Science.gov

Sample records for meal based diets

  1. Effects of expeller pressed camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens fed wheat-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Philip; Widyaratne, Gemunu

    2012-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of graded levels of camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens. A total of 180-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of the six treatments. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 15% canola meal. The experimental diets contained 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% or 15% camelina meal added at the expense of canola meal. Chromic oxide (0.35%) was added to all diets as a digestibility marker. On the morning of day 22, birds were killed by cervical dislocation and their abdominal fat pad was obtained. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and energy as well as nitrogen retention all declined linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing levels of dietary camelina meal. Weight gain (p < 0.01) and feed intake (p = 0.08) were linearly reduced as the level of camelina meal in the diet increased. Feed conversion ratio was also negatively affected by camelina meal (p < 0.01). Birds fed diets containing 15% camelina meal had significantly higher (p < 0.01) levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, total n-3 fatty acids, total n-6 fatty acids and a significantly lower ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.01) than birds fed canola meal. In conclusion, the inclusion of camelina meal in their diet significantly reduced the growth and feed conversion ratio of broilers compared with canola meal. However, the potential to incorporate n-3 fatty acids into carcass tissues may provide some justification for including camelina meal in poultry rations. PMID:22881197

  2. Lactoferrin Decreases the Intestinal Inflammation Triggered by a Soybean Meal-Based Diet in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Pilar E; Solís, Camila J; De la Paz, Javiera F; Alaurent, Trevor G S; Caruffo, Mario; Hernández, Adrián J; Dantagnan, Patricio; Feijóo, Carmen G

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation is a harmful condition in fish that can be triggered by the ingestion of soybean meal. Due to the positive costs-benefits ratio of including soybean meal in farmed fish diets, identifying additives with intestinal anti-inflammatory effects could contribute to solving the issues caused by this plant protein. This study evaluated the effect of incorporating lactoferrin (LF) into a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation in zebrafish. Larvae were fed with diets containing 50% soybean meal (50SBM) or 50SBM supplemented with LF to 0.5, 1, 1.5 g/kg (50SBM+LF0.5; 50SBM+LF1.0; 50SBM+LF1.5). The 50SBM+LF1.5 diet was the most efficient and larvae had a reduced number of neutrophils in the intestine compared with 50SBM larvae and an indistinguishable number compared with control larvae. Likewise, the transcription of genes involved in neutrophil migration and intestinal mucosal barrier functions (mmp9, muc2.2, and β-def-1) were increased in 50SBM larvae but were normally expressed in 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae. To determine the influence of intestinal inflammation on the general immune response, larvae were challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. Larvae with intestinal inflammation had increased mortality rate compared to control larvae. Importantly, 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae had a mortality rate lower than control larvae. These results demonstrate that LF displays a dual effect in zebrafish, acting as an intestinal anti-inflammatory agent and improving performance against bacterial infection. PMID:27247950

  3. Lactoferrin Decreases the Intestinal Inflammation Triggered by a Soybean Meal-Based Diet in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Pilar E.; Solís, Camila J.; Alaurent, Trevor G. S.; Caruffo, Mario; Hernández, Adrián J.; Feijóo, Carmen G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation is a harmful condition in fish that can be triggered by the ingestion of soybean meal. Due to the positive costs-benefits ratio of including soybean meal in farmed fish diets, identifying additives with intestinal anti-inflammatory effects could contribute to solving the issues caused by this plant protein. This study evaluated the effect of incorporating lactoferrin (LF) into a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation in zebrafish. Larvae were fed with diets containing 50% soybean meal (50SBM) or 50SBM supplemented with LF to 0.5, 1, 1.5 g/kg (50SBM+LF0.5; 50SBM+LF1.0; 50SBM+LF1.5). The 50SBM+LF1.5 diet was the most efficient and larvae had a reduced number of neutrophils in the intestine compared with 50SBM larvae and an indistinguishable number compared with control larvae. Likewise, the transcription of genes involved in neutrophil migration and intestinal mucosal barrier functions (mmp9, muc2.2, and β-def-1) were increased in 50SBM larvae but were normally expressed in 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae. To determine the influence of intestinal inflammation on the general immune response, larvae were challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. Larvae with intestinal inflammation had increased mortality rate compared to control larvae. Importantly, 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae had a mortality rate lower than control larvae. These results demonstrate that LF displays a dual effect in zebrafish, acting as an intestinal anti-inflammatory agent and improving performance against bacterial infection. PMID:27247950

  4. Evaluation of family growth response to fish meal and plant protein-based diets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both environmental and economic concerns have led to the development of fish-meal free diets for salmonids. The ability of rainbow trout to efficiently utilize plant-based diets for growth and reproduction, and the genetic variation within populations for these traits, has not been thoroughly examin...

  5. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  6. Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on selected enzymes of some tissues of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, N O; Oloyede, O B

    2010-05-01

    Effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented Terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamate transferase (gamma-GT) in the crop, small intestine, gizzard, heart, liver and serum of broiler chicks were investigated. Milled T. catappa seed was inoculated with spores of A.niger (2.21 x 10(4) spores per ml) for 3 weeks. Forty-five day-old broiler chicks weighing between 27.62 and 36.21 g, were divided into three groups. The first group was fed soybean-based (control) diet; the second on raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet; and the third on A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal-based diet for 7 weeks. The results revealed a significantly increased (p<0.05) activity of ALP in the tissues. Contrarily, there were significant reductions (p<0.05) in the activities of ALP, ALT, AST and gamma-GT in the liver and heart of the broilers fed the raw T. catappa seed meal-based diet while there were significant increase (p<0.05) in the activities of these enzymes in the serum of the broilers in this group. The data obtained showed that A. niger-fermented T. catappa seed meal reduced the toxic effects of the raw seed meal on the tissues of broiler chicks. PMID:20170700

  7. Effects of soyabean meal- or whey-based diets on lipid metabolism in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, G; Papadomichelakis, G; Tsiplakou, E; Lampidonis, A D; Chadio, S; Zervas, G; Politis, I

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that dietary protein source influences lipid metabolism-related parameters weaned piglets. The effects of soyabean meal (SB) and whey proteins (WP) on gene expression of several genes involved in the lipogenic process in liver, visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues, plasma insulin concentration and fatty acid (FA) profile were investigated in 18 weaned piglets. Weaned piglets were fed one of two diets containing either SB or WP as the main protein source. Following a 10-h fasting period, plasma insulin concentration and FA profile were assessed at 56 and 72 days of age, whereas gene expression in liver, VAT and SAT was assessed at 72 days of age. Plasma insulin concentration was not affected by diet, although it was 40% lower in SB fed pigs. The SB pigs had lower 14:0 (p < 0.01) and higher 18:3n-3 (p < 0.001) levels in plasma in comparison with WP pigs. However, these changes were attributed to background differences in the dietary FA profile and not to a direct protein source effect. Gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) in liver and VAT were lower (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) in SB compared to WP fed piglets, but no differences occurred in SAT. No changes were observed in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, liver X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and γ and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 mRNA levels, either in liver or in adipose tissues. In conclusion, dietary protein source, accompanied likely by side alterations in the dietary composition, affects lipid metabolism in pigs through the downregulation of SREBP-1, which is a crucial determinant of lipogenic process. PMID:24924522

  8. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Petit, H V; Pereira, A B D; Soder, K J; Ross, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the interactions of corn meal or molasses [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) supplements] with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) supplements] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay diets. Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 135±49d in milk and 386±61kg of body weight in the beginning of the study were randomly assigned to 4 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period lasted 19d with 14d for diet adaptation and 5d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed diets composed of mixed-mostly grass hay plus 1 of the following 4 concentrate blends: (1) corn meal plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; (2) corn meal plus flaxseed meal; (3) liquid molasses plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; or (4) liquid molasses plus flaxseed meal. Data were analyzed for main effects of NSC and RDP supplements, and the NSC × RDP supplement interactions. Significant NSC × RDP supplement interactions were observed for milk urea N, milk N efficiency, and the sums of milk saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. No effect of NSC supplements was observed for nutrient intake and milk yield. However, 4% fat-corrected milk (-0.70kg/d) and energy-corrected milk (-0.60kg/d) were significantly reduced in cows fed liquid molasses due to a trend to decreased concentration of milk fat (-0.17%). Diets with liquid molasses resulted in increased (+35%) concentration and yield of milk enterolactone, indicating that this mammalian lignan can be modulated by supplements with different NSC profiles. Overall, NSC and RDP supplements profoundly changed the milk fatty acid profile, likely because of differences in fatty acids intake, Δ(9)-desaturase indices, and ruminal biohydrogenation pathways. Feeding liquid molasses significantly reduced plasma

  9. Comparing the effects of feeding a grain- or a fish meal-based diet on water quality, waste production, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within low exchange water recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding a fish meal-free grain-based diet (GB) was compared to feeding a fish meal-based diet (FM) relative to water quality criteria, waste production, water treatment process performance, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within six replicated water recirculating aquaculture system...

  10. Effects of cellulase supplementation to corn soybean meal-based diet on the performance of sows and their piglets.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, Santi D; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Ho

    2016-07-01

    A total of 15 primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) and their litters were used in the current study to evaluate the efficacy of cellulase supplementation on the production performance of sows and piglets. Pigs were randomly allocated into one of three treatments with five replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were as follows: (i) CON (corn-soybean meal-based control); (ii) EZ1 (CON + 0.05% cellulase); and (iii) EZ2 (CON + 0.10% cellulase). The supplementation of cellulase had no effect (P > 0.05) on body weight and feed intake of lactating sows. At weaning, back fat thickness loss decreased (P = 0.04) linearly in EZ1 and EZ2 treatments. The average daily gain (ADG) of piglets increased (linear P = 0.06, quadratic P = 0.04)) during days 14 to 21 as well as at days 21 to 25 (linear P = 0.03 and quadratic P = 0.01) with the increase in the level of supplemented enzyme. Dry matter and nitrogen digestibility increased (linear P = 0.01) in lactating sows fed EZ1 and EZ2 diet compared with CON. In conclusion, it is suggested that cellulase supplementation to corn-soybean meal based diet exerts beneficial effects to sows in reducing their back fat thickness loss at weaning and also helps to improve nutrient digestibility. It also helped to improve the ADG of piglets. PMID:26420259

  11. Evaluation of palm kernel meal and corn distillers grains in corn silage-based diets for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, L P F; Cabrita, A R J; Dewhurst, R J; Vicente, T E J; Lopes, Z M C; Fonseca, A J M

    2006-07-01

    The effects of increasing levels of solvent-extracted palm kernel meal (SPKM) and corn distillers dried grains (CDG) in corn silage-based diets on feed intake and milk production were examined in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, 20 Holstein cows averaging 100 d in milk (DIM) (SD = 61.5) at the start of the experiment were utilized in an 11-wk randomized complete block design with 4 treatments in 5 blocks to study effects of increasing levels of SPKM in the diet. During a 3-wk preliminary period, cows were fed a standard diet. At the end of the preliminary period, cows were blocked by 4% fat-corrected milk yield, parity number (primiparous and multiparous), and DIM, and were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 experimental diets. The total mixed ration (TMR) consisted of (dry matter basis) 40% corn silage, 5% coarsely chopped wheat straw, and 55% concentrate. The increasing dietary levels of SPKM were achieved by replacing protein sources and citrus pulp with SPKM and urea (0, 5, 10, and 15% SPKM and 0.06, 0.22, 0.38, and 0.55% urea for SPKM0, SPKM5, SPKM10, and SPKM15, respectively). In Experiment 2, 18 Holstein cows averaging 93 DIM (SD = 49.1) at the start of the experiment were utilized in an 11-wk randomized complete block design with 3 treatments in 6 blocks to study effects of increasing levels of CDG in the diet. The preliminary period lasted for 2 wk. Assignment of cows to treatments was the same as in Experiment 1. The TMR consisted of (dry matter basis) 40% corn silage, 5% coarsely chopped wheat straw, and 55% concentrate. The increasing dietary levels of CDG were achieved by replacing soybean meal and citrus pulp with CDG and urea (0, 7, and 14% CDG and 0, 0.22, and 0.49% urea for CDG0, CDG7, and CDG14, respectively). There were no significant treatment effects on dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk composition in Experiment 1. Inclusion of SPKM tended to increase protein and lactose contents of milk. The SPKM0 diet promoted body weight loss. There were no

  12. Effects of exogenous enzyme supplementation to corn- and soybean meal-based or complex diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood metabolites in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Jo, J K; Ingale, S L; Kim, J S; Kim, Y W; Kim, K H; Lohakare, J D; Lee, J H; Chae, B J

    2012-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of exogenous enzymes on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients, blood metabolites, fecal VFA, and fecal ammonia-N in growing pigs (Sus scrofa) fed a corn (Zea mays L.)- and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal (SBM)-based diet. In Exp. 1, 240 growing barrows (initial BW: 55.6 ± 0.9 kg) were randomly allotted to 5 treatments on the basis of BW. There were 4 replicates in each treatment with 12 pigs per replicate. The 5 treatments consisted of a corn-SBM-based control diet and 4 additional diets were similar to the control diet, with the exception that 0.05% β-mannanase (M), α-amylase + β-mannanase (AM), β-mannanase + protease (MPr), or α-amylase + β-mannanase + protease (AMP) was added to the diets, which were fed for 28 d. Pigs fed the AM, MPr, or AMP diet had greater (P < 0.05) ADG than pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed the AMP diet also had greater (P < 0.05) ADG than pigs fed the M, AM, or MPr diet. Pigs fed the AMP diet had greater (P < 0.05) G:F than pigs fed the control diet. The G:F of the pigs fed the M, AM, or MPr diet were not different (P > 0.05) from the G:F in pigs fed the AMP or control diet. The ADFI, ATTD of nutrients, blood metabolites, and fecal VFA and ammonia-N concentrations were not different among treatments. In Exp. 2, 192 growing barrows (initial BW: 56.9 ± 1.0 kg) were allotted to 4 treatments. There were 4 replicates in each treatment with 12 pigs per replicate. Pigs were fed a corn-SBM-based diet (CSD) or a complex diet (CD) that contained corn, SBM, 3% rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) meal, 3% copra (Cocos nucifera L.) meal, and 3% palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) kernel meal. Each diet was prepared without exogenous enzymes or with 0.05% AMP and all diets were fed for 28 d. The ADG and G:F of pigs fed the CSD were greater (P < 0.05) than pigs fed the CD. However, the type of diet had no effect on the

  13. Influence of Rain Tree Pod Meal Supplementation on Rice Straw Based Diets Using In vitro Gas Fermentation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Anantasook, N.; Wanapat, M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio with rain tree pod meal (RPM) supplementation on in vitro fermentation using gas production technique. The experiment design was a 6×4 factorial arrangement in a CRD. Factor A was 6 levels of R:C ratio (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100) and factor B was 4 levels of RPM (0, 4, 8 and 12 mg). It was found that gas kinetic, extent rate (c) was linearly increased (p<0.01) with an increasing level of concentrate while cumulative gas production (96 h) was higher in R:C of 40:60. In addition, interaction of R:C ratio and RPM level affected NH3-N and IVDMD and were highest in R:C of 0:100 with 0, 4 mg of RPM and 40:60 with 8 mg of RPM, respectively. Moreover, interaction of R:C ratio and RPM level significantly increased total volatile fatty acids and propionate concentration whereas lower acetate, acetate to propionate ratios and CH4 production in R:C of 20:80 with 8 mg of RPM. Moreover, the two factors, R:C ratio and RPM level influenced the protozoal population and the percentage of methanogens in the total bacteria population. In addition, the use of real-time PCR found that a high level of concentrate in the diet remarkably decreased three cellulolytic bacteria numbers (F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus). Based on this study, it is suggested that the ratio of R:C at 40:60 and RPM level at 12 mg could improve ruminal fluid fermentation in terms of reducing fermentation losses, thus improving VFA profiles and ruminal ecology. PMID:25049570

  14. Influence of Rain Tree Pod Meal Supplementation on Rice Straw Based Diets Using In vitro Gas Fermentation Technique.

    PubMed

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the roughage to concentrate (R:C) ratio with rain tree pod meal (RPM) supplementation on in vitro fermentation using gas production technique. The experiment design was a 6×4 factorial arrangement in a CRD. Factor A was 6 levels of R:C ratio (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100) and factor B was 4 levels of RPM (0, 4, 8 and 12 mg). It was found that gas kinetic, extent rate (c) was linearly increased (p<0.01) with an increasing level of concentrate while cumulative gas production (96 h) was higher in R:C of 40:60. In addition, interaction of R:C ratio and RPM level affected NH3-N and IVDMD and were highest in R:C of 0:100 with 0, 4 mg of RPM and 40:60 with 8 mg of RPM, respectively. Moreover, interaction of R:C ratio and RPM level significantly increased total volatile fatty acids and propionate concentration whereas lower acetate, acetate to propionate ratios and CH4 production in R:C of 20:80 with 8 mg of RPM. Moreover, the two factors, R:C ratio and RPM level influenced the protozoal population and the percentage of methanogens in the total bacteria population. In addition, the use of real-time PCR found that a high level of concentrate in the diet remarkably decreased three cellulolytic bacteria numbers (F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus). Based on this study, it is suggested that the ratio of R:C at 40:60 and RPM level at 12 mg could improve ruminal fluid fermentation in terms of reducing fermentation losses, thus improving VFA profiles and ruminal ecology. PMID:25049570

  15. Effect of soy protein isolate in the diet on retention by the rat of iron from radiolabeled test meals

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.B.; Erdman, J.W. Jr.

    1984-02-01

    The influence of soy protein isolate (SPI) in the diet on whole-body retention of extrinsically radiolabeled iron from test meals containing or not containing SPI was evaluated in marginally iron-deficient weanling rats. In experiment 1 SPI was compared with casein in a 2 X 2 factorial design: diets and test meals were either SPI-based or casein-based. Diets were fed for 13 days prior to the test meal and for 7 days subsequent to the test meal. Rats fed the SPI-based diet retained less iron from test meals than did rats fed the casein-based diet (66.1 vs. 74.8%, P less than 0.01). Experiment 2 showed that an SPI-based diet fed during the final 4 days of a 14-day pre-test meal period and subsequent to the test meal led to less iron retention compared to a casein-based diet. In addition to the observed diet effect, experiment 1 showed that iron retention was less from an SPI-based test meal than from a casein-based test meal, confirming previous reports of adverse effects of SPI on iron retention. The present experiments show that SPI can adversely affect from retention in two ways: by its presence in the diet before and after a test meal, and by its presence in a test meal.

  16. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus saxfilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritional value of skate meal (SM) and black cod viscera meal (BCVM) from Alaska and to ascertain their suitability as replacements for commercial pollock fishmeal in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Test diets were made by r...

  17. Performance of laying pullets fed on cereal-free diets based on maize offal, cassava peel and reject cashew nut meal.

    PubMed

    Onifade, A A; Tewe, O O; Okunola, O; Fanimo, A O

    1999-03-01

    1. A 70-d experiment was conducted to determine the response of 26-week-old laying pullets to cereal-free diets based on maize offal, cassava peel and full-fat cashew nut meal (CNM) in comparison with a standard 550 g maize/kg reference diet. The 4 test diets all contained 315 g CNM/kg 232.5, 155.0, 77.5 and 0.0 g/kg of maize offal in combination with 77.5, 155.0, 232.5 and 315.0 g/kg of cassava peel, respectively. 2. Pullets fed on the 4 CNM-based diets consumed (P<0.05) less food than those fed on the reference diet; they also had lower (P<0.05) rates of lay, produced less (P<0.05) egg mass, had lower (P<0.05) food conversion efficiencies and their eggs had a lighter (P<0.05) yolk colour. Pullets fed some of the CNM-based diets also gained more (P<0.05) weight, the heaviest (P<0.05) being birds reared on the diet containing 315 g/kg cassava peel. Egg weight, shell thickness and albumen height from all eggs were similar. Pullets fed on the CNM-based diets had inferior (P<0.05) retention of dry matter and protein. 4. It was concluded that feeding full-fat CNM allowed for high dietary inclusion rates of cassava peel and maize offal and the resultant diets, which contained no maize, supported satisfactory performance of laying hens. PMID:10405040

  18. Effect of different levels of rapeseed meal and sunflower meal and enzyme combination on the performance, digesta viscosity and carcass traits of broiler chickens fed wheat-based diets.

    PubMed

    Amerah, A M; van de Belt, K; van Der Klis, J D

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to examine the effect of different levels of rapeseed meal (RSM) and sunflower meal (SFM) and enzyme combination (endoxylanase and β-glucanase) on the production performance, carcass quality, gizzard development and digesta viscosity of broiler chickens. The experimental design was a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating three diet types containing different levels of RSM and SFM (low (L), medium (M) and high (H)) and two levels of enzyme inclusion (0 or 100 g/tonne diet to provide 1220 U xylanase and 152 U β-glucanase per kg diet). Broiler starter and grower/finisher diets were formulated, based on wheat and soya bean meal and containing 50, 50 and 80 g/kg RSM and 0, 50 and 60 g/kg SFM for L, M and H treatments, respectively, during starter period and 80, 80 and 120 g/kg RSM and 0, 80 and 100 g/kg SFM for L, M and H, respectively, during grower/finisher period, and each diet was fed ad libitum to eight pens of 20 male broilers each. During the starter period (1 to 21 days), birds fed the H treatment had lower (P0.05) on feed conversion ratio (FCR). During the grower/finisher phase (22 to 42 day) and over the entire period (1 to 42 day) birds fed the H treatment had lower (P0.05) between RSM and SFM inclusion level and enzyme supplementation were observed for any of the measured parameters at any period. Diet type and enzyme supplementation had no effect (P>0.05) on carcass traits, abdominal fat pad, breast meat yield and jejunal digesta viscosity. Diet type influenced (P=0.05) relative empty gizzard weight, where the H treatment had higher relative empty gizzard weight compared with the L treatment. Enzyme supplementation tended (P=0.10) to increase relative empty gizzard weight. The present data suggest that high inclusion of SFM and RSM negatively influenced broiler performance. Enzyme supplementation improved FCR at all levels of RSM and SFM included in this study, but did not recover the reduction in weight

  19. Effects of dietary cholesterol on antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junming; Kang, Bin; Tao, Linli; Rong, Hua; Zhang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary cholesterol on antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed soybean meal-based diets. Fish were fed diets supplemented with graded cholesterol levels (0 [control], 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5%) for nine weeks. The fish were then challenged by A. hydrophila and their survival rate recorded for the next week. Dietary cholesterol supplementation generally increased the serum and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) activities, but decreased the serum and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Further, the hepatic CAT and serum SOD, CAT, and TAC activities were significantly higher in fish fed diets supplemented with 0.9 or 1.2% cholesterol compared to those fed the control diet, whereas the serum and hepatic MDA contents were significantly lower. The respiratory burst activity, alternative complement activity, and hepatic lysozyme activity increased steadily when the supplemental cholesterol was increased by up to 1.2% and then declined with further addition. The serum lysozyme activity and phagocytic activity increased steadily with increasing dietary supplemental cholesterol level up to 0.9% and then declined with further addition. Dietary cholesterol supplementation generally enhanced the protection against A. hydrophila infection, and fish fed diets supplemented with 0.9 or 1.2% cholesterol exhibited the highest post-challenge survival rate. The results indicated that cholesterol may be under-supplied in rainbow trout fed soybean meal-based diets, and dietary cholesterol supplementation (0.9-1.2%) contributed to improved immune response and disease resistance of rainbow trout against A. hydrophila. PMID:23207478

  20. Energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal and corn-based diets supplemented with xylanase.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Carvalho, P S; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased levels of a β-xylanase on energy and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens fed corn-soy diets. A total of 480 slow feathering Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 10 treatments having 8 replicates of 6 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until 25 d. Two experimental diets, a conventional corn/soy-based basal diet (CS) and the basal diet in which 40% of the diet was displaced by corn (CN), were fed as-is or supplemented with 50, 100, 150, or 200 fungal β-xylanase units (FXU)/kg. Dietary treatments were distributed factorially as a 2 × 5 arrangement. Samples of feed, excreta, and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy, and total tract retention of protein and lipid. No interactions between diet and xylanase were observed. The CS diets had higher (P < 0.05) energy utilization and nutrient digestibility when compared to the CN diets. AMEn and IDE were improved (P < 0.05) by 192 and 145 kcal/kg, respectively, when diets were supplemented with 100 FXU/kg xylanase. The xylanase added to the CN diet led to quadratic increases (P < 0.05) in IDE (Y = - 0.014x(2) + 2.570x + 3,155; r(2) = 0.60) and in AMEn (Y = - 0.016x(2) + 3.982x + 3,155; r(2) = 0.68). Crude protein digestibility and AMEn were linearly increased (P < 0.05) when xylanase was added to the CN diet. In conclusion, energy utilization and digestibility of crude protein and dry matter increased with xylanase supplementation in corn/soy-based diets. When xylanase was tested in the CS diet, 92 and 124 FXU/kg maximized the energy release effect; however, the maximum energy response in the CN diet or corn was not achieved until 200 FXU/kg. PMID:26976897

  1. Effect of inositol and phytases on hematological indices and α-1 acid glycoprotein levels in laying hens fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Zyła, K; Grabacka, M; Pierzchalska, M; Duliński, R; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of feeding low nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with myo-inositol at 0.1%, or with phytase B at 1,300 acid phosphatase units/kg, or with phytase B enriched in 6-phytase A at 300 phytase units/kg on the hematological indices and the α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations in the blood of Bovans Brown laying hens were investigated. The experimental design comprised also a negative control diet and an internal control diet that had the NPP content adjusted by the addition of 0.304 g of monocalcium phosphate per kg to reach the NPP level similar to that resulting from the combined action of both phytases. A total of sixty 50-wk-old hens were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments with 12 cage replicates of 1 hen, and fed the experimental diets until wk 62, when the blood samples were taken and analyzed for basic hematological indices and for AGP concentrations in sera. The hematological indices from all the experimental groups remained in a normal range; nevertheless, the statistically significant effects of diet on hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.003), erythrocyte counts (P = 0.035), the percentage of lymphocytes (P = 0.020), heterophils (P = 0.002), eosinophils (P = 0.023), and basophils (P = 0.001) in the leucocyte population, as well as on the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), were observed. The highest erythrocyte counts were characteristic for hens fed the diet supplemented with both phytase A and phytase B. The highest heterophil to lymphocyte ratios were found in blood of hens fed the diet supplemented with phytase B, whereas the highest basophil percentages and the highest AGP concentrations occurred in birds fed the negative control diet. A highly significant correlation was observed between AGP concentrations in sera and BW losses determined previously. The results indicate that the low-NPP corn soybean meal-based diets increased acute phase protein level in laying hens. Phytase B alone

  2. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  3. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  4. Effects of a palatinose-based liquid diet (Inslow) on glycemic control and the second-meal effect in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Mizuno, Akira; Sakuma, Masae; Fukaya, Makiko; Matsuo, Kaoru; Muto, Kazusa; Sasaki, Hajime; Matsuura, Motoi; Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Taketani, Yutaka; Doi, Toshio; Takeda, Eiji

    2007-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia induces prolonged hyperinsulinemia, which is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Foods with a low glycemic index blunt the rapid rise in postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels. We herein investigated the effects of a novel, palatinose-based liquid diet (Inslow, Meiji Dairy Products, Tokyo, Japan) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels and on the rate of substrate oxidation in 7 healthy men. Furthermore, to examine the effects of Inslow on the second-meal effect, we quantified our subjects' postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid levels for up to 7 hours after they ingested a breakfast containing Inslow or control formula, followed by a standard lunch 5 hours later. Our results showed that peak plasma glucose and insulin levels 30 minutes after Inslow loading were lower than after control formula loading. Postprandial fat oxidation rates in the Inslow group were higher than in the control formula group (P < .05). In the second-meal effect study, plasma glucose and insulin levels after lunch in the Inslow group were lower than in the control formula group (P < .01), although the peak levels in these groups were not different. The free fatty acid concentration in the Inslow group immediately before lunch was significantly lower than in the control formula group (P < .05). In conclusion, consumption of Inslow at breakfast appears to improve patient glycemic control by reducing their postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels after lunch (second-meal effect). PMID:17161233

  5. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  6. Responses of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed a diet based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Fang, Z F; Peng, J; Liu, Z L; Liu, Y G

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two distinct enzyme preparations on nutrients' digestibility and growth performance of growing pigs fed diets based on corn, soya bean meal and Chinese double-low rapeseed meal (DLRM). The two enzyme preparations were Enzyme R, a preparation extracted from fermentation of a non-GMO fungus Penicillum funiculosum, developed for multi-grain and multi-animal species; and Enzyme P, a xylanase preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum, for pigs fed corn-based diets only. Both enzymes were tested at 0, 0.25 and 0.50 g/kg feed using 70 crossbred male pigs (Large Yorkshire x Landrace) in five dietary treatments and seven replicates in each treatment, for growth period from 27 to 68 kg live weight in 49 days. Results showed that the supplementation of both enzymes (1) increased total-tract digestibility of dietary energy from 77.5% (control) to 81.4% (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 81.9% (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); of neutral detergent fibre from 41.0% (control) to 57.8% (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 60.0% (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); (2) improved average daily gain from 786 g (control) to 829 g (Enzyme R, p < 0.05) and 846 g (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); and numerical increases in feed intake from 1.96 kg/pig/day (control) to 2.01 (Enzyme R) and 2.00 (p > 0.05) and feed conversion ratio from 2.50 (control) to 2.42 (Enzyme R) and 2.36 (Enzyme P, p < 0.05); (3) there was a dose response but no significant differences were observed in enzyme efficacy between the two enzyme preparations. The present study demonstrated beneficial effects of applying xylanase-based enzymes to improve feeding values of pig diets based on corn, soya bean meal and DLRM. PMID:17615009

  7. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acids composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the interactions of molasses or corn meal [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) sources] with flaxseed meal or a soybean-sunflower meal protein mix [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) sources] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in organic Jersey cows fed...

  8. Plant-rich mixed meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles have a dramatic impact on incretin, peptide YY and satiety response, but show little effect on glucose and insulin homeostasis: an acute-effects randomised study.

    PubMed

    Bligh, H Frances J; Godsland, Ian F; Frost, Gary; Hunter, Karl J; Murray, Peter; MacAulay, Katrina; Hyliands, Della; Talbot, Duncan C S; Casey, John; Mulder, Theo P J; Berry, Mark J

    2015-02-28

    There is evidence for health benefits from 'Palaeolithic' diets; however, there are a few data on the acute effects of rationally designed Palaeolithic-type meals. In the present study, we used Palaeolithic diet principles to construct meals comprising readily available ingredients: fish and a variety of plants, selected to be rich in fibre and phyto-nutrients. We investigated the acute effects of two Palaeolithic-type meals (PAL 1 and PAL 2) and a reference meal based on WHO guidelines (REF), on blood glucose control, gut hormone responses and appetite regulation. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, healthy subjects were given three meals on separate occasions. PAL2 and REF were matched for energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; PAL1 contained more protein and energy. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were measured over a period of 180 min. Satiation was assessed using electronic visual analogue scale (EVAS) scores. GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were significantly increased across 180 min for both PAL1 (P= 0·001 and P< 0·001) and PAL2 (P= 0·011 and P= 0·003) compared with the REF. Concomitant EVAS scores showed increased satiety. By contrast, GIP concentration was significantly suppressed. Positive incremental AUC over 120 min for glucose and insulin did not differ between the meals. Consumption of meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles resulted in significant increases in incretin and anorectic gut hormones and increased perceived satiety. Surprisingly, this was independent of the energy or protein content of the meal and therefore suggests potential benefits for reduced risk of obesity. PMID:25661189

  9. Evaluation of supplemental fish bone meal made from Alaska seafood processing byproducts and dicalcium phosphate in plant-protein based diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a balanced dietary mix of plant-proteins supplemented with either fish bone meal (FBM) derived from Alaskan seafood processing byproducts or dicalcium phosphate. Seven experimental diets were formulated to contain two levels of dicalci...

  10. Optimizing zinc supplementation levels of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed practical type fish meal and plant based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish meal (FM) is the primary protein source used in commercial feeds for rainbow trout. However, FM is a finite resource and availability is increasingly limited due to continued expansion of fish culture worldwide. Limited availability has caused a significant increase in the price of FM. Therefor...

  11. Effects of feeding diets based on transgenic soybean meal and soybean hulls to dairy cows on production measures and sensory quality of milk.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Simons, C T; Ekmay, R D

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether feeding meal and hulls derived from genetically modified soybeans to dairy cows affected production measures and sensory qualities of milk. The soybeans were genetically modified (Event DAS-444Ø6-6) to be resistant to multiple herbicides. Twenty-six Holstein cows (13/treatment) were fed a diet that contained meal and hulls derived from transgenic soybeans or a diet that contained meal and hulls from a nontransgenic near-isoline variety. Soybean products comprised approximately 21% of the diet dry matter, and diets were formulated to be nearly identical in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, energy, and minerals and vitamins. The experimental design was a replicated 2×2 Latin square with a 28-d feeding period. Dry matter intake (21.3 vs. 21.4kg/d), milk yield (29.3 vs. 29.4kg/d), milk fat (3.70 vs. 3.68%), and milk protein (3.10 vs. 3.12%) did not differ between cows fed control or transgenic soybean products, respectively. Milk fatty acid profile was virtually identical between treatments. Somatic cell count was significantly lower for cows fed transgenic soybean products, but the difference was biologically trivial. Milk was collected from all cows in period 1 on d 0 (before treatment), 14, and 28 for sensory evaluation. On samples from all days (including d 0) judges could discriminate between treatments for perceived appearance of the milk. The presence of this difference at d 0 indicated that it was likely not a treatment effect but rather an initial bias in the cow population. No treatment differences were found for preference or acceptance of the milk. Overall, feeding soybean meal and hulls derived from this genetically modified soybean had essentially no effects on production or milk acceptance when fed to dairy cows. PMID:26454286

  12. The family meal panacea: exploring how different aspects of family meal occurrence, meal habits and meal enjoyment relate to young children's diets.

    PubMed

    Skafida, Valeria

    2013-07-01

    The general consensus in the research to date is that family meals are linked to healthier eating habits in children, compared to not eating with the family. Yet, few studies explore what it is about commensality which leads to better food choices among children. Using a representative Scottish sample of five-year-old children, this research explores the extent to which family meal occurrence, meal patterns regarding where, when and with whom children eat and perceived meal enjoyment predict the quality of children's diets after controlling for indicators of maternal capital that influence both meal rituals and taste preferences. Eating the same food as parents is the aspect of family meals most strongly linked to better diets in children, highlighting the detrimental effect in the rise of 'children's food'. Although theoretical and empirical work pointed to the important health advantage in children eating together with parents, the results suggested that eating together was a far less important aspect of family meals. In evaluating the importance of the family meal, this article redirects attention away from issues of form and function towards issues of food choice. Policy implications and the importance for public health to recognise the way eating habits are defined by and reproduce social and cultural capital are discussed. PMID:23551143

  13. Simultaneous inclusion of sorghum and cottonseed meal or millet in broiler diets: effects on performance and nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Bastianelli, D; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Umar Faruk, M

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of sorghum, cottonseed meal and millet in broiler diets and their interaction when they are used simultaneously. In Experiment 1, a corn-soybean meal control diet was compared with eight experimental treatments based on low tannin sorghum (S30, S45 and S60), cottonseed meal (CM15, CM40) or both ingredients included in the same diet (S30/CM40, S45/CM25 and S60CM15). Results showed that BW gain was not affected by the inclusion of sorghum or cottonseed meal. However, feed intake tended to be affected by the cereal type with the highest values with sorghum-based diets. Feed conversion ratio increased (P<0.001) with sorghum-based diets compared with the control diet, whereas a combination of cottonseed meal and sorghum in the same diet did not affect the feed conversion ratio. Significant differences (P<0.001) were observed in apparent ileal digestibility (%) of protein and energy with the cottonseed meal and sorghum/cottonseed meal-based diets having lower protein and energy digestibility compared with corn-based diets. In Experiment 2, a control diet was compared with six diets in which corn was substituted at 60%, 80% or 100% by either sorghum or millet and other three diets with simultaneous inclusion of these two ingredients (S30/M30, S40/M40, S50/M50). Single or combined inclusion of sorghum and millet resulted in similar feed intake and growth performance as the control diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of protein and energy was higher with millet-based diets (P<0.001). Total tract digestibility of protein in sorghum and millet-based diets tended to decrease linearly with the increasing level of substitution. Sorghum-based diets resulted in lower total tract digestibility of fat compared with millet and sorghum/millet-based diets (P<0.001). Higher total tract digestibility of starch were obtained with the control diet and millet-based diets compared with the sorghum-based treatments. Results of the two

  14. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  15. Effects of phytase supplementation on growth performance, jejunum morphology, liver health, and serum metabolites of Japanese quails fed sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal-based diets containing graded levels of protein.

    PubMed

    Rezaeipour, Vahid; Barsalani, Alireza; Abdullahpour, Rohullah

    2016-08-01

    A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of two levels of dietary crude protein (200 or 240 g kg(-1)) and two inclusion rates of phytase enzyme supplementation (with or without) on performance, jejunum morphology, and some hematological parameters of Japanese quails fed diets based on three graded levels of sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal (0, 120, and 240 g kg(-1) of the diet). A total of 480 Japanese quail chicks were randomly allocated to 12 treatments with 4 replicates of 10 Japanese quails. The results showed that feed intake was decreased in quails fed diets containing 240 g kg(-1) of sesame meal (P < 0.05). Diets with 120 and 240 g kg(-1) inclusion rates of sesame meal improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) in Japanese quail (P < 0.05). Results indicated that the higher level of crude protein improved protein efficiency ratio (PER) and increased feed intake (P < 0.05). The results of jejunum morphology showed that diets containing 120 and 240 g kg(-1) sesame meal increased villus height and the ratio of VH to CD and decreased crypt depth (P < 0.05). Enzyme addition increased serum calcium and phosphorous of Japanese quails (P < 0.05). The liver weight was greater in Japanese quails fed diets containing 200 g kg(-1) crude protein and 120 g kg(-1) sesame meal (P < 0.05). The serum concentration of uric acid was increased in birds that received 240 g kg(-1) protein (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the use of sesame meal improved growth performance (FCR) of Japanese quails. Moreover, serum concentration of calcium and phosphorous was greater in quails with phytase supplementation included in their diet. PMID:27113452

  16. Replacement of Soybean Meal in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Diets with Cottonseed Meal and Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two pond experiments were conducted to evaluate cottonseed meal (CSM), distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and supplemental lysine as replacements for soybean meal (SBM) in channel catfish diets. In Experiment 1, fish fed diets in which SBM was totally replaced with CSM gained similar wei...

  17. Effect of β-Mannanase and α-Galactosidase Supplementation to Soybean Meal Based Diets on Growth, Feed Efficiency and Nutrient Digestibility of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    PubMed Central

    Yiğit, Nalan Ozgur; Koca, Seval Bahadir; Didinen, Behire Isıl; Diler, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted with 87 g rainbow trout to evaluate the effects on growth performances, feed efficiency and nutrient digestibility of adding β-mannanase and α-galactosidase enzymes, solely or in combination. Seven diets were prepared by adding β-mannanase, α-galactosidase and mixed enzyme at two different levels (1 g/kg and 2 g/kg) to control diet (without enzyme) including soybean meal. Mixed enzymes (1 g/kg, 2 g/kg) were prepared by adding β-mannanase and α-galactosidase at the same doses (0.5+0.5 g/kg and 1+1 g/kg). At the end of the experiment, addition of β-mannanase, α-galactosidase and mixed enzyme to diet containing 44% soybean meal had no significant effects on growth performance and gain:feed (p>0.05). In addition, adding β-mannanase, α-galactosidase and mixed enzyme in different rations to trout diets had no affect on nutrient digestibility and body composition (p>0.05). PMID:25050005

  18. Effects of dietary true digestible calcium to phosphorus ratio on growth performance and efficiency of calcium and phosphorus use in growing pigs fed corn and soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Fan, M Z; Archbold, T

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine effects of dietary true fecal digestible Ca to true digestible P ratio on growth performance and efficiency of Ca and P use in growing pigs fed corn (Triticum aestivum)-soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM)-based diets. Experiment 1 was carried out to measure true fecal digestibility of Ca and P as well as the fecal endogenous outputs of these nutrients associated with a corn and SBM-based diet in 12 Yorkshire growing pigs with an average initial BW of 23.2 ± 0.6 kg by the substitution method. True fecal digestibility values (%; n = 6) of Ca (53.6 ± 12.7) and P (43.8 ± 16.7) as well as the fecal endogenous outputs (g/kg DMI; n = 12) of Ca (0.91 ± 0.20) and P (1.31 ± 0.15) associated with the diets were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted with 36 Yorkshire barrows of an average initial BW of 24.2 ± 0.6 kg and the pigs were fed 6 diets according to a completely randomized block design. The 6 diets were corn and SBM based with diet 1 containing 0.2% true digestible Ca and 0.3% true digestible P and were formulated to contain 6 total Ca to total P ratios based on analyzed dietary Ca and P contents (diet 1, 0.6:1; diet 2, 0.7:1; diet 3, 0.8:1; diet 4, 1.3:1; diet 5, 1.0:1; and diet 6, 1.3:1) by supplementing gradient levels of limestone with a constant dietary P content for meeting the recommended requirement. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had no effects (P > 0.05) on ADG. No differences (P > 0.05) in ADFI were observed between the other diets except the lower ADFI (P < 0.05) in diet 3 compared with diet 2. However, G:F was higher (P < 0.05) in diet 2 compared with diets 5 and 6. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had consistent effects on true fecal P digestibility and retention with much lower values (P < 0.05) observed in diet 5 in comparison with the other diets. In summary, true fecal digestible Ca to P ratios of 0.9:1 to 1.0:1 were associated with optimal responses in both G:F as well as true fecal P

  19. Effects of supplementation of canola meal-based diets with arginine on performance, plasma nitric oxide, and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Khajali, F; Tahmasebi, M; Hassanpour, H; Akbari, M R; Qujeq, D; Wideman, R F

    2011-10-01

    A total of 300 male broilers (Ross 308) were exposed to cool conditions at high altitudes to study the effects of dietary Arg supplementation on performance and physiological and zootechnical variables. A corn-soybean meal (SBM) and a corn-canola meal (CM) diet were formulated for the starting (1 to 3 wk of age) and growing (3 to 6 wk of age) stages according to NRC recommendations. Two additional diets were prepared by supplementing 0.2 and 0.4% l-Arg to the corn-CM diet. Substitution of CM for SBM caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in weight gain and feed intake and resulted in impaired feed:gain. Supplementing Arg in the CM diet restored the feed and weight losses to a significant extent so that a significant difference was found between CM diet and CM + 0.4% Arg in terms of weight gain for the growing (3 to 6 wk) stage and the entire study (1 to 6 wk; P < 0.05). Total plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentration analyzed by nitrate plus nitrite assay was measured in the treatment groups. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in plasma NO level was observed by substituting CM for SBM in the diet. Supplementing the CM diet with Arg increased the plasma NO level above that of SBM group. Carcass and breast yields were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) as a result of substituting CM for SBM. The substitution of CM for SBM, however, significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proportions of thighs and heart. The right ventricular weight:total ventricular weight ratio and ascites mortality showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase when SBM was replaced by CM in the diet. Fortification of the CM diet with Arg eliminated the significant difference in the right-to-total ventricular weight ratios when compared with the SBM diet. In conclusion, feeding CM to broiler chickens raised at high altitude caused reduced growth performance and predisposed the birds to pulmonary hypertension and ascites, which were partly restored by Arg supplementation. PMID:21934012

  20. Breast meat traits of Muscovy ducks fed on a microalga (Crypthecodinium cohnii) meal supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, A; Chiarini, R; Marzoni, M; Castillo, A; Tassone, S; Romboli, I

    2007-10-01

    1. A trial was conducted in order to increase the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in the meat of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domestica L.) fed on a diet supplemented with the microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii. 2. Two diets were provided to 48 male and 48 female ducks, belonging to an Italian rural strain during the last 3 weeks of life: a maize-soybean based diet as the control diet and the same diet supplemented with 5 g/kg microalga meal. 3. Dietary treatment did not induce differences in growth performances and slaughter traits. Similarly, chemical composition, colour, pH, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of breast muscle were not influenced by the diet. 4. A significant increase of DHA content in breast meat of ducks fed on the Crypthecodinium cohnii enriched diet was observed. PMID:17952729

  1. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  2. Use of corn gluten feed and cottonseed meal to replace soybean meal in diets for pond raised channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prices of soybean meal and corn he two most commonly used, traditional feed ingredients in channel catfish diets ave increased dramatically in recent years. Using less-expensive alternative feed ingredients to partially replace soybean meal and corn would reduce feed cost. The present study eval...

  3. Inclusion of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler diets: a meta-analysis of effects on performance.

    PubMed

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Umar Faruk, M; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Bastianelli, D

    2015-07-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted (i) to evaluate broiler response to partial or total substitution of corn by sorghum and millet and (ii) to determine the effect of soybean meal replacement by cottonseed meal in broiler diet. The database included 190 treatments from 29 experiments published from 1990 to 2013. Bird responses to an experimental diet were calculated relative to the control (Experimental-Control), and were submitted to mixed-effect models. Results showed that diets containing millet led to similar performance as the corn-based ones for all parameters, whereas sorghum-based diets decreased growth performance. No major effect of the level of substitution was observed with millet or cottonseed meal. No effect of the level of substitution of sorghum on feed intake was found; however, growth performance decreased when the level of substitution of corn by sorghum increased. Cottonseed meal was substituted to soybean meal up to 40% and found to increase feed intake while reducing growth performance. Young birds were not more sensitive to these ingredients than older birds since there was no negative effect of these ingredients on performance in the starter phase. Results obtained for sorghum pointed out the necessity to find technological improvements that will increase the utilization of these feedstuffs in broiler diet. An additional work is scheduled to validate these statistical results in vivo and to evaluate the interactions induced with the simultaneous inclusions of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler feeding. PMID:25735210

  4. The Nutrient Balance Concept: A New Quality Metric for Composite Meals and Diets

    PubMed Central

    Fern, Edward B; Watzke, Heribert; Barclay, Denis V.; Roulin, Anne; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background Combinations of foods that provide suitable levels of nutrients and energy are required for optimum health. Currently, however, it is difficult to define numerically what are ‘suitable levels’. Objective To develop new metrics based on energy considerations—the Nutrient Balance Concept (NBC)—for assessing overall nutrition quality when combining foods and meals. Method The NBC was developed using the USDA Food Composition Database (Release 27) and illustrated with their MyPlate 7-day sample menus for a 2000 calorie food pattern. The NBC concept is centered on three specific metrics for a given food, meal or diet—a Qualifying Index (QI), a Disqualifying Index (DI) and a Nutrient Balance (NB). The QI and DI were determined, respectively, from the content of 27 essential nutrients and 6 nutrients associated with negative health outcomes. The third metric, the Nutrient Balance (NB), was derived from the Qualifying Index (QI) and provided key information on the relative content of qualifying nutrients in the food. Because the Qualifying and Disqualifying Indices (QI and DI) were standardized to energy content, both become constants for a given food/meal/diet and a particular consumer age group, making it possible to develop algorithms for predicting nutrition quality when combining different foods. Results Combining different foods into composite meals and daily diets led to improved nutrition quality as seen by QI values closer to unity (indicating nutrient density was better equilibrated with energy density), DI values below 1.0 (denoting an acceptable level of consumption of disqualifying nutrients) and increased NB values (signifying complementarity of foods and better provision of qualifying nutrients). Conclusion The Nutrient Balance Concept (NBC) represents a new approach to nutrient profiling and the first step in the progression from the nutrient evaluation of individual foods to that of multiple foods in the context of meals and total

  5. The microbes we eat: abundance and taxonomy of microbes consumed in a day's worth of meals for three diet types.

    PubMed

    Lang, Jenna M; Eisen, Jonathan A; Zivkovic, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Far more attention has been paid to the microbes in our feces than the microbes in our food. Research efforts dedicated to the microbes that we eat have historically been focused on a fairly narrow range of species, namely those which cause disease and those which are thought to confer some "probiotic" health benefit. Little is known about the effects of ingested microbial communities that are present in typical American diets, and even the basic questions of which microbes, how many of them, and how much they vary from diet to diet and meal to meal, have not been answered. We characterized the microbiota of three different dietary patterns in order to estimate: the average total amount of daily microbes ingested via food and beverages, and their composition in three daily meal plans representing three different dietary patterns. The three dietary patterns analyzed were: (1) the Average American (AMERICAN): focused on convenience foods, (2) USDA recommended (USDA): emphasizing fruits and vegetables, lean meat, dairy, and whole grains, and (3) Vegan (VEGAN): excluding all animal products. Meals were prepared in a home kitchen or purchased at restaurants and blended, followed by microbial analysis including aerobic, anaerobic, yeast and mold plate counts as well as 16S rRNA PCR survey analysis. Based on plate counts, the USDA meal plan had the highest total amount of microbes at 1.3 × 10(9) CFU per day, followed by the VEGAN meal plan and the AMERICAN meal plan at 6 × 10(6) and 1.4 × 10(6) CFU per day respectively. There was no significant difference in diversity among the three dietary patterns. Individual meals clustered based on taxonomic composition independent of dietary pattern. For example, meals that were abundant in Lactic Acid Bacteria were from all three dietary patterns. Some taxonomic groups were correlated with the nutritional content of the meals. Predictive metagenome analysis using PICRUSt indicated differences in some functional KEGG categories

  6. Glandless cottonseed meal replaces fishmeal in shrimp diet research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed meal is high in protein and less expensive than fishmeal and soybean meal. Although cottonseeds contain the toxic compound gossypol, cotton plants can be engineered without gossypol in their seeds. In a study, cottonseed meal replaced up to 67% of dietary fishmeal without significantly ...

  7. Growth, Immune Response and Resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fed Diets Containing Cottonseed Meal and Supplemental Essential Amino Acid as Substitute for Soybean Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earlier studies indicate that tilapia utilized cottonseed meal (CSM) poorly relative to soybean meal (SBM) or SBM and peanut meal. It has also been shown that gossypol was not a contributing factor, since these fish can tolerate very high levels of dietary gossypol (1,600-2,000 mg/kg diet). Moreover...

  8. Effect of including canola meal and supplemental iodine in diets of dairy cows on short-term changes in iodine concentrations in milk.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Wyatt, D J; Kleinschmit, D H; Socha, M T

    2015-07-01

    The dietary requirement for iodine is based on thyroxine production, but data are becoming available showing potential improvements in hoof health when substantially greater amounts of I are fed. Feeding high amounts of I, however, can result in the milk having excessive concentrations of I. Canola meal contains goitrogenic compounds that reduce the transfer of I into milk. We hypothesized that including canola meal in diets would allow high supplementation rates of I without producing milk with unacceptable concentrations of I. Thirty midlactation Holstein cows were fed a diet with all supplemental protein from soybean meal (0% of diet dry matter as canola meal) or with all supplemental protein from canola meal (13.9% canola meal). A third treatment has a mix of soybean meal and canola meal (3.9% canola meal). Within canola-meal treatment, cows were fed 0.5 or 2.0mg of supplemental I per kilogram of diet dry matter from ethylenediamine dihydroiodide. Cows were maintained on the canola treatment for the duration of the experiment but were changed from one I treatment to the other after 13d of receiving the treatment. Milk I concentration before the treatments started (cows fed 0.5mg/kg of I) averaged 272μg/L and increased within 22h after cows were first fed diets with 2mg/kg of I. As inclusion rate of canola meal increased, the concentration of I in milk decreased linearly. After 12d of supplementation, milk from cows fed 0.5mg/kg of I had 358, 289, and 169μg of I/L for the 0, 3.9%, and 13.9% canola-meal treatments. For cows fed 2.0mg/kg of I, milk I concentrations were 733, 524, and 408μg/L, respectively. Concentrations of I in serum increased with increased I supplementation, but the effect of canola meal was opposite of what was observed for milk I. Cows fed the highest canola-meal diets had the highest serum I whether cows were fed 0.5 or 2.0mg/kg of I. Feeding dairy cows diets with 13.9% canola meal maintained milk I concentrations below 500μg/L when

  9. The effect of soy products in the diet on retention of non-heme iron from radiolabeled test meals fed to marginally iron-deficient young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    Diets based either on casein or soy products and containing about 25 ppm iron were fed to weanling rats for 13 days. Rats were fasted overnight and fed a {sup 59}Fe-radiolabeled casein test meal the morning of day 14. On day 21 less {sup 59}Fe was retained by rats fed various diets based on selected soy products than by rats fed the casein-based diet. A similar adverse effect of diet components on {sup 59}Fe retention from a casein test meal was observed for lactalbumin and for psyllium husk. No adverse effect of diet on {sup 59}Fe retention was observed for the fiber of soy cotyledons or for rapeseed protein concentrate. For a commercial soy protein isolated (SPI) fed throughout the 21-day experiment, the adverse effect of diet on {sup 59}Fe retention was observed to the sum of the effect of dietary SPI previous to the {sup 59}Fe-radiolabeled casein test meal fed on day 14 and the effect of dietary SPI subsequent to the casein test meal. An effect of dietary soy products on {sup 59}Fe retention from a casein test meal was not observed with diets containing higher iron levels (83 ppm) or when diets were fed for a longer period prior to the test meal (56 days). The present work shows that in some circumstances the concept of iron bioavailability must be expanded to include not only the influence of meal composition, but also the influence of diet previous to and subsequent to a meal.

  10. Effects of oligosaccharides in a soybean meal-based diet on fermentative and immune responses in broiler chicks challenged with Eimeria acervulina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentable oligosaccharides, particularly those found in soybean meal (SBM), may modulate fermentation in the ceca, thus affecting intestinal immune responses to intestinal pathogens. We hypothesized that fermentable oligosaccharides found in SBM would positively impact cecal fermentation and inte...

  11. First-limiting amino acids in soybean-based diets for white seabass Atractoscion nobilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study aims to identify the limiting amino acids in low fish meal, soy-based diets in juvenile white seabass. Two 8-week trials were conducted. The first trial evaluated three diets containing 36, 18 and 9% fish meal in the diet (FM36, FM18, FM9, respectively), with the last two diets bei...

  12. Short communication: Substituting dry distillers grains with solubles and rumen-protected amino acids for soybean meal in late-lactation cows' diets based on corn silage or ryegrass silage.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A B D; Zeringue, L K; Leonardi, C; Jenny, B F; Williams, C C; McCormick, M E; Moreira, V R

    2015-11-01

    treatment. Milk N efficiency tended to be higher for LP treatments in trial 1, but not in trial 2. Low milk urea N suggested nitrogen losses to the environment may be lower when cows were fed diets based on DDGS in both trials. The studies indicated that DDGS with rumen-protected Lys and Met could substitute solvent-extracted soybean meal in low-protein corn silage- and ryegrass silage-based diets for late-lactation dairy cows averaging 20.6 or 27.4 kg of milk/d, respectively. PMID:26364102

  13. Effects of diets with fish meal and oil replaced with plant production on spawning in Rainbow Trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of plant protein and oils on spawning rainbow trout an experiment was set up to examine 3 distinct families fed the following diets: 1) fish meal and fish oil; 2) plant meal and fish oil; 3) plant meal and plant oil. The fish were fed the diets for one year through spawning....

  14. Salmon testes meal as a functional feed additive in fish meal and plant-protein based diets for rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum)and nile tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus L.) fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report that salmon testes meal (TM) produced from Alaskan seafood processing byproducts is a potential protein source for aquafeed formulations. A series of feeding trials was conducted using three different fish species; including Nile tilapia, rainbow trout, and white sturgeon at their early gr...

  15. Evaluation of corn gluten feed and cottonseed meal as partial replacements for soybean meal and corn in diets for pond raised hybrid catfish Ictalurus punctatus I. furcatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the use of corn gluten feed (CGF) and cottonseed meal (CSM) to partially replace soybean meal and corn in diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, Ictalurus punctatus × I. furcatus. Five 28% protein diets containing various combinations of CGF and CSM were evaluated. Fingerling hybr...

  16. Performance of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento-Franco, L; McNab, J M; Pearson, R A; Belmar-Casso, R

    2002-05-01

    The performance and gut measurements of broilers fed on diets containing different amounts of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal (CLM) were examined in two experiments. In the first experiment, 60 Hubbard chickens (30 males and 30 females; 2 weeks old) were fed on five maize diets; these were formulated using 0, 150 (CLM150), 250 (CLM250) or 350 (CLM350) g CLM/kg, and the fifth diet contained soyabean. In the second experiment, 148 Ross male chicks, 1 day old, were fed on three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic maize-soyabean-based diets, which included 0 (control), 150 (C150) or 250 (C250) g CLM/kg. The diets were offered ad libitum for 2 or 3 weeks in the first and second experiments, respectively. Food intake, weight gain and the food:weight gain ratio were recorded. The weight of the gizzard and intestine and the weight and length of the caeca were also determined in the second experiment. In experiment 1, the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet had a higher (p < 0.05) weight gain and final weight than birds fed on maize only or on the CLM150 diets. There were no differences for any of the variables studied between the birds fed on the maize-soyabean diet and those fed on the CLM250, nor between males and females. In the second experiment, weight gain, food intake and the food:weight gain ratio for birds fed on C250 were lower (p < 0.05) than those in birds fed on either the control or C150 diets. The weights of the gizzard and intestine were the lowest and the highest, respectively, in birds fed on C250 (p < 0.05). The length and weight of the caecum from birds fed on the control diet were lower (p < 0.05) than those of birds fed on either the C150 or C250 diets. The results from this study suggest that CLM may be included up to 150 g/kg in commercial diets without having an adverse effect on poultry performance, and may also be mixed with maize up to 250 g/kg to improve the performance of chickens fed on low-protein diets. PMID:12094681

  17. Supplementation of herbage-based diets with corn meal or liquid molasses changes the milk fatty acids profile in grazing dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies showed that feeding carbohydrate sources with different NSC profiles (e.g., starch vs. sucrose) and rates of ruminal degradation altered the milk fatty acids (FA) profile in dairy cows. This study evalu¬ated the impact of corn meal (CM) or liquid molasses (MOL) on the milk FA profil...

  18. Use of corn germ meal in diets for pond-raised channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn germ meal (CGM) is a by-product of corn milling. On the basis of its nutrient composition and digestibility values, it appears to be a suitable ingredient for use in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. A study was conducted to examine the use of various levels of CGM in diets for pond-...

  19. Detoxified castor meal in substitution of soybean meal in sheep diet: growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat yield.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Daniel Ribeiro; Costa, Roberto Germano; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Medeiros, Geovergue Rodrigues; Oliveira, Juliana Silva; Nascimento, Thiago Vinicius Costa; de Souza Rodrigues, Rafael Torres; Filho, José Morais Pereira; Busato, Karina Costa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed different levels of replacement (0, 15, 30, and 45 % based on dry matter, DM) of soybean meal (SM) by detoxified castor meal (DCM). Twenty-four and 32 intact hair lambs of nondescript breed (21.7 ± 2.6 kg of initial average body weight and approximately 10 months old) were used, respectively, in the intake and digestibility and performance experiments. The diets were composed of buffel grass hay, ground corn grain, and different levels of SM, DCM, and urea, in a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60. There was no effect of treatments on DM intake. However, crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes were higher at 30 and 45 % than at 0 and 15 % of DCM, which in turn showed higher intake of non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) (P < 0.05). The organic matter, CP, and NDF digestibilities were not affected, but the digestibility of NFC was lower at 30 and 45 % than at 0 % of DCM (P < 0.05). The average daily gain, feed conversion, slaughter and carcass weights, chilling losses, ribeye area, and absolute values and yields of neck, ribs, loin, and leg were not affected. However, the carcass yield was lower at 45 % of DCM and the absolute value of shoulder was lower at 30 and 45 % of DCM (P < 0.05). The replacement of SM by DCM up to 45 % in the feed of lambs did not negatively affect the intake, digestibility, performance, and main carcass features. PMID:26563274

  20. Nutrition knowledge of rural older populations: can congregate meal site participants manage their own diets?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lionel; Almanza, Barbara; Ghiselli, Richard

    2010-07-01

    Congregate meal sites were funded to assist socioeconomically disadvantaged, rural older individuals in improving their health-related practices. Although the participants in the program are largely female, the meals are designed to meet one third of the daily caloric intake of a 70-year-old male, and to satisfy his recommended dietary allowances for total fat, fiber, calcium, and sodium. The actual percentage of the required nutrient intake contributed by meals served at congregate sites is indefinite. Moreover, the ability of congregate meal participants to manage their diets and their receptiveness to helpful nutrition information in that regard is unknown. Our objective was to promote nutritional knowledge in economically disadvantaged, rural older participants by studying its impact on their ability to benefit from congregate meal programs. We used a test, intervention, retest methodology to examine the effect of short-term nutrition interventions on congregate meal site participants' nutrition knowledge. The objective was to determine the participants' potential for managing their own diets (e.g., their ability to determine what diet behaviors are appropriate for specific chronic conditions). We found that while congregate meal site participants have knowledge of nutrition recommendations, their ability to apply this information in helping themselves to prevent or control their chronic conditions remains in question. PMID:20711926

  1. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  2. Efficacy of New 6-Phytase from Buttiauxella spp. on Growth Performance and Nutrient Retention in Broiler Chickens Fed Corn Soybean Meal-based Diets

    PubMed Central

    Kiarie, E.; Woyengo, T.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 420 day-old male Ross chicks were weighed at d 1 of life and assigned to test diets to assess the efficacy of a new Buttiauxella spp. phytase expressed in Trichoderma reesei. Diets were: positive control (PC) adequate in nutrients and negative control (NC) diet (40% and 17% less available phosphorous (P) and calcium (Ca), respectively) supplemented with 6 levels of phytase 0, 250, 500, 750, 1,000, and 2,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg of diet. All diets had titanium dioxide as digestibility marker and each diet was allocated to ten cages (6 birds/cage). Diets were fed for 3 wk to measure growth performance, apparent retention (AR) on d 17 to 21 and bone ash and ileal digestibility (AID) on d 22. Growth performance and nutrient utilization was lower (p<0.05) for NC vs PC birds. Phytase response in NC birds was linear (p<0.05) with 2,000 FTU showing the greatest improvement on body weight gain (20%), feed conversion (7.4%), tibia ash (18%), AR of Ca (38%), AR of P (51%) and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (5.1%) relative to NC. Furthermore, phytase at ≥750 FTU resulted in AID of total AA commensurate to that of PC fed birds and at ≥1,000 FTU improved (p<0.05) AR of P, dry matter, and N beyond that of the lower doses of phytase and PC diet. In conclusion, the result from this study showed that in addition to increased P and Ca utilization, the new Buttiauxella phytase enhanced growth performance and utilization of other nutrients in broiler chickens in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26323404

  3. Effects of a xylanase and protease, individually or in combination, and an ionophore coccidiostat on performance, nutrient utilization, and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens fed a wheat-soybean meal-based diet.

    PubMed

    Kalmendal, R; Tauson, R

    2012-06-01

    The effects of 2 single exogenous and monocomponent feed enzymes, and their combination, and an ionophore coccidiostat on production performance, feed AME(n), nutrient utilization, and intestinal morphology were studied in broiler chickens. One-day-old unvaccinated and unsexed Ross 308 birds (n = 320) were kept in groups of 8 on wood shavings in pens raised from the floor and fed one of 5 experimental diets, replicated 8 times, for 36 d. Treatments were 1) a wheat-soybean meal-based feed with no added coccidiostats or exogenous enzymes (CON), 2) CON + ionophore coccidiostat (Narasin), 3) CON + xylanase (Ronozyme WX CT; XYL), 4) CON + serine protease (Ronozyme ProAct CT; PRO), or 5) CON + xylanase + serine protease (XYL+PRO). Enzymes were added on top in the feed formulation. Diets contained 0.5% TiO₂ to facilitate estimations of total tract apparent nutrient utilization. Treatments had no effect on BW gain or feed intake, but feed conversion, apparent digestibility of starch and fat, and feed AME(n) were improved with all enzyme treatments. The relative length of the ileum was reduced with XYL+PRO. For all parameters measured, the effects of XYL+PRO were similar to when XYL and PRO were fed individually. Narasin had no effect on production performance or nutrient utilization but reduced the relative lengths of jejunum and ileum. Relative lengths and weights of duodenum and cecum were unaffected by treatments. In conclusion, the improved feed conversion with both a xylanase and a protease was reflected in increased nutrient utilization, but their combination was not superior to when supplied separately. Narasin did not affect performance or nutrient utilization but reduced the relative lengths of the jejunum and ileum. PMID:22582297

  4. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  5. Diet of children under the government-funded meal support program in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sooyoun; Lee, Kiwon; Yoon, Jihyun

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diet of children under the government-funded meal support program. The 143 children (67 boys and 76 girls) participated in this study among 4(th)-6(th) elementary school students receiving free lunches during the summer vacation of 2007 and living in Gwanak-gu, Seoul, Korea. The subjects consisted of four groups supported by Meal Box Delivery (n = 26), Institutional Foodservice (n = 53), Restaurant Foodservice (n = 27), or Food Delivery (n = 37). A three-day 24-hour dietary recall and a self-administered survey were conducted. In addition, the children's heights and weights were measured. The average energy intake of the children was 1,400 kcal per day, much lower than the Estimated Energy Requirements of the pertinent age groups. The results also showed inadequate intake of all examined nutrients; of particular concern was the extremely low intake of calcium. On average, the children consumed eight dishes and 25 food items per day. The children supported by Meal Box Delivery consumed more various dishes and food items than the other groups. The percentage of children preferring their current meal support method was the highest in those supported by Meal Box Delivery and the lowest in those supported by Food Delivery. We requested 15 children among the 143 children participating in the survey to draw the scene of their lunch time. The drawings of the children supported by Institutional Foodservice showed more positive scenes than the other groups, especially in terms of human aspects. In conclusion, the overall diet of children under the government-funded meal support program was nutritionally inadequate, although the magnitude of the problems tended to differ by the meal support method. The results could be utilized as basic data for policy and programs regarding the government-funded meal support program for children from low-income families. PMID:21286410

  6. Growth, nonspecific immune characteristics, and survival upon challenge with Vibrio harveyi in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) raised on diets containing algal meal.

    PubMed

    Nonwachai, Thasanee; Purivirojkul, Watchariya; Limsuwan, Chalor; Chuchird, Niti; Velasco, Mario; Dhar, Arun K

    2010-08-01

    A 70-day growth trial was conducted with postlarvae 12 (PL12) Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to study the suitability of soybean meal and oil originating from a single-celled microorganism (thraustochytrid) as fishmeal and fish oil substitutes in practical diets for L. vannamei. The growth, survival rate and immune characteristics were evaluated. Seven experimental diets were designed with soybean meal used as the primary protein source; each formulation contained 33% crude protein and 8% lipid. Fish oil was completely substituted with 3% soybean oil and meals originating from single-celled heterotrophs rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) were added at different concentrations. A commercial shrimp feed was used as the control diet. The final weights and survival rates of the shrimp were not significantly different among all treatments. However, shrimp raised on diets supplemented with marine algal meals rich in DHA and ARA showed significant improvement in immune parameters, such as total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, and bactericidal activity. Additionally, the survival rate after challenge with Vibrio harveyi was increased. These findings demonstrated that substitution of thraustochytrid-derived meals as an alternative to fish-based ingredients in shrimp diets provided similar growth rates while increasing the immune parameters and providing vibriosis resistance. PMID:20420922

  7. The microbes we eat: abundance and taxonomy of microbes consumed in a day’s worth of meals for three diet types

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Jenna M.; Eisen, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Far more attention has been paid to the microbes in our feces than the microbes in our food. Research efforts dedicated to the microbes that we eat have historically been focused on a fairly narrow range of species, namely those which cause disease and those which are thought to confer some “probiotic” health benefit. Little is known about the effects of ingested microbial communities that are present in typical American diets, and even the basic questions of which microbes, how many of them, and how much they vary from diet to diet and meal to meal, have not been answered. We characterized the microbiota of three different dietary patterns in order to estimate: the average total amount of daily microbes ingested via food and beverages, and their composition in three daily meal plans representing three different dietary patterns. The three dietary patterns analyzed were: (1) the Average American (AMERICAN): focused on convenience foods, (2) USDA recommended (USDA): emphasizing fruits and vegetables, lean meat, dairy, and whole grains, and (3) Vegan (VEGAN): excluding all animal products. Meals were prepared in a home kitchen or purchased at restaurants and blended, followed by microbial analysis including aerobic, anaerobic, yeast and mold plate counts as well as 16S rRNA PCR survey analysis. Based on plate counts, the USDA meal plan had the highest total amount of microbes at 1.3 × 109 CFU per day, followed by the VEGAN meal plan and the AMERICAN meal plan at 6 × 106 and 1.4 × 106 CFU per day respectively. There was no significant difference in diversity among the three dietary patterns. Individual meals clustered based on taxonomic composition independent of dietary pattern. For example, meals that were abundant in Lactic Acid Bacteria were from all three dietary patterns. Some taxonomic groups were correlated with the nutritional content of the meals. Predictive metagenome analysis using PICRUSt indicated differences in some functional KEGG categories

  8. Intake, digestibility and performance of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alana Batista; Pereira, Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; de Oliveira Silva, Herymá Giovane; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; de Jesus Pereira, Taiala Cristina; Ribeiro, Leandro Sampaio Oliveira; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; das Graças Conceição Parada Costa Silva, Maria; Sousa, Larisse Borges; Sousa, Leandro Borges; de Oliveira Alencar, Daiane

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, performance, and plasma glucose concentration of ram lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal substituting maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85 % dry matter (DM)). Thirty Santa Inês rams with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. The substitution of the maize for the peach palm meal affected (P < 0.05) the intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap), total carbohydrates (TC), total digestible nutrients (TDN), and metabolizable energy (ME), which decreased linearly (P < 0.05); the intake of ether extract (EE), however, fit an increasing linear equation (P < 0.05). The apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, NDFap, and TC decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as the level of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The total weight gain and the average daily gain decreased by 0.09 and 0.001 kg with each level of substitution of the maize for peach palm meal, respectively. It is recommended to substitute 40 % of the maize for peach palm meal. PMID:26781510

  9. Effects of Single Cell Protein Replacing Fish Meal in Diet on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H. Y.; Piao, X. S.; Li, P.; Yi, J. Q.; Zhang, Q.; Li, Q. Y.; Liu, J. D.; Wang, G. Q.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ME value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) of fish meal, and the effects of single cell protein (Prosin and Protide) replacing fish meal in diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, twenty-four barrows with initial BW of 30.8±2.6 kg were allotted to one of four dietary treatments. Diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 20% of the corn in diet 1 with one of the three protein feeds (fish meal, Prosin and Protide), and the DE and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, eight barrows (initial BW of 25.6±3.2 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the protein feeds as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, one hundred and eighty piglets (initial BW of 7.95±1.59 kg) weaned at 28±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of five treatments for a 28-d growth performance study, each treatment was fed to six pens with six pigs (three barrows and three gilts) per pen. The five treatments consisted of the control group (CON), which was a corn-soybean meal diet containing 5% fish meal, and the other four treatments, which replaced a set amount of fish meal with either Prosin (2.5% or 5%) or Protide (2.5% or 5%). The diets were formulated to provide same nutrient levels. The results showed that on a DM basis, both of the DE and ME contents were lower in Prosin and Protide than that of fish meal (p<0.05). The SID of CP and all essential AA were greater in fish meal than in Prosin and Protide (p<0.05). The pigs fed CON diet had greater weight gain and lower feed conversion rate (FCR) than pigs fed 5% Prosin and 5% Protide diets (p<0.05). The digestibility of CP was greater in pigs fed CON, 2

  10. Evaluation of a rendered poultry mortality-soybean meal product as a supplemental protein source for pig diets.

    PubMed

    Myer, R O; Brendemuhl, J H; Leak, F W; Hess, J B

    2004-04-01

    Dehydrated/rendered broiler mortality-soybean meal products (DPS) were evaluated in two trials as high-protein feedstuffs for pig diets. Broiler mortalities, collected and frozen on-farm and transported to a central facility, were minced, blended with soybean meal, and dried with a final product temperature of 120 to 130 degrees C. The final DPS products used contained approximately 30 and 45% (DM basis) dried broiler mortality for the first and second trials, respectively (DPS1 and DPS2). The first trial involved 50 young, growing pigs (9 to 26 kg) and the second, 72 growing and finishing pigs (27 to 111 kg). The trials compared corn-based diets containing either soybean meal (SBM; 48%) or DPS products as the supplemental protein source. The DPS products averaged 50% CP and 2.9% total lysine; crude fat content of DPS used in the first trial was 8%, and for the second, 14.6% (as-fed basis). The ADG of pigs fed the DPS diets in either trial was similar to that of pigs fed the SBM control diets. In the second trial, pigs fed DPS2 had an overall average G:F ratio that was 9% better (P < 0.01) than that of pigs fed the SBM control diets. Carcass characteristics and pork quality from pigs of the growing-finishing trial were not affected by dietary treatment. Subjective carcass fat firmness scores indicated slightly softer fat (P < 0.05) from pigs fed DPS2. The mincing, blending with SBM, and dehydration of frozen stored on-farm broiler mortalities produced a safe and nutritious protein feedstuff for pigs, while also offering a viable disposal option. PMID:15080329

  11. Nutrient digestibility and growth performance of pigs fed diets with different levels of canola meal from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow.

    PubMed

    Sanjayan, N; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    Nutrient digestibility and the effect of high dietary inclusion of canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) on growing and weaned pigs performance were determined. In Exp.1, 6 ileal cannulated barrows (initial BW = 20.7 ± 1.5 kg) were used to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in BNB and BJY. Pigs were allotted to diets containing either BNB or BJY as the sole source of protein in a crossover design to give 6 replicates per diet. The SID of all AA in BNB and BJY were similar. In Exp. 2, 168 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.61 ± 0.76 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design to 7 diets (n = 24) consisting of a wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 6 diets containing 5, 10 or 15% of canola meal derived from either BNB or BJY to determine the effect of different dietary inclusion on growth performance over a 28-d period postweaning. Diets were formulated to contain similar NE and SID of Lys. There were no differences in growth performance among treatments. In Exp. 3, 162 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.26 ± 0.70 kg) were used to determine the effect of high BNB and BJY inclusion level without or with multicarbohydrase supplementation on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP, DM, and GE. A wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 8 diets containing 20 and 25% of either BNB or BJY without or with added multi-carbohydrase were formulated (n = 18) to contain comparable NE and similar SID of Lys contents. Feeding the diets containing 25% of BNB or BJY supported similar growth performance as those containing 20%. The multi-carbohydrase had no effect on growth performance but improved (P < 0.05) the ATTD of DM, CP, and GE compared with those fed nonsupplemented diets irrespective of canola meal type. Diets containing 25% canola meal had lower (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, CP, and GE regardless of canola meal type compared with the 20

  12. Fish protein substrates can substitute effectively for poultry by-product meal when incorporated in high quality senior dog diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to analytically define several novel fish substrates and determine the effects of feeding diets containing these substrates on total tract nutrient digestibility and on immune status of senior dogs. The control diet contained poultry by-product meal while test diets cont...

  13. Protein quality of various raw and rendered by-product meals commonly incorporated into companion animal diets.

    PubMed

    Cramer, K R; Greenwood, M W; Moritz, J S; Beyer, R S; Parsons, C M

    2007-12-01

    Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the protein quality of various raw and rendered animal by-product meals commonly used in companion animal diets. Six freeze-dried raw animal meals (beef lungs, pork lungs, sheep lungs, pork livers, oceanfish, chicken necks) and 3 rendered animal meals (lamb meal, regular ash poultry by-product meal, and low ash poultry by-product meal) were fed in chick assays to determine Lys and TSAA bioavailability, protein efficiency ratio (PER), and net protein ratio (NPR). Each experimental diet was offered to 4 replicates of 5 chicks per pen in all growth assays. Furthermore, each animal by-product meal was fed to mature White Leghorn roosters for determination of true AA digestibility. All freeze-dried, raw animal meals were offered to 5 replicate roosters, and all rendered animal meals were offered to 4 replicate roosters. Most raw animal meals exhibited moderate to high protein quality. Lysine bio-availabilities ranged from 86 to 107% and 70 to 99% for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. Bio-availability of TSAA ranged from 64 to 99% and 61 to 78% for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. The PER values ranged from 2.83 to 4.03 and 2.01 to 3.34 for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. The NPR values ranged from 3.83 to 4.8 and 3.05 to 4.12 for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. Despite a numeric increase in NPR vs. PER values, the overall ranking of animal meals remained similar. Lamb meal had the poorest PER and NPR values, and pork lungs had the greatest values. Total essential AA digestibility and total AA digestibility ranged from 93.6 to 96.7 and 90.3 to 95.5%, respectively, for raw animal meals and 84.0 to 87.7 and 79.2 to 84.8%, respectively, for rendered animal meals. Rendered animal meals generally had lower protein quality than raw animal meals, with lamb meal consistently having the poorest protein quality and pork livers having the greatest protein quality. PMID:17609474

  14. Partial meal replacement plan and quality of the diet at 1 year: Action for health in diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Little is known about diet quality with a reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacement plan, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial implemented a partial meal replacement plan in the Intensive Lifestyle Intervention. Objec...

  15. Effects on egg quality traits of genotype and diets with mussel meal or wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Wall, H; Jönsson, L; Johansson, L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects on exterior and interior egg quality and sensory characteristics of eggs from hens fed diets with admixtures of 3.5 or 7.0% of mussel meal or 20% wheat-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The mussel meal diets followed organic standards, whereas the DDGS diet was formulated for hens in conventional production. Standard diets, one organic and one conventional from a Swedish feed manufacturer, were included for comparison. The study used 164 Hy-Line White W-98 and 164 Hy-Line Brown layers housed in small-group furnished cages. Egg flavor or odor was not affected by genotype. Egg flavor intensity was stronger in eggs from hens fed either of the mussel diets or the standard organic diet compared with the conventional diet. There were no differences between any of the diets in egg odor intensity, off-flavor, or off-odor. The mussel diets and the standard organic diet gave stronger yolk pigmentation than the conventional and DDGS diet, respectively. Manure DM was lower with the admixture of 7.0% mussel meal than 3.5%. There was a tendency (P < 0.10) toward a difference between diets in dirty eggs, and the percentage was highest with 7.0% mussel meal. Diet or genotype had no effect on egg weight, albumen height, shell deformation, shell breaking strength, or proportion of cracked eggs. Genotype differences were found in weight percentage of albumen, yolk, and shell and in the presence of blood and meat spots and in percentage of dirty eggs. In conclusion, the majority of egg quality traits were unaffected by the diets studied. With the admixture of DDGS used in the present study, the characteristics of eggs were similar to those of eggs produced on the conventional standard diet. There was no indication of impaired egg odor or flavor with the used fractions of DDGS or mussel meal. PMID:20308407

  16. Nitrogen utilization from diets with refined and blended poultry by-products as partial fish meal replacements in diets for low-salinity cultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three trials were performed to evaluate partial fish meal (FM) replacement with poultry by-products in a practical-type diet for Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus reared in low-salinity. Two refined and blended meals (BP67, BP70), two chicken concentrates (CC66, CC70) and one standard pet-food ...

  17. Use of biofuel by-product from the green algae Desmochloris sp. and diatom Nanofrustulum sp. meal in diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Algal by-product meals from the Hawaiian biofuels industry were evaluated as protein ingredients in diets for juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 40% protein and were made with fish meal, soybean meal, whole diatom (Nanofrustulum sp.)...

  18. Diets Containing Sea Cucumber (Isostichopus badionotus) Meals Are Hypocholesterolemic in Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Olivera-Castillo, Leticia; Davalos, Alberto; Grant, George; Valadez-Gonzalez, Nina; Montero, Jorge; Barrera-Perez, Hirian Alonso Moshe; Chim-Chi, Yasser; Olvera-Novoa, Miguel Angel; Ceja-Moreno, Víctor; Acereto-Escoffie, Pablo; Rubio-Piña, Jorge; Rodriguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2013-01-01

    Sea cucumber is widely consumed as a putative functional food. It contains many biologically-active substances, but only limited research on its properties in vivo has been done. The effects of different meals containing Isostichopus badionotus, a sea cucumber from southeast Mexico, on growth performance and body lipid profile in young rats were analyzed. Sea cucumber body wall was either lyophilized, cooked (100 °C, 1 h in water) and lyophilized, or oven-dried (70 °C for 12 h). It was then ground and incorporated into cholesterol-containing diets. I. badionotus meals supported growth and improved lipid profile in rats. In particular, serum cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, triglycerides concentration and atherogenic index values were greatly reduced by some I. badionotus containing diets. Liver total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol were also reduced. Cooking or heat-treatment of the meals lowered but did not abolish their hypolipidemic potency. Gene expression analysis of several key genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in liver showed that diets containing I. badionotus repressed the induction of key genes associated with dyslipidemia exerted by cholesterol supplementation. Consumption of I. badionotus from the Yucatan Peninsula is beneficial for dyslipidemia, although biological effect is clearly dependent on preparation method. PMID:24260223

  19. Application of low-gossypol cottonseed meal in laying hens' diet.

    PubMed

    He, T; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Qi, G H

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the application of dietary low-gossypol cottonseed meal (LCSM) in layers' diets. A total of 432 40-week-old Hy-line W36 laying hens were allocated to one of the six dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The control group was fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the 4 experimental diets consisted of a basal diet with 50, 98.3, 144.2, or 189 g/kg LCSM, respectively (correspondingly 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% dietary protein provided by soybean meal were replaced by LCSM). The sixth group was fed a basal diet supplemented with free gossypol (FG group). The feeding trial lasted for 12 weeks. The results showed that no significant difference was observed on egg production or feed conversion ratio (FCR, feed/egg, g/g) among all groups, but feed intake and egg weight were significantly decreased in the 189 g/kg LCSM group in weeks 46 to 51 (P < 0.05). A significant decrease was not observed in shell strength, shell thickness, and yolk color in all periods, but Haugh unit, albumen height, and egg white protein content were reduced in 189 g/kg LCSM group in weeks 46 to 51 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the control and FG group. There was no obvious difference on plasma levels of total protein, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, and activities of albumen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and the histopathology of liver, kidney, and oviduct in all groups. In conclusion, decreasing feed intake, egg weight, and egg quality were observed in the 189 g/kg LCSM group. However, the adverse effect was not relevant to the presence of FG in LCSM. Dietary LCSM supplementation of 98.3 g/kg was recommended with optimum FCR and without adverse effect on egg production, quality, and health of layers. PMID:26287003

  20. Alfalfa leaf meal in finishing steer diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.; Brown, D.B.; Hall, J.M.

    1997-10-30

    Ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 540 lb.) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 167 or 189-day finishing phase, respectively. Treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, 100% of supplemental protein. Finishing diets were formulated to contain .61 Mcal NE{sub g}/lb dry matter, 12.5% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. There were no significant (P >.05) effects of dietary treatments on daily gain or dry matter required /lb of gain. Steers fed 100 % ALM consumed more (P <.05) dry matter than steers fed either of the other three treatments. Dry matter consumption increased linearly (P >.05) with increasing ALM. There was no significant (P >.05) dietary treatment effect on marbling, KPH %, yield grade, quality grade, or liver abscesses. There was an apparent trend in reduced liver abscess incidence in steers fed 100 % ALM. Steers fed 66 % ALM had significantly (P <.05) greater backfat measurements, backfat also had a cubic effect (P <.05). Hot carcass weight had a quadratic relation (P <.05) with level of ALM. Substituting alfalfa leaf meal for soybean meal in diets of finishing steers increased DM intake, but this increase was accompanied by an increase in gain which resulted in similar feed efficiency. There may be an advantage in blending ALM and soybean meal as feed efficiency was improved when cattle were fed the blend. Also, feeding ALM may result in lower incidence of liver abscess.

  1. Cashew reject meal in diets of laying chickens: nutritional and economic suitability.

    PubMed

    Akande, Taiwo O; Akinwumi, Akinyinka O; Abegunde, Taye O

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the nutritional and economic suitability of cashew reject meal (full fat and defatted) as replacement for groundnut cake (GNC) in the diets of laying chickens. A total of eighty four brown shavers at 25 weeks of age were randomly allotted into seven dietary treatments each containing 6 replicates of 2 birds each. The seven diets prepared included diet 1, a control with GNC at 220gkg(-1) as main protein source in the diet. Diets 2, 3 and 4 consist of gradual replacement of GNC with defatted cashew reject meal (DCRM) at 50%, 75% and 100% on weight for weight basis respectively while diets 5, 6 and 7 consist of gradual inclusion of full fat cashew reject meal (FCRM) to replace 25%, 35% and 50% of GNC protein respectively. Each group was allotted a diet in a completely randomized design in a study that lasted eight weeks during which records of the chemical constituent of the test ingredients, performance characteristics, egg quality traits and economic indicators were measured. Results showed that the crude protein were 22.10 and 35.4% for FCRM and DCRM respectively. Gross energy of DCRM was 5035 kcal/kg compared to GNC, 4752 kcal/kg. Result of aflatoxin B1 revealed moderate level between 10 and 17 μg/Kg in DCRM and GNC samples respectively. Birds on control gained 10 g, while those on DCRM and FCRM gained about 35 g and 120 g respectively. Feed intake declined (P < 0.05) with increased level of FCRM. Hen day production was highest in birds fed DCRM, followed by control and lowest value (P < 0.05) was recorded for FCRM. No significant change (P > 0.05) was observed for egg weight and shell thickness. Fat deposition and cholesterol content increased (P > 0.05) with increasing level of FCRM. The cost of feed per kilogram decreased gradually with increased inclusion level of CRM. The prediction equation showed the relative worth of DCRM compared to GNC was 92.3% whereas the actual market price of GNC triples that of

  2. The School Meal System and School-Based Nutrition Education in Korea.

    PubMed

    Woo, Taejung

    2015-01-01

    Since the school meal was first served in Korea in 1953, there have been many changes, particularly during the last decade. Recently, the representative features of the school meal system became free school meals for all pupils in elementary school and a nutrition teacher system in schools. These policies were suggested to implement more and more the educational role of the school meal. The rate of schools serving school meals reached 100% as of 2013, and 99.6% students eat a school meal each school day. Nutrition teachers were assigned to schools from 2007, and 4,704 (47.9%) nutrition teachers of all nutrition employees were employed in schools as of 2013. At present, various nutrition education materials are being development by local education offices and government agencies, and various education activities are being implemented spiritedly. The ultimate goal of school meals and school-based nutrition education are as follows: 1) improvement of the health of students; 2) promotion of the traditional Korean diet; and 3) extension of opportunities for a healthier dietary life. PMID:26598874

  3. Effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal or rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junming; Zhang, Xi; Long, Xiaowen; Tao, Linli; Wang, Zhen; Niu, Guoyi; Kang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cholesterol on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal (CSM) or rapeseed meal (RSM). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 550 g kg(-1) CSM or 450 g kg(-1) RSM with or without 9 g kg(-1) supplemental cholesterol. Growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with 450 g kg(-1) RSM were inferior to fish fed diets with 550 g kg(-1) CSM regardless of cholesterol level. Dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the growth rate of fish fed diets with RSM, and growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with CSM. Similarly, dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triiodothyronine levels, but decreased the plasma triglycerides and cortisol levels of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. In addition, supplemental cholesterol increased the free cholesterol and TC levels in intestinal contents, but decreased the hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activity of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. These results indicate that 9 g kg(-1) cholesterol supplementation seems to improve the growth of rainbow trout fed diets with CSM or RSM, and the growth-promoting action may be related to the alleviation of the negative effects caused by antinutritional factors and/or make up for the deficiency of endogenous cholesterol in rainbow trout. PMID:25119853

  4. Fish meal replacement with solvent extracted soybean meal or soy protein isolate in a practical diet formulation for Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus, L.) reared in low salinity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two eight-week growth trials were conducted with juvenile Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus, fed 0 to 100% replacement of FM protein with soybean meal (SBM) or soy protein isolate (SPI). Practical-type diets were formulated with at least 360 g kg1 digestible protein and 24 mg kJ-1 digestible p...

  5. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  6. Use of Alaskan pollack viceral meal in diets of channel catfish to enhance the N-3 content of the fillet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential for using APVM in practical diets of channel catfish to sustain or improve general performance while increasing the n-3 fatty acid concentration of fillets. Replacement of marine products such as menhaden fish meal and oil in diets of cultur...

  7. Use of Diets Containing Graded Levels of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles and Soybean Meal by Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was performed to investigate inclusion levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean meal (SM) used in the diets of juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Six isocaloric (3.22 ± 0.02 kcal/g SE), isonitrogenous (30.1 ± 0.2% SE) experimental diets were formulate...

  8. Affect of corn germ meal inclusion in pig diets bacterial ecology in the cecum and proximal colon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion of bio-fuel co-products in swine diets is becoming more common due to greater availability and increasing cereal grain costs. These co-products have lower starch and higher fiber concentrations. Twenty-four pigs were adapted to diets with either corn or solvent extracted corn germ meal (...

  9. Evaluation of poultry by-product meal in commercial diets for hybrid striped bass in pond production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of replacing fishmeal with petfood grade poultry by-product meal (PBM-PFG) on an ideal protein basis in commercial diets for hybrid striped bass (HSB) was evaluated in ponds under commercial production conditions. A typical commercial diet (GEN) for HSB was formulated to contain 40% pr...

  10. Effects of Replacing Groundnut Cake with Blood Vegetable Waste Meal in the Diets of Weaner Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Adeniji, Adedayo Abiodun

    2012-01-01

    A total of seventy-two weaner rabbits of eight weeks of age were used to assess the effects of replacing groundnut cake (GNC) with blood vegetable waste meal (BVWM) in the diets of rabbits. The BVWM was fed to replace dietary GNC at 0, 15, 30, and 45%, with GNC being 15% in the control diet. The four experimental diets were fed ad libitum for a period of eight weeks. BVWM was analyzed to contain a crude protein value of 62.35%. There were comparable feed intake values by rabbits on all the diets although the rabbits in the higher replacement levels of BVWM tended to have consumed more of the feed. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in body weight gain by rabbits as the BVWM level increased in the diet. Similarly, the feed to gain ratio improved and nitrogen digestibility increased (P < 0.05) with higher levels of BVWM in the diet. This study shows that rabbits can tolerate the 45% BVWM replacement of groundnut cake effectively. PMID:23738121

  11. Partial replacement of barley grain and soybean meal by fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) in diets of growing Awassi lambs.

    PubMed

    Abo Omar, J M; Omar, M

    2012-07-01

    Effects of partial substitution of barley grain and soybean meal with fleabane (FB) Conyza bonariensis on growth performances and body compositions of 24 male local Awassi lambs were studied. All lambs were male with an average BW of 20.3 kg (s.d. = 2.0 kg) at the beginning of the experiment. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six lambs each. Lambs in each group received individually their cereal-soybean-based total mixed rations with levels of FB: 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg dry matter (DM) diet, which replaced similar values of barley and soybean meal. All rations were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The fattening experiment lasted 9 weeks, after which all lambs were slaughtered. The composition of nutrients in the C. bonariensis were 89.6%, 15.0%, 28.0%, 30.0% and 10% for organic matter, CP, NDF, ADF and lignin, respectively. At the end of the experiment, lambs fed 100 and 150 g FB/kg DM diets gained more weight (P < 0.05) than those fed the control and 50 g FB/kg DM diets. The DM intake was lower in lambs fed the highest level of FB compared with intakes of lambs in other treatments. Diet content of FB had significant effect (P < 0.05) on weights of empty body, carcass, gut and external (hide, head and feet) among all animals. However, FB had no effects on lambs' thoracic organs (lungs and heart) and liver. Muscle, bone, omental and mesenteric fat, subcutaneous, intermuscular, pelvic and kidney fat weights (g/kg empty BW) were not affected by FB feeding. Carcass fat was decreased (P < 0.05) by the increase of FB. Total body fat was the same in all animals of the experiment. PMID:23031470

  12. Bioavailability of zinc from inorganic and organic sources for pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, K J; Lewis, A J; Giesemann, M A; Miller, P S

    1994-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted with pigs 1) to determine the effect of supplemental Zn on growth performance, bone Zn, and plasma Zn in pigs fed Zn-unsupplemented, corn-soybean meal diets and 2) to assess bioavailability of Zn from inorganic and organic Zn sources. In both experiments, weanling pigs were fed a diet with no supplemental Zn for 5 wk to deplete their Zn stores. In Exp. 1, 192 pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal diet (growing diet, 32 mg/kg of Zn; finishing diet, 27 mg/kg of Zn) supplemented with feed-grade ZnSO4.H2O to provide 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg of supplemental Zn. Supplemental Zn did not affect weight gain, feed intake, or gain/feed during either the growing or the finishing period (P > .05). However, bone and plasma Zn concentrations increased linearly (P < .01) in response to supplemental Zn at dietary Zn levels between 27 mg/kg (basal) and 47 mg/kg (breakpoint). In Exp. 2, three levels of supplemental Zn from ZnSO4.H2O (0, 7.5, and 15 mg/kg of supplemental Zn) were used to construct a standard curve (metacarpal, coccygeal vertebrae, and plasma Zn concentrations regressed on supplemental Zn intake; R2 = .93, .89, and .82, respectively). From the standard curve, the bone and plasma Zn concentrations obtained from pigs fed 15 mg/kg of supplemental Zn from ZnO and 7.5 mg/kg of supplemental Zn from Zn-methionine (ZnMET) and Zn-lysine (ZnLYS) were used to calculate bioavailable Zn via multiple linear regression, slope-ratio analysis. The estimates of Zn bioavailability differed depending on which variable was used. Overall trends indicated the following rankings: ZnSO4.H2O > ZnMet > ZnO > ZnLys. PMID:7883627

  13. An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

    2015-05-01

    Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM. PMID:25707598

  14. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  15. Use of pet food-grade poultry by-product meal as an alternate protein source in weanling pig diets.

    PubMed

    Zier, C E; Jones, R D; Azain, M J

    2004-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate pet food-grade poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a replacement protein source for fish meal (FM), blood meal (BM), and spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) in weanling pig diets. In the first study, 200 crossbred pigs (initial BW = 6.5 kg) were weaned (21 d) and randomly allotted to one of four dietary treatments, which included a control and three test diets where PBM was substituted for FM, blood products, or both. Experimental diets were fed during Phase I (d 0 to 5 postweaning) and Phase II (d 5 to 19), and a common Phase III diet was fed from d 19 to 26. Overall (d 0 to 26), there was no difference in performance of pigs fed PBM in place of the other ingredients. However, during Phase I, BW (P < 0.05), ADG (P < 0.02), and intake (P < 0.001) in pigs fed diets containing SDPP were greater than those fed diets with PBM. In Exp. 2, the performance of pigs (n = 100, initial BW = 6.5 kg) fed diets containing 20% PBM (as-fed basis, replacing SDPP, BM, FM, and a portion of the soybean meal) in all phases of the nursery diet was compared with a group fed conventional diets without PBM. There were no differences in overall performance (d 0 to 26); however, ADG (P < 0.10) and feed intake were higher (P < 0.01) for pigs fed the conventional diet than for pigs fed the 20% PBM diet during Phase I (d 0 to 5). Experiment 3 was a slope-ratio assay to determine the ability of PBM to replace SDPP. A total of 320 pigs (initial BW = 7.32 kg) was weaned (21 d) and allotted to five treatment groups in three trials in a blocked design with product (SDPP or PBM) as the first factor, and lysine level (1.08, 1.28, 1.49%; as-fed basis) as the second factor. Growth rate increased with increasing lysine (P < 0.05), regardless of the source. These results indicate that PBM can be used in nursery diets in place of blood meal and fish meal without affecting performance. Furthermore, although feeding PBM in Phase I diets was not equivalent to SDPP

  16. Growth and Feed Efficiency of Juvenile Channel Catfish Reared at Different Water Temperatures and Fed Diets Containing Various Levels of Fish Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus do not feed well at low temperatures. It is thought that a diet containing fish meal may enhance feed palatability at low temperatures since fish meal is highly palatable to the fish. There is a lack of information on effects of fish meal levels on growth perfor...

  17. Full replacement of menhaden fish meal protein by low-gossypol cottonseed flour protein in the diet of juvenile black sea bass Centropristis striata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight iso-nitrogeneous (46% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (14% crude lipid) diets were formulated and prepared to replace menhaden fish meal (FM) protein (59.5% CP) by low-gossypol glandless meal (GCSM) protein (50.4% CP), solvent-extracted cottonseed meal (SCSM) protein (53.8% protein) and high go...

  18. Fortification of dried distillers grains plus solubles with grape seed meal in the diet modulates methane mitigation and rumen microbiota in Rusitec.

    PubMed

    Khiaosa-Ard, R; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Ahmed, S; Muro-Reyes, A; Deckardt, K; Chizzola, R; Böhm, J; Zebeli, Q

    2015-04-01

    The role of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) and associative effects of different levels of grape seed meal (GSM) fortified in DDGS, used as both protein and energy sources in the diet, on ruminal fermentation and microbiota were investigated using rumen-simulation technique. All diets consisted of hay and concentrate mixture with a ratio of 48:52 [dry matter (DM) basis], but were different in the concentrate composition. The control diet contained soybean meal (13.5% of diet DM) and barley grain (37%), whereas DDGS treatments, unfortified DDGS (19.5% of diet DM), or DDGS fortified with GSM, either at 1, 5, 10, or 20% were used entirely in place of soybean meal and part of barley grain at a 19.5 to 25% inclusion level. All diets had similar DM, organic matter, and crude protein contents, but consisted of increasing neutral detergent fiber and decreasing nonfiber carbohydrates levels with DDGS-GSM inclusion. Compared with the soy-based control diet, the unfortified DDGS treatment elevated ammonia concentration (19.1%) of rumen fluid associated with greater crude protein degradation (~19.5%). Methane formation decreased with increasing GSM fortification levels (≥ 5%) in DDGS by which the methane concentration significantly decreased by 18.9 to 23.4 and 12.8 to 17.6% compared with control and unfortified DDGS, respectively. Compared with control, unfortified DDGS decreased butyrate proportion, and GSM fortification in the diet further decreased this variable. The proportions of genus Prevotella and Clostridium cluster XIVa were enhanced by the presence of DDGS without any associative effect of GSM fortification. The abundance of methanogenic archaea was similar, but their composition differed among treatments; whereas Methanosphaera spp. remained unchanged, proportion of Methanobrevibacter spp. decreased in DDGS-based diets, being the lowest with 20% GSM inclusion. The abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, anaerobic fungi, and protozoa were decreased

  19. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P<0.05) growth than those fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). Shrimp fed diets 2-4 (30%-50% fish meal replacement) showed significantly higher growth than those fed diets 6 and 7 (70% and 100% fish meal replacement, respectively). Survival ranged from 94.7% to 100.0% and did not differ significantly ( P>0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  20. Effects of Feeding Diets With or Without Fish Meal on Production of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus, Stocked at Varying Densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal protein, generally fish meal, has traditionally been used in the diet of channel catfish. However, our previous research indicates that animal protein is not needed for growing stocker size catfish to food fish when the fish are stocked at densities typical of those used in commercial catfish...

  1. Partial replacement of menhaden oil with Alaskan pollack viceral meal in diets for largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing menhaden fish meal and oil with APVM in practical diets of largemouth bass (LMB) to sustain or improve general performance while maintaining substantial amounts of the n-3 fatty acids in the fillets. The n-3 highly unsaturated fat...

  2. Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal, alone or in combination with distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, grown in a clear-water system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  3. Are Family Meal Patterns Associated with Overall Diet Quality during the Transition from Early to Middle Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess-Champoux, Teri L.; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal associations of participation in regular family meals (greater than or equal to 5 meals/week) with eating habits and dietary intake during adolescence. Design: Population-based, longitudinal study (Project EAT: Eating Among Teens). Surveys were completed in Minnesota classrooms at Time 1 (1998-1999) and by mail…

  4. Large, binge-type meals of high fat diet change feeding behaviour and entrain food anticipatory activity in mice*

    PubMed Central

    Bake, T.; Murphy, M.; Morgan, D.G.A.; Mercer, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum on control diet but allowed access to a palatable high fat diet (HFD) for 2 h a day during the mid-dark phase rapidly adapt their feeding behaviour and can consume nearly 80% of their daily caloric intake during this 2 h-scheduled feed. We assessed food intake microstructure and meal pattern, and locomotor activity and rearing as markers of food anticipatory activity (FAA). Schedule fed mice reduced their caloric intake from control diet during the first hours of the dark phase but not during the 3-h period immediately preceding the scheduled feed. Large meal/binge-like eating behaviour during the 2-h scheduled feed was characterised by increases in both meal number and meal size. Rearing was increased during the 2-h period running up to scheduled feeding while locomotor activity started to increase 1 h before, indicating that schedule-fed mice display FAA. Meal number and physical activity changes were sustained when HFD was withheld during the anticipated scheduled feeding period, and mice immediately binged when HFD was represented after a week of this “withdrawal” period. These findings provide important context to our previous studies suggesting that energy balance systems in the hypothalamus are not responsible for driving these large, binge-type meals. Evidence of FAA in HFD dark phase schedule-fed mice implicates anticipatory processes in binge eating that do not involve immediately preceding hypophagia or regulatory homeostatic signalling. PMID:24631639

  5. Replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Khalaji, S; Manafi, M; Olfati, Z; Hedyati, M; Latifi, M; Veysi, A

    2016-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets. Experiments were carried out as a completely randomized design where each experiment involved 4 treatments of 6 replicates and 10 chicks in each pen. Soybean meal proteins in a corn-soy control diet were replaced with 15, 30, and 45% of cow skin gelatin (CSG) or corn protein concentrate (CPC), respectively, in experiments 1 and 2. BW and cumulative feed intake were measured at 7, 21, and 42 d of age. Blood characteristics, relative organs weight and length, ileal digesta viscosity, ileal morphology, and cecal coliform and Salmonella population were measured at 42 d of age. Apparent total tract digestibility of protein was determined during 35 to 42 d of age. Replacement of soybean meal with CSG severely inhibited BW gain, decreased feed intake, and increased FCR in broilers during the experimental period (P ≤ 0.01). The inclusion of CPC reduced BW and increased FCR significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at 21 and 42 d of age without any consequence in feed intake. Protein digestibility was reduced and ileal digesta viscosity was increased linearly by increasing the amount of CSG and CPC in the control diet (P ≤ 0.01). Replacement of soybean meal with CSG and CPC did not significantly alter blood cell profile and plasma phosphorus, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Aspartate transaminase, and HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. The inclusion of CSG linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased plasma uric acid concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) when the amount of CSG replacement was 15%. The results of this experiment showed that using CSG and CPC negatively affects broiler performance and therefore is not a suitable alternative to soybean meal in commercial diets. PMID:26574036

  6. Small changes in meal patterns lead to significant changes in total caloric intake. Effects of diet and social status on food intake in female rhesus monkeys☆

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Carla J.; Lowe, Jonathan; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Ulam, Patrick; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E.; Johnson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Social subordination in macaques is a well-established model to study the adverse effects of psychosocial stress on a number of health outcomes, including stress-induced eating. The present analysis was conducted to empirically define a meal among free-feeding female rhesus monkeys and to examine the roles of meal patterning (e.g., meal size, meal frequency, and snacking patterns) in findings from a previous study demonstrating that psychosocial stress increases overall caloric intake among subordinate animals with access to a highly palatable diet. Results indicate that all animals, regardless of social status, consumed more frequent meals, larger meals, and more calories in the form of snacks when a highly palatable diet was available. Additional findings suggest that subordinate animals consumed significantly larger meals compared to their dominant counterparts regardless of the dietary environment. Additionally, subordinate females with a history of exposure to the palatable diet consumed significantly more snack calories than both dominant and subordinate animals without previous exposure to the palatable diet when these females were returned to a standard laboratory diet. These findings illustrate how small changes in meal patterns can lead to significant increases in total caloric intake, which if prolonged, could promote the emergence of an obese phenotype. PMID:23207191

  7. Treated fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) as substitute for soybean meal in diet of early phase laying hens: egg-laying performance and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Laudadio, V; Tufarelli, V

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary dehulled-micronized fava bean (Vicia faba var. minor) seed on egg production, egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell quality, and egg yolk color. In this trial, 18-wk-old laying hens in the early phase of production (ISA Brown) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and fed durum wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean or micronized-dehulled fava bean meal as the main protein source. Eggs were collected and weighed daily. Laying performance, egg quality, and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 wk. The only significant effect detected was for feed intake (P<0.05), which was lower in hens fed the diet containing fava bean than for hens fed soybean meal, without however any negative effects on feed efficiency. None of the egg quality parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was reduced in hens fed the fava bean diet (P<0.05). We conclude that dehulled-micronized fava beans in the diet did not have a negative influence on productive performance or egg quality of young brown hens. PMID:20852122

  8. Effects of beta-mannanase in corn-soybean meal diets on laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M E; Fodge, D W; Hsiao, H Y

    1999-12-01

    Recently, a patented enzyme product (beta-Mannanase, Hemicell) has been shown to improve feed conversion in corn-soybean diets fed to broilers and swine. The mechanism of beta-Mannanase is to degrade beta-mannan, which is an antinutritional factor existing in many legumes, including soybean and canola meals. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not performance can be improved by including beta-Mannanase in diets of commercial laying hens, 18 through 66 wk of age. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed. There were two energy sequences of 2,926-2,907-2,885 and 2,827-2,808-2,786 kcal ME/kg, which changed at 33 and 43 wk of age respectively; two dietary enzyme levels (0 and 110 units/g); and two Hy-Line strains (W36 and W77). Hen-day production, hen-housed production, BW, feed intake, mortality, egg weight, and specific gravity data were collected biweekly. Data were analyzed in four cycles (each with six 2-wk periods) and also for the whole experiment. beta-Mannanase increased egg weight from 51.4 to 51.7 g/egg (P < 0.05) in the first 12-wk cycle. This effect was consistent across energy levels. beta-Mannanase significantly improved hen-day and hen-housed production after the first cycle. Hen-day production of the beta-Mannanase group was 0.70, 1.07, and 1.5% greater than the control for cycles two, three, and four, respectively (P < 0.01). After 30 wk of age, average hen-day production of hens fed the low-energy diets with beta-Mannanase was similar or superior to that of hens fed the high-energy diets without the enzyme. The study indicates that beta-Mannanase is capable of increasing egg weight in commercial layers at early stages of production, and increasing egg production, particularly delaying the postpeak decline in productivity. PMID:10626649

  9. Comparison of broiler chicken performance when fed diets containing meals of Bollgard II hybrid cotton containing Cry-X gene (Cry1Ac and Cry2ab gene), parental line or commercial cotton.

    PubMed

    Mandal, A B; Elangovan, A V; Shrivastav, A K; Johri, A K; Kaur, S; Johri, T S

    2004-10-01

    (1) Total and free gossypol contents were 6.2 and 0.8, 5.4 and 0.5, and 6.1 and 0.7 g/kg in meals processed (solvent extracted) from Bollgard (BG) II, non-BG II or commercial cottonseeds, respectively. (2) Broiler chicks were given one of 7 dietary treatments (iso-nitrogenous, 220 and 195 g crude protein/ kg diet at 0 to 21 and 21 to 42 d, respectively, at a metabolisable energy concentration of 12.15 MJ/kg). The treatments were: D1 (control, soybean meal [SBM] based), D2 and D3 (commercial CSM at 100 g/kg of diet with and without additional iron), D4 and D5 (BG II CSM with and without additional iron), and D6 and D7 (non-BG II parental CSM with or without additional iron). (3) Body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, nutrient utilisation, certain blood constituents and carcase traits were not significantly affected by dietary treatments. (4) Weights of bursa and thymus were significantly higher in groups given diets containing BG II or non-BG diets containing added iron. (5) The results suggest that low free gossypol content cottonseed meals, for example, BG II, non-BG II and commercial solvent-extracted CSM could be included at 100 g/kg in broiler diets, safely replacing soybean meal without additional iron. PMID:15623220

  10. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  11. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods

    PubMed Central

    Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.; Sandoval-Castro, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  12. Effects on growth and body composition in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fry fed organic diets containing yeast extract and soybean meal as total replacement of fish meal without amino acid supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish meal (FM) is the main protein source in numerous aquaculture diets due to its palatability and quality. Quantities of FM have remained constant for the past several decades; however, demand has dramatically increased due to its inclusion in diets used for the global aquaculture industry. Ther...

  13. Determination of the fourth and fifth limiting amino acids of broilers fed diets containing maize, soybean meal, and poultry by-product meal from 28 to 42 days of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Val is considered the fourth limiting amino acid for broilers fed diets containing ingredients from vegetable origin. However, Val and Ile may be co-limiting for broilers fed diets containing animal protein meals. An experiment was conducted to examine growth responses and meat yield of broilers pro...

  14. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (P<0.05) for pigs fed Diet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (P<0.05) G : F than pigs fed Diet 2, but no

  15. The efficacy of a new 6-phytase obtained from Buttiauxella spp. expressed in Trichoderma reesei on digestibility of amino acids, energy, and nutrients in pigs fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Ragland, D; Plumstead, P; Adeola, O

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen cannulated pigs were used to evaluate the effect of a new 6-phytase derived from Buttiauxella spp. and expressed in Trichoderma reesei on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, N, Ca, P, Na, Mg, K, Cl, and energy. Pigs were fed 4 diets for 2 periods in a crossover design. Within each period, there were 4 blocks of 4 pigs per block with each diet represented within each block. The average initial BW in periods 1 and 2 were 22 and 30 kg, respectively. Each period lasted 9 d with fecal collection on d 5 and 6 and a 12-h ileal digesta collection on d 7, 8, and 9. Pigs received a daily feed allowance of approximately 4.5% of their BW. The experimental diets were based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers dried grain with solubles. Phytase was added at 0; 500; 1,000; or 2,000 phytase units/kg of diet to a basal diet that contained 205, 15, 5.4, and 10 g of CP, Lys, total P (1.6 g of nonphytate P), and Ca/kg diet, respectively. The addition of phytase improved (P < 0.05) AID of DM, N, Ca, and P. Increasing phytase supplementation linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.05) AID of P and Ca, respectively, with AID of Ca showing a tendency for a linear increase (P = 0.053). Phytase supplementation of the basal diet improved (P < 0.05) AID of P from 46 to 62%. Phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM, N, Ca, P, Mg, K, and energy. Contrasts showed that phytase supplementation of the basal diet increased (P < 0.05) AID for 8 indispensable AA (Arg, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, and Val), 6 dispensable AA (Ala, Asp, Cys, Glu, Ser, and Tyr), as well as for total AA. Furthermore, phytase supplementation to the basal diet showed a tendency (P < 0.10) to increase ileal digestibility of Gly. Ileal digestibility of Met, Trp, and Pro were not affected by phytase supplementation. Increasing the level of phytase supplementation resulted in linear increases (P < 0.05) in AID of 6

  16. Exercise training down-regulates hepatic lipogenic enzymes in meal-fed rats: fructose versus complex-carbohydrate diets.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, R; Griffiths, M A; Gore, M T; Baker, D H; Oscai, L; Ney, D M; Ji, L L

    1998-05-01

    The maximal activity and mRNA abundance of hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) and other lipogenic enzymes were investigated in rats meal-fed either a high fructose (F) or a high cornstarch (C) diet. The diet contained 50% F or C (g/100 g), casein (20%), cornstarch (16.13%), corn oil (5%), minerals (5.37%), vitamins (1%) and Solka-floc (2%). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 44) were randomly divided into C or F groups that were meal-fed for 3 h/d; each group was subdivided into exercise-trained (T) and untrained (U) groups. Treadmill training was performed 4 h after the initiation of the meal at 25 m/min, 10% grade for 2 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 10 wk. Rats were killed 9 h after the meal and 27 h after the last training session. F-fed rats had significantly higher activities of all lipogenic enzymes assayed and mRNA abundance of FAS and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) than C rats (P < 0.05). Concentrations of plasma insulin and glucose and liver pyruvate were not altered by F feeding. Proportions of the fatty acids 18:2 and 20:4 were lower, whereas those of 16:0 and 16:1 were higher, in livers of F than of C rats (P < 0.05). Training decreased FAS activity by 50% (P < 0.05), without affecting FAS mRNA level in C rats; this down-regulation was absent in the F rats. ACC mRNA abundance tended to be lower in CT than in CU rats (P < 0.075). L-Type pyruvate kinase activity was lower in FT than in FU rats (P < 0.05), whereas other lipogenic enzyme activities did not differ between T and U rats of each diet group. We conclude that hepatic lipogenic enzyme induction by high carbohydrate meal feeding may be inhibited by exercise training and that a fructose-rich diet may attenuate this training-induced down-regulation. PMID:9566986

  17. Impact of diets with a high content of greaves-meal protein or carbohydrates on faecal characteristics, volatile fatty acids and faecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that dietary composition influences gastrointestinal function and bacteria-derived metabolic products in the dog colon. We previously reported that dietary composition impacts upon the faecal microbiota of healthy dogs. This study aims at evaluating the dietary influences on bacteria-derived metabolic products associated with the changes in faecal microbiota that we had previously reported. We fed high-carbohydrate starch based (HCS), [crude protein: 194 g/kg, starch: 438 g/kg], high-protein greaves-meal (HPGM), [crude protein: 609 g/kg, starch: 54 g/kg] and dry commercial (DC), [crude protein: 264 g/kg, starch: 277 g/kg] diets, and studied their effects on the metabolism of the colonic microbiota and faecal calprotectin concentrations in five Beagle dogs, allocated according to the Graeco-Latin square design. Each dietary period lasted for three weeks and was crossed-over with washout periods. Food intake, body weight, and faecal consistency scores, dry matter, pH, ammonia, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations were determined. Results Faecal ammonia concentrations decreased with the HCS diet. All dogs fed the HPGM diet developed diarrhoea, which led to differences in faecal consistency scores between the diets. Faecal pH was higher with the HPGM diet. Moreover, decreases in propionic and acetic acids coupled with increases in branched-chain fatty acids and valeric acid caused changes in faecal total VFAs in dogs on the HPGM diet. Faecal canine calprotectin concentration was higher with the HPGM diet and correlated positively with valeric acid concentration. Conclusions The HPGM diet led to diarrhoea in all dogs, and there were differences in faecal VFA profiles and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations. PMID:24107268

  18. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat. PMID:23391137

  19. Effect of Phytase on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to 100 kg Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of different sources of phytase supplemented to the diet at graded levels to improve apparent P digestibility in finishing pigs. A corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 0.50% Ca and 0.32% P (0.06% available P) was used in all experiments a...

  20. A Randomized Trial of Diet in Men with Early Stage Prostate Cancer on Active Surveillance: Rationale and Design of the Men’s Eating and Living (MEAL) Study (CALGB 70807 [Alliance])

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, J. Kellogg; Pierce, John P.; Mohler, James; Paskett, Electra; Jung, Sin-Ho; Humphrey, Peter; Taylor, John R.; Newman, Vicky A.; Barbier, Leslie; Rock, Cheryl L.; Marshall, James

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet may substantially alter prostate cancer initiation and progression. However, large-scale clinical trials of diet modification have yet to be performed for prostate cancer. The Men’s Eating and Living (MEAL) Study (CALGB 70807 [Alliance]) is investigating the effect of increased vegetable consumption on clinical progression in men with localized prostate cancer. Study Design MEAL is a randomized, Phase III clinical trial designed to test whether an intervention that increases vegetable intake will decrease the incidence of clinical progression in men with clinically localized prostate cancer on active surveillance. We are randomizing 464 patients to either a validated telephone-based diet counseling intervention or a control condition in which patients receive a published diet guideline. The intervention will continue for two years. The primary outcome variable is clinical progression defined by serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and pathological findings on follow-up prostate biopsy. Secondary outcome variables include incidence of surgical and non-surgical treatments for prostate cancer, prostate-cancer related patient anxiety and health-related quality of life. Conclusion The MEAL Study is assessing the effectiveness of a high-vegetable diet intervention for preventing clinical progression in men with localized prostate cancer on active surveillance. PMID:24837543

  1. Proliferation, apoptosis, and fractal dimension analysis for the quantification of intestinal trophism in sole (Solea solea) fed mussel meal diets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The evaluation of intestinal trophism, mainly the mucosal layer, is an important issue in various conditions associated with injury, atrophy, recovery, and healing of the gut. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the kinetics of the proliferation and apoptosis of enterocytes by immunohistochemistry and to assess the complexity of intestinal mucosa by fractal dimension (FD) analysis in Solea solea fed different experimental diets. Results Histomorphological evaluation of all intestinal segments did not show signs of degeneration or inflammation. Cell proliferation index and FD were significantly reduced with a diet high in mussel meal (MM; p = 0.0034 and p = 0.01063, respectively), while apoptotic index did not show any significant difference for the same comparison (p = 0.3859). Linear regression analysis between apoptotic index (independent variable) and FD (dependent variable) showed a statistically significant inverse relationship (p = 0.002528). Linear regression analysis between cell proliferation index (independent variable) and FD (dependent variable) did not show any significant correlation (p = 0.131582). Conclusions The results demonstrated that diets containing increasing levels of mussel meal in substitution of fishmeal did not incite a hyperplastic response of the intestinal mucosa. The mussel meal, which is derived from molluscs, could mimic the characteristics of the sole’s natural prey, being readily digestible, even without increasing the absorptive surface of intestinal mucosa. Interestingly, from this study emerged that FD could be used as a numeric indicator complementary to in situ quantification methods to measure intestinal trophism, in conjunction with functional parameters. PMID:24997003

  2. Tissue lipid metabolism and hepatic metabolomic profiling in response to supplementation of fermented cottonseed meal in the diets of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Nie, Cun-xi; Zhang, Wen-ju; Wang, Yong-qiang; Liu, Yan-feng; Ge, Wen-xia; Liu, Jian-cheng

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on lipid metabolites, lipid metabolism-related gene expression in liver tissues and abdominal adipose tissues, and hepatic metabolomic profiling in broiler chickens. One hundred and eighty 21-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into three diet groups with six replicates of 10 birds in each group. The three diets consisted of a control diet supplemented with unfermented cottonseed meal, an experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by Candida tropicalis, and a second experimental diet of cottonseed meal fermented by C. tropicalis plus Saccharomyces cerevisae. The results showed that FCSM intake significantly decreased the levels of abdominal fat and hepatic triglycerides (P<0.05 for both). Dietary FCSM supplementation down-regulated the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase in liver tissues and the lipoprotein lipase expression in abdominal fat tissues (P<0.05 for both). FCSM intake resulted in significant metabolic changes of multiple pathways in the liver involving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, synthesis of fatty acids, and the metabolism of glycerolipid and amino acids. These findings indicated that FCSM regulated lipid metabolism by increasing or decreasing the expression of the lipid-related gene and by altering multiple endogenous metabolites. Lipid metabolism regulation is a complex process, this discovery provided new essential information about the effects of FCSM diets in broiler chickens and demonstrated the great potential of nutrimetabolomics in researching complex nutrients added to animal diets. PMID:26055906

  3. Associations between Restrained Eating and the Size and Frequency of Overall Intake, Meal, Snack and Drink Occasions in the UK Adult National Diet and Nutrition Survey

    PubMed Central

    Olea López, Ana Lorena; Johnson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global public health priority. Restrained eating is related to obesity and total energy intake but associations with the eating patterns are unclear. We examined the associations of restrained eating with the size and frequency of intake occasions among 1213 British adult (19–64 y) participants in a cross-sectional analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2000. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire assessed restrained eating. Overall intake occasions were all energy consumed in a 60 min period. A food-based classification separated intake occasions into meals, snacks, or drinks from seven-day weighed food diaries. Average daily frequency and size (kcal) of overall intake, meal, snack and drink occasions were calculated and associations with restrained eating were modelled using multiple linear regression including under-reporting of energy intake, age, gender, BMI, emotional eating, external eating and physical activity as covariates. Restrained eating was very weakly positively correlated with overall intake (r = 0.08, p<0.05) and meal frequency (r = 0.10, p<0.05) but not snack or drink frequency (r = 0.02 and -0.02 respectively). Adjusted regressions showed a one-point change in restrained eating was associated with 0.07 (95% CI 0.03, 0.11) more meal occasions/day and 0.13 (95% CI 0.01, 0.25) extra overall intake occasions/day. Overall intake occasion size was weakly negatively correlated with restrained eating regardless of type (r = -0.16 to -0.20, all p<0.0001). Adjusted regressions showed each one-point increase in restrained eating was associated with lower-energy meals (-15 kcal 95% CI -5.9, -24.2) and drinks (-4 kcal 95%CI -0.1, -8), but not snacks or overall intake occasions. Among a national sample of UK adults, greater restrained eating was associated with smaller and slightly more frequent eating, suggesting that restrained eaters restrict their energy intake by reducing meal/drink size rather than skipping snacks. PMID

  4. Phenylalanine flux and gastric emptying are not affected by replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet of adult cats consuming frequent small meals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Decreasing the rate of protein emptying from the stomach may improve efficiency of utilization of dietary amino acids for protein deposition. Some studies in rats and humans have shown casein to be more slowly released from the stomach than whey protein. To test if casein induces a slower rate of gastric emptying in cats than whey protein, L-[1-13C]phenylalanine (Phe) was dosed orally into 9 adult cats to estimate gastric emptying and whole-body Phe flux. Results Concentrations of indispensable amino acids in plasma were not significantly affected by dietary protein source. First-pass splanchnic extraction of Phe was not different between diets and averaged 50% (SEM = 3.8%). The half-time for gastric emptying averaged 9.9 min with casein and 10.3 min with whey protein, and was not significantly different between diets (SEM = 1.7 min). Phenylalanine fluxes were 45.3 and 46.5 μmol/(min · kg) for casein- and whey-based diets, respectively (SEM = 4.7 μmol/(min · kg)). Conclusions In adult cats fed frequent small meals, the replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet does not affect supply or utilization of amino acids. These two milk proteins appear to be equally capable of meeting the dietary amino acid needs of cats. PMID:25266643

  5. Feeding frequency has diet-dependent effects on plasma hormone concentrations but does not affect oocyte quality in dairy heifers fed fibre- or starch-based diets.

    PubMed

    Rooke, J A; Ainslie, A; Watt, R G; Alink, F M; McEvoy, T G; Sinclair, K D; Garnsworthy, P C; Webb, R

    2008-09-01

    The post-fertilisation developmental capacity of bovine oocytes recovered by ultrasound guided transvaginal follicular aspiration (ovum pick-up, OPU) is influenced by diet-induced changes in hormone and metabolite concentrations. The objectives of this experiment were first to determine whether post-prandial changes in hormone concentrations, induced by changing the frequency of feeding, influenced oocyte quality and second whether changes in plasma glucagon concentration were associated with oocyte quality. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, Holstein heifers (six per treatment) were fed either fibre- or starch-based diets containing either 189 or 478 g starch/kg dry matter. The diets were offered in either two or four equal meals per day and supplied twice the maintenance energy requirement. Blood samples were obtained both at weekly intervals (three samples per heifer, collected before feeding) during the experiment and throughout an entire 24-h period (15 or 17 samples per heifer for twice or four times daily-fed heifers, respectively). Each heifer underwent six sessions of OPU (twice weekly) beginning 25 days after introduction of the diets. Oocyte quality was assessed by development to the blastocyst stage in synthetic oviductal fluid following in vitro fertilisation. Mean weekly plasma insulin concentrations did not differ between diets, but plasma glucagon concentrations were greatest when heifers were fed the starch-based diet twice daily compared with the other diets. When heifers were offered four meals per day, there were no meal-related changes in hormone concentrations. However, when heifers were offered two meals per day, plasma insulin concentration increased after feeding the starch-based, but not the fibre-based diet. Plasma glucagon concentration increased after meals when heifers were fed twice daily and the increase was substantially greater when the starch-based diet was fed. Treatments did not influence (overall mean with mean ± s.e.) ovarian

  6. Effects of feed grade poultry by-product meal, soybean meal and protein level in the diet on the performance and immune status of pond-grown sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two primary ways to achieve low-cost, nutritionally efficacious diets for sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis) are to decrease crude protein levels and use alternative animal or plant ingredients to partially, or totally, replace fish meal. A 459-day feeding trial was conducted with juven...

  7. Effects of replacing fishmeal with animal by-products meal supplementation in diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of mangrove red snapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam; Akhtar, Rukhsana; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing

    2007-07-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 75 d to evaluate the nutritive value of a mixture of animal by-products (MAB) as a possible protein source in diets for juvenile mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (mean initial body weight, 30 g). Fish were fed one of five isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein) replacing 0, 25% (MAB25), 50% (MAB50), 75% (MAB75) and 100% (MAB100) of fish meal protein with similar percentages of MAB. The MAB consisted of 25% cow liver meal, 20% leather meal, 20% meat and bone meal, 15% blood meal, 10% APC (poultry feather meal), 8% poultry manure dried, 1.5% choline and 0.5% chromic oxide. After 75 d of feeding, fish fed with diets MAB50, MAB75 and MAB100 exhibited significantly lower growth performance than that of fish fed with control and MAB25 diets. The optimum level of MAB was estimated to be 23%. Replacement of fish meal by MAB23% showed the following performance: maximum weight gain, 510%; SGR, 2.39% and FCE, 2.83%. The MAB substitution up to 75% of fish meal protein in diets did not show differences in apparent protein digestibility (83.6% for MAB25, 79.2% for MAB50, 78.7% for MAB75) compared with control (83.4%), whereas in MAB100 group digestibility (65.3%) was significantly lower than in other groups. The apparent phosphorus absorption of test diet groups was significantly higher (37.1% for MAB25, 28.5% for MAB50, 55.6% for MAB75 and 54.5% for MAB100) than that of control (11.2%). The levels of protein and ash in the whole body, carcass and viscera increased as MAB substitution in diets increased, whereas lipids and moisture remained consistent among all treatment groups. These results showed that approximately 23% of fish meal protein could be replaced by a mixture of animal by-products for juvenile snapper growing from 30 g to 167 g in 75 d without compromising growth performance and feed efficiency.

  8. Inclusion of guava enhances non-heme iron bioavailability but not fractional zinc absorption from a rice-based meal in adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessing the bioavailability of non-heme iron and zinc is essential for recommending diets that meet the increased growth-related demand for these nutrients. We studied the bioavailability of iron and zinc from a rice-based meal in 16 adolescent boys and girls, 13–15 y of age, from 2 government-run...

  9. Plant-Based Diets: A Physician’s Guide

    PubMed Central

    Hever, Julieanna

    2016-01-01

    Because of the ever-increasing body of evidence in support of the health advantages of plant-based nutrition, there is a need for guidance on implementing its practice. This article provides physicians and other health care practitioners an overview of the myriad benefits of a plant-based diet as well as details on how best to achieve a well-balanced, nutrient-dense meal plan. It also defines notable nutrient sources, describes how to get started, and offers suggestions on how health care practitioners can encourage their patients to achieve goals, adhere to the plan, and experience success. PMID:27400178

  10. Aqueous ethanol extraction of dietary soy protein isolate improves sup 59 Fe absorption by the rat from a casein-based test meal

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.B. )

    1989-11-01

    A commercial soy protein isolate (SPI) was further processed in an attempt to understand how a diet based on SPI can cause decreased iron retention by the rat from a separately administered casein-based test meal. Groups of eight rats were fed either a casein-based diet or a diet based on SPI. The acid-precipitated SPI was incorporated into diets as such, after neutralization, after 60% (v/v) ethanol extraction and neutralization, or after 60% ethanol exposure and neutralization. All dietary SPI was heat-treated by exposure to steam at 108 degrees C for 30 min. Rats were fed their respective diets, each containing 25 mg Fe/kg, for 13 d, and then all rats were fed a {sup 59}Fe-radiolabeled 2.5-g casein test meal containing 64 micrograms of iron. Ingested radioactivity was determined following the meal, and retained radioactivity over the subsequent 10-d period. Absorption was not distinguishable for groups fed the casein-based (78.3 {plus minus} 3.6%) and the ethanol-extracted, SPI-based diet (80.2 {plus minus} 5.4%). Absorption was lower (P less than 0.01) for groups fed each of the other SPI-based diets: SPI as such (68.3 {plus minus} 8.9%), neutralized SPI (69.8 {plus minus} 5.0%) and ethanol-exposed SPI (67.6 {plus minus} 4.8%). An ethanol-extractable component of SPI may be responsible for decreased iron absorption by animals fed SPI prior to a radiolabeled test meal.

  11. Changing technologies, ingredients and formulations to replace fish meal in salmonid diets.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the search for alternatives to fish meal in aquafeeds has been active for the last 30 years, efforts in the last decade have been intensified on a world wide scale. Multiple factors are driving these efforts and include regulatory concerns on the environmental effects of nutrient release, ...

  12. Inclusion of guava enhances non-heme iron bioavailability but not fractional zinc absorption from a rice-based meal in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Brahmam, Ginnela N V; Radhika, Madhari S; Dripta, Roy Choudhury; Ravinder, Punjal; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Chen, Zhensheng; Hawthorne, Keli M; Abrams, Steven A

    2013-06-01

    Assessing the bioavailability of non-heme iron and zinc is essential for recommending diets that meet the increased growth-related demand for these nutrients. We studied the bioavailability of iron and zinc from a rice-based meal in 16 adolescent boys and girls, 13-15 y of age, from 2 government-run residential schools. Participants were given a standardized rice meal (regular) and the same meal with 100 g of guava fruit (modified) with (57)Fe on 2 consecutive days. A single oral dose of (58)Fe in orange juice was given at a separate time as a reference dose. Zinc absorption was assessed by using (70)Zn, administered intravenously, and (67)Zn given orally with meals. The mean hemoglobin concentration was similar in girls (129 ± 7.8 g/L) and boys (126 ± 7.1 g/L). There were no sex differences in the indicators of iron and zinc status except for a higher hepcidin concentration in boys (P < 0.05). The regular and modified meals were similar in total iron (10-13 mg/meal) and zinc (2.7 mg/meal) content. The molar ratio of iron to phytic acid was >1:1, but the modified diet had 20 times greater ascorbic acid content. The absorption of (57)Fe from the modified meal, compared with regular meal, was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in both girls (23.9 ± 11.2 vs. 9.7 ± 6.5%) and boys (19.2 ± 8.4 vs. 8.6 ± 4.1%). Fractional zinc absorption was similar between the regular and modified meals in both sexes. Hepcidin was found to be a significant predictor of iron absorption (standardized β = -0.63, P = 0.001, R(2) = 0.40) from the reference dose. There was no significant effect of sex on iron and zinc bioavailability from meals. We conclude that simultaneous ingestion of guava fruit with a habitual rice-based meal enhances iron bioavailability in adolescents. PMID:23596161

  13. Soybean level and probiotics in first feeding fry diets alter the ability of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus myskiss to utilize high levels of soybean meal during grow-out.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion rates of soybean meal in salmonid diets are currently kept low to minimize detrimental effects on growth, enteritis and immune responses. Probiotics have been used to treat both infectious and noninfectious enteritis in humans and other terrestrial animals and may represent a feasible met...

  14. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve ...

  15. Soybean level and probiotics in first feeding fry diets alter the ability of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to utilize high levels of soybean meal during grow-out.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion rates of soybean meal in salmonid diets are currently kept low to minimize detrimental effects on growth, enteritis and immune responses. Probiotics have been used to treat both infectious and noninfectious enteritis in humans and other terrestrial animals and may represent a feasible met...

  16. Can Supplementing starter diets with probiotics increase soybean meal incorporation levels in practical grow-out diets for Rainbow Trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of partially autolyzed yeast and Grobiotic™-A to improve immune response and disease resistance in rainbow trout. Three experimental diets were prepared by supplementing either partially autolyzed yeast or Grobiotic™-A at the manufacturer’s recommende...

  17. Growth response and feed utilization of juvenile hybrid catfish fed diets containing distiller's dried grains with solubles to replace a combination of soybean meal and corn meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in aquaria with juveile hybrid catfish (channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus X blue catfish I. furcatus) to evaluate distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement for a combination of soybean meal (SBM) and corn meal (CM). Twenty-five 75-L glass aquaria ...

  18. Family meals and eating practices among mothers in Santos, Brazil: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sato, Priscila de Morais; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Pereira, Patrícia Rocha; Martins, Paula Andrea; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates family meals among mothers and explores associations between eating with family and sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, and eating practices. A population-based cross-sectional study, using complex cluster-sampling, was conducted in the city of Santos, Brazil with 439 mothers. Frequency of family meals was assessed by asking if mothers did or did not usually have a) breakfast, b) lunch, and c) dinner with family. Linear regression analyses were conducted for the number of meals eaten with family per day and each of the potential explanatory variables, adjusting for the mother's age. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to analyze each factor associated with eating with family as classified categorically: a) sharing meals with family, b) not eating any meals with family. Only 16.4% (n = 72) of participants did not eat any meals with family. From the 83.6% (n = 367) of mothers that had at least one family meal per day, 69.70% (n = 306) ate dinner with their families. Mothers aged ≥40 years reported significantly fewer meals eaten with family compared to mothers aged 30-39 years (β: -0.26, p = 0.04). Having family meals was 54% more prevalent among mothers with ≥12 years of education (PR for no meals eaten with family: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30; 0.96, p = 0.03), when compared to mothers with less than nine years of education. Eating no meals with family was 85% more prevalent among mothers who reported that eating was one of the biggest pleasures in their lives (PR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.21; 2.82, p = 0.004). We suggest the need for further research investigating the effects of family meals on mothers' health through nutritional and phenomenological approaches. PMID:26994738

  19. Effects of different levels of vitamin premix in finisher diets on performance, immuno-competence and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal

    PubMed Central

    Moravej, Hoseein; Alahyari-Shahrasb, Majid; Kiani, Ali; Bagherirad, Mona; Shivazad, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the effects of a vitamin premix (VP) reduction or withdrawal from finisher diet (29-43 days) on performance, immuno-competence, and characteristics of leg bones and meat lipid oxidation of chickens fed on corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 900 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were allocated to five treatment groups (0, 33%, 66%, 100% and 133% VP), with nine replicates per treatment group. At 29 and 36 days of ages, four birds from each replicate were injected with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The cell-mediated immunity was determined via phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and 1-chloro 2-4-dinitrobenzen (DNCB) at 34 and 42 days of ages. At 33, 38 and 43 days of age, 42 days of ages, and two birds of each replicate were slaughtered and bone parameters measured. The oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) on the thigh samples that were stored for 90 day at -80 ˚C. The results showed that reduction or withdrawal of VP from diets at different time points of the finisher period did not affect performance, immunocompetence and characteristics of leg bones. Results of TBARS showed that lipid peroxidation of the treatment without VP was significantly higher than of the other treatments when slaughtered at 43 days of age. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that it is not possible to reduce the VP in finisher broilers’ diets without negative effects on meat quality during the time of freezing. PMID:25593680

  20. Effects of hirami lemon, Citrus depressa Hayata, leaf meal in diets on the immune response and disease resistance of juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer (bloch), against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Shiu, Ya-Li; Lin, Hsueh-Li; Chi, Chia-Chun; Yeh, Shinn-Pyng; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary supplementation of leaf meal from Citrus depressa Hayata on the growth, innate immune response, and disease resistance of juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer. Four diets were formulated to contain 0% (control), 1% (C1), 3% (C3), and 5% (C5) leaf meal, respectively. During a 56 d feeding trial, fish survival, growth performance, and feed efficiency were not significantly different among all groups. For immune response, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase and lysozyme activities were not significantly different among all groups. However, fish fed the C5 diet for 56 d had significantly higher phagocytic activity. Also, fish fed C3 and C5 diets had significantly higher Mx gene expressions in spleens and head kidneys with nerve necrosis virus injections after 24 h. Disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila was increased by the C5 diet. In this study, barramundi fed on a diet containing 5% C. depressa Hayata leaf meal had significantly better innate immune response and disease resistance against A. hydrophila. PMID:27265807

  1. Full substitution of fish oil with camelina (Camelina sativa) oil, with partial substitution of fish meal with camelina meal, in diets for farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and its effect on tissue lipids and sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Parrish, Christopher C; Anderson, Derek M

    2014-08-15

    Camelina oil (CO) and meal (CM) are potential replacements of fish meal (FM) and oil (FO) in aquaculture feeds. CO is high in α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3, ALA) (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio >1. This study tested diets with 100% CO, solvent extracted FM (SEFM) and partially substituted FM with 10% CM, in a 16 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon (initial weight 240 g fish(-1)). Final weight (529-691 g fish(-1)) was not affected by using 100% CO; however it was lower in groups fed SEFM and 10% CM diets. Total lipid in salmon flesh fed a diet with CO, SEFM and CM (22% ww(-1)) was significantly higher than FO flesh (14% ww(-1)). There was no difference in the sensory quality of salmon fillets that were fed either FO or 100% CO diets. This was the first study to use CO as a complete FO replacement in diets for farmed Atlantic salmon. PMID:24679751

  2. Ketogenic Diet for Children with Epilepsy: A Practical Meal Plan in a Hospital.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjoo; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Kim, Heung Dong

    2016-01-01

    A ketogenic diet (KD) is a dietary approach to treat intractable epilepsy. The KD begins with hospitalization and the child and their parents can adapt to the KD for 1-2 weeks. Recently, various type of dietary intervention such as the modified Atkins diet (MAD) and the low glycemic index treatment (LGIT) have been performed. Since 2010, we carried out the KD, MAD, and LGIT for total of 802 patients; 489 patients (61%) for the KD, 147 patients (18.3%) with the MAD, and 166 patients (20.7%) for the LGIT. In this report, application of these dietary practices in Severance Hospital is shared. PMID:26839878

  3. Ketogenic Diet for Children with Epilepsy: A Practical Meal Plan in a Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A ketogenic diet (KD) is a dietary approach to treat intractable epilepsy. The KD begins with hospitalization and the child and their parents can adapt to the KD for 1-2 weeks. Recently, various type of dietary intervention such as the modified Atkins diet (MAD) and the low glycemic index treatment (LGIT) have been performed. Since 2010, we carried out the KD, MAD, and LGIT for total of 802 patients; 489 patients (61%) for the KD, 147 patients (18.3%) with the MAD, and 166 patients (20.7%) for the LGIT. In this report, application of these dietary practices in Severance Hospital is shared. PMID:26839878

  4. Effect of housefly maggot meal (magmeal) diets on the performance, concentration of plasma glucose, cortisol and blood characteristics of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Ogunji, J O; Kloas, W; Wirth, M; Neumann, N; Pietsch, C

    2008-08-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to access the effect of housefly maggot meal (magmeal) diets on the performance, concentration of plasma glucose, cortisol and blood characteristics of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. Seven feeds formulated to contain 36% protein and 20 kJ g(-1) gross energy (dry matter basis), were prepared by replacing fish meal with magmeal. Fifteen fingerlings (initial average weight 2.0 +/- 0.1 g) stocked per experimental tank were fed in triplicates at 5% body weight in two portions per day (a level previously established). Growth and food conversion ratio were adequate and comparable without any significant differences (p < 0.5) between feeding groups. Mean values for haematocrit and plasma glucose were not significantly different (p < 0.05) among the feeding groups. Fish group fed control diet (containing highest inclusion level of fish meal and without magmeal) gave the lowest haemoglobin concentration (5.96 +/- 0.22 g dl(-1)). This value was significantly different from other feeding groups. Stressful conditions in fish and in mammals are associated with decreased growth, haematocrit (packed cell volume) and haemoglobin values, increased whole blood glucose (hyperglycaemia) and plasma cortisol concentrations. No such physiological changes were observed in this study. Results suggest that feeding O. niloticus fingerling with magmeal diets did not cause any form of physiological stress. Magmeal can be used as a good alternative protein source in tilapia diets. PMID:18662361

  5. Partial meal replacement plan and quality of the diet at one year: Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Miller, Gary D.; Reeves, Rebecca; Delahanty, Linda M.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Harper, Patricia; Mobley, Connie; Konersman, Kati; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about diet quality with a reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacement (PMR) plan, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial implemented a PMR plan in the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI). Objective Compare dietary intake and percent meeting fat-related and food group dietary recommendations in ILI and diabetes support and education (DSE) groups at 12 months. Design Randomized controlled trial, comparing ILI to DSE, at 0- and 12-months. Participants/setting From 16 United States sites, the first 50% of participants (aged 45 to 76 years, overweight or obese, with type 2 diabetes) were invited to complete dietary assessments. Complete 0- and 12-month dietary assessments (collected between 2001 and 2004) were available on 2,397 participants (46.6% of total participants), with 1,186 randomized to DSE and 1,211 randomized to ILI. Main outcome measures A food frequency questionnaire assessed intake: energy; percent energy from protein, fat, carbohydrate, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and saturated fats; trans fatty acids; cholesterol; fiber; weekly meal replacements (MRs); and daily servings from food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid. Statistical analyses performed Mixed-factor analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), using Proc MIXED with a repeated statement, with age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income controlled. Unadjusted chi-square tests compared percent meeting fat-related and food group recommendations at 12 months. Results At 12 months, ILI had a significantly lower fat and cholesterol intake and greater fiber intake than DSE. ILI consumed more servings/day of fruits; vegetables; and milk, yogurt & cheese; and fewer servings/day of fats, oils & sweets than DSE. A greater percentage of ILI than DSE participants met fat-related and most food group recommendations. Within ILI, a greater percentage of participants consuming ≥ 2 MRs/day than < 1 MR/day met most

  6. Effects of partial or total fish meal replacement by agricultural by-product diets on gonad maturation, sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Nyina-wamwiza, L; Defreyne, P S; Ngendahayo, L; Milla, S; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2012-10-01

    The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success. PMID:22382402

  7. Breeding salmonids for feed efficiency in current fishmeal and future plant-based diet environments

    PubMed Central

    Quinton, Cheryl D; Kause, Antti; Koskela, Juha; Ritola, Ossi

    2007-01-01

    The aquaculture industry is increasingly replacing fishmeal in feeds for carnivorous fish with soybean meal (SBM). This diet change presents a potential for genotype-environment (G × E) interactions. We tested whether current salmonid breeding programmes that evaluate and select within fishmeal diets also improve growth and efficiency on potential future SBM diets. A total of 1680 European whitefish from 70 families were reared with either fishmeal- or SBM-based diets in a split-family design. Individual daily gain (DG), daily feed intake (DFI) and feed efficiency (FE) were recorded. Traits displayed only weak G × E interactions as variances and heritabilities did not differ substantially between the diets, and cross-diet genetic correlations were near unity. In both diets, DFI exhibited moderate heritability and had very high genetic correlation with DG whereas FE had low heritability. Predicted genetic responses demonstrated that selection to increase DG and FE on the fishmeal diet lead to favourable responses on the SBM diet. Selection for FE based on an index including DG and DFI achieved at least double FE gain versus selection on DG alone. Therefore, current breeding programmes are improving the biological ability of salmonids to use novel plant-based diets, and aiding the aquaculture industry to reduce fishmeal use. PMID:17612482

  8. The Feasibility of Achieving Low-Sodium Intake in Diets That Are Also Nutritious, Low-Cost, and Have Familiar Meal Components

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nick; Nghiem, Nhung; Foster, Rachel H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Given the importance of high sodium diets as a risk factor for disease burden (ranked 11th in importance in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010), we aimed to determine the feasibility of low-sodium diets that were also low-cost, nutritious and (for some scenarios) included familiar meals. Methods The mathematical technique of “linear programming” was used to model eight optimized daily diets (some with uncertainty), including some diets that contained “familiar meals” for New Zealanders or were Mediterranean-, Asian- and Pacific-style diets. Data inputs included nutrients in foods, food prices and food wastage. Findings Using nutrient recommendations for men and a cost constraint of diets were all well below the 2300 mg/d (5.8 g salt/d) recommended maximum. The only diet to not consistently fall below the recommended “target” upper limit of 1600 mg/d included an evening meal with sausages (median  = 1640 mg/d, 95% simulation interval: 1551–1735 mg/d). Many additional nutritional aspects of these optimized low-sodium diets suggest that they would reduce cardiovascular disease risk in other ways (e.g., improved polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio) and also reduce risk of cancer and other chronic diseases (e.g., via higher intakes of vegetables, fruits and dietary fiber). Even healthier diets (e.g., with higher intakes of fruit) occurred when the cost constraint was relaxed to $NZ15/d (US$11.40). Similar results were obtained when the modeling considered diets for women. Conclusions These results provide some reassurance for the feasibility of substantially reducing population sodium intake given currently available low-cost foods and while maintaining some level of familiar meals. Policy makers could consider ways to promote such optimized diets and foods, including regulations on maximum salt levels in processed foods, and taxes on alternative foods that are

  9. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    PubMed Central

    Della Lucia, Ceres M.; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C.; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C.; Santos, Laura Luiza M.; Cardoso, Leandro M.; Martino, Hércia S. D.; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464

  10. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    PubMed

    Della Lucia, Ceres M; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C; Santos, Laura Luiza M; Cardoso, Leandro M; Martino, Hércia S D; Franceschini, Sylvia C C; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice(®) (UR(®))) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2-6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR(®) added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR(®) on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464

  11. The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals served to children.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Nicole; Mandell, Cami; Ball, Sarah; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4-8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy "Adequacy foods" and the absence of "Moderation foods", (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children. PMID:26994739

  12. GENOTYPE DIET INTERACTIONS IN RAINBOW TROUT FAMILIES FED DIETS WITH AND WITHOUT HIGH LEVELS OF SOYBEAN MEAL INCLUSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA/ARS National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA) is developing improved germplasm for rainbow trout through a family based selective breeding program for faster growth and enhanced resistance to bacterial coldwater disease. Increasing concerns over potential negative environ...

  13. Optimizing the plant-based diet.

    PubMed

    Mann, J I

    2000-09-01

    Any attempt to optimize a plant-based diet necessitates an identification of the features of the diet which confer benefit as well as any which may be associated with detrimental effects. The former task is more difficult than might be assumed as there is no doubt that some of the apparent health benefits observed amongst vegetarians are a consequence of environmental determinants of health which characterize groups of people who choose vegetarian diets, rather than dietary practices. This review will consider the major health benefits of plant-based diets, the specific foods or nutrients which confer the benefits as far as can be ascertained from present knowledge, potential nutrient deficiencies associated with a plant-based diet and nutritional strategies that can be employed to prevent any such deficiencies. PMID:24398280

  14. A Scenario-Based Dieting Self-Efficacy Scale: The DIET-SE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Christine; Knauper, Barbel; Tint, Ami

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a scenario-based dieting self-efficacy scale, the DIET-SE, developed from dieter's inventory of eating temptations (DIET). The DIET-SE consists of items that describe scenarios of eating temptations for a range of dieting situations, including high-caloric food temptations. Four studies assessed the psychometric properties of…

  15. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, C. Basavanta; Gloridoss, R. G.; Singh, K. Chandrapal; Prabhu, T. M.; Siddaramanna; Suresh, B. N.; Manegar, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan) on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1) corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME), crude protein (CP) and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05) in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency. PMID:27047096

  16. Nitrogen digestion and urea recycling in Hokkaido native horses fed hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Obitsu, Taketo; Hata, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) digestion and urea-N metabolism in Hokkaido native horses fed roughage-based diets containing different types and levels of protein sources were studied. Horses (173 ± 4.8 kg) fitted with an ileum cannula were fed four diets consisting of 100% timothy hay (TH), 88% TH and 12% soybean meal (SBM), 79% TH and 21% SBM, and 51% TH and 49% alfalfa hay at 2.2% of body weight. Dietary protein content varied from 5% to 15% of dry matter. Apparent N digestibilities in the pre-cecum and total tract for the TH diet were lower than those for other diets. However, the proportion of post-ileum N digestion to N intake was not affected by the diets. Urea-N production was linearly related to N intake, but gut urea-N entry was not affected by the diets. The proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be higher for the TH diet (57%) than the two SBM diets (39%). Anabolic use of urea-N entering the gut was not affected by the diets (20-36% of gut urea-N entry). These results indicate that urea-N recycling provides additional N sources for microbial fermentation in the hindgut of Hokkaido native horses fed low-quality roughages. PMID:25040128

  17. Effect of ketogenic mediterranean diet with phytoextracts and low carbohydrates/high-protein meals on weight, cardiovascular risk factors, body composition and diet compliance in Italian council employees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been increased interest in recent years in very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) that, even though they are much discussed and often opposed, have undoubtedly been shown to be effective, at least in the short to medium term, as a tool to tackle obesity, hyperlipidemia and some cardiovascular risk factors. For this reason the ketogenic diet represents an interesting option but unfortunately suffers from a low compliance. The aim of this pilot study is to ascertain the safety and effects of a modified ketogenic diet that utilizes ingredients which are low in carbohydrates but are formulated to simulate its aspect and taste and also contain phytoextracts to add beneficial effects of important vegetable components. Methods The study group consisted of 106 Rome council employees with a body mass index of ≥ 25, age between 18 and 65 years (19 male and 87 female; mean age 48.49 ± 10.3). We investigated the effects of a modified ketogenic diet based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrate but which mimic their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts (KEMEPHY ketogenic Mediterranean with phytoextracts). Calories in the diet were unlimited. Measurements were taken before and after 6 weeks of diet. Results There were no significant changes in BUN, ALT, AST, GGT and blood creatinine. We detected a significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in BMI (31.45 Kg/m2 to 29.01 Kg/m2), body weight (86.15 kg to 79.43 Kg), percentage of fat mass (41.24% to 34.99%), waist circumference (106.56 cm to 97.10 cm), total cholesterol (204 mg/dl to 181 mg/dl), LDLc (150 mg/dl to 136 mg/dl), triglycerides (119 mg/dl to 93 mg/dl) and blood glucose (96 mg/dl to 91 mg/dl). There was a significant (p < 0.0001) increase in HDLc (46 mg/dl to 52 mg/dl). Conclusions The KEMEPHY diet lead to weight reduction, improvements in cardiovascular risk markers, reduction in waist circumference and

  18. Preparation and testing of plant seed meal-based wood adhesives.

    PubMed

    He, Zhongqi; Chapital, Dorselyn C

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the interest in plant seed meal-based products as wood adhesives has steadily increased, as these plant raw materials are considered renewable and environment-friendly. These natural products may serve as alternatives to petroleum-based adhesives to ease environmental and sustainability concerns. This work demonstrates the preparation and testing of the plant seed-based wood adhesives using cottonseed and soy meal as raw materials. In addition to untreated meals, water washed meals and protein isolates are prepared and tested. Adhesive slurries are prepared by mixing a freeze-dried meal product with deionized water (3:25 w/w) for 2 hr. Each adhesive preparation is applied to one end of 2 wood veneer strips using a brush. The tacky adhesive coated areas of the wood veneer strips are lapped and glued by hot-pressing. Adhesive strength is reported as the shear strength of the bonded wood specimen at break. Water resistance of the adhesives is measured by the change in shear strength of the bonded wood specimens at break after water soaking. This protocol allows one to assess plant seed-based agricultural products as suitable candidates for substitution of synthetic-based wood adhesives. Adjustments to the adhesive formulation with or without additives and bonding conditions could optimize their adhesive properties for various practical applications. PMID:25867092

  19. Evaluation of the influence of housefly maggot meal (magmeal) diets on catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glycogen concentration in the liver of Oreochromis niloticus fingerling.

    PubMed

    Ogunji, Johnny O; Nimptsch, Jorge; Wiegand, Claudia; Schulz, Carsten

    2007-08-01

    Influence of housefly maggot meal (magmeal) diets on the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glycogen concentration in liver of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerling was evaluated. Triplicate groups of fifteen fish (initial average weight 2.0+/-0.1 g) were fed eight weeks with seven test diets (in average 36% crude protein, dry matter) formulated by replacing fish meal with magmeal. Percentage body weight gain (591-724.46%), food conversion ratio (1.05-1.22) and standard growth rate (3.45-3.76) in all feeding groups were not significantly different (P<0.05). No significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in liver glycogen reserve (175.27-236.88 micromol g(-1)) among the fish groups. Hepatic catalase activity also did not differ significantly. However, elevated glutathione S-transferases activities were observed when fish received higher dietary magmeal concentration. This might have been temporary with no real physiological implication when appraised by the growth responses. These results indicate that magmeal was well utilized by the fish and its incorporation into tilapia diets seems to have no oxidative stress generating effect on fish metabolism and may not be containing any compound that stimulates the generation of reactive oxygen species. Magmeal can effectively be used as an alternative protein source in tilapia fingerling production. PMID:17400494

  20. Urinary Calcium and Oxalate Excretion in Healthy Adult Cats Are Not Affected by Increasing Dietary Levels of Bone Meal in a Canned Diet

    PubMed Central

    Passlack, Nadine; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A), 18.5 (B) and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C) and 16.1 (A), 17.6 (B) and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C). Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between), and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox), the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals. PMID:23940588

  1. Effects of oregano essential oil with or without feed enzymes on growth performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Basmacioğlu Malayoğlu, H; Baysal, S; Misirlioğlu, Z; Polat, M; Yilmaz, H; Turan, N

    2010-02-01

    1. The study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of enzyme and oregano essential oil at two levels, alone or together, on performance, digestive enzyme, nutrient digestibility, lipid metabolism and immune response of broilers fed on wheat-soybean meal based diets. 2. The following dietary treatments were used from d 0 to 21. Diet 1 (control, CONT): a commercial diet containing no enzyme or oregano essential oil, diet 2 (ENZY): supplemented with enzyme, diet 3 (EO250): supplemented with essential oil at 250 mg/kg feed, diet 4 (EO500): supplemented with essential oil at 500 mg/kg feed, diet 5 (ENZY + EO250): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 250 mg/kg, and diet 6 (ENZY + EO500): supplemented with enzyme and essential oil at 500 mg/kg. 3. Birds fed on diets containing ENZY, EO250 and ENZY + EO250 had significantly higher weight gain than those given CONT diet from d 0 to 7. No significant effects on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, organ weights except for jejunum weight and intestinal lengths was found with either enzyme or essential oil, alone or in combination, over the 21-d growth period. The supplementation of essential oil together with enzyme decreased jejunum weight compared with essential oil alone. 4. Supplementation with enzyme significantly decreased viscosity and increased dry matter of digesta, but did not alter pH of digesta. There was no effect of essential oil alone at either concentration on viscosity, dry matter or pH of digesta. A significant decrease in viscosity of digesta appeared when essential oil was used with together enzyme. 5. The supplementation of essential oil at both levels with or without enzyme significantly increased chymotrypsin activity in the digestive system, and improved crude protein digestibility. 6. The higher concentration of essential oil with and without enzyme significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentrations. No significant effect on immune response

  2. Preparation and testing of plant seed meal-based wood adhesives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the interest in plant seed meal-based products as wood adhesives has steadily increased, as these plant raw materials are considered renewable and environmentally friendly. These natural products may serve as alternatives to petroleum-based adhesives to ease environmental and sustainable c...

  3. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid, and organic matter of two fish meals, two poultry by-product meals, soybean meal, and distiller's grains with solubles in practical diets for sunshine bass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information is available on the digestibility of nutrients in various practical ingredients used in diets for commercially-important finfish species. This information is especially needed for sunshine bass, Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis, to improve least-cost diet formulations and to allow ...

  4. Effect of biotin and(or) lysine additions to corn-soybean meal diets on the performance and nutrient balance of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, C R; Veum, T L

    1986-01-01

    Supplementation of a basal corn-soybean meal diet with 0 or .2% L-lysine and 0, .25 or .55 ppm biotin produced six dietary treatments in a factorial arrangement. Pig performance, post-weaning scour scores, plasma urea N (PUN) levels, N and energy balance and liver pyruvate carboxylase activity (PC) were response criteria. Crossbred pigs were fed from weaning at 4 wk of age (8.0 kg) to market weight in performance trials utilizing 552 pigs in the 35-d starter period and 384 pigs in the subsequent grower (about 21 to 50 kg) and finisher (about 50 to 95 kg) periods. Pigs remained on their respective dietary treatments for the entire experiment. Energy and N balance trials were conducted utilizing 36 barrows from the grower period (avg 44.7 kg) and 36 barrows from the finisher period (avg 90.3 kg) of the performance study. Barrows were sacrificed following completion of the 6-d collection periods to measure liver PC activity. The basal starter diet contained 17.0% crude protein (CP), 86% lysine and .22 ppm biotin. Increasing the corn:soybean meal ratio reduced the dietary levels of CP, lysine and biotin to 14.8%, .69% and .19 ppm for the basal grower diet and to 11.1%, .50% and .17 ppm, respectively, for the basal finisher diet. Lysine supplementation improved (P less than .05) average daily feed intake and average daily gain for all periods, gain:feed ratios for the starter and grower periods and reduced (P less than .01) PUN levels at the end of the starter and finisher periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3082842

  5. Zinc absorption in humans from meals based on rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale and whole wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstroem, B.A.; Almgren, A.; Kivistoe, B.C.; Cederblad, A.

    1987-11-01

    The absorption of zinc from meals based on 60 g of rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale or whole wheat was studied by use of extrinsic labelling with /sup 65/Zn and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radionuclide. The cereals were prepared in the form of bread or porridge and were served with 200 mL of milk. The oatmeal flakes were also served without further preparation. The absorption of zinc was negatively correlated to the phytic acid content of the meal with the highest absorption, 26.8 +/- 7.4%, from the rye bread meal containing 100 mumol of phytic acid and the lowest, 8.4 +/- 1.0%, from oatmeal porridge with a phytic acid content of 600 mumol. It is concluded that food preparation that decreases the phytic acid content improves zinc absorption.

  6. Zinc absorption in humans from meals based on rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale and whole wheat.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B; Almgren, A; Kivistö, B; Cederblad, A

    1987-11-01

    The absorption of zinc from meals based on 60 g of rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale or whole wheat was studied by use of extrinsic labelling with 65Zn and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radionuclide. The cereals were prepared in the form of bread or porridge and were served with 200 mL of milk. The oatmeal flakes were also served without further preparation. The absorption of zinc was negatively correlated to the phytic acid content of the meal with the highest absorption, 26.8 +/- 7.4%, from the rye bread meal containing 100 mumol of phytic acid and the lowest, 8.4 +/- 1.0%, from oatmeal porridge with a phytic acid content of 600 mumol. It is concluded that food preparation that decreases the phytic acid content improves zinc absorption. PMID:2824731

  7. The Brain’s Response to an Essential Amino Acid-Deficient Diet and the Circuitous Route to a Better Meal

    PubMed Central

    Gietzen, Dorothy W.; Aja, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    The essential (indispensable) amino acids (IAA) are neither synthesized nor stored in metazoans, yet they are the building blocks of protein. Survival depends on availability of these protein precursors, which must be obtained in the diet; it follows that food selection is critical for IAA homeostasis. If even one of the IAA is depleted, its tRNA becomes quickly deacylated and the levels of charged tRNA fall, leading to disruption of global protein synthesis. As they have priority in the diet, second only to energy, the missing IAA must be restored promptly or protein catabolism ensues. Animals detect and reject an IAA-deficient meal in 20 min, but how? Here, we review the molecular basis for sensing IAA depletion and repletion in the brain’s IAA chemosensor, the anterior piriform cortex (APC). As animals stop eating an IAA-deficient meal, they display foraging and altered choice behaviors, to improve their chances of encountering a better food. Within 2 h, sensory cues are associated with IAA depletion or repletion, leading to learned aversions and preferences that support better food selection. We show neural projections from the APC to appetitive and consummatory motor control centers, and to hedonic, motivational brain areas that reinforce these adaptive behaviors. PMID:22674217

  8. Minimizing use of fish meal in sunshine bass diets using standard and new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved plant ingredients are needed to support sustainable culture of carnivorous fish, such as hybrid striped bass (HSB). We are evaluating meals made from new strains of non-genetically-modified soybeans (non-GMO) with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on HSB nutrient dige...

  9. In situ Transesterification: Process Modifications to Improve Efficiency; and Use of the Spent Meal in an Aquaculture Diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown that it is possible to directly transesterify the triglyceride fatty acids of the lipids of soybean, corn germ, canola, distillers dried grains with solubles, and meat & bone meal. Near quantitative 'in situ' transesterification occurs during incubation of the feedstock wit...

  10. Replacement of fish meal in juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets using a yeast-derived protein source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of a yeast-derived protein source (NuPro) as a replacement for menhaden fish meal on weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), whole-body composition, and disease resistance in juvenile channel catfish. NuPro replaced 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% o...

  11. Family Meals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  12. Long-term feeding a plant-based diet devoid of marine ingredients strongly affects certain key metabolic enzymes in the rainbow trout liver.

    PubMed

    Véron, Vincent; Panserat, Stéphane; Le Boucher, Richard; Labbé, Laurent; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    Incorporation of a plant blend in the diet can affect growth parameters and metabolism in carnivorous fish. We studied for the first time the long-term (1 year) metabolic response of rainbow trout fed from first feeding with a plant-based diet totally devoid of marine ingredients. Hepatic enzymes were analyzed at enzymatic and molecular levels, at 3, 8 and 24 h after the last meal to study both the short-term effects of the last meal and long-term effects of the diet. The results were compared with those of fish fed a control diet of fish meal and fish oil. Growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and protein retention were lower in the group fed the plant-based diet. Glucokinase and pyruvate kinase activity were lower in the livers of trout fed the plant-based diet which the proportion of starch was lower than in the control diet. Glutamate dehydrogenase was induced by the plant-based diet, suggesting an imbalance of amino acids and a possible link with the lower protein retention observed. Gene expression of delta 6 desaturase was higher in fish fed the plant-based diet, probably linked to a high dietary level of linolenic acid and the absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase expression was also induced by plant-based diet because of the low rate of cholesterol in the diet. Changes in regulation mechanisms already identified through short-term nutritional experiments (<12 weeks) suggest that metabolic responses are implemented at short term and remain in the long term. PMID:26746847

  13. Increasing senior citizen participation in a community-based nutritious meal program1

    PubMed Central

    Bunck, Theodore J.; Iwata, Brian A.

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare the effects of several prompting and reinforcement procedures on the participation of elderly citizens in a nutritious meal program. Experiment I employed a variation of the multiple-baseline design across three groups of approximately 60 households each. Elderly persons not previously participating in the program were introduced to the following conditions: (1) public service radio announcements for four weeks to advertise the meal program and the availability of free transportation, (2) a home visit that served as a personal invitation and a second prompt for participation, (3) a followup telephone call, and (4) an incentive menu for participation, which was sent through the mail. Results indicated that the home visits and incentives were both effective as recruitment procedures and superior to other conditions; however, incentives proved to be the most cost-effective intervention. Experiment II used a variation of the multi-element design to compare the effects of scheduled activities and incentives in maintaining higher levels of participation by those persons who had attended the meal program at least once in the past, but whose current rate of participation was low. Results showed that activities improved attendance levels somewhat and that incentives substantially increased the number of meal program participants. Data from these experiments thus indicate that relatively inexpensive procedures may be used effectively to increase the extent to which elderly persons make use of potentially beneficial community-based services. PMID:16795586

  14. Increasing senior citizen participation in a community-based nutritious meal program.

    PubMed

    Bunck, T J; Iwata, B A

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare the effects of several prompting and reinforcement procedures on the participation of elderly citizens in a nutritious meal program. Experiment I employed a variation of the multiple-baseline design across three groups of approximately 60 households each. Elderly persons not previously participating in the program were introduced to the following conditions: (1) public service radio announcements for four weeks to advertise the meal program and the availability of free transportation, (2) a home visit that served as a personal invitation and a second prompt for participation, (3) a followup telephone call, and (4) an incentive menu for participation, which was sent through the mail. Results indicated that the home visits and incentives were both effective as recruitment procedures and superior to other conditions; however, incentives proved to be the most cost-effective intervention. Experiment II used a variation of the multi-element design to compare the effects of scheduled activities and incentives in maintaining higher levels of participation by those persons who had attended the meal program at least once in the past, but whose current rate of participation was low. Results showed that activities improved attendance levels somewhat and that incentives substantially increased the number of meal program participants. Data from these experiments thus indicate that relatively inexpensive procedures may be used effectively to increase the extent to which elderly persons make use of potentially beneficial community-based services. PMID:16795586

  15. Diets

    MedlinePlus

    Your diet is made up of what you eat. A healthy diet May include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat- ... added sugars There are many different types of diets. Some, like a vegetarian diet, don't include ...

  16. Interactions between canola meal and flaxseed oil in the diets of White Lohmann hens on fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of table eggs.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2016-08-01

    The current study was designed to assess the fatty acid composition and sensory attributes of eggs procured from hens consuming diets containing canola meal (CM) and/or flax oil (FO). A total of 96 group-caged White Lohmann hens received 1 of 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets for a period of 4 weeks. Diets were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, containing 24% canola meal, 7.5% flax oil, both, or neither (control). All yolk fatty acids were affected by flax oil inclusion, with the exception of stearic acid (SA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Only SA was affected by CM inclusion. Additionally, significant interactions between CM and FO were observed for linoleic acid (LA) and total omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with DPA approaching significance (P = 0.069). Trained panelists (n = 8) evaluated 7 aroma ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'sweet', 'barny', and 'oceanic') and 6 flavor ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'brothy', and 'oceanic') attributes of cooked egg product. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in aroma attributes were found between eggs from different dietary treatments. However, egg, creamy, buttery, and oceanic flavors were significantly different between the dietary treatments (P < 0.05). While oceanic flavor significantly increased with inclusion of FO, egg and creamy flavors showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05). Although CM addition alone did not result in significant sensory changes, the pairing of CM and FO resulted in even greater sensory changes than using FO alone, specifically with regard to egg flavor. Results from partial least squares analyses showed a strong association between oceanic flavor and omega-3 PUFA. Oppositely, egg, creamy, and buttery flavors were more correlated with the presence of omega-6 PUFA and palmitic acid. This experiment provides evidence that the interaction between CM and FO in the White Lohmann hen diet results in sensory changes of cooked eggs associated in

  17. Research and Design of Embedded Wireless Meal Ordering System Based on SQLite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jihong; Chen, Xiaoquan

    The paper describes features and internal architecture and developing method of SQLite. And then it gives a design and program of meal ordering system. The system realizes the information interaction among the users and embedded devices with SQLite as database system. The embedded database SQLite manages the data and achieves wireless communication by using Bluetooth. A system program based on Qt/Embedded and Linux drivers realizes the local management of environmental data.

  18. Effects of concentration and composition of wet corn gluten feed in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A

    2004-09-01

    Two finishing experiments were conducted to determine the effects of concentration (Exp. 1) and composition of wet corn gluten feed (Exp. 2) in steam-flaked corn-based diets on feedlot steer performance. In Exp. 1, 192 English x Continental crossbred steer calves (299 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with six dietary treatments (four pens per treatment). Treatments were six concentrations of wet corn gluten feed (Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc., Blair, NE; 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, and 35%) replacing steam-flaked corn (DM basis). All diets contained 10% corn silage, 5% supplement, and 3.5% tallow (DM basis). Gain efficiency and ADG were similar (P > 0.25) among treatments. Dry matter intake was lower (P < 0.10) with 0% wet corn gluten feed than with concentrations of 20, 25, and 35% WCGF. Dry matter intake did not differ among treatments containing wet corn gluten feed. In Exp. 2, 160 English x Continental crossbred steer calves (315 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with five dietary treatments (four pens/treatment). Treatments were assigned based on four ratios of steep to corn bran/germ meal mix in wet corn gluten feed plus a negative control (CON). Wet corn gluten feed was fed at 25% of the dietary DM and was made by mixing steep and corn bran/germ meal into the diet. The four concentrations of steep in wet corn gluten feed that comprised the ratios were 37.5, 41.7, 45.8, and 50% (DM basis), with the remaining proportion being the bran/germ meal mix. Bran/germ meal mix was comprised of 60% dry corn bran, 24% germ meal, and 16% fine-cracked corn (DM basis). All diets contained 10% corn silage, 5% supplement, and 3.5% tallow (DM basis). Daily gain did not differ (P = 0.18) among treatments. Gain efficiency did not differ between CON and 50% steep; however, G:F was decreased (P < 0.05) for concentrations of 37.5, 41.7, and 45.8% steep compared with CON. A linear improvement (P < 0.05) was observed for G:F as concentration of steep

  19. Inclusion levels of sweet potato root meal in the diet of broilers I. Effect on performance, organ weights, and carcass quality

    PubMed Central

    Beckford, R. C.; Bartlett, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The amount of corn available for animal and poultry feed has been unpredictable in recent years due to the increased use of corn for ethanol production. As a consequence, there has been an increase in the price of feed, chicken, and chicken products. Researchers are exploring alternative feed sources to substitute for corn in poultry ration. This study evaluated the performance and carcass quality of broilers fed diets containing sweet potato root meal (SPRM). After a complete nutrient analysis of the SPRM, diets were formulated where 0, 10, 20, and 30% of corn was substituted with SPRM. The study utilized 360 1-d-old Cornish X Rock male broiler chickens randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments; 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% SPRM. Body weights and feed intake (FI) were monitored weekly for 7 wk. Birds were slaughtered on d 50 and FI, BW gain, ADG, ADFI, abdominal fat, dressing percentage, and organ weights measured. White (breast) and dark (leg and thigh) meat were evaluated for nutrient content (protein, moisture, fat, and ash). Results showed birds fed 20% SPRM had lower (P < 0.03) final BW, BW gain and ADG than those fed the 30% SPRM diet. There were no differences in FI and ADFI among treatments. Feed conversion ratio was lowest (P < 0.02) in birds fed 10, 20, and 30% SPRM than the control. There were no differences in dressing percentage among treatments. Abdominal fat was highest (P < 0.05) in birds fed 30% SPRM. Organ weights were similar across treatments except for gizzard which weighed highest (P < 0.05) in the control. For white meat; moisture, protein, fat, and ash were similar across treatments. For dark meat, moisture (P < 0.004) and fat (P < 0.03) were highest in the control, while protein and ash were similar among treatments. Birds fed the SPRM diets compared well with those fed the control for both performance and nutrient content of meat. PMID:25840965

  20. Inclusion levels of sweet potato root meal in the diet of broilers I. Effect on performance, organ weights, and carcass quality.

    PubMed

    Beckford, R C; Bartlett, J R

    2015-06-01

    The amount of corn available for animal and poultry feed has been unpredictable in recent years due to the increased use of corn for ethanol production. As a consequence, there has been an increase in the price of feed, chicken, and chicken products. Researchers are exploring alternative feed sources to substitute for corn in poultry ration. This study evaluated the performance and carcass quality of broilers fed diets containing sweet potato root meal (SPRM). After a complete nutrient analysis of the SPRM, diets were formulated where 0, 10, 20, and 30% of corn was substituted with SPRM. The study utilized 360 1-d-old Cornish X Rock male broiler chickens randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments; 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% SPRM. Body weights and feed intake (FI) were monitored weekly for 7 wk. Birds were slaughtered on d 50 and FI, BW gain, ADG, ADFI, abdominal fat, dressing percentage, and organ weights measured. White (breast) and dark (leg and thigh) meat were evaluated for nutrient content (protein, moisture, fat, and ash). Results showed birds fed 20% SPRM had lower (P<0.03) final BW, BW gain and ADG than those fed the 30% SPRM diet. There were no differences in FI and ADFI among treatments. Feed conversion ratio was lowest (P<0.02) in birds fed 10, 20, and 30% SPRM than the control. There were no differences in dressing percentage among treatments. Abdominal fat was highest (P<0.05) in birds fed 30% SPRM. Organ weights were similar across treatments except for gizzard which weighed highest (P<0.05) in the control. For white meat; moisture, protein, fat, and ash were similar across treatments. For dark meat, moisture (P<0.004) and fat (P<0.03) were highest in the control, while protein and ash were similar among treatments. Birds fed the SPRM diets compared well with those fed the control for both performance and nutrient content of meat. PMID:25840965

  1. Postoperative diet advancement: surgical dogma vs evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jeremy; Bhalla, Varun; Cresci, Gail

    2011-04-01

    Postoperative ileus is a natural part of recovery following abdominal and intestinal surgery. Research in the laboratory and clinical arenas has challenged the long-held belief that enteral nutrition (EN) should not be administered until bowel function has resumed, which is typically judged by a subjective bowel function assessment. Traditional postoperative management begins with clinical monitoring of return of bowel function, followed by a clear liquid diet that is advanced to regular solid food as tolerated. Studies have consistently demonstrated that early EN is safe and well tolerated, showing a reduction in wound morbidity and healing, fewer septic complications, diminished weight loss, and improved protein kinetics in patients administered early EN. Barriers to early enteral feeding include fear of GI morbidity, anastomotic disruption or leak but have not been proven valid in clinical or experimental trials. A clear liquid diet is the most frequently ordered first postoperative meal regardless of early or delayed administration. Although generally well tolerated, this diet fails to provide adequate nutrients to the postsurgical patient. In contrast, advancement to a regular diet as the initial meal has been shown to be well tolerated and provides significantly more nutrients than a clear liquid diet. This article reviews basic GI physiology, including motility, nutrient absorption, and the changes that occur in regulation and function of the GI tract following surgery, as well as clinical data regarding postoperative GI function and diet advancement. This will be applied to the clinical practices of postoperative dietary advancement to discuss the timing and choice of initial feeding in the postoperative patient. PMID:21447763

  2. Comparison of 3 phytases on energy utilization of a nutritionally marginal wheat-soybean meal broiler diet.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Wu, S B; Choct, M; Swick, R A

    2015-11-01

    The net energy (NE) value may be a better measure than apparent metabolizable energy (ME) of the effect of supplemental phytase on energy utilization in broilers. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of 3 microbial phytases supplemented at an unconventionally high level (1,000 FTU/kg feed) on performance and NE of broilers using the indirect calorimetric method (IC). Four treatments included: 1) Control, formulated to be deficient in ME (12.35 MJ/kg in the starter diet; 12.56 MJ/kg in the grower diet), calcium (0.72% in the starter diet; 0.60% in the grower diet), and available phosphorus (0.25% in the starter diet; 0.20% in the grower diet); 2) control + intrinsically thermostable phytase A; 3) control + intrinsically thermostable phytase B; and 4) control + coated phytase C. A completely randomized design was employed. A total of 384 male broiler chicks were used, and each treatment had 6 replicates with 16 birds per replicate. The birds were reared until d 21 in floor pens with hardwood shavings. Thirty-two birds (8 birds per treatment) were randomly selected to determine heat production and NE (from 25-28 d) following a 3-d acclimatization in the respiratory chambers. Performance results at d 21 showed that supplementation with either of the 3 phytases improved body weight (P < 0.001) and feed intake (P < 0.05), and increased the relative weights of tibia ash (P < 0.05) and toe ash (P < 0.01). Phytases A and B increased the NE value of the diet (P < 0.05). It may be concluded that the negative effects imposed by calcium and available phosphorus down-specification can be compensated by phytase supplementation in general, and intrinsically thermostable phytases improve the ME and NE value. However, phytase did not reduce heat production, heat increment, or increase NE:ME in birds. PMID:26500267

  3. Polymerase chain reaction-based analysis to detect terrestrial animal protein in fish meal.

    PubMed

    Bellagamba, Federica; Valfrè, Franco; Panseri, Sara; Moretti, Vittorio M

    2003-04-01

    The recent European bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis has focused attention on the importance of adopting stringent control measures to avoid the risk of the diffusion of mad cow disease through meat meal-based animal feedstuffs. Potential adulteration of such feedstuffs with bone particles from terrestrial animals is determined by microscopic examination by law before the release of these feedstuffs for free circulation in the European Community. This study describes a DNA monitoring method to examine fish meal for contamination with mammalian and poultry products. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method based on the nucleotide sequence variation in the 12S ribosomal RNA gene of mitochondrial DNA was developed and evaluated. Three species-specific primer pairs were designed for the identification of ruminant, pig, and poultry DNA. The specificity of the primers used in the PCR was tested by comparison with DNA samples for several vertebrate species and confirmed. The PCR specifically detected mammalian and poultry adulteration in fish meals containing 0.125% beef, 0.125% sheep, 0.125% pig, 0.125% chicken, and 0.5% goat. A multiplex PCR assay for ruminant and pig adulteration was optimized and had a detection limit of 0.25%. PMID:12696697

  4. The chemical characteristics of organic iron sources and their relative bioavailabilities for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L Y; Lu, L; Zhang, L Y; Luo, X G

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-four organic Fe sources were evaluated by polarographic analysis and via solubility in buffers (pH 5 and 2) and deionized water. Organic Fe sources included 6 Fe-Met complexes (Fe-Met), 10 Fe-Gly complexes, 1 Fe-Lys complex, 4 Fe proteinates, and 3 Fe-AA complexes (Fe-AA). Sources varied considerably in chemical characteristics. Chelation strengths (quotient of formation [Q] values) ranged from weak (Q = 1.08) to extremely strong strength (Q = 8,590). A total of 1,170 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allotted to 6 replicate cages (15 chicks/cage) for each of 13 treatments in a completely randomized design involving a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (4 Fe sources × 3 added Fe levels) plus a control with no added Fe. Dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control; 55.8 mg Fe/kg) and the basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, or 60 mg Fe/kg as iron sulfate (FeSO∙7HO); an Fe-Met with weak chelation strength (Fe-Met W; Q = 1.37; 14.7% Fe); an iron proteinate with moderate chelation strength (Fe-Prot M; Q = 43.6; 14.2% Fe); or an iron proteinate with extremely strong chelation strength (Fe-Prot ES; Q = 8,590; 10.2% Fe). The growth performance, Fe concentrations, hematological indices, and activities and gene expressions of 2 Fe-containing enzymes in tissues of broilers at 7, 14, and 21 d of age were determined in the present study. Transferrin saturation in plasma on 14 d; bone Fe on d 7 and 14; liver Fe on d 7, 14, and 21; kidney Fe on d 14; succinate dehydrogenase activities in the liver on d 21 and in the kidney on d 7 and 21; mRNA levels in the kidney and heart on d 14; and mRNA levels in the liver and kidney on d 21 linearly increased ( < 0.05) as added Fe levels increased. However, differences in bioavailabilities among Fe sources were detected ( < 0.05) only for the mRNA levels in the liver and kidney on d 21. Based on slope ratios from the multiple linear regression of mRNA level in the liver or kidney of

  5. Substitution of fish oil with camelina oil and inclusion of camelina meal in diets fed to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and their effects on growth, tissue lipid classes, and fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hixson, S M; Parrish, C C

    2014-03-01

    Developing a commercially relevant Atlantic cod aquaculture industry will require improvements in feed sustainability. Camelina oil and meal are potential replacements of fish oil and fish meal in aquaculture feeds. Camelina oil is high in 18:3ω3 (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio > 1. Camelina meal has a considerable crude protein level (38%), which includes significant amounts of methionine and phenylalanine. Four diets were tested; each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (3 tanks per diet) of Atlantic cod (14.4 g/fish; 70 fish per tank) for 13 wk. The diets included a fish oil/fish meal control (FO) and three diets which replaced 100% of fish oil with camelina oil: one diet contained fish meal (100CO), another solvent extracted fish meal (100COSEFM), and another had fish meal partially reduced by 15% inclusion of camelina meal (100CO15CM). Growth was measured (length and weight) and tissue samples were collected for lipid analysis (muscle, liver, brain, gut, spleen, skin, and carcass) at wk 0 (before feeding the experimental diet) and at wk 13. Cod fed camelina oil had a lower (P < 0.001) final weight than cod fed the FO diet (50.8 ± 10.3 g/fish). Cod fed 100CO15CM had a lower (P < 0.001) final weight (35.0 ± 8.0 g) than those fed 100CO (43.6 ± 8.9 g) and 100COSEFM (46.7 ± 10.7 g). Cod tissues in the 100COSEFM treatment were most impacted by dietary fatty acid profile. Multivariate statistics revealed that FO and 100COSEFM tissue fatty acid profiles were 21 to 31% different, depending on tissue type. The full replacement of fish oil with camelina oil, plus solvent extracted fish meal had an overarching effect on the entire fatty acid profile of the whole animal. Fatty acid mass balance calculations indicated that cod fed 100COSEFM elongated 13% of 18:3ω3 to 20:3ω3 and oxidized the remaining 87%, whereas cod fed fish oil showed a much lower (P < 0.001) elongation of 18:3ω3 of 1.6%. These results suggest that excess 18:3ω3 from camelina oil caused some fatty acid

  6. Immunological cell and serum metabolite response of sixty-week old commercial laying hens to an alfalfa meal molt diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The practice of inducing molt in commercial poultry involves light restriction, feed removal, and limiting water for five to fourteen days. Many animal welfare groups are concerned about this issue due to the stresses that feed and water deprivation cause. With this in mind, alternative diets have...

  7. Effect of corn germ meal inclusion in pig diets on microbial ecology in the ileum, cecum and colon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inclusion of bio-fuel co-products in swine diets is becoming more common due to greater availability and increasing cereal grain costs. As a result of the ethanol production process, these co-products have lower starch and higher fiber concentrations. In monogastrics, fiber digestion is mainly ach...

  8. Effect of dietary energy density and meal size on growth performance, eating pattern, and carcass and meat quality in Holstein steers fed high-concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Marti, S; Pérez, M; Aris, A; Bach, A; Devant, M

    2014-08-01

    A total of 121 steers (162 ± 3.0 kg BW and 148 ± 2.7 d old) were used to study the effect of dietary energy density and meal size (limiting the amount of concentrate delivered at each feeder visit) on performance, hormones associated with the regulation of intake, and carcass and meat quality. Steers were allocated by BW to 6 pens. Each pen had the same BW mean and CV, and pens were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (2 pens/treatment): a concentrate of moderate energy density (3.23 Mcal ME/kg, 6.2% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (CTR), a concentrate of high-energy density (3.43 Mcal ME/kg, 8.3% ether extract) fed for ad libitum intake with no control on meal size (HE), and the same high-energy concentrate offered for ad libitum intake but with meal size limited to a maximum concentrate delivery of 0.6 kg DM/visit (HELM). Body weight was recorded every 14 d; concentrate consumption and eating pattern were recorded daily. On d 163, blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose, and insulin. After slaughter (on d 166 to 170), the 9-10-11 rib section was removed to estimate separable bone, lean, and fat. Meat quality of LM was analyzed. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects model with repeated measures. Steers in the HELM treatment had a lower (P < 0.01) final BW and ADG than CTR and HE steers. Concentrate intake was greater (P < 0.001) in CTR (6.6 ± 0.10 kg/d) than in HE steers (5.7 ± 0.10 kg/d), and HELM (5.2 ± 0.10 kg/d) consumed less concentrate than CTR and HE steers. However, HE and HELM steers were more (P < 0.01) efficient than CTR steers. The mean number of daily meals and eating rate were less (P < 0.05) for HELM than for HE or CTR. At d 163, serum concentrations of GLP-1, CCK, and insulin were lower (P < 0.05), and leptin (P = 0.10) and glucose (P = 0.08) concentrations tended to be lower for HELM than for CTR or

  9. The effect of different meals on the absorption of stable isotope labelled phylloquinone

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kerry S.; Bluck, Les J. C.; Wang, Laura Y.; Stephen, Alison M.; Prynne, Celia J.; Coward, W. Andy

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the absorption of phylloquinone (vitamin K1). We recruited twelve healthy, non-obese adults. On each study day, fasted subjects took a capsule containing 20 μg of 13C-labelled phylloquinone with one of three meals, defined as convenience, cosmopolitan and animal-oriented, in a three-way crossover design. The meals were formulated from the characteristics of clusters identified in dietary pattern analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey conducted in 2000-2001. Plasma phylloquinone concentration and isotopic enrichment were measured over 8 h. Significantly more phylloquinone tracer was absorbed when consumed with the cosmopolitan and animal-oriented meals than with the convenience meal (P = 0.001 and P = 0.035, respectively). Estimates of the relative availability of phylloquinone from the meals were: convenience meal = 1.00, cosmopolitan meal = 0.31, and animal-oriented meal = 0.23. Combining the tracer data with availability estimates for phylloquinone from the meals provides overall relative bioavailability values of convenience = 1.00, cosmopolitan = 0.46 and animal-oriented = 0.29. Stable isotopes provide a useful tool to investigate further the bioavailability of low doses of phylloquinone. Different meals can affect the absorption of free phylloquinone. The meal-based study design used in the current work provides an approach that reflects more closely the way foods are eaten in a free-living population. PMID:19538810

  10. Identifying users of traditional and Internet-based resources for meal ideas: An association rule learning approach.

    PubMed

    Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg L; Levin, Aron; LeVangie, Kristie; Brick, Timothy R

    2016-08-01

    Increasing home cooking while decreasing the consumption of food prepared away from home is a commonly recommended weight management strategy, however research on where individuals obtain ideas about meals to cook at home is limited. This study examined the characteristics of individuals who reported using traditional and Internet-based resources for meal ideas. 583 participants who were ≥50% responsible for household meal planning were recruited to approximate the 2014 United States Census distribution on sex, age, race/ethnicity, and household income. Participants reported demographic characteristics, home cooking frequency, and their use of 4 traditional resources for meal ideas (e.g., cookbooks), and 7 Internet-based resources for meal ideas (e.g., Pinterest) in an online survey. Independent samples t-tests compared home cooking frequency by resource use. Association rule learning identified those demographic characteristics that were significantly associated with resource use. Family and friends (71%), food community websites (45%), and cookbooks (41%) were the most common resources reported. Cookbook users reported preparing more meals at home per week (M = 9.65, SD = 5.28) compared to non-cookbook users (M = 8.11, SD = 4.93; t = -3.55, p < 0.001). Resource use was generally higher among parents and varied systematically with demographic characteristics. Findings suggest that home cooking interventions may benefit by modifying resources used by their target population. PMID:27067739

  11. Forms of leg abnormality observed in male broilers fed on a diet containing 12.5 percent rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Timms, L M

    1983-09-01

    The incidence of leg abnormalities was studied in 216 male Ross I broilers, fed for 10 weeks on a diet containing 12.5 per cent extracted rapeseed. Regular serological examination showed that the birds remained free from Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and avian reovirus throughout the period of investigation. Post mortem examination and radiographs were performed when birds were culled due to leg deformities or at the end of the experiment. Leg abnormalities were seen in 19.4 per cent of the birds which represents a very significant increase above that currently seen in commercial flocks. They consisted of a large range of skeletal deformities including valgus and varus deformities, dyschondroplasia, slipped gastrocnemius tendons, dislocated condyles, rotation and penetration of the distal tibiotarsus and fractured fibulas. Multiple forms of leg abnormality were often observed in individual birds and their association is briefly discussed. PMID:6635344

  12. Meal size of high-fat food is reliably greater than high-carbohydrate food across externally-evoked single-meal tests and long-term spontaneous feeding in rat.

    PubMed

    Synowski, Stephen J; Smart, Andrew B; Warwick, Zoe S

    2005-10-01

    A series of studies in rat using isoenergetic (kcal/ml) liquid diets differing in fat content has previously found dietary fat to dose-dependently increase daily caloric intake. In single-meal tests in which meal initiation was externally evoked in feeding-associated environments, the behavioral expression of this overeating was found to be larger meal intake. The present studies confirmed the ecological validity of this larger meal size of high-fat diet (HF) relative to high-carbohydrate diet (HC): meal size of HF>HC in home-cage testing (Experiment 1), and during undisturbed, spontaneous feeding in which ingestive behavior was continuously monitored (Experiments 2 and 3). These findings demonstrate that single-meal paradigms yield results consistent with spontaneous feeding of high-fat and high-carbohydrate liquid diets, thus supporting the use of single-meal studies to better understand the physiological bases of elevated caloric intake associated with chronic consumption of a high-fat diet. PMID:15922489

  13. Quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible phosphorus and total calcium intakes and their retention and excretion in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Elsbernd, A J; Hansen, S L; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Patience, J F

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible P (STTD P) and total Ca intakes with their retention and excretion by growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. Forty-eight crossbred barrows (BW = 22.7 ± 2.9 kg) were allotted to 1 of 8 diets, housed individually in pens for 3 wk, and then moved to metabolism crates and allowed 4 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection of urine and fecal samples. Eight corn-soybean meal diets were formulated for similar NE, fat, and AA concentrations but to increase the STTD P from 0.16 to 0.62% using monocalcium phosphate. Dietary treatments were formulated for a constant Ca:STTD P ratio (2.2:1). The STTD P intake increased (P < 0.001) from 64 to 242% of the daily requirement (4.59 g/d of STTD P). Fecal and total excretion of P and Ca were linearly associated with mineral intake (P < 0.001). Constant urinary P excretion of 0.03 g/d P was observed, but at 4.96 g/d of STTD P intake, the urinary P excretion increased (P < 0.001). In contrast, Ca excretion in urine decreased (P < 0.001) with Ca intake, but constant excretion of 0.40 g/d Ca was reached at 17.97 g/d of Ca intake. The daily intakes of STTD P and Ca moderately explained the variation in urinary excretion of P (R2= 0.41) and Ca (R2= 0.64). The absorption and retention of P increased linearly (P< 0.001) with dietary P intake, whereas absorption and retention of Ca showed a quadratic response (P < 0.001). Absorption and retention of P and Ca were highly predictable from the STTD P and Ca intakes, with of 0.87 and 0.90, respectively. The femur mineral content (FMC) increased by 2.71 g with STTD P intake (P < 0.001) but reached a plateau (29.54 g of FMC) at 8.84 g/d of STTD P intake. The FMC was highly predictable from the STTD P intake (R2 = 0.89). The FMC affected the urinary P excretion ( P< 0.01), but moderately (R2= 0.19) explained the variation in urinary P. In conclusion, constant excretion of P in urine

  14. Associations of food group and nutrient intake, diet quality, and meal sizes between adults and children in the same household: a cross-sectional analysis of U.S. households

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background One might assume that individuals living in the same household have similar dietary intakes of food groups and nutrients. However, the manner in which an adult's dietary intake affects children's food consumption, diet quality (defined as meeting intake recommendations), and meal sizes is understudied to date. The objective of this study was to estimate these relationships between minor children and the female or male head of household. Methods Dietary intakes of one randomly selected child of each age group (2-5, 6-11, or 12-18 years old (n = 2,380)) and that of the female/male head of household ((HH), proxy for mother and father) using multiple 24-hour recalls from the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII) 1994-1996 was coded to reflect food group and nutrient density (servings/grams per 1,000 kcal). Linear or logistic regression models were used to determine the association between intakes, whether individuals' diets trended toward meeting her/his intake recommendations, and whether individuals were in the highest quintile for food group densities at four distinct eating occasions (breakfast, brunch/lunch, supper/dinner, or other) in each subject group. Stata's survey commands were used to fit linear or logistic regression models and obtain adjusted regression coefficients or odds ratios. Results Associations between food group/nutrient densities were significant but weak to moderate. Adults with diets that trended toward meeting their intake recommendations doubled the odds for children to have diets that trended toward meeting the recommendations; for many meals, adults consuming in the highest quintile for food group density predicted that children's intakes were also in the highest quintile. Conclusions Female and male adults living in the same household significantly affect children's food group and nutrient intakes, diet quality, and meal sizes. There is an urgent need for in-depth analysis to elucidate the underlying

  15. Easy Meal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  16. Bt-maize (MON810) and Non-GM Soybean Meal in Diets for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Juveniles – Impact on Survival, Growth Performance, Development, Digestive Function, and Transcriptional Expression of Intestinal Immune and Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jinni; Bakke, Anne Marie; Valen, Elin C.; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-01-01

    Responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles (fry) fed diets containing genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON810) expressing Cry1Ab protein from first-feeding were investigated during a 99-day feeding trial. Four experimental diets were made; each diet contained ∼20% maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line (non-GM maize). One pair was fishmeal-based while the other pair included standard (extracted) soybean meal (SBM; 16.7% inclusion level), with the intention of investigating responses to the maize varieties in healthy fish as well as in immunologically challenged fish with SBM-induced distal intestinal inflammation, respectively. Three replicate tanks of fry (0.17±0.01 g; initial mean weight ± SEM) were fed one of the four diets and samples were taken on days 15, 36, 48 and 99. Survival, growth performance, whole body composition, digestive function, morphology of intestine, liver and skeleton, and mRNA expression of some immune and stress response parameters in the distal intestine were evaluated. After 99 days of feeding, survival was enhanced and the intended SBM-induced inflammatory response in the distal intestine of the two groups of SBM-fed fish was absent, indicating that the juvenile salmon were tolerant to SBM. Mortality, growth performance and body composition were similar in fish fed the two maize varieties. The Bt-maize fed fish, however, displayed minor but significantly decreased digestive enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and maltase, as well as decreased concentration of gut bile salts, but significantly increased amylase activity at some sampling points. Histomorphological, radiographic and mRNA expression evaluations did not reveal any biologically relevant effects of Bt-maize in the gastrointestinal tract, liver or skeleton. The results suggest that the Cry1Ab protein or other compositional differences in GM Bt-maize may cause minor alterations in intestinal responses in juvenile salmon, but

  17. Bt-maize (MON810) and non-GM soybean meal in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles--impact on survival, growth performance, development, digestive function, and transcriptional expression of intestinal immune and stress responses.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jinni; Bakke, Anne Marie; Valen, Elin C; Lein, Ingrid; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-01-01

    Responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) juveniles (fry) fed diets containing genetically modified maize (Bt-maize, MON810) expressing Cry1Ab protein from first-feeding were investigated during a 99-day feeding trial. Four experimental diets were made; each diet contained ∼20% maize, either Bt-maize or its near-isogenic maternal line (non-GM maize). One pair was fishmeal-based while the other pair included standard (extracted) soybean meal (SBM; 16.7% inclusion level), with the intention of investigating responses to the maize varieties in healthy fish as well as in immunologically challenged fish with SBM-induced distal intestinal inflammation, respectively. Three replicate tanks of fry (0.17±0.01 g; initial mean weight ± SEM) were fed one of the four diets and samples were taken on days 15, 36, 48 and 99. Survival, growth performance, whole body composition, digestive function, morphology of intestine, liver and skeleton, and mRNA expression of some immune and stress response parameters in the distal intestine were evaluated. After 99 days of feeding, survival was enhanced and the intended SBM-induced inflammatory response in the distal intestine of the two groups of SBM-fed fish was absent, indicating that the juvenile salmon were tolerant to SBM. Mortality, growth performance and body composition were similar in fish fed the two maize varieties. The Bt-maize fed fish, however, displayed minor but significantly decreased digestive enzyme activities of leucine aminopeptidase and maltase, as well as decreased concentration of gut bile salts, but significantly increased amylase activity at some sampling points. Histomorphological, radiographic and mRNA expression evaluations did not reveal any biologically relevant effects of Bt-maize in the gastrointestinal tract, liver or skeleton. The results suggest that the Cry1Ab protein or other compositional differences in GM Bt-maize may cause minor alterations in intestinal responses in juvenile salmon, but

  18. Hippocampal GLP-1 Receptors Influence Food Intake, Meal Size, and Effort-Based Responding for Food through Volume Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ted M; Hahn, Joel D; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Lam, Ashley; Kanoski, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced in the small intestines and in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons. Activation of central GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) reduces feeding and body weight. The neural circuits mediating these effects are only partially understood. Here we investigate the inhibition of food intake and motivated responding for food in rats following GLP-1R activation in the ventral hippocampal formation (HPFv), a region only recently highlighted in food intake control. Increased HPFv GLP-1R activity following exendin-4 administration potently reduced food intake (both chow and Western diet) and body weight, whereas HPFv GLP-1R blockade increased food intake. These hypophagic effects were based on reduced meal size, and likely do not involve nausea as HPFv exendin-4 did not induce a conditioned flavor avoidance. HPFv GLP-1R activation also reduced effort-based responding for food under an operant progressive ratio reinforcement schedule, but did not affect food conditioned place preference expression. To investigate possible routes of HPFv GLP-1 signaling, immunohistochemical analysis revealed the absence of GLP-1 axon terminals in the HPFv, suggesting volume transmission as a mechanism of action. Consistent with this, the presence of active GLP-1 was detected in both the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the HPFv. The source of CSF GLP-1 may be NTS GLP-1-producing neurons, as, (1) ∼30% of NTS GLP-1 neurons colocalized with the retrograde tracer fluorogold (FG) following lateral ventricle FG injection, and (2) GLP-1-immunoreactive axon terminals were observed adjacent to the ventricular ependymal layer. Collectively these findings illuminate novel neuronal and behavioral mechanisms mediating food intake reduction by GLP-1. PMID:25035078

  19. Digestion rate of legume carbohydrates and glycemic index of legume-based meals.

    PubMed

    Araya, Héctor; Pak, Nelly; Vera, Gloria; Alviña, Marcela

    2003-03-01

    A study was performed to examine the rate of digestion of available carbohydrate in legumes and its mixtures with cereals, prepared as commonly eaten. The legumes and cereals studied were lentil (Lens sculenta), pea (Pisum sativum), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, var tortola), rice (Oryza sativa) and spaghetti. Foods were purchased at the city market. Total starch content and the carbohydrate digestion rates were determined using the enzymatic method proposed by Englyst et al. Total starch levels ranged from 7.78 g/100 g in cooked flour bean to 20.6 g/100 g in a bean-spaghetti dish, and dietary fiber contents ranged from 2.4 g/100 g in a cooked 70:30 lentil-rice mixture to 5.26 g/100 g in a cooked whole bean. The rapid digestion rate carbohydrates showed values from 4.8 in the bean soup to 8.9 in the bean-spaghetti combination. The same results show, expressed as rapid available glucose (RAG), the amount of rapid carbohydrate/100 g food or meal as eaten, and as the starch digestion index (SDI), the percentage of rapid carbohydrate digestion rate in relation to the total amount of carbohydrate. The RAG values ranged between 5.0 for cooked beans and 10 for cooked beans and spaghetti, and the SDI ranged between 40 for cooked pea flour and 62 for cooked bean flour. Legumes prepared as soup showed a higher rapid digestion rate than legumes prepared as whole grain. The bean-spaghetti based-meal and the lentil-based meal showed glycemic index mean and standard deviation values of 76.8 +/- 43.4 and 49.3 +/- 29.5, RAG values of 7.0 and 6.0, and SDI values of 57 and 54, respectively. The knowledge of the importance of the carbohydrate digestion rates in human health in increasing, and probably will soon be used in the development of the food pyramid. The foods with a moderate fraction of rapid digestion rate, such as legumes, should be included in the base of the pyramid. PMID:12701368

  20. Protein requirements of growing steers limit-fed corn-based diets.

    PubMed

    Wessels, R H; Titgemeyer, E C

    1997-12-01

    In Exp. 1, six steers (254 kg) were used in a 6 x 4 incomplete Latin square to determine the effects of solvent-extracted soybean meal alone or in combination with rumen-protected methionine and lysine on N balance in steers limit-fed a high-corn diet to gain 1.1 kg/d. The basal diet contained (DM basis) 80% rolled corn, 15% alfalfa, and .9% urea (13.9% CP), and 2 or 4% soybean meal replaced corn to give CP concentrations of 14.8 and 15.6%, respectively. Each diet was fed with and without 5 g/d of Smartamine-ML (.75 and 2.0 g of rumen-protected methionine and lysine, respectively). Nitrogen retention increased linearly (P = .09) with level of soybean meal. Rumen-protected methionine and lysine had no effect on N balance. In Exp. 2, seven steers (233 kg) were used in a 7 x 4 incomplete Latin square experiment to investigate optimal levels and sources of CP for steers limit-fed to gain 1 kg/d. Treatments included a negative-control diet (urea; 11.7% CP) and six diets containing either 13.5, 15.4, or 17.2% CP with either solvent-extracted or expeller-processed soybean meal. Diets provided 75, 87.5, 100, or 112.5% of estimated CP requirement for a gain of 1 kg/d. The basal diet contained 83% rolled corn, 15% alfalfa, and .2% urea. Nitrogen retention increased linearly (P = .006) with soybean meal addition, and no differences were observed between CP sources. The CP system underpredicted the protein requirements of limit-fed steers under our conditions. PMID:9420002

  1. Family Meals: Associations with Weight and Eating Behaviors Among Mothers and Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers’ and fathers’ body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n = 3,488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations. PMID:22425759

  2. Family meals. Associations with weight and eating behaviors among mothers and fathers.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; MacLehose, Richard F; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-06-01

    Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers' and fathers' body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n=3488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations. PMID:22425759

  3. Awareness and Perception of Plant-Based Diets for the Treatment and Management of Type 2 Diabetes in a Community Education Clinic: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vincent; McKay, Taylor; Ardern, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess awareness, barriers, and promoters of plant-based diet use for management of type 2 diabetes (T2D) for the development of an appropriate educational program. Design. Cross-sectional study of patients and healthcare providers. Setting. Regional Diabetes Education Centre in ON, Canada. Participants. n = 98 patients attending the Diabetes Education Centre and n = 25 healthcare providers. Variables Measures. Patient questionnaires addressed demographics, health history, and eating patterns, as well as current knowledge, confidence levels, barriers to, promoters of, and interests in plant-based diets. Staff questionnaires addressed attitudes and current practice with respect to plant-based diets. Analysis. Mean values, frequency counts, and logistic regression (alpha = 0.05). Results. Few respondents (9%) currently followed a plant-based diet, but 66% indicated willingness to follow one for 3 weeks. Family eating preferences and meal planning skills were common barriers to diet change. 72% of healthcare providers reported knowledge of plant-based diets for diabetes management but low levels of practice. Conclusions and Implications. Patient awareness of the benefits of a plant-based diet for the management of diabetes remains suboptimal and may be influenced by perception of diabetes educators and clinicians. Given the reported willingness to try (but low current use of) plant-based diets, educational interventions targeting patient and provider level knowledge are warranted. PMID:25802755

  4. Evaluation of protein supplementation for growing cattle fed grass silage-based diets: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, A; Huhtanen, P; Joki-Tokola, E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to develop empirical equations predicting growth responses of growing cattle to protein intake. Overall, the data set comprised 199 diets in 80 studies. The diets were mainly based on grass silage or grass silage partly or completely replaced by whole-crop silages or straw. The concentrate feeds consisted of cereal grains, fibrous by-products and protein supplements. The analyses were conducted both comprehensively for all studies and also separately for studies in which soybean meal (SBM; n=71 diets/28 studies), fish meal (FM; 27/12) and rapeseed meal (RSM; 74/35) were used as a protein supplement. Increasing dietary CP concentration increased (P<0.01) BW gain (BWG), but the responses were quantitatively small (1.4 g per 1 g/kg dry matter (DM) increase in dietary CP concentration). The BWG responses were not different for bulls v. steers and heifers (1.4 v. 1.3 g per 1 g/kg DM increase in dietary CP concentration) and for dairy v. beef breeds (1.2 v. 1.7 g per 1 g/kg, respectively). The effect of increased CP concentration declined (P<0.01) with increasing mean BW of the animals and with improved BWG of the control animals (the lowest CP diet in each study). The BWG responses to protein supplementation were not related to the CP concentration in the control diet. The BWG responses increased (P<0.05) with increased ammonia N concentration in silage N and declined marginally (P>0.10) with increasing proportion of concentrate in the diet. All protein supplements had a significant effect on BWG, but the effects were greater for RSM (P<0.01) and FM (P<0.05) than for SBM. Increasing dietary CP concentration improved (P<0.01) feed efficiency when expressed as BWG/kg DM intake, but decreased markedly when expressed as BWG/kg CP intake. Assuming CP concentration of 170 g/kg BW marginal efficiency of the utilisation of incremental CP intake was only 0.05. Increasing dietary CP concentration had no effects on carcass weight, dressing

  5. Effects of plant-based diets on plasma lipids.

    PubMed

    Ferdowsian, Hope R; Barnard, Neal D

    2009-10-01

    Dyslipidemia is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke. Current guidelines recommend diet as first-line therapy for patients with elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, what constitutes an optimal dietary regimen remains a matter of controversy. Large prospective trials have demonstrated that populations following plant-based diets, particularly vegetarian and vegan diets, are at lower risk for ischemic heart disease mortality. The investigators therefore reviewed the published scientific research to determine the effectiveness of plant-based diets in modifying plasma lipid concentrations. Twenty-seven randomized controlled and observational trials were included. Of the 4 types of plant-based diets considered, interventions testing a combination diet (a vegetarian or vegan diet combined with nuts, soy, and/or fiber) demonstrated the greatest effects (up to 35% plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction), followed by vegan and ovolactovegetarian diets. Interventions allowing small amounts of lean meat demonstrated less dramatic reductions in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels. In conclusion, plant-based dietary interventions are effective in lowering plasma cholesterol concentrations. PMID:19766762

  6. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but do increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets.

    PubMed

    Antaya, N T; Soder, K J; Kraft, J; Whitehouse, N L; Guindon, N E; Erickson, P S; Conroy, A B; Brito, A F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean±standard deviation) 40±21 d in milk and 464±35 kg of body weight and 4 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 75±37 d in milk and 384±17kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed a total mixed ration (64:36 forage-to-concentrate ratio) supplemented (as fed) with 0, 57, 113, or 170 g/d of ANOD. Milk yield as well as concentrations and yields of milk components (fat, protein, lactose, milk urea N) were not affected by increasing dietary amounts of ANOD. Concentration (from 178 to 1,370 µg/L) and yield (from 2.8 to 20.6 mg/d) of milk I increased linearly in cows fed incremental amounts of ANOD as a result of the high concentration of I (820 mg/kg of dry matter) in ANOD. Overall, only minor changes were observed in the proportion of milk fatty acids with ANOD supplementation. Quadratic trends were observed for dry matter intake and total-tract digestibilities of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber, whereas negative linear trends were observed for serum concentration of cortisol and crude protein digestibility with ANOD supplementation. Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not affected by ANOD supplementation and averaged 1.1 and 48.4 ng/mL, respectively. However, feeding increasing amounts of ANOD linearly reduced the plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (from 164 to 132 mEq/L). Quadratic effects were found for the total-tract digestibility of ADF and urinary output of purine derivatives, suggesting that ANOD supplementation

  7. Energy concentration and amino acid digestibility in high-protein canola meal, conventional canola meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Berrocoso, J D; Rojas, O J; Liu, Y; Shoulders, J; González-Vega, J C; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine DE and ME and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 2 sources of high-protein canola meal (CM-HP1 and CM-HP2), conventional canola meal (CM-CV), and soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 barrows (51.5 ± 4.0 kg initial BW) were housed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet. A corn-based diet (97.4% corn) and 4 diets that contained both corn and each of the 3 sources of canola meal or SBM were formulated. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period. The DE and ME were 3,347 and 3,268 kcal/kg in corn, 3,312 and 2,893 kcal/kg in CM-HP1, 3,627 and 3,346 kcal/kg in CM-HP2, 2,798 and 2,492 kcal/kg in CM-CV, and 4,000 and 3,796 kcal/kg in SBM, respectively. Values for DE and ME were greater (P< 0.05) in SBM than in all other ingredients, but DE and ME were greater (P < 0.05) in corn and the 2 high-protein canola meals than in CM-CV. The DE and ME were also greater (P< 0.05) in CM-HP2 than in CM-HP1. In Exp. 2, 10 barrows (65.3 ± 10.4 kg initial BW) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly allotted to a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design with 5 diets and 5 periods in each square. A N-free diet and 4 corn starch-based diets that contained CM-HP1, CM-HP2, CM-CV, or SBM as the sole source of AA were formulated. Each period lasted 7 d and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The SID of CP and all AA except Pro were greater (P < 0.05) in SBM than in the 3 sources of canola meal. With the exception of His and Lys, no differences in SID of indispensable AA were observed among the 3 sources of canola meal. The SID of His and Lys were greater (P < 0.05) in CM-HP1 and CM-HP2 than in CM-CV and the SID of CP was greater (P < 0.05) in CM-HP2 than in CM-CV, but no differences in the SID of indispensable AA were observed between CM-HP1 and CM-HP2. In conclusion, the 2 high-protein canola

  8. Taurine supplementation to alternative dietary proteins used in fish meal replacement enhances growth of juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two separate 8 week feeding trials were conducted to examine the impacts of fish meal replacement with an organically certifiable yeast-based protein source with and without supplementation of methionine, tryptophan, and taurine to diets for juvenile cobia. In the first trial, diets were formulated ...

  9. Effects of pH and storage time on the adhesive and rheological properties of cottonseed meal-based products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adhesive bonding is a key factor for efficiently utilizing timber and other lignocellulosic resources. To increase the basic knowledge of cottonseed meal-based adhesives and optimize the operational parameters for practical applications, in this study, we investigated the effects of pH and storage t...

  10. Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, M Margarita; Acevedo Cantero, Paula

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event 'Semanas del Corazon 2008' in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits. PMID:25127937

  11. Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, David; Pimentel, Marcia

    2003-09-01

    Worldwide, an estimated 2 billion people live primarily on a meat-based diet, while an estimated 4 billion live primarily on a plant-based diet. The US food production system uses about 50% of the total US land area, 80% of the fresh water, and 17% of the fossil energy used in the country. The heavy dependence on fossil energy suggests that the US food system, whether meat-based or plant-based, is not sustainable. The use of land and energy resources devoted to an average meat-based diet compared with a lactoovovegetarian (plant-based) diet is analyzed in this report. In both diets, the daily quantity of calories consumed are kept constant at about 3533 kcal per person. The meat-based food system requires more energy, land, and water resources than the lactoovovegetarian diet. In this limited sense, the lactoovovegetarian diet is more sustainable than the average American meat-based diet. PMID:12936963

  12. How accurate are parental responses concerning their fourth-grade children's school-meal participation, and what is the relationship between children's body mass index and school-meal participation based on parental responses?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This article investigated (1) parental response accuracy of fourth-grade children's school-meal participation and whether accuracy differed by children's body mass index (BMI), sex, and race, and (2) the relationship between BMI and school-meal participation (based on parental responses). Methods Data were from four cross-sectional studies conducted from fall 1999 to spring 2003 with fourth-grade children from 13 schools total. Consent forms asked parents to report children's usual school-meal participation. As two studies' consent forms did not ask about lunch participation, complete data were available for breakfast on 1,496 children (51% Black; 49% boys) and for lunch on 785 children (46% Black; 48% boys). Researchers compiled nametag records (during meal observations) of meal participation on randomly selected days during children's fourth-grade school year for breakfast (average nametag days across studies: 7-35) and for lunch (average nametag days across studies: 4-10) and categorized participation as "usually" (≥ 50% of days) or "not usually" (< 50% of days). Weight and height were measured. Concerning parental response accuracy, marginal regression was used with agreement between parental responses and nametag records as the dependent variable; independent variables were BMI, age, sex, race, and study. Concerning a relationship between BMI and school-meal participation, marginal regression was used with BMI as the dependent variable; independent variables were breakfast participation, lunch participation, age, sex, race, and study. Results Concerning breakfast participation and lunch participation, 74% and 92% of parents provided accurate responses, respectively. Parental response accuracy was better for older children for breakfast and lunch participation, and for Black than White children for lunch participation. Usual school-meal participation was significantly related to children's BMI but in opposite directions -- positively for breakfast

  13. Diet History Questionnaire Paper-based Forms

    Cancer.gov

    DHQ-1 is the standard version of the NCI's Diet History Questionnaire. It was originally printed in 1998, reprinted in 2002 with minor changes to the front page and the development of a Spanish translation, and reprinted again in 2007 with changes to the Today's Date field to include the years 2007-2011.

  14. Growth and body composition of nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fry fed organic diets containing yeast extract and soybean meal as replacements for fish meal, with and without supplemental lysine and methionine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantities of fishmeal (FM) have remained level for the past several decades; however, demand has dramatically increased due to its inclusion in all animal production as a high quality protein source. Soybean meal (SBM) is the most widely-used plant-protein ingredient for replacing various proportio...

  15. A Historical Review of Changes in Nutrition Standards of USDA Child Meal Programs Relative to Research Findings on the Nutritional Adequacy of Program Meals and the Diet and Nutritional Health of Participants: Implications for Future Research and the Summer Food Service Program

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Laura C.; Gunther, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: The USDA child meal programs (CMPs) (National School Lunch Program (NSLP), School Breakfast Program (SBP), and Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) were established in 1946 (NSLP) and 1975 (SBP and SFSP) to improve the diet and nutritional health of US children. There is concern that participation in these programs may in fact be a contributor to the current childhood obesity epidemic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if the CMPs are meeting their intended goal by reviewing the historical changes to nutrition standards of the CMPs in correspondence with the literature that examines the nutritional adequacy of meals served as part of these programs, as well as the dietary intakes and nutritional status of participants. Methods: Public Law and the Federal Register were reviewed and websites and online databases were systematically searched. Results: NSLP and SBP first underwent updates to the nutrition standards in 1994 and subsequently 2010, whereas SFSP last underwent modifications in 2000. The majority of data, all collected prior to 2010, demonstrate that meals served as part of the NSLP and SBP are not meeting nutrition standards. In addition, the dietary intakes of NSLP and SBP participants are high in calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium, and low in fiber. Studies examining the weight status and other nutrition-related health outcomes of NSLP and SBP participants have produced mixed results. In contrast, no studies published in the peer-reviewed literature have been conducted examining the nutritional adequacy of SFSP meals or the dietary intakes or nutritional health of SFSP participants. There are public reports available on the nutritionally adequacy of SFSP meals, however, they are severely outdated (1988 and 2003). Due to this dearth of information, a case study on a sample SFSP menu from summer 2015 was conducted; results showed that the meals are high in carbohydrate and protein content and insufficient in vegetable

  16. Supplemental protein sources for steers fed corn-based diets: II. Growth and estimated metabolizable amino acid supply.

    PubMed

    Ludden, P A; Jones, J M; Cecava, M J; Hendrix, K S

    1995-05-01

    Seventy Simmental-cross steers (average initial weight 301 +/- 24 kg) were individually fed in a 175-d completely randomized design experiment to evaluate the effects of source and level of protein in the diet on gain and feed efficiency. Steers were allotted to 1 of 10 treatments (seven steers per treatment) in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments plus a urea-supplemented control diet. Main factors were source of supplemental protein (soybean meal [SBM], a high ruminal escape soybean meal [SP; SoyPLUS], or a combination of corn gluten meal and blood meal [CB; 50:50 on a nitrogen basis]) and level of each protein source (20, 30, or 40% of total dietary CP). Based on 18-h in situ ruminal incubation, escape N content of the protein sources was 66.0, 82.5, and 90.8% of total N and metabolizable amino acid (MAA) content was 29.1, 33.4, and 67.8 g/100 g of DM for SBM, SP, and CB respectively. The steers were fed 12.5% CP diets based on cracked corn (70%) on d 0 through 70 and were switched to a common 11.5% CP urea-supplemented cracked corn diet (80%) on d 71. The steers were housed in individual confinement stalls and had ad libitum access to feed. Replacing urea with SBM or SP increased (P < .05) 28- and 70-d ADG and DMI and increased (P < .05) 28-d efficiency (kg of gain/100 kg of feed). Replacing urea with CB did not improve (P > .05) 28- or 70-d ADG or DMI but did increase (P < .05) 28-d efficiency. The growth rate of steers at 28 and 70 d was correlated to a greater degree with ME intake (r2 = .83 and .85, respectively) rather than MAA supply, suggesting that the MAA supply was not first-limiting for growth. The source of supplemental protein fed during d 0 through 70 had no effect (P > .05) on 175-d DMI or efficiency; however, feeding SBM increased (P < .05) 175-d ADG compared with feeding urea, SP, or CB. Increasing supplemental true protein tended to linearly increase ADG and DMI at 28 and 70 d, but overall, ADG, DMI, and efficiency were not affected (P

  17. Defatted flaxseed meal incorporated corn-rice flour blend based extruded product by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ganorkar, Pravin M; Patel, Jhanvi M; Shah, Vrushti; Rangrej, Vihang V

    2016-04-01

    Considering the evidence of flaxseed and its defatted flaxseed meal (DFM) for human health benefits, response surface methodology (RSM) based on three level four factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed for the development of DFM incorporated corn - rice flour blend based extruded snack. The effect of DFM fortification (7.5-20 %), moisture content of feed (14-20 %, wb), extruder barrel temperature (115-135 °C) and screw speed (300-330 RPM) on expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS), overall acceptability (OAA) score and water solubility index (WSI) of extrudates were investigated using central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Significant regression models explained the effect of considered variables on all responses. DFM incorporation level was found to be most significant independent variable affecting on extrudates characteristics followed by extruder barrel temperature and then screw rpm. Feed moisture content did not affect extrudates characteristics. As DFM level increased (7.5 % to 20 %), ER and OAA value decreased. However, BS and WSI values were found to increase with increase in DFM level. Based on the defined criteria for numerical optimization, the combination for the production of DFM incorporated extruded snack with desired sensory attributes was achieved by incorporating 10 % DFM (replacing rice flour in flour blend) and by keeping 20 % moisture content, 312 screw rpm and 125 °C barrel temperature. PMID:27413213

  18. A parametric Probabilistic Context-Free Grammar for food intake analysis based on continuous meal weight measurements.

    PubMed

    Papapanagiotou, Vasileios; Diou, Christos; Langlet, Billy; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Delopoulos, Anastasios

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring and modification of eating behaviour through continuous meal weight measurements has been successfully applied in clinical practice to treat obesity and eating disorders. For this purpose, the Mandometer, a plate scale, along with video recordings of subjects during the course of single meals, has been used to assist clinicians in measuring relevant food intake parameters. In this work, we present a novel algorithm for automatically constructing a subject's food intake curve using only the Mandometer weight measurements. This eliminates the need for direct clinical observation or video recordings, thus significantly reducing the manual effort required for analysis. The proposed algorithm aims at identifying specific meal related events (e.g. bites, food additions, artifacts), by applying an adaptive pre-processing stage using Delta coefficients, followed by event detection based on a parametric Probabilistic Context-Free Grammar on the derivative of the recorded sequence. Experimental results on a dataset of 114 meals from individuals suffering from obesity or eating disorders, as well as from individuals with normal BMI, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:26738112

  19. Effects of natural raw meal (NRM) on high-fat diet and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Song, Jia-Le; Park, Myoung-Gyu; Park, Mi-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Colitis is a serious health problem, and chronic obesity is associated with the progression of colitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of natural raw meal (NRM) on high-fat diet (HFD, 45%) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 2% w/v)-induced colitis in C57BL/6J mice. MATERIALS/METHODS Body weight, colon length, and colon weight-to-length ratio, were measured directly. Serum levels of obesity-related biomarkers, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were determined using commercial kits. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 were detected using a commercial ELISA kit. Histological study was performed using a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining assay. Colonic mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by RT-PCR assay. RESULTS Body weight and obesity-related biomarkers (TG, TC, LDL, HDL, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin) were regulated and obesity was prevented in NRM treated mice. NRM significantly suppressed colon shortening and reduced colon weight-to-length ratio in HFD+DSS induced colitis in C57BL/6J mice (P < 0.05). Histological observations suggested that NRM reduced edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by HFD and DSS. In addition, NRM decreased the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and inhibited the mRNA expressions of these cytokines, and iNOS and COX-2 in colon mucosa (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION The results suggest that NRM has an anti-inflammatory effect against HFD and DSS-induced colitis in mice, and that these effects are due to the amelioration of HFD and/or DSS-induced inflammatory reactions. PMID:26634051

  20. Effect of iron status on iron absorption in different habitual meals in young south Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Kalasuramath, Suneeta; Kurpad, Anura V.; Thankachan, Prashanth

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) affects a large number of women in India. An inverse relationship exists between iron (Fe) status and Fe absorption. Dietary inhibitory and enhancing factors exert a profound influence on bioavailability of Fe. Although the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for Fe is based on 8 per cent bioavailability, it is not clear if this holds good for the usual highly inhibitory Indian diet matrix. This study was aimed to determine Fe absorption from several habitually consumed south Indian food and to evaluate the interaction of Fe status with absorption. Methods: Four Fe absorption studies were performed on 60 apparently healthy young women, aged 18-35 years. Based on blood biochemistry, 45 of them were ID and 15 were iron replete (IR). The habitual meals assessed were rice, millet and wheat based meals in the ID subjects and rice based meal alone in the IR subjects. Each subject received the test meal labelled with 3 mg of 57Fe and Fe absorption was measured based on erythrocyte incorporation of isotope label 14 days following administration. Results: Mean fractional Fe absorption from the rice, wheat and millet based meals in the ID subjects were 8.3, 11.2 and 4.6 per cent, respectively. Fe absorption from the rice-based meals was 2.5 per cent in IR subjects. Interpretation & conclusions: Fe absorption is dictated by Fe status from low bioavailability meals. Millet based meals have the lowest bioavailability, while the rice and wheat based meals had moderate to good bioavailability. In millet based meals, it is prudent to consider ways to improve Fe absorption. PMID:23563376

  1. Meal timing influences daily caloric intake in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Kathryn J.; Baron, Kelly G.; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2016-01-01

    The role that meal pattern plays in weight regulation is a popular topic of scientific and common debate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between meal timing with caloric intake and body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that latemeal timing and eating closer to sleep onset time would be associated with greater energy intake and higher BMI. Participants included 59 individuals recruited from the community. Rest/activity patterns were assessed using seven days of wrist actigraphy, and caloric intake was evaluated using seven days of diet logs. Results demonstrated that the timing of meals was associated with overall energy intake but not with BMI. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, gender, sleep duration, and timing; eating more frequently, later timing of the last meal, and a shorter duration between last meal and sleep onset predicted higher total caloric intake. In a mediational model, eating frequency explained the relationship between eating closer to sleep onset and total caloric intake. Results suggest that later relative timing of meals, particularly eating close to sleep, could lead to weight gain due to a greater number of eating occasions and higher total daily caloric intake. These findings have important implications for the development of novel, time-based interventions for weight management. PMID:25439026

  2. EFFECT OF FISH-MEAL REPLACEMENT WITH POULTRY BY-PRODUCT MEAL ON THE GROWTH, TISSUE COMPOSITION AND HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF LARGEMOUTH BASS (MICROPTERUS SALMOIDES) FED DIETS CONTAINING DIFFERENT LIPIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that growth of largemouth bass (LMB) fed a diet containing different lipid (canola, chicken, or fish oil) or combination of lipids (canola + chicken oil (1:1) or menhaden fish oil + chicken oil (1:1)) was comparable to growth of LMB fed a commercial trout diet when protein in th...

  3. Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins.

    PubMed

    Cerling, Thure E; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo; Mbua, Emma N; Leakey, Louise N; Leakey, Meave G; Leakey, Richard E; Brown, Francis H; Grine, Frederick E; Hart, John A; Kaleme, Prince; Roche, Hélène; Uno, Kevin T; Wood, Bernard A

    2013-06-25

    Hominin fossil evidence in the Turkana Basin in Kenya from ca. 4.1 to 1.4 Ma samples two archaic early hominin genera and records some of the early evolutionary history of Paranthropus and Homo. Stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel are used to estimate the fraction of diet derived from C3 or C4 resources in these hominin taxa. The earliest hominin species in the Turkana Basin, Australopithecus anamensis, derived nearly all of its diet from C3 resources. Subsequently, by ca. 3.3 Ma, the later Kenyanthropus platyops had a very wide dietary range--from virtually a purely C3 resource-based diet to one dominated by C4 resources. By ca. 2 Ma, hominins in the Turkana Basin had split into two distinct groups: specimens attributable to the genus Homo provide evidence for a diet with a ca. 65/35 ratio of C3- to C4-based resources, whereas P. boisei had a higher fraction of C4-based diet (ca. 25/75 ratio). Homo sp. increased the fraction of C4-based resources in the diet through ca. 1.5 Ma, whereas P. boisei maintained its high dependency on C4-derived resources. PMID:23733966

  4. Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Kyalo Manthi, Fredrick; Mbua, Emma N.; Leakey, Louise N.; Leakey, Meave G.; Leakey, Richard E.; Brown, Francis H.; Grine, Frederick E.; Hart, John A.; Kaleme, Prince; Roche, Hélène; Uno, Kevin T.; Wood, Bernard A.

    2013-06-01

    Hominin fossil evidence in the Turkana Basin in Kenya from ca. 4.1 to 1.4 Ma samples two archaic early hominin genera and records some of the early evolutionary history of Paranthropus and Homo. Stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel are used to estimate the fraction of diet derived from C3 or C4 resources in these hominin taxa. The earliest hominin species in the Turkana Basin, Australopithecus anamensis, derived nearly all of its diet from C3 resources. Subsequently, by ca. 3.3 Ma, the later Kenyanthropus platyops had a very wide dietary range-from virtually a purely C3 resource-based diet to one dominated by C4 resources. By ca. 2 Ma, hominins in the Turkana Basin had split into two distinct groups: specimens attributable to the genus Homo provide evidence for a diet with a ca. 65/35 ratio of C3- to C4-based resources, whereas P. boisei had a higher fraction of C4-based diet (ca. 25/75 ratio). Homo sp. increased the fraction of C4-based resources in the diet through ca. 1.5 Ma, whereas P. boisei maintained its high dependency on C4-derived resources.

  5. Stable isotope-based diet reconstructions of Turkana Basin hominins

    PubMed Central

    Cerling, Thure E.; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo; Mbua, Emma N.; Leakey, Louise N.; Leakey, Meave G.; Leakey, Richard E.; Brown, Francis H.; Grine, Frederick E.; Hart, John A.; Kaleme, Prince; Roche, Hélène; Uno, Kevin T.; Wood, Bernard A.

    2013-01-01

    Hominin fossil evidence in the Turkana Basin in Kenya from ca. 4.1 to 1.4 Ma samples two archaic early hominin genera and records some of the early evolutionary history of Paranthropus and Homo. Stable carbon isotopes in fossil tooth enamel are used to estimate the fraction of diet derived from C3 or C4 resources in these hominin taxa. The earliest hominin species in the Turkana Basin, Australopithecus anamensis, derived nearly all of its diet from C3 resources. Subsequently, by ca. 3.3 Ma, the later Kenyanthropus platyops had a very wide dietary range—from virtually a purely C3 resource-based diet to one dominated by C4 resources. By ca. 2 Ma, hominins in the Turkana Basin had split into two distinct groups: specimens attributable to the genus Homo provide evidence for a diet with a ca. 65/35 ratio of C3- to C4-based resources, whereas P. boisei had a higher fraction of C4-based diet (ca. 25/75 ratio). Homo sp. increased the fraction of C4-based resources in the diet through ca. 1.5 Ma, whereas P. boisei maintained its high dependency on C4-derived resources. PMID:23733966

  6. Subjective satiety and other experiences of a Paleolithic diet compared to a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We found marked improvement of glycemic control and several cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes given advice to follow a Paleolithic diet, as compared to a diabetes diet. We now report findings on subjective ratings of satiety at meal times and participants’ other experiences of the two diets from the same study. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes (3 women and 10 men), were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts, and a diabetes diet designed in accordance with dietary guidelines, during two consecutive 3-month periods. In parallel with a four-day weighed food record, the participants recorded their subjective rating of satiety. Satiety quotients were calculated as the intra-meal quotient of change in satiety during a meal and consumed energy or weight of food and drink for that specific meal. All participants answered the same three open-ended questions in a survey following each diet: “What thoughts do you have about this diet?”, “Describe your positive and negative experiences with this diet” and “How do you think this diet has affected your health?”. Results The participants were equally satiated on both diets. The Paleolithic diet resulted in greater satiety quotients for energy per meal (p = 0.004), energy density per meal (p = 0.01) and glycemic load per meal (p = 0.02). The distribution of positive and negative comments from the survey did not differ between the two diets, and the comments were mostly positive. Among comments relating to recurring topics, there was no difference in distribution between the two diets for comments relating to tastelessness, but there was a trend towards more comments on the Paleolithic diet being satiating and improving blood sugar values, and significantly more comments on weight loss and difficulty adhering to the Paleolithic diet. Conclusions A

  7. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, J. F.; Song, X. M.; Huang, X.; Zhou, W. D.; Wu, J. L.; Zhu, Z. G.; Zheng, H. C.; Jiang, Y. Q.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks. PMID:25049501

  8. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of incorporating peanuts into an American Diabetes Association meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters of adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the nutritional goals for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are to achieve an optimal nutrient intake to achieve normoglycemia and a cardioprotective lipid profile. Peanuts are nutrient dense foods that contain high levels of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and are a natural source of arginine, fiber, phytosterols, resveritrol, niacin, folate, vitamin E and magnesium, which have the potential for improving blood lipids and glycemic control. This study sought to evaluate the effect of a peanut enriched ADA meal plan on the nutrient profile of the total diet and cardiometabolic parameters in adults with T2D. Methods This was a randomized, prospective 24-week parallel-group clinical trial with 60 adults with T2D [age range 34–84 years; body mass index (BMI) range 17.2-48.7 kg/m2]. Subjects consumed an ADA meal plan containing ~20% of energy from peanuts (peanut group) or a peanut-free ADA meal plan (control group). Weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC) and nutrient intake from 24-hour recalls were measured every 4 weeks and fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c and blood lipids were measured every 12 weeks. A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of covariance was performed to assess the significance of changes in the cardiometabolic parameters. Results A higher polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to saturated fat diet ratio and higher intake of MUFA, PUFA, α-tocopherol, niacin and magnesium was observed in the peanut group as compared to the control group (P < 0.01-P = 0.04). Both groups experienced mild reductions in weight, BMI, and WC during the study (P = 0.01-P = 0.03), however there were no differences between the two groups in these measurements or in FBG, HbA1c or blood lipids. For each kilogram of weight loss in the entire cohort there were associations for reductions in WC of 0.48 cm (P < 0.01), FBG of 0.11 mmol/l (P = 0.01) and HbA1c of 0.07% (P < 0.01). Conclusions Daily

  9. Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Philip J; Ismail, Mohamed H; Ha, Benjamin P; Bartolotto, Carole

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present to physicians an update on plant-based diets. Concerns about the rising cost of health care are being voiced nationwide, even as unhealthy lifestyles are contributing to the spread of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. For these reasons, physicians looking for cost-effective interventions to improve health outcomes are becoming more involved in helping their patients adopt healthier lifestyles. Healthy eating may be best achieved with a plant-based diet, which we define as a regimen that encourages whole, plant-based foods and discourages meats, dairy products, and eggs as well as all refined and processed foods. We present a case study as an example of the potential health benefits of such a diet. Research shows that plant-based diets are cost-effective, low-risk interventions that may lower body mass index, blood pressure, HbA1C, and cholesterol levels. They may also reduce the number of medications needed to treat chronic diseases and lower ischemic heart disease mortality rates. Physicians should consider recommending a plant-based diet to all their patients, especially those with high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or obesity. PMID:23704846

  10. Nutritional update for physicians: plant-based diets.

    PubMed

    Tuso, Philip J; Ismail, Mohamed H; Ha, Benjamin P; Bartolotto, Carole

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present to physicians an update on plant-based diets. Concerns about the rising cost of health care are being voiced nationwide, even as unhealthy lifestyles are contributing to the spread of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. For these reasons, physicians looking for cost-effective interventions to improve health outcomes are becoming more involved in helping their patients adopt healthier lifestyles. Healthy eating may be best achieved with a plant-based diet, which we define as a regimen that encourages whole, plant-based foods and discourages meats, dairy products, and eggs as well as all refined and processed foods. We present a case study as an example of the potential health benefits of such a diet. Research shows that plant-based diets are cost-effective, low-risk interventions that may lower body mass index, blood pressure, HbA1C, and cholesterol levels. They may also reduce the number of medications needed to treat chronic diseases and lower ischemic heart disease mortality rates. Physicians should consider recommending a plant-based diet to all their patients, especially those with high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or obesity. PMID:23704846

  11. Variation in Meal-skipping Rates of Korean Adolescents According to Socio-economic Status: Results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seri; Bae, Hong Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify and evaluate the trend of meal-skipping rates among Korean adolescents with their contributing causes and the influence of household income level on meal skipping. Methods Using 2008, 2010, and 2012 data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 222 662 students, a cross-sectional study with subgroup analysis was performed. We calculated odds ratios for skipping each meal 5 or more times in a week by household socio-economic status using a multiple logistic regression model. The secular change in the meal-skipping rates by the students' family affluence scale was analyzed by comparing the meal-skipping students within each subgroup and odds ratios for the same event over time. Results Through 2008 to 2012, most of the meal-skipping rates generally showed a continuous increase or were almost unchanged in both sexes, except for breakfast skipping in several subgroups. Students in low-income households not living with both parents had the highest meal-skipping rates and odds ratios for frequent meal skipping. In a time-series subgroup analysis, the overall odds ratios for the same event increased during 2008 to 2012, with a slight reduction in the gap between low and higher income levels with regard to meal skipping during 2010 to 2012. Conclusions Household socio-economic status and several other factors had a significant influence on Korean adolescent meal-skipping rates. Although the gap in eating behavior associated with household socio-economic differences is currently decreasing, further study and appropriate interventions are needed. PMID:24921019

  12. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    PubMed

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation. PMID:25952887

  13. Meal-based enhancement of protein quality and quantity during weight loss in obese older adults with mobility limitations: rationale and design for the MEASUR-UP trial.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Shelley R; Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Mauceri, Luisa; Orenduff, Melissa; Granville, Esther; Ocampo, Christine; Payne, Martha E; Pieper, Carl F; Bales, Connie W

    2015-01-01

    Obese older adults with even modest functional limitations are at a disadvantage for maintaining their independence into late life. However, there is no established intervention for obesity in older individuals. The Measuring Eating, Activity, and Strength: Understanding the Response - Using Protein (MEASUR-UP) trial is a randomized controlled pilot study of obese women and men aged ≥60 years with mild to moderate functional impairments. Changes in body composition (lean and fat mass) and function (Short Physical Performance Battery) in an enhanced protein weight reduction (Protein) arm will be compared to those in a traditional weight loss (Control) arm. The Protein intervention is based on evidence that older adults achieve optimal rates of muscle protein synthesis when consuming about 25-30 g of high quality protein per meal; these participants will consume ~30 g of animal protein at each meal via a combination of provided protein (beef) servings and diet counseling. This trial will provide information on the feasibility and efficacy of enhancing protein quantity and quality in the context of a weight reduction regimen and determine the impact of this intervention on body weight, functional status, and lean muscle mass. We hypothesize that the enhancement of protein quantity and quality in the Protein arm will result in better outcomes for function and/or lean muscle mass than in the Control arm. Ultimately, we hope our findings will help identify a safe weight loss approach that can delay or prevent late life disability by changing the trajectory of age-associated functional impairment associated with obesity. PMID:25461495

  14. MEAL-BASED ENHANCEMENT OF PROTEIN QUALITY AND QUANTITY DURING WEIGHT LOSS IN OBESE OLDER ADULTS WITH MOBILITY LIMITATIONS: RATIONALE AND DESIGN FOR THE MEASUR-UP TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Shelley R.; Starr, Kathryn N. Porter; Mauceri, Luisa; Orenduff, Melissa; Granville, Esther; Ocampo, Christine; Payne, Martha E.; Pieper, Carl F.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    Obese older adults with even modest functional limitations are at a disadvantage for maintaining their independence into late life. However, there is no established intervention for obesity in older individuals. The Measuring Eating, Activity and Strength: Understanding the Response --Using Protein (MEASUR-UP) trial is a randomized controlled pilot study of obese women and men aged ≥60 years with mild to moderate functional impairments. Changes in body composition (lean and fat mass) and function (Short Physical Performance Battery) in an enhanced protein weight reduction (Protein) arm will be compared to those in a traditional weight loss (Control) arm. The Protein intervention is based on evidence that older adults achieve optimal rates of muscle protein synthesis when consuming about 25-30 grams of high quality protein per meal; these participants will consume −30 g of animal protein at each meal via a combination of provided protein (beef) servings and diet counseling. This trial will provide information on the feasibility and efficacy of enhancing protein quantity and quality in the context of a weight reduction regimen and determine the impact of this intervention on body weight, functional status, and lean muscle mass. We hypothesize that the enhancement of protein quantity and quality in the Protein arm will result in better outcomes for function and/or lean muscle mass than in the Control arm. Ultimately, we hope our findings will help identify a safe weight loss approach that can delay or prevent late life disability by changing the trajectory of age-associated functional impairment associated with obesity. PMID:25461495

  15. Evaluation of plant and animal protein sources as partial or total replacement of fish meal in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles (mean weight, 2.84 g) to examine the effects of total replacement of fish meal (FM), with and without supplementation of DL-methionine (Met) and L-lysine (Lys), by plant protein sources. Fish were f...

  16. The effect of soybean meal processing method and diet inclusion level on growth and intestinal morphology of rainbow trout Onchorynchus mykiss.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard soybean meal is produced by toasting to reduce trypsin inhibitor levels and hexane extraction to remove the valuable soybean oil. The extracted oil is used primarily in human foods, with its use as a feedstock for production of biodiesel, a replacement for conventional petroleum diesel fue...

  17. Genome-wide association study of triglyceride response to a high-fat meal among participants of the NHLBI genetics of lipid lowering drugs and diet network (GOLDN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The triglyceride (TG) response to a high-fat meal (postprandial lipemia, PPL) affects cardiovascular disease risk and is influenced by genes and environment. Genes involved in lipid metabolism have dominated genetic studies of PPL TG response. We sought to elucidate common genetic variant...

  18. Novel starch based nano scale enteric coatings from soybean meal for colon-specific delivery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean meal was used to isolate resistant starch and produce nanoparticles, which could be potential coating materials for colonic nutrient and drug deliveries. The nanoparticles were in 40 +/- 33.2 nm ranges. These nanoparticles were stable under simulated human physiological conditions. The deg...

  19. SUPPLEMENTAL DIETARY INULIN AFFECTS BIOAVAILABILITY OF IRON PRESENT IN CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL TO YOUNG PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron deficiency represents one of the most common global nutritional disorders in humans. Our objective was to determine whether and how supplemental inulin improved bioavailability of iron intrinsically present in a corn-soybean meal based diet to young pigs for hemoglobin synthesis. In Experimen...

  20. Sustainability of plant-based diets: back to the future.

    PubMed

    Sabaté, Joan; Soret, Sam

    2014-07-01

    Plant-based diets in comparison to diets rich in animal products are more sustainable because they use many fewer natural resources and are less taxing on the environment. Given the global population explosion and increase in wealth, there is an increased demand for foods of animal origin. Environmental data are rapidly accumulating on the unsustainability of current worldwide food consumption practices that are high in meat and dairy products. Natural nonrenewable resources are becoming scarce, and environmental degradation is rapidly increasing. At the current trends of food consumption and environmental changes, food security and food sustainability are on a collision course. Changing course (to avoid the collision) will require extreme downward shifts in meat and dairy consumption by large segments of the world's population. Other approaches such as food waste reduction and precision agriculture and/or other technological advances have to be simultaneously pursued; however, they are insufficient to make the global food system sustainable. For millennia, meatless diets have been advocated on the basis of values, and large segments of the world population have thrived on plant-based diets. "Going back" to plant-based diets worldwide seems to be a reasonable alternative for a sustainable future. Policies in favor of the global adoption of plant-based diets will simultaneously optimize the food supply, health, environmental, and social justice outcomes for the world's population. Implementing such nutrition policy is perhaps one of the most rational and moral paths for a sustainable future of the human race and other living creatures of the biosphere that we share. PMID:24898222

  1. Effect of replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal on production of lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently that CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We wished to test whether CM was more effective than SBM on low CP (14.9% CP) than high CP (16.8% CP) diets and to see if it was advant...

  2. Cognitive control of meal onset and meal size: Role of dorsal hippocampal-dependent episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Parent, Marise B

    2016-08-01

    There is a large gap in our understanding of how top-down cognitive processes, such as memory, influence energy intake. Similarly, there is limited knowledge regarding how the brain controls the timing of meals and meal frequency. Understanding how cognition influences ingestive behavior and how the brain controls meal frequency will provide a more complete explanation of the neural mechanisms that regulate energy intake and may also increase our knowledge of the factors that contribute to diet-induced obesity. We hypothesize that dorsal hippocampal neurons, which are critical for memory of personal experiences (i.e., episodic memory), form a memory of a meal, inhibit meal onset during the period following a meal, and limit the amount ingested at the next meal. In support, we describe evidence from human research suggesting that episodic memory of a meal inhibits intake and review data from human and non-human animals showing that impaired hippocampal function is associated with increased intake. We then describe evidence from our laboratory showing that inactivation of dorsal hippocampal neurons decreases the interval between sucrose meals and increases intake at the next meal. We also describe our evidence suggesting that sweet orosensation is sufficient to induce synaptic plasticity in dorsal hippocampal neurons and raise the possibility that impaired dorsal hippocampal function and episodic memory deficits contribute to the development and/or maintenance of diet-induced obesity. Finally, we raise some critical questions that need to be addressed in future research. PMID:27083124

  3. Ketogenic Diets: New Advances for Metabolism-Based Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kossoff, Eric H.; Hartman, Adam L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite myriad anticonvulsants available and in various stages of development, there are thousands of children and adults with epilepsy worldwide still refractory to treatment and not candidates for epilepsy surgery. Many of these patients will now turn to dietary therapies such as the ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) diet, modified Atkins diet, and low glycemic index treatment. Recent Findings In the past several years, neurologists are finding new indications to use these dietary treatments, perhaps even as first-line therapy, including infantile spasms, myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (Doose syndrome), Dravet syndrome, and status epilepticus (including FIRES syndrome). Adults are also one of the most rapidly growing populations being treated nowadays; a group of patients previously not typically offered these treatments. In 2009, two controlled trials of the ketogenic diet were published as well as an International Expert Consensus Statement on dietary treatment of epilepsy. Ketogenic diets are also now being increasingly studied for neurologic conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer disease and cancer. Insights from basic science research have helped elucidate the mechanisms by which metabolism-based therapy may be helpful, both in terms of an anticonvulsant and possibly neuroprotective effect. Summary Dietary therapy for epilepsy continues to grow in popularity worldwide, with expanding use for adults and conditions other than epilepsy. PMID:22322415

  4. Of men and meals.

    PubMed

    Beyer-Westendorf, J; Siegert, G

    2015-06-01

    Rivaroxaban is increasingly used to treat patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE), a potentially life-threatening condition. Because absorption of rivaroxaban decreases from nearly 100% to 66% under fasting conditions, it is recommended that VTE patients take rivaroxaban with a meal. However, this recommendation is based on preclinical pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in healthy volunteers. So far, no clinical evidence is available to support this recommendation. We describe a case of a compliant young patient who developed recurrent pulmonary embolism during rivaroxaban treatment. PK studies provided evidence that malabsorption of rivaroxaban 20 mg due to irregular intake of meals during shift work was the leading cause of recurrent pulmonary embolism. When the patient was instructed to take rivaroxaban with a regular meal, peak plasma concentrations increased from 115 to 318 ng mL(-1) (+ 176%). Consequently, the importance of taking rivaroxaban with food may have a greater clinical relevance than data from preclinical PK studies suggest. PMID:25880707

  5. Environmentally Optimal, Nutritionally Aware Beef Replacement Plant-Based Diets.

    PubMed

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Noor, Elad; Milo, Ron

    2016-08-01

    Livestock farming incurs large and varied environmental burdens, dominated by beef. Replacing beef with resource efficient alternatives is thus potentially beneficial, but may conflict with nutritional considerations. Here we show that protein-equivalent plant based alternatives to the beef portion of the mean American diet are readily devisible, and offer mostly improved nutritional profile considering the full lipid profile, key vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients. We then show that replacement diets require on average only 10% of land, 4% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and 6% of reactive nitrogen (Nr) compared to what the replaced beef diet requires. Applied to 320 million Americans, the beef-to-plant shift can save 91 million cropland acres (and 770 million rangeland acres), 278 million metric ton CO2e, and 3.7 million metric ton Nr annually. These nationwide savings are 27%, 4%, and 32% of the respective national environmental burdens. PMID:27387141

  6. Evaluation Of poultry by-product meal in commercial diets for hybrid striped bass (morone chrysops X M. saxatilis) in pond production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of replacing fishmeal with petfood grade poultry by-product (PBM) on an ideal protein basis in commercial diets for hybrid striped bass (HSB) was evaluated under production conditions in pond culture. A generic production diet (GEN) for HSB was formulated to contain 45% protein, 12% li...

  7. Sodium diformate and extrusion temperature affect nutrient digestibility and physical quality of diets with fish meal and barley protein concentrate for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the effects of ingredient, extrusion temperature, and the acid salt sodium diformate (NaDF) in diets for rainbow trout on apparent nutrient digestibility and physical quality of the diets. The experiment was arranged in a 23 factorial design with two...

  8. Formulation of plant based Rainbow trout feeds on an Ideal Protein Basis can reduce total dietary protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish meal has been a primary protein source in trout feeds and any changes that can reduce fish meal levels and total costs are beneficial. Replacing fish meal with plant protein is a first step, but amino acid content of plant based diets can be limiting. Amino acids are needed for many metabolic...

  9. Prediction of gross energy and digestible energy in copra meal, palm kernel meal, and cassava root fed to pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, C S; Son, A R; Kim, B G

    2012-12-01

    Many of the available prediction equations for feed energy value may not be applicable for ingredients such as copra (Cocos nucifera) meal (CM), palm kernel meal (PKM), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) root (CR). Therefore, we developed novel equations for estimating GE and DE concentrations in CM, PKM, CR, and diets containing these ingredients. Data for GE and DE concentrations were obtained from previous experiments in which the chemical composition in the ingredients and diets were determined. In addition, in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD) values in 3 samples of ingredients including CM, PKM, and CR and 4 samples of diets including a corn (Zea mays)-soybean (Glycine max) meal-based diet and 3 diets containing CM, PKM, and CR were determined. Based on the model R(2), conceptual predictive criterion, and the P-value of the equation, the best equation for GE concentration (kcal/kg) was GE = 3313 + (24.81 × CP) + (9.83 × NDF) with R(2) = 0.93, root mean square error = 102, and P = 0.005 (CP and NDF values are percentages). Regression analysis was conducted between the DE:GE ratio and IVDMD (%). The DE:GE ratio was 0.81, 0.73, 0.83, 0.89, 0.84, 0.82, and 0.88 in CM, PKM, CR, a corn-soybean meal-based diet, and diets containing CM, PKM, or CR, respectively. The values for IVDMD were 70.3, 42.6, 88.2, 93.4, 86.7, 75.5, and 91.3%, respectively. The DE:GE ratio may be calculated by (0.0030 × IVDMD) + 0.5986 (R(2) = 0.91; P = 0.001). Using the estimated GE concentration and IVDMD, the prediction equation for DE concentration (kcal/kg) was DE = -1965 + (1.02 × GE) + (15.33 × IVDMD) with R(2) = 0.88 and P = 0.007. In conclusion, IVDMD values are useful in estimating energy digestibility in CM, PKM, CR, and diets containing these ingredients. PMID:23365336

  10. A feasibility study of non-targeted adulterant screening based on NIRM spectral library of soybean meal to guarantee quality: The example of non-protein nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guanghui; Fan, Xia; Yang, Zengling; Han, Lujia

    2016-11-01

    The quality and safety of soybean meal is a key matter for the livestock breeding and food industries, since it is one of the most important and widely used protein feed raw materials. As driven by commercial interests, new illegal adulterants which are unknown to consumers and regulators emerge constantly. In order to make up for the inadequacy of traditional detection methods, a novel non-targeted adulterant screening method based on a near-infrared microscopy spectral library of soybean meal is proposed. This study focused on the feasibility of non-targeted screening methods for the detection of adulteration in soybean meal. Six types of non-protein nitrogen were taken as examples and partial least squares discriminant analysis was employed to verify the feasibility of this novel method. The results showed that the non-targeted screening method could screen out adulterations in soybean meal with satisfactory results. PMID:27211617