDPU) zwitterionomers based on 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), methyl-diethanolamine (MDEA), and hydroxy terminated polybutadiene are studied with variable-temperature (VT) wide-line 1H NMR. Spin—spin relaxation times ( T2) and spin—lattice relaxation times ( T1) are measured. It is found that phase separation of PBDPU does not change significantly upon ionization. The initial incorporation of ionization groups destroys the crystallinity of the hard segment while further ionization enhances physical crosslinks in the hard phase. The results are compared with a previous VT NMR study on polyether polyurethane zwitterionomers based on MDI, MDEA and 1000 Da molecular weight polytetramethylene oxide.

  18. Design, synthesis, biological screening, and molecular docking studies of piperazine-derived constrained inhibitors of DPP-IV for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Ram N; Srivastava, Rohit; Mishra, Akansha; Rawat, Arun K; Srivastava, Arvind K; Haq, Wahajul; Katti, Seturam B

    2015-04-01

    Novel piperazine-derived conformationally constrained compounds were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for in vitro Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activities. From a library of compounds synthesized, 1-(2-(4-(7-Chloro-4-quinolyl)piperazin-1-yl)acetyl)pyrrolidine (2g) was identified as a potential DPP-IV inhibitor exhibiting better inhibitory activity than P32/98, reference inhibitor. The in vivo studies carried out in STZ and db/db mice models indicated that the compound 2g showed moderate antihyperglycemic activity as compared to the marketed drug Sitagliptin. A two-week repeated dose study in db/db mice revealed that compound 2g significantly declined blood glucose levels with no evidence of hypoglycemia risk. Furthermore, it showed improvement in insulin resistance reversal and antidyslipidemic properties. Molecular docking studies established good binding affinity of compound 2g at the DPP-IV active site and are in favor of the observed biological data. These data collectively suggest that compound 2g is a good lead molecule for further optimization studies. PMID:25216392

  19. Here today, gone tomorrow…and back again? A review of herbal marijuana alternatives (K2, Spice), synthetic cathinones (bath salts), kratom, Salvia divinorum, methoxetamine, and piperazines.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Christopher D; Carreiro, Stephanie P; Babu, Kavita M

    2012-03-01

    Despite their widespread Internet availability and use, many of the new drugs of abuse remain unfamiliar to health care providers. The herbal marijuana alternatives, like K2 or Spice, are a group of herbal blends that contain a mixture of plant matter in addition to chemical grade synthetic cannabinoids. The synthetic cathinones, commonly called "bath salts," have resulted in nationwide emergency department visits for severe agitation, sympathomimetic toxicity, and death. Kratom, a plant product derived from Mitragyna speciosa Korth, has opioid-like effects, and has been used for the treatment of chronic pain and amelioration of opioid-withdrawal symptoms. Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogen with unique pharmacology that has therapeutic potential but has been banned in many states due to concerns regarding its psychiatric effects. Methoxetamine has recently become available via the Internet and is marked as "legal ketamine." Moreover, the piperazine derivatives, a class of amphetamine-like compounds that includes BZP and TMFPP, are making a resurgence as "legal Ecstasy." These psychoactives are available via the Internet, frequently legal, and often perceived as safe by the public. Unfortunately, these drugs often have adverse effects, which range from minimal to life-threatening. Health care providers must be familiar with these important new classes of drugs. This paper discusses the background, pharmacology, clinical effects, detection, and management of synthetic cannabinoid, synthetic cathinone, methoxetamine, and piperazine exposures. PMID:22271566

  20. Crystal structure of catena-poly[[[tetraaquazinc(II)]-?-1,4-bis[4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoyl]piperazine] dinitrate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chen; Gan, Hong-Mei; Liu, Jia-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    In the title polymeric complex, {[Zn(C24H22N6O2)(H2O)4](NO3)22H2O}n, the ZnII cation, located about a twofold rotation axis, is coordinated by two imidazole groups and four water molecules in a distorted N2O4 octahedral geometry; among the four coordinate water molecules, two are located on the same twofold rotation axis. The 1,4-bis[4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoyl]piperazine] ligand is centro-symmetric, with the centroid of the piperazine ring located on an inversion center, and bridges the ZnII cations, forming polymeric chains propagating along [201]. In the crystal, OH?O and weak CH?O hydrogen bonds link the polymeric chains, nitrate anions and solvent water molecules into a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture. A short O?O contact of 2.823?(13)? is observed between neighboring nitrate anions. PMID:25995894

  1. The Reaction of DABCO with 4-Chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazoles: Synthesis and Chemistry of 4-[N-(2-Chloroethyl)piperazin-1-yl]-5H-1,2,3-dithiazoles.

    PubMed

    Koyioni, Maria; Manoli, Maria; Koutentis, Panayiotis A

    2016-01-15

    N-(4-Chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylidene)anilines react with DABCO in hot PhCl to give N-{4-[N-(2-chloroethyl)piperazin-1-yl]-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylidene}anilines in high yields (70-92%). The reaction also works with 4-chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-one and -thione, giving the corresponding products in 85% and 76% yields, respectively. While the reaction of several (4-chloro-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylidene)methanes with DABCO failed to give {4-[N-(2-chloroethyl)piperazin-1-yl]-5H-1,2,3-dithiazol-5-ylidene}methanes, these can be prepared in moderate yields via classical cycloaddition-retrocycloaddition strategies from 4-[N-(2-chloroethyl)piperazin-1-yl]-5H-1,2,3-dithiazole-5-thione. The 2-chloroethyl moiety on selected dithiazoles was also modified without cleavage of the 1,2,3-dithiazole by reaction with various nucleophiles, giving access to 4-[N-(2-substituted)piperazin-1-yl]-5H-1,2,3-dithiazoles in moderate to high yields. PMID:26671065

  2. Bis[N-(2-hy­droxy­eth­yl)-N-iso­propyl­dithio­carbamato-κ2 S,S′](piperazine-κN)cadmium: crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    PubMed Central

    Safbri, Siti Artikah M.; Halim, Siti Nadiah Abdul; Jotani, Mukesh M.; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, [Cd(C6H12NOS2)2(C4H10N2)], features a distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry about the central CdII atom. The di­thio­carbamate ligands are chelating, forming similar Cd—S bond lengths and define the approximate basal plane. One of the N atoms of the piperazine mol­ecule, which adopts a chair conformation, occupies the apical site. In the crystal, supra­molecular layers propagating in the ac plane are formed via hy­droxy-O—H⋯O(hy­droxy), hy­droxy-O—H⋯N(terminal-piperazine) and coordinated-piperazine-N—H⋯O(hy­droxy) hydrogen bonds; the layers also feature methine-C—H⋯S inter­actions and S⋯S [3.3714 (10) Å] short contacts. The layers stack along the b-axis direction with very weak terminal-piperazine-N—H⋯O(hy­droxy) inter­actions between them. An evaluation of the Hirshfeld surfaces confirms the importance of inter­molecular inter­actions involving oxygen and sulfur atoms. PMID:26958378

  3. Crystal structure of 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-ium picratepicric acid (2/1)

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Channappa N.; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Kaur, Manpreet; Anderson, Brian J.; Yathirajan, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    The title salt {systematic name: bis[1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazinium 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate]picric acid (2/1)}, 2C10H14ClN2 +2C6H5N3O7 ?C6H6N3O7, crystallized with two independent 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazinium cations, two picrate anions and a picric acid molecule in the asymmetric unit. The six-membered piperazine ring in each cation adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation and contains a protonated N atom. In the picric acid molecule, the mean planes of the nitro groups in the ortho-, meta-, and para-positions are twisted from the benzene ring by 31.5?(3), 7.7?(1), and 3.8?(2), respectively. In the anions, the dihedral angles between the benzene ring and the ortho-, meta-, and para-nitro groups are 36.7?(1), 5.0?(6), 4.8?(2), and 34.4?(9), 15.3?(8), 4.5?(1), respectively. The nitro group in one anion is disordered and was modeled with two sites for one O atom with an occupancy ratio of 0.627?(7):0.373?(7). In the crystal, the picric acid molecule interacts with the picrate anion through a trifurcated OH?O four-centre hydrogen bond involving an intramolecular OH?O hydrogen bond and a weak CH?O interaction. Weak intermolecular CH?O interactions are responsible for the formation of cationanioncation trimers resulting in a chain along [010]. In addition, weak CH?Cl and weak ?? interactions [centroidcentroid distances of 3.532?(3), 3.756?(4) and 3.705?(3)?] are observed and contribute to the stability of the crystal packing. PMID:25484834

  4. Measurement of nitrosamine and nitramine formation from NOx reactions with amines during amine-based carbon dioxide capture for postcombustion carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ning; Shah, Amisha D; Hu, Lanhua; Plewa, Michael J; McKague, Bruce; Mitch, William A

    2012-09-01

    With years of full-scale experience for precombustion CO(2) capture, amine-based technologies are emerging as the prime contender for postcombustion CO(2) capture. However, concerns for postcombustion applications have focused on the possible contamination of air or drinking water supplies downwind by potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines released following their formation by NO(x) reactions with amines within the capture unit. Analytical methods for N-nitrosamines in drinking waters were adapted to measure specific N-nitrosamines and N-nitramines and total N-nitrosamines in solvent and washwater samples. The high levels of amines, aldehydes, and nitrite in these samples presented a risk for the artifactual formation of N-nitrosamines during sample storage or analysis. Application of a 30-fold molar excess of sulfamic acid to nitrite at pH 2 destroyed nitrite with no significant risk of artifactual nitrosation of amines. Analysis of aqueous morpholine solutions purged with different gas-phase NO and NO(2) concentrations indicated that N-nitrosamine formation generally exceeds N-nitramine formation. The total N-nitrosamine formation rate was at least an order of magnitude higher for the secondary amine piperazine (PZ) than for the primary amines 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) and monoethanolamine (MEA) and the tertiary amine methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). Analysis of pilot washwater samples indicated a 59 μM total N-nitrosamine concentration for a system operated with a 25% AMP/15% PZ solvent, but only 0.73 μM for a 35% MEA solvent. Unfortunately, a greater fraction of the total N-nitrosamine signal was uncharacterized for the MEA-associated washwater. At a 0.73 μM total N-nitrosamine concentration, a ~25000-fold reduction in concentration is needed between washwater units and downwind drinking water supplies to meet proposed permit limits. PMID:22831707

  5. Toward understanding amines and their degradation products from postcombustion CO2 capture processes with aerosol mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xinlei; Shaw, Stephanie L; Zhang, Qi

    2014-05-01

    Amine-based postcombustion CO2 capture (PCCC) is a promising technique for reducing CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning plants. A concern of the technique, however, is the emission of amines and their degradation byproducts. To assess the environmental risk of this technique, standardized stack sampling and analytical methods are needed. Here we report on the development of an integrated approach that centers on the application of a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) for characterizing amines and PCCC-relevant species. Molecular characterization is achieved via ion chromatography (IC) and electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The method has been optimized, particularly, by decreasing the AMS vaporizer temperature, to gain quantitative information on the elemental composition and major nitrogen-containing species in laboratory-degraded amine solvents commonly tested for PCCC applications, including ethanolamine (MEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and piperazine (PIP). The AMS-derived nitrogen-to-carbon (N/C) ratios for the degraded solvent and product mixtures agree well with the results from a total organic carbon and total nitrogen (TOC/TN) analyzer. In addition, marker ions identified in the AMS spectra are used to estimate the mass contributions of individual species. Overall, our results indicate that this new approach is suitable for characterizing PCCC-related mixtures as well as organic nitrogen species in other sample types. As an online instrument, AMS can be used for both real-time characterization of emissions from operating PCCC plants and ambient particles in the vicinity of the facilities. PMID:24617831

  6. Toward Understanding Amines and Their Degradation Products from Postcombustion CO2 Capture Processes with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Amine-based postcombustion CO2 capture (PCCC) is a promising technique for reducing CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning plants. A concern of the technique, however, is the emission of amines and their degradation byproducts. To assess the environmental risk of this technique, standardized stack sampling and analytical methods are needed. Here we report on the development of an integrated approach that centers on the application of a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) for characterizing amines and PCCC-relevant species. Molecular characterization is achieved via ion chromatography (IC) and electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The method has been optimized, particularly, by decreasing the AMS vaporizer temperature, to gain quantitative information on the elemental composition and major nitrogen-containing species in laboratory-degraded amine solvents commonly tested for PCCC applications, including ethanolamine (MEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and piperazine (PIP). The AMS-derived nitrogen-to-carbon (N/C) ratios for the degraded solvent and product mixtures agree well with the results from a total organic carbon and total nitrogen (TOC/TN) analyzer. In addition, marker ions identified in the AMS spectra are used to estimate the mass contributions of individual species. Overall, our results indicate that this new approach is suitable for characterizing PCCC-related mixtures as well as organic nitrogen species in other sample types. As an online instrument, AMS can be used for both real-time characterization of emissions from operating PCCC plants and ambient particles in the vicinity of the facilities. PMID:24617831

  7. Lanthanide N,N'-piperazine-bis(methylenephosphonates) (Ln=La, Ce, Nd) that display flexible frameworks, reversible hydration and cation exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Mowat, John P.S.; Groves, John A.; Wharmby, Michael T.; Miller, Stuart R.; Li Yang; Lightfoot, Philip; Wright, Paul A.

    2009-10-15

    Hydrothermal syntheses of lanthanide bisphosphonate metal organic frameworks comprising the light lanthanides lanthanum, cerium and neodymium and N,N'-piperazine bis(methylenephosphonic acid) (H{sub 2}L(1) and its 2-methyl and 2,5-dimethyl derivatives (H{sub 2}L(2) and H{sub 2}L(3)) gives three new structure types. At elevated starting pH (ca. 5 and above) syntheses give 'type I' materials with all metals and acids of the study (MLnLxH{sub 2}O, M=Na, K, Cs; Ln=La, Ce, Nd; x{approx}4: KCeL(1).4H{sub 2}O, C2/c, a=23.5864(2) A, b=12.1186(2) A, c=5.6613(2) A, beta=93.040(2){sup o}). The framework of structure type I shows considerable flexibility as the ligand is changed, due mainly to rotation around the -N-CH{sub 2}- bond of the linker in response to steric considerations. Type I materials demonstrate cation exchange and dehydration and rehydration behaviour. Upon dehydration of KCeL.4H{sub 2}O, the space group changes to P2{sub 1}/n, a=21.8361(12) A, b=9.3519(4) A, c=5.5629(3) A, beta=96.560(4){sup o}, as a result of a change of the piperazine ring from chair to boat configuration. When syntheses are performed at lower pH, two other structure types crystallise. With the 'non-methyl' ligand 1, type II materials result (LnL(1)H{sub 2}L(1).4.5H{sub 2}O: Ln=La, P-1, a=5.7630(13) A, b=10.213(2) A, c=11.649(2) A, alpha=84.242(2){sup o}, beta=89.051(2){sup o}, gamma=82.876(2){sup o}) in which one half of the ligands coordinate via the piperazine nitrogen atoms. With the 2-methyl ligand, structure type III crystallises (LnHL(2).4H{sub 2}O: Ln=Nd, Ce, P2{sub 1}/c, a=5.7540(9) A, b=14.1259(18) A, c=21.156(5) A, beta=90.14(2){sup o}) due to unfavourable steric interactions of the methyl group in structure type II. - Graphical abstract: The lanthanides La, Ce and Nd give a family of metal organic frameworks based on N,N'-piperazinebismethylenephosphonate ligands: these display reversible dehydration, structural flexibility and cation exchange.

  8. FT-IR, FT-Raman and DFT quantum chemical study on the molecular conformation, vibrational and electronic transitions of 1-(m-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)piperazine.

    PubMed

    Prabavathi, N; Nilufer, A; Krishnakumar, V

    2014-01-01

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 1-(m-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)piperazine [TFMPP] have been recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-100 cm(-1), respectively. The optimized geometry, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of the compound was obtained by the density functional theory using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated and the scaled values have been compared with experimental FTIR and FT-Raman spectra. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra were also reported based on potential energy distribution (PED). UV-Vis spectrum of the compound was recorded and the electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured by TD-DFT approach. Furthermore, molecular electrostatic potential is performed and also the calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. PMID:24291424

  9. Effect of 1-(1-Naphtylmethyl)-piperazine, an efflux pump inhibitor, on antimicrobial drug susceptibilities of clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates.

    PubMed

    Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz; Guney, Akif Koray; Tanriverdi Cayci, Yeliz; Durupinar, Belma

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the effects of 1-(1-naphtylmethyl)-piperazine (NMP), an efflux pump inhibitor, on antimicrobial drug susceptibilities of 42 clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were investigated by the disc diffusion method. The inhibition zone diameters of antibiotic discs were tested in the presence and absence of NMP and then these zone diameters were compared. Presence of NMP restored ciprofloxacin susceptibility in 15 intermediate and 2 resistant isolates. One ciprofloxacin resistant isolate became intermediate in the presence of NMP. One isolate resistant to gentamicin became intermediate with NMP. Interestingly, one isolate susceptible to meropenem became resistant in the presence of NMP. Although NMP increased the inhibition zone diameters of some of the tested antibiotics against the resistant isolates, the increase was not enough to restore susceptibility. In conclusion, the presence of NMP increases the zone diameters of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Intermediate strains become susceptible but the resistant isolates do not. PMID:20717673

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1-(1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)- and (1,2-benzisoxazol-3-yl)piperazine derivatives as potential antipsychotic agents.

    PubMed

    Yevich, J P; New, J S; Smith, D W; Lobeck, W G; Catt, J D; Minielli, J L; Eison, M S; Taylor, D P; Riblet, L A; Temple, D L

    1986-03-01

    Members of the series of title compounds were tested for potential antipsychotic activity in relevant receptor binding assays and behavioral screens. Structure-activity relationships within the series are discussed. Compound 24 (BMY 13859-1), a (1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)piperazine derivative, was selected for further study because of its potent and selective profile in primary CNS tests. It was active in the Sidman avoidance paradigm and blocked amphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior in dogs for up to 7 h. The compound's lack of typical neuroleptic-like effects in the rat catalepsy test and its failure to produce dopamine receptor supersensitivity following chronic administration indicate that it should not cause the movement disorders commonly associated with antipsychotic therapy. Although 24 has potent affinity for dopaminergic binding sites, its even greater affinity for serotonin receptors suggests that a serotonergic component may be relevant to its atypical profile. Compound 24 is currently undergoing clinical evaluation in schizophrenic patients. PMID:2869146

  11. Novel 3-nitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole-based piperazines and 2-amino-1,3-benzothiazoles as antichagasic agents.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Maria V; Bloomer, William D; Rosenzweig, Howard S; Kaiser, Marcel; Chatelain, Eric; Ioset, Jean-Robert

    2013-11-01

    We have previously shown that 3-nitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole-based amines demonstrate significant trypanocidal activity, in particular against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease. In the present work we further expanded our research by evaluating in vitro the trypanocidal activity of nitrotriazole-based piperazines and nitrotriazole-based 2-amino-1,3-benzothiazoles to establish additional SARs. All nitrotriazole-based derivatives were active or moderately active against T. cruzi; however two of them did not fulfill the selectivity criteria. Five derivatives were active or moderately active against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense while one derivative was moderately active against Leishmania donovani. Active compounds against T. cruzi demonstrated selectivity indexes (toxicity to host cells/toxicity to T. cruzi amastigotes) from 117 to 1725 and 12 of 13 compounds were up to 39-fold more potent than the reference compound benznidazole. Detailed SARs are discussed. PMID:24012457

  12. Piperidin-1-yl-phosphonic acid and (4-phosphono-piperazin-1-yl) phosphonic acid: A new class of iron corrosion inhibitors in sodium chloride 3% media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, H.; Benzakour, J.; Derja, A.; Villemin, D.; Moreau, B.; Braisaz, T.

    2006-07-01

    The inhibiting effect of the piperidin-1-yl-phosphonic acid (PPA) and (4-phosphono-piperazin-1-yl) phosphonic acid (PPPA) on the behavior of iron in 3% NaCl media has been examined by electrochemical and gravimetric measurements. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal the fact that the addition of increasing concentrations of phosphonic acids moves the corrosion potential towards negative values and reduces the corrosion rate. In uninhibited and inhibited solutions, the increasing of temperature reduces the inhibition efficiency. Changes in impedance parameters ( Rt and Cdl) are indicative of adsorption of PPA and PPPA on the metal surface leading to the formation of protective films. Gravimetric measurements reveal that the presence of PPA and PPPA increases the inhibition efficiency by decreasing the corrosion rate. The results obtained by corrosion weight loss tests reveal that adsorption of compounds tested on the ARMCO iron surface obeys to Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  13. N-(2-(Piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)arylamide Derivatives as ?-Secretase (BACE1) Inhibitors: Simple Synthesis by Ugi Four-Component Reaction and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Edraki, Najmeh; Firuzi, Omidreza; Fatahi, Yousef; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Asadi, Mehdi; Emami, Saeed; Divsalar, Kouros; Miri, Ramin; Iraji, Aida; Khoshneviszadeh, Mehdi; Firoozpour, Loghman; Shafiee, Abbas; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2015-05-01

    A novel series of N-(2-(piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)aryl carboxamide derivatives were simply synthesized by Ugi-multicomponent reaction as ?-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors. The BACE1 inhibitory activity of the synthesized compounds was examined using a Forester resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based assay. Among the tested compounds, the N-(5-bromo-2-(4-phenylpiperazine-1-yl)phenyl)thiophene-carboxamide derivative 14 containing the N-cyclohexyl indole acetamide moiety showed superior BACE1 inhibition at 10 and 40 M. The results of the molecular docking study indicated that compound 14 establishes favorable hydrogen bonding interactions with the catalytic amino acid residues Asp228 and Thr72 and could be well accommodated in the flap region and P2 and P'2 pockets of the BACE1 active site. PMID:25787800

  14. Synthesis and evaluation of 4-substituted piperidines and piperazines as balanced affinity ? opioid receptor (MOR) agonist/? opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist ligands.

    PubMed

    Bender, Aaron M; Clark, Mary J; Agius, Michael P; Traynor, John R; Mosberg, Henry I

    2014-01-15

    In this letter, we describe a series of 4-substituted piperidine and piperazine compounds based on tetrahydroquinoline 1, a compound that shows balanced, low nanomolar binding affinity for the mu opioid receptor (MOR) and the delta opioid receptor (DOR). We have shown that by changing the length and flexibility profile of the side chain in this position, binding affinity is improved at both receptors by a significant degree. Furthermore, several of the compounds described herein display good efficacy at MOR, while simultaneously displaying DOR antagonism. The MOR agonist/DOR antagonist has shown promise in the reduction of negative side effects displayed by selective MOR agonists, namely the development of dependence and tolerance. PMID:24365161

  15. Efficient approach to improving the flame retardancy of poly(vinyl alcohol)/clay aerogels: incorporating piperazine-modified ammonium polyphosphate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Tao; Liao, Shi-Fu; Shang, Ke; Chen, Ming-Jun; Huang, Jian-Qian; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Schiraldi, David A

    2015-01-28

    Ammonium polyphosphates (APP) modified with piperazine (PA-APP) was used to improve the flame retardancy of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/montmorillonite (MMT) aerogels, which were prepared via an environmentally friendly freeze-drying method. The thermal stabilities of the samples were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG); the flammability behaviors of samples were investigated by limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning test (UL-94) and cone calorimeter (CC) tests. TG test results showed that the 5% weight loss temperature (T5%) of PVA/MMT/PA-APP was 10 C higher than that of PVA/MMT/APP. In combustion testing, all of PVA/MMT/PA-APP aerogels achieved V-0 ratings and have a higher LOI values than the unmodified PVA/MMT aerogel. Moreover, the aerogel with 1% PA-APP5, which means that the content of piperazine is 5% in PA-APP, decreased the cone calorimetry THR value to 5.71 MJ/m(2), and increased the char residue to 52%. The compressive modulus of PVA/MMT/PA-APP was increased by 93.4% compared with PVA/MMT/APP because of the increase in interfacial adhesion between matrix and PA-APP fillers. The densities of the PVA/MMT/PA-APP samples were slightly lower than those of the unmodified aerogels because of reduced shrinkage in the presence of PA-APP. All the tests results indicated that the incorporation of PA-APP not only improved the thermal stability and flame retardancy of aerogels but also maintained their mechanical properties. PMID:25588129

  16. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of selected synthetic cathinones and two piperazines in oral fluid. Cross reactivity study with an on-site immunoassay device.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Ana; Lendoiro, Elena; Fernndez-Vega, Hadriana; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Lpez-Rivadulla, Manuel; Cruz, Angelines

    2014-12-29

    Since the past few years, several synthetic cathinones and piperazines have been introduced into the drug market to substitute illegal stimulant drugs such as amphetamine and derivatives or cocaine due to their unregulated situation. These emerging drugs are not usually included in routine toxicological analysis. We developed and validated a LC-MS/MS method for the determination of methedrone, methylone, mephedrone, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), fluoromethcathinone, fluoromethamphetamine, 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 3-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) in oral fluid. Sample extraction was performed using Strata X cartridges. Chromatographic separation was achieved in 10min using an Atlantis() T3 column (100mm2.1mm, 3?m), and formic acid 0.1% and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The method was satisfactorily validated, including selectivity, linearity (0.2-0.5 to 200ng/mL), limits of detection (0.025-0.1ng/mL) and quantification (0.2-0.5ng/mL), imprecision and accuracy in neat oral fluid (%CV=0.0-12.7% and 84.8-103.6% of target concentration, respectively) and in oral fluid mixed with Quantisal buffer (%CV=7.2-10.3% and 80.2-106.5% of target concentration, respectively), matrix effect in neat oral fluid (-11.6 to 399.7%) and in oral fluid with Quantisal buffer (-69.9 to 131.2%), extraction recovery (87.9-134.3%) and recovery from the Quantisal (79.6-107.7%), dilution integrity (75-99% of target concentration) and stability at different conditions (-14.8 to 30.8% loss). In addition, cross reactivity produced by the studied synthetic cathinones in oral fluid using the Drger DrugTest 5000 was assessed. All the analytes produced a methamphetamine positive result at high concentrations (100 or 10?g/mL), and fluoromethamphetamine also at low concentration (0.075?g/mL). PMID:25482853

  17. Synthesis, characterization and biological activities of metal(II) dipicolinate complexes derived from pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and 2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükkıdan, Nurgün; Yenikaya, Cengiz; İlkimen, Halil; Karahan, Ceyda; Darcan, Cihan; Korkmaz, Tülin; Süzen, Yasemin

    2015-12-01

    The new water-soluble and air stable compounds (H2ppz)[Co(dipic)2]·6H2O (1), (H2ppz)[Ni(dipic)2]·6H2O (2) and (H2ppz)[Zn(dipic)2]·6H2O (3) were prepared by the reaction of corresponding metal(II) acetates and a proton transfer salt, (H2ppz) (Hdipic)2, (4) of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (H2dipic) and 2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethanol (ppz). The compounds 1-3 were characterized by elemental, IR, UV-vis. thermal analyses, magnetic measurement and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The molecular structures of the title compounds consist of one 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1,4-diium (H2ppz+2) cation, one bis(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate)metal(II) [M(dipic)2]2- anion, and six uncoordinated water molecules. In compounds 1-3 the metal ions coordinate to two oxygen and one nitrogen atoms of two pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate molecules forming an octahedral environment. Antimicrobial activities against Gram (-) wild type (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), Gram (+) wild type (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis) and clinical isolate (Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris and Enterobacter aeruginosa) were also studied. The results were reported, discussed and compared with the corresponding starting materials ((H2ppz) (Hdipic)2 (4), H2dipic and ppz). MIC (Minimal Inhibition Concentration) values of the newly synthesized compounds were determined as 4000 μg/ml (except B. subtilis and clinical isolate E. aeruginosa, >4000 μg/ml).

  18. 4-[Bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-1-[(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl]piperazin-1-ium 3-carboxypropanoate

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Channappa N.; Yathirajan, Hemmige S.; Narayana, Badiadka; Gerber, Thomas; van Brecht, Benjamin; Betz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In the title salt, C26H27F2N2 +C4H5O4 ?, the piperazine N atom bearing the vinylic substituent is protonated. The piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation. In ther crystal, the succinate monoanions are connected via short OH?O hydrogen bonds between the carboxylic acid and carboxylate groups into undulating chains extending along [001] and the flunarizinium monocations are attached to these chains via N+H?O? hydrogen bonds. CH?O interactions connect these chains into a three-dimensional network. The shortest centroidcentroid distance of 3.7256?(10)? was found between one of the fluorinated benzene rings and the non-fluorinated phenyl ring in the neighbouring molecule related by a glide plane. PMID:23424537

  19. N-Nitrosopiperazines form at high pH in post-combustion capture solutions containing piperazine: a low-energy collisional behaviour study.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Phil; Attalla, Moetaz I

    2010-12-30

    During the process of exploring aqueous piperazine chemistry under simulated flue-gas scrubbing conditions, positive-ion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) analyses of the resulting reaction mixtures in a triple quadrupole system revealed the presence of peaks at m/z 116 and 145, the putative N-nitroso derivatives of piperazine. Confirmation of the presence of these species in the reaction mixtures was achieved using collision-induced dissociation experiments. A purchased standard, together with in-house synthesised N-nitrosopiperazine standards (including N-nitroso derivatives derived from deuterium-labelled precursor materials), were used for this purpose. Across a small range of collision energies, large fluctuations in the abundance of the two major product ions of protonated N-nitrosopiperazine, m/z 86 and 85, were observed. Using B3LYP/6-311 + +G(d,p) computations, the potential energy surface was determined for loss of NO and [H,N,O]. At an activation energy slightly in excess of 1 eV, intramolecular isomerisation precedes loss of NO (m/z 86) via a 4,1 H-shift, and at activation energies between 2.1-2.3 eV, consecutive loss of NO and atomic hydrogen competes with the direct loss of nitrosyl hydride (m/z 85). It is recommended that any multiple reaction monitoring method for quantifying N-nitrosopiperazines at low collision energies use the sum of both transitions (m/z 116 ← 85, m/z 116 ← 86) to avoid errors that could be introduced by subtle changes in ES source conditions or collision voltages. This approach is adopted in an HPLC/MS/MS method used to monitor the degradation of N-nitrosopiperazine exposed to (i) broad-band UV light and (ii) heat typical of an amine regeneration (stripper) tower. The results reveal that aqueous N-nitrosopiperazine is thermally stable at 150°C but will degrade slowly upon exposure to UV light. PMID:21108305

  20. Synthesis, growth, structural and optical studies of organic nonlinear optical material--piperazine-1,4-diium bis 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate.

    PubMed

    Suguna, S; Anbuselvi, D; Jayaraman, D; Nagaraja, K S; Jeyaraj, B

    2014-11-11

    Piperazine-1,4-diium bis 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate is one of the useful organic materials with nonlinear optical (NLO) and pharmaceutical applications. The material was grown by slow evaporation solution growth method at room temperature. The crystal system and lattice parameters were identified by single crystal XRD analysis. The grown material crystallizes in monoclinic system with P21/n space group. The main functional groups NH2, NO2, CN, CC, and phenolic 'O' atom were identified using FTIR analysis. The protons and carbons of grown crystal with various chemical environments were studied by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy to confirm the molecular structure. The optical properties of the crystal were studied by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy and the transmission 100% range starts from 532 nm onwards. The optical band gap was measured as 2.63 eV from the plot of (?h?)2 versus h?. The thermal stability was detected at 304.1C using TG-DTA analysis. The dielectric studies of the sample were carried out at different temperatures in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 5 MHz to establish the dielectric nature of the crystal. Photoconductivity measurements were carried out on the grown crystal. The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) of the crystal was tested to confirm the nonlinear optical property. PMID:24878440

  1. 1,4-Disubstituted aromatic piperazines with high 5-HT2A/D2 selectivity: Quantitative structure-selectivity investigations, docking, synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mller, Dorothee; Salama, Ismail; Kling, Ralf C; Hbner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter

    2015-09-15

    Simultaneous targeting of dopamine D2 and 5-HT2A receptors for the treatment of schizophrenia is one key feature of typical and atypical antipsychotics. In most of the top-selling antipsychotic drugs like aripiprazole and risperidone, high affinity to both receptors can be attributed to the presence of 1,4-disubstituted aromatic piperazines or piperidines as primary receptor recognition elements. Taking advantage of our in-house library of phenylpiperazine-derived dopamine receptor ligands and experimental data, we established highly significant CoMFA and CoMSIA models for the prediction of 5-HT2A over D2 selectivity. Subsequently, the models were applied to identify the selective candidates 55-57 from our newly synthesized library of GPCR ligands comprising a pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine head group and a 1,2,3-triazole based linker unit. The test compound 57 showed subnanomolar a Ki value (0.64 nM) for 5-HT2A and more than 10- and 30-fold selectivity over the dopamine receptor isoforms D2S and D2L, respectively. PMID:26299826

  2. Synthesis, growth, structural and optical studies of organic nonlinear optical material - Piperazine-1,4-diium bis 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suguna, S.; Anbuselvi, D.; Jayaraman, D.; Nagaraja, K. S.; Jeyaraj, B.

    2014-11-01

    Piperazine-1,4-diium bis 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate is one of the useful organic materials with nonlinear optical (NLO) and pharmaceutical applications. The material was grown by slow evaporation solution growth method at room temperature. The crystal system and lattice parameters were identified by single crystal XRD analysis. The grown material crystallizes in monoclinic system with P21/n space group. The main functional groups NH2, NO2, Csbnd N, Cdbnd C, and phenolic O' atom were identified using FTIR analysis. The protons and carbons of grown crystal with various chemical environments were studied by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy to confirm the molecular structure. The optical properties of the crystal were studied by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy and the transmission 100% range starts from 532 nm onwards. The optical band gap was measured as 2.63 eV from the plot of (?h?)2 versus h?. The thermal stability was detected at 304.1 C using TG-DTA analysis. The dielectric studies of the sample were carried out at different temperatures in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 5 MHz to establish the dielectric nature of the crystal. Photoconductivity measurements were carried out on the grown crystal. The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) of the crystal was tested to confirm the nonlinear optical property.

  3. Single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with aptamer and piperazine-polyethylenimine derivative for targeted siRNA delivery into breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Marzieh; Salmasi, Zahra; Hashemi, Maryam; Mosaffa, Fatemeh; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2015-05-15

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a glycosylated type 1 membrane protein which is frequently over expressed in most solid tumors and it has recently been identified as a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker. Specific targeting of CSCs using nano-carriers would enhance treatment efficacy of cancer. In this study, we used a RNA aptamer against EpCAM (EpDT3) attached physically to our newly synthesized non-viral vector, based on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) conjugated to piperazine-polyethylenimine derivative. The DNA transfection efficiency and siRNA delivery activity of the synthesized vector was investigated against upregulated BCL9l, which has been associated with breast and colorectal cancers. The complexes of the vector-aptamer/siRNA could specifically induce apoptosis by more than 20% in MCF-7 cell line as a positive EpCAM than MDA-MB-231 cells which are EpCAM negative. The decrease of BCL9l protein level was observed with western blot analysis in MCF-7 cells indicating the targeted silencing activity of the complex. PMID:25712164

  4. Radiosynthesis binding affinity and biodistribution of 3-[F-18]fluoro-N-({alpha},{alpha},{alpha}-trifluoro-m-tolyl)piperazine (FTFMPP), a radioligand for the Serotonin system

    SciTech Connect

    Mishani, E.; Cristel, M.E.; McCarthy, T.J.; Welch, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    The serotonin agonist N({alpha},{alpha},{alpha}-trifluoro-m-tolyl)piperazine (TFMPP) is a potent ligand for the serotonin system. Angelini and co-workers previously synthesized the c.a [F-18]TFMPP but the low specific activity (less than 0.2GBq/mmol) limited the application of this ligand. We have recently reported the formation of phenylpiperazines by a novel alumina supported bis-alkylation. We report the application of this method and biological evaluation of 3-[F-18]FTFMPP, a fluoro derivative of TFMPP. Reaction of [F-18]fluoride with 3,5-dinitrobenzotrifluoride gave the 3-[F-18]fluoro-5-nitrobenzotrifluoride in 70% yield. Reduction of the nitro group with Raney nickel and hydrazine hydrate gave the [F-18]aniline derivative in 70% yield. Finally, the phenylpiperazine was constructed by reaction of the [F-18]aniline derivative with bis-2-bromoethyl-N-(ethoxy carbonyl)amine on basic alumina (pH=9) as a solid support. After extraction of the activity with basic MeOH and HPLC purification on normal phase the final product- [F-18]FTFMPP was obtained in 50% yield (98% radiochemical purity). The specific activity of the final product was 100GBq/mmol. The binding affinity of FTFMPP to 5-HT receptor was determined (Ki = 80-100 nM) and found to be similar to the binding affinity of the TFMPP (160-180 nM). The biodistribution of [F-18]FTFMPP was performed in rats.

  5. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of charge-transfer molecular complexes formed in the reaction of 1,4-bis (3-aminopropyl) piperazine with ?- and ? acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlQaradawi, Siham Y.; Mostafa, Adel; Bazzi, Hassan S.

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, solid charge-transfer (CT) molecular complexes formed in the reaction of the electron donor 1,4-bis (3-aminopropyl) piperazine (APPIP) with the ?-electron acceptor iodine and ?-acceptors 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ), and 2,4,4,6-tetrabromo-2,5-cyclohexadienone (TBCHD) have been investigated spectrophotometrically in chloroform at 25 C. These were characterized through electronic and infrared spectra as well as elemental and thermal analysis. The obtained results showed that the formed solid CT-complexes have the formulas [(APPIP) I]+I3-, [(APPIP)(TCNQ)], [(APPIP)2(TCNE)3], [(APPIP)(DDQ)] and [(APPIP)(TBCHD)] in full agreement with the known reaction stoichiometries in solution as well as the elemental measurements. The formation constant KCT, molar extinction coefficient ?CT, free energy change ?G0, CT energy ECT and the ionization potential Ip have been calculated for the CT complexes [(APPIP) I]+I3-, [(APPIP)(TCNQ)], [(APPIP)(DDQ)] and [(APPIP)(TBCHD)].

  6. Antioxidant, DNA binding and nuclease activities of heteroleptic copper(II) complexes derived from 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols and diimines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, J.; Gurumoorthy, P.; Imran Musthafa, M. A.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-12-01

    A series of heteroleptic copper(II) complexes of the type [CuL1-4(diimine)](ClO4)2 (1-8) [L1-4 = 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols, and diimine = 2,2?-bipyridyl (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)], have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The IR spectra of complexes indicate the presence of uncoordinated perchlorate anions and the electronic spectra revealed the square pyramidal geometry with N4O coordination environment around copper(II) nuclei. Electrochemical studies of the mononuclear complexes evidenced one-electron irreversible reduction wave in the cathodic region. The EPR spectra of complexes with g|| (2.206-2.214) and A|| (154-172 10-4 cm-1) values support the square-based CuN3O coordination chromophore and the presence of unpaired electron localized in dx-y ground state. Antioxidant studies against DPPH revealed effective radical scavenging properties of the synthesized complexes. Binding studies suggest that the heteroleptic copper(II) complexes interact with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) through minor-groove and electrostatic interaction, and all the complexes display pronounced nuclease activity against supercoiled pBR322 DNA.

  7. Mononuclear zinc(II) complexes of 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols: Synthesis, structural characterization, DNA binding and cheminuclease activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravichandran, J.; Gurumoorthy, P.; Karthick, C.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-03-01

    Four new zinc(II) complexes [Zn(HL1-4)Cl2] (1-4), where HL1-4 = 2-((2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethylimino)methyl)-4-substituted phenols, have been isolated and fully characterized using various spectro-analytical techniques. The X-ray crystal structure of complex 4 shows the distorted trigonal-bipyramidal coordination geometry around zinc(II) ion. The crystal packing is stabilized by intermolecular NH⋯O hydrogen bonding interaction. The complexes display no d-d electronic band in the visible region due to d10 electronic configuration of zinc(II) ion. The electrochemical properties of the synthesized ligands and their complexes exhibit similar voltammogram at reduction potential due to electrochemically innocent Zn(II) ion, which evidenced that the electron transfer is due to the nature of the ligand. Binding interaction of complexes with calf thymus DNA was studied by UV-Vis absorption titration, viscometric titration and cyclic voltammetry. All complexes bind with CT DNA by intercalation, giving the binding affinity in the order of 2 > 1 ? 3 > 4. The prominent cheminuclease activity of complexes on plasmid DNA (pBR322 DNA) was observed in the absence and presence of H2O2. Oxidative pathway reveals that the underlying mechanism involves hydroxyl radical.

  8. Ab initio and density functional theory calculations of molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 4-(2-Hydroxyethyl) piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, J. Sharmi; Devi, T. S. Renuga; Ramkumaar, G. R.; Bright, A.

    2016-01-01

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 4-(2-Hydroxyethyl) piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid were recorded and the structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated using Hartree-Fock and Density Functional Method (B3LYP). The most stable conformer was optimized and the structural and vibrational parameters were determined. With the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational band assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out. Thermodynamic properties, Mulliken and natural atomic charge distribution were calculated using both Hartree-Fock and Density Functional Method and compared. UV-Visible and HOMO-LUMO analysis were carried out. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using gauge including atomic orbital method and were compared with experimental results. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis. The first order hyperpolarizability (?) and molecular electrostatic potential of the molecule was computed using DFT calculations. The electron density based local reactivity descriptor such as Fukui functions were calculated to explain the chemically reactive site in the molecule.

  9. Ab initio and density functional theory calculations of molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 4-(2-Hydroxyethyl) piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J Sharmi; Devi, T S Renuga; Ramkumaar, G R; Bright, A

    2016-01-01

    The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 4-(2-Hydroxyethyl) piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid were recorded and the structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state were calculated using Hartree-Fock and Density Functional Method (B3LYP). The most stable conformer was optimized and the structural and vibrational parameters were determined. With the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational band assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out. Thermodynamic properties, Mulliken and natural atomic charge distribution were calculated using both Hartree-Fock and Density Functional Method and compared. UV-Visible and HOMO-LUMO analysis were carried out. (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using gauge including atomic orbital method and were compared with experimental results. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis. The first order hyperpolarizability (?) and molecular electrostatic potential of the molecule was computed using DFT calculations. The electron density based local reactivity descriptor such as Fukui functions were calculated to explain the chemically reactive site in the molecule. PMID:26278882

  10. Crystal structure of 3-[(4-benzyl-piperazin-1-yl)meth-yl]-5-(thio-phen-2-yl)-2,3-di-hydro-1,3,4-oxa-diazole-2-thione.

    PubMed

    Al-Omary, Fatmah A M; El-Emam, Ali A; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Chidan Kumar, C S; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-03-01

    The title 1,3,4-oxa-diazole-2-thione derivative, C18H20N4OS2, crystallized with two independent mol-ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. The 2-thienyl rings in both mol-ecules are rotationally disordered over two orientations by approximately 180 about the single C-C bond that connects it to the oxa-diazole thione ring; the ratios of site occupancies for the major and minor components were fixed in the structure refinement at 0.8:0.2 and 0.9:0.1 in mol-ecules A and B, respectively. The 1,3,4-oxa-diazole-2-thione ring forms dihedral angles of 7.71?(16), 10.0?(11) and 77.50?(12) (mol-ecule A), and 6.5?(3), 6.0?(9) and 55.30?(12) (mol-ecule B) with the major and minor parts of the disordered thio-phene ring and the mean plane of the adjacent piperazine ring, respectively, resulting in approximately V-shaped conformations for the mol-ecules. The piperazine ring in both mol-ecules adopts a chair conformation. The terminal benzene ring is inclined towards the mean plane of the piperazine ring with N-C-C-C torsion angles of -58.2?(3) and -66.2?(3) in mol-ecules A and B, respectively. In the crystal, no inter-molecular hydrogen bonds are observed. The crystal packing features short S?S contacts [3.4792?(9)?] and ?-? inter-actions [3.661?(3), 3.664?(11) and 3.5727?(10)?], producing a three-dimensional network. PMID:25844234

  11. Microwave-assisted synthesis of 4-chloro-N-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)-5-(3-(piperazin-1-yl)phenoxy)thiophene-2-sulfonamide (B-355252): a new potentiator of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Alfred L.; Dandepally, Srinivasa R.; Gilyazova, Nailya; Witherspoon, Sam M; Ibeanu, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of 4-chloro-N-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)-5-(3-(piperazin-1-yl)phenoxy)thiophene-2-sulfonamide (B-355252) using a MW-assisted nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) reaction will be discussed. Utilization of this method allowed for the rapid generation of B-355252 heteroaryl ether core structure in the presence of cesium carbonate in dimethylformamide or tripotassium phosphate in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone in 94% yield. Evaluation of B-355252 enhancement of nerve growth factors ability to stimulate neurite outgrowths was determined using NS-1 cells. PMID:22973068

  12. (3,3-Difluoro-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-[(2S,4S)-(4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-yl]-methanone: A potent, selective, orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Ammirati, Mark J.; Andrews, Kim M.; Boyer, David D.; Brodeur, Anne M.; Danley, Dennis E.; Doran, Shawn D.; Hulin, Bernard; Liu, Shenping; McPherson, R. Kirk; Orena, Stephen J.; Parker, Janice C.; Polivkova, Jana; Qiu, Xiayang; Soglia, Carolyn B.; Treadway, Judith L.; VanVolkenburg, Maria A.; Wilder, Donald C.; Piotrowski, David W.; Pfizer

    2010-10-01

    A series of 4-substituted proline amides was synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl pepdidase IV for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (3,3-Difluoro-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-[(2S,4S)-(4-(4-pyrimidin-2-yl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyrrolidin-2-yl]-methanone (5) emerged as a potent (IC{sub 50} = 13 nM) and selective compound, with high oral bioavailability in preclinical species and low plasma protein binding. Compound 5, PF-00734200, was selected for development as a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes.

  13. Carbon dioxide adsorption by physisorption and chemisorption interactions in piperazine-grafted Ni2(dobdc) (dobdc = 1,4-dioxido-2,5-benzenedicarboxylate).

    PubMed

    Das, Anita; Southon, Peter D; Zhao, Ming; Kepert, Cameron J; Harris, Andrew T; D'Alessandro, Deanna M

    2012-10-14

    The metal-organic framework Ni(2)(dobdc) (CPO-27-Ni, where dobdc = 1,4-dioxido-2,5-benzenedicarboxylate) has been post-synthetically modified with piperazine (pip) - a known 'accelerator' to improve the kinetics of CO(2) uptake in alkanolamine solvents for chemical absorption - and the impact of the modification on the CO(2) uptake and selectivity over N(2) has been probed. While the modified framework, Ni(2)(dobdc)(pip)(0.5) (pip-CPO-27-Ni), exhibits a lower uptake of CO(2) compared with the non-grafted material, the selectivity for CO(2) over N(2) at 25 C and at pressures pertinent to post-combustion flue gas capture (0.1-0.15 bar) is enhanced. Mechanistically, the interaction between the CO(2) molecules and the free amine sites in pip-CPO-27-Ni occurs via physisorption and chemisorption interactions, in which CO(2) binds to the framework with an isosteric heat of adsorption (-Q(st)) of 40.5 kJ mol(-1) at very low coverage (P = 0.033 mbar), followed by binding at a higher heat of adsorption (-Q(st) = 46.2 kJ mol(-1) at P = 3.55 mbar). Pure water adsorption isotherms revealed a two-step mechanism for uptake in CPO-27-Ni, consistent with adsorption into the first and second hydration spheres of Ni(2+) followed by subsequent uptake via physisorption into the pores. Additional steric hindrance in pip-CPO-27-Ni results in a single step only. The working capacity over multiple cycles was also investigated using a temperature swing adsorption process which revealed reversible CO(2) adsorption and desorption of 10 wt% over 10 cycles. PMID:22903310

  14. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking study of novel piperidine and piperazine derivatives as multi-targeted agents to treat Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Meena, Poonam; Nemaysh, Vishal; Khatri, Manisha; Manral, Apra; Luthra, Pratibha Mehta; Tiwari, Manisha

    2015-03-01

    Development of Multi-Target Directed Ligands (MTDLs) has emerged as a promising approach for targeting complex etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Following this approach, a new series of N'-(4-benzylpiperidin-/piperazin-/benzhydrylpiperazin-1-yl)alkylamine derivatives were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated as inhibitors of cholinesterases (ChEs), amyloid-beta (Aβ) self aggregation and also for their radical scavenging activity. The in vitro studies showed that the majority of synthesized derivatives strongly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) with IC50 values in the low-nanomolar range, and were clearly more potent than the reference compound donepezil in this regard. Among them, inhibitors 5h and 5k, strongly inhibited AChE, with IC50 value of 6.83nM and 2.13nM, respectively, and particularly, compound 5k was found to be highly selective for AChE (∼38-fold). Moreover, both kinetic analysis of AChE inhibition and the docking study suggested that 5k binds simultaneously to catalytic active site and peripheral anionic site of AChE. Besides, these compounds also exhibited greater ability to inhibit self-induced Aβ1-42 aggregation at 25μM with percentage inhibition from ∼54% to 89% and specially compound 5k provided highest inhibition (88.81%). Also, the derivatives containing methoxy and hydroxy groups showed potent oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) ranging from 2.2- to 4.4-fold of the Trolox value. Furthermore, results of ADMET studies suggested that all compounds exhibited appropriate drug like properties. Taken together, these results suggest that 5k might be a promising lead compound for further AD drug development. PMID:25624107

  15. Effects of two novel D3-selective compounds, NGB 2904 [N-(4-(4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-9H-fluorene-2-carboxamide] and CJB 090 [N-(4-(4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-4-(pyridin-2-yl)benzamide], on the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Martelle, Jennifer L; Claytor, Renee; Ross, Jason T; Reboussin, Beth A; Newman, Amy Hauck; Nader, Michael A

    2007-05-01

    The present study examined the effects of two novel dopamine D3 receptor compounds, NGB 2904 [N-(4-(4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-9H-fluorene-2-carboxamide], an antagonist, and CJB 090 [N-(4-(4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-4-(pyridin-2-yl)benzamide], a partial agonist, in two models of cocaine abuse in rhesus monkeys. To establish a dose range and time course of effects, both compounds were shown to block quinpirole-induced yawning when administered i.m. 15, 30, or 120 min before quinpirole. Next, rhesus monkeys were trained to discriminate i.m. injections of saline (0.5 ml) and cocaine (0.3 mg/kg). Neither D3 compound (0.03-3.0 mg/kg; n=3) substituted for cocaine in any monkey. When given in combination with cocaine, CJB 090 but not NGB 2904 attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine, shifting the cocaine dose-response curve to the right. In a separate group of monkeys, responding was maintained under a second-order schedule of either food (1.0-g pellets; n=3) or cocaine (0.1 mg/kg/injection; n=4) presentation. When responding was stable, a dose of NGB 2904 (1.0-5.6 mg/kg i.v.) or CJB 090 (0.3-3.0 mg/kg i.v.) was administered for 5 consecutive days, immediately before the session. CJB 090, but not NGB 2904, decreased cocaine- and food-maintained responding. These data indicate that compounds with relatively high affinity and selectivity for the D3 receptor can attenuate the discriminative and reinforcing stimulus effects of cocaine while not producing cocaine-like effects. The present findings support the continued examination of D3 compounds as pharmacological tools for better understanding the role of this receptor subtype in cocaine addiction and as potential lead compounds for novel therapeutic agents. PMID:17272677

  16. Direct Phenotypic Screening in Mice: Identification of Individual, Novel Antinociceptive Compounds from a Library of 734 821 Pyrrolidine Bis-piperazines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis in the current study is that the simultaneous direct in vivo testing of thousands to millions of systematically arranged mixture-based libraries will facilitate the identification of enhanced individual compounds. Individual compounds identified from such libraries may have increased specificity and decreased side effects early in the discovery phase. Testing began by screening ten diverse scaffolds as single mixtures (ranging from 17 340 to 4 879 681 compounds) for analgesia directly in the mouse tail withdrawal model. The “all X” mixture representing the library TPI-1954 was found to produce significant antinociception and lacked respiratory depression and hyperlocomotor effects using the Comprehensive Laboratory Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS). The TPI-1954 library is a pyrrolidine bis-piperazine and totals 738 192 compounds. This library has 26 functionalities at the first three positions of diversity made up of 28 392 compounds each (26 × 26 × 42) and 42 functionalities at the fourth made up of 19 915 compounds each (26 × 26 × 26). The 120 resulting mixtures representing each of the variable four positions were screened directly in vivo in the mouse 55 °C warm-water tail-withdrawal assay (ip administration). The 120 samples were then ranked in terms of their antinociceptive activity. The synthesis of 54 individual compounds was then carried out. Nine of the individual compounds produced dose-dependent antinociception equivalent to morphine. In practical terms what this means is that one would not expect multiexponential increases in activity as we move from the all-X mixture, to the positional scanning libraries, to the individual compounds. Actually because of the systematic formatting one would typically anticipate steady increases in activity as the complexity of the mixtures is reduced. This is in fact what we see in the current study. One of the final individual compounds identified, TPI 2213-17, lacked significant respiratory depression, locomotor impairment, or sedation. Our results represent an example of this unique approach for screening large mixture-based libraries directly in vivo to rapidly identify individual compounds. PMID:26651386

  17. Determination of 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine derivatives of isocyanates at low concentrations by temperature-programmed miniaturized liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Molander, P; Haugland, K; Fladseth, G; Lundanes, E; Thorud, S; Thomassen, Y; Greibrokk, T

    2000-09-15

    A temperature-programmed packed capillary LC method with large-volume injection on-column focusing has been developed for screening and determination of 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine derivatives of airborne toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, toluene-2,6-diisocyanate, hexamethylenediisocyanate and methylenebisphenyl-4,4-diisocyanate, based on sampling methods described in MDHS 25/3. Injection volumes up to 100 microl were successfully loaded onto the 250x0.32 mm I.D. capillary column packed with 3 microm Hypersil ODS particles. The isocyanate derivatives were loaded at 10 degrees C and eluted by a three-step temperature program starting at 10 degrees C for 10 min, followed by a temperature ramp of 2.5 degrees C min(-1) to 45 degrees C and then 9.9 degrees C min(-1) to 90 degrees C. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-acetate buffer (3% triethylamine, pH 4.5) (45:55, v/v). The isocyanate derivatives were dissolved in acetonitrile-acetate buffer (3% triethylamine, pH 4.5) (30:70, v/v) to achieve sufficient focusing. The concentration limit of detection of the individual derivatives utilizing an "U" shaped flow cell with a 8.0 mm light path and an injection volume of 100 microl was 44, 87, 43 and 210 pg ml(-1) for toluene-2,6-diisocyanate, hexamethylenediisocyanate, toluene-2,4-diisocyanate and methylenebisphenyl-4,4-diisocyanate, respectively. Within the investigated concentration range, 10-500 ng ml(-1), the linear calibration curves gave correlation coefficients ranging from 0.994 to 0.998. The repeatability of the method with regard to retention time and peak height ranged from 0.3 to 1.1% and 1.1 to 2.3% (n=9) relative standard deviation, respectively. The average recovery of the method, with regard to toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, was 97.7+/-1.6% (n=9). PMID:11045481

  18. Direct Phenotypic Screening in Mice: Identification of Individual, Novel Antinociceptive Compounds from a Library of 734?821 Pyrrolidine Bis-piperazines.

    PubMed

    Houghten, Richard A; Ganno, Michelle L; McLaughlin, Jay P; Dooley, Colette T; Eans, Shainnel O; Santos, Radleigh G; LaVoi, Travis; Nefzi, Adel; Welmaker, Greg; Giulianotti, Marc A; Toll, Lawrence

    2016-01-11

    The hypothesis in the current study is that the simultaneous direct in vivo testing of thousands to millions of systematically arranged mixture-based libraries will facilitate the identification of enhanced individual compounds. Individual compounds identified from such libraries may have increased specificity and decreased side effects early in the discovery phase. Testing began by screening ten diverse scaffolds as single mixtures (ranging from 17?340 to 4?879?681 compounds) for analgesia directly in the mouse tail withdrawal model. The "all X" mixture representing the library TPI-1954 was found to produce significant antinociception and lacked respiratory depression and hyperlocomotor effects using the Comprehensive Laboratory Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS). The TPI-1954 library is a pyrrolidine bis-piperazine and totals 738?192 compounds. This library has 26 functionalities at the first three positions of diversity made up of 28?392 compounds each (26 26 42) and 42 functionalities at the fourth made up of 19?915 compounds each (26 26 26). The 120 resulting mixtures representing each of the variable four positions were screened directly in vivo in the mouse 55 C warm-water tail-withdrawal assay (ip administration). The 120 samples were then ranked in terms of their antinociceptive activity. The synthesis of 54 individual compounds was then carried out. Nine of the individual compounds produced dose-dependent antinociception equivalent to morphine. In practical terms what this means is that one would not expect multiexponential increases in activity as we move from the all-X mixture, to the positional scanning libraries, to the individual compounds. Actually because of the systematic formatting one would typically anticipate steady increases in activity as the complexity of the mixtures is reduced. This is in fact what we see in the current study. One of the final individual compounds identified, TPI 2213-17, lacked significant respiratory depression, locomotor impairment, or sedation. Our results represent an example of this unique approach for screening large mixture-based libraries directly in vivo to rapidly identify individual compounds. PMID:26651386

  19. 3-(Adamantan-1-yl)-4-methyl-1-({4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]piperazin-1-yl}methyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione

    PubMed Central

    El-Emam, Ali A.; Al-Tamimi, Abdul-Malek S.; Alrashood, Khalid A.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C25H32F3N5S, two independent molecules comprise the asymmetric unit and are related across a pseudo-centre of inversion. The piperazine rings have chair conformations with each N-bound substituent occupying an equatorial position so that the dihedral angles between the planes of the triazole and benzene ring are 78.20?(19) and 79.10?(19) for the two independent molecules, indicating that the molecules have an L-shape. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is stabilized by CH?? interactions. The crystal studied was an inversion twin with the fractional contribution of the minor component being 0.27?(9). PMID:23723852

  20. N-(4-[(18)F]-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-N-{2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl}carboxamides as analogs of WAY100635. New PET tracers of serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Garca, Gonzalo; Abet, Valentina; Alajarn, Ramn; lvarez-Builla, Julio; Delgado, Mercedes; Garca-Garca, Luis; Bascuana-Almarcha, Pablo; Pea-Salcedo, Carmen; Kelly, James; Pozo, Miguel A

    2014-10-01

    N-(4-[(18)F]-Fluoropyridin-2-yl)-N-{2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]ethyl}-carboxamides were prepared by labeling their 4-nitropyridin-2-yl precursors through nitro substitution by the (18)F anion. Invitro and invivo tests showed that the cyclohexanecarboxamide derivative is a reversible, selective and high affinity 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (IC50=0.29nM, ki=0.18nM) with high brain uptake, slow brain clearance and stability to defluorination when compared with conventional standards. This PET radioligand is a promising candidate for an improved invivo quantification of 5-HT1A receptors in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25171752

  1. 4-(3-Chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-N-(4-methoxypyridin-2-yl)piperazine-1-carbothioamide (ML267), a Potent Inhibitor of Bacterial Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase That Attenuates Secondary Metabolism and Thwarts Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    4′-Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) catalyze a post-translational modification essential to bacterial cell viability and virulence. We present the discovery and medicinal chemistry optimization of 2-pyridinyl-N-(4-aryl)piperazine-1-carbothioamides, which exhibit submicromolar inhibition of bacterial Sfp-PPTase with no activity toward the human orthologue. Moreover, compounds within this class possess antibacterial activity in the absence of a rapid cytotoxic response in human cells. An advanced analogue of this series, ML267 (55), was found to attenuate production of an Sfp-PPTase-dependent metabolite when applied to Bacillus subtilis at sublethal doses. Additional testing revealed antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and chemical genetic studies implicated efflux as a mechanism for resistance in Escherichia coli. Additionally, we highlight the in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion and in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of compound 55 to further demonstrate the potential utility of this small-molecule inhibitor. PMID:24450337

  2. Exploring the Solid State Properties of Enzymatic Poly(amine-co-ester) Terpolymers to Expand their Applications in Gene Transfection.

    PubMed

    Voevodina, Irina; Scandola, Mariastella; Zhang, Junwei; Jiang, Zhaozhong

    2014-01-01

    Polymers bearing amino functional groups are an important class of materials capable of serving as non-viral carriers for DNA delivery to living cells. In this work biodegradable poly(amine-co-ester) terpolymers were synthesized via ring-opening and polycondensation copolymerization of lactone (ε-caprolactone (CL), ω-dodecalactone, ω-pentadecalactone (PDL), and ω-hexadecalactone) with diethyl sebacate (DES) and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) in diphenyl ether, catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB). All lactone-DES-MDEA terpolymers had random distributions of lactone, sebacate, MDEA repeat units in the polymer chains. PDL-DES-MDEA terpolymers were studied in the composition range from 21 mol% to 90 mol% PDL whereas the terpolymers with other lactones were investigated at a single composition (80 mol% lactone). DSC and WAXS analyses showed that all investigated terpolymers crystallize in their respective homopolylactone crystal lattice. Terpolymers with large lactones and a high lactone content melt well above room temperature and are hard solids, whereas terpolymers with small lactones (e.g. CL) or with a low lactone content melt below/around ambient temperature and are waxy/gluey materials. Given the importance of hydrophobicity in influencing gene delivery, water contact angle measurements were carried out on lactone-DES-MDEA terpolymers showing that it is possible to tune the hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic balance by varying polymer composition and size of lactone units. To demonstrate the feasibility of using solid terpolymers as nanocarriers for DNA delivery, PDL-DES-MDEA copolymers with 65-90% PDL were successfully transformed into free-standing nanoparticles with average particle size ranging from 163 to 175 nm. Our preliminary results showed that LucDNA-loaded nanoparticles of the terpolymer with 65% PDL were effective for luciferase gene transfection of HEK293 cells. PMID:24683469

  3. Exploring the Solid State Properties of Enzymatic Poly(amine-co-ester) Terpolymers to Expand their Applications in Gene Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Voevodina, Irina; Scandola, Mariastella; Zhang, Junwei; Jiang, Zhaozhong

    2014-01-01

    Polymers bearing amino functional groups are an important class of materials capable of serving as non-viral carriers for DNA delivery to living cells. In this work biodegradable poly(amine-co-ester) terpolymers were synthesized via ring-opening and polycondensation copolymerization of lactone (ε-caprolactone (CL), ω-dodecalactone, ω-pentadecalactone (PDL), and ω-hexadecalactone) with diethyl sebacate (DES) and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) in diphenyl ether, catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB). All lactone-DES-MDEA terpolymers had random distributions of lactone, sebacate, MDEA repeat units in the polymer chains. PDL-DES-MDEA terpolymers were studied in the composition range from 21 mol% to 90 mol% PDL whereas the terpolymers with other lactones were investigated at a single composition (80 mol% lactone). DSC and WAXS analyses showed that all investigated terpolymers crystallize in their respective homopolylactone crystal lattice. Terpolymers with large lactones and a high lactone content melt well above room temperature and are hard solids, whereas terpolymers with small lactones (e.g. CL) or with a low lactone content melt below/around ambient temperature and are waxy/gluey materials. Given the importance of hydrophobicity in influencing gene delivery, water contact angle measurements were carried out on lactone-DES-MDEA terpolymers showing that it is possible to tune the hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic balance by varying polymer composition and size of lactone units. To demonstrate the feasibility of using solid terpolymers as nanocarriers for DNA delivery, PDL-DES-MDEA copolymers with 65–90% PDL were successfully transformed into free-standing nanoparticles with average particle size ranging from 163 to 175 nm. Our preliminary results showed that LucDNA-loaded nanoparticles of the terpolymer with 65% PDL were effective for luciferase gene transfection of HEK293 cells. PMID:24683469

  4. Acute toxicity and primary irritancy of alkylalkanolamines.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, B; Leung, H W

    1996-12-01

    The acute handling hazards of several alkylalkanolamines were determined by investigating their potential acute toxicity and primary irritancy. Materials studied were N-methylethanolamine (MEA), N, N, -dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), N, N, -dimethylisopropanolamine (DMIPA), N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and tertbutyldiethanolamine (BDEA). All these alkylalkanolamines were of comparable acute peroral toxicity in the rat (LD50 range 1.48-2.83 ml/kg). By 24 h occluded epicutaneous contact in the rabbit, MEA, DMEA and DMIPA were of moderate acute percutaneous toxicity (LD50 range 1.13-2.0 ml/kg), MDEA was of slight acute percutaneous toxicity (LD50 male 9.85 ml/kg, female 10.90 ml/kg), and BDEA of intermediate toxicity (LD50 6.4 ml/kg). Due to differences in vapor pressure the acute vapor exposure toxicity of the alkylalkanolamines to rats varied; MEA, MDEA and BDEA were of a low order of acute toxicity, and DMIPA was moderately toxic with an LT50 of 3.2 h for a saturated vapor atmosphere exposure. A 4 h-LC50 (rat combined sex) of 1461 ppm was determined for DMEA. All alkylalkanolamines studied, except MDEA, were moderately to markedly irritating and caused variable degrees of skin corrosivity; MDEA caused only transient minor skin irritation. In accord with the skin irritancy results, the eye irritancy from 0.005 ml MEA, DMEA, DMIPA and BDEA was severe, and that from MDEA was slight. Exposure to these compounds has implications for occupational health procedures. PMID:8948072

  5. N-(3-Fluoro-4-(4-(2-methoxy or 2,3-dichlorophenyl) piperazine-1-yl)-butyl)-aryl carboxamides as Selective Dopamine D3 Receptor Ligands: Critical Role of the Carboxamide Linker for D3 Receptor Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Banala, Ashwini K.; Levy, Benjamin A.; Khatri, Sameer S.; Furman, Cheryse A.; Roof, Rebecca A.; Mishra, Yogesh; Griffin, Suzy A.; Sibley, David R.; Luedtke, Robert R.; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2011-01-01

    N-(3-fluoro-4-(4-(2,3-dichloro- or 2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine-1-yl)-butyl)-aryl carboxamides were prepared and evaluated for binding and function at dopamine D3 (D3R) and D2 receptors (D2R). In this series, we discovered some of the most D3R selective compounds reported to date, (e.g. 8d and 8j >1000-fold D3R-selective over D2R.) In addition, chimeric receptor studies further identified the second extracellular (E2) loop as an important contributor to D3R binding selectivity. Further, compounds lacking the carbonyl group in the amide linker were synthesized and while these amine-linked analogues bound with similar affinities to the amides at D2R, this modification dramatically reduced binding affinities at D3R by >100-fold (e.g. D3RKi for 15b = 393 v. for 8j = 2.6 nM) resulting in compounds with significantly reduced D3R selectivity. This study supports a pivotal role for the D3R E2 loop and the carbonyl group in the 4-phenylpiperazine class of compounds and further reveals a point of separation between structure-activity relationships at D3R and D2R. PMID:21495689

  6. A scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of the phases formed by the sulfur adsorption on Au(100) from an alkaline solution of 1,4-piperazine(bis)-dithiocarbamate of potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Javier A.; Valenzuela B., José; Cao Milán, R.; Herrera, José; Farías, Mario H.; Hernández, Mayra P.

    2014-11-01

    Piperazine-dithiocarbamate of potassium (K2DTC2pz) was used as a new precursor for the spontaneous deposition of sulfur on the Au(100) surface in alkaline solution. Two new sulfur phases were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). These phases were formed by six sulfur atoms (S6 phase, hexamer) and by four sulfur atoms (S4 phase, tetramer with (√{ 2} ×√{ 2}) structure), and they were observed in coexistence with the well-known quasi-square patterns formed by eight sulfur atoms (S8 phase, octomer). A model was proposed where sulfur multilayers were formed by a (√{ 2} ×√{ 2}) phase adsorbed directly on the gold surface while one of the other structures: hexamers or octomers were deposited on top. Sulfur layers were formed on gold terraces, vacancies and islands produced by lifting reconstructed surface. Sequential high-resolution STM images allowed the direct observation of the dynamic of the octomers, while the (√{ 2} ×√{ 2}) structure remained static. Images also showed the reversible association/dissociation of the octomer.

  7. Fluorescent Derivatives of ? Receptor Ligand 1-Cyclohexyl-4-[3-(5-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl)propyl]piperazine (PB28) as a Tool for Uptake and Cellular Localization Studies in Pancreatic Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Carmen; Hornick, John R.; Spitzer, Dirk; Hawkins, William G; Niso, Mauro; Perrone, Roberto; Berardi, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescent derivatives of ?2 high affinity ligand 1-cyclohexyl-4-[3-(5-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl)propyl]piperazine 1 (PB28) were synthesized. NBD or Dansyl fluorescent tags were connected through a 5- or 6-atoms linker in two diverse positions of 1 structure. Good ?2 affinities were obtained when the fluorescent tag was linked to 5-methoxytetralin nucleus replacing the methyl function. NBD-bearing compound 16 displayed high ?2 affinity (Ki = 10.8 nM) and optimal fluorescent properties. Its uptake in pancreatic tumor cells was evaluated by flow cytometry showing that it partially occurs through endocytosis. In proliferating cells the uptake was higher supporting that ?2 receptors are markers of cell proliferation and that the higher is the proliferation, the stronger is the antiproliferative effect of ?2 agonists. Colocalization of 16 with subcellular organelles was studied by confocal microscopy: the greatest was in endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes. Fluorescent ?2 ligands show their potential in clarifying the mechanisms of action of ?2 receptors. PMID:21744858

  8. Heterocyclic analogues of N-(4-(4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)arylcarboxamides with functionalized linking chains as novel dopamine D3 receptor ligands: potential substance abuse therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Grundt, Peter; Prevatt, Katherine M; Cao, Jianjing; Taylor, Michelle; Floresca, Christina Z; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Jenkins, Bruce G; Luedtke, Robert R; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2007-08-23

    Dopamine D3 receptor antagonists and partial agonists have been shown to modulate drug-seeking effects induced by cocaine and other abused substances. Compound 6 [PG01037, (N-(4-(4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)-trans-but-2-enyl)-4-pyridine-2-ylbenzamide)] and related analogues are currently being evaluated in animal models of drug addiction. In these studies, a discrepancy between in vitro binding affinity, in vivo occupancy, and behavioral potency has been observed. The purpose of this study was to examine (1) modifications of the 2-pyridylphenyl moiety of 6 and (2) hydroxyl, acetyl, and cyclopropyl substitutions on the butylamide linking chain systematically coupled with 2-fluorenylamide or 2-pyridylphenylamide and 2-methoxy- or 2,3-dichloro-substituted phenylpiperazines to measure the impact on binding affinity, D2/D3 selectivity, lipophilicity, and function. In general, these modifications were well tolerated at the human dopamine D3 (hD3) receptor (Ki = 1-5 nM) as measured in competition binding assays. Several analogues showed >100-fold selectivity for dopamine D3 over D2 and D4 receptors. In addition, while all the derivatives with an olefinic linker were antagonists, in quinpirole-stimulated mitogenesis at hD3 receptors, several of the hydroxybutyl-linked analogues (16, 17, 21) showed partial agonist activity. Finally, several structural modifications reduced lipophilicities while retaining the desired binding profile. PMID:17672446

  9. Prevalence of efflux-mediated ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistance in recent clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its reversal by the efflux pump inhibitors 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine and phenylalanine-arginine-β-naphthylamide.

    PubMed

    Sonnet, Pascal; Izard, Daniel; Mullié, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of efflux-driven fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in recent clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a worrisome and often hospital-acquired pathogen, 115 unique strains were collected over a 5-month period, of which 27 and 33 had decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (CIP) and levofloxacin (LVX), respectively. The MIC(50) (minimum inhibitory concentration for 50% of the organisms) was 16 μg/mL for both FQs. The efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) phenylalanine-arginine-β-naphthylamide (PAβN) and 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine (NMP) were then used to evaluate their efficacy in reducing CIP and LVX MICs. NMP did not significantly modify CIP MICs, whilst PAβN resulted in MIC(50) values of 2 μg/mL and 0.125 μg/mL for CIP and LVX, respectively. With the addition of PAβN, susceptibility to CIP and LVX was recovered in 6 (22.2%) and 31 (93.9%) strains, respectively. The best combination to reverse FQ resistance in this set of strains was LVX with PAβN. The results of this study show that the effect of an EPI is not only dependent on the species on which it is used but also on the molecule associated with it. Therefore, the design of an EPI equally efficient on all resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) efflux pumps appears to be difficult and, from a practical point of view, if an EPI is developed for clinical use, the efficiency of its combination with a definite molecule should be assessed carefully against a wide range of clinical isolates to evaluate the real benefit of this combination. PMID:21974858

  10. The antidepressant-like activity of 6-methoxy-2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-9H-xanthen-9-one involves serotonergic 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/C receptors activation.

    PubMed

    Pytka, Karolina; Walczak, Maria; Kij, Agnieszka; Rapacz, Anna; Siwek, Agata; Kazek, Grzegorz; Olczyk, Adrian; Ga?uszka, Adam; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Marona, Henryk; Sapa, Jacek; Filipek, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Xanthone derivatives have been shown to posses many biological properties. Some of them act within the central nervous system and show neuroprotective or antidepressant-like properties. Taking this into account we investigated antidepressant-like activity in mice and the possible mechanism of action of 6-methoxy-2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-9H-xanthen-9-one (HBK-11) - a new xanthone derivative. We demonstrated that HBK-11 produced antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, comparable to that of venlafaxine. The combined treatment with sub-effective doses of HBK-11 and fluoxetine (but not reboxetine or bupropion) significantly reduced the immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, the antidepressant-like activity of HBK-11 in the aforementioned test was blocked by p-chlorophenylalanine, and significantly reduced by serotonergic 5HT1A receptor antagonist - WAY-1006335 and 5HT2A/C receptor antagonist - ritanserin. As none of the above treatments influenced the spontaneous locomotor activity, it can be concluded that HBK-11 mediates its activity through a serotonergic system, and its antidepressant-like effect involves 5HT1A and 5HT2A/C receptor activation. Furthermore, at antidepressant-like doses HBK-11 did not cause the mice to display locomotor deficits in rotarod or chimney tests. Considering the pharmacokinetic profile, HBK-11 demonstrated rapid absorption after i.p. administration, high clearance value, short terminal half-life, very high volume of distribution and incomplete bioavailability. The compound studied had good penetration into the brain tissue of mice. Since studied xanthone derivative seems to present interesting, untypical mechanism of antidepressant-like action i.e. 5HT2A/C receptor activation, it may have a potential in the treatment of depressive disorders, and surely requires further studies. PMID:26210317

  11. N-(3,4-Dimethylisoxazol-5-yl)piperazine-4-[4-(2-fluoro-4-[(11)C]methylphenyl)thiazol-2-yl]-1-carboxamide: A promising positron emission tomography ligand for fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoko; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Hatori, Akiko; Yui, Joji; Zhang, Yiding; Nengaki, Nobuki; Kurihara, Yusuke; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Xie, Lin; Kumata, Katsushi; Ishii, Hideki; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2016-02-15

    To visualize fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in brain in vivo, we developed a novel positron emission tomography (PET) ligand N-(3,4-dimethylisoxazol-5-yl)piperazine-4-[4-(2-fluoro-4-[(11)C]methylphenyl)thiazol-2-yl]-1-carboxamide ([(11)C]DFMC, [(11)C]1). DFMC (1) was shown to have high binding affinity (IC50: 6.1nM) for FAAH. [(11)C]1 was synthesized by C-(11)C coupling reaction of arylboronic ester 2 with [(11)C]methyl iodide in the presence of Pd catalyst. At the end of synthesis, [(11)C]1 was obtained with a radiochemical yield of 20±10% (based on [(11)C]CO2, decay-corrected, n=5) and specific activity of 48-166GBq/μmol. After the injection of [(11)C]1 in mice, high uptake of radioactivity (>2% ID/g) was distributed in the lung, liver, kidney, and brain, organs with high FAAH expression. PET images of rat brains for [(11)C]1 revealed high uptakes in the cerebellar nucleus (SUV=2.4) and frontal cortex (SUV=2.0), two known brain regions with high FAAH expression. Pretreatment with the FAAH-selective inhibitor URB597 reduced the brain uptake. Higher than 90% of the total radioactivity in the rat brain was irreversible at 30min after the radioligand injection. The present results indicate that [(11)C]1 is a promising PET ligand for imaging of FAAH in living brain. PMID:26740152

  12. Novel Piperazine Arylideneimidazolones Inhibit the AcrAB-TolC Pump in Escherichia coli and Simultaneously Act as Fluorescent Membrane Probes in a Combined Real-Time Influx and Efflux Assay.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Jürgen A; Schuster, Sabine; Kern, Winfried V; Karcz, Tadeusz; Olejarz, Agnieszka; Kaczor, Aneta; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we tested five compounds belonging to a novel series of piperazine arylideneimidazolones for the ability to inhibit the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump. The biphenylmethylene derivative (BM-19) and the fluorenylmethylene derivative (BM-38) were found to possess the strongest efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) activities in the AcrAB-TolC-overproducingEscherichia colistrain 3-AG100, whereas BM-9, BM-27, and BM-36 had no activity at concentrations of up to 50 μM in a Nile red efflux assay. MIC microdilution assays demonstrated that BM-19 at 1/4 MIC (intrinsic MIC, 200 μM) was able to reduce the MICs of levofloxacin, oxacillin, linezolid, and clarithromycin 8-fold. BM-38 at 1/4 MIC (intrinsic MIC, 100 μM) was able to reduce only the MICs of oxacillin and linezolid (2-fold). Both compounds markedly reduced the MIC of rifampin (BM-19, 32-fold; and BM-38, 4-fold), which is suggestive of permeabilization of the outer membrane as an additional mechanism of action. Nitrocefin hydrolysis assays demonstrated that in addition to their EPI activity, both compounds were in fact weak permeabilizers of the outer membrane. Moreover, it was found that BM-19, BM-27, BM-36, and BM-38 acted as near-infrared-emitting fluorescent membrane probes, which allowed for their use in a combined influx and efflux assay and thus for tracking of the transport of an EPI across the outer membrane by an efflux pump in real time. The EPIs BM-38 and BM-19 displayed the most rapid influx of all compounds, whereas BM-27, which did not act as an EPI, showed the slowest influx. PMID:26824939

  13. Effects of RGH-237 [N-{4-[4-(3-aminocarbonyl-phenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-butyl}-4-bromo-benzamide], an orally active, selective dopamine D(3) receptor partial agonist in animal models of cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Gyertyn, Istvn; Kiss, Bla; Gl, Krisztina; Laszlovszky, Istvn; Horvth, Attila; Gmesi, Larisza I; Sghy, Katalin; Psztor, Gabriella; Zjer, Mria; Kaps, Margit; Csongor, Eva Agai; Domny, Gyrgy; Tihanyi, Kroly; Szombathelyi, Zsolt

    2007-03-01

    Dopamine D(3) receptor partial agonism has been suggested as a potential therapeutic intervention in cocaine addiction. RGH-237 [N-{4-[4-(3-aminocarbonyl-phenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-butyl}-4-bromo-benzamide] was identified as a novel selective dopamine D(3) receptor partial agonist and used for testing this hypothesis in animal models. The compound showed nanomolar affinity to human (K(i) = 6.7 nM) and rat (K(i) = 1.6 nM) D(3) receptors with an intrinsic activity of approximately 50%. It possessed several hundredfold selectivity over the D(2) receptor. The molecule bound with moderate (100-250 nM) affinity to 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT(1A)) and nonselectively labeled opiate receptors. RGH-237 proved to be practically inactive on more than 40 other targets, including monoaminergic, cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic receptors. In rats orally administered RGH-237 was well and rapidly absorbed yielding 41% oral bioavailability. At its pharmacologically active dose (10 mg/kg p.o.), the brain concentration of RGH-237 reached 110 ng/g. Its blood and brain levels were sustained for 3 h. RGH-237 at the oral dose of 10 mg/kg moderately but significantly inhibited the acquisition of cocaine-induced place preference, although by itself, it had no place-conditioning effect. The compound did not affect fixed ratio 1 cocaine self-administration. In a reinstatement paradigm of cocaine self-administration, the compound potently and dose-dependently blocked the cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior of rats at 10 and 30 mg/kg oral doses. RGH-237 did not affect seeking activity for natural rewards, such as sucrose and water. It did not exert notable effect on spontaneous motor activity of rats. Our results demonstrate that selective D(3) partial agonists may be an effective therapeutic means in the treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:17170312

  14. Polymerization Behavior and Polymer Properties of Eosin-Mediated Surface Modification Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Avens, Heather J.; Randle, Thomas James; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2008-01-01

    Surface modification by surface-mediated polymerization necessitates control of the grafted polymer film thicknesses to achieve the desired property changes. Here, a microarray format is used to assess a range of reaction conditions and formulations rapidly in regards to the film thicknesses achieved and the polymerization behavior. Monomer formulations initiated by eosin conjugates with varying concentrations of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (VP) were evaluated. Acrylamide with MDEA or ascorbic acid as a coinitiator was also investigated. The best formulation was found to be 40 wt% acrylamide with MDEA which yielded four to eight fold thicker films (maximum polymer thickness increased from 180 nm to 1420 nm) and generated visible films from 5-fold lower eosin surface densities (2.8 vs. 14 eosins/m2) compared to a corresponding PEGDA formulation. Using a microarray format to assess multiple initiator surface densities enabled facile identification of a monomer formulation that yields the desired polymer properties and polymerization behavior across the requisite range of initiator surface densities. PMID:19838291

  15. Collection of VLE data for acid gas---alkanolamine systems using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. [Vapor-liquid equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Bullin, J.A.; Frazier, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    The industrial standard process for the purification of natural gas is to remove acid gases, mainly hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, by the absorption and reaction of these gases with alkanolamines. Inadequate data for vapor--liquid equilibrium (VLE) hinder the industry from converting operations to more energy efficient amine mixtures and conserving energy. Some energy reductions have been realized in the past decade by applying such amine systems as hindered'' amines, methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and MDEA based amine mixtures. However, the lack of reliable and accurate fundamental VLE data impedes the commercial application of these more efficient alkanolamine systems. The first project objective is to improve the accuracy of vapor--liquid equilibrium measurements at low hydrogen sulfide concentrations. The second project objective is to measure the VLE for amine mixtures. By improving the accuracy of the VLE measurements on MDEA and mixtures with other amines, energy saving can be quickly and confidently implemented in the many existing absorption units already in use. If about 25% of the existing 95.3 billion SCFD gas purification capacity is converted to these new amine systems, the energy savings are estimated to be about 3 [times] 10[sup 14] BTU/yr.

  16. Collection of VLE data for acid gas---alkanolamine systems using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Phase 2, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bullin, J.A.; Frazier, R.E.

    1992-12-01

    The industrial standard process for the purification of natural gas is to remove acid gases, mainly hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, by the absorption and reaction of these gases with alkanolamines. Inadequate data for vapor--liquid equilibrium (VLE) hinder the industry from converting operations to more energy efficient amine mixtures and conserving energy. Some energy reductions have been realized in the past decade by applying such amine systems as ``hindered`` amines, methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and MDEA based amine mixtures. However, the lack of reliable and accurate fundamental VLE data impedes the commercial application of these more efficient alkanolamine systems. The first project objective is to improve the accuracy of vapor--liquid equilibrium measurements at low hydrogen sulfide concentrations. The second project objective is to measure the VLE for amine mixtures. By improving the accuracy of the VLE measurements on MDEA and mixtures with other amines, energy saving can be quickly and confidently implemented in the many existing absorption units already in use. If about 25% of the existing 95.3 billion SCFD gas purification capacity is converted to these new amine systems, the energy savings are estimated to be about 3 {times} 10{sup 14} BTU/yr.

  17. Ether modifications to 1-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (SA4503): effects on binding affinity and selectivity for sigma receptors and monoamine transporters

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rong; Lord, Sarah A.; Peterson, Ryan M.; Fergason-Cantrell, Emily A.; Lever, John R.; Lever, Susan Z.

    2014-01-01

    Two series of novel ether analogs of the sigma (σ) receptor ligand 1-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (SA4503) have been prepared. In one series, the alkyl portion of the 4-methoxy group was replaced with allyl, propyl, bromoethyl, benzyl, phenethyl, and phenylpropyl moieties. In the second series, the 3,4-dimethoxy was replaced with cyclic methylenedioxy, ethylenedioxy and propylenedioxy groups. These ligands, along with 4-O-des-methyl SA4503, were evaluated for σ1 and σ2 receptor affinity, and compared to SA4503 and several known ether analogs. SA4503 and a subset of ether analogs were also evaluated for dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT) affinity. The highest σ1 receptor affinities, Ki values of 1.75 nM – 4.63 nM, were observed for 4-O-des-methyl SA4503, SA4503 and the methylenedioxy analog. As steric bulk increased, σ1 receptor affinity decreased, but only to a point. Allyl, propyl and bromoethyl substitutions gave σ1 receptor Ki values in the 20 nM – 30 nM range, while bulkier analogs having phenylalkyl, and Z- and E-iodoallyl, ether substitutions showed higher σ1 affinities, with Ki values in the 13 nM – 21 nM range. Most ligands studied exhibited comparable σ1 and σ2 affinities, resulting in little to no subtype selectivity. SA4503, the fluoroethyl analog and the methylenedioxy congener showed modest six- to fourteen-fold selectivity for σ1 sites. DAT and SERT interactions proved much more sensitive than σ receptor interactions to these structural modifications. For example, the benzyl congener (σ1 Ki = 20.8 nM; σ2 Ki = 16.4 nM) showed over 100-fold higher DAT affinity (Ki = 121 nM) and 6-fold higher SERT affinity (Ki = 128 nM) than the parent SA4503 (DAT Ki = 12650 nM; SERT Ki = 760 nM). Thus, ether modifications to the SA4503 scaffold can provide polyfunctional ligands having a broader spectrum of possible pharmacological actions. PMID:25468036

  18. Buffer Standards for pH Measurement of N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N’-2-ethanesulfonic Acid (HEPES) for I = 0.16 mol·kg−1 from 5 to 55°C

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Rabindra N.; Roy, Lakshmi N.; Ashkenazi, Shahaf; Wollen, Joshua T.; Dunseth, Craig D.; Fuge, Michael S.; Durden, Jared L.; Roy, Chandra N.; Hughes, Hannah M.; Morris, Brett T.; Cline, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    The values of the second dissociation constant, pK2 of N-(2-hydroxyethyl) piperazine-N’-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) have been reported at 12 temperatures over the temperature range 5 to 55°C, including 37°C. This paper reports the results for the paH of eight isotonic saline buffer solutions with an I = 0.16 mol•kg−1 including compositions: (a) HEPES (0.01 mol•kg−1) + NaHEPES (0.01 mol•kg−1) + NaCl (0.15 mol•kg−1); (b) HEPES (0.02 mol•kg−1) + NaHEPES (0.02 mol•kg−1) + NaCl (0.14 mol•kg−1); (c) HEPES (0.03 mol•kg−1) + NaHEPES (0.03 mol•kg−1) + NaCl (0.13 mol•kg−1); (d) HEPES (0.04 mol•kg−1) + NaHEPES (0.04 mol•kg−1) + NaCl (0.12 mol•kg−1); (e) HEPES (0.05 mol•kg−1) + NaHEPES (0.05 mol•kg−1) + NaCl (0.11 mol•kg−1); (f) HEPES (0.06 mol•kg−1) + NaHEPES (0.06 mol•kg−1) + NaCl (0.10 mol•kg−1); (g) HEPES (0.07 mol•kg−1) + NaHEPES (0.07 mol•kg−1) + NaCl (0.09 mol•kg−1); and (h) HEPES (0.08 mol•kg−1) + NaHEPES (0.08 mol•kg−1) + NaCl (0.08 mol•kg−1). Conventional paH values, for all eight buffer solutions from 5 to 55°C have been calculated. The operational pH values with liquid junction corrections, at 25 and 37°C have been determined based on the NBS/NIST standard between the physiological phosphate standard and four buffer solutions. These are recommended as pH standards for physiological fluids in the range of pH 7.3 to 7.5 at I = 0.16 mol•kg−1. PMID:20161485

  19. Piperine as an inhibitor of the MdeA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Zahid Mehmood; Kumar, Ashwani; Kalia, Nitin Pal; Zargar, Afzal; Khan, Inshad Ali

    2011-10-01

    Piperine, a trans-trans-isomer of 1-piperoyl-piperidine, was tested in combination with mupirocin for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains including meticillin-resistant S. aureus. The combination markedly reduced the MIC of mupirocin and also lowered the mutation frequency. Enhanced accumulation and efflux of ethidium bromide from wild-type and mutant (Mup(r)-1) strains in the presence of piperine indicated that inhibition of efflux could be a possible mechanism of potentiation of mupirocin activity by piperine. The combination of piperine with mupirocin in a dermal infection model of mice showed better in vivo efficacy when compared with the commercially available formulation of 2 % mupirocin. PMID:21680766

  20. 21 CFR 520.1807 - Piperazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...(1) Chickens(i) Amount. 50 milligrams per bird under 6 weeks, 100 milligrams per bird over 6 weeks... in drinking water or feed. Use as sole source of drinking water. Prepare fresh solution daily. Use as... control of parasitism. (2) Turkeys(i) Amount. 100 milligrams per bird up to 12 weeks and 200...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1807 - Piperazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...(1) Chickens(i) Amount. 50 milligrams per bird under 6 weeks, 100 milligrams per bird over 6 weeks... in drinking water or feed. Use as sole source of drinking water. Prepare fresh solution daily. Use as... control of parasitism. (2) Turkeys(i) Amount. 100 milligrams per bird up to 12 weeks and 200...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1807 - Piperazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...(1) Chickens(i) Amount. 50 milligrams per bird under 6 weeks, 100 milligrams per bird over 6 weeks... in drinking water or feed. Use as sole source of drinking water. Prepare fresh solution daily. Use as... control of parasitism. (2) Turkeys(i) Amount. 100 milligrams per bird up to 12 weeks and 200...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1807 - Piperazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...(1) Chickens(i) Amount. 50 milligrams per bird under 6 weeks, 100 milligrams per bird over 6 weeks... in drinking water or feed. Use as sole source of drinking water. Prepare fresh solution daily. Use as... control of parasitism. (2) Turkeys(i) Amount. 100 milligrams per bird up to 12 weeks and 200...

  4. Diethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldioxalate.

    PubMed

    Martnez-Martnez, Francisco J; Rojas-Prez, Rodrigo E; Garca-Bez, Efrn V; Hpfl, Herbert; Padilla-Martnez, Itzia I

    2004-09-01

    The ethyl oxamate group, N-C(O)-C(O)-OEt, in the title compound, alternatively called diethyl N,N':N,N'-bis(ethylene)dioxamate, C12H18N2O6, can be considered as being composed of two singly bonded amide and ester functionalities. The ethyl oxamate group is not planar. The two carbonyl groups are almost perpendicular, with an oxalyl O=C-C=O torsion angle of -111.34 (17) degrees. The molecule is located on an inversion centre. Infinite supramolecular tapes, propagating along the b axis, are formed through soft C-H...O interactions which form a centrosymmetric R(2)2(12) motif. PMID:15345861

  5. Highly stretchable nanoalginate based polyurethane elastomers.

    PubMed

    Daemi, Hamed; Barikani, Mehdi; Barmar, Mohammad

    2013-06-20

    Highly stretchable elastomeric samples based on cationic polyurethane dispersions-sodium alginate nanoparticles (CPUD/SA) were prepared by the solution blending of sodium alginate and aqueous polyurethane dispersions. CPUDs were synthesized by step growth polymerization technique using N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) as a source of cationic emulsifier. The chemical structure and thermal-mechanical properties of these systems were characterized using FTIR and DMTA, respectively. The presence of nanoalginate particles including nanobead and nanorod particles were proved by SEM and EDX. It was observed that thermal properties of composites increased with increasing SA content. All prepared samples were known as thermoplastic-elastomers with high percentages of elongation. Excellent compatibility of prepared nanocomposites was proved by the DMTA data. PMID:23648022

  6. Determination of alkanolamines in cattails (Typha latifolia) utilizing electrospray ionization with selected reaction monitoring and ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Doucette, William J

    2004-01-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) with electrospray ionization was used as a specific detection technique for the analysis of alkanolamines in plant tissue extracts. Ion-exchange chromatography was used as the method of separation. Quantification was based on monitoring the loss of either H2O or 2(H2O) from the protonated molecule [M+H]+. The method provided increased selectivity for all analytes and better detection limits for three of the six analytes investigated compared with an earlier method using selected ion monitoring with liquid chromatography. Instrumental detection limits ranged from 6-300 pg injected for monoethanolamine (MEA), monoisopropanolamine (MIPA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), diisopropanolamine (DIPA), and triethanolamine (TEA). Method robustness and selectivity were demonstrated by the determination of DIPA and a known transformation product MIPA in over 35 plant extract samples derived from a laboratory study of plant uptake mechanisms. PMID:15282789

  7. Crystal structure of 3-{[4-(2-meth­oxy­phen­yl)piperazin-1-yl]meth­yl}-5-(thio­phen-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxa­diazole-2(3H)-thione

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alshaikh, Monirah A.; Abuelizz, Hatem A.; El-Emam, Ali A.; Abdelbaky, Mohammed S. M.; Garcia-Granda, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, C18H20N4O2S2, is a new 1,3,4-oxa­diazole and a key pharmacophore of several biologically active agents. It is composed of a meth­yl(thio­phen-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxa­diazole-2(3H)-thione moiety linked to a 2-meth­oxy­phenyl unit via a piperazine ring that has a chair conformation. The thio­phene ring mean plane lies almost in the plane of the oxa­diazole ring, with a dihedral angle of 4.35 (9)°. The 2-meth­oxy­phenyl ring is almost normal to the oxa­diazole ring, with a dihedral angle of 84.17 (10)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by weak C—H⋯S hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming layers parallel to the bc plane. The layers are linked via weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and slipped parallel π–π inter­actions [inter­centroid distance = 3.6729 (10) Å], forming a three-dimensional structure. The thio­phene ring has an approximate 180° rotational disorder about the bridging C—C bond. PMID:26958404

  8. Development of a Highly Potent D2/D3 Agonist and a Partial Agonist from Structure-Activity Relationship Study of N(6)-(2-(4-(1H-Indol-5-yl)piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-N(6)-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]thiazole-2,6-diamine Analogues: Implication in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Das, Banibrata; Vedachalam, Seenuvasan; Luo, Dan; Antonio, Tamara; Reith, Maarten E A; Dutta, Aloke K

    2015-12-10

    Our structure-activity relationship studies with N(6)-(2-(4-(1H-indol-5-yl)piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-N(6)-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]thiazole-2,6-diamine derivatives led to development of a lead compound (-)-21a which exhibited very high affinity (Ki, D2 = 16.4 nM, D3 = 1.15 nM) and full agonist activity (EC50 (GTPγS); D2 = 3.23 and D3 = 1.41 nM) at both D2 and D3 receptors. A partial agonist molecule (-)-34 (EC50 (GTPγS); D2 = 21.6 (Emax = 27%) and D3 = 10.9 nM) was also identified. In a Parkinson's disease (PD) animal model, (-)-21a was highly efficacious in reversing hypolocomotion in reserpinized rats with a long duration of action, indicating its potential as an anti-PD drug. Compound (-)-34 was also able to elevate locomotor activity in the above PD animal model significantly, implying its potential application in PD therapy. Furthermore, (-)-21a was shown to be neuroprotective in protecting neuronal PC12 from toxicity of 6-OHDA. This report, therefore, underpins the notion that a multifunctional drug like (-)-21a might have the potential not only to ameliorate motor dysfunction in PD patients but also to modify disease progression by protecting DA neurons from progressive degeneration. PMID:26555041

  9. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of [(18)F]2-(4-(4-(2-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)-dione ([(18)F]FECUMI-101) as an imaging probe for 5-HT1A receptor agonist in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Majo, Vattoly J; Milak, Matthew S; Prabhakaran, Jaya; Mali, Pratap; Savenkova, Lyudmila; Simpson, Norman R; Mann, J John; Parsey, Ramin V; Kumar, J S Dileep

    2013-09-01

    The 5-HT1AR partial agonist PET radiotracer, [(11)C]CUMI-101, has advantages over an antagonist radiotracer as it binds preferentially to the high affinity state of the receptor and thereby provides more functionally meaningful information. The major drawback of C-11 tracers is the lack of cyclotron facility in many health care centers thereby limiting widespread clinical or research use. We identified the fluoroethyl derivative, 2-(4-(4-(2-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazine-3,5(2H,4H)dione (FECUMI-101) (Ki=0.1nM; Emax=77%; EC50=0.65nM) as a partial agonist 5-HT1AR ligand of the parent ligand CUMI-101. FECUMI-101 is radiolabeled with F-18 by O-fluoroethylation of the corresponding desmethyl analogue (1) with [(18)F]fluoroethyltosylate in DMSO in the presence of 1.6equiv of K2CO3 in 455% yield (EOS). PET shows [(18)F]FECUMI-101 binds specifically to 5-HT1AR enriched brain regions of baboon. The specificity of [(18)F]FECUMI-101 binding to 5-HT1AR was confirmed by challenge studies with the known 5-HT1AR ligand WAY100635. These findings indicate that [(18)F]FECUMI-101 can be a viable agonist ligand for the in vivo quantification of high affinity 5-HT1AR with PET. PMID:23816046

  10. In situ hydrothermal syntheses, structures and photoluminescent properties of four novel metal-organic frameworks constructed by lanthanide (Ln=Ce(III), Pr(III), Eu(III)) and Cu(I) metals with flexible dicarboxylate acids and piperazine-based ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ay, Burak; Karaca, Serkan; Yildiz, Emel; Lopez, Valerie; Nanao, Max H.; Zubieta, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Four novel metal-organic frameworks,[Cu2Cl2(pyrz)]n (1) and (H2pip)n[Ln2(pydc)4(H2O)2]n (Ln=Ce (2), Pr (3) and Eu (4), H2pzdc=2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid, pyrz=pyrazine, H2pydc=2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, H2pip=piperazine) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by the elemental analysis, ICP, Far IR (FIR), FT-IR spectra, TGA, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Compound 1 is two-dimensional containing Cl-Cu-Cl sites, while the lanthanide complexes contain one-dimensional infinite Ln-O-Ln chains. All the complexes show high thermal stability. The complexes 1-3 exhibit luminescence emission bands at 584, 598 and 614 nm at room temperature when excited at 300 nm. Complex 4 exhibits bright red solid-state phosphorescence upon exposure to UV radiation at room temperature.

  11. Discovery of 8-Cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenylamino]-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carbonitrile (7x) as a Potent Inhibitor of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) and AMPK-Related Kinase 5 (ARK5)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The success of imatinib, a BCR-ABL inhibitor for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, has created a great impetus for the development of additional kinase inhibitors as therapeutic agents. However, the complexity of cancer has led to recent interest in polypharmacological approaches for developing multikinase inhibitors with low toxicity profiles. With this goal in mind, we analyzed more than 150 novel cyano pyridopyrimidine compounds and identified structureactivity relationship trends that can be exploited in the design of potent kinase inhibitors. One compound, 8-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenylamino]-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carbonitrile (7x), was found to be the most active, inducing apoptosis of tumor cells at a concentration of approximately 30100 nM. In vitro kinase profiling revealed that 7x is a multikinase inhibitor with potent inhibitory activity against the CDK4/CYCLIN D1 and ARK5 kinases. Here, we report the synthesis, structureactivity relationship, kinase inhibitory profile, in vitro cytotoxicity, and in vivo tumor regression studies by this lead compound. PMID:24417566

  12. Ditetraalkylammonium amino acid ionic liquids as CO₂ absorbents of high capacity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing-Wen; Zhou, Zheng; Zhang, Feng; Fang, Cheng-Gang; Wu, You-Ting; Zhang, Zhi-Bing; Li, Ai-Min

    2011-12-15

    By grafting butyl or ethyl onto tetramethylethylenediamine, quaternary ammonium salts with two positive charge centers were formed at the first step. Metathesis with Ag(2)O followed. Through neutralization with glycine, l-alanine, or valine, a series of new ditetraalkylammonium amino acid ionic liquids (DILs) for CO(2) capture were generated. The structures of DILs, as shown in Figure 1, were verified by using (1)H NMR and EA. These DILs were found to be of quite high viscosity which militated against their industrial application in CO(2) removal. Drawing on the experience of mixed amines' aqueous solutions, these DILs were blended with water or N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) aqueous solutions to act as special absorbents of CO(2). Using a Double-Tank Absorption System, the absorption performance of these DIL solutions was investigated in detail. The experimental results indicated that among the three aqueous solutions of DILs (20%, 40%, and 80 wt %), the solution of 40% DIL had a higher absorption rate of CO(2) than the other two, demonstrating the different effects of concentration and viscosity on the absorption. The solution of 40% DIL or the 15% DIL + 15% MDEA had much higher capacity for CO(2) than the corresponding monocation tetraalkylammonium AAILs, due to the special structure of the dication which could influence the solubility of CO(2) in the aqueous solution. PMID:22066493

  13. Micelles of enzymatically synthesized PEG-poly(amine-co-ester) block copolymers as pH-responsive nanocarriers for docetaxel delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Liu, Bo; Yang, Zhe; Zhang, Chao; Li, Hao; Luo, Xingen; Luo, Huiyan; Gao, Di; Jiang, Qing; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Zhaozhong

    2014-03-01

    A series of PEGylated poly(amine-co-ester) terpolymers were successfully synthesized in one step via lipase-catalyzed copolymerization of ω-pentadecalactone (PDL), diethyl sebacate (DES), and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) comonomers in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether as a chain-terminating agent. The resultant amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(PDL-co-MDEA-co-sebacate) (PEG-PPMS) block copolymers consisted of hydrophilic PEG chain segments and hydrophobic random PPMS chain segments, which self-assembled in aqueous medium to form stable, nanosized micelles at physiological pH of 7.4. Upon decreasing the medium pH from 7.4 to 5.0, the copolymer micelles swell significantly due to protonation of the amino groups in the micelle PPMS cores. Correspondingly, docetaxel (DTX)-encapsulated PEG2K-PPMS copolymer micelles showed gradual sustained drug release at pH of 7.4, but remarkably accelerated DTX release at acidic pH of 5.0. The drug-loaded micelle particles were readily internalized by SK-BR-3 cancer cells and, compared to free DTX drug, DTX-loaded micelles of the copolymers with optimal compositions exhibited enhanced potency against the cells. Biodegradable PEG-PPMS copolymer micelles represent a new type of promising, pH-responsive nanocarriers for anticancer drug delivery, and the drug release rate from the micelles can be systematically controlled by both pH and the copolymer composition. PMID:24398083

  14. Iron(III) carboxylate/aminoalcohol coordination clusters with propeller-shaped Fe8 cores: approaching reasonable exchange energies.

    PubMed

    Botezat, Olga; van Leusen, Jan; Kravtsov, Victor Ch; Ellern, Arkady; Kögerler, Paul; Baca, Svetlana G

    2015-12-21

    A series of new octanuclear propeller-like aminoalcohol-supported Fe(III) oxocarboxylate coordination clusters, [Fe8O3(O2CCHMe2)9(tea)(teaH)3]·MeCN·2(H2O) (1), [Fe8O3(O2CCHMe2)6(N3)3(tea)(teaH)3] (2), [Fe8O3(O2CCMe3)6(N3)3(tea)(teaH)3]·0.5(EtOH) (3), and [Fe8O3(O2CCHMe2)6(N3)3(mdea)3(MeO)3] (4) (where teaH3 = triethanolamine; mdeaH2 = N-methyldiethanolamine) has been isolated and magnetochemically analyzed combining the programs wxJFinder and CONDON in an approach to avoid overparameterization issues that are common to larger spin polytopes. Dominant antiferromagnetic exchange interactions exist in all clusters along the edges of the propellers, while moderate ferromagnetic interactions are found along the propeller axes in their {Fe8O3} metallic cores. PMID:26567887

  15. High-throughput sample preparation and simultaneous column regeneration liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of nitrogen mustard metabolites in human urine.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Muntha K; Mills, Grier; Nixon, Christopher; Wyatt, Shane A; Croley, Timothy R

    2011-08-15

    Nitrogen mustards (NMs) are known to have DNA alkylation and strong vesicant properties. Their availability to terrorist organizations makes them a potential choice for chemical attacks on civilian populations. After an exposure, it is difficult to measure NMs directly because of their rapid metabolism in the human body. Therefore to determine an individual's level of exposure to NMs, it is necessary to analyze for NM metabolites being excreted by the body. The metabolites of NMs are generated by a hydrolysis reaction, and are easily detectable by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This work is focused on the development of a high-throughput assay for the quantitation of N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA) and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) metabolites of bis (2-chloroethyl) ethylethanamine (HN1) and bis (2-chloroethyl) methylethanamine (HN2), respectively. The method uses automated 96-well plate sample preparation of human urine samples and a 2-position 10-port switching valve to allow for simultaneous regeneration of the liquid chromatography (LC) columns. Using this method, over 18 h was saved through the reduction of sample preparation and analysis time when compared to a conventional method for 96 samples. The validated method provided excellent accuracy for both EDEA (100.9%) and MDEA (100.6%) with precision better than 5.27% for each analyte. PMID:21764395

  16. Solubility calculations for acid gases in amine blends

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarty, T.

    1985-01-01

    Treating with alkanolamines is often used to sweeten gases containing only a few parts per million of CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S. Primary amines such as monoethanolamine (MEA) have great affinity for acid gases and are able to produce high purity sweet gas; on the other hand, tertiary amines like methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) have large capacity and are easy to regenerate but, because they do not bind chemically with CO/sub 2/, they are unable to produce a sweetened gas low in this component. Recently, the use of amine blends has become a subject of potentially great commercial importance. Since, the range of possible amines and blend formulations is large, a method for predicting equilibrium solubility is needed. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been developed which uses the extended Debye-Huckel expression, is very similar to one developed for single-amine solutions, and involves the fitting of binary interaction parameters to experimental data. In this work the interaction parameters found to be important in the activity coefficient expression were fitted to each single-acid-gas single-amine subsystem using all published solubility data. The resulting model was then validated by comparing mixed-acid-gas single-amine solubility predictions with published VLE data. MEA-MDEA and DEA-MDEA blends have been studied in detail in this work. It is found that each amine contributes to the overall acid gas solubility in a nonlinear way and that the solubility curves can exhibit maxima and minima as a function of the relative concentrations of the amines.

  17. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina). (2) The contents of 1 capsule should be mixed with the food of the...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1803 - Piperazine citrate capsules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used in dogs and cats for the removal of large roundworms (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina). (2) The contents of 1 capsule should be mixed with the food of the...

  19. Scheduling the blended solution as industrial CO2 absorber in separation process by back-propagation artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Yadollah; Sairi, Nor Asrina; Said, Suhana Binti Mohd; Abouzari-lotf, Ebrahim; Zakaria, Azmi; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Bin Mohd; Islam, Aminul; Alias, Yatimah

    2015-11-01

    It is believe that 80% industrial of carbon dioxide can be controlled by separation and storage technologies which use the blended ionic liquids absorber. Among the blended absorbers, the mixture of water, N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and guanidinium trifluoromethane sulfonate (gua) has presented the superior stripping qualities. However, the blended solution has illustrated high viscosity that affects the cost of separation process. In this work, the blended fabrication was scheduled with is the process arranging, controlling and optimizing. Therefore, the blend's components and operating temperature were modeled and optimized as input effective variables to minimize its viscosity as the final output by using back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN). The modeling was carried out by four mathematical algorithms with individual experimental design to obtain the optimum topology using root mean squared error (RMSE), R-squared (R(2)) and absolute average deviation (AAD). As a result, the final model (QP-4-8-1) with minimum RMSE and AAD as well as the highest R(2) was selected to navigate the fabrication of the blended solution. Therefore, the model was applied to obtain the optimum initial level of the input variables which were included temperature 303-323 K, x[gua], 0-0.033, x[MDAE], 0.3-0.4, and x[H2O], 0.7-1.0. Moreover, the model has obtained the relative importance ordered of the variables which included x[gua]>temperature>x[MDEA]>x[H2O]. Therefore, none of the variables was negligible in the fabrication. Furthermore, the model predicted the optimum points of the variables to minimize the viscosity which was validated by further experiments. The validated results confirmed the model schedulability. Accordingly, ANN succeeds to model the initial components of the blended solutions as absorber of CO2 capture in separation technologies that is able to industries scale up. PMID:26119355

  20. Anion exchangers with branched functional ion exchange layers of different hydrophilicity for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shchukina, O I; Zatirakha, A V; Smolenkov, A D; Nesterenko, P N; Shpigun, O A

    2015-08-21

    Novel polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) based anion exchangers differing from each other in the structure of the branched functional ion exchange layer are prepared to investigate the role of linker and functional site on ion exchange selectivity. The proposed method of synthesis includes the obtaining of aminated PS-DVB particles by means of their acylation with following reductive amination with methylamine. Further modification of the obtained secondary aminogroups is provided by the alkylation with either 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (1,4-BDDGE) or resorcinol diglycidyl ether (RDGE), which form the linkers of different hydrophobicity, and amination of terminal epoxide rings with trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) or triethanolamine (TEA). The variation of the structure and hydrophobicity of the linker and terminal quaternary ammonium sites in the functional layer allows the alteration of selectivity and separation efficiency of the obtained adsorbents. The ion exchange selectivity and separation efficiency of the anion exchangers are evaluated using the model mixtures of anions (F(-), HCOO(-), Cl(-), NO2(-), Br(-), NO3(-), HPO4(2-) and SO4(2-)) in potassium hydroxide eluents. The adsorbents show the decrease of selectivity with increasing the hydrophilicity of the terminal functional site. The anion exchangers having more flexible and hydrophilic 1,4-BDDGE linker provide smaller separation factors for most of the analytes as compared with RDGE-containing adsorbents with the same terminal ion exchange sites, but are characterized with higher column efficiencies and better peak symmetry for polarizable anions. In case of 1,4-BDDGE-modified anion exchangers of the particle size of 3.3μm functionalized with DMEA and MDEA the calculated values of column efficiencies for polarizable NO3(-) and Br(-) are up to 49,000 and 53,000N/m, respectively, which is almost twice higher than the values obtained for the RDGE-containing analogues. PMID:26159253

  1. Performance characteristics and modeling of carbon dioxide absorption by amines in a packed column

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.H.; Shyu, C.T. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1999-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) is widely recognized as a major greenhouse gas contributing to global warming. To mitigate the global warming problem, removal of CO[sub 2] from the industrial flue gases is necessary. Absorption of carbon dioxide by amines in a packed column was experimentally investigated. The amines employed in the present study were the primary mono-ethanolamine (MEA) and tertiary N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), two very popular amines widely used in the industries for gas purification. The CO[sub 2] absorption characteristics by these two amines were experimentally examined under various operating conditions. A theoretical model was developed for describing the CO[sub 2] absorption behavior. Test data have revealed that the model predictions and the observed CO[sub 2] absorption breakthrough curves agree very well, validating the proposed model. Preliminary regeneration tests of exhausted amine solution were also conducted. The results indicated that the tertiary amine is easier to regenerate with less loss of absorption capacity than the primary one.

  2. Rigorous modeling of the acid gas heat of absorption in alkanolamine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Emilie Blanchon le Bouhelec; Pascal Mougin; Alain Barreau; Roland Solimando

    2007-08-15

    In this work, we are interested in the estimation of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S heats of absorption in aqueous solutions of alkanolamine: monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). Two methods can be used to calculate the heat release during the absorption phenomenon. The easier which consists of applying the integration of the Gibbs-Helmholtz expression remains inaccurate. The second one, more rigorous, evaluates the heat transfer through an internal energy balance for an open system. The balance expression contains partial molar enthalpies of species in the liquid phase which are calculated from the electrolyte nonrandom-two-liquid (NRTL) excess Gibbs energy model. The calculations carried out in this method can be considered as predictive regarding the NRTL model because its interaction parameters were previously and solely fitted on vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data and not on experimental heat of absorption data. The comparison between both methods and experimental data for the three alkanolamines shows the contribution of this rigorous calculation to better estimate both properties (i.e., solubility and heat) and its usefulness to improve processes. Heats of absorption calculated with the second method can be used in addition to VLE data to fit NRTL parameters. This procedure leads to less-correlated parameters and allows extrapolating the model with more confidence. 63 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial properties of dihydroxy quaternary ammonium salts with long chain alkyl bromides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Shuai; Wang, Chun-Hua; Sun, Ju-Feng; Hou, Gui-Ge; Wang, Yu-Peng; Qu, Rong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Five N-methyl-N-R-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium bromides (R = -benzyl (chloride, BNQAS), -dodecyl (C12QAS), -tetradecyl (C14QAS), -hexadecyl (C16QAS), -octadecyl (C18QAS)) were prepared based on N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and halohydrocarbon. Five QAS were characterized by FTIR, NMR, and MS. BNQAS, C12QAS, C14QAS, and C16QAS were confirmed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Their antibacterial properties indicated good antibacterial abilities against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, especially C12QAS with the best antibacterial ability (100% to E. coli, 95.65% to S. aureus, and 91.41% to B. subtilis). In addition, C12QAS also displayed the best antifungal activities than BNQAS and C18QAS against Cytospora mandshurica, Botryosphaeria ribis, Physalospora piricola, and Glomerella cingulata with the ratio of full marks. The strategy provides a facile way to design and develop new types of antibacterial drugs for application in preventing the fruit rot, especially apple. PMID:25215430

  5. A cotton fabric modified with a hydrogel containing ZnO nanoparticles. Preparation and properties study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staneva, Desislava; Atanasova, Daniela; Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Lukanova, Varbina; Grabchev, Ivo

    2015-08-01

    Two different methods were used to obtain composite materials based on a ZnO nanoparticles-hydrogel-cotton fabric. The hydrogels, synthesized by photopolymerization, were utilized to provide uniform distribution and binding of the nanoparticles to the fiber surface and to prevent their agglomeration. N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) was used as a co-initiator in hydrogel photopolymerization and as an alkaline agent in the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles. Due to the difference in size, shape and morphology of the nanoparticles, examined by a TEM and SEM, it was found that the materials have distinct photoluminescence properties, e.g. in the entire visible or UV range. The composite materials with small size nanoparticles and photoluminescence in near UV range were investigated for antibiotic activity against the bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter johnsonii known as important pathogens in clinical infections. Significantly high antibacterial effect on the bacteria tested was achieved, especially on A. johnsonii. This suggests potential application of the new formulations as effective wound dressings to control the spread of infections.

  6. Electropolymerized carbonic anhydrase immobilization for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Merle, Geraldine; Fradette, Sylvie; Madore, Eric; Barralet, Jake E

    2014-06-17

    Biomimetic carbonation carried out with carbonic anhydrase (CA) in CO2-absorbing solutions, such as methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), is one approach that has been developed to accelerate the capture of CO2. However, there are several practical issues, such as high cost and limited enzyme stability, that need to be overcome. In this study, the capacity of CA immobilization on a porous solid support was studied to improve the instability in the tertiary amine solvent. We have shown that a 63% porosity macroporous carbon foam support makes separation and reuse facile and allows for an efficient supply and presentation of CO2 to an aqueous solvent and the enzyme catalytic center. These enzymatic supports conserved 40% of their initial activity after 42 days at 70 °C in an amine solvent, whereas the free enzyme shows no activity after 1 h in the same conditions. In this work, we have overcome the technical barrier associated with the recovery of the biocatalyst after operation, and most of all, these electropolymerized enzymatic supports have shown a remarkable increase of thermal stability in an amine-based CO2 sequestration solvent. PMID:24856780

  7. Self-assembled 3D heterometallic Cu(II)/Fe(II) coordination polymers with octahedral net skeletons: structural features, molecular magnetism, thermal and oxidation catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Karabach, Yauhen Y; Guedes da Silva, M Fátima C; Kopylovich, Maximilian N; Gil-Hernández, Beatriz; Sanchiz, Joaquin; Kirillov, Alexander M; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2010-12-01

    The new three-dimensional (3D) heterometallic Cu(II)/Fe(II) coordination polymers [Cu(6)(H(2)tea)(6)Fe(CN)(6)](n)(NO(3))(2n)·6nH(2)O (1) and [Cu(6)(Hmdea)(6)Fe(CN)(6)](n)(NO(3))(2n)·7nH(2)O (2) have been easily generated by aqueous-medium self-assembly reactions of copper(II) nitrate with triethanolamine or N-methyldiethanolamine (H(3)tea or H(2)mdea, respectively), in the presence of potassium ferricyanide and sodium hydroxide. They have been isolated as air-stable crystalline solids and fully characterized including by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The latter reveal the formation of 3D metal-organic frameworks that are constructed from the [Cu(2)(μ-H(2)tea)(2)](2+) or [Cu(2)(μ-Hmdea)(2)](2+) nodes and the octahedral [Fe(CN)(6)](4-) linkers, featuring regular (1) or distorted (2) octahedral net skeletons. Upon dehydration, both compounds show reversible escape and binding processes toward water or methanol molecules. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of 1 and 2 reveal strong antiferromagnetic [J = -199(1) cm(-1)] or strong ferromagnetic [J = +153(1) cm(-1)] couplings between the copper(II) ions through the μ-O-alkoxo atoms in 1 or 2, respectively. The differences in magnetic behavior are explained in terms of the dependence of the magnetic coupling constant on the Cu-O-Cu bridging angle. Compounds 1 and 2 also act as efficient catalyst precursors for the mild oxidation of cyclohexane by aqueous hydrogen peroxide to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone (homogeneous catalytic system), leading to maximum total yields (based on cyclohexane) and turnover numbers (TONs) up to about 22% and 470, respectively. PMID:21028781

  8. Laser direct-write microfabrication and patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Dajun

    The ability to generate small structures is central to modern science and technology. In this work, four laser direct-write microfabrication and micropatterning techniques were studied: (a) Laser micromachining of channels in PMMA using a CO2 laser was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Heat transfer models for the channel depth, channel profile, laser power and scanning speed were developed and applied in this work. These models, are in excellent agreement with experimental results, with a maximum deviation of approximately 5% for the range of experimental parameters (laser power, scanning speed) tested. (b) A sub-micrometer resolution laser direct-write polymerization system for 1 creating two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures was developed using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. Experimental studies and Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to understand the detailed microscale optical scattering, chemical reaction, polymerization, and their influence on critical fabrication parameters. The experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical model. (c) Direct laser interference was developed for rapid and large area fabrication of two-dimensional and three dimensional periodic structures on photopolymerizable materials with 10ns pulses from a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser emitting at 355 nm. Three different photopolymerizable materials were investigated: pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETIA) with photoinitiator N-methyldiethanolamine (N-MDEA); SU-8 with absorber TINUVIN 384-2; and Shipley 1813. (d) A new approach to fabricating nanometer sized cavity arrays on Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) thin films using laser-assisted near-field patterning was investigated. Periodic nano-cavity arrays were patterned by combining direct laser interference technology and laser induced near-field technology. An analytical model based on Mie theory was developed, the predicted intensity distributions on the substrate indicate a strong near-field enhancement confined to a very small area (nanometer scale).

  9. Wipe selection for the analysis of surface materials containing chemical warfare agent nitrogen mustard degradation products by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Willison, Stuart A

    2012-12-28

    Degradation products arising from nitrogen mustard chemical warfare agent were deposited on common urban surfaces and determined via surface wiping, wipe extraction, and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry detection. Wipes investigated included cotton gauze, glass fiber filter, non-woven polyester fiber and filter paper, and surfaces included several porous (vinyl tile, painted drywall, wood) and mostly non-porous (laminate, galvanized steel, glass) surfaces. Wipe extracts were analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) and compared with high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) results. An evaluation of both techniques suggests UPLC–MS/MS provides a quick and sensitive analysis of targeted degradation products in addition to being nearly four times faster than a single HPLC run, allowing for greater throughput during a wide-spread release concerning large-scale contamination and subsequent remediation events. Based on the overall performance of all tested wipes, filter paper wipes were selected over other wipes because they did not contain interferences or native species (TEA and DEA) associated with the target analytes, resulting in high percent recoveries and low background levels during sample analysis. Other wipes, including cotton gauze, would require a pre-cleaning step due to the presence of large quantities of native species or interferences of the targeted analytes. Percent recoveries obtained from a laminate surface were 47–99% for all nitrogen mustard degradation products. The resulting detection limits achieved from wipes were 0.2 ng/cm(2) for triethanolamine (TEA), 0.03 ng/cm(2) for N-ethyldiethanolamine (EDEA), 0.1 ng/cm(2) for N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 0.1 ng/cm(2) for diethanolamine (DEA). PMID:23218189

  10. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....1802b Section 520.1802b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...) per 500 pounds body weight; removal of large strongyles, pinworms, and bots, 1 bolus per 250 pounds body weight.1 (2) Indications for use. For removing ascarids (large roundworms, Parascaris...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....1802b Section 520.1802b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...) per 500 pounds body weight; removal of large strongyles, pinworms, and bots, 1 bolus per 250 pounds body weight.1 (2) Indications for use. For removing ascarids (large roundworms, Parascaris...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....1802b Section 520.1802b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...) per 500 pounds body weight; removal of large strongyles, pinworms, and bots, 1 bolus per 250 pounds body weight.1 (2) Indications for use. For removing ascarids (large roundworms, Parascaris...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1802b Section 520.1802b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...) per 500 pounds body weight; removal of large strongyles, pinworms, and bots, 1 bolus per 250 pounds body weight.1 (2) Indications for use. For removing ascarids (large roundworms, Parascaris...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1802a - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... use. Horses and ponies(1) Amount. One fluid ounce per 100 pounds of body weight.1 1 These conditions.... Provide water as usual. Resume regular feeding 4 to 6 hours after treatment. Treatment of debilitated...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1802b - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex boluses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....1802b Section 520.1802b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...) per 500 pounds body weight; removal of large strongyles, pinworms, and bots, 1 bolus per 250 pounds body weight.1 (2) Indications for use. For removing ascarids (large roundworms, Parascaris...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1802a - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... use. Horses and ponies(1) Amount. One fluid ounce per 100 pounds of body weight.1 1 These conditions.... Provide water as usual. Resume regular feeding 4 to 6 hours after treatment. Treatment of debilitated or... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  17. 21 CFR 520.1802a - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... use. Horses and ponies(1) Amount. One fluid ounce per 100 pounds of body weight.1 1 These conditions.... Provide water as usual. Resume regular feeding 4 to 6 hours after treatment. Treatment of debilitated or... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1802a - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... use. Horses and ponies(1) Amount. One fluid ounce per 100 pounds of body weight.1 1 These conditions.... Provide water as usual. Resume regular feeding 4 to 6 hours after treatment. Treatment of debilitated or... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1802a - Piperazine-carbon disulfide complex suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... use. Horses and ponies(1) Amount. One fluid ounce per 100 pounds of body weight.1 1 These conditions.... Provide water as usual. Resume regular feeding 4 to 6 hours after treatment. Treatment of debilitated or... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...

  20. The electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical properties of metal free and metallophthalocyanines containing triazole/piperazine units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirbaş, Ümit; Akyüz, Duygu; Mermer, Arif; Akçay, Hakkı Türker; Demirbaş, Neslihan; Koca, Atıf; Kantekin, Halit

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of novel peripherally tetra [1,2,4]-triazole substituted metal-free phthalocyanine and its metal complexes (Zn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Fe(II)) and the investigation of electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical properties of metal-free, Zn(II), Pb(II), Fe(II) phthalocyanines were performed for the first time in this study. Electrochemical characterizations of the complexes were performed with voltammetric and in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. Voltammetric responses of the complexes supported the proposed structures, since complexes bearing redox inactive Pc ring metal centers just gave Pc based electron transfer reactions, while iron phthalocyanine went to metal based electron transfer reaction in addition to the Pc based ones. Electron withdrawing nature of [1,2,4]-triazole substituents shifted the redox processes toward the positive potentials. All complexes were electropolymerized during the oxidation reactions in dichloromethane (DCM) solvent. Types of the metal center of the complexes altered the electropolymerization reactions of the complexes. Spectra and colors of the electrogenerated redox species of the complexes were also determined with in situ spectroelectrochemical and in situ electrocolorimetric measurements.

  1. 40 CFR 721.9800 - Poly(substituted triazinyl) piperazine (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program. Requirements as specified in 721.72 (b)(2), (c), (e) (concentration set at 1.0 percent), (f... polymeric matrix. (ii) Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Requirements as specified in 721.80(q). (b) Specific requirements. The provisions of subpart A of this part apply to this...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9800 - Poly(substituted triazinyl) piperazine (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... program. Requirements as specified in 721.72 (b)(2), (c), (e) (concentration set at 1.0 percent), (f... polymeric matrix. (ii) Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Requirements as specified in 721.80(q). (b) Specific requirements. The provisions of subpart A of this part apply to this...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1242c - Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... an aqueous solution which contains in each fluid ounce 0.36 gram of levamisole hydrochloride and... (Oxyuris equii). (2) Limitations. Aqueous solution: administer by stomach tube or drench 1 fluid ounce per 100 pounds of body weight. Reconstituted soluble powder: administer by stomach tube 1 fluid ounce...

  4. 4-Benzylpiperazin-1-ium chloride chloroform solvate

    PubMed Central

    Nema, Mihai G.; Varga, Richard A.; Silvestru, Cristian; Breunig, Hans J.

    2008-01-01

    The ions of the title chloroform-solvated salt, C11H17N2 +Cl?CHCl3, are linked by a strong NH?Cl hydrogen bond; the solvent molecule also interacts with the chloride ion through a CH?Cl hydrogen bond. Additionally, neighboring cations form weak hydrogen bonds to the anion, resulting in a supramolecular ribbon that runs along the a axis. PMID:21203283

  5. The electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical properties of metal free and metallophthalocyanines containing triazole/piperazine units.

    PubMed

    Demirbaş, Ümit; Akyüz, Duygu; Mermer, Arif; Akçay, Hakkı Türker; Demirbaş, Neslihan; Koca, Atıf; Kantekin, Halit

    2016-01-15

    The synthesis and characterization of novel peripherally tetra [1,2,4]-triazole substituted metal-free phthalocyanine and its metal complexes (Zn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Fe(II)) and the investigation of electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical properties of metal-free, Zn(II), Pb(II), Fe(II) phthalocyanines were performed for the first time in this study. Electrochemical characterizations of the complexes were performed with voltammetric and in situ spectroelectrochemical measurements. Voltammetric responses of the complexes supported the proposed structures, since complexes bearing redox inactive Pc ring metal centers just gave Pc based electron transfer reactions, while iron phthalocyanine went to metal based electron transfer reaction in addition to the Pc based ones. Electron withdrawing nature of [1,2,4]-triazole substituents shifted the redox processes toward the positive potentials. All complexes were electropolymerized during the oxidation reactions in dichloromethane (DCM) solvent. Types of the metal center of the complexes altered the electropolymerization reactions of the complexes. Spectra and colors of the electrogenerated redox species of the complexes were also determined with in situ spectroelectrochemical and in situ electrocolorimetric measurements. PMID:26397034

  6. 4-(Pyrimidin-2-yl)piperazin-1-ium (E)-3-carboxyprop-2-enoate

    PubMed Central

    Yamuna, Thammarse S.; Kaur, Manpreet; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Yathirajan, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the cation of the title salt, C8H13N4 +C4H3O4 ?, the piperazinium ring adopts a slightly distorteded chair conformation. In the crystal, a single strong OH?O intermolecular hydrogen bond links the anions, forming chains along the c-axis direction. The chains of anions are linked by the cations, via NH?O hydrogen bonds, forming sheets parallel to (100). These layers are linked by weak CH?O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional structure. In addition, there are weak ?? interactions [centroidcentroid distance = 3.820?(9)?] present involving inversion-related pyrimidine rings. PMID:24940275

  7. Crystal structure of 2-methylpiperazine-1,4-diium bis(hydrogen maleate)

    PubMed Central

    Wecharine, Intissar; Valkonen, Arto; Rzaigui, Mohamed; Smirani Sta, Wajda

    2015-01-01

    In the title salt, C5H14N2 2+2C4H3O4 ?, the asymmetric unit contains two independent 2-methylpiperazinium dications, which comprise a racemic pair, and four hydrogen maleate monoanions. In the roughly planar hydrogen maleate anions, intramolecular OH?O hydrogen bonds generate S(7) rings. In the crystal, the four independent anions are linked to the 2-methylpiperazinium cations through NH?O hydrogen bonds, forming two-dimensional layered structures lying parallel to (001). PMID:25844244

  8. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... first 500 pounds; 3/4 ounce for each 100 pounds thereafter, up to 1,200 pounds; 101/4 ounces to animals... conditions of use are NAS/NRC reviewed and found effective. Applications for these uses need not...

  9. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... first 500 pounds; 3/4 ounce for each 100 pounds thereafter, up to 1,200 pounds; 101/4 ounces to animals... conditions of use are NAS/NRC reviewed and found effective. Applications for these uses need not...

  10. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... first 500 pounds; 3/4 ounce for each 100 pounds thereafter, up to 1,200 pounds; 101/4 ounces to animals... conditions of use are NAS/NRC reviewed and found effective. Applications for these uses need not...

  11. 21 CFR 520.763c - Dithiazanine iodide and piperazine citrate suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... first 500 pounds; 3/4 ounce for each 100 pounds thereafter, up to 1,200 pounds; 101/4 ounces to animals... conditions of use are NAS/NRC reviewed and found effective. Applications for these uses need not...

  12. Tetraaquabis(piperazin-1-ium)cobalt(II) bis(sulfate) dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Sahbani, Thameur; Smirani Sta, Wajda; Rzaigui, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    In the centrosymmetric title compound, [Co(C4H11N2)2(H2O)4](SO4)22H2O, the CoII atom is coordinated in a distorted octahedral geometry by four water O atoms and two piperazinium N atoms. These four water O atoms define an equatorial plane with a maximum deviation of 0.0384?(1)? while the two piperazinium N atoms complete the octahedron in the axial positions. Neighboring complex molecules and sulfate anions are connected through an extensive network of NH?O and OH?O hydrogen bonds, which link the different chemical species into layers in the ab plane. Additional OwaterH?O hydrogen bonds involving the non-coordinating water molecules and CH?O interactions connect these layers into a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. PMID:24454163

  13. Design, synthesis and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of new piperidine and piperazine derivatives as cognition-enhancers.

    PubMed

    Martini, Elisabetta; Ghelardini, Carla; Dei, Silvia; Guandalini, Luca; Manetti, Dina; Melchiorre, Michele; Norcini, Monica; Scapecchi, Serena; Teodori, Elisabetta; Romanelli, Maria Novella

    2008-02-01

    A series of 2-oxopiperazine, 4-aminomethyl-, 3-amino- and 3-aminomethylpiperidine analogues of DM235 (sunifiram) and MN19 (sapunifiram), two previously reported potent cognition-enhancers, have been synthesized and tested in the mouse passive-avoidance test. The compounds display minimal effective doses in the range 0.3-10mg/kg. Although the new substances do not show improved activity when compared to the parent compounds, some useful information has been obtained to understand structure-activity relationships. In addition, the 3-aminopiperidine moiety appears to be a promising scaffold to synthesize new drugs endowed with cognition-enhancing activity. PMID:17981042

  14. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Labeling shall bear the following statements: The drug is a cholinesterase inhibitor. Do not use this..., neuromuscular depolarizing agents (e.g., succinylcholine) or to cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs, pesticides,...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Labeling shall bear the following statements: The drug is a cholinesterase inhibitor. Do not use this..., neuromuscular depolarizing agents (e.g., succinylcholine) or to cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs, pesticides,...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2520g - Trichlorfon, phenothiazine, and piperazine dihydrochloride powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Labeling shall bear the following statements: The drug is a cholinesterase inhibitor. Do not use this..., neuromuscular depolarizing agents (e.g., succinylcholine) or to cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs, pesticides,...

  17. Interaction of organotin with piperazine derived self-assembled cylindrical bisdithiocarbamates: Spectral and thermal investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Ahmad; Nami, Shahab A. A.; Siddiqi, K. S.

    2009-07-01

    Few organotin complexes of the type R 4Sn 2L 2 where R = CH 3 ( 2), C 4H 9 ( 3), C 6H 5 ( 4), and Sn 2L 2Cl 4 ( 5) (L = bis(2,2'-dithiopiperazinato-2,2'-diaminodiethylamine)) have been synthesized and suitably characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR, 119Sn NMR, ESI-MS, TGA/DSC, microanalysis and room temperature molar conductivity data. On the basis of FT-IR spectral studies, a symmetrical bidentate coordination has been proposed for all the complexes while the absence of any higher peak in the ESI-MS may be corroborated with the formation of binuclear complexes. On the basis of 119Sn NMR spectroscopy, six-coordinate geometry has been observed for the Sn-center in all the complexes. The TGA/DSC profile of the complexes implies their higher stability than its precursor. However, on the basis of IDT values the stability order of the organotin complexes was found to be 4 > 3 > 2. The room temperature conductivity values of the 1 mM solution of the ligand and its complexes are found to be comparable with that of non-ionic complexes.

  18. Discovery of 1-aryloxyethyl piperazine derivatives as Kv1.5 potassium channel inhibitors (part I).

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoke; Ma, Xianglei; Yang, Qian; Xu, Jing; Huang, Lu; Jia, Jianmin; Shan, Jiaojiao; Liu, Li; Chen, Weilin; Chu, Hongxi; Wei, Jinlian; Zhang, Xiaojin; Sun, Haopeng; Tang, Yiqun; You, Qidong

    2014-06-23

    Kv1.5 potassium channel is an efficacious and safe therapeutic target for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia that threatens human. Herein, by modifying the hit compound 7k from an in-house database, 48 derivatives were synthesized for the assay of their Kv1.5 inhibitory effects by whole cell patch clamp technique. Six compounds which showed better potency than the positive compound dronedarone were selected for the next evaluation of their drug-like properties. Compound 8 exhibited balanced solubility and permeability. It also showed acceptable pharmacodynamics profile with very low acute toxicity. Taking all these data into account, compound 8 can serve as a promising lead for the development of novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of AF. PMID:24824064

  19. 21 CFR 520.1242c - Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (Oxyuris equii). (2) Limitations. Aqueous solution: administer by stomach tube or drench 1 fluid ounce per 100 pounds of body weight. Reconstituted soluble powder: administer by stomach tube 1 fluid ounce...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1242c - Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (Oxyuris equii). (2) Limitations. Aqueous solution: administer by stomach tube or drench 1 fluid ounce per 100 pounds of body weight. Reconstituted soluble powder: administer by stomach tube 1 fluid ounce...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1242c - Levamisole hydrochloride and piperazine dihydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (Oxyuris equii). (2) Limitations. Aqueous solution: administer by stomach tube or drench 1 fluid ounce per 100 pounds of body weight. Reconstituted soluble powder: administer by stomach tube 1 fluid ounce...

  2. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best K{sup +}/PZ solvent, 4.5 m K{sup +}/4.5 m PZ, requires equivalent work of 31.8 kJ/mole CO{sub 2} when used with a double matrix stripper and an intercooled absorber. The oxidative degradation of piperazine or organic acids is reduced significantly by inhibitor A, but the production of ethylenediamine is unaffected. The oxidative degradation of piperazine in 7 m MEA/2 m PZ is catalyzed by Cu{sup ++}. The thermal degradation of MEA becomes significant at 120 C. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA/PZ solvents is increased at greater CO{sub 2} loading. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion rate in 5 M MEA/1.2M PZ is 22 mpy. With 1 wt% heat stable salt, the corrosion rate increases by 50% to 160% in the order: thiosulfate< oxalate

  3. Novel heteroleptic lanthanide organic frameworks containing pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid and in situ generated piperazine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid from piperazine: Hydrothermal synthesis and luminescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ay, Burak; Yildiz, Emel; Kani, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Two novel 3D lanthanide metal-organic frameworks [Ln(pydc)(pip)1/2(H2O] (Ln=Ce (1) and Pr (2), H2pydc=2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, H2pip=2,5-piperazinedicarboxylic acid have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffractions (PXRD), and single-crystal X-ray diffractions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used for morphological analysis. Complexes are isostructural and feature interesting 3D frameworks. Both compounds crystallize in the monoclinic system, space group P21/c. Structural analyses of 1 and 2 show that Ln3+ ions connect with each other through H2pydc and H2pip. To the best of our knowledge, they are the first heteroleptic lanthanide polymers obtained through in situ 2,5-piperazinedicarboxylic acid syntheses. Moreover, thermal and luminescent properties of the compounds have been investigated.

  4. N-(2-alkylaminoethyl)-4-(1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)piperazine-1-carboxamides as highly potent smoothened antagonists.

    PubMed

    Muraglia, Ester; Ontoria, Jesus M; Branca, Danila; Dessole, Gabriella; Bresciani, Alberto; Fonsi, Massimiliano; Giuliano, Claudio; Llauger Bufi, Laura; Monteagudo, Edith; Palumbi, Maria Cecilia; Torrisi, Caterina; Rowley, Michael; Steinkhler, Christian; Jones, Philip

    2011-09-15

    Smoothened (Smo) antagonists are emerging as new therapies for the treatment of neoplasias with aberrantly reactivated hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. A novel series of 4-[3-(quinolin-2-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]piperazinyl ureas as smoothened antagonists was recently described, herein the series has been further optimized through the incorporation of a basic amine into the urea. This development resulted in identification of some exceptionally potent smoothened antagonists with low serum shifts, however, reductive ring opening on the 1,2,4-oxadiazole in rats limits the applicability of these compounds in in vivo studies. PMID:21802943

  5. Head-to-tail assemblies of dipolar, piperazine-linked chromophores: Synthesis, x-ray structure, and dielectric characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, H.E.; Schilling, M.L. )

    1989-09-13

    A dimer and a mixture of oligomers of acceptor-substituted anilines were prepared, either by Knoevenagel condensation of substituted cyanoacetylpiperazines with p-aminobenzaldehydes or by carbonyldiimidazole-promoted coupling of phenylpiperazines with p-aminocyanocinnamic acids. The resulting oligomeric amidopiperazines possess significantly additive molecular moments when in extended conformations and therefore are potentially valuable for the fabrication of polymer films containing electric field oriented chromophores, such as required for second-order nonlinear optics. The dimer is conformationally defined, and x-ray structural analysis of a model compound confirmed the stereochemistry and bond angles at the amide linkage. The enforced extended conformation of the dimer resulted in an enhanced dipole moment relative to the constituent monomers and raises the possibility of further enhancements in extended higher oligomers.

  6. 2-(4-Methyl-2-phenylpiperazin-4-ium-1-yl)pyridine-3-carboxylate dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ai-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Sun, Wen-Qian; Zhou, Xue-Qin; Liu, Dong-Zhi

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C17H19N3O22H2O, is particularly useful in the preparation of mirtazapine, which is the active agent in a new class of antidepressants. It crystallized as a zwitterion with two molecules of water in the asymmetric unit. The crystal structure is dominated by a system of hydrogen bonds involving the positively charged N atom and both water molecules. PMID:21202871

  7. Design and synthesis of newer potential 4-(N-acetylamino)phenol derived piperazine derivatives as potential cognition enhancers.

    PubMed

    Piplani, Poonam; Danta, Chhanda Charan

    2015-06-01

    A series of novel hybrids has been designed, synthesized and evaluated for cognition enhancing activities through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and by passive avoidance mouse model. All the compounds showed excellent AChE inhibition activities and potentially reversed the scopolamine induced memory deficit. Enzyme kinetic and molecular docking studies have confirmed their dual binding affinity and mixed type inhibition. Among them, compounds 1b and 2d displayed excellent IC50 values of 1.66?M and 0.49?M and competitive inhibitor constant Ki 43.66?M and 4.10?M respectively. Ex vivo study confirmed their CNS penetration and brain AChE inhibition abilities. Furthermore, 1b and 2d showed significant antiamnesic activity at a dose of 1.0mg/kg as compared to the reference compounds piracetam and rivastigmine. The results indicate that these two compounds emerged to be developed as cognition enhancers worthy of future pursuit. PMID:25965977

  8. Single-molecule magnetism in a family of {Co(III)2Dy(III)2} butterfly complexes: effects of ligand replacement on the dynamics of magnetic relaxation.

    PubMed

    Langley, Stuart K; Ungur, Liviu; Chilton, Nicholas F; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Murray, Keith S

    2014-05-01

    The synthesis and structural characterization of four related heterometallic complexes of formulas [Dy(III)2Co(III)2(OMe)2(teaH)2(O2CPh)4(MeOH)4](NO3)2·MeOH·H2O (1a) and [Dy(III)2Co(III)2(OMe)2(teaH)2(O2CPh)4(MeOH)2(NO3)2]·MeOH·H2O (1b), [Dy(III)2Co(III)2(OMe)2(dea)2(O2CPh)4(MeOH)4](NO3)2 (2), [Dy(III)2Co(III)2(OMe)2(mdea)2(O2CPh)4(NO3)2] (3), and [Dy(III)2Co(III)2(OMe)2(bdea)2(O2CPh)4(MeOH)4](NO3)2·0.5MeOH·H2O (4a) and [Dy(III)2Co(III)2(OMe)2(bdea)2(O2CPh)4(MeOH)2(NO3)2]·MeOH·1.5H2O (4b) are reported (teaH3 = triethanolamine, deaH2 = diethanolamine, mdeaH2 = N-methyldiethanolamine, and bdeaH2 = N-n-butyldiethanolamine). Compounds 1 (≡ 1a and 1b) and 4 (≡ 4a and 4b) both display two unique molecules within the same crystal and all compounds display a butterfly type core, with the Dy(III) ions occupying the central body positions and the diamagnetic Co(III) ions the outer wing-tip sites. Compounds 1-4 were investigated via direct current and alternating current magnetic susceptibility measurements, and it was found that each complex displayed single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior. All four compounds display unique coordination and geometric environments around the Dy(III) ions and it was found that each displays a different anisotropy barrier. Ab initio calculations were performed on 1-4 and these determined the low lying electronic structure of each Dy(III) ion and the magnetic interactions for each cluster. It was found that there was a strong correlation between the calculated energy gap between the ground and first excited states of the single-ion ligand-field split Dy(III) levels and the experimentally observed anisotropy barrier. Furthermore, the transverse g factors found for the Dy(III) ions, defining the tunnelling rates within the ground Kramers doublets, are largest for 1, which agrees with the experimental observation of the shortest relaxation time in the high-temperature domain for this complex. The magnetic exchange between the Dy(III) ions revealed overall antiferromagnetic interactions for each compound, derived from the dominant dipolar exchange resulting in nonmagnetic ground states for 1-4. The diamagnetic ground states coupled with small tunneling gaps resulted in quantum tunneling time scales at zero field of between 0.1 and >1.5 s. PMID:24749511

  9. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marus Hiilliard; Qing Xu; David Van Wagener; Jorge M. Plaza

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The best solvent and process configuration, matrix with MDEA/PZ, offers 22% and 15% energy savings over the baseline and improved baseline, respectively, with stripping and compression to 10 MPa. The energy requirement for stripping and compression to 10 MPa is about 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO{sub 2} removal. The stripper rate model shows that a ''short and fat'' stripper requires 7 to 15% less equivalent work than a ''tall and skinny'' one. The stripper model was validated with data obtained from pilot plant experiments at the University of Texas with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ under normal pressure and vacuum conditions using Flexipac AQ Style 20 structured packing. Experiments with oxidative degradation at low gas rates confirm the effects of Cu{sup +2} catalysis; in MEA/PZ solutions more formate and acetate is produced in the presence of Cu{sup +2}. At 150 C, the half life of 30% MEA with 0.4 moles CO{sub 2}/mole amine is about 2 weeks. At 100 C, less than 3% degradation occurred in two weeks. The solubility of potassium sulfate in MEA solution increases significantly with CO{sub 2} loading and decreases with MEA concentration. The base case corrosion rate in 5 M MEA/1,2M PZ is 22 mpy. With 1 wt% heat stable salt, the corrosion rate increases by 50% to 160% in the order: thiosulfate< oxalate

  10. Rapid and simple LC-MS/MS screening of 64 novel psychoactive substances using dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Ambach, Lars; Hernández Redondo, Ana; König, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2014-04-01

    The range of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) including phenethylamines, cathinones, piperazines, tryptamines, etc. is continuously growing. Therefore, fast and reliable screening methods for these compounds are essential and needed. The use of dried blood spots (DBS) for a fast straightforward approach helps to simplify and shorten sample preparation significantly. DBS were produced from 10 µl of whole blood and extracted offline with 500 µl methanol followed by evaporation and reconstitution in mobile phase. Reversed-phase chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric detection (RP-LC-MS/MS) was achieved within a run time of 10 min. The screening method was validated by evaluating the following parameters: limit of detection (LOD), matrix effect, selectivity and specificity, extraction efficiency, and short-term and long-term stability. Furthermore, the method was applied to authentic samples and results were compared with those obtained with a validated whole blood method used for routine analysis of NPS. LOD was between 1 and 10 ng/ml. No interference from matrix compounds was observed. The method was proven to be specific and selective for the analytes, although with limitations for 3-FMC/flephedrone and MDDMA/MDEA. Mean extraction efficiency was 84.6 %. All substances were stable in DBS for at least a week when cooled. Cooling was essential for the stability of cathinones. Prepared samples were stable for at least 3 days. Comparison to the validated whole blood method yielded similar results. DBS were shown to be useful in developing a rapid screening method for NPS with simplified sample preparation. PMID:23868723

  11. 75 FR 41488 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... HHS Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs (73 FR 71858) dated November 25... known as ``ecstasy''; methyleneamphetamine (MDA), and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA). MDA and MDEA are both close chemical analogues of MDMA. The fourth change is to revise the Medical...

  12. Acute Oral Toxicity Evaluations of Some Zinc(II) Complexes Derived from 1-(2-Salicylaldiminoethyl)piperazine Schiff Bases in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Salga, Muhammad Saleh; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    The current study described the synthesis and the in vivo acute oral toxicity evaluations in Sprague Dawley rats. The compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, LC-MS, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-visible spectroscopy. In the acute toxicity study, a single administration of the compounds was performed orally to the rats at the single doses of 2000 mg/kg and they were then monitored for possible side effects, mortality or behavioral changes up to 14 days. The serum level of aspartate (AST), alanine aminotransferases (ALT), alkaline phosphate (ALP), triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL), immunoglobulins (GAM) and the C-reactive proteins did not significantly change. The hematological indices white blood cells (WBC), haematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were within the normal range. The renal function indices examined were also within the reference range. Generally, the compounds exhibited low toxic effects as required for further in vivo therapeutic studies. PMID:22408397

  13. Discovery of novel non-peptidic beta-alanine piperazine amide derivatives and their optimization to achiral, easily accessible, potent and selective somatostatin sst1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Troxler, Thomas; Hurth, Konstanze; Mattes, Henri; Prashad, Mahavir; Schoeffter, Philippe; Langenegger, Daniel; Enz, Albert; Hoyer, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Structural simplification of the core moieties of obeline and ergoline somatostatin sst(1) receptor antagonists, followed by systematic optimization, led to the identification of novel, highly potent and selective sst(1) receptor antagonists. These achiral, non-peptidic compounds are easily prepared and show promising PK properties in rodents. PMID:19208473

  14. Discovery of spirofused piperazine and diazepane amides as selective histamine-3 antagonists with in vivo efficacy in a mouse model of cognition.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dean G; Bernstein, Peter R; Griffin, Andrew; Wesolowski, Steve; Labrecque, Denis; Tremblay, Maxime C; Sylvester, Mark; Mauger, Russell; Edwards, Phillip D; Throner, Scott R; Folmer, James J; Cacciola, Joseph; Scott, Clay; Lazor, Lois A; Pourashraf, Mehrnaz; Santhakumar, Vijayaratnam; Potts, William M; Sydserff, Simon; Giguère, Pascall; Lévesque, Carine; Dasser, Mohammed; Groblewski, Thierry

    2014-02-13

    A new series of potent and selective histamine-3 receptor (H3R) antagonists was identified on the basis of an azaspiro[2.5]octane carboxamide scaffold. Many scaffold modifications were largely tolerated, resulting in nanomolar-potent compounds in the H3R functional assay. Exemplar compound 6s demonstrated a selective profile against a panel of 144 secondary pharmacological receptors, with activity at only σ2 (62% at 10 μM). Compound 6s demonstrated free-plasma exposures above the IC50 (∼50×) with a brain-to-plasma ratio of ∼3 following intravenous dosing in mice. At three doses tested in the mouse novel object recognition model (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg s.c.), 6s demonstrated a statistically significant response compared with the control group. This series represents a new scaffold of H3 receptor antagonists that demonstrates in vivo exposure and efficacy in an animal model of cognition. PMID:24410637

  15. Aminoalkoxo-supported heteroleptic hexanuclear gallium(III) wheel as a synthon for group 13 heterometallics: a rare sol-gel precursor for mixed Al-Ga oxide as support for gold catalysts.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shashank; Jeanneau, Erwann; Daniele, Stéphane; Mendez, Violaine

    2010-08-28

    A new heteroleptic gallium(III) complex, Ga(6)Cl(6)(mdea)(6) (1 x 2 CHCl(3)) (mdeaH(2) = N-methyl diethanolamine) was prepared in good yield by a chloro-aminoalkoxo exchange reaction and used as a synthon for the synthesis of a novel group 13 heterometallic derivative, Ga(2)Al(4)(O)(2)(mdea)(2)(OPr(i))(10) (2 x 2 CHCl(3)), the latter acting as a facile single source precursor for the sol-gel preparation of the mixed Al-Ga oxide as a high surface area support for gold catalysts. PMID:20625595

  16. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of alkylalkanolamines.

    PubMed

    Leung, H W; Ballantyne, B

    1997-09-18

    Three alkylalkanolamines, N,N-dimethylethanolamine, N-methyldiethanolamine, and tert-butyldiethanolamine, were evaluated for potential genotoxic activity using the Salmonella/microsome reverse gene mutation test, the CHO/HGPRT forward gene mutation test, a sister chromatid exchange test in cultured CHO cells, and an in vivo peripheral blood micronucleus test in Swiss-Webster mice. None of the three alkylalkanolamines produced any significant or dose-related increases in the frequencies of mutations, sister chromatid exchanges or micronuclei. These results indicate that N,N-dimethylethanolamine, N-methyldiethanolamine, and tert-butyldiethanolamine are not genotoxic in the tests conducted. PMID:9357557

  17. Carbonic anhydrase promotes the absorption rate of CO2 in post-combustion processes.

    PubMed

    Vinoba, Mari; Bhagiyalakshmi, Margandan; Grace, Andrews Nirmala; Kim, Dae Hoon; Yoon, Yeoil; Nam, Sung Chan; Baek, Il Hyun; Jeong, Soon Kwan

    2013-05-01

    The rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption by monoethanol amine (MEA), diethanol amine (DEA), N-methyl-2,2'-iminodiethanol (MDEA), and 2-amino-2-methyl 1-propanol (AMP) solutions was found to be enhanced by the addition of bovine carbonic anhydrase (CA), has been investigated using a vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) device. The enthalpy (-ΔHabs) of CO2 absorption and the absorption capacities of aqueous amines were measured in the presence and/or absence of CA enzyme via differential reaction calorimeter (DRC). The reaction temperature (ΔT) under adiabatic conditions was determined based on the DRC analysis. Bicarbonate and carbamate species formation mechanisms were elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral analysis. The overall CO2 absorption rate (flux) and rate constant (kapp) followed the order MEA > DEA > AMP > MDEA in the absence or presence of CA. Hydration of CO2 by MDEA in the presence of CA directly produced bicarbonate, whereas AMP produced unstable carbamate intermediate, then underwent hydrolytic reaction and converted to bicarbonate. The MDEA > AMP > DEA > MEA reverse ordering of the enhanced CO2 flux and kapp in the presence of CA was due to bicarbonate formation by the tertiary and sterically hindered amines. Thus, CA increased the rate of CO2 absorption by MDEA by a factor of 3 relative to the rate of absorption by MDEA alone. The thermal effects suggested that CA yielded a higher activity at 40 °C. PMID:23621860

  18. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 714 - Schedule 3 Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Schedule 3 Chemicals No. Supplement No... ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS Pt. 714, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 714—Schedule 3 Chemicals...) Methyldiethanolamine (105-59-9) (17) Triethanolamine (102-71-6) Note to Supplement No. 1: Refer to Supplement No. 1...

  19. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 714 - Schedule 3 Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule 3 Chemicals No. Supplement No... ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS Pt. 714, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 714—Schedule 3 Chemicals...) Methyldiethanolamine (105-59-9) (17) Triethanolamine (102-71-6) Note to Supplement No. 1: Refer to Supplement No. 1...

  20. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 714 - Schedule 3 Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Schedule 3 Chemicals No. Supplement No... ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS Pt. 714, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 714—Schedule 3 Chemicals...) Methyldiethanolamine (105-59-9) (17) Triethanolamine (102-71-6) Note to Supplement No. 1: Refer to Supplement No. 1...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 714 - Schedule 3 Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Schedule 3 Chemicals No. Supplement No... ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS Pt. 714, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 714—Schedule 3 Chemicals...) Methyldiethanolamine (105-59-9) (17) Triethanolamine (102-71-6) Note to supplement no. 1: Refer to supplement no. 1...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 714 - Schedule 3 Chemicals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Schedule 3 Chemicals No. Supplement No... ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 3 CHEMICALS Pt. 714, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 714—Schedule 3 Chemicals...) Methyldiethanolamine (105-59-9) (17) Triethanolamine (102-71-6) Note to Supplement No. 1: Refer to Supplement No. 1...

  3. 7-{4-[(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)meth-yl]piperazin-1-yl}-1-cyclo-propyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro-quinoline-3-carb-oxy-lic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Shan, Guangzhi; Guo, Huiyuan; Liu, Mingliang

    2012-07-01

    In the title structure, C(25)H(24)FN(3)O(5), a strong intra-molecular O-H?O hydrogen bond is present between the carb-oxy group at the 3-position and the carbonyl group at the 4-position. In the crystal, mol-ecules are held together by weak C-H?O, C-H?F and ?-? [centroid-centroid distance 3.6080?(8)?] inter-actions. The 1,4-dihydro-quinoline ring and cyclo-propyl group are not in the same plane, making an inter-planar angle of 57.52?(8). PMID:22798912

  4. Chemoprevention of Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci by Novel Schiff Based Dichlorido(4-Methoxy-2-{[2-(Piperazin-4-Ium-1-Yl)Ethyl]Iminomethyl}Phenolate)Cd Complex in Azoxymethane-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Shams, Keivan; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Karimian, Hamed; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Emtyazjoo, Mozhgan; Zahedifard, Maryam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-01-01

    Schiff-based complexes as a source of cancer chemotherapeutic compounds have been subjected to the variety of anticancer studies. The in-vitro analysis confirmed the CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex possess cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction properties in colon cancer cells, so lead to investigate the inhibitory efficiency of the compound on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Five groups of adult male rats were used in this study: Vehicle, cancer control, positive control groups and the groups treated with 25 and 50 mg/kg of complex for 10 weeks. The rats in vehicle group were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg of sterile normal saline once a week for 2 weeks and orally administered with 5% Tween-20 (5 ml/kg) for 10 weeks, other groups were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg azoxymethane once a week for 2 weeks. The rats in positive groups were injected intra-peritoneally with 35 mg/kg 5-Flourouracil four times in a month. Administration of the complex suppressed total colonic ACF formation up to 73.4% (P < 0.05). The results also showed that treatment with the complex significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde while increasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Furthermore, the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl2 and the up-regulation of Bax was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. PMID:26201720

  5. Buffer Standards for the Biological pH of the Amino Acid N-[2 hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N’-[3-propanesulfonic acid], HEPPS, From (278.15 to 328.15) K

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Lakshmi N.; Roy, Rabindra N.; Wollen, Joshua T.; Harmon, Meagan A.; Stegner, Jessica M.; Shah, Ankita A.; Henson, Isaac B.

    2011-01-01

    For the HEPPS buffer under investigation, there are seven buffer solutions without NaCl and eight buffer solutions that contain Cl− and have an ionic strength (I = 0.16 mol·kg−1), which is similar to that of blood plasma. These buffer solutions have been evaluated in the temperature range of (278.15 to 328.15) K using the extended Debye- Hückel equation and the Bates-Guggenheim convention. The previously determined Ej values have been used to determine the operational pH values of HEPPS buffer solutions at (298.15 and 310.15) K. These are recommended as secondary standard reference solutions for pH measurements in saline media with an isotonic ionic strength of I = 0.16 mol·kg−1. PMID:22096257

  6. Evidence for the sequential formation of two complexes between an uptake inhibitor, GBR 12783 [1-[2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl]-4-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)piperazine], and the neuronal transporter of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Do-Rgo, J C; Hue, H; Costentin, J; Bonnet, J J

    1999-01-01

    Incubation of a crude synaptosomal fraction from rat striatum with GBR 12783 at 37 degrees C produced an inhibition of the specific uptake of [3H]dopamine that increased with time. The inhibition increased when GBR 12783 was present during preincubation and incubation (IC50 = 1.85+/-0.1 nM) instead of incubation alone (IC50 = 25+/-3.5 nM). Time-course studies of uptake inhibition demonstrated that a first collision transporter-inhibitor complex (TI) was formed immediately after addition of GBR 12783 so that the initial uptake velocity (V0) decreased for increasing concentrations of inhibitor (Ki > or = 20 nM). TI slowly isomerized to a more stable complex TI* (Ki* < or = 5 nM) with a value of t1/2 = 20-270 s. Fits of data to model 2 in which the steady-state uptake (VS) is set to zero were generally preferred, suggesting that formation of TI* could tend to irreversibility, as a consequence of a very low reverse isomerization. As expected, k, V0, and VS tended to steady-state values in an asymptotic manner for high concentrations of GBR 12783. GBR 12783 at 2.5 nM produced a mixed inhibition of the uptake, with an increase in KM and a decrease in Vmax; these effects were improved for 10 nM GBR 12783 and at 20 degrees C. These results are discussed in relation to previous data concerning [3H]GBR 12783 binding. The present work gives the first experimental demonstration that dopamine uptake blockers can act according to a two-step mechanism of inhibition; this is of great interest, because these inhibitors can oppose the effects of cocaine or amphetamine on the transporter according to a reaction that is partly nondependent on the concentration of the abused agent. PMID:9886093

  7. Variable dimensionality in the uranium fluoride/2-methyl-piperazine system: Synthesis and structures of UFO-5, -6, and -7; Zero-, one-, and two-dimensional materials with unprecedented topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, R.J.; Halasyamani, P.S.; Bee, J.S.; O'Hare, D.

    1999-02-24

    Recently, low temperature (T < 300 C) hydrothermal reactions of inorganic precursors in the presence of organic cations have proven highly productive for the synthesis of novel solid-state materials. Interest in these materials is driven by the astonishingly diverse range of structures produced, as well as by their many potential materials chemistry applications. This report describes the high yield, phase pure hydrothermal syntheses of three new uranium fluoride phases with unprecedented structure types. Through the systematic control of the synthesis conditions the authors have successfully controlled the architecture and dimensionality of the phase formed and selectively synthesized novel zero-, one-, and two-dimensional materials.

  8. N-(4-(4-(2,3-dichloro- or 2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)heterobiarylcarboxamides with functionalized linking chains as high affinity and enantioselective D3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Newman, Amy Hauck; Grundt, Peter; Cyriac, George; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Taylor, Michelle; Kumar, Rakesh; Ho, David; Luedtke, Robert R

    2009-04-23

    In the present report, the D3 receptor pharmacophore is modified in the 2,3-diCl- and 2-OCH(3)-phenylpiperazine class of compounds with the goal to improve D3 receptor affinity and selectivity. This extension of structure-activity relationships (SAR) has resulted in the identification of the first enantioselective D3 antagonists (R- and S-22) to be reported, wherein enantioselectivity is more pronounced at D3 than at D2, and that a binding region on the second extracellular loop (E2) may play a role in both enantioselectivity and D3 receptor selectivity. Moreover, we have discovered some of the most D3-selective compounds reported to date that show high affinity (K(i) = 1 nM) for D3 and approximately 400-fold selectivity over the D2 receptor subtype. Several of these analogues showed exquisite selectivity for D3 receptors over >60 other receptors, further underscoring their value as in vivo research tools. These lead compounds also have appropriate physical characteristics for in vivo exploration and therefore will be useful in determining how intrinsic activity at D3 receptors tested in vitro is related to behaviors in animal models of addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19331412

  9. Determination of nitrogen mustard hydrolysis products in rat urine samples using GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Kenar, Levent; Alp, Orkun

    2011-05-01

    A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method was developed, validated and demonstrated by measuring the levels of nitrogen mustard hydrolysis products in the urine collected from dosed rats. The recovery values for trimethylsilyl derivatives of EDEA and MDEA are between 82-95% and 88-112%, respectively. In vivo studies performed by using three different doses (0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg, and 2.0 mg/kg) of HN2 base of nitrogen mustard. MDEA concentrations were between 43.1-232.2 ng/mL. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) values are 2.5 ng/mL and 1.6 ng/mL for EDEA and MDEA, respectively, and the precision of the method in terms of RSD is between 5-8%. PMID:21549026

  10. Comparison of five derivatizing agents for the determination of amphetamine-type stimulants in human urine by extractive acylation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dobos, Adrienn; Hidvégi, Elod; Somogyi, Gábor Pál

    2012-06-01

    Five acylation reagents have been compared for use as derivatizing agents for the analysis of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The evaluated reagents were heptafluorobutyric anhydride, pentafluoropropionic anhydride, trifluoroacetic anhydride, acetic anhydride (AA) and N-methyl-bis(trifluoroacetamide). The ATS included amphetamine, methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA). A mixture of the ATS was added to urine (1 mL) followed by KOH solution and saturated NaHCO(3) solution. The sample was then extracted with dichloromethane and the derivatizing agent and 2 µL were injected into the GC-MS instrument. The derivatizing agents were compared with reference to the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios, peak area values, relative standard deviations (RSDs), linearities, limits of detection (LODs) and selectivities. The acetic anhydride proved to be the best according to the S/N ratio and peak area results for amphetamine, MA, MDMA and MDEA. The best RSD values of peak areas and of S/N ratios at 3 µg/mL were also given by AA in cases of MDA, MDMA and MDEA. At 20 µg/mL, the lowest RSD values of peak areas for MDA and the lowest RSD values of S/N ratios for MA, MDA, MDMA and MDEA were again given by AA. Additionally, the highest correlation coefficients for MA, MDA, MDMA and MDEA and the lowest LOD results for MA, MDMA and MDEA were produced by AA. PMID:22582269

  11. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to predict drug-drug interactions involving inhibitory metabolite: a case study of amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Mao, Jialin; Hop, Cornelis E C A

    2015-02-01

    Evaluation of drug-drug interaction (DDI) involving circulating inhibitory metabolites of perpetrator drugs has recently drawn more attention from regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical companies. Here, using amiodarone (AMIO) as an example, we demonstrate the use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to assess how a potential inhibitory metabolite can contribute to clinically significant DDIs. Amiodarone was reported to increase the exposure of simvastatin, dextromethorphan, and warfarin by 1.2- to 2-fold, which was not expected based on its weak inhibition observed in vitro. The major circulating metabolite, mono-desethyl-amiodarone (MDEA), was later identified to have a more potent inhibitory effect. Using a combined "bottom-up" and "top-down" approach, a PBPK model was built to successfully simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of AMIO and MDEA, particularly their accumulation in plasma and liver after a long-term treatment. The clinical AMIO DDIs were predicted using the verified PBPK model with incorporation of cytochrome P450 inhibition from both AMIO and MDEA. The closest prediction was obtained for CYP3A (simvastatin) DDI when the competitive inhibition from both AMIO and MDEA was considered, for CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan) DDI when the competitive inhibition from AMIO and the competitive plus time-dependent inhibition from MDEA were incorporated, and for CYP2C9 (warfarin) DDI when the competitive plus time-dependent inhibition from AMIO and the competitive inhibition from MDEA were considered. The PBPK model with the ability to simulate DDI by considering dynamic change and accumulation of inhibitor (parent and metabolite) concentration in plasma and liver provides advantages in understanding the possible mechanism of clinical DDIs involving inhibitory metabolites. PMID:25324279

  12. Cationic Mn4 single-molecule magnet with a sterically isolated core.

    PubMed

    Heroux, Katie J; Quddusi, Hajrah M; Liu, Junjie; O'Brien, James R; Nakano, Motohiro; del Barco, Enrique; Hill, Stephen; Hendrickson, David N

    2011-08-15

    The synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of a ligand-modified Mn(4) dicubane single-molecule magnet (SMM), [Mn(4)(Bet)(4)(mdea)(2)(mdeaH)(2)](BPh(4))(4), are presented, where the cationic SMM units are significantly separated from neighboring molecules in the crystal lattice. There are no cocrystallized solvate molecules, making it an ideal candidate for single-crystal magnetization hysteresis and high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance studies. Increased control over intermolecular interactions in such materials is a crucial factor in the future application of SMMs. PMID:21751785

  13. 2-[(4-Benzhydrylpiprazin-1-yl)mthyl]acrylonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Ben Amor, Fatma; Ould Mhamed, Mohamed; Mrabet, Hdi; Driss, Ahmed; Efrit, Mohamed Lotfi

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, 2-[(4-benzhydrylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]acrylonitrile, C21H23N3, the substituted piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation and the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the aromatic rings is 71.61?(8). PMID:21201087

  14. The skin sensitization potential of four alkylalkanolamines.

    PubMed

    Leung, H W; Blaszcak, D L

    1998-04-01

    The skin sensitization potential of 4 alkylalkanolamines (N-methylethanolamine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine, N-methyldiethanolamine and N,N-diethylethanolamine), was evaluated in a guinea pig maximation procedure by the method of Magnusson and Kligman. While all 4 alkylalkanolamines tested were irritating to the guinea pig skin, only N-methylethanolamine showed potential to induce allergic contact dermatitis. None of the remaining 3 alkylalkanolamines exhibited clear skin responses suggestive of sensitization. PMID:9554055

  15. An in situ study of amine and amide molecular interaction on Fe surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, P.; Terryn, H.; Mol, J. M. C.

    2015-11-01

    The interfacial bondings formed between N,N‧-diethylmethylamine, N-methyldiethanolamine and N,N‧-dimethylsuccinamide molecules with iron surfaces have been investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electrochemical spectroscopies. In this case, the interfacial interactions have been evaluated by analyzing ex situ FTIR peaks and probing potential variations upon molecular interactions to Fe surfaces. Moreover, integrated ATR-FTIR and chronovoltammetry analyses in Kretschmann geometry have been employed to probe the interactions between the molecules and Fe surfaces in situ. The results revealed that a charge transfer between molecules and Fe surfaces takes place indicating chemisorption of the molecules on Fe surfaces. In this case, the interaction of N,N‧-diethylmethylamine and Fe surface is negligible. However, N-methyldiethanolamine molecules interact with Fe surfaces through the nitrogen atoms. Interaction of N,N‧-dimethylsuccinamide molecules and Fe surface is promoted by nitrogen and carbonyl functional groups. Moreover, interactions of N-methyldiethanolamine and N,N‧-dimethylsuccinamide molecules to Fe surfaces are encouraged by application of anodic potentials implying that the molecules and Fe surfaces are charged positively and negatively, respectively.

  16. 75 FR 56137 - Controlled Substances: Proposed Aggregate Production Quotas for 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...-propionoxypiperidine 2 2,5-Dimethoxyamphetamine 2 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine (DOET) 2 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-n...-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) 10 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) 20 3,4,5...-methylenedioxyamphetamine 2 5-Methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine 2 Acetyl-alpha-methylfentanyl 2 Acetyldihydrocodeine...

  17. 76 FR 65537 - Controlled Substances: Proposed Aggregate Production Quotas for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-n-propylthiophenethylamine 2 ] 3-Methylfentanyl 2 3-Methylthiofentanyl 2 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) 22 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)......... 15 3,4...-Methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine 2 5-Methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine 2...

  18. 49 CFR 40.87 - What are the cutoff concentrations for drug tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Methamphetamine5 250 ng/mL. MDMA 6 500 ng/mL MDMA 250 ng/mL. MDA7 250 ng/mL. MDEA8 250 ng/mL 1 Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCA). 2 Morphine is the target analyte for codeine/morphine testing. 3...

  19. Cinnarizinium picrate

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yanxi; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Nethravathi, G. B.; Naveen, S.; Li, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    In the title salt {systematic name: 4-diphenylmethyl-1-[(E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl]piperazin-1-ium 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate), C26H29N2 +C6H2N3O7 ?, the cinnarizinium cation is protonated at the piperazine N atom connected to the styrenylmethyl group; the piperazine ring adopts a distorted chair conformaiton. In the crystal, bifurcated NH?(O,O) hydrogen bonds link the components into two-ion aggregates. PMID:22719532

  20. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, Gary; Hilliard, Marcus

    2011-05-10

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  1. Comparative study on the regeneration of flue-gas desulfurizing agents by using conventional electrodialysis (ED) and bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BMED).

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuanhui; Xu, Tongwen

    2006-09-01

    Piperazine is an ideal desulfurizing agent but the heat-stable salts formed in desulfurization have caused secondary pollution and waste of resources. In the previous paper, a method was reported to regenerate piperazine by using BMED. To find the variety of that regeneration process, we performed experiments on the regeneration of piperazine by using ED. In comparison, ED has higher piperazine yield and current efficiency, and much lower voltage drop and energy consumption. However, its process cost is higher than that of BMED due to an extra expenditure for the base and its tank and pumps. The process cost is estimated to be 0.96 dollar/kg Pz for BMED and 1.14 dollar/kg Pz for ED. Notably, BMED has more environmental benefits and will be more economically attractive as the control on secondary pollution is strengthened and the bipolar membrane cost decreases. PMID:16999135

  2. Investigation of Optical Spectroscopic and Computational Binding Mode of Bovine Serum Albumin with 1, 4-Bis ((4-((4-Heptylpiperazin-1-yl) Methyl)-1H-1, 2, 3-Triazol-1-yl) Methyl) Benzene.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Subramani; Chinnathambi, Shanmugavel; Kannan, Ayyavoo; Rajakumar, Perumal; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Bharanidharan, Ganesan; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2015-08-01

    A newly synthesized 1, 4-bis ((4-((4-heptylpiperazin-1-yl) methyl)-1H-1, 2, 3-triazol-1-yl) methyl) benzene from the family of piperazine derivative has good anticancer activity, antibacterial and low toxic nature; its binding characteristics are therefore of huge interest for understanding pharmacokinetic mechanism of the drug. The binding of piperazine derivative to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy. The molecular distance r between the donor (BSA) and acceptor (piperazine derivative) was estimated according to Forster's theory of nonradiative energy transfer. The physicochemical properties of piperazine derivative, which induced structural changes in BSA, have been studied by circular dichroism and those chemical environmental changes were probed using Raman spectroscopic analysis. Further, the binding dynamics was expounded by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling studies explored the hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding results, which stabilize the interaction. PMID:25906763

  3. Spectral investigations, DFT computations and molecular docking studies of 1,7,8,9-tetrachloro-10,10-dimethoxy-4-{3-[4-(2-methylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]propyl}-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.02,6]dec-8-ene-3,5-dione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resmi, K. S.; Mary, Y. Sheena; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Pakosińska-Parys, Magdalena; Alsenoy, C. Van

    2015-10-01

    The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of the title compound have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analysed using NBO analysis. The hyperpolarisability calculation reveals the present material has a reasonably good propensity for nonlinear optical activity. Due to the different potential biological activity of the title compound, molecular docking study is also reported and the compound might exhibit inhibitory activity against human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

  4. Structural analysis of (S)-1-((1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)oxy)-3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)propan-2-ol and binding mechanism with α1A-adrenoceptor: TDDFT calculations, X-ray crystallography and molecular docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Shao, Binhao; Xu, Xingjie; Jiang, Renwang; Yuan, Mu

    2016-02-01

    The title compound, (S)-1-((1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)oxy)-3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazi-n-1-yl)propan-2-ol (1), belongs to a class of arylpiperazine derivatives that exhibit good bioactivity against α1A-adrenoceptor. The current study describes conformational analysis of five energy-minimized conformers obtained at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The characteristically positive rotatory strengths at an excitation energy of 256 nm were achieved using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Molecular orbital studies clearly elucidated the origins of electronic transitions at 256 nm. The absolute configuration of (S)-1 was unambiguously determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Molecular docking solved the binding mode of 1-α1A-adrenoceptor complex. This work can serve as a basis for better drug design of highly selective antagonists with chirality.

  5. 3-(Adamantan-1-yl)-4-[(E)-(2,6-difluorobenzylidene)amino]-1-[(4-ethylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl]-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tamimi, Abdul-Malek S.; Al-Abdullah, Ebtehal S.; El-Emam, Ali A.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C26H34F2N6S, the triazole ring is linked to a benzene ring via an imine bond [N=C = 1.255?(2)?; conformation: E], with a dihedral angle of 25.21?(11) between the rings. The 4-ethylpiperazinyl residue is folded away from the thione-S atom. In the crystal, helical supramolecular chains propagating along [010] and sustained by weak CS??(triazole) interactions occur [S?centroid distance = 3.2872?(10)?]. Links between these chains are of the type benzene-CH?N(imine) and ?? [between centrosymmetrically related benzene rings with an inter-centroid distance of 3.9241?(15)?] and result in a three-dimensional architecture. PMID:23723845

  6. Discovery of 4-(4-(2-((5-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)(propyl)amino)-ethyl)piperazin-1-yl)quinolin-8-ol and its analogues as highly potent dopamine D2/D3 agonists and as iron chelator: In vivo activity indicates potential application in symptomatic and neuroprotective therapy for Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Balaram; Antonio, Tamara; Reith, Maarten E. A.; Dutta, Aloke K.

    2010-01-01

    The role of iron in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been implicated strongly due to generation of oxidative stress leading to dopamine cell death. In our overall goal to develop bifunctional/multifunctional drugs, we designed dopamine D2/D3 agonist molecules with a capacity to bind to iron. Binding assays were carried out with HEK-293 cells expressing either D2 or D3 receptors with tritiated spiperone to evaluate inhibition constants (Ki). Functional activity of selected compounds was carried out with GTPγS binding assay. SAR results identified compounds (+)-19a and (−)-19b as two potent agonists for both D2 and D3 receptors (EC50 (GTPγS); D2 = 4.51 and 1.69 nM and D3 = 1.58 and 0.74 nM for (−)-19b and (+)-19a, respectively). In vitro complexation studies with 19b demonstrated efficient chelation with iron. Furthermore, the deoxyribose assay with 19b demonstrated potent antioxidant activity. In PD animal model study, (−)-19b exhibited potent in vivo activity in reversing locomotor activity in reserpinized rats and also in producing potent rotational activity in 6-OHDA lesioned rats. This reports initial development of unique lead molecules which might find potential use in symptomatic and neuroprotective treatment of PD. PMID:20146482

  7. Structural Modifications of Neuroprotective Anti-Parkinsonian (−)-N6-(2-(4-(Biphenyl-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)-ethyl)-N6-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]thiazole-2,6-diamine (D-264): An Effort toward the Improvement of in Vivo Efficacy of the Parent Molecule

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In our overall goal to develop multifunctional dopamine D2/D3 agonist drugs for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD), we previously synthesized potent D3 preferring agonist D-264 (1a), which exhibited neuroprotective properties in two animal models of PD. To enhance the in vivo efficacy of 1a, a structure–activity relationship study was carried out. Competitive binding and [35S]GTPγS functional assays identified compound (−)-9b as one of the lead molecules with preferential D3 agonist activity (EC50(GTPγS); D3 = 0.10 nM; D2/D3 (EC50): 159). Compounds (−)-9b and (−)-8b exhibited high in vivo activity in two PD animal models, reserpinized and 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced unilateral lesioned rats. On the other hand, 1a failed to show any in vivo activity in these models unless the compound was dissolved in 5–10% beta-hydroxy propyl cyclodextrin solution. Lead compounds exhibited appreciable radical scavenging activity. In vitro experiments with dopaminergic MN9D cells indicated neuroprotection by both 1a and (−)-9b from toxicity of MPP+. PMID:24471976

  8. Probing the "additive effect" in the proline and proline hydroxamic acid catalyzed asymmetric addition of nitroalkanes to cyclic enones.

    PubMed

    Hanessian, Stephen; Govindan, Subramaniyan; Warrier, Jayakumar S

    2005-11-01

    The effect of chirality and steric bulk of 2,5-disubstituted piperazines as additives in the conjugate addition of 2-nitropropane to cyclohexenone, catalyzed by l-proline, was investigated. Neither chirality nor steric bulk affects the enantioselectivity of addition, which gives 86-93% ee in the presence of achiral and chiral nonracemic 2,5-disubstituted piperazines. Proline hydroxamic acid is shown for the first time to be an effective organocatalyst in the same Michael reaction. PMID:16189834

  9. Effect of selected anthelmintics on three common helminths in the brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis).

    PubMed

    Grimes, J; Suto, B; Greve, J H; Albers, H F

    1989-01-01

    The effect of selected anthelmintics (albendazole, fenbendazole, piperazine dihydrochloride and clorsulon) against three major helminths (Contracaecum multipapillatum, Mesostephanus appendiculatoides, and Phagicola longus) were studied in 29 brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis). Albendazole and fenbendazole were highly effective against all three parasites. Clorsulon had moderate effect against M. appendiculatoides and poor effect against C. multipapillatum and P. longus. Piperazine dihydrochloride had no effect against these helminths. PMID:2915399

  10. A study to investigate the performance of the Benfield-HiPure process of natural gas sweetening using computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochieng, Richard

    The removal of CO2 and H2S from natural gas is currently a global issue. Apart from meeting the customer's contract, pipeline, and LNG specifications; it is also a measure for reducing the global environmental emissions. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of ADGAS' Train#3 plant through process simulations. ADGAS' Train#3 plant uses the Benfield HiPure design commissioned by Universal Oil Product (UOP Honeywell) in 1993. The Benfield HiPure process uses two independent but compatible circulating solutions in series to achieve high product purity in terms of acid gas concentrations that meet the LNG industry specifications. The ability to remove contaminants up to very low levels (1ppm H2S, 50ppm CO2 and 2ppm COS) makes the HiPure process an excellent choice for purifying natural gas for LNG requirement. At Das Island, ADGAS' Train#3 facility receives sour gas containing about 6-7 mole % acid gas content. This gas is first contacted with hot potassium carbonate (30wt% K2CO3) promoted with diethanolamine solution (3wt% DEA) followed by a contact with aqueous amine solution (20wt% DEA) alone as the second solvent. In this thesis, ADGAS Train#3 model was developed using the simulator tool ProMax®. Simulation outputs were found to match reasonably well the design and plant operating data. Based on the model predictions, the carbonate absorber seemed to be over designed with much of the acid gases being absorbed at the bottom of the packing. With the confidence that the model is a reliable replicate of the real plant facility, a parametric sensitivity analysis was carried out to develop a strategy of controlling operational uncertainties and enable plant optimization. The parametric sensitivity analysis showed that the liquid circulation rates, solvent concentrations, trim cooler temperatures, feed gas flow rate, and feed gas H2S/CO2 ratio have a considerable effect on the performance of the plant with respect to acid gas removal, gas production capacity and plant energy efficiency. Due to the complexity and high investment cost of the Benfield HiPure process, potential alternatives are evaluated. The alternatives are basically MDEA based solvents with promoters to enable the simultaneous removal of H 2S and CO2. BASF's MDEA, MDEA/DEA or MDEA/DGA processes seem to be the best alternatives to the Benfield HiPure process. Using MDEA/DEA or MDEA/DGA process will reduce the capital costs of ADGAS by 50% , and up to 48% will be saved on the annual power consumption (0.33 million dollars per years) . BASF's MDEA has slightly higher capital costs due to the additional units required on the high pressure flash and the quenching units used to generate the semi-lean solution. However, BASF's MDEA process still stands as one of the best alternatives with a savings of about 102 million dollars (48%) on the capital costs and up to 36% (3.96 USD per ton of acid gas removed) on the cost stripping.

  11. A single molecule magnet to single molecule magnet transformation via a solvothermal process: Fe4Dy2 → Fe6Dy3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sihuai; Mereacre, Valeriu; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K

    2016-01-01

    Two series of heterometallic Fe(III)-Ln(III) compounds, [FeLn(μ3-OH)2(mdea)4(m-NO2C6H4COO)8]·3MeCN where Ln = Y (1) and Dy (2) and [FeLn(μ4-O)3(μ3-O)(mdea)5(m-NO2C6H4COO)9]·3MeCN where Ln = Y (3) and Dy (4), were synthesized. Compounds 1 and 2 were obtained under ambient conditions, whereas 3 and 4 were obtained via a solvothermal transformation process by heating 1 or 2 at 120 °C in MeCN. The magnetic properties of all four compounds have been measured and show that compounds 2 and 4 containing Dy(III) ions exhibit slow relaxation of magnetization characteristic of Single Molecule Magnetic (SMM) behaviour. PMID:26599423

  12. Octanuclear Mn(III)6Mn(II)Ln (Ln = Gd, Dy and Er) clusters with a novel core topology: syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Ma, Cheng-Bing; Hu, Ming-Qiang; Wen, Hui-Min; Cui, Hong-Hua; Liu, Jin-Ying; Song, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Chang-Neng

    2013-04-14

    Reactions of [Mn6O2(piv)10(py)2.5(piv)1.5], Ln(NO3)3·6H2O and N-mdeaH2 in MeCN in the presence of Me3SiCl generated a family of octanuclear Mn/Ln complexes [Mn6(III)Mn(II)Ln(N-mdea)3(N-mdeaH)(piv)8O2(OH)3(NO3)(H2O)]·xCH3CN·xH2O [Ln = Gd (1), Dy (2), Er (3), pivH = pivalic acid, N-mdeaH2 = N-methyl diethanolamine]. Each complex possesses a [Mn6(III)Mn(II)Ln(μ3-O)2(μ3-OH)3](16+) core containing two butterfly-like subunits of [Mn3Ln(μ3-OH)2] and [Mn4(μ3-O)2] sharing a common vertex, and an outer Mn atom ligated to one of the subunits through a μ3-OH(-) ligand. The core topology represents a new Mn/Ln core type. The magnetic susceptibility study of 1-3 indicates the presence of dominant antiferromagnetic interactions within the complexes. For complex 1, which contains an isotropic Gd(III) atom, fitting of the obtained M/(NμB) vs. H/T data gave S = 4, g = 1.90, and D = -0.31 cm(-1). The results were further supported by ac data. Complex exhibits out-of-phase ac susceptibility signals, indicating it may be a SMM. PMID:23377042

  13. The first 4d/4f single-molecule magnet containing a {Ru(III)2Dy(III)2} core.

    PubMed

    Langley, Stuart K; Wielechowski, Daniel P; Vieru, Veacheslav; Chilton, Nicholas F; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Murray, Keith S

    2015-02-01

    We report the synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of the first 4d-4f single-molecule magnet. The complex [Ru(III)2Dy(III)2(OMe)2(O2CPh)4(mdea)2(NO3)2] displays a butterfly type core, with an anisotropy barrier of 10.7 cm(-1). Ab initio and DFT calculations provide insight into the observed magnetic behaviour. PMID:25536910

  14. P450-Based Drug-Drug Interactions of Amiodarone and its Metabolites: Diversity of Inhibitory Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Matthew G; Au, Nicholas T; Rettie, Allan E

    2015-11-01

    In this study, IC50 shift and time-dependent inhibition (TDI) experiments were carried out to measure the ability of amiodarone (AMIO), and its circulating human metabolites, to reversibly and irreversibly inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 activities in human liver microsomes. The [I]u/Ki,u values were calculated and used to predict in vivo AMIO drug-drug interactions (DDIs) for pharmaceuticals metabolized by these four enzymes. Based on these values, the minor metabolite N,N-didesethylamiodarone (DDEA) is predicted to be the major cause of DDIs with xenobiotics primarily metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP2C9, or CYP3A4, while AMIO and its N-monodesethylamiodarone (MDEA) derivative are the most likely cause of interactions involving inhibition of CYP2D6 metabolism. AMIO drug interactions predicted from the reversible inhibition of the four P450 activities were found to be in good agreement with the magnitude of reported clinical DDIs with lidocaine, warfarin, metoprolol, and simvastatin. The TDI experiments showed DDEA to be a potent inactivator of CYP1A2 (KI = 0.46 μM, kinact = 0.030 minute(-1)), while MDEA was a moderate inactivator of both CYP2D6 (KI = 2.7 μM, kinact = 0.018 minute(-1)) and CYP3A4 (KI = 2.6 μM, kinact = 0.016 minute(-1)). For DDEA and MDEA, mechanism-based inactivation appears to occur through formation of a metabolic intermediate complex. Additional metabolic studies strongly suggest that CYP3A4 is the primary microsomal enzyme involved in the metabolism of AMIO to both MDEA and DDEA. In summary, these studies demonstrate both the diversity of inhibitory mechanisms with AMIO and the need to consider metabolites as the culprit in inhibitory P450-based DDIs. PMID:26296708

  15. Crystal structure of aqua-1κO-{μ-2-[(2-hydroxy­ethyl)methylamino]ethanolato-2:1κ4 O 1,N,O 2:O 1}[μ-2,2′-(methylimino)diethanolato-1:2κ4 O,N,O′:O]dithiocyanato-1κN,2κN-chromium(III)copper(II)

    PubMed Central

    Rusanova, Julia A.; Semenaka, Valentina V.; Dyakonenko, Viktoriya V.; Shishkin, Oleg V.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, [CrCu(C5H11NO2)(C5H12NO2)(NCS)2(H2O)] or [Cr(μ-mdea)Cu(μ-Hmdea)(NCS)2H2O], (where mdeaH2 is N-methylethanolamine, C5H13NO2) is formed as a neutral heterometal CuII/CrIII complex. The mol­ecular structure of the complex is based on a binuclear {CuCr(μ-O)2} core. The coordination environment of each metal atom involves the N,O,O atoms of the tridentate ligand, one bridging O atom of the ligand and the N atom of the thio­cyanato ligands. The CuII ion adopts a distorted square-pyramidal coordination while the CrIII ion has a distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry completed by the aqua ligand. In the crystal, the binuclear complexes are linked via two pairs of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form inversion dimers, which are arranged in columns parallel to the a axis. In the μ-mdea ligand two –CH2 groups and the methyl group were refined as disordered over two sets of sites with equal occupancies. The structure was refined as a two-component twin with a twin scale factor of 0.242 (1). PMID:26396853

  16. In vitro kinetics of amiodarone and its major metabolite in two human liver cell models after acute and repeated treatments.

    PubMed

    Pomponio, Giuliana; Savary, Camille C; Parmentier, Céline; Bois, Frederic; Guillouzo, André; Romanelli, Luca; Richert, Lysiane; Di Consiglio, Emma; Testai, Emanuela

    2015-12-25

    The limited value of in vitro toxicity data for the in vivo extrapolation has been often attributed to the lack of kinetic data. Here the in vitro kinetics of amiodarone (AMI) and its mono-N-desethyl (MDEA) metabolite was determined and modelled in primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and HepaRG cells, after single and repeated administration of clinically relevant concentrations. AMI bioavailability was influenced by adsorption to the plastic and the presence of protein in the medium (e.g. 10% serum protein reduced the uptake by half in HepaRG cells). The cell uptake was quick (within 3h), AMI metabolism was efficient and a dynamic equilibrium was reached in about a week after multiple dosing. In HepaRG cells the metabolic clearance was higher than in PHH and increased over time, as well as CYP3A4. The interindividual variability in MDEA production in PHHs was not proportional to the differences in CYP3A4 activities, suggesting the involvement of other CYPs and/or AMI-related CYP inhibition. After repeated treatment AMI showed a slight potential for bioaccumulation, whereas much higher intracellular MDEA levels accumulated over time, especially in the HepaRG cells, associated with occurrence of phospholipidosis. The knowledge of in vitro biokinetics is important to transform an actual in vitro concentration-effect into an in vivo dose-effect relationship by using appropriate modelling, thus improving the in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation. PMID:25546373

  17. Crystal structure of aqua-1κO-{μ-2-[(2-hydroxy-ethyl)methylamino]ethanolato-2:1κ(4) O (1),N,O (2):O (1)}[μ-2,2'-(methylimino)diethanolato-1:2κ(4) O,N,O':O]dithiocyanato-1κN,2κN-chromium(III)copper(II).

    PubMed

    Rusanova, Julia A; Semenaka, Valentina V; Dyakonenko, Viktoriya V; Shishkin, Oleg V

    2015-09-01

    The title compound, [CrCu(C5H11NO2)(C5H12NO2)(NCS)2(H2O)] or [Cr(μ-mdea)Cu(μ-Hmdea)(NCS)2H2O], (where mdeaH2 is N-methylethanolamine, C5H13NO2) is formed as a neutral heterometal Cu(II)/Cr(III) complex. The mol-ecular structure of the complex is based on a binuclear {CuCr(μ-O)2} core. The coordination environment of each metal atom involves the N,O,O atoms of the tridentate ligand, one bridging O atom of the ligand and the N atom of the thio-cyanato ligands. The Cu(II) ion adopts a distorted square-pyramidal coordination while the Cr(III) ion has a distorted octa-hedral coordination geometry completed by the aqua ligand. In the crystal, the binuclear complexes are linked via two pairs of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form inversion dimers, which are arranged in columns parallel to the a axis. In the μ-mdea ligand two -CH2 groups and the methyl group were refined as disordered over two sets of sites with equal occupancies. The structure was refined as a two-component twin with a twin scale factor of 0.242 (1). PMID:26396853

  18. New analytical technique for carbon dioxide absorption solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Pouryousefi, F.; Idem, R.O.

    2008-02-15

    The densities and refractive indices of two binary systems (water + MEA and water + MDEA) and three ternary systems (water + MEA + CO{sub 2}, water + MDEA + CO{sub 2}, and water + MEA + MDEA) used for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture were measured over the range of compositions of the aqueous alkanolamine(s) used for CO{sub 2} absorption at temperatures from 295 to 338 K. Experimental densities were modeled empirically, while the experimental refractive indices were modeled using well-established models from the known values of their pure-component densities and refractive indices. The density and Gladstone-Dale refractive index models were then used to obtain the compositions of unknown samples of the binary and ternary systems by simultaneous solution of the density and refractive index equations. The results from this technique have been compared with HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) results, while a third independent technique (acid-base titration) was used to verify the results. The results show that the systems' compositions obtained from the simple and easy-to-use refractive index/density technique were very comparable to the expensive and laborious HPLC/titration techniques, suggesting that the refractive index/density technique can be used to replace existing methods for analysis of fresh or nondegraded, CO{sub 2}-loaded, single and mixed alkanolamine solutions.

  19. Measurement of 3,4-MDMA and related amines in diagnostic and forensic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Skrinska, Victor A; Gock, Susan B

    2005-01-01

    The phenylalkylamine derivatives, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy, XTC, Adam), 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA, MDE, Eve), and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), are psychostimulants with hallucinogenic properties. MDA is also a metabolite of both MDMA and MDEA. These drugs are ring-substituted amphetamine derivatives that produce hallucinogenic, entactogenic ('love drug'), and stimulating effects. MDMA was initially developed as an appetite suppressant, however, its use as a therapeutic drug has been very limited. Because of its effects as a hallucinogenic psychostimulant with relatively low toxicity, it has emerged over the last two decades as a common recreational psychostimulant or 'club drug' at 'raves'. MDMA, MDEA, and MDA are often referred to as 'rave' or 'designer' drugs. They are produced in clandestine laboratories and have an increasing presence on the illicit drug market worldwide. Significant adverse health effects have been reported that include: serotonin neurotoxicity, severe psychiatric disorders, renal failure, malignant hyperthermia, hepatitis, rhabdomyolysis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. A number of fatal outcomes associated with severe MDMA intoxication have been reported. PMID:15916245

  20. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Amornvadee Veawab

    2006-09-30

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Ethylenediamine was detected in a degraded solution of MEA/PZ solution, suggesting that piperazine is subject to oxidation. Stripper modeling has demonstrated that vacuum strippers will be more energy efficient if constructed short and fat rather than tall and skinny. The matrix stripper has been identified as a configuration that will significantly reduce energy use. Extensive measurements of CO{sub 2} solubility in 7 m MEA at 40 and 60 C have confirmed the work by Jou and Mather. Corrosion of carbon steel without inhibitors increases from 19 to 181 mpy in lean solutions of 6.2 m MEA/PZ as piperazine increases from 0 to 3.1 m.

  1. Ring-opening reactions of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) derived quaternary ammonium salts with phenols and related nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Mara, Nenad; Polanc, Slovenko; Ko?evar, Marijan

    2012-02-14

    1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) has been evaluated as a starting material for the synthesis of 1-alkyl-4-(2-phenoxyethyl)piperazines and related derivatives. We found that 1-alkyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-ium salts, resulting from the alkylation of DABCO, efficiently react with a variety of nucleophiles in polyethyleneglycol (PEG) or diglyme at high temperatures to give piperazine products resulting from the nucleophilic ring-opening reaction. The benzylation side reaction was found to be relevant with softer nucleophiles when using 1-benzyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-1-ium salts, while other types of alkylations were not observed. One-pot methodologies allow for the synthesis of piperazines directly from primary alcohols, alkyl halides or sulfonates, using phenols, or other nucleophile sources, and DABCO. PMID:22215139

  2. Effects of gabergic anthelmintics at higher concentrations on the guanidine-induced twitch responses in isolated frog rectus preparations.

    PubMed

    Terada, M; Chen, W; Wang, H H; Kachi, S; Lee, H H

    1994-01-01

    Effects of various gabergic anthelmintics on the guanidine-induced twitch responses in isolated frog rectus preparations were examined. All gabergic anthelmintics such as milbemycin oxime, milbemycin D, avermectin B1a, ivermectin, and diethylcarbamazine (DEC) showed stimulatory effects on the guanidine-induced twitch responses at their higher concentrations. Only piperazine caused inhibitory effects on the twitch responses, even at higher concentrations. The stimulation of the twitch responses by the gabergic anthelmintics was antagonized with tetrodotoxin, hemicholinium-3, d-tubocurarine, and strychnine. These results suggest that all gabergic anthelmintics except piperazine stimulate the release of acetylcholine from the nerve endings and that all of them, including piperazine, have different effects on the gabergic mechanism at lower concentrations and on the cholinergic mechanism at higher concentrations. PMID:7855122

  3. 1-Piperonylpiperazinium 4-chlorobenzoate

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Channappa N.; Kaur, Manpreet; Anderson, Brian J.; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Yathirajan, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the title salt {systematic name: 1-[(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)methyl]piperazin-1-ium 4-chlorobenzoate}, C12H17N2O2 +C7H4ClO2 ?, the piperazine ring adopts a slightly disordered chair conformation. The dioxole ring is in a flattened envelope conformation with the methylene C atom forming the flap. The relative orientation of the piperonyl ring system and the piperazine rings is reflected in the NCCC torsion angle of 132.3?(1). In the anion, the mean plane of the carboxylate group is twisted from that of the benzene ring by 14.8?(9). In the crystal, the components are linked by NH?O and weak CH?O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010]. PMID:24764993

  4. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Babatunde Oyenekan; Terraun Jones

    2003-07-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been further developed with a standalone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. Gas chromatography has been used to measure the oxidative degradation of piperazine. The heat exchangers for the pilot plant have been received. The modifications are on schedule for start-up in November 2003.

  5. Synthesis and functional survey of new Tacrine analogs modified with nitroxides or their precursors.

    PubMed

    Klai, Tams; Altman, Robin; Maezawa, Izumi; Balog, Mria; Morisseau, Christophe; Petrlova, Jitka; Hammock, Bruce D; Jin, Lee-Way; Trudell, James R; Voss, John C; Hideg, Klmn

    2014-04-22

    A series of new Tacrine analogs modified with nitroxides or pre-nitroxides on 9-amino group via methylene or piperazine spacers were synthesized; the nitroxide or its precursors were incorporated into the Tacrine scaffold. The new compounds were tested for their hydroxyl radical and peroxyl radical scavenging ability, acetylcholinesterase inhibitor activity and protection against A?-induced cytotoxicity. Based on these assays, we conclude that Tacrine analogs connected to five and six-membered nitroxides via piperazine spacers (9b, 9b/HCl and 12) exhibited the best activity, providing direction for further development of additional candidates with dual functionality (anti Alzheimer's and antioxidant). PMID:24657571

  6. New cyclic tetrapeptide from the coral-derived endophytic bacteria Brevibacterium sp. L-4 collected from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing-Xin; Guo, Qiong; Peng, Guang-Tian; He, Xi-Xin; Chen, Xiao-Jie; Lei, Ling-Fang; Deng, Yun; Jun Su, Xian; Zhang, Cui-Xian

    2016-01-01

    One new cyclic tetrapeptide cyclic-(Tyr-Ala-Leu-Ser) (1) along with four natural compounds firstly obtained 3H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid (2), 2-methyl-3H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid (3), 3-ethylidene-6-isopropyl-piperazine-2,5-dione (4), and 3-isobutylidene-6-methyl piperazine-2,5-dione (5) have been isolated from the coral derived endophytic bacteria Brevibacterium sp. L-4 collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic techniques including NMR (1D and 2D), MS, and EA, and their relative configurations were also assigned by NMR analysis. PMID:26214049

  7. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; A. Frank Seibert; J. Tim Cullinane; Terraun Jones

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Progress has been made in this reporting period on three subtasks. The rigorous Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (electrolyte-NRTL) model has been regressed to represent CO{sub 2} solubility in potassium carbonate/bicarbonate solutions. An analytical method for piperazine has been developed using a gas chromatograph. Funding has been obtained and equipment has been donated to provide for modifications of the existing pilot plant system with stainless steel materials.

  8. Microbial models of mammalian metabolism. Fungal metabolism of phenolic and nonphenolic p-cymene-related drugs and prodrugs. II. Metabolites of nonphenolic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Moussa, C; Houziaux, P; Danree, B; Azerad, R

    1997-03-01

    A cymene-derived drug, 3-[4'-(o-ethoxyphenyl)piperazin-1'-yl]-ethyloxy-p-cymene+ ++ (B1178), is not significantly metabolized by fungal microorganisms. On the contrary, one of its metabolites in rat, 3-(piperazin-1'-yl)ethoxy-p-cymene (B1071), is quantitatively converted by Cunninghamella echinulata NRRL 3655 into two hydroxylated products: the corresponding phenol derivative and a benzylic alcohol derivative. Other strains, such as Beauveria bassiana ATCC 7159 and Mortierella isabellina MMP 108, produce exclusively an N-acetyl derivative in high yield. Results obtained are discussed on the grounds of relative hydrophobicity of substrates vs. fungi metabolism and detoxification capabilities. PMID:9172948

  9. Rapid-screening detection of acetildenafils, sildenafils and avanafil by ion mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mans, Daniel J; Callahan, Rebecca J; Dunn, Jamie D; Gryniewicz-Ruzicka, Connie M

    2013-03-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry was used as a rapid screening tool for the detection of acetildenafils, sildenafils and avanafil within adulterated herbal supplement matrices. Acetildenafils show a tendency for partial fragmentation during the desorption/ionization process affording two peaks in the ion mobility spectrum in addition to the intact compound. The fragmentation appears to occur ? to the carbonyl group along the CN bond attaching the piperazine moiety, producing a common fragment (K?=1.0280 cmV?s?) along with the respective piperazine fragment. The sildenafils and avanafil afford one molecular ion peak per compound. PMID:23262416

  10. Synthesis and functional survey of new Tacrine analogs modified with nitroxides or their precursors

    PubMed Central

    Kálai, Tamás; Altman, Robin; Maezawa, Izumi; Balog, Mária; Morisseau, Christophe; Petrlova, Jitka; Hammock, Bruce D.; Jin, Lee-Way; Trudell, James; Voss, John C.; Hideg, Kálmán

    2014-01-01

    A series of new Tacrine analogs modified with nitroxides or pre-nitroxides on 9-amino group via methylene or piperazine spacers were synthesized; the nitroxide or its precursors were incorporated into the Tacrine scaffold. The new compounds were tested for their hydroxyl radical and peroxyl radical scavenging ability, acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor activity and protection against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Based on these assays, we conclude that Tacrine analogs connected to five and six-membered nitroxides via piperazine spacers (9b, 9b/HCl and 12) exhibited the best activity, providing direction for further development of additional candidates with dual functionality (anti Alzheimer’s and antioxidant). PMID:24657571

  11. Molecular characterization of the mde operon involved in L-methionine catabolism of Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, H; Inagaki, K; Eriguchi, S I; Tamura, T; Esaki, N; Soda, K; Tanaka, H

    1997-01-01

    A 15-kb region of Pseudomonas putida chromosomal DNA containing the mde operon and an upstream regulatory gene (mdeR) has been cloned and sequenced. The mde operon contains two structural genes involved in L-methionine degradative metabolism: the already-identified mdeA, which encodes L-methionine gamma-lyase (H. Inoue, K. Inagaki, M. Sugimoto, N. Esaki, K. Soda, and H. Tanaka. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 117:1120-1125, 1995), and mdeB, which encodes a homologous protein to the homodimeric-type E1 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. A rho-independent terminator was present just downstream of mdeB, and open reading frames corresponding to other components of alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex were not found. When MdeB was overproduced in Escherichia coli, the cell extract showed the E1 activity with high specificity for alpha-ketobutyrate rather than pyruvate. These results suggest that MdeB plays an important role in the metabolism of alpha-ketobutyrate produced by MdeA from L-methionine. Accordingly, mdeB encodes a novel E1 component, alpha-ketobutyrate dehydrogenase E1 component, of an unknown alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in P. putida. In addition, we found that the mdeR gene was located on the opposite strand and began at 127 bp from the translational start site of mdeA. The mdeR gene product has been identified as a member of the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) family and revealed to act as an essential positive regulator allowing the expression of the mdeAB operon. PMID:9190812

  12. A family of novel Mn₃Ln₄ clusters displaying single-molecule magnet behavior.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Ma, Cheng-Bing; Hu, Ming-Qiang; Wen, Hui-Min; Chen, Chang-Neng

    2014-11-28

    Using 3-methyloxysalicylaldoxime (mosaoH2) and N-methyl diethanolamine (N-mdeaH2) as coligands, a family of heptanuclear Mn/Ln heterometallic compounds [Mn(II)Mn(III)2Ln(III)4(mosao)2(mosaoH)4(piv)4(N-mdea)4]·xMeCN [Ln = Dy(1), Tb(2) and Y(3), pivH = pivalic acid] have been prepared. The crystal structures of 1-3 were obtained, and their core consists of two Mn(III)Ln2(μ3-OR)2 (RO(2-) = N-mdea(2-)) triangles linked to a central Mn(II) atom. A dc magnetic susceptibility study reveals that single-ion effects of the Ln ions are dominant in compounds 1 and 2. As for compound 3, which contains diamagnetic Y ions, the magnetic interactions between Mn ions via oximate NO bridges are revealed to be ferromagnetic. Fitting of the χ(m)T vs. T data gives g = 1.96 and J = 1.12 cm(-1), affording a S = 13/2 ground state. All of the three compounds exhibit frequency-dependent out-of-phase ac susceptibility signals indicative of slow magnetization relaxation and potential SMM behavior. Among them, 1 and 3 display the out-of-phase χ"(m) peak maximum above 2.0 K. Fitting of the ac susceptibility data to the Arrhenius law gives an energy barrier U(eff) = 9.27/13.83 K for 1 and 3, respectively. PMID:25273696

  13. Effects of the electrode size and modification protocol on a label-free electrochemical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Arya, Sunil K; Pui, Tze Sian; Wong, Chee Chung; Kumar, Sai; Rahman, Abdur Rub Abdur

    2013-06-01

    In the present work, the effect of a surface modification protocol along with the electrode size has been investigated for developing an efficient, label-free electrochemical biosensing method for diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) biomarkers. A microdisk electrode array (MDEA) and a macroelectrode with a comb structure (MECS) were modified with an anti-GFAP (GFAP = glial fibrillary acidic protein) antibody using two protocols for optimum and label-free detection of GFAP, a promising acute-phase TBI biomarker. For the MDEA, an array of six microdisks with a 100 μm diameter and, for the MECS, a 3.2 mm × 5.5 mm electrode 5 μm wide with 10 μm spaced comb fingers were modified using an optimized protocol for dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) (DSP) self-assembled monolayer formation. Anti-GFAP was covalently bound, and the remaining free DSP groups were blocked using ethanolamine (Ea). Sensors were exposed to solutions with different GFAP concentrations, and a label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used to determine the concentration. EIS results confirmed that both types of Ea/anti-GFAP/DSP/Au electrodes modified with an optimized DSP-based protocol can accurately detect GFAP in the range of 1 pg mL(-1) to 100 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 1 pg mL(-1). However, the cross-use of the MDEA protocol on the MECS and vice versa resulted in very low sensitivity or poor signal resolution, underscoring the importance of proper matching of the electrode size and type and the surface modification protocol. PMID:23651210

  14. Efflux-Related Resistance to Norfloxacin, Dyes, and Biocides in Bloodstream Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus?

    PubMed Central

    DeMarco, Carmen E.; Cushing, Laurel A.; Frempong-Manso, Emmanuel; Seo, Susan M.; Jaravaza, Tinevimbo A. A.; Kaatz, Glenn W.

    2007-01-01

    Efflux is an important resistance mechanism in Staphylococcus aureus, but its frequency in patients with bacteremia is unknown. Nonreplicate bloodstream isolates were collected over an 8-month period, and MICs of four common efflux pump substrates, with and without the broad-spectrum efflux pump inhibitor reserpine, were determined (n = 232). A reserpine-associated fourfold decrease in MIC was considered indicative of efflux. Strains exhibiting efflux of at least two of the four substrates were identified (effluxing strains [n = 114]). For these strains, MICs with or without reserpine for an array of typical substrates and the expression of mepA, mdeA, norA, norB, norC, and qacA/B were determined using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). A fourfold or greater increase in gene expression was considered significant. The most commonly effluxed substrates were ethidium bromide and chlorhexidine (100 and 96% of effluxing strains, respectively). qRT-PCR identified strains overexpressing mepA (5 [4.4%]), mdeA (13 [11.4%]), norA (26 [22.8%]), norB (29 [25.4%]), and norC (19 [16.7%]); 23 strains overexpressed two or more genes. Mutations probably associated with increased gene expression included a MepR-inactivating substitution and norA promoter region insertions or deletions. Mutations possibly associated with increased expression of the other analyzed genes were also observed. Effluxing strains comprised 49% of all strains studied (114/232 strains), with nearly half of these overexpressing genes encoding MepA, MdeA, and/or NorABC (54/114 strains). Reduced susceptibility to biocides may contribute to persistence on environmental surfaces, and efflux of drugs such as fluoroquinolones may predispose strains to high-level target-based resistance. PMID:17576828

  15. [The analysis of the methylenedioxy derivatives of amphetamine].

    PubMed

    Veselovskaia, N V; Simonov, E A; Sorokin, V I; Drozdov, M A; Izotov, B N; Andriiako, T B; Dorogokupets, O B; Morozova, E B; Kovalenko, A E

    1999-01-01

    Methods for analysis of narcotics belonging to amphetamine methylene dioxy derivatives (MDD) are reviewed. The characteristics of these agents, their metabolism, and methods used for their detection and identification (TLC, GC, HPLC, GC/MS) are described. Methods for their extraction from biological objects (human urine and hair) are described. Efficacy of MDMA and MDEA from the urine by different extractants is assessed. The data demonstrate different potentialities for detection and identification of amphetamine MDD, including those in biological specimens (human urine and hairs), by numerous chromatographic methods. PMID:10396963

  16. Anthelmintic activity of leaves of justicia beddomei.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-01-01

    Ethanolic and Chloroform extract of leaves of Justicia beddomei were evaluated separately for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma, using Piperazine citrate as reference standard. The results indicated that ethanolic extract was more potent than the chloroform extract. PMID:22557233

  17. Anthelmintic activity of aerial parts of melothria heterophylla lour.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Mondal, Arijit; Mandal, Uttam

    2006-07-01

    Petroleum ether (60-80C), chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extract of aerial parts of Melothria heterophylla Lour. were evaluated separately for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms (Pheretima posthuma), using albandazole and piperazine citrate as reference standards. The results indicated that the ethanol extract of M. heterophylla Lour (EEMH) was more potent than the other four extracts of it. PMID:22557229

  18. M[superscript 2+]•EDTA Binding Affinities: A Modern Experiment in Thermodynamics for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Leah C.; Root, Hannah B.; Wei, Chin-Chuan; Jensen, Drake; Shabestary, Nahid; De Meo, Cristina; Eder, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to experimentally determine thermodynamic values for the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)(aq) + M[superscript 2+](aq) reactions (M[superscript 2+] = Ca[superscript 2+] and Mg[superscript 2+]). Students showed that for reactions in a N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N"-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES)…

  19. M[superscript 2+]EDTA Binding Affinities: A Modern Experiment in Thermodynamics for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Leah C.; Root, Hannah B.; Wei, Chin-Chuan; Jensen, Drake; Shabestary, Nahid; De Meo, Cristina; Eder, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to experimentally determine thermodynamic values for the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)(aq) + M[superscript 2+](aq) reactions (M[superscript 2+] = Ca[superscript 2+] and Mg[superscript 2+]). Students showed that for reactions in a N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N"-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES)

  20. Studies of flammability and thermal degradation for flame retardant cotton fabric with P-N containing derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of a phosphoramidate Tetraethyl piperazine-1,4- diyldiphosphoramidate (TEPP) as a flame retardant (FR) on cotton twill fabrics was compared with that of a previously studied Diethyl 4- methylpiperazin-1-ylphosphoramidate (DEPP). TEPP was formed in a reaction between two phosphonat...

  1. Transformation of N-Phenylpiperazine by Mixed Cultures from a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant?

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Carina M.; Heinze, Thomas M.; Deck, Joanna; Strakosha, Ruth; Sutherland, John B.

    2008-01-01

    Samples from a wastewater treatment plant were used as inocula for mixed cultures dosed with N-phenylpiperazine (NPP), a model compound containing the piperazine ring found in many fluoroquinolones. Chemical analyses showed that NPP (50 mg liter?1) disappeared in 12 days, with the appearance of a transient metabolite and two nitrosated compounds. PMID:18676696

  2. Metabolism of aildenafil in vivo in rats and in vitro in mouse, rat, dog, and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wu, Linan; Gu, Yuan; Si, Duanyun; Liu, Changxiao

    2014-06-01

    Aildenafil, 1-{[3-(6, 7-dihydro-1-methyl-7-oxo-3-propyl-1H-pyrazolo [4, 3-d] primidin-5-yl)-4-ethoxyphenyl] sulfonyl}-cis-3, 5-dimethylpiperazine, a phosphodiesterase type V enzyme inhibitor (PDE5I), is under development for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The purpose of this study was to elucidate metabolism of aildenafil in vivo in rats and in vitro in mouse, rat, dog, and human liver microsomes. Thirty-one phase I metabolites have been found by LTQ/Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometry in rat urine, faeces, and bile after oral administration. Major biotransformation pathways of aildenafil included N-dealkylation of the piperazine ring, hydroxylation and dehydrogenation, aliphatic hydroxylation and loss of alkyl group of piperazine ring. Minor pathways involved hydroxylation on the phenyl ring, pyrazole N-demethylation, O-deethylation, loss of piperazine ring (cleavage of N-S bond) and dehydrogenation on the piperazine ring. Similar metabolic pathways of aildenafil were observed in the incubations of liver microsomes from mouse, rat, and dog as well as from human. The depletion rate of parent drug in mouse and rat liver microsomes was significantly different from that in human liver microsomes. The cytochrome P450 reaction phenotyping analysis was conducted using isozyme-specific inhibitors. The results indicated that CYP3A was the main isoenzyme involved in oxidative metabolism of aildenafil. Overall, these in vitro and in vivo findings should provide valuable information on possible metabolic behaviours of aildenafil in humans. PMID:24311535

  3. Novel 4-N-substituted aryl pent-2-ene-1,4-dione derivatives of piperazinyloxazolidinones as antibacterials.

    PubMed

    Lohray, Braj Bhushan; Lohray, Vidya Bhushan; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Gupta, Sunil; Solanki, Manish; Pandya, Purvi; Kapadnis, Prashant

    2006-03-15

    A few substituted piperazinylphenyloxazolidinone compounds 6-13 having substitution on the distant nitrogen atom of piperazine ring scaffold have been synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity in Gram-positive bacteria. A few compounds showed superior in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes than linezolid and eperezolid. PMID:16386420

  4. Synthesis and characterization of novel polyurethane cationomers with dipeptide sequences and alkylammonium groups.

    PubMed

    Buruiana, Emil C; Buruiana, Tinca

    2004-01-01

    A synthetic approach to polyurethane cationomers containing S-pyroglutamyl-S-glutamic acid dipeptide (S-PyGlu-S-Glu) and alkylammonium groups is presented. Two segmented polycations, based on polycaprolactone diol, isophorone diisocyanate and dipeptide together with N-methyldiethanolamine, subsequently quaternized with dodecylbromide, were synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, GPC, DSC and reduced viscosity measurements. Such polycations exhibited excellent film forming properties and their soft elastomeric nature provides adequate physical properties. Optical rotation varying from +10 (monomer) to -15 (polycation) could be associated with a configuration pertubation through the asymmetric carbon atoms of glutamic residues. Susceptibility of the cationic surface to heparinization and then to blood-polymer interaction suggested an anticoagulant activity of the heparinized polymeric films. PMID:15255526

  5. Heterometallic 3d-4f single-molecule magnets: ligand and metal ion influences on the magnetic relaxation.

    PubMed

    Langley, Stuart K; Le, Crystal; Ungur, Liviu; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Abrahams, Brendan F; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Murray, Keith S

    2015-04-01

    Six tetranuclear 3d4f single-molecule magnet (SMM) complexes formed using N-n-butyldiethanolamine and N-methyldiethanolamine in conjunction with ortho- and para-substituted benzoic acid and hexafluoroacetoacetone ligands yield two families, both having a butterfly metallic core. The first consists of four complexes of type {Co2(III)Dy2(III)} and {Co2(III)Co(II)Dy(III)} using N-n-butyldiethanolamine with variation of the carboxylate ligand. The anisotropy barriers are 80 cm1, (77 and 96 cm1two relaxation processes occur), 117 and 88 cm1, respectively, each following a relaxation mechanism from a single DyIII ion. The second family consists of a {Co2(III)Dy2(III)} and a {Cr2(III)Dy2(III)} complex, from the ligand combination of N-methyldiethanolamine and hexafluoroacetylacetone. Both show SMM behavior, the Co(III) example displaying an anisotropy barrier of 23 cm1. The Cr(III) complex displays a barrier of 28 cm1, with longer relaxation times and open hysteresis loops, the latter of which is not seen in the Co(III) case. This is a consequence of strong Dy(III)Cr(III) magnetic interactions, with the relaxation arising from the electronic structure of the whole complex and not from a single DyIII ion. The results suggest that the presence of strong exchange interactions lead to significantly longer relaxation times than in isostructural complexes where the exchange is weak. The study also suggests that electron-withdrawing groups on both bridging (carboxylate) and terminal (?-diketonate) ligands enhance the anisotropy barrier. PMID:25796958

  6. Endogenous generation of hydrogen sulfide and its regulation in Shewanella oneidensis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Genfu; Li, Ning; Mao, Yinting; Zhou, Guangqi; Gao, Haichun

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as a physiological mediator with a variety of functions across all domains of life. In this study, mechanisms of endogenous H2S generation in Shewanella oneidensis were investigated. As a research model with highly diverse anaerobic respiratory pathways, the microorganism is able to produce H2S by respiring on a variety of sulfur-containing compounds with SirACD and PsrABC enzymatic complexes, as well as through cysteine degradation with three enzymes, MdeA, SO_1095, and SseA. We showed that the SirACD and PsrABC complexes, which are predominantly, if not exclusively, responsible for H2S generation via respiration of sulfur species, do not interplay with each other. Strikingly, a screen for regulators controlling endogenous H2S generation by transposon mutagenesis identified global regulator Crp to be essential to all H2S-generating processes. In contrast, Fnr and Arc, two other global regulators that have a role in respiration, are dispensable in regulating H2S generation via respiration of sulfur species. Interestingly, Arc is involved in the H2S generation through cysteine degradation by repressing expression of the mdeA gene. We further showed that expression of the sirA and psrABC operons is subjected to direct regulation of Crp, but the mechanisms underlying the requirement of Crp for H2S generation through cysteine degradation remain elusive. PMID:25972854

  7. Differential gene expression in planktonic and biofilm cells of multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    He, Xinlong; Ahn, Juhee

    2011-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate gene expression patterns of the planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium in trypticase soy broth adjusted to pH 5.5 and pH 7.3. The planktonic and biofilm cells of multiple antibiotic-resistant S. aureus (S. aureus(R) ) and S. Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium(R) ) were more resistant to β-lactams than those of antibiotic-susceptible S. aureus (S. aureus(S) ) and S. Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium(S) ) at pH 5.5 and pH 7.3. The relative gene expression levels of norB, norC, and mdeA genes were increased by 7.0-, 4.7-, and 4.6-fold, respectively, in the biofilm cells of S. aureus(S) grown at pH 7.3, while norB, norC, mdeA, sec, seg, sei, sel, sem, sen, and seo genes were stable in the biofilm cells of S. aureus(R) . This study provides useful information for understanding gene expression patterns in the planktonic and biofilm cells of antibiotic-resistance pathogens exposed to acidic stress. PMID:22092573

  8. Simultaneous determination of HFBA-derivatized amphetamines and ketamines in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hei Hwa; Lee, Jong Feng; Lin, Sin Yu; Chen, Ping Ho; Chen, Bai Hsiun

    2011-04-01

    To facilitate the analysis of targeted drugs under high sample volume testing environment, an extraction, derivatization and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis method was developed for simultaneously determination of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), ketamine, and norketamine in urine. This method utilized solid-phase extraction in conjunction with derivatization using heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA) as the derivatization reagent. Using a 1-mL sample, the limits of quantitation achieved for the analysis of AMP, MAMP, MDA, MDMA, MDEA, ketamine, and norketamine were 25, 15, 60, 60, 70, 25, and 30 ng/mL, respectively. Upper limits of quantitation were 8000 ng/mL for all amphetamines and 6000 ng/mL for ketamine and norketamine. Except for dehydronorketamine (DHNK), within-day and between-day precisions (as expressed in CV%) for quality control samples were ≤ 3.1% and ≤ 4.95%, respectively. Except DHNK, the within-day accuracy ranged between 96.0% and 110.7% and the between-day accuracy ranged between 96.9% and 108.7%. A group of 107 urine samples previously determined to contain the target analytes were analyzed by this new approach. Quantitative data produced by both methods agreed well. With this new approach, we were able to use a single analytical protocol to conduct the confirmation test for samples that preliminarily tested positive (by immunoassay) for amphetamines, ketamine, or both. PMID:21439152

  9. Aerobic biodegradation of amines in industrial saline wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Campo, Pablo; Platten, William; Suidan, Makram T; Chai, Yunzhou; Davis, John W

    2011-11-01

    The treatment of hypersaline wastewaters represents a challenge since high salt concentrations disrupt bacteria present in normal biological treatments. This study was conducted to determine the fate of amines in two hypersaline wastewaters obtained from an industrial treatment plant processing influents with 3% and 7% of NaCl. The compounds were aniline (ANL), 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-MDA), cyclohexylamine (CHA), N-(2-aminoethyl)ethanolamine (AEA), N,N-diethylethanolamine (DEA), N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methylamine (MDEA), and tris(2-hydroxyethyl)amine (TEA). Mixtures of these chemicals with a mixed liquor suspended solids concentration of 1000 mg L(-1) were prepared at two salinities (3% and 7% NaCl). Ethanolamines were readily biodegraded at both salinities, following first-order kinetics with half-lives ranging between 10 and 58 h. Hydroxyl groups present in the ethanolamines had a positive impact on the biodegradation. Salinity did not affect the biodegradation rate of TEA and MDEA, whereas AEA and DEA degraded faster in 3% NaCl. After 48h, CHA was metabolized within a 24-h period in 3% NaCl, while no degradation was observed in 7% NaCl. ANL exhibited lag phases in both salinities and, in the following 24-h period, ANL concentrations dropped 40% and disappeared after 48 h. 4,4'-MDA degraded in 3% NaCl (half-life of 123 h) and remained unaltered after 120 h in 7% NaCl. PMID:21925703

  10. New chlorinated amphetamine-type-stimulants disinfection-by-products formed during drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Fontela, Maria; Pineda, Oriol; Ventura, Francesc; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2012-06-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated high removal rates of amphetamine-type-stimulants (ATSs) through conventional drinking water treatments; however the behaviour of these compounds through disinfection steps and their transformation into disinfection-by-products (DBPs) is still unknown. In this work, for the first time, the reactivity of some ATSs such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) with chlorine has been investigated under simulated and real drinking water treatment conditions in order to evaluate their ability to give rise to transformation products. Two new DBPs from these illicit drugs have been found. A common chlorinated-by-product (3-chlorobenzo)-1,3-dioxole, was identified for both MDA and MDEA while for MDMA, 3-chlorocatechol was found. The presence of these DBPs in water samples collected through drinking water treatment was studied in order to evaluate their formation under real conditions. Both compounds were generated through treatment from raw river water samples containing ATSs at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 15 ng/L for MDA and from 2.3 to 78 ng/L for MDMA. One of them, (3-chlorobenzo)-1,3-dioxole, found after the first chlorination step, was eliminated after ozone and GAC treatment while the MDMA DBP mainly generated after the postchlorination step, showed to be recalcitrant and it was found in final treated waters at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5.8 ng/L. PMID:22534122

  11. Endogenous generation of hydrogen sulfide and its regulation in Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Genfu; Li, Ning; Mao, Yinting; Zhou, Guangqi; Gao, Haichun

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as a physiological mediator with a variety of functions across all domains of life. In this study, mechanisms of endogenous H2S generation in Shewanella oneidensis were investigated. As a research model with highly diverse anaerobic respiratory pathways, the microorganism is able to produce H2S by respiring on a variety of sulfur-containing compounds with SirACD and PsrABC enzymatic complexes, as well as through cysteine degradation with three enzymes, MdeA, SO_1095, and SseA. We showed that the SirACD and PsrABC complexes, which are predominantly, if not exclusively, responsible for H2S generation via respiration of sulfur species, do not interplay with each other. Strikingly, a screen for regulators controlling endogenous H2S generation by transposon mutagenesis identified global regulator Crp to be essential to all H2S-generating processes. In contrast, Fnr and Arc, two other global regulators that have a role in respiration, are dispensable in regulating H2S generation via respiration of sulfur species. Interestingly, Arc is involved in the H2S generation through cysteine degradation by repressing expression of the mdeA gene. We further showed that expression of the sirA and psrABC operons is subjected to direct regulation of Crp, but the mechanisms underlying the requirement of Crp for H2S generation through cysteine degradation remain elusive. PMID:25972854

  12. Screening for illicit drugs on Euro banknotes by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Kurt; Schneider, Serge

    2011-03-20

    A method for the simultaneous quantification of illicit drugs on Euro banknotes, using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, was developed and validated. The method included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, MDMA, MDEA, MDA, methamphetamine, diacetylmorphine, 6-MAM, morphine and Δ(9)-THC. Drug residues were monitored and quantified via positive ESI mode using multiple reaction monitoring. Banknotes were extracted with methanol by vigorous shaking. Recovery rates were in the range of 60-80%. Calibration was performed with spiked banknotes in the range of 10-100 ng/note (R(2) 0.98-0.99). Intra-day analysis showed fair precision and accuracy (≤ 15%). Matrix effects were in the range from 27% to 235%. 7-15 samples of each denomination were analyzed. The calculated median values per note were 106 ng cocaine, 43 ng benzoylecgonine, 41 ng heroin, 15.5 ng 6-MAM, 16.5 ng morphine, 9 ng MDMA and 7 ng methamphetamine. Δ(9)-THC was detected on 4 banknotes. MDEA and MDA were not detected on any note. A widespread background contamination for cocaine and opiates was demonstrated. PMID:20810225

  13. Co-effects of amines molecules and chitosan films on in vitro calcium carbonate mineralization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jifei; Kennedy, John F; Nie, Jun; Ma, Guiping

    2015-11-20

    Amines monomers, N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), N,N-dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), 2-dimethylaminoethylamine (DMEDA) and N-methiyldiethanolamine (MDEA) were used to induce the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals on chitosan films, by using (NH4)2CO3 diffusion method at ambient temperature. The obtained CaCO3 particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The influence of reaction variables, such as the additive concentration and their types were also investigated on the products. The morphologies of CaCO3 crystals, inter-grown in cube-shape, were controlled by DMAEMA and DMEA. It was observed that the morphologies of CaCO3 changed from the cube grown arms to massive calcite with a hole on the face by increasing the concentrations of DMEDA and MDEA. While the precipitation grew on chitosan film without any organic additive, only single cube-shaped crystals were obtained. By these results the possible mechanisms can be proposed that electronic movement of the groups on the monomer effected ions configuration and molecules absorbed on the exposed surface, resulted the change of the surface energy, which caused the change in the morphology of CaCO3. PMID:26344256

  14. Analysis of underivatized amphetamines and related phenethylamines with high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bogusz, M J; Krger, K D; Maier, R D

    2000-03-01

    Amphetamine, methamphetamine, illicit designer phenethylamines (MDA, MDEA, MDMA, MBDB, and BDMPEA), and other phenethylamines (benzyl-1-phenylethylamine, cathinone, ephedrine, fenfluramine, norfenfluramine, phentermine, 1-phenylethylamine, phenylpropanolamine, and propylhexedrine) were extracted from serum using a solid-phase extraction procedure. The extracts were examined with high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS). The drugs were separated on ODS column in acetonitrile/50 mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.0) (25:75) as a mobile phase. Full-scan mass spectra of drugs examined by means of APCI with collision-induced dissociation showed protonated molecular ions and fragments typical for particular drugs. LC-APCI-MS allowed an unequivocal differentiation of all drugs involved. The quantitation was performed using selected ion monitoring of protonated molecular ions and fragments of drugs involved and their deuterated analogues. The limits of detection ranged from 1 to 5 microg/L serum, and the recoveries ranged from 58 to 96%. A linear response was observed for all drugs in the range from 5 to 500 microg/L. The method was applied for routine determination of amphetamine, MDMA, MDA, and MDEA in one run. Solid-phase extraction used assured simultaneous isolation of various groups of basic drugs of forensic interest (opiates, cocaines, phenethylamines, and benzodiazepines) from biofluids. PMID:10732943

  15. Cinnarizinium fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, C. N.; Yildirim, Sema ?zt?rk; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Butcher, Ray J.

    2013-01-01

    In the title salt {systematic name: 4-diphenylmethyl-1-[(E)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl]piperazin-1-ium (2Z)-3-carboxyprop-2-enoate}, C26H29N2 +C4H3O4 ?, the piperazine ring in the cation adopts a distorted chair conformation and contains a positively charged N atom with quaternary character. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the phenyl rings of the diphenylmethyl group is 74.2?(7) and those between these rings and the phenyl ring of the 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-yl group are 12.7?(9) and 80.6?(8). In the crystal, NH?O and OH?O hydrogen bonds form chains along [001]. Weak CH?O interactions connect parallel chains along [010], forming layers perpendicular to the a-axis direction. PMID:23476398

  16. Serotonin induces four pharmacologically separable contractile responses in the pharynx of the leech Hirudo medicinalis.

    PubMed

    O'Gara, B A; Illuzzi, F A; Chung, M; Portnoy, A D; Fraga, K; Frieman, V B

    1999-06-01

    Stimulation of the serotoninergic innervation of the leech pharynx or application of serotonin to the isolated pharynx induced four distinct types of contractile activity: an increase in basal tonus, large phasic contractions of 10-15 s in duration, smaller phasic contractions occurring at approximately 1 Hz, and a relaxation after washout of serotonin. Application to the isolated pharynx of the selective serotonin agonists (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin, N-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine, 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-piperazine, (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytrypamine, alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, and 5-methoxytryptamine induced distinct types of pharyngeal contractile activity. The results of this study suggest that the leech pharynx possesses more than one type of serotonin receptor. PMID:10401992

  17. Crystal structure of a new hybrid compound based on an iodido-plumbate(II) anionic motif.

    PubMed

    Mokhnache, Oualid; Boughzala, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Crystals of the one-dimensional organic-inorganic lead iodide-based compound catena-poly[bis-(piperazine-1,4-diium) [[tetra-iodido-plumbate(II)]-μ-iodido] iodide monohydrate], (C4N2H12)2[PbI5]I·H2O, were obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature of a solution containing lead iodide and piperazine in a 1:2 molar ratio. Inorganic lead iodide chains, organic (C4N2H12)(2+) cations, water mol-ecules of crystallization and isolated I(-) anions are connected through N-H⋯·I, N-H⋯OW and OW-H⋯I hydrogen-bond inter-actions. Zigzag chains of corner-sharing [PbI6](4-) octa-hedra with composition [PbI4/1I2/2](3-) running parallel to the a axis are present in the structure packing. PMID:26870585

  18. New benzocycloalkylpiperazines, potent and selective 5-HT1A receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    el Ahmad, Y; Laurent, E; Maillet, P; Talab, A; Teste, J F; Dokhan, R; Tran, G; Ollivier, R

    1997-03-14

    A series of 1-(benzocycloalkyl)-4-(benzamidolkyl)piperazine derivatives was prepared in order to obtain compounds with a high affinity and selectivity for 5-HT1A receptors. The modifications of aromatic substituents, the length of the alkyl chain, and the size of the ring were explored. Most of N-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthyl)-N'-(benzamidoethyl)piperazines (32-37) were bound to 5-HT1A receptors in a nanomolar range and presented a high degree of selectivity. After resolution, levorotatory enantiomers showed affinity and selectivity higher than those of dextrorotory ones for 5-HT1A sites. The agonist type activity of selected derivatives was also confirmed in vitro on the inhibition of the activation of adenylate cyclase induced by forskolin and, in vivo, on the induction of the lower lip retraction in rats. PMID:9083484

  19. Chiral separation and CD characterisation of enantiomeric cyclotriphosphazene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bui, Tam T T; Coles, Simon J; Davies, David B; Drake, Alex F; Eaton, Robert J; Hursthouse, Michael B; Kili, Adem; Shaw, Robert A; Ye?ilot, Serkan

    2005-10-01

    The gem-disubstituted cyclotriphosphazene 1 reacted with piperazine (pip) to give the piperazine-bridged derivative 2, which is expected to exist in meso and racemic forms because the two PCl (pip) groups are stereogenic. The proton-decoupled (31)P NMR spectrum of 2 gave rise to two similar sets of ABX signals in a 1:1 ratio, consistent with formation of diastereoisomers. The meso and racemic forms of compound 2 were separated by column chromatography on silica gel and characterised by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, (31)P NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. Using HPLC with a chiral stationary phase, the racemic form of compound 2 was further separated into enantiomers, which were characterised by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. This is the first report of the separation of enantiomers in the field of cyclophosphazene chemistry and hence the first CD spectra of derivatives in which the cyclophosphazene ring is at the chiral centre. PMID:16096990

  20. A comparison of the genetic activity of pyrvinium pamoate with that of several other anthelmintic drugs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hennig, U G; Galindo-Prince, O C; Cortinas de Nava, C; Savage, E A; von Borstel, R C

    1987-02-01

    Several anthelmintic drugs that are used routinely in oxyuriasis therapy were analyzed for genotoxicity in a diploid mitotic recombination and gene conversion assay (strain D5 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and in a haploid yeast reversion assay (strain XV185-14C). Piperazine citrate, piperazine adipate, mebendazole and thiabendazole did not appear to be genotoxic in either yeast strain. Pyrvinium pamoate induced the reversion of the missense, nonsense and frameshift alleles in strain XV185-14C, whereas pyrantel pamoate induced only the reversion of the frameshift allele. Pyrvinium pamoate was recombinogenic in strain D5, and there is an indication that pyrantel pamoate, at the lowest dose that was tested, might induce gene conversion or aneuploidy. PMID:3543669

  1. Phenothiazine drugs: structure-activity relationships explained by a conformation that mimics dopamine.

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, A P; Snyder, S H

    1975-01-01

    The antischizophrenic activity of phenothiazine drugs and their tendency to elicit extrapyramidal symptoms are thought to involve blockade of synaptic dopamine receptors in the brain. Space filling molecular models show how favorable Van der Waal's interactions between the side chain amino of phenothiazines and the 2-substituent on ring A can promote a conformation mimicking dopamine. These Van der Waal's attractive forces can expain (i) the greater potency of drugs with trifluoromethyl rather than chlorine as a 2-substituent; (ii) the enhanced activity of phenothiazines with piperazine instead of alkylamino side chains; (iii) the increased potency associated with hydroxyethylpiperazines as contrasted to piperazine side chains; (iv) the greater potency of cis rather than trans thioxanthenes; and (v) the crucial location of the ring A substituent at carbon no. 2. Potential energy calculations support the observations with molecular models and suggest an active conformation for the phenothiazines. PMID:239403

  2. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Jason Davis; Marcus Hilliard; Amorvadee Veawab

    2006-07-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The pilot plant data have been reconciled using 17% inlet CO{sub 2}. A rate-based model demonstrates that the stripper is primarily controlled by liquid film mast transfer resistance, with kinetics at vacuum and diffusion of reactants and products at normal pressure. An additional major unknown ion, probably glyoxylate, has been observed in MEA degradation. Precipitation of gypsum may be a feasible approach to removing sulphate from amine solutions and providing for simultaneous removal of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. Corrosion of carbon steel in uninhibited MEA solution is increased by increased amine concentration, by addition of piperazine, and by greater CO{sub 2} loading.

  3. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J.Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Jennifer Lu; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2004-07-29

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. CO{sub 2} mass transfer rates are second order in piperazine concentration and increase with ionic strength. Modeling of stripper performance suggests that 5 m K{sup +}/2.5 m PZ will require 25 to 46% less heat than 7 m MEA. The first pilot plant campaign was completed on June 24. The CO{sub 2} penetration through the absorber with 20 feet of Flexipac{trademark} 1Y varied from 0.6 to 16% as the inlet CO{sub 2} varied from 3 to 12% CO{sub 2} and the gas rate varied from 0.5 to 3 kg/m{sup 2}-s.

  4. CO{sub 2} CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; J.Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2005-01-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Thermodynamic modeling predicts that the heat of desorption of CO{sub 2} from 5m K+/2.5 PZ from 85 kJ/mole at 40 C to 30 kJ/mole at 120 C. Mass transfer modeling of this solvent suggests that carbonate and general salt concentration play a major role in catalyzing the rate of reaction of CO{sub 2} with piperazine. Stripper modeling suggests that with the multipressure stripper, the energy consumption with a generic solvent decreases by 15% as the heat of desorption is decreased from 23.8 to 18.5 kcal/gmol. A second pilot plant campaign with 5m K+/2.5 PZ was successfully completed.

  5. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Andrew Sexton; Amorvadee Veawab

    2006-04-28

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. The final campaign of the pilot plant was completed in February 2006 with 5m K{sup +}/2.5m PZ and 6.4m K{sup +}/1.6m PZ using Flexipac AQ Style 20. The new cross-exchanger reduced the approach temperature to less than 9 C. Stripper modeling has demonstrated that a configuration with a ''Flashing Feed'' requires 6% less work that a simple stripper. The oxidative degradation of piperazine proceeds more slowly than that of monoethanolamine and produces ethylenediamine and other products. Uninhibited 5 m KHCO{sub 3}/2.5 m PZ corrodes 5 to 6 times faster that 30% MEA with 0.2 mol CO{sub 2}/mol MEA.

  6. Crystal structure of a new hybrid compound based on an iodidoplumbate(II) anionic motif

    PubMed Central

    Mokhnache, Oualid; Boughzala, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Crystals of the one-dimensional organicinorganic lead iodide-based compound catena-poly[bis(piperazine-1,4-diium) [[tetraiodidoplumbate(II)]-?-iodido] iodide monohydrate], (C4N2H12)2[PbI5]IH2O, were obtained by slow evaporation at room temperature of a solution containing lead iodide and piperazine in a 1:2 molar ratio. Inorganic lead iodide chains, organic (C4N2H12)2+ cations, water molecules of crystallization and isolated I? anions are connected through NH?I, NH?OW and OWH?I hydrogen-bond interactions. Zigzag chains of corner-sharing [PbI6]4? octahedra with composition [PbI4/1I2/2]3? running parallel to the a axis are present in the structure packing. PMID:26870585

  7. Antitussive effects of levodropropizine in the dog.

    PubMed

    Munt, P L; Clavenna, G; Algate, D R; Leach, R M

    1994-02-01

    The antitussive activity of levodropropizine (S(-)3-(4-phenyl-piperazine-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526, CAS 99291-25-5) was evaluated after oral administration to the conscious dog. Levodropropizine had a good antitussive activity, comparable with, but having a longer duration of action than dropropizine, the racemate from which it is derived. The antitussive activity of levodropropizine in the dog was approximately 1/20 of that of codeine phosphate. PMID:8147948

  8. Synthesis and Anti-inflammatory Performance of Newly Cyclizine Derivatives on Adult Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Abbas; Khalili, Mohsen; Chavrogh, Shahnaz; Nahri-Niknafs, Babak

    2012-01-01

    Cyclizine (1-benzhydryl-4-methyl-piperazine, CAS 82-92-8, CYC, I), a piperazine derivative, belongs to H1 antihistamine group of drugs that shows such pharmacological properties as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-platelet effects, similar to other H1-receptor antagonists. In this study, two new tolyl and cumene derivatives of I (1-ethyl- 4-[(p-isopropylphenyl) (p-tolyl) methyl]-piperazine, II and 1-[3, 4-dichlorophenyl]-4-[[p-isopropylphenyl] [p-tolyl] methyl]-piperazine, III) were synthesized to investigate their acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities in formalin and histamine-induced rat paw edema. In addition, the vascular permeability in formalin and histamine-induced paw edema, xylene-induced ear edema, and peritonitis due to acetic acid application into peritoneal cavity were measured. The cotton pellet-induced granuloma model was chosen for inducing chronic inflammation in rats. Findings proved reduction in formalin-induced rat paw edema and vascular permeability (acute inflammation) by I and II at 30 min after the injection. In addition, results in histamine-induced rat paw edema showed anti-inflammatory effects of all drugs started 60 min after the injection as these effects continued for a longer period by II and III comparing to I, as discussed above. In addition, the data on vascular permeability in xylene-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced to peritoneal cavity confirmed that substitutions on cyclizine molecule were more effective and could decrease the vascular permeability and acute inflammation. However, the results from the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats revealed that none of the drugs (I-III) were effective to reduce the reactions and intermediates of chronic inflammation. PMID:24250533

  9. Synthesis and Anti-inflammatory Performance of Newly Cyclizine Derivatives on Adult Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Abbas; Khalili, Mohsen; Chavrogh, Shahnaz; Nahri-Niknafs, Babak

    2012-01-01

    Cyclizine (1-benzhydryl-4-methyl-piperazine, CAS 82-92-8, CYC, I), a piperazine derivative, belongs to H1 antihistamine group of drugs that shows such pharmacological properties as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-platelet effects, similar to other H1-receptor antagonists. In this study, two new tolyl and cumene derivatives of I (1-ethyl- 4-[(p-isopropylphenyl) (p-tolyl) methyl]-piperazine, II and 1-[3, 4-dichlorophenyl]-4-[[p-isopropylphenyl] [p-tolyl] methyl]-piperazine, III) were synthesized to investigate their acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities in formalin and histamine-induced rat paw edema. In addition, the vascular permeability in formalin and histamine-induced paw edema, xylene-induced ear edema, and peritonitis due to acetic acid application into peritoneal cavity were measured. The cotton pellet-induced granuloma model was chosen for inducing chronic inflammation in rats. Findings proved reduction in formalin-induced rat paw edema and vascular permeability (acute inflammation) by I and II at 30 min after the injection. In addition, results in histamine-induced rat paw edema showed anti-inflammatory effects of all drugs started 60 min after the injection as these effects continued for a longer period by II and III comparing to I, as discussed above. In addition, the data on vascular permeability in xylene-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced to peritoneal cavity confirmed that substitutions on cyclizine molecule were more effective and could decrease the vascular permeability and acute inflammation. However, the results from the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats revealed that none of the drugs (I-III) were effective to reduce the reactions and intermediates of chronic inflammation. PMID:24250533

  10. Identification of novel GLUT inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Siebeneicher, Holger; Bauser, Marcus; Buchmann, Bernd; Heisler, Iring; Mller, Thomas; Neuhaus, Roland; Rehwinkel, Hartmut; Telser, Joachim; Zorn, Ludwig

    2016-04-01

    The compound class of 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines was identified using HTS as very potent inhibitors of facilitated glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Extensive structure-activity relationship studies (SAR) of each ring system of the molecular framework was established revealing essential structural motives (i.e., ortho-methoxy substituted benzene, piperazine and pyrimidine). The selectivity against GLUT2 was excellent and initial in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) studies are encouraging. PMID:26949183

  11. Modification of Marine Natural Product Ningalin B and SAR Study Lead to Potent P-Glycoprotein Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Wong, Iris L. K.; Jin, Wen Bin; Jiang, Tao; Chow, Larry M. C.; Wan, Sheng Biao

    2014-01-01

    In this study, new marine ningalin B analogues containing a piperazine or a benzoloxy group at ring C have been synthesized and evaluated on their P-gp modulating activity in human breast cancer and leukemia cell lines. Their structure-activity relationship was preliminarily studied. Compounds 19 and 20 are potent P-gp inhibitors. These two synthetic analogues of permethyl ningalin B may be potentially used as effective modulators of P-gp-mediated drug resistance in cancer cells. PMID:25329704

  12. Regioselective Green Electrochemical Approach to the Synthesis of Nitroacetaminophen Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Salahifar, Eslam; Nematollahi, Davood; Bayat, Mehdi; Mahyari, Amir; Amiri Rudbari, Hadi

    2015-10-01

    A regioselective green synthesis of nitroacetaminophen derivatives was carried out by electrochemical oxidation of acetaminophen, N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide, and 1-(4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)ethanone in the presence of nitrite ion as a nucleophile. The present work has led to the development of a reagentless green and facile electrochemical method for the synthesis of some nitroacetaminophen derivatives. PMID:26381590

  13. Low resolution and high resolution MS for studies on the metabolism and toxicological detection of the new psychoactive substance methoxypiperamide (MeOP).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Holderbaum, Anna; Kavanagh, Pierce; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-10-01

    In 2013, the new psychoactive substance methoxypiperamide (MeOP) was first reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drug and Drug Addiction. Its structural similarity to already controlled piperazine designer drugs might have contributed to the decision to offer MeOP for online purchase. The aims of this work were to identify the phase I/II metabolites of MeOP in rat urine and the human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes responsible for the initial metabolic steps. Finally, the detectability of MeOP in rat urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography coupled with multistage mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) standard urine screening approaches (SUSAs) was evaluated. After sample preparation by cleavage of conjugates followed by extraction for elucidating phase I metabolites, the analytes were separated and identified by GC-MS as well as liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS). For detection of phase II metabolites, the analytes were separated and identified after urine precipitation followed by LC-HR-MS/MS. The following metabolic steps could be postulated: hydrolysis of the amide, N-oxide formation, N- and/or O-demethylation, oxidation of the piperazine ring to the corresponding keto-piperazine, piperazine ring opening followed by oxidation of a methylene group to the corresponding imide, and hydroxylation of the phenyl group. Furthermore, N-acetylation, glucuronidation and sulfation were observed. Using human CYPs, CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and/or CYP3A4 were found to catalyze N-oxide formation and N-, O-demethylation and/or oxidation. Mostly MeOP and N-oxide-MeOP but to a minor degree also other metabolites could be detected in the GC-MS and LC-MS(n) SUSAs. PMID:26456786

  14. Synthesis, magnetism, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic study of a family of [Ln3Fe7] coordination clusters (Ln = Gd, Tb, and Er).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ghulam; Lan, Yanhua; Mereacre, Valeriu; Buth, Gernot; Sougrati, Moulay T; Grandjean, Fernande; Long, Gary J; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K

    2013-10-21

    The reaction of N-methydiethanolamine (mdeaH2), benzoic acid, FeCl3, and Ln(NO3)3·6H2O or LnCl3·xH2O yields a series of decanuclear coordination clusters, [Ln3Fe7(μ4-O)2(μ3-OH)2(mdea)7(μ-benzoate)4(N3)6]·4MeCN·H2O, where Ln = Gd(III) (1) or Tb(III) (2), and [Er3Fe7(μ4-O)2(μ3-OH)2(mdea)7(μ-benzoate)4(N3)5(MeOH)]Cl·7.5H2O·11.5MeOH (3). The isostructural compounds 1-3 all crystallize isotypically in the triclinic space group P1̅ with Z = 2, as does the previously reported dysprosium analogue 4. Six of the Fe(III) ions are pseudooctahedrally coordinated, whereas the seventh has a trigonal-bipyramidal coordination geometry. Temperature-dependent direct-current magnetic susceptibility studies indicate that intracluster antiferromagnetic interactions are dominant in 1-3. The frequency-dependent out-of-phase (χ″) alternating-current susceptibility reveals that 2 undergoes a slow relaxation of its magnetization, presumably resulting from anisotropy of the Tb(III) ions. Between 30 and 295 K, the (57)Fe Mössbauer spectra reveal paramagnetic behavior with six partially resolved quadrupole doublets, one for the trigonal-bipyramidal Fe(III) site and five for the six pseudooctahedral Fe(III) sites. The Mössbauer spectra of 2 and 3 obtained between 3 and 30 K are consistent with the presence of Fe(III) intracluster antiferromagnetic coupling with slow magnetic relaxation relative to the Larmor precession time. Further, the observed changes in the effective magnetic field values in the spectra measured at 3 K with increasing applied field are consistent with the effect of the local spin polarization along the applied magnetic field direction, a behavior reminiscent of antiparallel spin-coupled iron molecular paramagnetic systems. PMID:24089701

  15. Structure elucidation of phototransformation products of unapproved analogs of the erectile dysfunction drug sildenafil in artificial freshwater with UPLC-Q Exactive-MS.

    PubMed

    Acea, Jaume; Prez, Sandra; Gardinali, Piero; Abad, Jos Luis; Eichhorn, Peter; Heuett, Nubia; Barcel, Dami

    2014-12-01

    In this study, four unapproved analogues of Sildenafil (SDF) were photodegraded under synthetic sunlight in artificial freshwater. Homosildenafil (H-SDF), hydroxyhomo-sildenafil (HH-SDF), norneosildenafil (NR-SDF) and thiosildenafil (T-SDF) were selected because they are frequently detected as adulterants in natural herbal products. Using UPLC-Orbitrap (Q Exactive)-MS, six photoproducts common to H-SDF, HH-SDF and T-SDF and nine unique transformation products of different molecular weights were identified based on their high-resolution (+)ESI product ion spectra. Mass spectral analysis of deuterated H-SDF, labeled on the N-ethyl group, allowed to gain mechanistic insight into the fragmentation pathway of the substituted piperazine ring and to support the postulated photoproduct structures. The mass spectral fragmentation confirmed the stepwise destruction of the piperazine ring eventually producing a sulfonic acid derivative (C17 H20 N4 O5 S: 392.1151?Da). In contrast, the photodegradation of NR-SDF, which lacks a piperazine ring in its structure, formed only two prominent photoproducts originating from N,N-dealkylation of the sulfonamide followed by hydrolysis. The current work constitutes the first study on the photodegradation of analogs of erectile dysfunction drugs and the first detection of two transformation products (m/z 449 and 489) in environmental samples. PMID:25476946

  16. Targeting tumor hypoxia with 2-nitroimidazole-indocyanine green dye conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zanganeh, Saeid; Mohammad, Innus; Aguirre, Andres; Wang, Tianheng; Yang, Yi; Kuhn, Liisa; Smith, Michael B.; Zhu, Quing

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Tumor hypoxia is a major indicator of treatment resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, and fluorescence optical tomography has tremendous potential to provide clinically useful, functional information by identifying tumor hypoxia. The synthesis of a 2-nitroimidazole-indocyanine green conjugate using a piperazine linker (piperazine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG) capable of robust fluorescent imaging of tumor hypoxia is described. In vivo mouse tumor imaging studies were completed and demonstrate an improved imaging capability of the new dye relative to an earlier version of the dye that was synthesized with an ethanolamine linker (ethanolamine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG). Mouse tumors located at imaging depths of 1.5 and 2.0cm in a turbid medium were imaged at various time points after intravenous injection of the dyes. On average, the reconstructed maximum fluorescence concentration of the tumors injected with piperazine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG was twofold higher than that injected with ethanolamine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG within 3h postinjection period and 1.6 to 1.7times higher beyond 3h postinjection. The untargeted bis-carboxylic acid ICG completely washed out after 3h postinjection. Thus, the optimal window to assess tumor hypoxia is beyond 3h postinjection. These findings were supported with fluorescence images of histological sections of tumor samples and an immunohistochemistry technique for identifying tumor hypoxia. PMID:23764695

  17. [Prevalence of new designer drugs and their legal status in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kawamura, Maiko; Ogata, Jun; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many analogs of narcotics have been widely distributed as easily available psychotropic substances and have become a serious problem in Japan. To counter the spread of these non-controlled substances, the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan was amended in 2006 to establish a new category; Designated Substances in order to more strictly control these substances. In April 2007, 31 compounds and 1 plant were first controlled as Designated Substances. Before 2007, the major compounds distributed in the Japanese illegal drug market were tryptamines, phenethylamines and piperazines. Alkyl nitrites, such as isobutyl nitrite and isopentyl nitrite, were also widely distributed. After they were listed as Narcotics or Designated Substances in 2007, these compounds, especially the tryptamines, quickly disappeared from the market. In their place, cathinone derivatives have been widely distributed, as well as different phenethylamines and piperazines. Additionally, in recent years, new herbal products containing synthetic cannabinoids have appeared globally. As at July 2012, 78 substances (including 1 plant; Salvia divinorum) were listed in the category of Designated Substances. They were 13 tryptamines, 17 phenethylamines, 11 cathinones, 4 piperazines, 23 synthetic cannabinoids, 6 alkyl nitrites, 3 other compounds and 1 plant. In this review, we show our survey of the spread of new designer drugs in Japan, focusing especially on synthetic cannabinoids and cathinone derivatives. Also, the prevalence and legal status of these substances in other countries will be presented. PMID:23292017

  18. Targeting tumor hypoxia with 2-nitroimidazole-indocyanine green dye conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Zanganeh, Saeid; Mohammad, Innus; Aguirre, Andres; Wang, Tianheng; Yang, Yi; Kuhn, Liisa; Smith, Michael B.; Zhu, Quing

    2013-06-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a major indicator of treatment resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, and fluorescence optical tomography has tremendous potential to provide clinically useful, functional information by identifying tumor hypoxia. The synthesis of a 2-nitroimidazole-indocyanine green conjugate using a piperazine linker (piperazine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG) capable of robust fluorescent imaging of tumor hypoxia is described. In vivo mouse tumor imaging studies were completed and demonstrate an improved imaging capability of the new dye relative to an earlier version of the dye that was synthesized with an ethanolamine linker (ethanolamine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG). Mouse tumors located at imaging depths of 1.5 and 2.0 cm in a turbid medium were imaged at various time points after intravenous injection of the dyes. On average, the reconstructed maximum fluorescence concentration of the tumors injected with piperazine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG was twofold higher than that injected with ethanolamine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG within 3 h postinjection period and 1.6 to 1.7 times higher beyond 3 h postinjection. The untargeted bis-carboxylic acid ICG completely washed out after 3 h postinjection. Thus, the optimal window to assess tumor hypoxia is beyond 3 h postinjection. These findings were supported with fluorescence images of histological sections of tumor samples and an immunohistochemistry technique for identifying tumor hypoxia.

  19. Design, synthesis of new β-carboline derivatives and their selective anti-HIV-2 activity.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Penta; Chander, Subhash; Balzarini, Jan; Pannecouque, Christophe; Murugesan, Sankaranarayanan

    2015-03-15

    In the present study, a new series of β-carboline derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition activity against both HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains. Among these reported analogues, surprisingly (1-phenyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)(4-p-tolylpiperazin-1-yl)methanone (7b), (4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)(1-phenyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)methanone (7f), (4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)(1-phenyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)methanone (7k), (4-(2-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)(1-phenyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)methanone (7l) displayed selective inhibition of HIV-2 strain with EC50 values of 3.3, 3.2, 2.6 and 5.4μM, respectively, which are comparable with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors lamivudine and dideoxyinosine. As these analogues have not shown in vitro HIV-2 reverse transcriptase inhibition, it could be excluded as potential target for their specific anti-HIV-2 activity. PMID:25682562

  20. Heat of Dissolution Measurements for CO2 in Mixed Alkanolamine Solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Vinayak Kabadi

    2007-03-17

    The main objective of this research was to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture process, and for better understanding of the thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-Alkanolamine systems. An experimental set-up has been designed using the Isothermal Micro Calorimeter for measuring the solubilities and enthalpies of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA, MDEA, PZ, KF and water. All the measurements were done at temperatures 15, 40, and 75 C by maintaining a constant pressure of 100 psig. A detailed study has been done on the variation of solubilities and enthalpies over a wide range of temperatures, pressures and concentrations, by extracting the information from the literature.

  1. One-component thioxanthone acetic acid derivative photoinitiator for free radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Esen, Duygu S; Temel, Gokhan; Balta, Demet K; Allonas, Xavier; Arsu, Nergis

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid-based thioxanthone (TXCH2 COOH) was synthesized and characterized and used as a photoinitiator for free radical photopolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the absence and presence of a tertiary amine (MDEA) in different solvents. Different absorption properties were observed depending on the solvent. Fluorescence and phosphorescence experiments were also carried out successfully. The fluorescence quantum yield was found to be 0.09 and the phosphorescence lifetime was calculated as 138 ms at 77 K. The photoinitiator undergoes efficient intersystem crossing into the triplet state and the lowest triplet state possesses π-π* configuration. Laser flash photolysis experiments show that transient absorption of TXCH2 COOH is similar to the parent thioxanthone and the triplet lifetime was calculated as 2.3 μs at 630 nm. PMID:24372104

  2. LC-MS-MS Method for Stimulants in Wastewater During Football Games.

    PubMed

    Gul, Waseem; Stamper, Brandon J; Godfrey, Murrell; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2016-03-01

    A method was developed for the analysis of amphetamines and cocaine (Coc) in wastewater samples using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Seven stimulant-type drugs and metabolites were analyzed. These drugs included amphetamine (Amp), methamphetamine (Meth), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), Coc and benzoylecgonine (BE, the major metabolite of Coc). These drugs were chosen because of their widespread use. Wastewater samples were collected at both the Oxford Waste Water Treatment Plant in Oxford, Mississippi (MS) and the University Wastewater Treatment Plant in University, MS. Samples were collected on weekends in which the Ole Miss Rebel football team held home games (Vaught-Hemingway Stadium, University, MS 38677). The collected samples were analyzed using a validated method and found to contain Amp, Meth, MDMA, Coc and BE. The concentrations of Amp and BE significantly rose in the university wastewater during football games. PMID:26538543

  3. Paper spray and extraction spray mass spectrometry for the direct and simultaneous quantification of eight drugs of abuse in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Espy, Ryan D; Teunissen, Sebastiaan Frans; Manicke, Nicholas E; Ren, Yue; Ouyang, Zheng; van Asten, Arian; Cooks, R Graham

    2014-08-01

    Determination of eight drugs of abuse in blood has been performed using paper spray or extraction spray mass spectrometry in under 2 min with minimal sample preparation. A method has been optimized for quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA), morphine, cocaine, and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from a single blood spot. Sample to sample variations of 1-5% relative standard deviation were achieved using stable isotope-labeled internal standards and tandem mass spectrometry. Limits of detection for all drugs were below typical physiological and toxicological levels. Paper spray and extraction spray each used less than 10 μL of whole blood. These methods exhibit the potential for performing rapid and high-throughput assays for selective on-site multicompound quantitative screening of illicit drugs. PMID:24970379

  4. Detection of designer drugs in human hair by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS).

    PubMed

    Keller, T; Miki, A; Regenscheit, P; Dirnhofer, R; Schneider, A; Tsuchihashi, H

    1998-06-01

    Since its inception in the early 1970s under the name plasma chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has undergone great changes. It is now utilized more and more in forensic science laboratories where it is used to detect explosives and environmental pollutants [1-4] as well as its use in detecting drugs of abuse [5-8]. Although IMS is known for nearly 30 years now [9], relatively few cases of the application of ion mobility spectrometry to the analysis of human hair have been reported [10-12]. The authors report a new and quick method to rapidly screen and determine MDMA ('ecstasy', 'Adam') and MDEA ('Eve') in human hair. The proposed method using trihexylamine as internal standard resulted in a rapid procedure useful in screening human hair specimens for designer drugs. PMID:9670484

  5. Automated solid-phase extraction and two-step derivatisation for simultaneous analysis of basic illicit drugs in serum by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Weinmann, W; Renz, M; Vogt, S; Pollak, S

    2000-01-01

    A combination of automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent two-step derivatisation has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of basic drugs of abuse and cocaine metabolites in serum samples. Substances included in this procedure are morphine, codeine, methadone, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, methylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDEA and MDA. SPE with mixed-mode cartridges (RP-C8 and cation-exchange) was fully automated with a Zymark RapidTrace SPE robot. GC/MS analysis was performed after derivatisation with a new two-step reaction by trifluoroacetic anhydride and 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropanol. High recoveries (> 85%) with high reproducibility (CV 1.1-3.8%) were found for all drugs. High correlation coefficients (r > 0.998) were obtained due to the addition of deuterated standards prior to extraction. Experience obtained over 2 years of applying this method to drug analysis in serum is discussed. PMID:10929239

  6. Identifying methamphetamine exposure in children

    PubMed Central

    Castaneto, Marisol S.; Barnes, Allan J.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Schaffer, Michael; Rogers, Kristen K.; Stewart, Deborah; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing.1 The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Method 91 children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation (CAARE) Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis (UCD) Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine and hair were 6.9%, 22.1% and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n=5) and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Conclusion Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine, or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children. PMID:24263642

  7. Identification of amiodarone metabolites in human bile by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Pan; You, Tiangeng; Chen, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Tao; Huang, Haihua; Zhong, Dafang

    2011-06-01

    Amiodarone is recognized as an effective drug in the treatment of arrhythmias. Previous experiments demonstrated that mono-N-desethylamiodarone (MDEA) was the major circulating metabolite in humans. In addition, dealkylation, hydroxylation, and deamination were minor metabolic pathways. The purpose of this study was to identify the metabolites of amiodarone in the bile obtained from patients with T-tube drainage after oral drug administration. Amiodarone metabolism in vitro was also investigated using human liver microsomes (HLMs) and S9 fraction. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF MS) revealed 33 metabolites in human bile, including 22 phase I and 11 phase II metabolites. The major metabolites were MDEA (M7) and ω-carboxylate amiodarone (M12). Metabolite M12 was isolated from human bile, and the chemical structure was confirmed using UPLC-Q/TOF MS and ¹H NMR. Moreover, the authentic standards of two hydroxylated metabolites, 2-hydroxylamiodarone and 3'-hydroxylamiodarone, were obtained through microbial transformation. Several novel metabolic pathways of amiodarone in human were proposed, including ω-carboxylation, deiodination, and glucuronidation. The in vitro study demonstrated that incubation of HLMs with amiodarone did not give rise to any carboxyl metabolites. In contrast, M12 and its metabolites were detected in human liver S9 incubation samples, and the production of these metabolites were inhibited almost completely by 4-methylpyrazole, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, suggesting the involvement of alcohol dehydrogenase in the ω-carboxylation of amiodarone. Overall, UPLC-Q/TOF MS analysis leads to the discovery of several novel amiodarone metabolites in human bile and underscores the importance of bile as an excretion pathway. PMID:21398391

  8. Enantiomeric analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Kondakal, Vishnu V R; Baker, David R

    2010-07-01

    The manuscript concerns the development and validation of a method for enantiomeric analysis of structurally related amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)), ephedrines (ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and norephedrine) and venlafaxine in wastewater by means of chiral chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Solid-phase extraction on Oasis HLB sorbent used for sample clean-up and concentration of analytes resulted in very good recoveries accounting for >70%. Signal suppression during MS analysis was negligible for most studied analytes. Resolution of enantiomers of chiral drugs was found to be higher than 1. Preliminary assay validation was undertaken. The mean correlation coefficients of the calibration curves, which were on average higher than 0.997 for all studied analytes, showed good linearity of the method in the studied range. Intra- and inter-day repeatabilities were on average less than 5%. The method quantification limits in wastewater were at low ppt levels and varied from 2.25 to 11.75ng/L. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of raw and treated wastewater samples collected from four wastewater treatment plants. A common occurrence of 1R,2S (-)-ephedrine, 1S,2S (+)-pseudoephedrine and venlafaxine in both raw and treated wastewater samples was observed. Amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA and MDEA were also detected in several wastewater samples. The study of enantiomeric fractions of these chiral drugs proved their variable non-racemic composition. The influence of wastewater treatment processes on the enantiomeric composition of chiral drugs was also noted and might indicate enantioselective processes occurring during treatment, although more comprehensive research has to be undertaken to support this hypothesis. PMID:20537654

  9. Photocatalytic dechlorination of PCB 138 using leuco-methylene blue and visible light; reaction conditions and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Izadifard, Maryam; Langford, Cooper H; Achari, Gopal

    2010-09-15

    A study of dechlorination of PCB 138, under visible light employing methylene blue (MB) and triethylamine (TEA) in acetonitrile/water has been conducted to investigate the details of the mechanism of dechlorination and to determine the efficiency of the process for this representative congener. Two other amines, N-methyldiethanolamine (MEDA) and (triethanolamine) TEOA also replaced TEA and two other solvents, methanol and ethanol replacing acetonitrile were examined for effects on reaction rates. The results show that PCB 138 can be dechlorinated efficiently in this photocatalytic reaction. Clarifying ambiguities in several previous reports, the reduced form of MB, leuco-methylene blue (LMB) was identified as responsible for the photoreaction with its excited state transferring an electron to PCBs; oxidized LMB (i.e. MB) is reduced back to LMB by the excess amine present. The reaction depends on a cycle driven by the amine as a sacrificial electron donor. MEDA proved to be the most efficient electron donor; apparently in consequence of the most favourable steady state concentration of LMB. Methanol and ethanol may be used to replace acetonitrile with little change in the efficiency of the reaction. PMID:20542375

  10. Analysis of Ethanolamines: Validation of Semi-Volatile Analysis by HPLC-MS/MS by EPA Method MS888

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J; Vu, A; Koester, C

    2008-10-08

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Region 5 Chicago Regional Laboratory (CRL) developed a method titled 'Analysis of Diethanolamine, Triethanolamine, n-Methyldiethanolamine, and n-Ethyldiethanolamine in Water by Single Reaction Monitoring Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS): EPA Method MS888'. This draft standard operating procedure (SOP) was distributed to multiple EPA laboratories and to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which was tasked to serve as a reference laboratory for EPA's Environmental Reference Laboratory Network (ERLN) and to develop and validate analytical procedures. The primary objective of this study was to validate and verify the analytical procedures described in 'EPA Method MS888' for analysis of the listed ethanolamines in aqueous samples. The gathered data from this validation study will be used to: (1) demonstrate analytical method performance; (2) generate quality control acceptance criteria; and (3) revise the SOP to provide a validated method that would be available for use during a homeland security event. The data contained in this report will be compiled, by EPA CRL, with data generated by other EPA Regional laboratories so that performance metrics of 'EPA Method MS888' can be determined.

  11. Exquisite 1D Assemblies Arising from Rationally Designed Asymmetric Donor-Acceptor Architectures Exhibiting Aggregation-Induced Emission as a Function of Auxiliary Acceptor Strength.

    PubMed

    Singh, Roop Shikha; Mukhopadhyay, Sujay; Biswas, Arnab; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2016-01-11

    One-dimensional nanostructures with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties have been fabricated to keep the pace with growing demand from optoelectronics applications. The compounds 2-[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)benzylidene]malononitrile (PM1), 2-{4-[4-(pyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl]-benzylidene}malononitrile (PM2), and 2-{4-[4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl]benzylidene}malononitrile (PM3) have been designed and synthesized by melding piperazine and dicyanovinylene to investigate AIE in an asymmetric donor-acceptor (D-A) construct of A'-D-?-A- topology. The synthetic route has been simplified by using phenylpiperazine as a weak donor (D), dicyanovinylene as an acceptor (A), and pyridyl/pyrimidyl groups (PM2/PM3) as auxiliary acceptors (A'). It has been established that A' plays a vital role in triggering AIE in these compounds because the same D-A construct led to aggregation-caused quenching upon replacing A' with an electron-donating ethyl group (PM1). Moreover, the effect of restricted intramolecular rotation and twisted intramolecular charge transfer on the mechanism of AIE has also been investigated. Furthermore, it has been clearly shown that the optical disparities of these A'-D-?-A architectures are a direct consequence of comparative A' strength. Single-crystal X-ray analyses provided justification for role of intermolecular interactions in aggregate morphology. Electrochemical and theoretical studies affirmed the effect of the A' strength on the overall properties of the A'-D-?-A system. PMID:26615814

  12. Prevalence and co-existence of active components of 'legal highs'.

    PubMed

    Zuba, Dariusz; Byrska, Bogumi?a

    2013-06-01

    The results of a study performed on samples of 'legal highs' seized in head shops by law enforcement and health services in Poland between mid-2008 and mid-2011 are presented. In total, 449 preparations which differed in labelling, net masses, forms of distribution, etc., were analyzed. A variety of sophisticated analytical methods, including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-quadropole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied for component identification and quantification. The most common ingredients of legal highs were (in descending order): MPDV, caffeine, butylone, TFMPP, lidocaine, 4-MEC, mephedrone, pFPP, BZP, and MDPBP. The scatter of substances changed over time, and piperazines were often ousted by cathinones. Most of the preparations were composed of two or more ingredients. Cathinones and piperazines were mixed mainly within the chemical classes (77.6% and 56.1% of dual links, respectively), caffeine was mixed both with piperazines (24 products) and cathinones (22 products), whereas lidocaine only with the latter class (47 products). A great inconsistency in the qualitative and quantitative composition of products with identical labelling was shown in an example of Coco products seized after August 2010; we found 10 different single component or mixture preparations, and the content of individual ingredients varied from several to hundreds of mgs. This paper summarizes potential dangers connected with the uncontrolled sale of psychoactive substances, and indicates important issues concerning the analysis of legal highs. PMID:22549997

  13. Diketopiperazine Derivatives from the Marine-Derived Actinomycete Streptomyces sp. FXJ7.328

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei; Xi, Lijun; Liu, Peipei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Wei; Huang, Ying; Zhu, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Five new diketopiperazine derivatives, (3Z,6E)-1-N-methyl-3-benzylidene-6-(2S-methyl-3-hydroxypropylidene)piperazine-2,5-dione (1), (3Z,6E)-1-N-methyl-3-benzylidene-6-(2R-methyl-3-hydroxypropylidene)piperazine-2,5-dione (2), (3Z,6Z)-3-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-6-isobutylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (3), (3Z,6Z)-3-((1H-imidazol-5-yl)-methylene)-6-isobutylidenepiperazine-2,5-dione (4), and (3Z,6S)-3-benzylidene-6-(2S-but-2-yl)piperazine-2,5-dione (5), were isolated from the marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. FXJ7.328. The structures of 15 were determined by spectroscopic analysis, CD exciton chirality, the modified Moshers, Marfeys and the C3 Marfeys methods. Compound 3 showed modest antivirus activity against influenza A (H1N1) virus with an IC50 value of 41.5 4.5 ?M. In addition, compound 6 and 7 displayed potent anti-H1N1 activity with IC50 value of 28.9 2.2 and 6.8 1.5 ?M, respectively. Due to the lack of corresponding data in the literature, the 13C NMR data of (3Z,6S)-3-benzylidene-6-isobutylpiperazine-2,5-dione (6) were also reported here for the first time. PMID:23538868

  14. Solvent isotope effects on nucleophilic displacement reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetic solvent isotope effect, KSIE, (k/sub H/sub 2/O//k/sub D/sub 2/O/), at 25.0/sup 0/C and ionic strength, I, equal to 0.20 +- 0.02 M was measured for the nucleophilic displacement of iodine ion from iodomethane, iodoacetamide, and iodoacetate ion, thiophene from S-Methylthiophenium ion, and tosylate ion from methyl tosylate by bromide ion, chloride ion, acetate ion, hydroxide ion, water, ammonia, ethylenediamine, n-butylamine, piperazine, piperidine, quinuclidine, and 1,4-Diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane (DABCO), and the monoprotonated cations of ethylenediamine, piperazine, and DABCO. By means of solvent partition measurements at 25.0/sup 0/C and I = 0.02 M between H/sub 2/O and D/sub 2/O and a common immiscible organic solvent, the ground state activity coefficients in D/sub 2/O, the solution in H/sub 2/O being chosen as the reference state, were determined for the nitrogen-containing nucleophiles (except ammonia) and the substrates methyl tosylate, iodoacetamide, and iodoacetic acid. The solubilities at 25.0/sup 0/C of the picrate and tetraphenylborate salts of the monoprotonated cationic forms of ethylenediamine, piperazine, and DABCO were measured to determine the activity coefficients in D/sub 2/O of these ions relative to an H/sub 2/O reference state. Applying the Eyring equation, the activity coefficients of the transition states in D/sub 2/O, reference state H/sub 2/O, were calculated.

  15. Morphological Observation Of Enterobius Vermicularis Expelled By Various Anthelmintics.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seung Yull; Hong, Sung Tae; Kang, Shin Yong; Song, Chul Yong

    1981-08-01

    When enterobiasis cases were treated with anthelmintics only for one time, the interval to recurrence was variable by different drugs used. And this phenomenon is supposedly connected with biological or developmental cycle of the worm and the consequent efficacy of the different anthelmintics. This study was undertaken to confirm this fact by studying the expelled worms morphologically to correlate the anthelmintics efficacy and stage of worm development in Enterobius vermicularis. A total of 131 children in 3 orphanages was examined by 4 anal swabs (mean positive rate, 80%). They were randomized into 5 experimental groups. Each group was treated with placebo, mebendazole, pyrantel, pyrvinium, and piperazine (70 mg/kg, single dose) respectively. After treatment, all stool were collected for 3 days to get the expelled Enterobius. A total of 6,165 pinworms was studied under the microscope. The sex was discriminated and the length was individually measured. A number of male pinworms was collected in all groups. Females of 2~11 mm in length were also collected in 5 groups. However, significantly larger number of short females was observed in mebendazole group compared with other groups. Twenty-one days after the first treatment, all children were again treated with mebendazole. Once more stool were examined. A total of 1,853 worms was collected. In mebendazole group, there were no females longer than 8.74 mm in the second treatment. In pyrvinium group, 8.31mm in lenght was the longest for female. However in control, pyrantel and piperazine groups, females of 2~11 mm in length were collected. From above results, one could conclude that the removing ability of mebendazole and pyrvinium was satisfactory for the worms in the early stage of development in Enterobius. Pyrantel and single dose of piperazine showed less effective in worm reduction ability especially on those at the early stages. PMID:12902715

  16. Behavioral approach to nondyskinetic dopamine antagonists: identification of seroquel.

    PubMed

    Warawa, E J; Migler, B M; Ohnmacht, C J; Needles, A L; Gatos, G C; McLaren, F M; Nelson, C L; Kirkland, K M

    2001-02-01

    A great need exists for antipsychotic drugs which will not induce extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and tardive dyskinesias (TDs). These side effects are deemed to be a consequence of nonselective blockade of nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopamine D2 receptors. Nondyskinetic clozapine (1) is a low-potency D2 dopamine receptor antagonist which appears to act selectively in the mesolimbic area. In this work dopamine antagonism was assessed in two mouse behavioral assays: antagonism of apomorphine-induced climbing and antagonism of apomorphine-induced disruption of swimming. The potential for the liability of dyskinesias was determined in haloperidol-sensitized Cebus monkeys. Initial examination of a few close cogeners of 1 enhanced confidence in the Cebus model as a predictor of dyskinetic potential. Considering dibenzazepines, 2 was not dyskinetic whereas 2a was dyskinetic. Among dibenzodiazepines, 1 did not induce dyskinesias whereas its N-2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethyl analogue 3 was dyskinetic. The emergence of such distinctions presented an opportunity. Thus, aromatic and N-substituted analogues of 6-(piperazin-1-yl)-11H-dibenz[b,e]azepines and 11-(piperazin-1-yl)dibenzo[b,f][1,4]thiazepines and -oxazepines were prepared and evaluated. 11-(4-[2-(2-Hydroxyethoxy)ethyl]piperazin-1-yl)dibenzo[b,f][1,4]thiazepine (23) was found to be an apomorphine antagonist comparable to clozapine. It was essentially nondyskinetic in the Cebus model. With 23 as a platform, a number of N-substituted analogues were found to be good apomorphine antagonists but all were dyskinetic. PMID:11462978

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans Neuromuscular Junction: GABA Receptors and Ivermectin Action

    PubMed Central

    Hernando, Guillermina; Bouzat, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of human and animal helminth infections remains staggeringly high, thus urging the need for concerted efforts towards this area of research. GABA receptors, encoded by the unc-49 gene, mediate body muscle inhibition in Caenorhabditis elegans and parasitic nematodes and are targets of anthelmintic drugs. Thus, the characterization of nematode GABA receptors provides a foundation for rational anti-parasitic drug design. We therefore explored UNC-49 channels from C. elegans muscle cultured cells of the first larval stage at the electrophysiological and behavioral levels. Whole-cell recordings reveal that GABA, muscimol and the anthelmintic piperazine elicit macroscopic currents from UNC-49 receptors that decay in their sustained presence, indicating full desensitization. Single-channel recordings show that all drugs elicit openings of ?2.5 pA (+100 mV), which appear either as brief isolated events or in short bursts. The comparison of the lowest concentration required for detectable channel opening, the frequency of openings and the amplitude of macroscopic currents suggest that piperazine is the least efficacious of the three drugs. Macroscopic and single-channel GABA-activated currents are profoundly and apparently irreversibly inhibited by ivermectin. To gain further insight into ivermectin action at C. elegans muscle, we analyzed its effect on single-channel activity of the levamisol-sensitive nicotinic receptor (L-AChR), the excitatory receptor involved in neuromuscular transmission. Ivermectin produces a profound inhibition of the frequency of channel opening without significant changes in channel properties. By revealing that ivermectin inhibits C. elegans muscle GABA and L-AChR receptors, our study adds two receptors to the already known ivermectin targets, thus contributing to the elucidation of its pleiotropic effects. Behavioral assays in worms show that ivermectin potentiates piperazine-induced paralysis, thus suggesting that their combination is a good strategy to overcome the increasing resistance of parasites, an issue of global concern for human and animal health. PMID:24743647

  18. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Terraun Jones

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been developed with a stand-alone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. Parameters have been developed for use of the electrolyte NRTL model in AspenPlus. Analytical methods have been developed using gas chromatography and ion chromatography. The heat exchangers for the pilot plant have been ordered.

  19. Clinical trials with the new antitussive levodropropizine in adult bronchitic patients.

    PubMed

    Allegra, L; Bossi, R

    1988-08-01

    The results of 6 clinical trials involving a total of 174 patients are reported. Levodropropizine (S(-)-3-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526) was compared in double-blind manner with placebo, morclofone and cloperastine. The antitussive activity and therapeutic efficacy of the drug were shown to be greater than those of placebo and morclofone and similar to those of cloperastine. Levodropropizine was effective in about 80% of patients; in responders, cough frequency was reduced by an average of 33-51%. Levodropropizine was generally well tolerated and mild side-effects were reported for only 3% of patients. PMID:3058135

  20. Antitussive properties of levodropropizine.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, S; Melillo, G; Bestetti, A; Borsa, M; Giuliani, P; Tonon, G C

    1988-08-01

    The antitussive activity of levodropropizine (S(-)-3-(4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526), was evaluated in anaesthetized guinea-pigs and rabbits and in unanaesthetized guinea-pigs. Levodropropizine was shown to have good antitussive activity. Intravenously, it was 1/10 to 1/20 as active as codeine and comparable to dropropizine, from which it is derived, on mechanically and electrically induced coughing in rabbits and guinea-pigs. After oral administration to the guinea-pig the antitussive activity of levodropropizine was comparable with those of both dropropizine and codeine against coughing induced by irritant aerosols. PMID:3196407

  1. Determination of aliphatic and alicyclic amines in water by gas and liquid chromatography after derivatization by chloroformates.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, J; Hampel, S; Schmidt, W; Brauch, H J; Worch, E

    1996-05-01

    Two new methods were developed for the analysis of aliphatic (n-propylamine, pentylamine, hexylamine, heptylamine, octylamine) and alicyclic (pyrrolidine, morpholine, piperidine, piperazine) amines in water samples after derivatization and liquid-liquid-extraction. The carbamate-derivatives formed were determined by GC/MS (trichloroethyl carbamates) as well as by HPLC/fluorescence detection (9-fluorenylmethyl carbamates) in a concentration range between 0.05 and 1.0 microg/l suitable for drinking water analysis. Applications to German rivers and sewage plants show that both new methods produce corresponding results in analysing aliphatic and alicyclic amines in surface waters as well as in waste water samples. PMID:15045442

  2. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.

    PubMed

    Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

  3. In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Baliospermum montanum Muell. Arg roots.

    PubMed

    Mali, R G; Wadekar, R R

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol and aqueous extracts from the roots of Baliospermum montanum Muell. Arg were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and Ascardia galli. Various concentrations (10-100 mg/ml) of each extract were tested in the bioassay, which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. Both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 100 mg/ml. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was included as standard reference and distilled water as control. PMID:20390101

  4. Synthesis of new praziquantel analogues: potential candidates for the treatment of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Sadhu, Partha Sarathi; Kumar, Singam Naveen; Chandrasekharam, Malapaka; Pica-Mattoccia, Livia; Cioli, Donato; Rao, Vaidya Jayathirtha

    2012-01-15

    An efficient synthesis of antischistosomal drug praziquantel and analogues was achieved and the synthetic route designed was to afford structurally diverse analogues for better structure-activity relationship understanding. Total of nineteen PZQ analogues with structural variations at amide, piperazine and aromatic moieties have been synthesized and fully characterized. Among all the new analogues tested for antischistosomal activity, one dimethoxy tetrahydroisoquinoline analogue and two tetrahydro-?-carboline analogues exhibited moderate activity against adult Schistosoma mansoni. Tetrahydro-?-carboline analogues showed moderate activity whereas the presence of p-trifluoromethylbenzoyl and p-toluenesulphonyl moieties resulted in complete suppression of antischistosomal activity. PMID:22217873

  5. Discovery, Optimization, and Characterization of Novel Chlorcyclizine Derivatives for the Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported that chlorcyclizine (CCZ, Rac-2), an over-the-counter antihistamine piperazine drug, possesses in vitro and in vivo activity against hepatitis C virus. Here, we describe structure–activity relationship (SAR) efforts that resulted in the optimization of novel chlorcyclizine derivatives as anti-HCV agents. Several compounds exhibited EC50 values below 10 nM against HCV infection, cytotoxicity selectivity indices above 2000, and showed improved in vivo pharmacokinetic properties. The optimized molecules can serve as lead preclinical candidates for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection and as probes to study hepatitis C virus pathogenesis and host–virus interaction. PMID:26599718

  6. Beyond the Diketopiperazine Family with Alternatively Bridged Brevianamide F Analogues.

    PubMed

    Wauters, I; Goossens, H; Delbeke, E; Muylaert, K; Roman, B I; Van Hecke, K; Van Speybroeck, V; Stevens, C V

    2015-08-21

    A method for the preparation of 3,5-bridged piperazin-2-ones from a tryptophan-proline-based diketopiperazine is described using diphosgene to induce the ring closure. Density functional theory calculations were conducted to study the mechanism of this C-C bond formation. Several derivatives of the thus obtained α-chloroamine were synthesized by substitution of the chlorine atom using a range of O-, N-, S-, and C-nucleophiles. This novel class of brevianamide F analogues possess interesting breast cancer resistance protein inhibitory activity. PMID:26193166

  7. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; A. Frank Seibert

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Progress has been made in this reporting period on three subtasks. A simple thermodynamic model has been developed to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. A rate model has been formulated to predict the CO{sub 2} flux with these solutions under absorber conditions. A process and instrumentation diagram and process flow diagram have been prepared for modifications of the existing pilot plant system.

  8. A ferroelectric olefin-copper(I) organometallic polymer with flexible organic ligand (R)-MbVBP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guo-Xi; Xing, Zheng; Chen, Li-Zhuang; Han, Guang-Fan

    2015-07-01

    Hydrothermal treatment of (R)-2-methyl-1,4-bis(4-vinylbenzyl)piperazine [(R)-MbVBP] and CuCl afforded a novel olefin-copper(I) coordination compound. Introducing the flexible ligand (R)-MbVBP allowed the olefin-copper(I) organometallic compound to crystallize in a polar point group P21. The compound was ferroelectric, and its electric hysteresis loop showed a remnant polarization (Pr) of 0.13-0.32 ?C cm-2 and a coercive field (Ec) of 3.5-11 kV cm-1.

  9. Synthesis of deuterium-labeled fluphenazine.

    PubMed

    Shetty, H U; Hawes, E M; Midha, K K

    1984-01-01

    The propylpiperazine side chain of fluphenazine has been labeled with two, four, and six deuterium atoms by lithium aluminum deuteride reduction of the appropriate ester or imide. The gamma-carbon of the propyl group was labeled with two deuterium atoms by reduction of 10- (2-methoxycarbonylethyl) -2-trifluoromethyl-10H-phenothiazine, while four deuterium atoms were incorporated into the piperazine ring by reduction of 10-[3-(3,5-dioxo-1-piperazinyl)propyl]-2-trifluoromethyl-10H-pheno thiazine. The latter reduction gave the d4-labeled N-deshydroxyethyl metabolite of fluphenazine. PMID:6694091

  10. N',2-diphenylquinoline-4-carbohydrazide based NK3 receptor antagonists II.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jason M; Carling, Robert W; Chicchi, Gary G; Crawforth, James; Hutson, Peter H; Jones, A Brian; Kelly, Sarah; Marwood, Rose; Meneses-Lorente, Georgina; Mezzogori, Elena; Murray, Fraser; Rigby, Michael; Royo, Inmaculada; Russell, Michael G N; Shaw, Duncan; Sohal, Bindi; Tsao, Kwei Lan; Williams, Brian

    2006-11-15

    Introduction of selected amine containing side chains into the 3-position of N',2-diphenylquinoline-4-carbohydrazide based NK3 antagonists abolishes unwanted hPXR activation. Introduction of a fluorine at the 8-position is necessary to minimize unwanted hI(Kr) affinity and a piperazine N-tert-butyl group is necessary for metabolic stability. The lead compound (8m) occupies receptors within the CNS following oral dosing (Occ(90) 7 mg/kg po; plasma Occ(90) 0.4 microM) and has good selectivity and excellent PK properties. PMID:16950617

  11. Certain Metal Ions are Inhibitors of Cytochrome b (6) f Complex 'Rieske' Iron-Sulfur Protein Domain Movements

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Arthur G.; Bowman, Michael K.; Kramer, David M.

    2002-03-26

    1Abbreviations: cyt, cytochrome; cyt bL, low potential b cytochrome; cyt bH, high potential b cytochrome; DBMIB, 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropylbenzoquinone; DMSO, dimethylsulfoxide; DNP-INT, 2'-iodo-6-isopropyl-3-methyl-2',4,4'-trinitrodiphenylether; EPR, electron paramagnetic resonance; HEPES, n-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-n'-(2-ethanesulfonic acid); NQNO, 2-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline n-oxide; ISP, iron-sulfur protein; MOA, E-b-methoxyacrylate; pmf, proton motive force; PC, plastocyanin; PQ, plastoquinone; PQH2, plastoquinol; PS, photosystem; Qi, quinol reductase; Qo, quinol oxidase; UHDBT, 5-n-undecyl-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole.

  12. Determination of Anthelmintic Activity of the Leaf and Bark Extract of Tamarindus Indica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Das, S. S.; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

  13. Evaluation of phenylpiperazines as targeting agents for neuroblastoma.

    PubMed Central

    Babich, J. W.; Graham, W. A.; Fischman, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    The potential of radiolabelled phenylpiperazines as agents for the detection and therapy of tumours of neural crest origin was evaluated by in vitro pharmacological studies with human neuroblastoma cell lines [SK-N-SH and SK-N-BE(2C)], and in vivo by biodistribution measurements. The ability of phenylpiperazines: 4-phenyl-piperazine (PP), 1-carboxamidino-4-phenyl-piperazine (CAPP), [4-(3-chlorophenyl)-piperazine (mCPP), 4-(3-trifluoro methyl phenyl)-piperazine (TFMPP), and (1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl)-piperazinium hydrochloride (DMPP) and chlorophenyl hydroxypiperidine [CP(OH)P], to inhibit MIBG uptake by neuroblastoma cells was determined by incubation with [125I]MIBG (0.1 microM) for 2 h in the presence of varying concentrations (10(-8)-10(-3) M) of ligand. For measuring uptake, cells were incubated with [125I]IPP (0.1 microM) and cell-associated radioactivity was measured at various times. Retention was studied by incubating cells in the presence of [125I]IPP (0.1 microM) for 2 h, followed by replacement with drug-free medium and determination of cell-bound radioactivity. Selectivity of [125I]IPP uptake was studied by inhibition studies with MIBG, DMI, 5HT and phenylpiperazines. The biodistribution of [125I]IPP was measured in normal rats at 0.083, 0.5, 1, 2 and 24 h (six animals per group). The IC50S (microM) for inhibition of [125I]MIBG uptake were: PP, 1.5; CPP, 2.5; CAPP, 2.5; DMPP, 5; CP(OH)P, 30 and TFMPP, 65. The rate of cellular uptake of [125I]IPP was greatest between 0 and 60 min and decreased after 60 min, similar to MIBG. After an initial rapid washout of approximately 50% of the radioactivity, retention remained constant for 3 h. The IC50S (microM) for inhibition of [125I]IPP uptake were: MIBG, 18-25; DMI, 0.6-1.5; 5HT, > 100; IPP, 1.8-2.5; CPP, 7.0-9.0 and TFMPP, > or = 20. The in vivo studies demonstrated a pattern of distribution similar to MIBG. The results demonstrate that phenylpiperazines display significant affinity for neuroblastoma with uptake and retention characteristics similar to MIBG. PMID:8826858

  14. CO2 CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    SciTech Connect

    Gary T. Rochelle; Eric Chen; J. Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hillard; Babatunde Oyenekan

    2003-10-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. A rigorous thermodynamic model has been further developed with a standalone FORTRAN code to represent the CO{sub 2} vapor pressure and speciation of the new solvent. The welding work has initiated and will be completed for a revised startup of the pilot plant in February 2004.

  15. Heptazine-Based Porous Framework for Selective CO2 Sorption and Organocatalytic Performances.

    PubMed

    Dang, Qin-Qin; Zhan, Yu-Fen; Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2015-12-30

    A new heptazine-based polymer network (Cy-pip) with highly rich nitrogen sites has been synthesized via catalyst-free direct coupling of cyameluric chloride (Cy) and piperazine (Pip). Cy-pip exhibits large CO2 uptake capacity (103.4 mg/g, 9.4 wt %, 1 bar/273 K) with high selectivity (117) toward CO2 over N2. Furthermore, this framework with high Lewis basic nitrogen sites has also been exploited as heterogeneous catalyst for Knoevenagel reaction of aromatic and heterocyclic aldehydes with active methylene compounds. Moreover, the catalyst can recycle up to four times with only a minor loss of activity. PMID:26641732

  16. In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Baliospermum montanum Muell. Arg roots

    PubMed Central

    Mali, R. G.; Wadekar, R. R.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol and aqueous extracts from the roots of Baliospermum montanum Muell. Arg were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and Ascardia galli. Various concentrations (10-100 mg/ml) of each extract were tested in the bioassay, which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. Both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 100 mg/ml. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was included as standard reference and distilled water as control. PMID:20390101

  17. Discovery, Optimization, and Characterization of Novel Chlorcyclizine Derivatives for the Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    He, Shanshan; Xiao, Jingbo; Dulcey, Andrés E; Lin, Billy; Rolt, Adam; Hu, Zongyi; Hu, Xin; Wang, Amy Q; Xu, Xin; Southall, Noel; Ferrer, Marc; Zheng, Wei; Liang, T Jake; Marugan, Juan J

    2016-02-11

    Recently, we reported that chlorcyclizine (CCZ, Rac-2), an over-the-counter antihistamine piperazine drug, possesses in vitro and in vivo activity against hepatitis C virus. Here, we describe structure-activity relationship (SAR) efforts that resulted in the optimization of novel chlorcyclizine derivatives as anti-HCV agents. Several compounds exhibited EC50 values below 10 nM against HCV infection, cytotoxicity selectivity indices above 2000, and showed improved in vivo pharmacokinetic properties. The optimized molecules can serve as lead preclinical candidates for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection and as probes to study hepatitis C virus pathogenesis and host-virus interaction. PMID:26599718

  18. A new diketopiperazine derivative from a deep sea-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 04496.

    PubMed

    Luo, Minghe; Tang, Guiling; Ju, Jianhua; Lu, Laichun; Huang, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    A new diketopiperazine (DKP) derivative, (6R,3Z)-3-benzylidene-6-isobutyl-1-methyl piperazine-2,5-dione (1), as well as five known DKPs 2-6 was isolated from a deep sea-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 04496. The structure of 1 was elucidated using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS and chiral-phase HPLC techniques. Compounds 1-6 did not show cytotoxic activity at a concentration of 100 μM in bioactivity assay. PMID:26197797

  19. Pharmacophore-based discovery of FXR agonists. Part I: Model development and experimental validation

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Daniela; Markt, Patrick; Grienke, Ulrike; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Binder, Markus; Noha, Stefan M.; Rollinger, Judith M.; Stuppner, Hermann; Bochkov, Valery N.; Wolber, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is involved in glucose and lipid metabolism regulation, which makes it an attractive target for the metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes. In order to find novel FXR agonists, a structure-based pharmacophore model collection was developed and theoretically evaluated against virtual databases including the ChEMBL database. The most suitable models were used to screen the National Cancer Institute (NCI) database. Biological evaluation of virtual hits led to the discovery of a novel FXR agonist with a piperazine scaffold (compound 19) that shows comparable activity as the endogenous FXR agonist chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA, compound 2). PMID:22018919

  20. Bench-Scale Development of a Hybrid Membrane-Absorption CO{sub 2} Capture Process: Preliminary Cost Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Brice; Kniep, Jay; Pingjiao, Hao; Baker, Richard; Rochelle, Gary; Chen, Eric; Frailie, Peter; Ding, Junyuan; Zhang, Yue

    2014-03-31

    This report describes a study of capture costs for a hybrid membrane-absorption capture system based on Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR)’s low-pressure membrane contactors and the University of Texas at Austin’s 5 m piperazine (PZ) Advanced Flash Stripper (AFS; 5 m PZ AFS) based CO2 capture system. The report is submitted for NETL review, and may be superseded by a final topical report on this topic that will be submitted to satisfy the Task 2 report requirement of the current project (DE-FE0013118).

  1. Phototoxic potential of quinolones.

    PubMed

    Crdenas, A M; Vargas, F; Fernndez, E; Hidalgo, M E

    1991-08-01

    The photohaemolytic potentials of the quinolones oxolinic acid, pipemidic acid, rosoxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and M-193324 (synthesis intermediary) were evaluated and compared with the photohaemolysis induced by nalidixic acid. Quinolones with a piperazine group in position 7 (pipemidic acid, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin) did not induce photohaemolysis. However, oxolinic acid, rosoxacin and M-193324 produced a concentration- and oxygen-dependent photohaemolysis. Ascorbic acid, histidine and thiourea inhibited the photohaemolysis induced by oxolinic acid, rosoxacin and M-193324, suggesting a photodynamic mechanism similar to that found with nalidixic acid. In addition, deuterium oxide increased the photohaemolysis induced by photohaemolytic quinolones, indicating that this process is mediated by singlet oxygen. PMID:1663996

  2. Anti-inflammatory action of sulfoaryl 3,3-disubstituted triazenes in rat experimental edema models.

    PubMed

    Kazemekaite, M; Talaikyte, Z; Udrenaite, E; Labanauskas, L; Staniulyte, Z; Palaima, A

    2003-10-01

    The acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of eleven potassium salts of sulfobenzene and sulfonaphthalene 3,3-disubstituted triazenes have been examined in rats with carrageenin- and bentonite-induced edema using a 50 mg/kg p.o. dose. All compounds were found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity significantly exceeding that of acetylsalicylic acid and ibuprofen, and were less toxic than these reference drugs. The most pronounced anti-inflammatory activity was shown by the potassium salt of 4-(piperazin-1-ylazo)benzenesulfonic acid. PMID:14609286

  3. Characterization of the transport, metabolism, and pharmacokinetics of the dopamine D3 receptor-selective fluorenyl- and 2-pyridylphenyl amides developed for treatment of psychostimulant abuse.

    PubMed

    Mason, Clifford W; Hassan, Hazem E; Kim, Kang-Pil; Cao, Jianjing; Eddington, Natalie D; Newman, Amy Hauck; Voulalas, Pamela J

    2010-06-01

    The recent discovery of novel high-affinity and selective dopamine D3 receptor (DA D3R) antagonists and partial agonists has provided tools with which to further elucidate the role DA D3R plays in substance abuse. The present study was conducted to evaluate the transport, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and brain uptake of the DA D3R-selective fluorenyl amides, NGB 2904 [N-(4-(4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-9H-fluorene-2-carboxamide] fumarate) and JJC 4-077 [N-(4-(4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)-3-hydroxybutyl)-9H-fluorene-2-carboxamide hydrochloride], and the 2-pyridylphenyl amides, CJB 090 [N-(4-(4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-4-(pyridine-2-yl)benzamide hydrochloride] and PG 01037 [N-(4-(4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)-trans-but-2-enyl)-4-(pyridine-2-yl)benzamide hydrochloride], all of which have been studied in animal models of psychostimulant abuse. Additional screening with a panel of human and rat Supersomes was performed for NGB 2904 and PG 01037. Drug-stimulated ATPase activation assays and bidirectional transport and efflux assays were used to test for substrate specificity of NGB 2904 and PG 01037 for human and rat efflux transporters. All compounds exhibited moderate elimination half-lives, ranging from 1.49 to 3.27 h, and large volumes of distribution (5.95-14.19 l/kg). The brain-to-plasma ratios ranged from 2.93 to 11.81 and were higher than those previously reported for cocaine. Brain exposure levels of NGB 2904 and PG 01037 were significantly reduced after intraperitoneal administration compared with intravenous administration. The metabolism of these compounds was mediated primarily by CYP3A subfamilies. PG 01037 was a P-glycoprotein-transported substrate. Higher doses of these compounds are often required for in vivo action, suggesting decreased bioavailability via extravascular administration that may be attributed to high drug efflux and hepatic metabolism. These studies provide important preclinical information for optimization of next-generation D3R selective agents for the treatment of drug addiction. PMID:20228156

  4. Rapid simultaneous determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine in urine by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Klette, Kevin L; Jamerson, Matthew H; Morris-Kukoski, Cynthia L; Kettle, Aaron R; Snyder, J Jacob

    2005-10-01

    The use of fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (FGC-MS) was investigated to improve the efficiency of analysis of urine specimens that previously screened presumptively positive for amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and/or 3,4 methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) by immunoassay testing. Specimens were pretreated with basic sodium periodate, extracted using a positive-pressure manifold/cation-exchange solid-phase cartridge methodology, and derivatized using 4-carbethoxyhexafluorobutyryl chloride (4-CB). The analytical method was compared to traditional GC-MS analysis and evaluated with respect to assay chromatography, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and reproducibility. The limits of detection were 62.5 ng/mL for MDA and 31.25 ng/mL for AMP, MAMP, MDMA, and MDEA. All of the target analytes were linear to 12,000 ng/mL with the exception of MAMP which was linear to 10,000 ng/mL. The intra-assay precision of a 500 ng/mL multiconstituent control (n=15) ranged from 522.6 to 575.9 ng/mL with a coefficient of variation of less than 3.8%. Authentic human urine specimens (n=187) previously determined to contain the target analytes were re-extracted and analyzed by both FGC-MS and the currently utilized GC-MS method. No significant differences in specimen concentration were observed between these analytical methods. No interferences were seen when the performance of the FGC-MS method was challenged with ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phenylpropanolamine, and phentermine. When compared to traditional GC-MS analysis, FGC-MS analysis provided a dramatic reduction in retention time for amphetamine (1.8 min vs. 4.12 min). For example, the FGC-MS method reduced overall run time for a batch of 56 specimens from 12.0 h to 7.25 h. This reduction in analysis time makes FGC-MS an attractive alternative to traditional GC-MS by allowing a laboratory greater flexibility in the purchase and use of capital equipment and in the assignment of laboratory personnel, all resulting in greater overall efficiency by decreasing reporting times for AMP, MAMP, and designer amphetamine positive specimens. PMID:16419398

  5. Sweat testing in opioid users with a sweat patch.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P; Tracqui, A; Mangin, P; Edel, Y

    1996-10-01

    For many years, toxicologists have detected the presence of drugs of abuse in biological materials using blood or urine. In recent years, remarkable advances in sensitive analytical techniques have enabled the analysis of drugs in unconventional samples such as sweat. In a study conducted in a detoxification center, sweat patches were applied to 20 known heroin abusers. Subjects wore the patch with minimal discomfort for five days. During the same period, two urine specimens were also collected. Target drugs analyzed either by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) included opiates (heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, codeine), cocaine (cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester), delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, benzodiazepines (nordiazepam, oxazepam), amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine [MDA], methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA], methylenedioxyethylamphetamine [MDEA]), and buprenorphine. Patches were positive for opiates in 12 cases. Heroin (37-175 ng/patch) and/or 6-acetylmorphine (60-2386 ng/patch) were identified in eight cases, and codeine exposure (67-4018 ng/patch) was determined in four cases. When detected, heroin was always present in lower concentrations than 6-acetylmorphine, which was the major analyte found in sweat. Cocaine (324 ng/patch) and metabolites were found in only one case. delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (4-38 ng/patch) was identified in nine cases. Benzodiazepine concentrations were very low, ranging from 2 to 44 and from 2 to 15 ng/patch for nordiazepam and oxazepam, respectively. MDEA (121 ng/patch) and its metabolite, MDA (22 ng/patch), were detected in one case. Buprenorphine, which was administered as therapy under close medical supervision, was detected in the range 1.3-153.2 ng/patch with no apparent relationship between the daily dose and amount excreted in sweat. All the urine tests were consistent with the sweat findings, but to identify the same drugs it was necessary to test two urine specimens along with only one sweat specimen. It was concluded that sweat testing appears to offer the advantage of being a relatively noninvasive means of obtaining a cumulative estimate of drug exposure over the period of a week. This new technology may find useful applications in the treatment and monitoring of substance abusers, as the patch provides a long-term continuous monitor of drug exposure or noncompliance. PMID:8889674

  6. The role of CYP3A4 in amiodarone-associated toxicity on HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zahno, Anja; Brecht, Karin; Morand, Réjane; Maseneni, Swarna; Török, Michael; Lindinger, Peter W; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2011-02-01

    Amiodarone is a class III antiarrhythmic drug with potentially life-threatening hepatotoxicity. Recent in vitro investigations suggested that the mono-N-desethyl (MDEA) and di-N-desethyl (DDEA) metabolites may cause amiodarone's hepatotoxicity. Since cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is responsible for amiodarone N-deethylation, CYP3A4 induction may represent a risk factor. Our aim was therefore to investigate the role of CYP3A4 in amiodarone-associated hepatotoxicity. First, we showed that 50μM amiodarone is more toxic to primary human hepatocytes after CYP induction with rifampicin. Second, we overexpressed human CYP3A4 in HepG2 cells (HepG2 cells/CYP3A4) for studying the interaction between CYP3A4 and amiodarone in more detail. We also used HepG2 wild type cells (HepG2 cells/wt) co-incubated with human CYP3A4 supersomes for amiodarone activation (HepG2 cells/CYP3A4 supersomes). Amiodarone (10-50μM) was cytotoxic for HepG2 cells/CYP3A4 or HepG2 cells/CYP3A4 supersomes, but not for HepG2 cells/wt or less toxic for HepG2 cells/wt incubated with control supersomes without CYP3A4. Co-incubation with ketoconazole, attenuated cytotoxicity of amiodarone incubated with HepG2 cells/CYP3A4 or HepG2 cells/CYP3A4 supersomes. MDEA and DDEA were formed only in incubations containing HepG2 cells/CYP3A4 or HepG2 cells/CYP3A4 supersomes but not by HepG2 cells/wt or HepG2 cells/wt with control supersomes. Metabolized amiodarone triggered the production of reactive oxygen species, induced mitochondrial damage and cytochrome c release, and promoted apoptosis/necrosis in HepG2 cells/CYP3A4, but not HepG2 cells/wt. This study supports the hypothesis that a high CYP3A4 activity is a risk factor for amiodarone's hepatotoxicity. Since CYP3A4 inducers are used frequently and amiodarone-associated hepatotoxicity can be fatal, our observations may be clinically relevant. PMID:21070748

  7. Synthesis and characterization of selective dopamine D2 receptor ligands using aripiprazole as the lead compound

    PubMed Central

    Vangveravong, Suwanna; Zhang, Zhanbin; Taylor, Michelle; Bearden, Melissa; Xu, Jinbin; Cui, Jinquan; Wang, Wei; Luedtke, Robert R.; Mach, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    A series of compounds structurally related to aripiprazole (1), an atypical antipsychotic and antidepressant used clinically for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, have been prepared and evaluated for affinity at D2-like dopamine receptors. These compounds also share structural elements with the classical D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists, haloperidol, N-methylspiperone, domperidone and benperidol. Two new compounds, 7-(4-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butoxy)-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one oxalate (6) and 7-(4-(4-(2-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butoxy)-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one oxalate (7) were found to (a) bind to the D2 receptor subtype with high affinity (Ki values <0.3 nM), (b) exhibit >50-fold D2 versus D3 receptor binding selectivity and (c) be partial agonists at both the D2 and D3 receptor subtype. PMID:21536445

  8. Anti-trypanosomal activities and structural chemical properties of selected compound classes.

    PubMed

    Ponte-Sucre, Alicia; Bruhn, Heike; Schirmeister, Tanja; Cecil, Alexander; Albert, Christian R; Buechold, Christian; Tischer, Maximilian; Schlesinger, Susanne; Goebel, Tim; Fu, Antje; Mathein, Daniela; Merget, Benjamin; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Stich, August; Krohne, Georg; Engstler, Markus; Bringmann, Gerhard; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2015-02-01

    Potent compounds do not necessarily make the best drugs in the market. Consequently, with the aim to describe tools that may be fundamental for refining the screening of candidates for animal and preclinical studies and further development, molecules of different structural classes synthesized within the frame of a broad screening platform were evaluated for their trypanocidal activities, cytotoxicities against murine macrophages J774.1 and selectivity indices, as well as for their ligand efficiencies and structural chemical properties. To advance into their modes of action, we also describe the morphological and ultrastructural changes exerted by selected members of each compound class on the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Our data suggest that the potential organelles targeted are either the flagellar pocket (compound 77, N-Arylpyridinium salt; 15, amino acid derivative with piperazine moieties), the endoplasmic reticulum membrane systems (37, bisquaternary bisnaphthalimide; 77, N-Arylpyridinium salt; 68, piperidine derivative), or mitochondria and kinetoplasts (88, N-Arylpyridinium salt; 68, piperidine derivative). Amino acid derivatives with fumaric acid and piperazine moieties (4, 15) weakly inhibiting cysteine proteases seem to preferentially target acidic compartments. Our results suggest that ligand efficiency indices may be helpful to learn about the relationship between potency and chemical characteristics of the compounds. Interestingly, the correlations found between the physico-chemical parameters of the selected compounds and those of commercial molecules that target specific organelles indicate that our rationale might be helpful to drive compound design toward high activities and acceptable pharmacokinetic properties for all compound families. PMID:25416330

  9. Synthesis, kinetic mechanism and docking studies of vanillin derivatives as inhibitors of mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Zaman; Rafiq, Muhammad; Seo, Sung-Yum; Babar, Mustafeez Mujtaba; Zaidi, Najam-us-Sahar Sadaf

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to discover the extent of contribution to antityrosinase activity by adding hydroxy substituted benzoic acid, cinnamic acid and piperazine residues to vanillin. The study showed the transformation of vanillin into esters as shown in (4a-4d), (6a-6b), and (8a-8b). In addition, the relationship between structures of these esters and their mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity was explored. The kinetics of inhibition on mushroom tyrosinase by these esters was also investigated. It was found that hydroxyl substituted benzoic acid derivatives were weak inhibitors; however hydroxy or chloro substituted cinnamic acid and piperazine substituted derivatives were able to induce significant tyrosinase inhibition. The mushroom tyrosinase (PDBID 2ZWE) was docked with synthesized vanillin derivatives and their calculated binding energies were compared with experimental IC50 values which provided positive correlation. The most potent derivative 2-(4-formyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-2-oxoethyl (2E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate (6a) possesses hydroxy substituted cinnamic acid scaffold having IC50 value 16.13 ?M with binding energy of -7.2 kcal/mol. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of (6a) is comparable with standard kojic acid. Kinetic analysis indicated that compound 6a was mixed-type tyrosinase inhibitor with inhibition constant values Ki (13 ?M) and Ki' (53 ?M) and formed reversible enzyme inhibitor complex. The active vanillin analog (6a) was devoid of toxic effects as shown in cytotoxic studies. PMID:26204890

  10. Cr(III), Fe(III) and Co(III) complexes of tetradentate (ONNO) Schiff base ligands: Synthesis, characterization, properties and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskio?lu, Eren; Gndzalp, Ayla Balaban; ete, Servet; Hamurcu, Fatma; Erk, Birgl

    2008-08-01

    A series of metal complexes were synthesized from equimolar amounts of Schiff bases: 1,4-bis[3-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldimine)propyl]piperazine (bappnaf) and 1,8-bis[3-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldimine)- p-menthane (damnaf) with metal chlorides. All of synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (UV-vis, IR, 1H- 13C NMR, LC-MS) and thermal (TGA-DTA) methods, magnetic and conductance measurements. Schiff base complexes supposed in tetragonal geometry have the general formula [M(bappnaf or damnaf)]Cl nH 2O, where M = Cr(III), Co(III) and n = 2, 3. But also Fe(III) complexes have octahedral geometry by the coordination of two water molecules and the formula is [Fe(bappnaf or damnaf)(H 2O) 2]Cl. The changes in the selected vibration bands in FT-IR indicate that Schiff bases behave as (ONNO) tetradentate ligands and coordinate to metal ions from two phenolic oxygen atoms and two azomethine nitrogen atoms. Conductance measurements suggest 1:1 electrolytic nature of the metal complexes. The synthesized compounds except bappnaf ligand have the antimicrobial activity against the bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 11230), Yersinia enterocolitica (ATCC 1501), Bacillus magaterium (RSKK 5117), Bacillus subtilis (RSKK 244), Bacillus cereus (RSKK 863) and the fungi: Candida albicans (ATCC 10239). These results have been considerably interest in piperazine derivatives due to their significant applications in antimicrobial studies.

  11. Designer psychostimulants: pharmacology and differences.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Leslie; White, Michael; Treble, Ric

    2014-12-01

    More than 200 novel psychoactive drugs have been reported in Europe, with 73 added in 2012 and additional compounds encountered every week in 2013. Many of these are "designer psychostimulants" which aim to mimic the subjective effects of amphetamines, cocaine or 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy"). Several drugs are based on the beta-ketoamphetamine cathinone chemical structure, others include aminoindanes, aminotetralins, piperazines, amphetamine analogues and pipradrol derivatives. Although a detailed analysis of the pharmacology of these novel drugs is largely lacking, a number of scientific studies have been reported in 2011-2013 and these are reviewed. All of the novel psychostimulants activate monoamine systems in the brain - with differing dopamine (DA) v serotonin (5-HT) preferences. Those activating principally DA systems are amphetamine-like stimulants, such as naphyrone, desoxypipradrol, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), and benzylpiperazine while those preferentially activating 5-HT mechanisms are MDMA-like or cocaine-like stimulants, such as mephedrone, methylone and other substituted cathinones, aminoindanes, aminotetralins and piperazines. The ability of mephedrone and other novel psychostimulants to substitute for methylamphetamine or cocaine in drug discrimination tests in rats, and the ability of mephedrone to induce conditioned place preference and to sustain self-administration behaviour suggests that this and other cocaine/methylamphetamine-like drugs have dependence liability. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. PMID:24456744

  12. Synthesis of new 3-pyridinecarboxylates of potential vasodilation properties.

    PubMed

    Girgis, Adel S; Mishriky, Nawal; Farag, Ahmad M; El-Eraky, Wafaa I; Farag, Hanaa

    2008-09-01

    2-(alicyclic-amino)-4,6-diaryl-3-pyridinecarboxylates 5a-d were prepared via aromatic nucleophilic substitution reaction of secondary amines (piperidine or morpholine) with 2-bromo-3-pyridinecarboxylate derivatives 3a,b. The latters were obtained through bromination of 3-aryl-4-benzoyl-2-cyanobutyrates 2a and 2b, which were obtained from the base promoted addition of ethyl cyanoacetate to 2-propen-1-ones 1a and 1b, with bromine in glacial acetic acid. Reaction of 3 with piperazine hexahydrate in 2:1 molar ratio afforded 1,4-bis[(ethyl 4,6-diaryl-3-pyridinecarboxylate)-2-yl]piperazines 6a,b. Reaction of 3 with anilines in refluxing pyridine unexpectedly gave 2-(aryl-amino)-3-pyridinecarboxylates 8a-g and 2-amino-3-pyridinecarboxylates 9a and 9b. Vasodilation activity screening for the synthesized pyridinecarboxylates using isolated thoracic aortic rings' standard method of rats shows considerable properties. Compounds 5b, 5c, 6b and 8g reveal remarkable vasodilation potency (IC50, concentrations necessary for 50% reduction of maximal norepinephrine hydrochloride induced contracture) 0.175, 0.146, 0.229 and 0.233 mM, respectively. PMID:18241958

  13. Chloroquine and chloroquinoline derivatives as models for the design of modulators of amyloid Peptide precursor metabolism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Patricia; Vingtdeux, Valrie; Burlet, Stphane; Eddarkaoui, Sabiha; Grosjean, Marie-Eve; Larchanch, Paul-Emmanuel; Hochart, Guillaume; Sergheraert, Christian; Estrella, Cecilia; Barrier, Mathieu; Poix, Virginie; Plancq, Pauline; Lannoo, Ccile; Hamdane, Malika; Delacourte, Andr; Verwaerde, Philippe; Bue, Luc; Sergeant, Nicolas

    2015-04-15

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Preventing deregulated APP processing by inhibiting amyloidogenic processing of carboxy-terminal fragments (APP-CTFs), and reducing the toxic effect of amyloid beta (A?) peptides remain an effective therapeutic strategy. We report the design of piperazine-containing compounds derived from chloroquine structure and evaluation of their effects on APP metabolism and ability to modulate the processing of APP-CTF and the production of A? peptide. Compounds which retained alkaline properties and high affinity for acidic cell compartments were the most effective. The present study demonstrates that (1) the amino side chain of chloroquine can be efficiently substituted by a bis(alkylamino)piperazine chain, (2) the quinoline nucleus can be replaced by a benzyl or a benzimidazole moiety, and (3) pharmacomodulation of the chemical structure allows the redirection of APP metabolism toward a decrease of A? peptide release, and increased stability of APP-CTFs and amyloid intracellular fragment. Moreover, the benzimidazole compound 29 increases APP-CTFs in vivo and shows promising activity by the oral route. Together, this family of compounds retains a lysosomotropic activity which inhibits lysosome-related A? production, and is likely to be beneficial for therapeutic applications in AD. PMID:25611616

  14. Reinvestigation of hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on molybdate and piperazininum cations: Influence of the synthesis conditions on the chemical composition and characterizations of the photochromic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Coue, Violaine; Dessapt, Remi Bujoli-Doeuff, Martine; Evain, Michel; Jobic, Stephane

    2008-05-15

    The reactivity of the [Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}]{sup 6-} anion towards the structure directing-reagent piperazine (pipz) has been investigated and new synthetic routes to achieve the known (H{sub 2}pipz){sub 3}[Mo{sub 8}O{sub 27}] 1, (H{sub 2}pipz)[Mo{sub 3}O{sub 10}].H{sub 2}O 2, and (H{sub 2}pipz)[Mo{sub 5}O{sub 16}] 3 molybdenum(VI) containing compounds are proposed. The role of the pH on the stabilization of the different compounds and their interconversion pathways is discussed. Compounds 1 and 2 show photochromic behavior under UV excitation, related to the particular organization of the organic component around the mineral framework. Their optical properties are reported and commented. - Graphical abstract: Three organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been prepared from the investigations of the [Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}]{sup 6-}/piperazine system in hydrothermal conditions. The role of the pH on the stabilization of the different polyoxomolybdate blocks in the materials i.e. 1/({infinity}) [Mo{sub 3}O{sub 10}]{sup 2-} and 1/({infinity}) [Mo{sub 8}O{sub 27}]{sup 6-} chains and 2/({infinity}) [Mo{sub 5}O{sub 16}]{sup 2-} layer has been investigated.

  15. Affinity of An(VI) for N4-Tetradentate Donor Ligands: Complexation of the Actinyl(VI) Ions with N4-Tetradentate Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Mark; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2012-05-01

    In this report the affinity of four N4-tetradentate ligands that incorporate the 2- methylpyridyl functionality with hexavalent actinides (AnO2+2 ) has been investigated in methanol solution. The ligands studied include N,N*-bis(2-methylpyridyl)diaminoethane (BPMDAE), N,N-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane (BPMDAP), N,N*-bis(2-pyridylmethyl) piperazine (BPMPIP), and trans-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (BPMDAC). Conditional stability constants describing the strength of the interaction were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The log10K101 values for both U(VI) and Pu(VI) are comparable and show the same trend of stability with ligand structure. Dinuclear complexes are also indicated as being important. The log10K201 values for Pu(VI) complexation with the N4-ligands are identical for the four ligands (within experimental error), indicating that the structure of the ligand backbone has little effect on the stability of the (PuO2)2L2+ complex. The exception to this trend is the behavior of N,N*- bis(2-pyridylmethyl)piperazine (BPMPIP) with Pu(VI). This ligand displays a tendency to reduce Pu(VI) within the experimental time frame of 45 minutes. BPMPIP is the only ligand tested that contains tertiary amines in the ligand backbone. The decomposition of BPMPIP by Pu(VI) suggests a susceptibility of tertiary amines to oxidative degradation.

  16. Dissection of N,N-diethyl-N'-phenylpiperazines as ?7 nicotinic receptor silent agonists.

    PubMed

    Quadri, Marta; Papke, Roger L; Horenstein, Nicole A

    2016-01-15

    The ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a target for control of inflammation-related phenomena via compounds that are able to selectively induce desensitized states of the receptor. Compounds that selectively desensitize, without facilitating significant channel activation, are termed 'silent agonists' because they can be discriminated from antagonists by the currents evoked with co-application with type II positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). One example is N,N-diethyl-N'-phenyl-piperazine (diEPP) (J. Pharm. Exp. Ther.2014, 350, 665). We used Ullmann-type aryl amination to synthesize a panel of 27 compounds related to diEPP by substitutions at the aryl ring and in the linkage between the piperazine and phenyl rings. Two-electrode voltage clamping of the human ?7 nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes revealed that it was possible to tune the behavior of compounds to show enhanced desensitization without corresponding partial agonist activity such that trifluoromethyl and carboxamide aryl substituents showed 33 to 46-fold larger PAM-dependent net-charge responses, indicating selective partitioning of the ligand receptor complexes into the desensitized state. PMID:26707847

  17. Molecular recognition of naphthalene diimide ligands by telomeric quadruplex-DNA: the importance of the protonation state and mediated hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Spinello, A; Barone, G; Grunenberg, J

    2016-01-20

    In depth Monte Carlo conformational scans in combination with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and electronic structure calculations were applied in order to study the molecular recognition process between tetrasubstituted naphthalene diimide (ND) guests and G-quadruplex (G4) DNA receptors. ND guests are a promising class of telomere stabilizers due to which they are used in novel anticancer therapeutics. Though several ND guests have been studied experimentally in the past, the protonation state under physiological conditions is still unclear. Based on chemical intuition, in the case of N-methyl-piperazine substitution, different protonation states are possible and might play a crucial role in the molecular recognition process by G4-DNA. Depending on the proton concentration, different nitrogen atoms of the N-methyl-piperazine might (or might not) be protonated. This fact was considered in our simulation in terms of a case by case analysis, since the process of molecular recognition is determined by possible donor or acceptor positions. The results of our simulations show that the electrostatic interactions between the ND ligands and the G4 receptor are maximized in the case of the protonation of the terminal nitrogen atoms, forming compact ND G4 complexes inside the grooves. The influence of different protonation states in terms of the ability to form hydrogen bonds with the sugar-phosphate backbone, as well as the importance of mediated vs. direct hydrogen bonding, was analyzed in detail by MD and relaxed force constant (compliance constant) simulations. PMID:26733046

  18. An efficient mono-component polymeric intumescent flame retardant for polypropylene: preparation and application.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhu-Bao; Deng, Cong; Tan, Yi; Chen, Ming-Jun; Chen, Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-05-28

    We found in our previous study that ethylenediamine- or ethanolamine-modified ammonium polyphosphates could be used alone as an intumescent flame retardant for polypropylene (PP), but their flame-retardant efficiency was not very high. In this present work, a novel highly-efficient mono-component polymeric intumescent flame retardant, piperazine-modified ammonium polyphosphate (PA-APP) was prepared. The oxygen index value of PP containing 22 wt % of PA-APP reached 31.2%, which increased by 58.4% compared with that of PP with equal amount of APP, and the vertical burning test (UL-94) could pass V-0 rating. Cone calorimeter (CC) results indicated that PP/PA-APP composite exhibited superior performance compared with PP/APP composite. For PP containing 25 wt % of PA-APP, fire growth rate (FGR) and smoke production rate (SPR) peak were reduced by 86.4% and 78.2%, respectively, compared with PP blended with 25 wt % APP. The relevant flame-retardant mechanism of PA-APP was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy etc. The P-N-C structure with the alicyclic amine was formed during the thermal decomposition of piperazine salt (-NH2(+)-O-P-), and the rich P-N-C structure facilitated the formation of stable char layer at the later stage, consequently improving the flame-retardant efficiency of APP. PMID:24742305

  19. Selective naked-eye detection of Hg²⁺ through an efficient turn-on photoinduced electron transfer fluorescent probe and its real applications.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Priyanka; Razi, Syed S; Ali, Rashid; Gupta, Ramesh C; Yadav, Suresh S; Narayan, Gopeshwar; Misra, Arvind

    2014-09-01

    A simple molecular fluorescent probe 5 has been designed and synthesized by appending anthracene and benzhydryl moieties through a piperazine bridge. The probe upon interaction with different metal ions showed high selectivity and sensitivity (2 ppb) for Hg(2+) through fluorescence "turn-on" response in HEPES buffer. The significant fluorescence enhancement (~10-fold) is attributable to PET arrest due to complexation with nitrogen atoms of the piperazine unit and Hg(2+) in 1:2 stoichiometry, in which a naked-eye sensitive fluorescent blue color of solution changed to a blue-green (switched-on). As a proof of concept, promising prospects for application in environmental and biological sciences 5 have been utilized to detect Hg(2+) sensitively in real samples, on cellulose paper strips, in protein medium (like BSA), and intracellularly in HeLa cells. Moreover, the optical behavior of 5 upon providing different chemical inputs has been utilized to construct individual logic gates and a reusable combinational logic circuit. The combinational circuit (switch ON mode; OR logic gate) is easily resettable to the original position (switch OFF mode; INHIBIT logic gate) by applying reset chemical inputs (OH(-) and PO4(3-)) with great reproducibility. PMID:25098642

  20. Identification of biotransformation products of macrolide and fluoroquinolone antimicrobials in membrane bioreactor treatment by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Terzic, Senka; Senta, Ivan; Matosic, Marin; Ahel, Marijan

    2011-07-01

    Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied for the identification of transformation products (TPs) of fluoroquinolone (norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin) and macrolide (azithromycin, erythromycin, and roxitromycin) antimicrobials in wastewater effluents from a Zenon hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor (MBR). The detected TPs were thoroughly characterized using the accurate mass feature for the determination of the tentative molecular formulae and MS-MS experiments for the structural elucidation of unknowns. Several novel TPs, which have not been previously reported in the literature, were identified. The TPs of azithromycin and roxithromycin, identified in MBR effluent, were conjugate compounds, which were formed by phosphorylation of desosamine moiety. Transformation of fluoroquinolones yielded two types of products: conjugates, formed by succinylation of the piperazine ring, and smaller metabolites, formed by an oxidative break-up of piperazine moiety to form the 7-[(2-carboxymethyl)amino] group. A semi-quantitative assessment of these TPs suggested that they might have contributed significantly to the overall balance of antimicrobial residues in MBR effluents and thus to the overall removal efficiency. Determination of TPs during a period of 2 months indicated a conspicuous dynamics, which warrants further research to identify microorganisms involved and treatment conditions leading to their formation. PMID:21553354

  1. 4-Acetylpiperazinium picrate

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Channappa N.; Kaur, Manpreet; Jasinski, Jerry P.; Yathirajan, Hemmige S.

    2014-01-01

    In the title salt, C6H13N2O+C6H2N3O7 ? (systematic name: 4-acetylpiperazin-1-ium 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate), the piperazin-1-ium ring has a slightly distorted chair conformation. In the picrate anion, the mean planes of the two o-NO2 and p-NO2 groups are twisted with respect to the benzene ring by 15.0?(2), 68.9?(4) and 4.4?(3), respectively. In the crystal, NH?O hydrogen bonds are observed, linking the ions into an infinite chain along [010]. In addition, weak cationanion CH?O intermolecular interactions and a weak ?? stacking interaction between the benzene rings of the anions, with an inter-centroid distance of 3.771?(8)?, help to stabilize the crystal packing, giving an overall sheet structure lying parallel to (100). Disorder was modelled for one of the O atoms in one of the o-NO2 groups over two sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.57?(6):0.43?(6). PMID:24940287

  2. Synthesis of ciprofloxacin-conjugated poly (L-lactic acid) polymer for nanofiber fabrication and antibacterial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Parwe, Sharad P; Chaudhari, Priti N; Mohite, Kavita K; Selukar, Balaji S; Nande, Smita S; Garnaik, Baijayantimala

    2014-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin was conjugated with polylactide (PLA) via the secondary amine group of the piperazine ring using PLA and 7-(4-(2-Chloroacetyl) piperazin-1-yl)-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1, 4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid. Zinc prolinate, a biocompatible catalyst was synthesized, characterized, and used in ring opening polymerization of L-lactide. Five different kinds of OH-terminated poly(L-lactide) (two-, three-, four-, six-arm, star-shaped) homopolymers were synthesized by ring opening polymerization of L-lactide in the presence of dodecanol, glycerol, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol as initiator and zinc prolinate as a catalyst. The structures of the polymers and conjugates were thoroughly characterized by means of gel permeation chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PLA (molecular weight =100,000) and ciprofloxacin conjugated PLA were used for fabrication of nonwoven nanofiber mat (diameter ranges; 150-400 nm) having pore size (62-102 nm) using electrospinning. The microbiological assessment shows that the release of ciprofloxacin possesses antimicrobial activity. The drug-release behavior of the mat was studied to reveal potential application as a drug delivery system. The result shows that the ciprofloxacin release rates of the PLA conjugate nonwoven nanofiber mat could be controlled by the drug loading content and the release medium. The development of a biodegradable ciprofloxacin system, based on nonwoven nanofiber mat, should be of great interest in drug delivery systems. PMID:24741303

  3. Gene delivery efficiency and cytotoxicity of heterocyclic amine-modified PAMAM and PPI dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Maryam; Tabatabai, Seyed Meghdad; Parhiz, Hamideh; Milanizadeh, Soroush; Amel Farzad, Sara; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Poly-(amidoamine) (PAMAM) and poly-(propylenimine) (PPI) are the two most widely investigated dendrimers for drug and gene delivery. In order to enhance DNA transfection activity of these dendrimers, generation 3 and 4 PAMAM and generation 4 and 5 PPI were modified by partial substitution of surface primary amines with histidine, pyridine, and piperazine, which have buffering capacity properties. It was shown that higher dendrimer generations and higher grafting percentages (30% and 50% of primary amines) were associated with higher transfection activity. Pyridine was the most effective substituent for PPI, while piperazine-modified PAMAM dendrimers showed the best transfection efficiency among PAMAM-based vectors in murine neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cells. None of the modified carriers showed remarkable cytotoxicity in vitro. Pretreatment of cells with bafilomycin A indicated that endosomal buffering capacity is the main mechanism of endosomal escape. In conclusion, PAMAM and PPI may exhibit different gene delivery efficiency and cytotoxicity profiles with the same chemical modifications. These modified dendrimers could be considered as efficient and safe gene carriers in neuroblastoma cells in vitro. PMID:26838910

  4. Synthesis and in vitro pharmacological evaluation of novel 2-hydroxypropyl-4-arylpiperazine derivatives as serotoninergic ligands.

    PubMed

    Fiorino, Ferdinando; Magli, Elisa; Severino, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; Ciano, Antonio; Perissutti, Elisa; Frecentese, Francesco; Massarelli, Paola; Nencini, Cristina; Santagada, Vincenzo; Caliendo, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of new norbornene and exo-N-hydroxy-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboximide derivatives and their binding to the 5-HT1A , 5-HT2A , and 5-HT2C receptors, in order to identify selective ligands for these 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonine) receptor subtypes. The combination of structural elements (heterocyclic nucleus, hydroxyalkyl chain, and 4-substituted piperazine) known to be critical for affinity to 5-HT1A receptors and the proper selection of substituents led to compounds with high specificity and affinity toward serotoninergic receptors. The most active compounds were selected and further evaluated for their binding affinities to D1 , D2 dopaminergic and ?1 , ?2 adrenergic receptors. 4-[3-[4-(2-Furoyl)piperazin-1-yl]propoxy-2-ol]-4-aza-tricyclo[5.2.1.02,6]dec-8-ene-3,5-dione 3e with Ki ?=?5.04??0.227?nM was the most active and selective derivative for the 5-HT2C receptor with respect to other serotonin receptors, and the most selective derivative versus dopaminergic and adrenergic receptors. PMID:25113046

  5. Spectroscopic study of degradation products of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and lomefloxacin formed in ozonated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Nanaboina, Venkateswarlu; Korshin, Gregory V; Jiang, Wenju

    2012-10-15

    This study addressed the formation and properties of degradation products of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and lomefloxacin formed during ozonation of secondary wastewater effluent containing these fluoroquinolone antibiotics. The generation of the degradation products was interpreted in the context of transformations of effluent organic matter (EfOM) tracked via absorbance measurements. The structures of 20 degradation products were elucidated for ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, respectively. 27 degradation products were identified for lomefloxacin. The prevalent oxidation pathways were suggested based on the structures of the identified products formed in the absence and presence of the hydroxyl radical scavenger t-butanol. These pathways were largely similar for all studied fluoroquinolones and involved attacks on the piperazine ring and the quinolone structure. The quinolone ring remained intact in the presence of t-butanol thus indicating that this functional group could only be oxidized by OH radicals while the piperazine ring was readily oxidized by molecular ozone. The cleavage of the quinolone moiety that resulted in several identified degradation products occurred via the attack by hydroxyl radicals on the carbon-carbon double bond adjacent to the carboxylic acid group. Lomefloxacin had more diverse oxidation products due to the presence of a methyl group on its piperazinyl ring. The concentrations of the identified degradation products behaved non-monotonically as a function of ozone dose or treatment time, yet exhibited interpretable correlations versus changes of EfOM absorbance. Examination of these correlations allowed developing a novel approach for elucidating the transformations of fluoroquinolone antibiotics during ozonation. PMID:22863026

  6. Blood pH optrode based on evanescent waves and refractive index change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammarling, Krister; Hilborn, Jns; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Manuilskiy, Anatoliy

    2014-02-01

    Sensing pH in blood with an silica multimode optical fiber. This sensor is based on evanescent wave absorption and measures the change of the refractive index and absorption in a cladding made of a biocompatible Polymer. In contrast to many existing fiber optical sensors which are based upon different dyes or florescent material to sense the pH, here presents a solution where a part of the cladding is replaced with a Poly (?-amino ester) made of 1.4-Butanediol diacrylate, Piperazine, and Trimethylolpropane Triacrylate. Piperazine has the feature of changing its volume by swelling or shrinking in response to the pH level. This paper utilizes this dimension effect and measure the refractive index and the absorption of the cladding in respect to different pH-levels. The alteration of refractive index also causes a change in the absorption and therefore the output power changes as a function of the pH level. The sensor is sensitive to pH in a wide spectral range and light absorbency can be observed for wavelengths ranging from UV to far IR.

  7. Buffers in daphnid culture and bioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, K.I.; Caffrey, P.B.; Dagbusan, B.C.

    1996-03-01

    When an algal diet is employed, or precipitation of dissolved inorganics during autoclaving is likely, or test circumstances introduce pH changes, addition of a buffer to daphnid culture or bioassay media is appropriate. Glycylglycine, employed in this research for 20 years, is unsuitable for general use because it required microbe-free cultures. In contrast, n-hydroxyethyl piperazine-n-2-propane sulfonic acid (HEPPSO) and N-2-hydroxyethyl piperazine-N{prime}-2-ethane sulfonic acid (HEPES) offer safe and effective pH control at 300 ppm for animals, 400 ppm for algae (weight excludes Na), with no requirement for microbe-free cultures. No negative effects on fecundity, monitored in both single and multigeneration tests, or on vigor, measured by acute bioassay performance, were observed. The 48-h LC50 for glycylglycine is approximately 4,500 ppm. No deaths occur at or below 10,000 ppm of either HEPES or HEPPSO. When bioassayed against zinc (as chloride), animals reared in cultures buffered by HEPES, HEPPSO, or glycylglycine and tested in unfed acute bioassays performed similarly, allowing 100% survival in 1,000 ppb in 48 h with an CL50 of approximately 1,750 ppb.

  8. The role of serotonin(2) receptors in mediating cocaine-induced convulsions.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, L E; Kreifeldt, M J; George, F R; Ritz, M C

    2000-04-01

    Previous research in our laboratory suggests that serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission mediates the expression of cocaine-induced convulsions. The role of 5-HT in mediating this toxic effect of cocaine appears to be due to activation of 5-HT(2) receptors, because cocaine-induced convulsions are blocked by the 5-HT(2) antagonists cinanserin, ketanserin, and pirenperone. The present study utilized a number of compounds that display a high affinity for 5-HT(2) receptors to further examine the role of these sites in mediating this toxic effect of cocaine. Cocaine-induced convulsions were observed following pretreatment with various doses of the following 5-HT(2) antagonists: mianserin, metergoline, MDL 11939, and methiothepin. In addition, 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-[4-(2-phthalimido)butyl]piperazine (NAN 190) was tested to examine the influence of 5-HT(1) sites and the agonist compound 1-(3-triflurormethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) was examined to further explore the role of 5-HT(1) and 5-HT(2) sites. Each 5-HT(2) antagonist attenuated cocaine-induced convulsions. Conversely, NAN 190 did not alter this toxic effect of cocaine. In addition, TFMPP significantly potentiated cocaine-induced convulsions. The results from this study support the hypothesis that 5-HT neurotransmission, acting primarily at 5-HT(2) receptors, plays an important role in mediating cocaine-induced convulsions. PMID:10764922

  9. Ferrous iron uptake by Bifidobacterium bifidum var. pennsylvanicus: the effect of metals and metabolic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bezkorovainy, A; Solberg, L; Poch, M; Miller-Catchpole, R

    1987-01-01

    Ferrous iron uptake studies in Bifidobacterium bifidum var. pennsylvanicus were carried out in a well-defined salt solution termed "modified Hanks solution" at both high iron concentrations (LAFIUS conditions) and low concentrations (HAFIUS conditions). Various divalent metals, Mn2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+, inhibited iron uptake under HAFIUS conditions in a non-competitive manner, and in a pseudo-competitive manner under LAFIUS conditions. Cr2+ had no effect. Co2+ inhibited iron uptake competitively under HAFIUS conditions. Metabolic affectors that inhibited iron uptake both under HAFIUS and LAFIUS conditions were: tetraphenylphosphonium chloride, diethylstilbesterol, vanadate, carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone, and a mixture of valinomycin and nigericin. Substances that stimulated iron uptake were KCl, valinomycin, and nigericin. Iron uptake under LAFIUS conditions in piperazine-buffered modified Hanks solution was higher than that in the acetate-buffered solution, and acetate inhibited iron uptake in the piperazine buffer. HAFIUS showed no difference. It is concluded that iron uptake in bifidobacteria is driven by an ATPase-dependent proton-motive force and that both the pH gradient and membrane potential are involved in this process. Mn2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ may be transported via LAFIUS, but not HAFIUS. HAFIUS may transport only Co2+ in addition to Fe2+. PMID:3038634

  10. Phenylimino-2H-chromen-3-carboxamide derivatives as novel small molecule inhibitors of ?-secretase (BACE1).

    PubMed

    Edraki, Najmeh; Firuzi, Omidreza; Foroumadi, Alireza; Miri, Ramin; Madadkar-Sobhani, Armin; Khoshneviszadeh, Mehdi; Shafiee, Abbas

    2013-04-15

    The inhibition of ? secretase (BACE1) is potentially important approach to treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD). A novel series of 4-bromophenyl piperazine derivatives coupled to the phenylimino-2H-chromen-3-carboxamide scaffold were investigated as BACE1 inhibitors in this study. Docking study suggested that the phenyl-imino group of the scaffold establishes favorable ?-? stacking interaction with side chain of Phe108 of flap pocket. Some of the docking proposed derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for BACE1 inhibitory activity using a FRET-based assay. High BACE1 inhibitory activities were observed from derivatives containing fused heteroaromtic groups attached through the aliphatic linkage to the N4-piperazine moiety, which may be attributed to the engagement of effective interactions with S1-S'1 sub-pocket residues. Of the most potent compounds, 9e displayed an IC50 value for BACE1 of 98 nM. Some of these derivatives demonstrated good inhibitory activity on A? production in N2a-APPswe cells at 5 and 10 ?M. These compounds might be considered as promising BACE1 inhibitory agents that could lower A? production in AD. PMID:23480856

  11. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo pharmacological evaluation of serotoninergic ligands containing an isonicotinic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Fiorino, Ferdinando; Ciano, Antonio; Magli, Elisa; Severino, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; Perissutti, Elisa; Frecentese, Francesco; Di Vaio, Paola; Izzo, Angelo A; Capasso, Raffaele; Massarelli, Paola; Nencini, Cristina; Rossi, Ilaria; Kędzierska, Ewa; Orzelska-Gòrka, Jolanta; Bielenica, Anna; Santagada, Vincenzo; Caliendo, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Isonicotinamide derivatives, linked to an arylpiperazine moiety, were prepared and their affinity to 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors were evaluated. The combination of structural elements (heterocyclic nucleus, alkyl chain and 4-substituted piperazine) known to play critical roles in affinity for serotoninergic receptors and the proper selection of substituents led to compounds with high specificity and affinity towards serotoninergic receptors. In binding studies, several molecules showed high affinity in nanomolar and subnanomolar range at 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors and moderate or no affinity for other relevant receptors (D1, D2, α1 and α2). N-(3-(4-(bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)propyl)isonicotinamide (4s) with Ki = 0.130 nM, was the most active and selective derivative for the 5-HT1A receptor compared to other serotoninergic, dopaminergic and adrenergic receptors. Compound 4o, instead, showed 5-HT2A affinity values in subnamolar range. Moreover, the compounds having better affinity and selectivity binding profile towards 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors were selected in order to be tested by in vitro and in vivo assays to determine their functional activity. PMID:26820556

  12. Crystal structures of vortioxetine and its methanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin-Bo; Gu, Jian-Ming; Sun, Meng-ying; Hu, Xiu-Rong; Wu, Su-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Vortioxetine, C18H22N2S, (1), systematic name 1-{2-[(2,4-dimethylphenyl)sulfanyl]phenyl}piperazine, a new drug used to treat patients with major depressive disorder, has been crystallized as the free base and its methanol monosolvate, C18H22N2SCH3OH, (2). In both structures, the vortioxetine molecules have similar conformations: in (1), the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 80.04?(16) and in (2) it is 84.94?(13). The CSC bond angle in (1) is 102.76?(14) and the corresponding angle in (2) is 103.41?(11). The piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation with the exocyclic NC bond in a pseudo-equatorial orientation in both structures. No directional interactions beyond normal van der Waals contacts could be identified in the crystal of (1), whereas in (2), the vortioxetine and methanol molecules are linked by NH?O and OH?N hydrogen bonds, generating [001] chains. PMID:26396746

  13. Crystal structures of vortioxetine and its methanol monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin-Bo; Gu, Jian-Ming; Sun, Meng-Ying; Hu, Xiu-Rong; Wu, Su-Xiang

    2015-08-01

    Vortioxetine, C18H22N2S, (1), systematic name 1-{2-[(2,4-di-methyl-phen-yl)sulfan-yl]phen-yl}piperazine, a new drug used to treat patients with major depressive disorder, has been crystallized as the free base and its methanol monosolvate, C18H22N2SCH3OH, (2). In both structures, the vortioxetine mol-ecules have similar conformations: in (1), the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 80.04?(16) and in (2) it is 84.94?(13). The C-S-C bond angle in (1) is 102.76?(14) and the corresponding angle in (2) is 103.41?(11). The piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation with the exocyclic N-C bond in a pseudo-equatorial orientation in both structures. No directional inter-actions beyond normal van der Waals contacts could be identified in the crystal of (1), whereas in (2), the vortioxetine and methanol mol-ecules are linked by N-H?O and O-H?N hydrogen bonds, generating [001] chains. PMID:26396746

  14. The stability of four designer drugs: MDPV, mephedrone, BZP and TFMPP in three biological matrices under various storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert D; Botch-Jones, Sabra R

    2013-03-01

    The analysis of designer drugs, including those in the synthetic cathinone and piperazine classes, may be complicated by the poor stability of these compounds in biological specimens. The stability of four of these compounds was investigated: 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, 4-methyl-N-methylcathinone (mephedrone), N-benzylpiperazine and 1-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]piperazine. Compound stability was monitored in three different biological matrices when each matrix was stored under three different conditions. These matrices and conditions included human whole blood, human serum and human urine, each stored at -20, 4 and 22C for a period of 14 days in the dark in a sealed glass container. Analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed on Day 1 to establish the initial concentration for each drug in each specimen type, and then the samples were divided into three parts for storage under the various conditions. Analysis was performed in triplicate on Days 2, 4, 7 and 14 for each specimen type under each storage condition and the results were compared to those obtained on Day 1. Following analysis of the data, it became clear that mephedrone was not stable, and that care must be taken following specimen receipt to ensure minimal degradation. PMID:23325764

  15. Preparation of a cyanine-based fluorescent probe for highly selective detection of glutathione and its use in living cells and tissues of mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Kwon, Younghee; Kim, Dabin; Lee, Dayoung; Kim, Gyoungmi; Hu, Ying; Ryu, Ji-Hwan; Yoon, Juyoung

    2015-11-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is a major endogenous antioxidant that has a central role in cellular defense against toxins and free radicals. This protocol describes the preparation of CPDSA, a cyanine-based near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe for the detection of GSH in cells and in vivo. CPDSA is prepared with high yield through a simple two-step process. The first step is to react commercially available IR-780 iodide with excess anhydrous piperazine in anhydrous N,N-dimethyl formamide at 85 °C to form cyanine-piperazine (CP). The second step is the sulfonylation of CP with dansyl chloride in anhydrous dichloromethane. CPDSA selectively detects GSH in cells, and it has been shown to not react with other biothiols such as cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcy). This probe can also be used to monitor the GSH level of mouse bone marrow-derived neutrophils (BMDNs). The preparation of probe CPDSA takes 2 d, and experiments in cells and mice take 12-13 d. PMID:26492135

  16. Synthesis of ciprofloxacin-conjugated poly (L-lactic acid) polymer for nanofiber fabrication and antibacterial evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Parwe, Sharad P; Chaudhari, Priti N; Mohite, Kavita K; Selukar, Balaji S; Nande, Smita S; Garnaik, Baijayantimala

    2014-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin was conjugated with polylactide (PLA) via the secondary amine group of the piperazine ring using PLA and 7-(4-(2-Chloroacetyl) piperazin-1-yl)-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1, 4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid. Zinc prolinate, a biocompatible catalyst was synthesized, characterized, and used in ring opening polymerization of L-lactide. Five different kinds of OH-terminated poly(L-lactide) (two-, three-, four-, six-arm, star-shaped) homopolymers were synthesized by ring opening polymerization of L-lactide in the presence of dodecanol, glycerol, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol as initiator and zinc prolinate as a catalyst. The structures of the polymers and conjugates were thoroughly characterized by means of gel permeation chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization – time of flight mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PLA (molecular weight =100,000) and ciprofloxacin conjugated PLA were used for fabrication of nonwoven nanofiber mat (diameter ranges; 150–400 nm) having pore size (62–102 nm) using electrospinning. The microbiological assessment shows that the release of ciprofloxacin possesses antimicrobial activity. The drug-release behavior of the mat was studied to reveal potential application as a drug delivery system. The result shows that the ciprofloxacin release rates of the PLA conjugate nonwoven nanofiber mat could be controlled by the drug loading content and the release medium. The development of a biodegradable ciprofloxacin system, based on nonwoven nanofiber mat, should be of great interest in drug delivery systems. PMID:24741303

  17. HPLC and MS/MS study of polar contaminants in a wetland adjoining a sour-gas plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, L.C.; Headley, J.V.; Peru, K.; Spiegel, K.; Gandrass, J.

    1995-12-31

    An analytical methodology was developed for target analyses and broad spectrum characterization of polar contaminants such as nitrogenous and organosulfur compounds in wetlands using the complementary techniques of HPLC with electrochemical (EC) detection and tandem MS with probe and electrospray ionization. Tandem MS was well suited for the identification and quantification of mixtures of polar compounds in water samples and soil extracts, while HPLC-EC provided sensitive detection of compounds transparent to MS detection and conventional methods. The usefulness of the methodology is demonstrated by studying the removal of polar contaminants from a wetland in western Canada affected by releases of hydrocarbon-rich condensate and free product from an adjoining sour-gas plant. The concern is that the mobile water-soluble polar contaminants may not be as efficiently attenuated by volatilization or adsorption processes as the more hydrophobic hydrocarbons and that some of the polar toxic compounds may break through to contaminate groundwater and surface waters. Samples of groundwater, surface water, and aqueous soil extracts were analyzed to quantify levels of polar contaminants in the presence of high concentrations of hydrocarbons. The use of water extracts reduced the background interference from hydrocarbons and other non-polar compounds that were present in the soil samples. HPLC-EC was used to quantify the target compounds that included monoethanolamine, diethanolamine and methyldiethanolamine and sulfolane-derived compounds while tandem MS was used to identify related compounds and degradation products. Influent concentrations were in the ppm range and discharge concentrations were in the ppb range.

  18. High throughput screening of CO2 solubility in aqueous monoamine solutions.

    PubMed

    Porcheron, Fabien; Gibert, Alexandre; Mougin, Pascal; Wender, Aurlie

    2011-03-15

    Post-combustion Carbon Capture and Storage technology (CCS) is viewed as an efficient solution to reduce CO(2) emissions of coal-fired power stations. In CCS, an aqueous amine solution is commonly used as a solvent to selectively capture CO(2) from the flue gas. However, this process generates additional costs, mostly from the reboiler heat duty required to release the carbon dioxide from the loaded solvent solution. In this work, we present thermodynamic results of CO(2) solubility in aqueous amine solutions from a 6-reactor High Throughput Screening (HTS) experimental device. This device is fully automated and designed to perform sequential injections of CO(2) within stirred-cell reactors containing the solvent solutions. The gas pressure within each reactor is monitored as a function of time, and the resulting transient pressure curves are transformed into CO(2) absorption isotherms. Solubility measurements are first performed on monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, and methyldiethanolamine aqueous solutions at T = 313.15 K. Experimental results are compared with existing data in the literature to validate the HTS device. In addition, a comprehensive thermodynamic model is used to represent CO(2) solubility variations in different classes of amine structures upon a wide range of thermodynamic conditions. This model is used to fit the experimental data and to calculate the cyclic capacity, which is a key parameter for CO(2) process design. Solubility measurements are then performed on a set of 50 monoamines and cyclic capacities are extracted using the thermodynamic model, to asses the potential of these molecules for CO(2) capture. PMID:21341690

  19. Development of Fluorescent Polymerization-based Signal Amplification for Sensitive and Non-enzymatic Biodetection in Antibody Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Avens, Heather J.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2009-01-01

    Antibody microarrays are a critical tool for proteomics, requiring broad, highly sensitive detection of numerous low abundance biomarkers. Fluorescent polymerization-based amplification (FPBA) is presented as a novel, non-enzymatic signal amplification method that takes advantage of the chain-reaction nature of radical polymerization to achieve a highly amplified fluorescent response. A streptavidin-eosin conjugate localizes eosin photoinitiators for polymerization on the chip where biotinylated target protein is bound. The chip is contacted with acrylamide as a monomer, N-methyldiethanolamine as a coinitiator and yellow/green fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) which, upon initiation, combine to form a macroscopically visible and highly fluorescent film. The rapid polymerization kinetics and the presence of cross-linker favor entrapment of the fluorescent NPs in the polymer, enabling highly sensitive fluorescent biodetection. This method is demonstrated as being appropriate for antibody microarrays and is compared to detection approaches which utilize streptavidin-FITC (SA-FITC) and streptavidin-labeled yellow/green NPs (SA-NPs). It is found that FPBA is able to detect 0.16 (+/− 0.01) biotin-antibody/µm2 (or 40 zeptomole surface-bound target molecules), while SA-FITC has a limit of detection of 31 (+/− 1) biotin-antibody/µm2 and SA-NPs fail to achieve any significant signal under the conditions evaluated here. Further, FPBA in conjunction with fluorescent stereomicroscopy yields equal or better sensitivity compared to fluorescent detection of SA-eosin using a much more costly microarray scanner. By facilitating highly sensitive detection, FPBA is expected to enable detection of low abundance antigens and also make possible a transition towards less expensive fluorescence detection instrumentation. PMID:19508906

  20. Investigations on the human hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA) and benzodioxolyl-butanamine (BDB) enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Peters, Frank T; Maurer, Hans H

    2009-10-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA) and benzodioxolyl-butanamine (BDB) are chiral designer drugs distributed on the illicit drug market and they are also N-dealkyl metabolites of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy, Adam), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA, Eve), and N-methyl-benzodioxolyl-butanamine (MBDB, Eden), respectively. MDA and BDB are mainly metabolized via demethylenation to the corresponding catecholamines. The aim of the present work was to elucidate the contribution of the relevant human P450s in the demethylenation of the MDA and BDB enantiomers. They were incubated using heterologously expressed human P450s and the corresponding metabolites dihydroxyamphetamine and 1,2-dihydroxy-4-[2-amino-butyl]benzene were determined. Highest contributions to the demethylenation as calculated from the enzyme kinetic data were obtained for CYP2D6 (MDA and BDB) and additionally CYP3A4 in the case of BDB at substrate concentrations corresponding to plasma concentrations of recreational users. A preferred transformation of the S-enantiomer could be observed for the CYP2D6- and CYP3A4-catalyzed reactions. PMID:19576971

  1. Cross-reactivity of amphetamine analogues with Roche Abuscreen radioimmunoassay reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, J.T. )

    1990-01-01

    Cross-reactivity of amphetamine analogues with the Abuscreen amphetamine radioimmunoassay reagents was determined for both the standard and high specificity antibody systems. Compounds tested included 2-methoxyamphetamine, 4-hydroxymethamphetamine, 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DMA), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DOB), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (BDMPEA), 3,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), N,N-dimethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and N-hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (N-OH MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), and 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine (mescaline). Blank negative reference material was spiked with 1,000 to 100,000 ng/mL of the amphetamine analogue and used as sample in the assays. MDA was the only analogue that showed cross reactivity equal to or greater than that of amphetamine. None of the other analogue compounds demonstrated a positive result at even the highest concentration; however several showed depressed counts at various concentration levels.

  2. Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-combustion CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shiguang; Shou, S.; Pyrzynski, Travis; Makkuni, Ajay; Meyer, Howard

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes scientific/technical progress made for bench-scale membrane contactor technology for post-combustion CO2 capture from DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0004787. Budget Period 1 (BP1) membrane absorber, Budget Period 2 (BP2) membrane desorber and Budget Period 3 (BP3) integrated system and field testing studies have been completed successfully and met or exceeded the technical targets (≥ 90% CO2 removal and CO2 purity of 97% in one membrane stage). Significant breakthroughs are summarized below: BP1 research: The feasibility of utilizing the poly (ether ether ketone), PEEK, based hollow fiber contractor (HFC) in combination with chemical solvents to separate and capture at least 90% of the CO2 from simulated flue gases has been successfully established. Excellent progress has been made as we have achieved the BP1 goal: ≥ 1,000 membrane intrinsic CO2 permeance, ≥ 90% CO2 removal in one stage, ≤ 2 psi gas side pressure drop, and ≥ 1 (sec)-1 mass transfer coefficient. Initial test results also show that the CO2 capture performance, using activated Methyl Diethanol Amine (aMDEA) solvent, was not affected by flue gas contaminants O2 (~3%), NO2 (66 ppmv), and SO2 (145 ppmv). BP2 research: The feasibility of utilizing the PEEK HFC for CO2-loaded solvent regeneration has been successfully established High CO2 stripping flux, one order of magnitude higher than CO2 absorption flux, have been achieved. Refined economic evaluation based on BP1 membrane absorber and BP2 membrane desorber laboratory test data indicate that the CO2 capture costs are 36% lower than DOE’s benchmark amine absorption technology. BP3 research: A bench-scale system utilizing a membrane absorber and desorber was integrated into a continuous CO2 capture process using contactors containing 10 to 20 ft2 of membrane area. The integrated process operation was stable through a 100-hour laboratory test, utilizing a simulated flue gas stream. Greater than 90% CO2 capture combined with 97% CO2 product purity was achieved throughout the test. Membrane contactor modules have been scaled from bench scale 2-inch diameter by 12-inch long (20 ft2 membrane surface area) modules to 4-inch diameter by 60-inch long pilot scale modules (165 ft2 membrane surface area). Pilot scale modules were tested in an integrated absorption/regeneration system for CO2 capture field tests at a coal-fired power plant (Midwest Generation’s Will County Station located in Romeoville, IL). Absorption and regeneration contactors were constructed utilizing high performance super-hydrophobic, nano-porous PEEK membranes with CO2 gas permeance of 2,000 GPU and a 1,000 GPU, respectively. Field tests using aMDEA solvent achieved greater than 90% CO2 removal in a single stage. The absorption mass transfer coefficient was 1.2 (sec)-1, exceeding the initial target of 1.0 (sec)-1. This mass transfer coefficient is over one order of magnitude greater than that of conventional gas/liquid contacting equipment. The economic evaluation based on field tests data indicates that the CO2 capture cost associated with membrane contactor technology is $54.69 (Yr 2011$)/tonne of CO2 captured when using aMDEA as a solvent. It is projected that the DOE’s 2025 cost goal of $40 (Yr 2011$)/tonne of CO2 captured can be met by decreasing membrane module cost and by utilizing advanced CO2 capture solvents. In the second stage of the field test, an advanced solvent, Hitachi’s H3-1 was utilized. The use of H3-1 solvent increased mass transfer coefficient by 17% as compared to aMDEA solvent. The high mass transfer coefficient of H3-1 solvent combined with much more favorable solvent regeneration requirements, indicate that the projected savings achievable with membrane contactor process can be further improved. H3-1 solvent will be used in the next pilot-scale development phase. The integrated absorption/regeneration process design and high performance membrane contactors developed in the current bench-scale program will be used as the base technology for future pilot-scale development.

  3. Development of a method for the analysis of drugs of abuse in vitreous humor by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD).

    PubMed

    Costa, Jose Luiz; Morrone, Andre Ribeiro; Resende, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Chasin, Alice Aparecida da Matta; Tavares, Marina Franco Maggi

    2014-01-15

    This work presents the development of an analytical method based on capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection for the analysis of drugs of abuse and biotransformation products in vitreous humor. Composition of the background electrolyte, implementation of an online pre-concentration strategy and sample preparation procedures were objects of study. The complete electrophoretic separation of 12 analytes (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), ketamine, cocaine, cocaethylene, lidocaine, morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine and heroin) and the internal standard N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butamine (MBDB) was obtained within 13min of run. The method was validated presenting good linearity (r(2)>0.99), recovery ≥90%, precision better than 12% RSD and acceptable accuracy in the range of 86-118% at three concentration levels (50, 100 and 500ng/mL). LODs and LOQs in the order of 1-5ng/mL and 5-10ng/mL, respectively, were obtained. After validation, the method was applied to eighty-seven vitreous humor samples and the results were compared to those obtained by a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening method, routinely used by the forensic toxicology laboratory of the Sao Paulo State Police, Brazil. Cocaine was detected in 7.1%, cocaethylene in 3.6%, lidocaine in 2.4% and ketamine in 1.2% of the total number of analyzed samples. PMID:24325829

  4. Stereoisomeric profiling of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in wastewaters of Valencia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Roig, Pablo; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Blasco, Cristina; Picó, Yolanda

    2014-10-01

    The enantiomeric and diastereomeric profiling of chiral pharmaceuticals (ephedrine, norephedrine, atenolol and venlafaxine) and illicit drugs (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)) was undertaken over a period of fourteen consecutive days in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the city of Valencia, Spain. Degradation efficiency of WWTPs was found to be compound and enantiomer dependent. Selective enantiomer enrichment was observed for several target analytes. Amphetamine and MDMA were enriched with R(-)-enantiomers. 1S,2S(+)-pseudoephedrine was found to be more readily degradable during activated sludge treatment than its diastereomer 1R,2S(-)-ephedrine. Atenolol underwent enrichment with either S(-)- or R(+)-enantiomer in different WWTPs. This unexpected enantiomeric variation in the stereoselective degradation of atenolol could be attributed to different processes utilized during activated sludge treatment. The application of (enantiomeric) profiling of wastewater revealed usage patterns of chiral drugs in the Valencia region. PMID:25029504

  5. Artesunate has its enhancement on antibacterial activity of β-lactams via increasing the antibiotic accumulation within methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weiwei; Li, Bin; Zheng, Xinchuan; Liu, Xin; Pan, Xichun; Qing, Rongxin; Cen, Yanyan; Zheng, Jiang; Zhou, Hong

    2013-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has now emerged as a predominant and serious pathogen because of its resistance to a large group of antibiotics, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, to develop new agents against resistance is urgently required. Previously, artesunate (AS) was found to enhance the antibacterial effect of β-lactams against MRSA. In this study, AS was first found to increase the accumulation of antibiotics (daunorubicin and oxacillin) within MRSA by laser confocal microscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem MS method, suggesting the increased antibiotics accumulation might be related to the enhancement of AS on antibiotics. Furthermore, AS was found not to destroy the cell structure of MRSA by transmission electron microscope. AS was found to inhibit gene expressions of important efflux pumps such as NorA, NorB and NorC, but not MepA, SepA and MdeA. In conclusion, our results showed that AS was capable of enhancing the antibacterial activity of β-lactams via increasing antibiotic accumulations within MRSA through inhibiting gene expressions of efflux pumps such as NorA, NorB and NorC, but did not destroy the cell structure of MRSA. AS could be further investigated as a candidate drug for treatment of MRSA infection. PMID:23549351

  6. Detection of p-chloroamphetamine in urine samples with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsz C; Lin, Dong-Liang; Lua, Ahai C

    2011-05-01

    Designer drugs are introduced periodically to avoid detection and to provide new drugs with different pharmacological activities. During our routine analysis of amphetamine in urine samples, we observed one sample that reacted with immunoassay with high activity. There is one prominent peak in the gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) chromatogram. However, no amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, MDEA, or ephedrine was detected with GC-MS. Careful examination of the mass spectrum indicated the presence of one fragment ion (m/z 140), which is similar to the base peak of trifluoroacetic anhydride derivative of amphetamine. The characteristic ion cluster representing the presence of one chlorine atom was observed. Investigation with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS detected an unknown compound with molecular ion of m/z 170. This compound was tentatively identified as chloroamphetamine. Pure standard material of p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) was purchased and analyzed with both GC-MS and LC-MS. Identical GC-MS spectra and LC-MS-MS fragmentation patterns were obtained. A GC-MS procedure was developed for the quantitation of PCA. The limits of detection and quantification were 10 μg/L. Precision was between 1.26% and 4.26%, and bias was between -0.91% and 4.27%. The prevalence PCA positive rate is 0.35% of the samples screened positive for amphetamine. PMID:21513613

  7. Microfluidic chip based nano liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of abused drugs and metabolites in human hair.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kevin Y; Leung, K Wing; Ting, Annie K L; Wong, Zack C F; Ng, Winki Y Y; Choi, Roy C Y; Dong, Tina T X; Wang, Tiejie; Lau, David T W; Tsim, Karl W K

    2012-03-01

    A microfluidic chip based nano-HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nano-HPLC-Chip-MS/MS) has been developed for simultaneous measurement of abused drugs and metabolites: cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, norcocaine, morphine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, phencyclidine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, MDEA, and methadone in the hair of drug abusers. The microfluidic chip was fabricated by laminating polyimide films and it integrated an enrichment column, an analytical column and a nanospray tip. Drugs were extracted from hairs by sonication, and the chromatographic separation was achieved in 15 min. The drug identification and quantification criteria were fulfilled by the triple quardropule tandem mass spectrometry. The linear regression analysis was calibrated by deuterated internal standards with all of the R(2) at least over 0.993. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were from 0.1 to 0.75 and 0.2 to 1.25 pg/mg, respectively. The validation parameters including selectivity, accuracy, precision, stability, and matrix effect were also evaluated here. In conclusion, the developed sample preparation method coupled with the nano-HPLC-Chip-MS/MS method was able to reveal the presence of drugs in hairs from the drug abusers, with the enhanced sensitivity, compared with the conventional HPLC-MS/MS. PMID:22281681

  8. Evaluation of amphetamine-type stimulant abuse through hair analysis: Results from 12 years of work.

    PubMed

    Brčić Karačonji, Irena; Brajenović, Nataša

    2014-06-01

    Hair analysis is a reliable tool for detecting long-term exposure to illegal drugs, including amphetaminetype stimulants, over periods from a few weeks to a few months, depending on the length of the hair used for analysis. Between 2000 and 2012, over 600 hair samples were analysed at the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Croatia (IMROH) for the presence of amphetamine-type stimulants. IMROH has used the same procedure for testing hair samples for amphetamine-type stimulants for over twelve years. It was found to be reliable for confirming repeated abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to determine amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA-Ecstasy), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in hair. Hair samples were either taken at the Institute, delivered by mail or a third person brought them to the laboratory. In most cases, the hair samples were tested anonymously. A total of 23 % of the tested samples were positive for one or more amphetamine-type stimulant. MDMA was the most frequently detected substance, whereas the most frequent combination was amphetamine with MDMA. Our results could indicate a trend in amphetamine-type stimulant abuse among young people in the Republic of Croatia. PMID:24945418

  9. Estimation of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) co-consumption in serum samples of drivers positive for amphetamine or ecstasy.

    PubMed

    Lott, S; Musshoff, F; Madea, B

    2012-09-10

    There is no toxicological analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) applied routinely in cases of driving under influence (DUI); therefore the extent of consumption of this drug might be underestimated. Its consumption is described as occurring often concurrently with amphetamine or ecstasy. This study examines 196 serum samples which were collected by police during road side testing for GHB. The samples subject to this study have already been found to be positive for amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and/or 3,4-methylenedioxyethamphetamine (MDEA). Analysis has been performed by LC/MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Due to its polarity, chromatographic separation of GHB was achieved by a HILIC column. To differentiate endogenous and exogenous levels of GHB, a cut-off concentration of 4μg/ml was applied. Of the 196 samples, two have been found to be positive for GHB. Of these samples, one sample was also positive for amphetamine and one for MDMA. Whilst other amphetamine derivates were not detected in these samples, both samples were found to be positive for cannabinoids. These results suggest that co-consumption of GHB with amphetamine or ecstasy is relatively low (1%) for the collective of this study. PMID:22554869

  10. Screening determination of four amphetamine-type drugs in street-grade illegal tablets and urine samples by portable capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Anh Huong; Pham, Thi Ngoc Mai; Ta, Thi Thao; Nguyen, Xuan Truong; Nguyen, Thi Lien; Le, Thi Hong Hao; Koenka, Israel Joel; Sáiz, Jorge; Hauser, Peter C; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2015-12-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for the identification of four substituted amphetamines, namely, 3,4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) was developed using an in-house constructed semi-automated portable capillary electrophoresis instrument (CE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D). Arginine 10mM adjusted to pH4.5 with acetic acid was found to be the optimal background electrolyte for the CE-C(4)D determination of these compounds. The best detection limits achieved with and without a sample preconcentration process were 10ppb and 500ppb, respectively. Substituted amphetamines were found in different seized illicit club drug tablets and urine samples collected from different suspected users. Good agreement between results from CE-C(4)D and those with the confirmation method (GC-MS) was achieved, with correlation coefficients for the two pairs of data of more than 0.99. PMID:26654084

  11. Frequency of biocide-resistant genes and susceptibility to chlorhexidine in high-level mupirocin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MuH MRSA).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingzhong; Zhao, Huanqiang; Han, Lizhong; Shu, Wen; Wu, Qiong; Ni, Yuxing

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of biocide-resistant determinants and the susceptibility to chlorhexidine in high-level mupirocin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MuH MRSA). Fifty-three MuH MRSA isolates were analyzed for plasmid-borne genes (qacA/B, smr, qacG, qacH, and qacJ) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR); for chromosome-mediated genes (norA, norB, norC, mepA, mdeA, sepA, and sdrM) by PCR and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR); and for susceptibility to chlorhexidine by MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Furthermore, disinfectant efficacy was tested in the presence of 3.0% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in MBC detection. The plasmid-borne genes qacA/B (83.0%) and smr (77.4%) and overexpressions of chromosome-mediated genes norA (49.0%) and norB (28.8%) were predominantly found in isolates studied, and 90.6% of the isolates revealed tolerance to chlorhexidine. In the presence of BSA, the average MBC of chlorhexidine for these isolates rose to 256 μg/mL. Altogether, our results suggest that surveillance of sensitivity to biocides among MuH MRSA isolates is essential for hospital infection control. PMID:26008124

  12. Bio-inspired solid phase extraction sorbent material for cocaine: a cross reactivity study.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Camilla; Sergi, Manuel; Perez, German; Curini, Roberta; Compagnone, Dario; Mascini, Marcello

    2014-12-01

    The binding specificity of a bio-inspired hexapeptide (QHWWDW) versus cocaine and four other drugs such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA), phencyclidine and morphine was computationally studied and then experimentally confirmed in solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) detection. In simulation, the hexapeptide-drug complexes were docked with different scoring functions and considering pH chemical environment. In experimental, the cross reactivity of the selected hexapeptide was tested as SPE sorbent versus cocaine and other four drugs using buffer solutions at pH 4 and 7. Significant differences in specific retention were found between cocaine (97% of recovery) and both morphine (45% of recovery) and phencyclidine (60% of recovery), but less for ecstasies (average recovery 69%). In agreement with docking simulation, the hexapeptide showed the highest recovery with best specificity versus cocaine at pH 7 with an experimentally binding constant of 2.9 × 10(6)M(-1). The bio-inspired sorbent material analytical performances were compared with a commercial reversed phase cartridge confirming the hexapeptide specificity to cocaine and validating simulated data. PMID:25159425

  13. Development and validation of a single LC-MS/MS assay following SPE for simultaneous hair analysis of amphetamines, opiates, cocaine and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Imbert, L; Dulaurent, S; Mercerolle, M; Morichon, J; Lachâtre, G; Gaulier, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The two major challenges in hair analysis are the limited amount of samples usually available and the low targeted concentrations. To overcome these limitations, a liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-ESI-MS/MS) allowing the simultaneous analysis of 17 amphetamines (amphetamine, BDB, m-CPP, dexfenfluramine, DOB, DOM, ephedrine, MBDB, MDA, MDEA, MDMA, methamphetamine, methylphenidate, 4-MTA, norephedrine, norfenfluramine and PMA), 5 opiates (morphine, codeine, heroin, ethylmorphine, and 6AM), cocaine and 5 metabolites [ecgonine methyl ester (EME), benzoylecgonine (BZE), anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AME), cocaethylene, and norcocaine] has been developed. The validation procedure included linearity, intra-day and inter-day variability and accuracy for 5 days (5 replicates at 3 concentration levels). Proficiency studies were used to check the accuracy of the method. As a result, all amphetamines, opiates and cocaine derivatives were satisfactory identified by 2 MRM transitions in 15 min. Calibration curves were performed by a quadratic 1/X weighted regression. The calibration model fits from 0.05 to 10 ng/mg. The limits of detection (LODs) range between 0.005 and 0.030 ng/mg. Precision has been checked by intra-day and inter-day RSD, and associated relative bias, which were lower than 25% for the limits of quantifications (LOQs) and lower than 20% for the other levels tested. This method was routinely applied to hair samples: two positive results of adult drug addicts are presented. PMID:24378313

  14. Nitrile-functionalized tertiary amines as highly efficient and reversible SO2 absorbents.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung Yun; Kim, Heehwan; Kim, Young Jin; Jeong, Junkyo; Cheong, Minserk; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Hoon Sik; Lee, Je Seung

    2014-01-15

    Three different types of nitrile-functionalized amines, including 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propionitrile (DEAPN), 3-(N,N-dibutylamino)propionitrile (DBAPN), and N-methyl-N,N-dipropionitrile amine (MADPN) were synthesized, and their SO2 absorption performances were evaluated and compared with those of hydroxy-functionalized amines such as N,N-diethyl-N-ethanol amine (DEEA), N,N-dibutyl-N-ethanol amine (DBEA), and N-methyl-N,N-diethanol amine (MDEA). Absorption-desorption cycle experiments clearly demonstrate that the nitrile-functionalized amines are more efficient than the hydroxy-functionalized amines in terms of absorption rate and regenerability. Computational calculations with DBEA and DBAPN revealed that DBEA bearing a hydroxyethyl group chemically interacts with SO2 through oxygen atom, forming an ionic compound with a covalently bound OSO2(-) group. On the contrary, DBAPN bearing a nitrile group physically interacts with SO2 through the nitrogen and the hydrogen atoms of the two methylene groups adjacent to the amino and nitrile functionalities. PMID:24291666

  15. [Application of hair analysis of selected psychoactive substances for medico-legal purposes. Part I. Segmental hair analysis in cases of fatal opioids and amphetamines poisoning].

    PubMed

    Rojek, Sebastian; Kłys, Małgorzata; Konopka, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The present experimental investigations were inspired by the necessity of standardizing the procedures and analytical methods employed in hair analysis aiming at a retrospective evaluation of ingestion of various xenobiotics. Thus, in keeping with the principal premises, the main objective of the study was development of unique, novel chemico-toxicological procedures for analyzing hair content of psychoactive substances in two basic groups of substances of abuse: opioids (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine) and amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, MDEA) by HPLC-APCI-MS-MS, followed by verification of the thus worked out procedures in medico-legal practice through opinionating in selected group of patients deceased due to fatal psychoactive substance poisoning (cause of death determination). Determinations of opioids and amphetamines in the hair biological matrix were performed using high performance liquid chromatography - atmospheric pressure chemical ionization - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS-MS). In the group of fatal poisonings by ,,Polish heroine", hair segmental analysis confirmed the abuse profile of the opiate or mixed (opiate-amphetamine) type, which to some measure is characteristic of Polish drug addiction, indicating the presence of these xenobiotics in the investigating hair samples in the premortem period. PMID:20860298

  16. Pathology of deaths associated with "ecstasy" and "eve" misuse.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Forrest, A R

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To study the postmortem pathology associated with ring substituted amphetamine (amphetamine derivatives) misuse. METHODS: The postmortem findings in deaths associated with the ring substituted amphetamines 3,4-methylenedioxymethyl-amphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA, eve) were studied in seven young white men aged between 20 and 25 years. RESULTS: Striking changes were identified in the liver, which varied from foci of individual cell necrosis to centrilobular necrosis. In one case there was massive hepatic necrosis. Changes consistent with catecholamine induced myocardial damage were seen in five cases. In the brain perivascular haemorrhagic and hypoxic changes were identified in four cases. Overall, the changes in four cases were the same as those reported in heart stroke, although only two cases had a documented history of hyperthermia. Of these four cases, all had changes in their liver, three had changes in their brains, and three in their heart. Of the other three cases, one man died of fulminant liver failure, one of water intoxication and one probably from a cardiac arrhythmia associated with myocardial fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that there is more than one mechanism of damage in ring substituted amphetamine misuse, injury being caused by hyperthermia in some cases, but with ring substituted amphetamines also possibly having a toxic effect on the liver and other organs in the absence of hyperthermia. Images PMID:8655682

  17. "ADAM' or "EVE'?--a toxicological conundrum.

    PubMed

    Cox, D E; Williams, K R

    1996-01-12

    The 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted amphetamines, including "ADAM' and "EVE', are currently popular drugs of abuse. Adverse reactions are reported in the clinical literature but few fatal cases are documented and little toxicological data is available to guide those determining the cause or manner of death in such cases. We report two deaths presenting in a similar manner and with similar clinical features. Various body fluid samples were analysed for amphetamines by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In one case, amphetamine alone was detected at levels of 1.54 mg/l and 1.47 mg/l in postmortem blood and admission serum, respectively. The other involved several 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted amphetamines, namely MDA, MDMA and MDEA, at levels of 0.25 mg/l, 0.43 mg/l and 0.3 mg/l, respectively in postmortem femoral blood and 0.24 mg/l, 0.55 mg/l and 0.49 mg/l in admission blood. The interpretation of these toxicological results and some novel legal issues are discussed. PMID:8675130

  18. Large Hexadecametallic {Mn(III) -Ln(III) } Wheels: Synthesis, Structural, Magnetic, and Theoretical Characterization.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Kuduva R; Langley, Stuart K; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis, gas sorption studies, magnetic properties, and theoretical studies of new molecular wheels of core type {Mn(III) 8 Ln(III) 8 } (Ln=Dy, Ho, Er, Y and Yb), using the ligand mdeaH2 , in the presence of ortho-toluic or benzoic acid are reported. From the seven wheels studied the {Mn8 Dy8 } and {Mn8 Y8 } analogues exhibit SMM behavior as determined from ac susceptibility experiments in a zero static magnetic field. From DFT calculations a S=16 ground state was determined for the {Mn8 Y8 } complex due to weak ferromagnetic Mn(III) -Mn(III) interactions. Ab initio CASSCF+RASSI-SO calculations on the {Mn8 Dy8 } wheel estimated the Mn(III) -Dy(III) exchange interaction as -0.1?cm(-1) . This weak exchange along with unfavorable single-ion anisotropy of Dy(III) /Mn(III) ions, however, led to the observation of SMM behavior with fast magnetic relaxation. The orientation of the g-anisotropy of the Dy(III) ions is found to be perpendicular to the plane of the wheel and this suggests the possibility of toroidal magnetic moments in the cluster. The {Mn8 Ln8 } clusters reported here are the largest heterometallic Mn(III) Ln(III) wheels and the largest {3d-4f} wheels to exhibit SMM behavior reported to date. PMID:26403264

  19. Silver nanoflower-reduced graphene oxide composite based micro-disk electrode for insulin detection in serum.

    PubMed

    Yagati, Ajay Kumar; Choi, Yonghyun; Park, Jinsoo; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Jun, Hee-Sook; Cho, Sungbo

    2016-06-15

    Sensitive and selective determination of protein biomarkers remains a significant challenge due to the existence of various biomarkers in human body at a low concentration level. Therefore, new technologies were incessantly steered to detect tiny biomarkers at a low concentration level, yet, it is difficult to develop reliable, stable and sensitive detection methods for disease diagnostics. Therefore, the present study demonstrates a methodology to detect insulin in serum at low levels based on Ag nanoflower (AgNF) decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) modified micro-disk electrode arrays (MDEAs). The morphology of AgNF-rGO composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, the structure was analyzed using X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra. The hybrid interface exhibited enhanced electrical conductivity when compared with its individual elements and had improved capturing ability for antibody-antigen binding towards insulin detection. In order to measure quantitatively the insulin concentration in PBS and human serum, the change in impedance (ΔZ) from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was analyzed for various concentrations of insulin in [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) redox couple. The electrode with adsorbed antibodies showed an increase in ΔZ for the addition of antigen concentrations over a working range of 1-1000ngmL(-1). The detection limits were 50 and 70pgmL(-1) in PBS and human serum, respectively. PMID:26852199

  20. Drugs of abuse monitoring in blood for control of driving under the influence of drugs.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Manfred R; Kraemer, Thomas

    2002-04-01

    Driving under the influence of drugs is an issue of growing concern in the industrialized countries as a risk and a cause for road accidents. In forensic toxicology, the increasing number of samples for determination of drugs in blood is mainly due to zero-tolerance laws in several countries and well-trained police officers who can better recognize drivers under the influence of drugs of abuse. This review describes procedures for detection of the following drugs of abuse in whole blood, plasma, and serum: amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy methamphetamine (MDMA), N-ethyl-3, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDEA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), cannabinoids (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC], 11-hydroxy-delta-9-THC, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-THC), cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, cocaethylene, the opiates (heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, or codeine), and methadone as well as gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), phencyclidine (PCP), and psilocybin/psilocin. For many of the analytes, sensitive immunologic methods for screening are available. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is still the state-of-the-art method for confirmatory analysis or for screening and confirmation in one step. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) procedures for such purposes are also included in this review. Basic data about the biosample assayed, internal standard, workup, GC or LC column and mobile phase, detection mode, reference data, and validation data of each procedure are summarized in two tables. PMID:11897967