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Sample records for meaningful assessment method

  1. The Role of Leadership and Culture in Creating Meaningful Assessment: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Mitchell, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    With increased demands for institutional accountability and improved student learning, involvement in assessment has become a fundamental role of higher education faculty (Rhodes, 2010). However, faculty members and administrators often question whether assessment efforts do indeed improve student learning (Hutchings, 2010). This mixed methods…

  2. Dichotomous versus polytomous response options in psychopathology assessment: method or meaningful variance?

    PubMed

    Finn, Jacob A; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Tellegen, Auke

    2015-03-01

    In previous studies, researchers have examined the optimal number of response options for psychological questionnaires. Several have reported increased scale score reliabilities, but few have documented improved external validities. In the present investigation, we followed-up on Cox (2011) and Cox et al.'s (2012) extensive analyses of a clinical assessment instrument, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). We compared the dichotomous (true/false) response format of this inventory with a 4-choice format. Our sample consisted of 406 undergraduate students from a large Midwestern university who were largely female (64.3%), predominantly Caucasian (76.4%), and had a mean age of 19.24 years. Internal-structural analyses confirmed that more response options increase reliabilities, but the effects were small. The differences between correlations with external criteria were very rarely statistically significant, and the few that were did not consistently favor either format. We recommend that in future response-format investigations the internal-structural analyses continue to be combined with evaluations of relevant external correlations. PMID:25364870

  3. Assessing Meaningful Impact: Moving Beyond the Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Bass, K.; Castori, P.; Wenger, M.

    2014-07-01

    Evaluation of program impacts is an essential part of program implementation from proposal writing, justifying expenses to funders, making improvements to programs, and demonstrating the value of program to stakeholders. Often, funding agencies ask for metrics but may not ask for more substantive outcomes. Alternatively, funding agencies are now asking for more and more evidence of program impacts resulting in broad questions about the type of assessments that are most appropriate for program evaluation. Assessing meaningful impacts presents no one-size-fits-all solution for all programs. Appropriate assessment is based on program goals, audience, activitie s, and resources. Panelists led a discussion about how to choose meaningful assessment for different situations, presenting examples from their own work. One of the best indicators of the value of a teacher professional development workshop is whether teachers can apply what they have learned to their classroom practice. Kristin Bass spoke about her experience documenting classroom implementation for the Galileo Educator Network (GEN) professional development project.

  4. Assessing dead space. A meaningful variable?

    PubMed

    Hedenstierna, G; Sandhagen, B

    2006-06-01

    The recording of dead space will give information on how much of total ventilation that reaches both ventilated and perfused alveoli and thus allows gas exchange between alveoli and pulmonary blood. Realising that CO2 retention can be an effect not only of low total ventilation but also of increased dead space is one important information. Moreover, dead space will give insight into the matching of ventilation and perfusion. This is because dead space is affected by a number of factors: 1) tubings and valves that the subject has to rebreath through (apparatus dead space), 2/ Airways (anatomical dead space), 3/ Non-perfused but ventilated alveoli, e.g. pulmonary embolus (alveolar dead space), 4/ Excessive ventilation of alveoli in relation to their perfusion that can be seen in chronic obstructive lung disease (another form of alveolar dead space), and 5/ So called "shunt dead space" that is an erroneous description of right to left lung shunt that brings the higher CO2 concentration in venous blood to the arterial side thereby producing an arterial-to-end-tidal CO2 difference. The dead spaces 2-5 are called physiological dead space. The recording of dead spaces can be done according to the Riley three-compartment model or by analysis of the expired CO2 curve. However, both are subjected to potential errors that have to be considered to make a dead space recording meaningful. A correct measurement and calculation of the dead space will give valuable information on the ventilatory support of the critically ill patient and can also be a valuable diagnostic tool. It should therefore not be forgotten in the intensive care setting. PMID:16682925

  5. Assessment and Accountability to Support Meaningful Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Scott; Leather, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of New Hampshire's efforts to implement a pilot accountability system designed to support deeper learning for students and powerful organization change for schools and districts. The accountability pilot, referred to as Performance Assessment of Competency Education or PACE, is grounded in a competencybased…

  6. Rising to the Challenge: Meaningful Assessment of Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Public and Land-grant Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Rising to the Challenge: Meaningful Assessment of Student Learning" was envisioned in response to a 2007 request for proposals from the U.S. Department of Education's Fund for Improvement of Post Secondary Education (FIPSE). FIPSE called for national, consortial contributions to improving the knowledge and abilities to assess student learning for…

  7. Meaningful General Education Assessment That Is Integrated and Transformative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehlburg, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Assessing general education is not that different from assessing any other type of academic program, but there are some distinctions that make it even more challenging than other types of assessment. This article addresses methods for working with nondepartmentally based and interdisciplinary areas within general education, providing some examples…

  8. Implementing meaningful, educative curricula, and assessments in complex school environments

    PubMed Central

    Ennis, Catherine D.

    2015-01-01

    This commentary uses the lens of curricular implementation to consider issues and opportunities afforded by the papers in this special edition. While it is interesting to envision innovative approaches to physical education, actually implementing changes in the complex institutional school environment is exceptionally challenging. These authors have done an excellent job presenting viable solutions and fore grounding challenges. Yet, without a concerted effort to invite teachers to engage with us in this process, our implementation initiatives may not enhance the meaningful and educative process that these scholars envision for physical education. PMID:25960685

  9. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  10. Making Alternate Assessment Score Reports a Meaningful Tool for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, William Hollis, III

    2012-01-01

    While No Child Left Behind assessment policies require student performance on alternate assessments to be reported to parents, there have been no research studies and limited guidance on how this information is best reported. There are two issues resulting from the lack of research and guidance. First, there is no established standard for what…

  11. Strategies for the Meaningful Evaluation of Multiple-Choice Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesbro, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Too many multiple-choice tests are administered without an evaluative component. Teachers often return student assessments or Scantron cards--computerized bubble forms--without review, assuming that the printing of the correct answer will suffice. However, a more constructivist approach to follow up multiple-choice tests can make for more…

  12. Are Multiple Measures Meaningful?: Lessons from a Statewide Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Gail Lynn; Roswell, Barbara Sherr

    2001-01-01

    To determine the factors that contribute to or compromise the effectiveness of multiscored items, this study combined analysis of statewide score data from the 1996 Maryland School Performance Assessment Program tests with systematic analyses of 60 activities providing measures of writing, language usage, or both, and one or more content areas.…

  13. Pediatrics milestone project: next steps toward meaningful outcomes assessment.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Patricia J; Englander, Robert; Schumacher, Daniel J; Burke, Ann; Benson, Bradley J; Guralnick, Susan; Ludwig, Stephen; Carraccio, Carol

    2010-12-01

    In the September 2010 issue of JGME, the Pediatric Milestones Working Group published "The Pediatrics Milestones: Conceptual Framework, Guiding Principles, and Approach to Development", a document that describes the construction of the first iteration of the Pediatric Milestones. These Milestones were developed by the Working Group as a group of practical behavioral expectations for each of the 52 sub-competencies. In constructing these Milestones, the authors were cognizant of the need to ground the Milestones themselves in evidence, theories or other conceptual frameworks that would provide the basis for the ontogeny of development for each sub-competency. During this next phase of the Milestones development, the process will continue with consultation with content experts and consideration of assessment of Milestones. We have described possible measurement tools, explored threats to validity, establishment of benchmarks, and possible approaches to reporting of performance. The vision of the Pediatrics Milestone Project is to understand the development of a pediatrician from entry into medical school through the twilight of a physician's career, and the work will require a collaborative effort of the undergraduate and graduate medical education communities, and the accrediting and certifying bodies. PMID:22132281

  14. THE MEANINGFUL ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION ASSESSMENT: A MEASURE OF ENGAGEMENT IN PERSONALLY VALUED ACTIVITIES*

    PubMed Central

    EAKMAN, AARON M.; CARLSON, MIKE E.; CLARK, FLORENCE A.

    2011-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Purpose in Life Test, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and the Rand SF-36v2 Health Survey subscales. Zero-order correlations consistently demonstrated meaningful relationships between the MAPA and scales of psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life. Results from multiple regression analyses further substantiated these findings, as greater meaningful activity participation was associated with better psychological well-being and health-related quality of life. The MAPA appears to be a reliable and valid measure of meaningful activity, incorporating both subjective and objective indicators of activity engagement. PMID:20649161

  15. Methods of obtaining meaningful information from disperse media holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyomin, Victor V.

    1997-05-01

    The problem of nondestructive testing of microstructure parameters, both aerosols and water suspension, is actual for biology, medicine, and environmental control. Among the methods of optical investigations and diagnostics of light scattering media the holographic method plays a special role. A hologram of scattering volume allows us to reproduce the optical wave field to obtain information on the parameters of microparticles: size, shape, and spatial position. Usually this is done by analysis of the particle images reconstructed from the hologram. On the basis of calculated and experimental results, characteristics of holographic methods are analyzed in this paper. These estimations demonstrate a possibility to use the above methods for investigation of media in biomedical science and clinical practice. A lot of micro-organisms and other living particles are transparent or semitransparent ones. In this case the reconstructed image of the particle will show a spot formed due to light focusing by the particle in addition to its cross section. This circumstance allowed us to propose a method of determining of refractive index of transparent and semitransparent microparticles, that, in turn, can provide identification of the particles type. The development of this method is presented. To make measurement of the size-distribution of particles one can do this simultaneously with the reconstruction of scattering optical field from the hologram. In this case a small angle optical meter (for example, focusing lens) can be placed just behind the illuminated hologram. The reconstructed field is composed of the initial one and its conjugate. Each of these components as well as interference between them can bear an additional information on the medium. The possibility of extraction of this information is also discussed.

  16. Assessing Organizational Capacity for Achieving Meaningful Use of Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Christopher M.; Malone, Robb; Weinberger, Morris; Reiter, Kristin L.; Thornhill, Jonathan; Lord, Jennifer; Nguyen, Nicholas G.; Weiner, Bryan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care institutions are scrambling to manage the complex organizational change required for achieving meaningful use (MU) of electronic health records (EHR). Assessing baseline organizational capacity for the change can be a useful step toward effective planning and resource allocation. Purpose This article describes an adaptable method and tool for assessing organizational capacity for achieving MU of EHR. Data on organizational capacity (people, processes, and technology resources) and barriers are presented from outpatient clinics within one integrated health care delivery system; thus, the focus is on MU requirements for eligible professionals, not eligible hospitals. Methods We conducted 109 interviews with representatives from 46 outpatient clinics. Findings Most clinics had core elements of the people domain of capacity in place. However, the process domain was problematic for many clinics, specifically, capturing problem lists as structured data and having standard processes for maintaining the problem list in the EHR. Also, nearly half of all clinics did not have methods for tracking compliance with their existing processes. Finally, most clinics maintained clinical information in multiple systems, not just the EHR. The most common perceived barriers to MU for eligible professionals included EHR functionality, changes to workflows, increased workload, and resistance to change. Practice Implications Organizational capacity assessments provide a broad institutional perspective and an in-depth clinic-level perspective useful for making resource decisions and tailoring strategies to support the MU change effort for eligible professionals. PMID:23380882

  17. Does alignment of constructivist teaching, curriculum, and assessment strategies promote meaningful learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimarez, Teresa

    Despite our national efforts to attract more students to the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, the number of students continues to be small. Empirical studies have suggested that in order to actively engage students in the science learning processes, lessons need to be designed which consider student prior experiences and provide a sound curriculum, within an environment promoting social interaction---that is, allowing for sharing and negotiation of those ideas which promote reflective thinking. These premises require an embedded assessment system that continuously provides feedback to both student and teacher. This technique allows adaptation and modification of lessons to better facilitate conceptual understanding. This study focused on the use of constructivist strategies that, when aligned, promoted conceptual understanding while facilitating development of science process skills. Skill development leads to meaningful learning, known to promote a change of attitude toward science. A mixed research design embedded in a case study approach was used to understand the complexity of the variables examined in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used to strengthen the validity and interpretation of the findings. Students from one of three ninth-grade physical science classes were selected for this study. The students numbered 29, 13 boys and 16 girls; the majority of these students were of Hispanic background. The analysis of data suggested that the use of constructivist strategies promotes conceptual understanding of science concepts and development of science process skills and a change of attitude towards science. This study concluded that selecting teaching and multiple assessment strategies is vital to engage students in science careers. Due to the limited nature of this case study, the researcher recommends a replication or followup with a different teacher and school, including a control

  18. Towards a meaningful assessment of marine ecological impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Woods, John S; Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Verones, Francesca; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2016-01-01

    Human demands on marine resources and space are currently unprecedented and concerns are rising over observed declines in marine biodiversity. A quantitative understanding of the impact of industrial activities on the marine environment is thus essential. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a widely applied method for quantifying the environmental impact of products and processes. LCA was originally developed to assess the impacts of land-based industries on mainly terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. As such, impact indicators for major drivers of marine biodiversity loss are currently lacking. We review quantitative approaches for cause-effect assessment of seven major drivers of marine biodiversity loss: climate change, ocean acidification, eutrophication-induced hypoxia, seabed damage, overexploitation of biotic resources, invasive species and marine plastic debris. Our review shows that impact indicators can be developed for all identified drivers, albeit at different levels of coverage of cause-effect pathways and variable levels of uncertainty and spatial coverage. Modeling approaches to predict the spatial distribution and intensity of human-driven interventions in the marine environment are relatively well-established and can be employed to develop spatially-explicit LCA fate factors. Modeling approaches to quantify the effects of these interventions on marine biodiversity are less well-developed. We highlight specific research challenges to facilitate a coherent incorporation of marine biodiversity loss in LCA, thereby making LCA a more comprehensive and robust environmental impact assessment tool. Research challenges of particular importance include i) incorporation of the non-linear behavior of global circulation models (GCMs) within an LCA framework and ii) improving spatial differentiation, especially the representation of coastal regions in GCMs and ocean-carbon cycle models. PMID:26826362

  19. A new method for ecoacoustics? Toward the extraction and evaluation of ecologically-meaningful soundscape components using sparse coding methods

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Michael; Moscoso, Paola; Peck, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring is emerging as a promising non-invasive proxy for ecological complexity with potential as a tool for remote assessment and monitoring (Sueur & Farina, 2015). Rather than attempting to recognise species-specific calls, either manually or automatically, there is a growing interest in evaluating the global acoustic environment. Positioned within the conceptual framework of ecoacoustics, a growing number of indices have been proposed which aim to capture community-level dynamics by (e.g., Pieretti, Farina & Morri, 2011; Farina, 2014; Sueur et al., 2008b) by providing statistical summaries of the frequency or time domain signal. Although promising, the ecological relevance and efficacy as a monitoring tool of these indices is still unclear. In this paper we suggest that by virtue of operating in the time or frequency domain, existing indices are limited in their ability to access key structural information in the spectro-temporal domain. Alternative methods in which time-frequency dynamics are preserved are considered. Sparse-coding and source separation algorithms (specifically, shift-invariant probabilistic latent component analysis in 2D) are proposed as a means to access and summarise time-frequency dynamics which may be more ecologically-meaningful. PMID:27413632

  20. A new method for ecoacoustics? Toward the extraction and evaluation of ecologically-meaningful soundscape components using sparse coding methods.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Alice; Casey, Michael; Moscoso, Paola; Peck, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring is emerging as a promising non-invasive proxy for ecological complexity with potential as a tool for remote assessment and monitoring (Sueur & Farina, 2015). Rather than attempting to recognise species-specific calls, either manually or automatically, there is a growing interest in evaluating the global acoustic environment. Positioned within the conceptual framework of ecoacoustics, a growing number of indices have been proposed which aim to capture community-level dynamics by (e.g., Pieretti, Farina & Morri, 2011; Farina, 2014; Sueur et al., 2008b) by providing statistical summaries of the frequency or time domain signal. Although promising, the ecological relevance and efficacy as a monitoring tool of these indices is still unclear. In this paper we suggest that by virtue of operating in the time or frequency domain, existing indices are limited in their ability to access key structural information in the spectro-temporal domain. Alternative methods in which time-frequency dynamics are preserved are considered. Sparse-coding and source separation algorithms (specifically, shift-invariant probabilistic latent component analysis in 2D) are proposed as a means to access and summarise time-frequency dynamics which may be more ecologically-meaningful. PMID:27413632

  1. Mission-driven, Manageable and Meaningful Assessment of an Undergraduate Neuroscience Program

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    Academia has recently been under mounting pressure to increase accountability and intentionality in instruction through development of student “intended learning outcomes” (ILOs) developed at multiple levels (e.g., course, program, major, and even institution). Once these learning goals have been determined, then classroom instruction can be purposefully designed to map onto those intended outcomes in a “backward design” process (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005). The ongoing challenge with any such process, however, is in determining one’s effectiveness in achieving these intended learning goals, so it is critical that efficient tools can be developed that enable these goals to be assessed. In addition, an important requirement of any ILOs is that they are mission-driven, meaningful and parsed in such a way that they can be used to obtain evidence in a manageable way. So how can we effectively assess these outcomes in our students? This paper describes key factors to consider in the planning and implementation of assessment for an undergraduate neuroscience program. PMID:26240530

  2. Mission-driven, Manageable and Meaningful Assessment of an Undergraduate Neuroscience Program.

    PubMed

    Muir, Gary M

    2015-01-01

    Academia has recently been under mounting pressure to increase accountability and intentionality in instruction through development of student "intended learning outcomes" (ILOs) developed at multiple levels (e.g., course, program, major, and even institution). Once these learning goals have been determined, then classroom instruction can be purposefully designed to map onto those intended outcomes in a "backward design" process (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005). The ongoing challenge with any such process, however, is in determining one's effectiveness in achieving these intended learning goals, so it is critical that efficient tools can be developed that enable these goals to be assessed. In addition, an important requirement of any ILOs is that they are mission-driven, meaningful and parsed in such a way that they can be used to obtain evidence in a manageable way. So how can we effectively assess these outcomes in our students? This paper describes key factors to consider in the planning and implementation of assessment for an undergraduate neuroscience program. PMID:26240530

  3. Written Extended-Response Questions as Classroom Assessment Tools for Meaningful Understanding of Evolutionary Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieswandt, Martina; Bellomo, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed grade 12 biology students' answers to written extended-response questions that describe hypothetical scenarios of animals' evolution. We investigated whether these type of questions are suitable for students (n = 24) to express a meaningful understanding of evolutionary theory. Meaningful understanding is comprised…

  4. Development of an Assessment Tool to Measure Students' Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Research on learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory necessitates an understanding of students' perspectives of learning. Novak's Theory of Meaningful Learning states that the cognitive (thinking), affective (feeling), and psychomotor (doing) domains must be integrated for meaningful learning to occur. The psychomotor domain is the…

  5. Cancer Bioinformatic Methods to Infer Meaningful Data From Small-Size Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Bennani-Baiti, Nabila; Bennani-Baiti, Idriss M

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome analyses have uncovered that most cancer-relevant genes cluster into 12 signaling pathways. Knowledge of the signaling pathways and associated gene signatures not only allows us to understand the mechanisms of oncogenesis inherent to specific cancers but also provides us with drug targets, molecular diagnostic and prognosis factors, as well as biomarkers for patient risk stratification and treatment. Publicly available genomic data sets constitute a wealth of gene mining opportunities for hypothesis generation and testing. However, the increasingly recognized genetic and epigenetic inter- and intratumor heterogeneity, combined with the preponderance of small-size cohorts, hamper reliable analysis and discovery. Here, we review two methods that are used to infer meaningful biological events from small-size data sets and discuss some of their applications and limitations. PMID:26568679

  6. Novel methods to collect meaningful data from adolescents for the development of health interventions.

    PubMed

    Hieftje, Kimberly; Duncan, Lindsay R; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2014-09-01

    Health interventions are increasingly focused on young adolescents, and as a result, discussions with this population have become a popular method in qualitative research. Traditional methods used to engage adults in discussions do not translate well to this population, who may have difficulty conceptualizing abstract thoughts and opinions and communicating them to others. As part of a larger project to develop and evaluate a video game for risk reduction and HIV prevention in young adolescents, we were seeking information and ideas from the priority audience that would help us create authentic story lines and character development in the video game. To accomplish this authenticity, we conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with young adolescents aged 10 to 15 years and employed three novel methods: Storytelling Using Graphic Illustration, My Life, and Photo Feedback Project. These methods helped provide a thorough understanding of the adolescents' experiences and perspectives regarding their environment and future aspirations, which we translated into active components of the video game intervention. This article describes the processes we used and the valuable data we generated using these three engaging methods. These three activities are effective tools for eliciting meaningful data from young adolescents for the development of health interventions. PMID:24519998

  7. Novel Methods to Collect Meaningful Data From Adolescents for the Development of Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hieftje, Kimberly; Duncan, Lindsay R.; Fiellin, Lynn E.

    2014-01-01

    Health interventions are increasingly focused on young adolescents, and as a result, discussions with this population have become a popular method in qualitative research. Traditional methods used to engage adults in discussions do not translate well to this population, who may have difficulty conceptualizing abstract thoughts and opinions and communicating them to others. As part of a larger project to develop and evaluate a video game for risk reduction and HIV prevention in young adolescents, we were seeking information and ideas from the priority audience that would help us create authentic story lines and character development in the video game. To accomplish this authenticity, we conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with young adolescents aged 10 to 15 years and employed three novel methods: Storytelling Using Graphic Illustration, My Life, and Photo Feedback Project. These methods helped provide a thorough understanding of the adolescents’ experiences and perspectives regarding their environment and future aspirations, which we translated into active components of the video game intervention. This article describes the processes we used and the valuable data we generated using these three engaging methods. These three activities are effective tools for eliciting meaningful data from young adolescents for the development of health interventions. PMID:24519998

  8. Does kinematics add meaningful information to clinical assessment in post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation? A case report

    PubMed Central

    Bigoni, Matteo; Baudo, Silvia; Cimolin, Veronica; Cau, Nicola; Galli, Manuela; Pianta, Lucia; Tacchini, Elena; Capodaglio, Paolo; Mauro, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this case study were to: (a) quantify the impairment and activity restriction of the upper limb in a hemiparetic patient; (b) quantitatively evaluate rehabilitation program effectiveness; and (c) discuss whether more clinically meaningful information can be gained with the use of kinematic analysis in addition to clinical assessment. The rehabilitation program consisted of the combined use of different traditional physiotherapy techniques, occupational therapy sessions, and the so-called task-oriented approach. [Subject and Methods] Subject was a one hemiplegic patient. The patient was assessed at the beginning and after 1 month of daily rehabilitation using the Medical Research Council scale, Nine Hole Peg Test, Motor Evaluation Scale for Upper Extremity in Stroke Patients, and Hand Grip Dynamometer test as well as a kinematic analysis using an optoelectronic system. [Results] After treatment, significant improvements were evident in terms of total movement duration, movement completion velocity, and some smoothness parameters. [Conclusion] Our case report showed that the integration of clinical assessment with kinematic evaluation appears to be useful for quantitatively assessing performance changes.

  9. A Rubric for Assessing Teachers' Lesson Activities with Respect to TPACK for Meaningful Learning with ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) for meaningful learning with ICT describes their knowledge for designing ICT lesson activities with respect to five dimensions: active, constructive, authentic, intentional, and cooperative. The ICT lesson activities designed by teachers can be assessed to determine the strengths…

  10. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  11. The Design and Implementation of a Meaningful Learning-Based Evaluation Method for Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Chiu, Po-Sheng; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Chen, Tzung-Shi

    2011-01-01

    If ubiquitous learning (u-learning) is to be effectively developed and feasibly applied to education, it is necessary to evaluate its effectiveness. Yet to achieve a sound evaluation, a particular paradigm must be employed to fit the problem domain. Toward this end, the authors of this study have adopted a meaningful learning paradigm. Meaningful…

  12. Scientific Caricatures in the Earth Science Classroom: An Alternative Assessment for Meaningful Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clary, Renee M.; Wandersee, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Archive-based, historical research of materials produced during the Golden Age of Geology (1788-1840) uncovered scientific caricatures (SCs) which may serve as a unique form of knowledge representation for students today. SCs played important roles in the past, stimulating critical inquiry among early geologists and fueling debates that addressed key theoretical issues. When historical SCs were utilized in a large-enrollment college Earth History course, student response was positive. Therefore, we offered SCs as an optional assessment tool. Paired t-tests that compared individual students’ performances with the SC option, as well as without the SC option, showed a significant positive difference favoring scientific caricatures ( α = 0.05). Content analysis of anonymous student survey responses revealed three consistent findings: (a) students enjoyed expressing science content correctly but creatively through SCs, (b) development of SCs required deeper knowledge integration and understanding of the content than conventional test items, and (c) students appreciated having SC item options on their examinations, whether or not they took advantage of them. We think that incorporation of SCs during assessment may effectively expand the variety of methods for probing understanding, thereby increasing the mode validity of current geoscience tests.

  13. Curriculum-Embedded Performance Assessments (CEPAs): Policy Considerations for Meaningful Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Winslow, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Educational assessments provide data that give policymakers a "snapshot" of how students are performing and serve as a means of holding teachers, schools, and districts accountable. Many contend, however, that assessments could do more to promote deeper learning in K-12 environments. One interesting possibility is the use of…

  14. Toward Meaningful Assessment: Lessons from Five First-Grade Classrooms. Occasional Paper Series 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Laura R.

    2011-01-01

    Are teachers who are faced with mandated assessments more likely or less likely to explore their students' performance in depth and use their discoveries to enrich learning? This is the story of how six first-grade teachers in New York City responded to a mandated performance assessment--and how that response compared to a set of informal,…

  15. Meaningful Assessment of Content-Area Literacy for Youth with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troia, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses methods for evaluating students' content-area literacy skills. Four specific factors that affect content-area literacy are described: vocabulary knowledge, topic knowledge, text structure knowledge, and textbook readability, along with methods of evaluating each of the factors. Most of these methods have not yet been…

  16. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.; Hannaman, G.W.; Kryska, P.

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

  17. Revisiting Individual Creativity Assessment: Triangulation in Subjective and Objective Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Namgyoo K.; Chun, Monica Youngshin; Lee, Jinju

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the significant development of creativity studies, individual creativity research has not reached a meaningful consensus regarding the most valid and reliable method for assessing individual creativity. This study revisited 2 of the most popular methods for assessing individual creativity: subjective and objective methods. This study…

  18. Validity Argument for Assessing L2 Pragmatics in Interaction Using Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youn, Soo Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the validity of assessing L2 pragmatics in interaction using mixed methods, focusing on the evaluation inference. Open role-plays that are meaningful and relevant to the stakeholders in an English for Academic Purposes context were developed for classroom assessment. For meaningful score interpretations and accurate…

  19. Opioids for cancer breakthrough pain: a pilot study reporting patient assessment of time to meaningful pain relief.

    PubMed

    Zeppetella, Giovambattista

    2008-05-01

    Breakthrough pain is a common and distinct component of cancer pain that is usually managed with normal release opioids (also known as rescue medication) either before or soon after its onset. A prospective survey of hospice inpatients with breakthrough pain was undertaken to characterize their pain and then compare the time to onset of pain relief of their rescue medication. Patients presented with, on average, 1.7 different types of breakthrough pains (range, 1-4). The average number of breakthrough pains was four per day (range, 1-8), and the average duration of breakthrough pain was 35 minutes (range, 15-60); most occurred suddenly and unpredictably. Patients used morphine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, methadone, or oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate as rescue medication and the average time to meaningful pain relief following their administration was 31 minutes (range, 5-75). No difference was found between morphine, oxycodone, and hydromorphone. Methadone appeared to work faster than morphine (P<0.01) but no faster than oxycodone or hydromorphone, whereas oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate worked faster than morphine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, and methadone (P<0.001). PMID:18258412

  20. Making Fractions Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kelly K.

    2015-01-01

    To be able to support meaningful mathematical experiences, preservice elementary school teachers (PSTs) must learn mathematics in deep and meaningful ways (Ma 1999). They need to experience investigating and making sense of the mathematics they will be called on to teach. To expand their own--often limited--views of what it means to teach and…

  1. Iii. Sleep assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is a complex phenomenon that could be understood and assessed at many levels. Sleep could be described at the behavioral level (relative lack of movements and awareness and responsiveness) and at the brain level (based on EEG activity). Sleep could be characterized by its duration, by its distribution during the 24-hr day period, and by its quality (e.g., consolidated versus fragmented). Different methods have been developed to assess various aspects of sleep. This chapter covers the most established and common methods used to assess sleep in infants and children. These methods include polysomnography, videosomnography, actigraphy, direct observations, sleep diaries, and questionnaires. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are highlighted. PMID:25704734

  2. Meaningful Measurement: The Role of Assessments in Improving High School Education in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkus, Lyndsay M., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In the chapters presented in this volume, leading experts describe some of the assessment challenges in greater detail and provide federal recommendations on how to address them. In "College and Work Readiness as a Goal of High Schools: The Role of Standards, Assessments, and Accountability," John Tanner of the Center for Innovative Measures at…

  3. Meaningful Responses to Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovarik, Madeline

    2006-01-01

    If students were as engaged in reading as they are in video games, television, and sports, the world would be rife with proficient readers. Using a variety of instructional strategies, teachers can make the reading experience more meaningful, increase comprehension, and build proficiency. Mastering cognitive skills can change student reading…

  4. From Mindless to Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Laura; Roberts, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Despite teachers' best intentions, traditional whole-class discussions sometimes end up sounding like the monotonous drone of Charlie Brown's teacher. But with careful planning, teachers can structure discussions that encourage meaningful student interaction and collaborative thinking, write Laura Billings and Terry Roberts of the…

  5. Grading by Response Category: A simple method for providing students with meaningful feedback on exams in large courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Cassandra; Potter, Wendell; Weiss, Brenda

    2014-11-01

    As instructors, we want our students to develop a deep understanding of course material, and feedback is essential in their sense-making process. Providing effective individualized feedback to students in large courses is especially difficult. While researchers suggest,1 and many instructors of large courses are,2,3 incorporating interactive techniques that allow peer feedback, studies have shown that it's important for students to also have direct feedback from the instructor.4 Since the requirement for individualized feedback is difficult to meet during class time in large courses, providing effective feedback on exams and quizzes takes on added importance. Some instructors choose to assess their students using open-ended written exam items that require students to demonstrate their understanding of physics by solving a problem and/or explaining a concept. Because grading these items can be time consuming, the challenge is to develop an approach to grading and provision of feedback that is both efficient and effective.

  6. Miscues: Meaningful Assessment Aids Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    LeRoy was a deaf sixth grader who used signs and his voice to communicate. Yanetta was a deaf eighth grader who had deaf parents and preferred American Sign Language (ASL). Michael was a deaf fifth grader in a suburban school who attended an oral program and used his voice exclusively to communicate. All three students struggled with reading. They…

  7. Life seems pretty meaningful.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Austin John; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-09-01

    Comments on the original article "Life is pretty meaningful," by S. J. Heintzelman and L. A. King (see record 2014-03265-001). Heintzelman and King argue that, contrary to popular perception, our lives hold a great deal of meaning. The study of perceived meaning is an interesting and fruitful avenue. The current authors are concerned, however, that Heintzelman and King may have misrepresented and exploited the philosophical debate surrounding meaning to generate interest in their topic. Unless Heintzelman and King wish to argue that life truly is meaningful and that the perception of meaning is evidence enough, the current authors recommend that for the sake of clarity they make the explicit distinction between the widespread perception of meaning and its intrinsic existence. Unfortunately, once this distinction is made clear, these findings are less compelling to individuals who seek confirmation that intrinsic meaning exists. PMID:26348344

  8. Measuring Meaningful Work: The Work and Meaning Inventory (WAMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steger, Michael F.; Dik, Bryan J.; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    Many people desire work that is meaningful. However, research in this area has attracted diverse ideas about meaningful work (MW), accompanied by an equally disparate collection of ways of assessing MW. To further advance study in this area, the authors propose a multidimensional model of work as a subjectively meaningful experience consisting of…

  9. Educational Assessment and Accountability for All Students: Facilitating the Meaningful Participation of Students with Disabilities in District and Statewide Assessment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.

    This guide provides information about the assessment and inclusion of all students in statewide and district assessment programs. In particular, it focuses on tactics for including students with disabilities in assessment to achieve a more complete picture of student learning and educational accountability. It is designed to help Wisconsin…

  10. In Quest of Meaningful Assessment of International Learning: The Development and Implementation of a Student Survey and ePortfolio Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Jill Wisniewski; Olson, Christa

    2010-01-01

    The article features an analysis of Lessons Learned in Assessing International Learning, the goals of which were to advance the assessment of international learning in order to improve it at U.S. higher education institutions. The project was conducted from 2003 to 2007 and utilized a mixed-methods approach using student surveys and ePortfolios.…

  11. Students' Meaningful Learning Orientation and Their Meaningful Understandings of Meiosis and Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann Liberatore

    This 1-week study explored the extent to which high school students (n=140) acquired meaningful understanding of selected biological topics (meiosis and the Punnett square method) and the relationship between these topics. This study: (1) examined "mental modeling" as a technique for measuring students' meaningful understanding of the topics; (2)…

  12. The Retention of Meaningful Understanding of Meiosis and Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann Liberatore

    This study investigated the retention of meaningful understanding of the biological topics of meiosis, the Punnett square method and the relations between these two topics. This study also explored the predictive influence of students' general tendency to learn meaningfully or by rote (meaningful learning orientation), prior knowledge of meiosis,…

  13. Meaningful Maths: Teaching Map Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittle, Miranda Pacaya

    2007-01-01

    In the author's experience, lessons that are clearly meaningful for students beyond the classroom can foster positive attitudes, increase enjoyment, and enhance learning. In this paper she offers suggestions on how to plan for meaningful mathematics lessons using the topic of map skills as an example. She also presents some specific ideas for…

  14. Meaningful matches in stereovision.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Neus; Almansa, Andrés; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2012-05-01

    This paper introduces a statistical method to decide whether two blocks in a pair of images match reliably. The method ensures that the selected block matches are unlikely to have occurred "just by chance." The new approach is based on the definition of a simple but faithful statistical background model for image blocks learned from the image itself. A theorem guarantees that under this model, not more than a fixed number of wrong matches occurs (on average) for the whole image. This fixed number (the number of false alarms) is the only method parameter. Furthermore, the number of false alarms associated with each match measures its reliability. This a contrario block-matching method, however, cannot rule out false matches due to the presence of periodic objects in the images. But it is successfully complemented by a parameterless self-similarity threshold. Experimental evidence shows that the proposed method also detects occlusions and incoherent motions due to vehicles and pedestrians in nonsimultaneous stereo. PMID:22442122

  15. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  16. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.; Hannaman, G.W.; Kryska, P.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe a qualitative risk assessment process that supplements the requirements of DOE/AL 5481.1B. Although facility managers have a choice of assessing risk either quantitatively or qualitatively, trade offs are involved in making the most appropriate choice for a given application. The results that can be obtained from a quantitative risk assessment are significantly more robust than those results derived from a qualitative approach. However, the advantages derived from quantitative risk assessment are achieved at a greater expenditure of money, time and convenience. This document provides the elements of a framework for performing a much less costly qualitative risk assessment, while retaining the best attributes of quantitative methods. The approach discussed herein will; (1) provide facility managers with the tools to prepare consistent, site wide assessments, and (2) aid the reviewers who may be tasked to evaluate the assessments. Added cost/benefit measures of the qualitative methodology include the identification of mechanisms for optimally allocating resources for minimizing risk in an expeditious, and fiscally responsible manner.

  17. Improving Personal Characterization of Meaningful Activity in Adults with Chronic Conditions Living in a Low-Income Housing Community

    PubMed Central

    Ciro, Carrie A.; Smith, Patsy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To understand how adults living in a low-income, public housing community characterize meaningful activity (activity that gives life purpose) and if through short-term intervention, could overcome identified individual and environmental barriers to activity engagement. Methods: We used a mixed methods design where Phase 1 (qualitative) informed the development of Phase 2 (quantitative). Focus groups were conducted with residents of two low-income, public housing communities to understand their characterization of meaningful activity and health. From these results, we developed a theory-based group intervention for overcoming barriers to engagement in meaningful activity. Finally, we examined change in self-report scores from the Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA) and the Engagement in Meaningful Activity Survey (EMAS). Results: Health literacy appeared to impact understanding of the questions in Phase 1. Activity availability, transportation, income and functional limitations were reported as barriers to meaningful activity. Phase 2 within group analysis revealed a significant difference in MAPA pre-post scores (p =0.007), but not EMAS (p =0.33). Discussion: Health literacy should be assessed and addressed in this population prior to intervention. After a group intervention, participants had a change in characterization of what is considered healthy, meaningful activity but reported fewer changes to how their activities aligned with their values. PMID:26378559

  18. Meaningful Use of Health Information Technology by Rural Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Jeffrey; Casey, Michelle; Moscovice, Ira; Burlew, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the current status of meaningful use of health information technology (IT) in Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs), other rural, and urban US hospitals, and it discusses the potential role of Medicare payment incentives and disincentives in encouraging CAHs and other rural hospitals to achieve meaningful use. Methods: Data…

  19. Making Statistics More Meaningful for Policy Research and Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Henry

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of statistics in policy and evaluation research and the need to present statistical information in a form that is meaningful to mixed audiences. Three guidelines for formulating and presenting meaningful statistics are outlined. Understandability ensures that knowledge of statistical methods is not required for…

  20. State Capacity for Leadership: Ensuring Meaningful Higher Education Involvement in State Implementation of New Assessments Aligned with the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and assessments aligned to them represent a significant milestone in public education reform in the U.S. Developed with consultation from higher education, the rigorous new standards and the assessments now being drafted by two consortia promise to help students reach higher levels of academic achievement and…

  1. Meaningful statistical analysis of large computational clusters.

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, Ann C.; Marzouk, Youssef M.; Brandt, James M.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2005-07-01

    Effective monitoring of large computational clusters demands the analysis of a vast amount of raw data from a large number of machines. The fundamental interactions of the system are not, however, well-defined, making it difficult to draw meaningful conclusions from this data, even if one were able to efficiently handle and process it. In this paper we show that computational clusters, because they are comprised of a large number of identical machines, behave in a statistically meaningful fashion. We therefore can employ normal statistical methods to derive information about individual systems and their environment and to detect problems sooner than with traditional mechanisms. We discuss design details necessary to use these methods on a large system in a timely and low-impact fashion.

  2. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Muna, Alice Baca; LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  3. Eight Steps to Meaningful Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deddeh, Heather; Main, Erin; Fulkerson, Sharon Ratzlaff

    2010-01-01

    A group of teachers at Clifford Smart Middle School in Michigan's Walled Lake Consolidated School District have broken free from traditional grading in order to embrace a more meaningful grading practice. Using standards-based grading practices, they believe their grading now accurately communicates to students and parents the student's mastery…

  4. A Meaningful High School Diploma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Shepherd

    2009-01-01

    Creating a meaningful high school diploma will expose students to the full range of adult options which will enable them to shape their high school education in a way that connects to their current interests and stimulates the growth of new ones. Fully connecting all students to these four worlds of knowledge will equip them to build one…

  5. Relationships between students' meaningful learning orientation and their understanding of genetics topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Ann M. Liberatore; Schafer, Larry E.

    This study explored factors predicting the extent to which high school students (N = 140) acquired meaningful understanding of the biological topics of meiosis, the Punnett-square method, and the relationships between these topics. This study (a) examined mental modeling as a technique for measuring students' meaningful understanding of the topics, (b) measured students' predisposed, generalized tendency to learn meaningfully (meaningful learning orientation), (c) determined the extent to which students' meaningful learning orientation predicted meaningful understanding beyond that predicted by aptitude and achievement motivation, (d) experimentally tested two instructional treatments (relationships presented to students, relationships generated by students), (e) explored the relationships of meaningful learning orientation, prior knowledge, instructional treatment, and all interactions of these variables in predicting meaningful understanding. The results of correlations and multiple regressions indicated that meaningful learning orientation contributed to students' attainment of meaningful understanding independent of aptitude and achievement motivation. Meaningful learning orientation and prior knowledge interacted in unique ways for each topic to predict students' attainment of meaningful understanding. Instructional treatment had relatively little relationship to students' acquisition of meaningful understanding, except for learners midrange between meaningful and rote. These findings imply that a meaningful learning approach among students may be important, perhaps as much or more than aptitude and achievement motivation, for their acquisition of interrelated, meaningful understandings of science.

  6. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  7. Allergic rhinitis: meaningful and less meaningful combination treatments including reminiscences.

    PubMed

    Szelenyi, I

    2014-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) results from a complex allergen-driven mucosal inflammation in the nasal cavity. Current guideline-based therapy for allergic rhinitis include oral and nasal antihistamines, topical and systemic glucocorticoids, decongestants, antimuscarinic agents, mast cell stabilizing drugs, leukotriene-receptor antagonists, and others. In spite of guideline recommendations, most patients are using multiple therapies in an attempt to achieve symptom control. Therefore, more effective therapies for the management of AR are clearly required. Recently, a novel fixed dose combination containing azelastine and fluticasone propionate has successfully been introduced. At present, it represents the only meaningful topical drug combination. Perhaps, it will be followed by others. PMID:24974572

  8. The Use of Qualitative Methods in Large-Scale Evaluation: Improving the Quality of the Evaluation and the Meaningfulness of the Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slayton, Julie; Llosa, Lorena

    2005-01-01

    In light of the current debate over the meaning of "scientifically based research", we argue that qualitative methods should be an essential part of large-scale program evaluations if program effectiveness is to be determined and understood. This article chronicles the challenges involved in incorporating qualitative methods into the large-scale…

  9. Clinically meaningful performance benchmarks in MS

    PubMed Central

    Motl, Robert W.; Scagnelli, John; Pula, John H.; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Cadavid, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identify and validate clinically meaningful Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW) performance benchmarks in individuals living with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Cross-sectional study of 159 MS patients first identified candidate T25FW benchmarks. To characterize the clinical meaningfulness of T25FW benchmarks, we ascertained their relationships to real-life anchors, functional independence, and physiologic measurements of gait and disease progression. Candidate T25FW benchmarks were then prospectively validated in 95 subjects using 13 measures of ambulation and cognition, patient-reported outcomes, and optical coherence tomography. Results: T25FW of 6 to 7.99 seconds was associated with a change in occupation due to MS, occupational disability, walking with a cane, and needing “some help” with instrumental activities of daily living; T25FW ≥8 seconds was associated with collecting Supplemental Security Income and government health care, walking with a walker, and inability to do instrumental activities of daily living. During prospective benchmark validation, we trichotomized data by T25FW benchmarks (<6 seconds, 6–7.99 seconds, and ≥8 seconds) and found group main effects on 12 of 13 objective and subjective measures (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Using a cross-sectional design, we identified 2 clinically meaningful T25FW benchmarks of ≥6 seconds (6–7.99) and ≥8 seconds. Longitudinal and larger studies are needed to confirm the clinical utility and relevance of these proposed T25FW benchmarks and to parse out whether there are additional benchmarks in the lower (<6 seconds) and higher (>10 seconds) ranges of performance. PMID:24174581

  10. Accuracy of a semiquantitative method for Dermal Exposure Assessment (DREAM)

    PubMed Central

    van Wendel, de Joo... B; Vermeulen, R; van Hemmen, J J; Fransman, W; Kromhout, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: The authors recently developed a Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM), an observational semiquantitative method to assess dermal exposures by systematically evaluating exposure determinants using pre-assigned default values. Aim: To explore the accuracy of the DREAM method by comparing its estimates with quantitative dermal exposure measurements in several occupational settings. Methods: Occupational hygienists observed workers performing a certain task, whose exposure to chemical agents on skin or clothing was measured quantitatively simultaneously, and filled in the DREAM questionnaire. DREAM estimates were compared with measurement data by estimating Spearman correlation coefficients for each task and for individual observations. In addition, mixed linear regression models were used to study the effect of DREAM estimates on the variability in measured exposures between tasks, between workers, and from day to day. Results: For skin exposures, spearman correlation coefficients for individual observations ranged from 0.19 to 0.82. DREAM estimates for exposure levels on hands and forearms showed a fixed effect between and within surveys, explaining mainly between-task variance. In general, exposure levels on clothing layer were only predicted in a meaningful way by detailed DREAM estimates, which comprised detailed information on the concentration of the agent in the formulation to which exposure occurred. Conclusions: The authors expect that the DREAM method can be successfully applied for semiquantitative dermal exposure assessment in epidemiological and occupational hygiene surveys of groups of workers with considerable contrast in dermal exposure levels (variability between groups >1.0). For surveys with less contrasting exposure levels, quantitative dermal exposure measurements are preferable. PMID:16109819

  11. Identifying Clinically Meaningful Fatigue with the Fatigue Symptom Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Kristine A.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Small, Brent J.; Munster, Pamela N.; Andrykowski, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The Fatigue Symptom Inventory (FSI) has been used extensively to assess and measure fatigue in a number of clinical populations. The purpose of the present study was to further establish its utility by examining its operating characteristics and determining the optimal cutoff score for identifying clinically meaningful fatigue. The SF-36 Vitality scale, a measure widely used to identify individuals with significant fatigue-related disability, was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the FSI. Results indicate that a score of 3 or greater on those items assessing fatigue in the past week is the optimal cutoff score for identifying clinically meaningful fatigue. Individuals who scored at or above the cutoff also reported significantly greater fatigue interference, more days of fatigue on average, and fatigue a greater proportion of each day in the past week. Findings suggest that the FSI can be used to discriminate effectively between individuals with and without clinically meaningful fatigue. PMID:18495413

  12. Method of mucociliary clearance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilova, Tatiana V.; Manturov, Alexey O.; Ermakov, Igor Y.; Mareev, Gleb O.; Mareev, Oleg V.

    2016-04-01

    The article is devoted to the research capabilities of mucociliary clearance in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses using modern techniques of digital video recording and processing. We describe the setup and software for this method and the results of our research. Using microscope and digital camera we can provide a good method to study mucociliary clearance and by usage of special software we able to measure some characteristic of nasal mucosae and its main function.

  13. Methods of airway resistance assessment.

    PubMed

    Urbankowski, Tomasz; Przybyłowski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Airway resistance is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of the airflow in the airways. The most frequent methods used to measure airway resistance are whole-body plethysmography, the interrupter technique and the forced oscillation technique. All these methods allow to measure resistance during respiration at the level close to tidal volume, they do not require forced breathing manoeuvres or deep breathing during measurement. The most popular method for measuring airway resistance is whole-body plethysmography. The results of plethysmography include among others the following parameters: airway resistance (Raw), airway conductance (Gaw), specific airway resistance (sRaw) and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The interrupter technique is based on the assumption that at the moment of airway occlusion, air pressure in the mouth is equal to the alveolar pressure . In the forced oscillation technique (FOT), airway resistance is calculated basing on the changes in pressure and flow caused by air vibration. The methods for measurement of airway resistance that are described in the present paper seem to be a useful alternative to the most common lung function test - spirometry. The target group in which these methods may be widely used are particularly the patients who are unable to perform spirometry. PMID:27238174

  14. Assessment methods for the evaluation of vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, K M; Kumar, A; Taïeb, A; Ezzedine, K

    2012-12-01

    There is no standardized method for assessing vitiligo. In this article, we review the literature from 1981 to 2011 on different vitiligo assessment methods. We aim to classify the techniques available for vitiligo assessment as subjective, semi-objective or objective; microscopic or macroscopic; and as based on morphometry or colorimetry. Macroscopic morphological measurements include visual assessment, photography in natural or ultraviolet light, photography with computerized image analysis and tristimulus colorimetry or spectrophotometry. Non-invasive micromorphological methods include confocal laser microscopy (CLM). Subjective methods include clinical evaluation by a dermatologist and a vitiligo disease activity score. Semi-objective methods include the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI) and point-counting methods. Objective methods include software-based image analysis, tristimulus colorimetry, spectrophotometry and CLM. Morphometry is the measurement of the vitiliginous surface area, whereas colorimetry quantitatively analyses skin colour changes caused by erythema or pigment. Most methods involve morphometry, except for the chromameter method, which assesses colorimetry. Some image analysis software programs can assess both morphometry and colorimetry. The details of these programs (Corel Draw, Image Pro Plus, AutoCad and Photoshop) are discussed in the review. Reflectance confocal microscopy provides real-time images and has great potential for the non-invasive assessment of pigmentary lesions. In conclusion, there is no single best method for assessing vitiligo. This review revealed that VASI, the rule of nine and Wood's lamp are likely to be the best techniques available for assessing the degree of pigmentary lesions and measuring the extent and progression of vitiligo in the clinic and in clinical trials. PMID:22416879

  15. Methods of assessment of antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, N; Richens, A

    1981-01-01

    Epilepsy is a symptom with protean manifestations and as such it is a difficult disease in which to carry out a therapeutic trial. The methods available to research workers for the assessment of new antiepileptic drugs are hampered by the fact that epilepsy is a fluctuant condition. Although it is a chronic disorder open to study using cross-over trials and within-patient comparisons, accurate assessment cannot be easily made at any one point in time. Research workers are therefore automatically placed at a time factor disadvantage and this is especially so for those searching for quick methods of evaluating new compounds. The need for a quick and reliable method of assessing a new antiepileptic drug has long been appreciated. This article will discuss the methods currently available and we will begin by considering the most commonly used method of assessment with particular reference to some of the problems involved in conducting a controlled clinical trial in epilepsy. PMID:7272157

  16. 9. Assessments: structure, concepts, and methods.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Assessments are an essential element of proper disaster management. Assessments help to define the damage and changes in functions at the time of the assessment. Assessments are transectional across the longitudinal phases of the disaster. Any intervention should be preceded by an assessment(s). The assessment process is deconstructed into a series of 10 steps: (1) need to know; (2) define the goal(s) and objectives(s) of an assessment; (3) select the appropriate indicators; (4) define the methods to be used for the assessment; (5) develop and test a plan for data collection; (6) train and brief data collectors; (7) gather (collect) the data; (8) synthesise the data and information collected; (9) output information for decision-making; and (10) compare findings with overarching goal and objectives. Steps 7-9 constitute a production process. Understanding this process is essential for identification of points of success and failure in achieving the desired assessment. Assessments require careful selection of indicators. The selected indicators are used throughout the process. Currently, no standardised set of indicators has been validated. Criteria for the composition of assessment teams are provided and common sources of error are discussed. Prior to, during, and following disasters, assessments are directed by the appropriate coordination and control entity. PMID:24785806

  17. Quantitative Statistical Methods for Image Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Joyita; Ahn, Sangtae; Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative measures of image quality and reliability are critical for both qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis of medical images. While, in theory, it is possible to analyze reconstructed images by means of Monte Carlo simulations using a large number of noise realizations, the associated computational burden makes this approach impractical. Additionally, this approach is less meaningful in clinical scenarios, where multiple noise realizations are generally unavailable. The practical alternative is to compute closed-form analytical expressions for image quality measures. The objective of this paper is to review statistical analysis techniques that enable us to compute two key metrics: resolution (determined from the local impulse response) and covariance. The underlying methods include fixed-point approaches, which compute these metrics at a fixed point (the unique and stable solution) independent of the iterative algorithm employed, and iteration-based approaches, which yield results that are dependent on the algorithm, initialization, and number of iterations. We also explore extensions of some of these methods to a range of special contexts, including dynamic and motion-compensated image reconstruction. While most of the discussed techniques were developed for emission tomography, the general methods are extensible to other imaging modalities as well. In addition to enabling image characterization, these analysis techniques allow us to control and enhance imaging system performance. We review practical applications where performance improvement is achieved by applying these ideas to the contexts of both hardware (optimizing scanner design) and image reconstruction (designing regularization functions that produce uniform resolution or maximize task-specific figures of merit). PMID:24312148

  18. Quantitative statistical methods for image quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Joyita; Ahn, Sangtae; Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative measures of image quality and reliability are critical for both qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis of medical images. While, in theory, it is possible to analyze reconstructed images by means of Monte Carlo simulations using a large number of noise realizations, the associated computational burden makes this approach impractical. Additionally, this approach is less meaningful in clinical scenarios, where multiple noise realizations are generally unavailable. The practical alternative is to compute closed-form analytical expressions for image quality measures. The objective of this paper is to review statistical analysis techniques that enable us to compute two key metrics: resolution (determined from the local impulse response) and covariance. The underlying methods include fixed-point approaches, which compute these metrics at a fixed point (the unique and stable solution) independent of the iterative algorithm employed, and iteration-based approaches, which yield results that are dependent on the algorithm, initialization, and number of iterations. We also explore extensions of some of these methods to a range of special contexts, including dynamic and motion-compensated image reconstruction. While most of the discussed techniques were developed for emission tomography, the general methods are extensible to other imaging modalities as well. In addition to enabling image characterization, these analysis techniques allow us to control and enhance imaging system performance. We review practical applications where performance improvement is achieved by applying these ideas to the contexts of both hardware (optimizing scanner design) and image reconstruction (designing regularization functions that produce uniform resolution or maximize task-specific figures of merit). PMID:24312148

  19. Expanding Assessment Methods and Moments in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Jennifer; de Pont, Genevieve; Brailsford, Ian

    2012-01-01

    History courses at The University of Auckland are typically assessed at two or three moments during a semester. The methods used normally employ two essays and a written examination answering questions set by the lecturer. This study describes an assessment innovation in 2008 that expanded both the frequency and variety of activities completed by…

  20. Personality, Assessment Methods and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Nuygards, Sarah; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance (AP) assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different…

  1. Formal Method of Description Supporting Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Ueno, Maomi; Kikukawa, Isao; Yokoyama, Setsuo; Miyadera, Youzou

    2006-01-01

    Teachers need to assess learner portfolios in the field of education. However, they need support in the process of designing and practicing what kind of portfolios are to be assessed. To solve the problem, a formal method of describing the relations between the lesson forms and portfolios that need to be collected and the relations between…

  2. EMERGY METHODS: VALUABLE INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    NHEERL's Atlantic Ecology Division is investigating emergy methods as tools for integrated assessment in several projects evaluating environmental impacts, policies, and alternatives for remediation and intervention. Emergy accounting is a methodology that provides a quantitative...

  3. Scientific method, adversarial system, and technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A basic framework is provided for the consideration of the purposes and techniques of scientific method and adversarial systems. Similarities and differences in these two techniques of inquiry are considered with reference to their relevance in the performance of assessments.

  4. Energy efficiency assessment methods and tools evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie, K.L.; Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Dixon, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    Many different methods of assessing the energy savings potential at federal installations, and identifying attractive projects for capital investment have been used by the different federal agencies. These methods range from high-level estimating tools to detailed design tools, both manual and software assisted. These methods have different purposes and provide results that are used for different parts of the project identification, and implementation process. Seven different assessment methods are evaluated in this study. These methods were selected by the program managers at the DoD Energy Policy Office, and DOE Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Each of the methods was applied to similar buildings at Bolling Air Force Base (AFB), unless it was inappropriate or the method was designed to make an installation-wide analysis, rather than focusing on particular buildings. Staff at Bolling AFB controlled the collection of data.

  5. Assessment and Evaluation Methods for Access Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Dallas

    2014-01-01

    This article serves as a primer for assessment and evaluation design by describing the range of methods commonly employed in library settings. Quantitative methods, such as counting and benchmarking measures, are useful for investigating the internal operations of an access services department in order to identify workflow inefficiencies or…

  6. Science Education and Meaningful Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    Argues that there should be no equation between modern methods of teaching science and discovery methods, suggesting that the emphasis on discovery has resulted from confused thinking among science educators. Also, describes research-based developments promising better theoretical/practical perspectives for improved science teaching, focusing on…

  7. How Do Novice Art Teachers Define and Implement Meaningful Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Christina; Newton, Connie; Kuster, Deborah; Milbrandt, Melody

    2010-01-01

    Four researchers collaborated on this qualitative case study that examined 11 first-year novice art teachers' understanding and implementation of meaningful curriculum. Participants were selected through a criterion method sampling strategy; the subjects were employed in rural, urban, and suburban public school districts. In order to conduct a…

  8. Student Engagement and Teacher Guidance in Meaningful Mathematics: Enduring Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Gregory D.; Lucius, Lisa B.

    2008-01-01

    In mathematics, developing a conceptual understanding and observing properly modeled methods rarely lead to successful student performance. The student must participate. As with bike riding, participation with monitoring and guidance makes initial efforts meaningful and beneficial. In this article, the authors share a bike riding experience and…

  9. Ukrainian Teacher Candidates Develop Dispositions of Socially Meaningful Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshmanova, Tetyana; Ravchyna, Tetyana

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses how the method of peer mediation can be utilized by teacher educators in developing students' attitudes to care for those who are in need, how to actively participate in socially meaningful activity without any expectation of reward, and how to contribute to the democratic development of a post-conflict country via active…

  10. Russian risk assessment methods and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorack, M.A.; Carlson, D.D.; Smith, R.E.

    1996-07-01

    One of the benefits resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union is the increased dialogue currently taking place between American and Russian nuclear weapons scientists in various technical arenas. One of these arenas currently being investigated involves collaborative studies which illustrate how risk assessment is perceived and utilized in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The collaborative studies indicate that, while similarities exist with respect to some methodologies, the assumptions and approaches in performing risk assessments were, and still are, somewhat different in the FSU as opposed to that in the US. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the present knowledge of risk assessment methodologies and philosophies within the two largest nuclear weapons laboratories of the Former Soviet Union, Arzamas-16 and Chelyabinsk-70. Furthermore, This paper will address the relative progress of new risk assessment methodologies, such as Fuzzy Logic, within the framework of current risk assessment methods at these two institutes.

  11. Making Social Studies Meaningful to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Susan

    1982-01-01

    Describes a unit on Ancient Greece designed to make social studies meaningful to fourth and fifth graders. Individual projects and group activities helped students learn about ancient Greek culture. (AM)

  12. Breast density: clinical implications and assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Nicole S; Raza, Sughra; Mackesy, Meaghan; Birdwell, Robyn L

    2015-01-01

    Breast density assessment is an important component of the screening mammography report and conveys information to referring clinicians about mammographic sensitivity and the relative risk for developing breast cancer. These topics have gained substantial attention because of recent legislation in several states that requires patients to be informed of dense breast tissue and the potential for associated breast cancer risk and decreased mammographic sensitivity. Because of the considerable implications of diagnosing a woman with dense breast tissue, radiologists should strive to be as consistent as possible when assessing breast density. Commonly used methods of breast density assessment range from subjective visual estimation to quantitative calculations of area and volume density percentages made with complex computer algorithms. The basic principles of currently available commercial methods of calculating fibroglandular density are described and illustrated. There is no criterion standard for determining breast density, but understanding the pros and cons of the various assessment methods will allow radiologists to make informed decisions. Radiologists should understand the basic factors involved in breast density assessment, the changes related to density assessment described in the fifth edition of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon, and the capabilities of currently available software. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25763719

  13. Assessing the Assessment Methods: Climate Change and Hydrologic Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, L. D.; Clark, M. P.; Gutmann, E. D.; Mizukami, N.; Mendoza, P. A.; Rasmussen, R.; Ikeda, K.; Pruitt, T.; Arnold, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and other water management agencies have an interest in developing reliable, science-based methods for incorporating climate change information into longer-term water resources planning. Such assessments must quantify projections of future climate and hydrology, typically relying on some form of spatial downscaling and bias correction to produce watershed-scale weather information that subsequently drives hydrology and other water resource management analyses (e.g., water demands, water quality, and environmental habitat). Water agencies continue to face challenging method decisions in these endeavors: (1) which downscaling method should be applied and at what resolution; (2) what observational dataset should be used to drive downscaling and hydrologic analysis; (3) what hydrologic model(s) should be used and how should these models be configured and calibrated? There is a critical need to understand the ramification of these method decisions, as they affect the signal and uncertainties produced by climate change assessments and, thus, adaptation planning. This presentation summarizes results from a three-year effort to identify strengths and weaknesses of widely applied methods for downscaling climate projections and assessing hydrologic conditions. Methods were evaluated from two perspectives: historical fidelity, and tendency to modulate a global climate model's climate change signal. On downscaling, four methods were applied at multiple resolutions: statistically using Bias Correction Spatial Disaggregation, Bias Correction Constructed Analogs, and Asynchronous Regression; dynamically using the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Downscaling results were then used to drive hydrologic analyses over the contiguous U.S. using multiple models (VIC, CLM, PRMS), with added focus placed on case study basins within the Colorado Headwaters. The presentation will identify which types of climate changes are

  14. Hospital characteristics associated with achievement of meaningful use.

    PubMed

    Diana, Mark L; Harle, Christopher A; Huerta, Timothy R; Ford, Eric W; Menachemi, Nir

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with hospitals that achieved the Medicare meaningful use incentive thresholds for payment under the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009. We employed a cross-sectional design using data from the 2011 American Hospital Association Annual Survey, including the Information Technology Supplement; the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services report of hospitals receiving meaningful use payments; and the Health Resources and Services Administration's Area Resource File. We used a lagged value from 2010 to determine electronic health record (EHR) adoption. Our methods were a descriptive analysis and logistic regression to examine how various hospital characteristics are associated with the achievement of Medicare meaningful use incentives. Overall, 1,769 (38%) of 4,683 potentially eligible hospitals achieved meaningful use incentive thresholds by the end of 2012. Characteristics associated with organizations that received incentive payments were having an EHR in place in 2010, having a larger bed size, having a single health information technology vendor, obtaining Joint Commission accreditation, operating under for-profit status, having Medicare share of inpatient days in the middle two quartiles, being eligible for Medicaid incentives, and being located in the Middle Atlantic or South Atlantic census region. Characteristics associated with not receiving incentive payments were being a member of a hospital system and being located in the Mountain or Pacific census region. Thus far, little evidence suggests that the HITECH incentive program has enticed hospitals without an EHR system to adopt meaningful use criteria. Policy makers should consider modifying the incentive program to accelerate the adoption of and meaningful use in hospitals without EHRs. PMID:25154125

  15. Method and apparatus for assessing cardiovascular risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Paul (Inventor); Bigger, J. Thomas (Inventor); Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The method for assessing risk of an adverse clinical event includes detecting a physiologic signal in the subject and determining from the physiologic signal a sequence of intervals corresponding to time intervals between heart beats. The long-time structure of fluctuations in the intervals over a time period of more than fifteen minutes is analyzed to assess risk of an adverse clinical event. In a preferred embodiment, the physiologic signal is an electrocardiogram and the time period is at least fifteen minutes. A preferred method for analyzing the long-time structure variability in the intervals includes computing the power spectrum and fitting the power spectrum to a power law dependence on frequency over a selected frequency range such as 10.sup.-4 to 10.sup.-2 Hz. Characteristics of the long-time structure fluctuations in the intervals is used to assess risk of an adverse clinical event.

  16. A meaningful MESS (Medical Education Scholarship Support)

    PubMed Central

    Whicker, Shari A.; Engle, Deborah L.; Chudgar, Saumil; DeMeo, Stephen; Bean, Sarah M.; Narayan, Aditee P.; Grochowski, Colleen O'Connor; Nagler, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Graduate medical education faculty bear the responsibility of demonstrating active research and scholarship; however, faculty who choose education-focused careers may face unique obstacles related to the lack of promotion tracks, funding, career options, and research opportunities. Our objective was to address education research and scholarship barriers by providing a collaborative peer-mentoring environment and improve the production of research and scholarly outputs. Methods We describe a Medical Education Scholarship Support (MESS) group created in 2013. MESS is an interprofessional, multidisciplinary peer-mentoring education research community that now spans multiple institutions. This group meets monthly to address education research and scholarship challenges. Through this process, we develop new knowledge, research, and scholarly products, in addition to meaningful collaborations. Results MESS originated with eight founding members, all of whom still actively participate. MESS has proven to be a sustainable unfunded local community of practice, encouraging faculty to pursue health professions education (HPE) careers and fostering scholarship. We have met our original objectives that involved maintaining 100% participant retention; developing increased knowledge in at least seven content areas; and contributing to the development of 13 peer-reviewed publications, eight professional presentations, one Masters of Education project, and one educational curriculum. Discussion The number of individuals engaged in HPE research continues to rise. The MESS model could be adapted for use at other institutions, thereby reducing barriers HPE researchers face, providing an effective framework for trainees interested in education-focused careers, and having a broader impact on the education research landscape. PMID:27476538

  17. Using Qualitative Methods to Assess Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattuca, Lisa R.; Domagal-Goldman, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Instructor evaluation forms--those scannable surveys that students use to rate the quality of their instructors and courses at the end of every term--are the most common method of assessing teaching effectiveness in the United States. A considerable body of research on end-of-course evaluations suggests that student ratings are valid sources of…

  18. Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

    2010-01-01

    The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

  19. A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

    2008-01-01

    People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

  20. A classification scheme for risk assessment methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Stamp, Jason Edwin; Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2004-08-01

    This report presents a classification scheme for risk assessment methods. This scheme, like all classification schemes, provides meaning by imposing a structure that identifies relationships. Our scheme is based on two orthogonal aspects--level of detail, and approach. The resulting structure is shown in Table 1 and is explained in the body of the report. Each cell in the Table represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. This report imposes structure on the set of risk assessment methods in order to reveal their relationships and thus optimize their usage.We present a two-dimensional structure in the form of a matrix, using three abstraction levels for the rows and three approaches for the columns. For each of the nine cells in the matrix we identify the method type by name and example. The matrix helps the user understand: (1) what to expect from a given method, (2) how it relates to other methods, and (3) how best to use it. Each cell in the matrix represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. The matrix, with type names in the cells, is introduced in Table 2 on page 13 below. Unless otherwise stated we use the word 'method' in this report to refer to a 'risk assessment method', though often times we use the full phrase. The use of the terms 'risk assessment' and 'risk management' are close enough that we do not attempt to distinguish them in this report. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. In Section 2 we provide context for this report

  1. Clinical experimental stress studies: methods and assessment.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a state of threatened homeostasis during which a variety of adaptive processes are activated to produce physiological and behavioral changes. Stress induction methods are pivotal for understanding these physiological or pathophysiological changes in the body in response to stress. Furthermore, these methods are also important for the development of novel pharmacological agents for stress management. The well-described methods to induce stress in humans include the cold pressor test, Trier Social Stress Test, Montreal Imaging Stress Task, Maastricht Acute Stress Test, CO2 challenge test, Stroop test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, noise stress, and Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test. Stress assessment in humans is done by measuring biochemical markers such as cortisol, cortisol awakening response, dexamethasone suppression test, salivary α-amylase, plasma/urinary norepinephrine, norepinephrine spillover rate, and interleukins. Physiological and behavioral changes such as galvanic skin response, heart rate variability, pupil size, and muscle and/or skin sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) and cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and self-reported anxiety are also monitored to assess stress response. This present review describes these commonly employed methods to induce stress in humans along with stress assessment methods. PMID:26020552

  2. Comparative analysis of selected hydromorphological assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Sípek, Václav; Matousková, Milada; Dvorák, Martin

    2010-10-01

    The European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC aims to achieve a good ecological status of all surface water bodies in Europe. The definition of the ecological status is based on the hydromorphological, hydrochemical, and hydrobiological features of water bodies. Numerous methods are applied for the purpose of hydromorphological status assessment. This study attempts to compare four different methods (EcoRivHab, LAWA Field and Overview Survey, and Rapid Bioassessment Protocol) that were applied at two study areas in the Czech part of the Elbe River Basin. The selected catchments represent areas with different sizes and physical geographic as well as socioeconomic characteristics. All the methods applied showed the capacity to identify the natural and even the completely changed reaches and provided good information on the river physical habitat state. However, they are varied from the viewpoint of the number of parameters, number of monitored zones, time and knowledge demands of the performed assessment. PMID:19760083

  3. New method for assessing risks of email

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Seyyed H.; Afrooz, Farzad

    2013-03-01

    E-mail technology, has become one of the requirements of human lives for correspondence between individuals. Given this, the important point is that the messages, server and client of e-mail and correspondences that exchanged between different people have acceptable security, to make people sure to use of this technology. In the information age, many of financial and non financial transactions are done electronically, data exchange takes place via the internet and theft and manipulation of data can make exorbitant cost in terms of integrity, financial, political, economic and culture. E-mail correspondence in there is same and it is very important. With review took place, a method that will focus on email system for risks assessment is not provided. We are examining ways of assessing for other systems and their strengths and weaknesses, then we use Mr Convery method for assessing email risks which it is for assessing network risks. At the end of paper we have offered special table for email risk assessment.

  4. Methods of geodiversity assessment and theirs application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The concept of geodiversity has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world (Wiedenbein 1993, Sharples 1993, Kiernan 1995, 1996, Dixon 1996, Eberhard 1997, Kostrzewski 1998, 2011, Gray 2004, 2008, 2013, Zwoliński 2004, Serrano, Ruiz- Flano 2007, Gordon et al. 2012). However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage, and in effect not explicitly understood and defined (Najwer, Zwoliński 2014). Nevertheless, despite widespread use of the concept, little progress has been made in its assessment and mapping. Less than the last decade can be observing investigation of methods for geodiversity assessment and its visualisation. Though, many have acknowledged the importance of geodiversity evaluation (Kozłowski 2004, Gray 2004, Reynard, Panizza 2005, Zouros 2007, Pereira et al. 2007, Hjort et al. 2015). Hitherto, only a few authors have undertaken that kind of methodological issues. Geodiversity maps are being created for a variety of purposes and therefore their methods are quite manifold. In the literature exists some examples of the geodiversity maps applications for the geotourism purpose, basing mainly on the geological diversity, in order to point the scale of the area's tourist attractiveness (Zwoliński 2010, Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Zwoliński and Stachowiak 2012). In some studies, geodiversity maps were created and applied to investigate the spatial or genetic relationships with the richness of particular natural environmental components (Burnett et al. 1998, Silva 2004, Jačková, Romportl 2008, Hjort et al. 2012, 2015, Mazurek et al. 2015, Najwer et al. 2014). There are also a few examples of geodiversity assessment in order to geoconservation and efficient management and planning of the natural protected areas (Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Pellitero et al. 2011, 2014, Jaskulska et al. 2013, Melelli 2014, Martinez-Grana et al. 2015). The most popular method of assessing the diversity of abiotic components of the natural

  5. Nondestructive methods to assess dental implant stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Tabrizi, Aydin; Berhanu, Bruk; Ochs, Mark W.

    2012-04-01

    The robustness and reliability of two nondestructive evaluation methods to assess dental prostheses stability is presented. The study aims at addressing an increasing need in the biomedical area where robust, reliable, and noninvasive methods to assess the bone-interface of dental and orthopedic implants are increasingly demanded for clinical diagnosis and direct prognosis. The methods are based on the electromechanical impedance method and on the propagation of solitary waves. Nobel Biocare® 4.3 x 13 mm implants were entrenched inside bovine rib bones that were immersed inside Normal Saline for 24 hours before test in order to avoid dehydration and simulating physiologic osmolarity of the corticocancellous bone and plasma. Afterwards the bones were immersed in a solution of nitric acid to allow material degradation, inversely simulating a bone-healing process. This process was monitored by bonding a Piezoceramic Transducer (PZT) to the abutment and measuring the electrical admittance of the PZT over time. On the other hand the bones calcium loss was calculated after immersing in acid by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy over time for comparison. Moreover a novel transducer based on the generation and detection of highly nonlinear solitary waves was used to assess the stiffness of the abutment-implant bone. In these experiments it was found that the PZT's conductance and some of the solitary waves parameters are sensitive to the degradation of the bones and was correlated to the bone calcium loss over time.

  6. Methods of geodiversity assessment and theirs application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The concept of geodiversity has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world (Wiedenbein 1993, Sharples 1993, Kiernan 1995, 1996, Dixon 1996, Eberhard 1997, Kostrzewski 1998, 2011, Gray 2004, 2008, 2013, Zwoliński 2004, Serrano, Ruiz- Flano 2007, Gordon et al. 2012). However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage, and in effect not explicitly understood and defined (Najwer, Zwoliński 2014). Nevertheless, despite widespread use of the concept, little progress has been made in its assessment and mapping. Less than the last decade can be observing investigation of methods for geodiversity assessment and its visualisation. Though, many have acknowledged the importance of geodiversity evaluation (Kozłowski 2004, Gray 2004, Reynard, Panizza 2005, Zouros 2007, Pereira et al. 2007, Hjort et al. 2015). Hitherto, only a few authors have undertaken that kind of methodological issues. Geodiversity maps are being created for a variety of purposes and therefore their methods are quite manifold. In the literature exists some examples of the geodiversity maps applications for the geotourism purpose, basing mainly on the geological diversity, in order to point the scale of the area's tourist attractiveness (Zwoliński 2010, Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Zwoliński and Stachowiak 2012). In some studies, geodiversity maps were created and applied to investigate the spatial or genetic relationships with the richness of particular natural environmental components (Burnett et al. 1998, Silva 2004, Jačková, Romportl 2008, Hjort et al. 2012, 2015, Mazurek et al. 2015, Najwer et al. 2014). There are also a few examples of geodiversity assessment in order to geoconservation and efficient management and planning of the natural protected areas (Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Pellitero et al. 2011, 2014, Jaskulska et al. 2013, Melelli 2014, Martinez-Grana et al. 2015). The most popular method of assessing the diversity of abiotic components of the natural

  7. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  8. Method of assessing heterogeneity in images

    DOEpatents

    Jacob, Richard E.; Carson, James P.

    2016-08-23

    A method of assessing heterogeneity in images is disclosed. 3D images of an object are acquired. The acquired images may be filtered and masked. Iterative decomposition is performed on the masked images to obtain image subdivisions that are relatively homogeneous. Comparative analysis, such as variogram analysis or correlogram analysis, is performed of the decomposed images to determine spatial relationships between regions of the images that are relatively homogeneous.

  9. Using Meaningful Interpretation and Chunking to Enhance Memory: The Case of Chinese Character Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaoqiu; Padilla, Amado M.

    2013-01-01

    Learning and retaining Chinese characters are often considered to be the most challenging elements in learning Chinese as a foreign language. Applying the theory of meaningful interpretation, the chunking mnemonic technique, and the linguistic features of Chinese characters, this study examines whether the method of meaningful interpretation and…

  10. [Methods of risk assessment and their validation].

    PubMed

    Baracco, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The review of the literature data shows several methods for the the risks assessment of biomnechanical overload of the musculoskeletal system in activities with repetitive strain of the upper limbs and manual material handling. The application of these methods should allow the quantification ofriskfor the working population, the identification of the preventive measures to reduce the risk and their effectiveness and thle design of a specific health surveillance scheme. In this paper we analyze the factors which must be taken into account in Occupational Medicine to implement a process of validation of these methods. In conclusion we believe it will necessary in the future the availability of new methods able to analyze and reduce the risk already in the design phase of the production process. PMID:25558718

  11. Spatial Heterogeneity of Rana boylii Habitat: Quantification and Ecological Meaningfulness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarnell, S. M.

    2005-05-01

    Analysis of the heterogeneity of stream habitat and how biological communities respond to that complexity are fundamental components of ecosystem analysis that are often inadequately addressed in watershed assessments and restoration practices. Many aquatic species, such as the Foothill Yellow-legged Frog (Rana boylii), known to associate with certain physical habitats at various times throughout their lifecycle may require some degree of habitat complexity at a larger reach scale for a population to persist. Recent research in the field of landscape ecology has expanded the use of spatial heterogeneity indices to other fields of ecology as an objective method to quantify variability in habitat. Provided that indices are used in an appropriate context and are shown to be ecologically meaningful, they provide a potentially useful tool for quantifying the variability in riverine habitat for aquatic species such as R. boylii. This study evaluated whether stream reaches with a high heterogeneity of geomorphic features, as measured by several key spatial heterogeneity indices, correlated with a greater relative abundance of R. boylii. R. boylii habitat associations were quantified throughout a single season to obtain further insight into the local hydraulic and geomorphic conditions preferred by each lifestage. The two best predictors of habitat associations by lifestage were velocity and substrate size, two key characteristics of geomorphic units such as riffles and pools. The heterogeneity of geomorphic units was then quantified and measured at the reach scale using a variety of spatial indices. Indices of spatial composition, such as Shannon's Diversity Index, were found to correlate well with frog abundance, while indices of spatial configuration, such as Contagion, were not significant. These findings indicate R. boylii may select stream reaches with increased geomorphic complexity that potentially provide habitats suitable to each lifestage with multiple functions

  12. Lake ecosystem health assessment: indicators and methods.

    PubMed

    Xu, F L; Tao, S; Dawson, R W; Li, P G; Cao, J

    2001-09-01

    A set of ecological indicators including structural, functional, and system-level aspects were proposed for a lake ecosystem health assessment, according to the structural, functional, and system-level responses of lake ecosystems to chemical stresses including acidification, eutrophication and copper, oil and pesticide contamination. The structural indicators included phytoplankton cell size and biomass, zooplankton body size and biomass, species diversity, macro- and micro-zooplankton biomass, the zooplankton phytoplankton ratio, and the macrozooplankton microzooplankton ratio. The functional indicators encompassed the algal C assimilation ratio, resource use efficiency, community production, gross production/respiration (i.e. P/R) ratio, gross production standing crop biomass (i.e. P/B) ratio, and standing crop biomass unit energy flow (i.e. B/E) ratio. The ecosystem-level indicators conisisted of ecological buffer capacities, energy, and structural energy. Based on these indicators, a direct measurement method (DMM) and an ecological modeling method (EMM) for lake ecosystem health assessment were developed. The DMM procedures were designed to: (1) identify key indicators; (2) measure directly or calculate indirectly the selected indicators; and, (3) assess ecosystem health on the basis of the indicator values. The EMM procedures were designed to: (1) determine the structure and complexity of the ecological model according to the lake's ecosystem structure; (2) establish an ecological model by designing a conceptual diagram, establishing model equations, and estimating model pararmeters; (3) compare the simulated values of important state variables and process rates with actual observations; (4) calculate ecosystem health indicators using the ecological model; and, (5) assess lake ecosystem health according to the values of the ecological indicators. The results of a case study demonstrated that both methods provided similar results which corresponded with the

  13. On Meaningful Measurement: Concepts, Technology and Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, K. C.

    This paper discusses how concepts and procedural skills in problem-solving tasks, as well as affects and emotions, can be subjected to meaningful measurement (MM), based on a multisource model of learning and a constructivist information-processing theory of knowing. MM refers to the quantitative measurement of conceptual and procedural knowledge…

  14. Meaningful Experiences in the Counseling Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackett, Corrine; Lawson, Gerard; Burge, Penny L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers examined the experiences of a counseling session from the perspectives of counselors-intraining (CITs) and clients. Post-session phenomenological interviews were conducted to elicit participants' meaningful experiences, and the analysis revealed both similarities and differences. Researchers found the following themes most meaningful…

  15. Meaningful Learning in the Cooperative Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharan, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Meaningful learning is based on more than what teachers transmit; it promotes the construction of knowledge out of learners' experience, feelings and exchanges with other learners. This educational view is based on the constructivist approach to learning and the co-operative learning approach. Researchers and practitioners in various…

  16. Making Biodiversity Meaningful through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Weelie, Daan; Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the crossroads between science education and environmental education and presents a framework for tapping environmental education's potential of biodiversity. Outlines a number of stepping stones for making biodiversity meaningful to learners. From the perspective of environmental education, the ill-defined nature of biodiversity is a…

  17. Meaningful Use of School Health Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kathleen Hoy; Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2011-01-01

    Meaningful use (MU) of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) is an important development in the safety and security of health care delivery in the United States. Advancement in the use of EHRs occurred with the passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which provides incentives for providers to support adoption and use of EHRs.…

  18. Values: The Natural Result of Meaningful Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beedy, Jeff; Gordon, John

    1997-01-01

    The New Hampton School (New Hampshire) uses the holistic Total Human Development Model with both students and faculty to instill principles focused on relationships as central to teaching and learning; respect and responsibility; sense of community; whole person development within the community; compassion and service; and the meaningful,…

  19. Environmental assessment of used oil management methods.

    PubMed

    Boughton, Bob; Horvath, Arpad

    2004-01-15

    The 1 billion gal of used oil generated in the U.S. each year are managed in three primary ways: rerefined into base oil for reuse, distilled into marine diesel oil fuel, and marketed as untreated fuel oil. Management of used oil has local, regional and global impacts. Because of the globally distributed nature of fuel markets, used oil as fuel has localized and regional impacts in many areas. In this paper, the human health and environmental tradeoffs of the management options are quantified and characterized. The goal of this study was to assess and compare the environmental impacts and benefits of each management method in a product end-of-life scenario using a life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A life-cycle inventory showed that 800 mg of zinc and 30 mg of lead air emissions may result from the combustion of 1 L of used oil as fuel (50-100 times that of crude-derived fuel oils). As an example, up to 136 Mg of zinc and 5 Mg of lead air emissions may be generated from combustion of over 50 M gal of California-generated used oil each year. While occurring elsewhere, these levels are significant (of the same magnitude as reported total stationary source emissions in California). An impact assessment showed that heavy metals-related toxicity dominates the comparison of management methods. Zinc and lead emissions were the primary contributors to the terrestrial and human toxicity impact potentials that were calculated to be 150 and 5 times higher, respectively, for used oil combusted as fuel than for rerefining or distillation. Low profits and weak markets increasingly drive the used oil management method selection toward the untreated fuel oil market. Instead, both the rerefining and distillation methods and associated product markets should be strongly supported because they are environmentally preferable to the combustion of unprocessed used oil as fuel. PMID:14750706

  20. Autonomic pain: features and methods of assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhavadi, B.; Rosen, J.S.; Addison, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of pain originating in the sympathetic nervous system does not match the somatic segmental sensory distribution at the postganglionic level. The two types of distribution are separate and different. At the preganglionic level, fibers show typical segmental sensory distribution, which resembles but is not identical to somatic segmental sensory distribution. Instead, sympathetic pain has its own distribution along the vascular supply and some peripheral nerves. It cannot be called atypical in terms of somatic segmental sensory distribution. Several techniques are available to assess autonomic function in cases of chronic pain. Infrared thermography is superior to any other physiologic or pharmacologic method to assess sympathetic function. Overactivity of sympathetic function in the area of pain is the probable cause of temperature reduction in that area. Accordingly it would appear that in cases in which thermography demonstrates decreased temperature, sympathetic block or sympathectomy would provide relief from the pain.

  1. Rangeland assessment and monitoring methods guide - an interactive tool for selecting methods for assessment and monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common concern expressed by land managers and biologists is that they do not know enough about the strengths and weaknesses of different field and remote-sensing methods for rangeland assessment and monitoring. The Methods Guide is a web-based tool and resource that provides researchers and manage...

  2. An empirical method for dynamic camouflage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blitch, John G.

    2011-06-01

    As camouflage systems become increasingly sophisticated in their potential to conceal military personnel and precious cargo, evaluation methods need to evolve as well. This paper presents an overview of one such attempt to explore alternative methods for empirical evaluation of dynamic camouflage systems which aspire to keep pace with a soldier's movement through rapidly changing environments that are typical of urban terrain. Motivating factors are covered first, followed by a description of the Blitz Camouflage Assessment (BCA) process and results from an initial proof of concept experiment conducted in November 2006. The conclusion drawn from these results, related literature and the author's personal experience suggest that operational evaluation of personal camouflage needs to be expanded beyond its foundation in signal detection theory and embrace the challenges posed by high levels of cognitive processing.

  3. Toward More Substantively Meaningful Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Simon, Anat; Bennett, Randy Elliott

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a "substantively driven" method for scoring NAEP writing assessments automatically. The study used variations of an existing commercial program, e-rater[R], to compare the performance of three approaches to automated essay scoring: a "brute-empirical" approach in which variables are selected and weighted solely according to…

  4. Electrophysiological methods for hearing assessment in pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichmuth Kastak, Colleen; Kastak, David; Finneran, James J.; Houser, Dorian S.; Supin, Alexander

    2005-04-01

    Studies of auditory sensitivity in marine mammals generally rely on behavioral psychophysical methodologies. While these studies are the standard for hearing assessment in marine mammals, data are limited to only a few individuals representing a small proportion of species. Accumulating research on dolphin auditory physiology has resulted in the refinement of electrophysiological methods appropriate for odontocete cetaceans and an increase in available audiometric information. Electrophysiological methods have also been used with pinnipeds, but there are significant gaps in our understanding of pinniped auditory physiology that must be addressed before such appoaches can be broadly applied to investigations of pinniped hearing. We are taking a bottom-up approach to developing suitable methods for evoked potential audiometry in pinnipeds, including technology transfer from studies of cetaceans and other mammals, mapping of response amplitude with respect to recording positions on the skull, characterization of responses in relationship to various stimulus types and presentation parameters, and determination of whether useful frequency-specific data can be reliably obtained using electrophysiological methods. This approach is being taken with representative pinniped species including California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) using both training and chemical immobilization techniques. [Work supported by NOPP.

  5. Ritual, meaningfulness, and interstellar message construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traphagan, John W.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, I am interested in exploring the potential of ritual performance as a means of communication with ETI. I argue that the study of ritual and ritualized behavior, understood as a technique for representation of meaning and meaningfulness about the world, has potential to inform how scientists think about the construction and interpretation of interstellar messages. I do not suggest that ritual activities themselves provide more than limited potential for communication with ETI. However, the structural elements of ritual and the manner in which meaning is conveyed through the formality and repetition of ritual is at least to some extent decipherable cross-culturally and provides one way to think about how to express important aspects of humans and their cultures to ETI and to represent, if not specific meanings themselves, the fact that a message is meaningful.

  6. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    NELSEN LA

    2009-01-30

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

  7. Methods for probabilistic assessments of geologic hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Although risk analysis today is considered to include three separate aspects: (1) identifying sources of risk, (2) estimating probabilities quantitatively, and (3) evaluating consequences of risk, here, only estimation of probabilities for natural geologic events, processes, and phenomena is addressed. Ideally, evaluation of potential future hazards includes an objective determination of probabilities that has been derived from past occurrences of identical events or components contributing to complex processes or phenomena. In practice, however, data which would permit objective estimation of those probabilities of interest may not be adequate, or may not even exist. Another problem that arises normally, regardless of the extent of data, is that risk assessments involve estimating extreme values. Rarely are extreme values accurately predictable even when an empirical frequency distribution is established well by data. In the absence of objective methods for estimating probabilities of natural events or processes, subjective probabilities for the hazard must be established through Bayesian methods, expert opinion, or Delphi methods. Uncertainty of every probability determination must be stated for each component of an event, process, or phenomenon. These uncertainties also must be propagated through the quantitative analysis so that a realistic estimate of total uncertainty can be associated with each final probability estimate for a geologic hazard.

  8. Drug Interaction Alert Override Rates in the Meaningful Use Era

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, A.D.; Fletcher, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Interruptive drug interaction alerts may reduce adverse drug events and are required for Stage I Meaningful Use attestation. For the last decade override rates have been very high. Despite their widespread use in commercial EHR systems, previously described interventions to improve alert frequency and acceptance have not been well studied. Objectives (1) To measure override rates of inpatient medication alerts within a commercial clinical decision support system, and assess the impact of local customization efforts. (2) To compare override rates between drug-drug interaction and drug-allergy interaction alerts, between attending and resident physicians, and between public and academic hospitals. (3) To measure the correlation between physicians’ individual alert quantities and override rates as an indicator of potential alert fatigue. Methods We retrospectively analyzed physician responses to drug-drug and drug-allergy interaction alerts, as generated by a common decision support product in a large teaching hospital system. Results (1) Over four days, 461 different physicians entered 18,354 medication orders, resulting in 2,455 visible alerts; 2,280 alerts (93%) were overridden. (2) The drug-drug alert override rate was 95.1%, statistically higher than the rate for drug-allergy alerts (90.9%) (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in override rates between attendings and residents, or between hospitals. (3) Physicians saw a mean of 1.3 alerts per day, and the number of alerts per physician was not significantly correlated with override rate (R2 = 0.03, p = 0.41). Conclusions Despite intensive efforts to improve a commercial drug interaction alert system and to reduce alerting, override rates remain as high as reported over a decade ago. Alert fatigue does not seem to contribute. The results suggest the need to fundamentally question the premises of drug interaction alert systems. PMID:25298818

  9. An interpolation method for stream habitat assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheehan, Kenneth R.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Interpolation of stream habitat can be very useful for habitat assessment. Using a small number of habitat samples to predict the habitat of larger areas can reduce time and labor costs as long as it provides accurate estimates of habitat. The spatial correlation of stream habitat variables such as substrate and depth improves the accuracy of interpolated data. Several geographical information system interpolation methods (natural neighbor, inverse distance weighted, ordinary kriging, spline, and universal kriging) were used to predict substrate and depth within a 210.7-m2 section of a second-order stream based on 2.5% and 5.0% sampling of the total area. Depth and substrate were recorded for the entire study site and compared with the interpolated values to determine the accuracy of the predictions. In all instances, the 5% interpolations were more accurate for both depth and substrate than the 2.5% interpolations, which achieved accuracies up to 95% and 92%, respectively. Interpolations of depth based on 2.5% sampling attained accuracies of 49–92%, whereas those based on 5% percent sampling attained accuracies of 57–95%. Natural neighbor interpolation was more accurate than that using the inverse distance weighted, ordinary kriging, spline, and universal kriging approaches. Our findings demonstrate the effective use of minimal amounts of small-scale data for the interpolation of habitat over large areas of a stream channel. Use of this method will provide time and cost savings in the assessment of large sections of rivers as well as functional maps to aid the habitat-based management of aquatic species.

  10. Analytic methods in assessment of optic nerve cupping.

    PubMed

    Jindra, L F; Kuběna, T; Gaudino, R N

    2014-06-01

    The intent of this paper is to provide a systems-based analysis of the methods used to evaluate optic nerve cupping, identify potential flaws in these systems, and propose alternatives better to assess this anatomic quantity. Estimation of optic nerve cupping requires an analytic understanding of both the psychophysical as well as the mathematical bases inherent in this measure. When the (decimal-based) cup-to-disc ratio is used to quantitate optic nerve cupping, a one-dimensional, linear estimate is produced, which in turn is derived from two- or three-dimensional, non-linear physical quantities of area or volume, respectively. When extrapolating from volume, to area, to linear measures, due to the psychophysical constraints which limit this task, such a data-compressed estimate of optic nerve cupping may neither accurately reflect, nor correctly represent, the true amount of cupping actually present in the optic nerve head. This type of one-dimensional metric (when comparing calculations from two- or three-dimensional measures over a range of optic nerve cupping), appears to introduce errors which, while most pronounced earlier on in the disease progression, often overestimate the amount of relative cupping (percent cupping) present in a pathological process like glaucoma. The same systemic errors can also lead to overestimation of the progression in cupping, especially in optic nerves with low cup-to disc values. To provide clinically meaningful estimates of optic nerve cupping, the practitioner needs to be aware of psychophysical and mathematical limitations inherent in using a linear cup-to-disc ratio to estimate the amount of cupping observed in a physical structure like the optic disc. The resultant flaws introduced by observer extrapolation from three, to two, to one dimensions (volume, area, and linear); transposition from non-linear to linear quantities; and optical illusions, caused by factors like disc topology, morphology, and ametropia, can all

  11. Quantitative Methods for Assessing Drug Synergism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Two or more drugs that individually produce overtly similar effects will sometimes display greatly enhanced effects when given in combination. When the combined effect is greater than that predicted by their individual potencies, the combination is said to be synergistic. A synergistic interaction allows the use of lower doses of the combination constituents, a situation that may reduce adverse reactions. Drug combinations are quite common in the treatment of cancers, infections, pain, and many other diseases and situations. The determination of synergism is a quantitative pursuit that involves a rigorous demonstration that the combination effect is greater than that which is expected from the individual drug’s potencies. The basis of that demonstration is the concept of dose equivalence, which is discussed here and applied to an experimental design and data analysis known as isobolographic analysis. That method, and a related method of analysis that also uses dose equivalence, are presented in this brief review, which provides the mathematical basis for assessing synergy and an optimization strategy for determining the dose combination. PMID:22737266

  12. Evidence-based vaccination strategies in obstetrics and gynecology settings: Current practices and methods for assessment.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Sean T; Pyrzanowski, Jennifer; Brewer, Sarah E; Dickinson, L Miriam; Dempsey, Amanda F

    2016-04-01

    Obstetrician-gynecologists have the potential to play an important role in the delivery of immunizations to women. However, despite national recommendations, immunization rates among pregnant women and adults in general remain low. Pragmatic immunization delivery trials are needed to demonstrate how best to deliver vaccines in such settings. We report the development and implementation of 2 novel methodologies for immunization delivery research and quality improvement in such settings. The first was the development and application of a 47-point Immunization Delivery Scale that formally assessed variability among practices in their engagement in a variety of evidence-based practices for improving immunization rates. The second was a covariate-constrained randomization technique - a method for achieving balance between study arms in cluster-randomized trials that is especially applicable to pragmatic trials.. To best achieve meaningful and interpretable findings, we recommend use of these or similar techniques in future immunization research and quality improvement projects in OB/GYN settings. PMID:26829978

  13. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  14. Direct toxicity assessment - Methods, evaluation, interpretation.

    PubMed

    Gruiz, Katalin; Fekete-Kertész, Ildikó; Kunglné-Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Hajdu, Csilla; Feigl, Viktória; Vaszita, Emese; Molnár, Mónika

    2016-09-01

    Direct toxicity assessment (DTA) results provide the scale of the actual adverse effect of contaminated environmental samples. DTA results are used in environmental risk management of contaminated water, soil and waste, without explicitly translating the results into chemical concentration. The end points are the same as in environmental toxicology in general, i.e. inhibition rate, decrease in the growth rate or in yield and the 'no effect' or the 'lowest effect' measurement points of the sample dilution-response curve. The measurement unit cannot be a concentration, since the contaminants and their content in the sample is unknown. Thus toxicity is expressed as the sample proportion causing a certain scale of inhibition or no inhibition. Another option for characterizing the scale of toxicity of an environmental sample is equivalencing. Toxicity equivalencing represents an interpretation tool which enables toxicity of unknown mixtures of chemicals be converted into the concentration of an equivalently toxic reference substance. Toxicity equivalencing, (i.e. expressing the toxicity of unknown contaminants as the concentration of the reference) makes DTA results better understandable for non-ecotoxicologists and other professionals educated and thinking based on the chemical model. This paper describes and discusses the role, the principles, the methodology and the interpretation of direct toxicity assessment (DTA) with the aim to contribute to the understanding of the necessity to integrate DTA results into environmental management of contaminated soil and water. The paper also introduces the benefits of the toxicity equivalency method. The use of DTA is illustrated through two case studies. The first case study focuses on DTA of treated wastewater with the aim to characterize the treatment efficacy of a biological wastewater treatment plant by frequent bioassaying. The second case study applied DTA to investigate the cover layers of two bauxite residue (red mud

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: METHODS FORMAT GUIDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) established the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to provide quantitative assessment of the condition of our nation's ecological resources. he Methods Coordination Group is responsible for coordinating methods ...

  16. Meaningful Understanding and Systems Thinking in Organic Chemistry: Validating Measurement and Exploring Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachliotis, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Tzougraki, Chryssa

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was dual: First, to develop and validate assessment schemes for assessing 11th grade students' meaningful understanding of organic chemistry concepts, as well as their systems thinking skills in the domain. Second, to explore the relationship between the two constructs of interest based on students' performance on the applied assessment framework. For this purpose, (a) various types of objective assessment questions were developed and evaluated for assessing meaningful understanding, (b) a specific type of systemic assessment questions (SAQs) was developed and evaluated for assessing systems thinking skills, and (c) the association between students' responses on the applied assessment schemes was explored. The results indicated that properly designed objective questions can effectively capture aspects of students' meaningful understanding. It was also found that the SAQs can elicit systems thinking skills in the context of a formalistic systems thinking theoretical approach. Moreover, a significant relationship was observed between students' responses on the two assessment strategies. This research provides evidence that students' systems thinking level within a science domain is significantly related to their meaningful understanding of relative science concepts.

  17. Extracting meaningful information from metabonomic data using multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Bylesjö, Max

    2015-01-01

    Metabonomics aims to identify and quantify all small-molecule metabolites in biologically relevant samples using high-throughput techniques such as NMR and chromatography/mass spectrometry. This generates high-dimensional data sets with properties that require specialized approaches to data analysis. This chapter describes multivariate statistics and analysis tools to extract meaningful information from metabonomic data sets. The focus is on the use and interpretation of latent variable methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares/projections to latent structures (PLS), and orthogonal PLS (OPLS). Descriptions of the key steps of the multivariate data analyses are provided with demonstrations from example data. PMID:25677152

  18. A Screening Method for Assessing Cumulative Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Alexeeff, George V.; Faust, John B.; August, Laura Meehan; Milanes, Carmen; Randles, Karen; Zeise, Lauren; Denton, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating “cumulative impacts.” As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA [1]: “Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.” The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community’s cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can serve as a screening

  19. Meaningful Understanding and Systems Thinking in Organic Chemistry: Validating Measurement and Exploring Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachliotis, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Tzougraki, Chryssa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was dual: First, to develop and validate assessment schemes for assessing 11th grade students' meaningful understanding of organic chemistry concepts, as well as their systems thinking skills in the domain. Second, to explore the relationship between the two constructs of interest based on students' performance…

  20. Assessment Methods and Tools for Architectural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the process of assessment within the arena of architectural education by questioning traditional assessment practices and probing into the conditions that necessitate change. As architectural educators we have opened our studios to digital technologies for the purposes of design and representation, but how do we measure and…

  1. Using Corporate-Based Methods To Assess Technical Communication Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Brenton; Bekins, Linn; Karis, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Investigates methods of program assessment used by corporate learning sites and profiles value added methods as a way to both construct and evaluate academic programs in technical communication. Examines and critiques assessment methods from corporate training environments including methods employed by corporate universities and value added…

  2. Hemispheric Differences in Processing Dichotic Meaningful and Non-Meaningful Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasin, Ifat

    2007-01-01

    Classic dichotic-listening paradigms reveal a right-ear advantage (REA) for speech sounds as compared to non-speech sounds. This REA is assumed to be associated with a left-hemisphere dominance for meaningful speech processing. This study objectively probed the relationship between ear advantage and hemispheric dominance in a dichotic-listening…

  3. Towards a mathematical theory of meaningful communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Fortuny, Jordi; Solé, Ricard V.

    2014-04-01

    Meaning has been left outside most theoretical approaches to information in biology. Functional responses based on an appropriate interpretation of signals have been replaced by a probabilistic description of correlations between emitted and received symbols. This assumption leads to potential paradoxes, such as the presence of a maximum information associated to a channel that creates completely wrong interpretations of the signals. Game-theoretic models of language evolution and other studies considering embodied communicating agents show that the correct (meaningful) match resulting from agent-agent exchanges is always achieved and natural systems obviously solve the problem correctly. Inspired by the concept of duality of the communicative sign stated by the swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, here we present a complete description of the minimal system necessary to measure the amount of information that is consistently decoded. Several consequences of our developments are investigated, such as the uselessness of a certain amount of information properly transmitted for communication among autonomous agents.

  4. Meaningful surface roughness and quality tolerances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikens, David M.

    2010-08-01

    Most tolerances on optical elements can be derived or calculated from the application requirements using computeraided optical design programs. For surface quality and surface roughness, however, there are few guidelines or tools for calculating appropriate tolerances. Typically, we simply use a legacy specification (e.g. 60-40 and 3 A RMS) with little thought for either the cost of achieving the specification or the penalty for failing to achieve it. Often these legacy specifications are ambiguous, unnecessarily costly and in some cases completely meaningless. This paper provides some basic rules and equations for calculation of the real or perceived impact of these specifications, and some guidelines for the initiate (and for some of us veterans as well) as to how to compose a meaningful tolerance.

  5. Towards a mathematical theory of meaningful communication

    PubMed Central

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Fortuny, Jordi; Solé, Ricard V.

    2014-01-01

    Meaning has been left outside most theoretical approaches to information in biology. Functional responses based on an appropriate interpretation of signals have been replaced by a probabilistic description of correlations between emitted and received symbols. This assumption leads to potential paradoxes, such as the presence of a maximum information associated to a channel that creates completely wrong interpretations of the signals. Game-theoretic models of language evolution and other studies considering embodied communicating agents show that the correct (meaningful) match resulting from agent-agent exchanges is always achieved and natural systems obviously solve the problem correctly. Inspired by the concept of duality of the communicative sign stated by the swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, here we present a complete description of the minimal system necessary to measure the amount of information that is consistently decoded. Several consequences of our developments are investigated, such as the uselessness of a certain amount of information properly transmitted for communication among autonomous agents. PMID:24699312

  6. Towards a mathematical theory of meaningful communication.

    PubMed

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Fortuny, Jordi; Solé, Ricard V

    2014-01-01

    Meaning has been left outside most theoretical approaches to information in biology. Functional responses based on an appropriate interpretation of signals have been replaced by a probabilistic description of correlations between emitted and received symbols. This assumption leads to potential paradoxes, such as the presence of a maximum information associated to a channel that creates completely wrong interpretations of the signals. Game-theoretic models of language evolution and other studies considering embodied communicating agents show that the correct (meaningful) match resulting from agent-agent exchanges is always achieved and natural systems obviously solve the problem correctly. Inspired by the concept of duality of the communicative sign stated by the swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, here we present a complete description of the minimal system necessary to measure the amount of information that is consistently decoded. Several consequences of our developments are investigated, such as the uselessness of a certain amount of information properly transmitted for communication among autonomous agents. PMID:24699312

  7. Facilitating critical discourse through "meaningful disagreement" online.

    PubMed

    Dalley-Hewer, Jayne; Clouder, Deanne Lynn; Jackson, Ann; Goodman, Simon; Bluteau, Patricia; Davies, Bernadette

    2012-11-01

    This paper is concerned with identifying ways of facilitating "meaningful disagreement" amongst students in interprofessional online discussion forums. It builds on previous research that identified a trend toward polite agreement and only limited evidence of disagreement in this setting. Given the suggestion that disagreement indicates a deeper level of engagement in group discussion and therefore leads to deeper learning, our aim was to critique the pedagogical approach adopted by analyzing whether we were promoting a particular interprofessional discourse amongst students that favored agreement and therefore limited potential learning. Agreement in this context has been conceptualized as a form of online interprofessional "netiquette" existing amongst participants. Findings suggest that creating an online context for critical discourse is challenging; however, the careful construction of learning outcomes, trigger material/resources and learning activities, as well as attention to students' stage of study and life experience, can provoke the desired effects. PMID:22897367

  8. How meaningful are heritability estimates of liability?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly acknowledged that estimates of heritability from classical twin studies have many potential shortcomings. Despite this, in the post-GWAS era, these heritability estimates have come to be a continual source of interest and controversy. While the heritability estimates of a quantitative trait are subject to a number of biases, in this article we will argue that the standard statistical approach to estimating the heritability of a binary trait relies on some additional untestable assumptions which, if violated, can lead to badly biased estimates. The ACE liability threshold model assumes at its heart that each individual has an underlying liability or propensity to acquire the binary trait (e.g., disease), and that this unobservable liability is multivariate normally distributed. We investigated a number of different scenarios violating this assumption such as the existence of a single causal diallelic gene and the existence of a dichotomous exposure. For each scenario, we found that substantial asymptotic biases can occur, which no increase in sample size can remove. Asymptotic biases as much as four times larger than the true value were observed, and numerous cases also showed large negative biases. Additionally, regions of low bias occurred for specific parameter combinations. Using simulations, we also investigated the situation where all of the assumptions of the ACE liability model are met. We found that commonly used sample sizes can lead to biased heritability estimates. Thus, even if we are willing to accept the meaningfulness of the liability construct, heritability estimates under the ACE liability threshold model may not accurately reflect the heritability of this construct. The points made in this paper should be kept in mind when considering the meaningfulness of a reported heritability estimate for any specific disease. PMID:23867980

  9. Meaningful use a call to arms.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Adeel; Dreyer, Keith Jay; Gupta, Supriya

    2012-02-01

    The benefits of an interactive online world have affected the way we purchase products and plan our vacations. It is only a matter of time before consumers start demanding health care with the same convenience that comes with booking an airline flight or managing a bank account. The health care industry itself requires periodic and mandatory data analysis for outcome analysis, clinical benchmarking, quality improvement, forming guidelines, and making decisions. The federal government and health care community have been working together to come up with more robust and cost-effective health care informatics solutions. Meaningful use (MU) intends to establish a new standard for health care informatics in the United States. The term "meaningful use" implies that health care information and technology systems not just exist, but also serve as an integral part of physician and hospital workflow; leading to cost savings as well as improved outcomes. Under this concept, the federal government is offering maximum incentive payments of up to $44,000 per physician (including radiologists) if they can meet all the requirements as laid down in the MU measures. Unfortunately, penalties will kick in if physicians are not compliant with MU by 2015. This will be done in at least three stages, with Stage 1 already in effect (as of January 3, 2011). This will be the first in a series of articles outlining MU and what is in store for radiology. We will go in depth about who is eligible, and how the payment schedule is set up. We will break down the core and menu set measures to suggest what can be excluded by most radiologists. We will also go through some case studies and examine what lies in store for radiology. PMID:22212424

  10. 12 CFR 327.9 - Assessment pricing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....S.C. 1831f), and 12 CFR 337.6, including reciprocal deposits as defined in § 327.8(p), and brokered... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assessment pricing methods. 327.9 Section 327.9... ASSESSMENTS In General § 327.9 Assessment pricing methods. (a) Small institutions—(1) Risk Categories....

  11. 12 CFR 327.9 - Assessment pricing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....S.C. 1831f), and 12 CFR 337.6, including reciprocal deposits as defined in § 327.8(p), and brokered... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment pricing methods. 327.9 Section 327.9... ASSESSMENTS In General § 327.9 Assessment pricing methods. (a) Small institutions—(1) Risk Categories....

  12. 12 CFR 327.9 - Assessment pricing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....S.C. 1831f), and 12 CFR 337.6, including reciprocal deposits as defined in § 327.8(p), and brokered... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment pricing methods. 327.9 Section 327.9... ASSESSMENTS In General § 327.9 Assessment pricing methods. (a) Small institutions—(1) Risk Categories....

  13. Micrometeorological methods for assessing greenhouse gas flux

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micrometeorological methods for measuring carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide provide an opportunity for large-scale, long-term monitoring of greenhouse gas flux without the limitations imposed by chamber methods. Flux gradient and eddy covariance methods have been used for several decades to monitor g...

  14. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.; Ravindra, M.K.; Reed, J.W.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Peer Assessment in Small Groups: A Comparison of Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Diane F.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates several peer evaluation tools used to assess student behavior in small groups. The two most common methods of peer assessment found in the literature are rating scales and single score methods. Three peer evaluation instruments, two using a rating scale and one using a single score method, are tested in several…

  16. Cyber Assessment Methods For SCADA Security

    SciTech Connect

    May Robin Permann; Kenneth Rohde

    2005-06-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 brought to light threats and vulnerabilities that face the United States. In response, the U.S. Government is directing the effort to secure the nation's critical infrastructure by creating programs to implement the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (1). One part of this effort involves assessing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essential to the control of critical elements of our national infrastructure, such as electric power, oil, and gas production and distribution. Since their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States, one of the main objectives of this program is to identify vulnerabilities and encourage the public and private sectors to work together to design secure control systems that resolve these weaknesses. This paper describes vulnerability assessment methodologies used in ongoing research and assessment activities designed to identify and resolve vulnerabilities so as to improve the security of the nation's critical infrastructure.

  17. Cyber Assessment Methods for SCADA Security

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-06-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 brought to light threats and vulnerabilities that face the United States. In response, the U.S. Government is directing the effort to secure the nation's critical infrastructure by creating programs to implement the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (1). One part of this effort involves assessing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essential to the control of critical elements of our national infrastructure, such as electric power, oil, and gas production and distribution. Since their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States, one of the main objectives of this program is to identify vulnerabilities and encourage the public and private sectors to work together to design secure control systems that resolve these weaknesses. This paper describes vulnerability assessment methodologies used in ongoing research and assessment activities designed to identify and resolve vulnerabilities so as to improve the security of the nation's critical infrastructure.

  18. Postponement of death until symbolically meaningful occasions.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D P; Smith, D G

    1990-04-11

    This study shows that mortality dips before a symbolically meaningful occasion and peaks just afterward. Mortality among Chinese (n = 1288) dips by 35.1% in the week before the Harvest Moon Festival and peaks by the same amount (34.6%) in the week after. We chose to study mortality among Chinese and a Chinese holiday for two reasons. First, the holiday moves around the calendar, thus allowing separation of the effects of the holiday from fixed, monthly mortality effects. Second, the holiday appeals strongly to one (experimental) group and not to others (which can be used as control groups). In terms of percentage, cerebrovascular diseases displayed the largest dip/peak pattern, followed by diseases of the heart, and then malignant neoplasms. The dip/peak mortality pattern does not appear in various non-Chinese control groups. The statistical significance of the findings was demonstrated with linear and curvilinear regression analysis and with two nonparametric tests. After testing alternative explanations for the findings, we concluded that the dip/peak pattern occurs because death can be briefly postponed until after the occurrence of a significant occasion. PMID:2313872

  19. [Funktionsoberarzt. Pseudo-title or meaningful position?].

    PubMed

    Histing, T; Burkhardt, M; Rollmann, M; Menger, M D; Pohlemann, T

    2014-06-01

    The position of the Funktionsoberarzt ("functioning senior physician") is to date not specified. Nevertheless, in the majority of hospitals the position exists, although the function and responsibilities are not clearly defined. Frequently, it is thought that the position represents a consultant who works independently, but who is still supported by experienced colleagues to achieve the full qualification for a senior physician. In contrast, others indicate that the position represents a consultant who works as a senior physician with all responsibilities, but without an established post and without the corresponding reimbursement. A critical disadvantage of the position is that frequently the duties of both a resident and senior physician must be managed. Rotation between the two functions results in a higher workload, and the lack of identity and acceptance may lead to frustration. Therefore, we feel that the position is only meaningful if the Funktionsoberarzt works exclusively as a senior physician who is supported for complex surgeries and decisions by more experienced colleagues. In addition, the position should only be temporary and the time period for the position should be defined in advance. PMID:24903505

  20. Assessing Social Isolation: Pilot Testing Different Methods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Herbers, Stephanie; Talisman, Samuel; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation is a significant public health problem among many older adults; however, most of the empirical knowledge about isolation derives from community-based samples. There has been less attention given to isolation in senior housing communities. The objectives of this pilot study were to test two methods to identify socially isolated residents in low-income senior housing and compare findings about the extent of isolation from these two methods. The first method, self-report by residents, included 47 out of 135 residents who completed in-person interviews. To determine self-report isolation, residents completed the Lubben Social Network Scale 6 (LSNS-6). The second method involved a staff member who reported the extent of isolation on all 135 residents via an online survey. Results indicated that 26% of residents who were interviewed were deemed socially isolated by the LSNS-6. Staff members rated 12% of residents as having some or a lot of isolation. In comparing the two methods, staff members rated 2% of interviewed residents as having a lot of isolation. The combination of self-report and staff report could be more informative than just self-report alone, particularly when participation rates are low. However, researchers should be aware of the potential discrepancy between these two methods. PMID:27276687

  1. Assessment of User Home Location Geoinference Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Joshua J.; Bell, Eric B.; Corley, Courtney D.; Dowling, Chase P.; Cowell, Andrew J.

    2015-05-29

    This study presents an assessment of multiple approaches to determine the home and/or other important locations to a Twitter user. In this study, we present a unique approach to the problem of geotagged data sparsity in social media when performing geoinferencing tasks. Given the sparsity of explicitly geotagged Twitter data, the ability to perform accurate and reliable user geolocation from a limited number of geotagged posts has proven to be quite useful. In our survey, we have achieved accuracy rates of over 86% in matching Twitter user profile locations with their inferred home locations derived from geotagged posts.

  2. [New assessment method in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Hirata, Shintaro; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2016-06-01

    To assess disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), several composite measures have been used. However, more objective indices have been desired due to subjectivity in conventional indices. The Multi-Biomarker Disease Activity(MBDA) score is a novel serum testing based disease activity score ranging 1-100, derived from pre-specified algorithms in combination with 12 biomarkers. The MBDA score not only reflects disease activity in RA, but also is predictive for radiographic progression and risk of flare after drug reduction. Here we review usefulness of the MBDA score in RA. PMID:27311181

  3. A review of regional mineral resource assessment methods.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.; Mosier, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Over 100 papers on regional mineral resource assessment of nonfuels are classified according to method(s) and form(s) of product in order to help identify possible methods for future assessments. Methods considered are: time-rate, crustal abundance, cumulative tonnage versus grade, simple subjective, complex subjective, Bayesian, frequency, trend, geometric probability, multiple regression, discriminant analysis, modified component, multivariate logistic, cluster analysis or pattern recognition, and simulation. Selection of an assessment method should be based on: 1) appropriateness of the product to the problem; 2) limitations in resources, such as information or time available for the assessment; 3) the level of uncertainty and acceptability of biases in the assessment; and 4) the need for verification of results and acceptance of the method. -Authors

  4. Exploring Formative Assessment as a Tool for Learning: Students' Experiences of Different Methods of Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weurlander, Maria; Soderberg, Magnus; Scheja, Max; Hult, Hakan; Wernerson, Annika

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to provide a greater insight into how formative assessments are experienced and understood by students. Two different formative assessment methods, an individual, written assessment and an oral group assessment, were components of a pathology course within a medical curriculum. In a cohort of 70 students, written accounts were…

  5. Evaluation of Dynamic Methods for Earthwork Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlček, Jozef; Ďureková, Dominika; Zgútová, Katarína

    2015-05-01

    Rapid development of road construction imposes requests on fast and quality methods for earthwork quality evaluation. Dynamic methods are now adopted in numerous civil engineering sections. Especially evaluation of the earthwork quality can be sped up using dynamic equipment. This paper presents the results of the parallel measurements of chosen devices for determining the level of compaction of soils. Measurements were used to develop the correlations between values obtained from various apparatuses. Correlations show that examined apparatuses are suitable for examination of compaction level of fine-grained soils with consideration of boundary conditions of used equipment. Presented methods are quick and results can be obtained immediately after measurement, and they are thus suitable in cases when construction works have to be performed in a short period of time.

  6. Assessing Institutional Effectiveness: Issues, Methods, and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron, Ed.

    This collection of 12 papers was presented at a 1987 conference at which speakers presented personal perspectives on institutional effectiveness. Papers are organized under three major headings: "Managing Quality: Methods and Outcomes,""Institutional Response," and "Special Issues." Titles include: (1) "Managing the Meaning of Institutional…

  7. METHODS FOR ASSESSING RAT SPERM MOTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems are becoming more widely used. ith this spread of technology come more data from toxicology studies, designed to determine if treatment with putative toxicants affects sperm motion parameters. hile these CASA methods provide us with...

  8. Assessment of heliostat control system methods

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, J; Chen, B

    1986-01-01

    Automatic control and communication between the major components in solar thermal central receiver systems is critically needed for the optimal and safe operation of these systems. This report assesses novel and cost-effective approaches to the control of the solar collector field and the communication with the central plant computer/control system. The authors state that radio frequency and carrier-current communication approaches have the greatest potential to improve cost-effectiveness relative to the current dedicated control wiring approaches. In addition, based on their analysis, the authors recommend distributed control, which is becoming an industry-wide control standard, for the individual concentrators within the collector field rather than the current central computer approach. The vastly improved cost and performance ofmicroprocessors and other solid-state electronics, which has continually and rapidly proceeded for more than five years, is the major reason for these conclusions.

  9. [Radiographic assessment of pulmonary hypertension: Methodical aspects].

    PubMed

    Korobkova, I Z; Lazutkina, V K; Nizovtsova, L A; Riden, T V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a menacing complication of a number of diseases, which is responsible for high mortality rates and considerably poorer quality of life in a patient. The timely detection for pulmonary hypertension allows timely initiation of treatment, thus improvement in prognosis in the patient. Chest X-ray is the most commonly used radiographic technique for various causes. Physicians' awareness about the radiographic manifestations of pulmonary hypertension may contribute to the earlier detection of this severe disease. Owing to the natural contrast of reflected structures, a chest X-ray film gives a unique opportunity to assess pulmonary circulation vessels, to reveal the signs of pulmonary hypertension, and to estimate trends in the course of the disease. The paper details a procedure for analysis and the normal radiographic anatomy of pulmonary circulation vessels, gives the present classification of pulmonary hypertension, and sets forth its X-ray semiotics. PMID:26552229

  10. Qualitative Methods in Family Evaluation: Creative Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Sharon A.; Piercy, Fred P.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role that experiential therapy methods can play in qualitative family assessment. It is believed that these methods can be quite helpful in engaging families in a collaborative evaluation process. The advantages of qualitative assessment are presented as a complement to more quantitative family evaluation measures. (BF)

  11. Qualitative Assessment of Inquiry-Based Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Michael; Long, George; Owens, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    A new approach to teaching method assessment using student focused qualitative studies and the theoretical framework of mental models is proposed. The methodology is considered specifically for the advantages it offers when applied to the assessment of inquiry-based teaching methods. The theoretical foundation of mental models is discussed, and…

  12. A Novel Method for Learner Assessment Based on Learner Annotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorbehbahani, Fakhroddin; Samani, Elaheh Biglar Beigi; Jazi, Hossein Hadian

    2013-01-01

    Assessment is one of the most essential parts of any instructive learning process which aims to evaluate a learner's knowledge about learning concepts. In this work, a new method for learner assessment based on learner annotations is presented. The proposed method exploits the M-BLEU algorithm to find the most similar reference annotations…

  13. NATO PILOT STUDY ON ADVANCED CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    NCEA scientists are participating in a study of advanced cancer risk assessment methods, conducted under the auspices of NATO's Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society. The product will be a book of case studies that illustrate advanced cancer risk assessment methods, avail...

  14. Meaningful metrics for observatory publication statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Becker, Glenn E.

    2012-09-01

    Observatories have wrestled for decades with the questions how to measure their importance to the astronomical community, what their scientific impact is, and how their performance in that respect compares to that of other observatories. There is a general sense that the answer is to be found in the publication record - specifically, in the refereed journal articles. However, simple parameters (such as the number of papers) are not helpful, because in isolation (applied to a single observatory) they are meaningless, while in comparison between observatories they are subject to external influences that all but invalidate the comparisons. We were fortunate in having the Chandra X-ray Observatory's bibliographic database with its rich variety of metadata available as a resource for experimenting with more sophisticated metrics. Out of this project we propose a modest set that contains meaningful information when viewed in the isolation of a single observatory as well as in comparison with other observatories. Even so, we urge users not to draw conclusions on the basis of the face value of the comparisons, but only after a serious analysis of potential causes for any differences or similarities. We have designed our metrics to provide useful information in three main areas of interest: speed of publication; fraction of observing time published; and archival usage. The basic measured parameters are the percentage of available observing time published as a function of the data's age, at a few specific age values; the median time it takes to publish observations; and similar parameters for multiple publications of the same observations. Citation of results is a fourth category, but it does not lend itself well to comparisons and defies the search for definite statements.

  15. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Evgeniou, Evgenios; Peter, Loizou; Tsironi, Maria; Iyer, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used. PMID:23441076

  16. Assessment of dental plaque by optoelectronic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrutiu, Meda-Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Bortun, Cristina Maria; Levai, Mihaela-Codrina; Topala, Florin Ionel; Crǎciunescu, Emanuela Lidia; Cojocariu, Andreea Codruta; Duma, Virgil Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2016-03-01

    The formation of dental biofilm follows specific mechanisms of initial colonization on the surface, microcolony formation, development of organized three dimensional community structures, and detachment from the surface. The structure of the plaque biofilm might restrict the penetration of antimicrobial agents, while bacteria on a surface grow slowly and display a novel phenotype; the consequence of the latter is a reduced sensitivity to inhibitors. The aim of this study was to evaluate with different optoelectronic methods the morphological characteristics of the dental biofilm. The study was performed on samples from 25 patients aged between 18 and 35 years. The methods used in this study were Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) working at 870 nm for in vivo evaluations and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for validations. For each patient a sample of dental biofilm was obtained directly from the vestibular surface of the teeth's. SD-OCT produced C- and B-scans that were used to generate three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the sample. The results were compared with SEM evaluations. The biofilm network was dramatically destroyed after the professional dental cleaning. OCT noninvasive methods can act as a valuable tool for the 3D characterization of dental biofilms.

  17. Aerodynamic drag in cycling: methods of assessment.

    PubMed

    Debraux, Pierre; Grappe, Frederic; Manolova, Aneliya V; Bertucci, William

    2011-09-01

    When cycling on level ground at a speed greater than 14 m/s, aerodynamic drag is the most important resistive force. About 90% of the total mechanical power output is necessary to overcome it. Aerodynamic drag is mainly affected by the effective frontal area which is the product of the projected frontal area and the coefficient of drag. The effective frontal area represents the position of the cyclist on the bicycle and the aerodynamics of the cyclist-bicycle system in this position. In order to optimise performance, estimation of these parameters is necessary. The aim of this study is to describe and comment on the methods used during the last 30 years for the evaluation of the effective frontal area and the projected frontal area in cycling, in both laboratory and actual conditions. Most of the field methods are not expensive and can be realised with few materials, providing valid results in comparison with the reference method in aerodynamics, the wind tunnel. Finally, knowledge of these parameters can be useful in practice or to create theoretical models of cycling performance. PMID:21936289

  18. MIMIC Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Three multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) methods, namely, the standard MIMIC method (M-ST), the MIMIC method with scale purification (M-SP), and the MIMIC method with a pure anchor (M-PA), were developed to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. In a series of simulations, it appeared that all three methods…

  19. Methods for Assessing Mitochondrial Function in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Daniel A.; Lanza, Ian R.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research is investigating the potential contribution of mitochondrial function to the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Numerous in vitro, in situ, and in vivo methodologies are available to examine various aspects of mitochondrial function, each requiring an understanding of their principles, advantages, and limitations. This review provides investigators with a critical overview of the strengths, limitations and critical experimental parameters to consider when selecting and conducting studies on mitochondrial function. In vitro (isolated mitochondria) and in situ (permeabilized cells/tissue) approaches provide direct access to the mitochondria, allowing for study of mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox function under defined substrate conditions. Several experimental parameters must be tightly controlled, including assay media, temperature, oxygen concentration, and in the case of permeabilized skeletal muscle, the contractile state of the fibers. Recently developed technology now offers the opportunity to measure oxygen consumption in intact cultured cells. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides the most direct way of assessing mitochondrial function in vivo with interpretations based on specific modeling approaches. The continuing rapid evolution of these technologies offers new and exciting opportunities for deciphering the potential role of mitochondrial function in the etiology and treatment of diabetes. PMID:23520284

  20. Retrospective exposure assessment using Bayesian methods.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, G

    2001-11-01

    This paper presents the application of a Bayesian framework for retrospective exposure assessment of workers in a nickel smelter. Using only sparsely available historical measurements will result in exposure estimates with large uncertainties. However, additional information, in the form of expert judgments informed by knowledge of historical plant conditions, can be brought to bear on this process. The experts are provided with an information packet that contains historical process information, process throughput levels for each year, the dimensions of the workplace, ventilation records, and task descriptions for each job category. Based on this information, the experts provide subjective prior probability distributions for input parameters to a general ventilation model that predicts building concentrations. These priors can be synthesized with the historical measurements using Bayes theorem. The prior distributions of exposures are updated using the average measured exposures (historical measurements) and their associated variances to obtain the posterior probability distributions for building concentrations as well as concentrations at specific locations in the building. Expert input was also obtained from a plant industrial hygienist, in the form of probability distributions, regarding the amounts of time spent by each job category in different locations in the building. Monte Carlo sampling, from the posterior probability distributions of concentrations in different micro-environments and the probability distributions of time spent by each job category in those micro-environments, was used to obtain worker exposures using a time-weighted averaging model. PMID:11718661

  1. A new assessment method for image fusion quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liu; Jiang, Wanying; Li, Jing; Yuchi, Ming; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Xuming

    2013-03-01

    Image fusion quality assessment plays a critically important role in the field of medical imaging. To evaluate image fusion quality effectively, a lot of assessment methods have been proposed. Examples include mutual information (MI), root mean square error (RMSE), and universal image quality index (UIQI). These image fusion assessment methods could not reflect the human visual inspection effectively. To address this problem, we have proposed a novel image fusion assessment method which combines the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) with the regional mutual information in this paper. In this proposed method, the source medical images are firstly decomposed into different levels by the NSCT. Then the maximum NSCT coefficients of the decomposed directional images at each level are obtained to compute the regional mutual information (RMI). Finally, multi-channel RMI is computed by the weighted sum of the obtained RMI values at the various levels of NSCT. The advantage of the proposed method lies in the fact that the NSCT can represent image information using multidirections and multi-scales and therefore it conforms to the multi-channel characteristic of human visual system, leading to its outstanding image assessment performance. The experimental results using CT and MRI images demonstrate that the proposed assessment method outperforms such assessment methods as MI and UIQI based measure in evaluating image fusion quality and it can provide consistent results with human visual assessment.

  2. Disordered Speech Assessment Using Automatic Methods Based on Quantitative Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Lingyun; Harris, John G.; Shrivastav, Rahul; Sapienza, Christine

    2005-12-01

    Speech quality assessment methods are necessary for evaluating and documenting treatment outcomes of patients suffering from degraded speech due to Parkinson's disease, stroke, or other disease processes. Subjective methods of speech quality assessment are more accurate and more robust than objective methods but are time-consuming and costly. We propose a novel objective measure of speech quality assessment that builds on traditional speech processing techniques such as dynamic time warping (DTW) and the Itakura-Saito (IS) distortion measure. Initial results show that our objective measure correlates well with the more expensive subjective methods.

  3. Regional method to assess offshore slope stability.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Edwards, B.D.

    1986-01-01

    The slope stability of some offshore environments can be evaluated by using only conventional acoustic profiling and short-core sampling, followed by laboratory consolidation and strength testing. The test results are synthesized by using normalized-parameter techniques. The normalized data are then used to calculate the critical earthquake acceleration factors or the wave heights needed to initiate failure. These process-related parameters provide a quantitative measure of the relative stability for locations from which short cores were obtained. The method is most applicable to offshore environments of gentle relief and simple subsurface structure and is not considered a substitute for subsequent site-specific analysis. -from ASCE Publications Information

  4. Interlaboratory Validation of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) Method 1313 and Method 1316

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of an interlaboratory study conducted to generate precision estimates for two parallel batch leaching methods which are part of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF). These methods are: (1) Method 1313: Liquid-Solid Partition...

  5. Stimulus set meaningfulness and neurophysiological differentiation: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Boly, Melanie; Sasai, Shuntaro; Gosseries, Olivia; Oizumi, Masafumi; Casali, Adenauer; Massimini, Marcello; Tononi, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    A meaningful set of stimuli, such as a sequence of frames from a movie, triggers a set of different experiences. By contrast, a meaningless set of stimuli, such as a sequence of 'TV noise' frames, triggers always the same experience--of seeing 'TV noise'--even though the stimuli themselves are as different from each other as the movie frames. We reasoned that the differentiation of cortical responses underlying the subject's experiences, as measured by Lempel-Ziv complexity (incompressibility) of functional MRI images, should reflect the overall meaningfulness of a set of stimuli for the subject, rather than differences among the stimuli. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying the differentiation of brain activity patterns in response to a movie sequence, to the same movie scrambled in time, and to 'TV noise', where the pixels from each movie frame were scrambled in space. While overall cortical activation was strong and widespread in all conditions, the differentiation (Lempel-Ziv complexity) of brain activation patterns was correlated with the meaningfulness of the stimulus set, being highest in the movie condition, intermediate in the scrambled movie condition, and minimal for 'TV noise'. Stimulus set meaningfulness was also associated with higher information integration among cortical regions. These results suggest that the differentiation of neural responses can be used to assess the meaningfulness of a given set of stimuli for a given subject, without the need to identify the features and categories that are relevant to the subject, nor the precise location of selective neural responses. PMID:25970444

  6. Influence of expertise on rockfall hazard assessment using empirical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delonca, Adeline; Verdel, Thierry; Gunzburger, Yann

    2016-07-01

    To date, many rockfall hazard assessment methods still consider qualitative observations within their analysis. Based on this statement, knowledge and expertise are supposed to be major parameters of rockfall assessment. To test this hypothesis, an experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the influence of knowledge and expertise on rockfall hazard assessment. Three populations were selected, having different levels of expertise: (1) students in geosciences, (2) researchers in geosciences and (3) confirmed experts. These three populations evaluated the rockfall hazard level on the same site, considering two different methods: the Laboratoire des Ponts et Chaussées (LPC) method and a method partly based on the "slope mass rating" (SMR) method. To complement the analysis, the completion of an "a priori" assessment of the rockfall hazard was requested of each population, without using any method. The LPC method is the most widely used method in France for official hazard mapping. It combines two main indicators: the predisposition to instability and the expected magnitude. Reversely, the SMR method was used as an ad hoc quantitative method to investigate the effect of quantification within a method. These procedures were applied on a test site divided into three different sectors. A statistical treatment of the results (descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square independent test and ANOVA) shows that there is a significant influence of the method used on the rockfall hazard assessment, whatever the sector. However, there is a non-significant influence of the level of expertise of the population the sectors 2 and 3. On sector 1, there is a significant influence of the level of expertise, explained by the importance of the temporal probability assessment in the rockfall hazard assessment process. The SMR-based method seems highly sensitive to the "site activity" indicator and exhibits an important dispersion in its results. However, the results are more similar

  7. The liquefaction method for assessing paleoseismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, M.P.

    1994-12-01

    Paleoseismicity studies expand our knowledge of seismic activity into the prehistoric period and thereby can improve our understanding of the earthquake potential of various regions. Paleoseismology is proving especially useful in eastern North America, where the recurrence interval of large earthquakes is longer than the historic record of earthquakes. Because surface traces of seismogenic faults have been difficult to identify in eastern North America, most paleoseismicity studies have employed features resulting from liquefaction. The goals of paleoliquefaction studies are to determine the recurrence intervals, magnitudes, and source areas of prehistoric earthquakes. To accomplish these goals, one must be able to identify earthquake-induced liquefaction features, determine their ages, and map their distribution. This report reviews (1) characteristics of earthquake-induced liquefaction features as well as other soft-sediment deformation structures, (2) methods for dating liquefaction features, and (3) relationships between liquefaction and the magnitude and distance of causative earthquakes. Recent studies by the author in Quebec Province, Canada and in the New Madrid seismic zone of the central United States provide the basis for this report. For additional information on the use of liquefaction features in paleoseismology see Amick et al. (1990) and Obermeier et al. (1990 and 1992).

  8. Compounding conservatisms: EPA's health risk assessment methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stackelberg, K. von; Burmaster, D.E. )

    1993-03-01

    Superfund conjures up images of hazardous waste sites, which EPA is spending billions of dollars to remediate. One of the law's most worrisome effects is that it drains enormous economic resources without returning commensurate benefits. In a Sept. 1, 1991, front page article in The New York Times, experts argued that most health dangers at Superfund sites could be eliminated for a fraction of the billions that will be spent cleaning up the 1,200 high-priority sites across the country. Even EPA has suggested that the Superfund program may receive disproportionate resources, compared with other public health programs, such as radon in houses, the diminishing ozone layer and occupational diseases. Public opinion polls over the last decade consistently have mirrored the public's vast fear of hazardous waste sites, a fear as great as that held for nuclear power plants. Fear notwithstanding, the high cost of chosen remedies at given sites may have less to do with public health goals than with the method EPA uses to translate them into acceptable contaminant concentrations in soil, groundwater and other environmental media.

  9. Analytical methods to assess nanoparticle toxicity.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Bryce J; Love, Sara A; Braun, Katherine L; Haynes, Christy L

    2009-03-01

    During the past 20 years, improvements in nanoscale materials synthesis and characterization have given scientists great control over the fabrication of materials with features between 1 and 100 nm, unlocking many unique size-dependent properties and, thus, promising many new and/or improved technologies. Recent years have found the integration of such materials into commercial goods; a current estimate suggests there are over 800 nanoparticle-containing consumer products (The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies Consumer Products Inventory, , accessed Oct. 2008), accounting for 147 billion USD in products in 2007 (Nanomaterials state of the market Q3 2008: stealth success, broad impact, Lux Research Inc., New York, NY, 2008). Despite this increase in the prevalence of engineered nanomaterials, there is little known about their potential impacts on environmental health and safety. The field of nanotoxicology has formed in response to this lack of information and resulted in a flurry of research studies. Nanotoxicology relies on many analytical methods for the characterization of nanomaterials as well as their impacts on in vitro and in vivo function. This review provides a critical overview of these techniques from the perspective of an analytical chemist, and is intended to be used as a reference for scientists interested in conducting nanotoxicological research as well as those interested in nanotoxicological assay development. PMID:19238274

  10. In situ methods for assessing alveolar mechanics.

    PubMed

    Wu, You; Perlman, Carrie E

    2012-02-01

    Lung mechanics are an important determinant of physiological and pathophysiological lung function. Recent light microscopy studies of the intact lung have furthered the understanding of lung mechanics but used methodologies that may have introduced artifacts. To address this concern, we employed a short working distance water immersion objective to capture confocal images of a fluorescently labeled alveolar field on the costal surface of the isolated, perfused rat lung. Surface tension held a saline drop between the objective tip and the lung surface, such that the lung surface was unconstrained. For comparison, we also imaged with O-ring and coverslip; with O-ring, coverslip, and vacuum pressure; and without perfusion. Under each condition, we ventilated the lung and imaged the same region at the endpoints of ventilation. We found use of a coverslip caused a minimal enlargement of the alveolar field; additional use of vacuum pressure caused no further dimensional change; and absence of perfusion did not affect alveolar field dimension. Inflation-induced expansion was unaltered by methodology. In response to inflation, percent expansion was the same as recorded by all four alternative methods. PMID:22074721

  11. Exploring the Meaningful Learning of Students in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskitalo, Tuulikki; Pyykko, Elli; Ruokamo, Heli

    2011-01-01

    This study reports a case study in which a pedagogical model, namely the Global Virtual Education (GloVEd) model, which is based on the teaching-studying-learning process (TSL process) and the characteristics of meaningful learning, is developed and used to evaluate students' meaningful learning experiences during the Global Virtual Collaboration…

  12. Self-Determination and Meaningful Work: Exploring Socioeconomic Constraints.

    PubMed

    Allan, Blake A; Autin, Kelsey L; Duffy, Ryan D

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a model of meaningful work among a diverse sample of working adults. From the perspectives of Self-Determination Theory and the Psychology of Working Framework, we tested a structural model with social class and work volition predicting SDT motivation variables, which in turn predicted meaningful work. Partially supporting hypotheses, work volition was positively related to internal regulation and negatively related to amotivation, whereas social class was positively related to external regulation and amotivation. In turn, internal regulation was positively related to meaningful work, whereas external regulation and amotivation were negatively related to meaningful work. Indirect effects from work volition to meaningful work via internal regulation and amotivation were significant, and indirect effects from social class to meaningful work via external regulation and amotivation were significant. This study highlights the important relations between SDT motivation variables and meaningful work, especially the large positive relation between internal regulation and meaningful work. However, results also reveal that work volition and social class may play critical roles in predicting internal regulation, external regulation, and amotivation. PMID:26869970

  13. 42 CFR 495.210 - Meaningful EHR user attestation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Meaningful EHR user attestation. 495.210 Section... INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.210 Meaningful EHR... EHR user. (b) Qualifying MA organizations are required to attest within 60 days after the close of...

  14. Developing Meaningfulness at Work through Emotional Intelligence Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thory, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    To date, there remains a significant gap in the human resource development (HRD) literature in understanding how training and development contributes to meaningful work. In addition, little is known about how individuals proactively make their work more meaningful. This article shows how emotional intelligence (EI) training promotes learning about…

  15. Self-Determination and Meaningful Work: Exploring Socioeconomic Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Blake A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a model of meaningful work among a diverse sample of working adults. From the perspectives of Self-Determination Theory and the Psychology of Working Framework, we tested a structural model with social class and work volition predicting SDT motivation variables, which in turn predicted meaningful work. Partially supporting hypotheses, work volition was positively related to internal regulation and negatively related to amotivation, whereas social class was positively related to external regulation and amotivation. In turn, internal regulation was positively related to meaningful work, whereas external regulation and amotivation were negatively related to meaningful work. Indirect effects from work volition to meaningful work via internal regulation and amotivation were significant, and indirect effects from social class to meaningful work via external regulation and amotivation were significant. This study highlights the important relations between SDT motivation variables and meaningful work, especially the large positive relation between internal regulation and meaningful work. However, results also reveal that work volition and social class may play critical roles in predicting internal regulation, external regulation, and amotivation. PMID:26869970

  16. Meaningful Movement for Children: Stay True to Their Natures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgarten, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the meaningful movement for children. In this article, the author discusses "roots" in the "physical education garden" which, when thoroughly examined, reveal tried and true insights about children and their natures. By revisiting these natures or characteristics, one will have a clearer picture of what is meaningful to…

  17. Meaningful Literacy: Writing Poetry in the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanauer, David I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of meaningful literacy and offers a classroom methodology--poetry writing--that manifests this approach to ESL/EFL literacy instruction. The paper is divided into three sections. The first deals with the concept of meaningful literacy learning in second and foreign language pedagogy; the second summarizes empirical…

  18. Meaningfulness of service and marital satisfaction in Army couples.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jeffrey S; Renshaw, Keith D; Allen, Elizabeth S; Markman, Howard J; Stanley, Scott M

    2014-10-01

    The vast numbers of military service members who have been deployed since 2001 highlights the need to better understand relationships of military couples. A unique consideration in military couples is the concept of meaningfulness of service, or the value service members and their partners place on military service in spite of the sacrifices it requires. In a sample of 606 Army couples, the authors used path analysis to examine how male service members' and female spouses' perceived meaningfulness of service added to the prediction of marital satisfaction in both members of the couple, when accounting for service members' PTSD symptoms. Spouses' perceived meaningfulness of service was linked with higher marital satisfaction in spouses, regardless of service member's perceived meaningfulness of service. Service members' perceived meaningfulness of service was also associated with increased marital satisfaction in service members, but only when their spouses also perceived higher meaningfulness. There were no significant interactions between service members' PTSD and either partner's perceived meaningfulness. Implications for enhanced attention to spousal perceptions of meaningfulness of service are discussed. PMID:25046347

  19. [Assessment of DNAse activity by the rivanol clot method].

    PubMed

    Generalova, A G; Generalov, I I

    1997-11-01

    A method for assessing DNAse activity in various biological substrata is offered. It is based on the capacity of rivanol to form a clot with DNA inversely proportionate to depolymeraization of DNAse under the effect of nucleases of different origin. The sensitivity of the method is more than 10 times higher than of viscosimetry and the alcohol clot formation test. In addition, the new method permits quantitative assessment of the clot, with the detection performed by any colorimetric or fluorimetric method. The method is adapted to measurement of the activities of commercial DNAse preparations, serum and immunoglobulin DNAse, and bacterial nuclease activities. PMID:9471317

  20. Research iris serial images quality assessment method based on HVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-hui; Zhang, Chang-hai; Ming, Xing; Zhao, Yong-hua

    2006-01-01

    Iris recognition can be widely used in security and customs, and it provides superiority security than other human feature recognition such as fingerprint, face and so on. The iris image quality is crucial to recognition effect. Accordingly reliable image quality assessments are necessary for evaluating iris image quality. However, there haven't uniformly criterion to Image quality assessment. Image quality assessment have Objective and Subjective Evaluation methods, In practice, However Subjective Evaluation method is fussy and doesn't effective on iris recognition. Objective Evaluation method should be used in iris recognition. According to human visual system model (HVS) Multi-scale and selectivity characteristic, it presents a new iris Image quality assessment method. In the paper, ROI is found and wavelet transform zero-crossing is used to find Multi-scale edge, and Multi-scale fusion measure is used to assess iris image quality. In experiment, Objective and Subjective Evaluation methods are used to assess iris images. From the results, the method is effectively to iris image quality assessment.

  1. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION: EVALUATION OF INTEGRATION METHODS AND ASSESSMENTS RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes methods for quantitative regional assessment developed by the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program. The goal of ReVA is to develop regional-scale assessments of the magnitude, extent, distribution, and uncertainty of current and anticipated envir...

  2. Adapting Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Methods to Assess Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressor Combinations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation based on the following abstract: Chemical mixtures risk assessment methods are routinely used. To address combined chemical and nonchemical stressors, component-based approaches may be applicable, depending on the toxic action among diverse stressors. Such methods a...

  3. Improved reliability analysis method based on the failure assessment diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Zheng; Zhong, Qunpeng

    2012-07-01

    With the uncertainties related to operating conditions, in-service non-destructive testing (NDT) measurements and material properties considered in the structural integrity assessment, probabilistic analysis based on the failure assessment diagram (FAD) approach has recently become an important concern. However, the point density revealing the probabilistic distribution characteristics of the assessment points is usually ignored. To obtain more detailed and direct knowledge from the reliability analysis, an improved probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) assessment method is proposed. By integrating 2D kernel density estimation (KDE) technology into the traditional probabilistic assessment, the probabilistic density of the randomly distributed assessment points is visualized in the assessment diagram. Moreover, a modified interval sensitivity analysis is implemented and compared with probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The improved reliability analysis method is applied to the assessment of a high pressure pipe containing an axial internal semi-elliptical surface crack. The results indicate that these two methods can give consistent sensitivities of input parameters, but the interval sensitivity analysis is computationally more efficient. Meanwhile, the point density distribution and its contour are plotted in the FAD, thereby better revealing the characteristics of PFM assessment. This study provides a powerful tool for the reliability analysis of critical structures.

  4. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) DEVELOPING METHODS TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA has invested considerable research effort--intended to meet regulatory needs--toward developing methods for assessing the environmental effects of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs). Preliminary investigations centered on the fate, survival, accidental release, ...

  5. Comparison of selected multi-criteria assessment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzemiński, Michał

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the results of earlier work done in conjunction with the author in which the focus was on assessing the impact of the selection methods for the evaluation of multi-criteria and methods of normalization of the input matrix on the final result of the prioritization of possible variants. Also done an assessment of these variants using fuzzy logic. The aim of the article was to compare the results obtained.

  6. Teaching Physics in a Physiologically Meaningful Manner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomer, Michael; Jessen, Karsten; Rangelov, Georgi; Meyer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The learning outcome of a physics laboratory course for medical students was examined in an interdisciplinary field study and discussed for the electrical physiology ("Propagation of Excitation and Nerve Cells"). At the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (LMU) at a time about 300 medicine students were assessed in two successive years.…

  7. Methods of Postural Assessment Used for Sports Persons

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of postural defects has become very common now-a-days not only in general population but also in sports persons. There are various methods which can be used to assess these postural defects. These methods have evolved over a period of many years. This paper is first of its kind to summarize the methods of postural assessment which have been used and which can be used for evaluation of postural abnormalities in sports persons such as the visual observation, plumbline, goniometry, photographic, radiographic, photogrammetric, flexiruler, electromagnetic tracking device etc. We recommend more and more postural evaluation studies to be done in future based on the photogrammetric method. PMID:24959470

  8. A method for the probabilistic design assessment of composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiao, Michael C.; Singhal, Surendra N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1994-01-01

    A formal procedure for the probabilistic design assessment of a composite structure is described. The uncertainties in all aspects of a composite structure (constituent material properties, fabrication variables, structural geometry, service environments, etc.), which result in the uncertain behavior in the composite structural responses, are included in the assessment. The probabilistic assessment consists of design criteria, modeling of composite structures and uncertainties, simulation methods, and the decision making process. A sample case is presented to illustrate the formal procedure and to demonstrate that composite structural designs can be probabilistically assessed with accuracy and efficiency.

  9. Comparison of Neurosensory Assessment Methods in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Karagoz, Huseyin; Ozturk, Sinan; Siemionow, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Sensory assessment of the skin is essential to document the function of the sensory fibers of the tested nerves. The Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, disk-criminator, electrodiagnostic testing, and Pressure-Specified Sensory Device (PSSD) have been currently used to assess sensory function of peripheral nerves. None of these methods is optimal because of different drawbacks; however, an increasing number of articles, which recognize the reliability of PSSD, have been published during the last decade. In this review, following a short overview on basic physiology and assessment methods of the skin sensory receptors, we compared the sensory assessment methods and summarized the applications of the PSSD in the field of different clinical areas, mainly peripheral neuropathies, breast, and flap surgery. PMID:27404470

  10. Unit Costs Provide Basis for Meaningful Evaluation of Efficiency of TV Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gardner; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Efficient use of television for teaching cannot be achieved without meaningful cost comparisons with conventional classroom methods. Considerable effort has been spent at the University of Michigan in developing a unit cost basis for televised filmed lectures to include not only salaries, but administrative costs, supplies, amortization of…

  11. Ideas in Practice - Making Motion More Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutchins, Malcolm A.

    1971-01-01

    Three methods of studying motion are described. A wind tunnel is utilized in demonstrating flutter. Computer graphics with an oscilloscope are used to investigate the natural modes of vibration and to track the simulated motion of missiles. (TS)

  12. Deriving meaningful climate-effects data from social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuka, M. Z.; Fuka, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents our research on extracting meaningful climate indicator data from unsolicited observations ("tweets") made by Twitter users regarding their physical surroundings and events occurring around them. Our goal is to establish whether the existing understanding of climate indicator data collected by more traditional means could be usefully supplemented by information derived from the potentially rich but also statistically diffuse data resource represented by social media. To this end, we've initiated an ongoing effort to collect and analyze Twitter observations made on a wide variety of climate-related phenological, biological, epidemiological and meteorological phenomena. We report on our acquisition methodology and discuss in particular our rationale for selecting keywords, phrases and filters for our searches. The iterative process of assembling an inventory of hundreds of climate-related search terms has in and of itself yielded interesting and sometimes surprising insights on what is and isn't noticed and commented on via social media with respect to climate indicator phenomenology. We report some of the highlights of those analyses along with significant findings from the data acquisition to date. In conclusion, we discuss our preliminary assessment of the approach, how it can be generalized and extended for social media other than Twitter, and how the resulting data could be used to serve climate science objectives.

  13. Project 6: Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA) Methods and Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project 6: CRA Methods and Applications addresses the need to move beyond traditional risk assessment practices by developing CRA methods to integrate and evaluate impacts of chemical and nonchemical stressors on the environment and human health. Project 6 has three specific obje...

  14. AN APPROACH TO METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure assessment studies require methods that are rapid, cost-effective and have a high sample through-put. The development of analytical methods for exposure studies should be based on specific information for individual studies. Human exposure studies suggest that di...

  15. A Comparison of Treatment Integrity Assessment Methods for Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Seong A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the similarity of outcomes from three different treatment integrity (TI) methods, and to identify the method which best corresponded to the assessment of a child's behavior. Six raters were recruited through individual contact via snowball sampling. A modified intervention component list and 19 video clips…

  16. Methods for Assessing Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Wrinkling Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalewski, Bart F.; Dial, William B.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient closed-form methods for predicting the facesheet wrinkling failure mode in sandwich panels are assessed. Comparisons were made with finite element model predictions for facesheet wrinkling, and a validated closed-form method was implemented in the HyperSizer structure sizing software.

  17. Exploring valid and reliable assessment methods for care management education.

    PubMed

    Gennissen, Lokke; Stammen, Lorette; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien; Wieringa, Sietse; Busari, Jamiu

    2016-07-01

    Purpose It is assumed that the use of valid and reliable assessment methods can facilitate the development of medical residents' management and leadership competencies. To justify this assertion, the perceptions of an expert panel of health care leaders were explored on assessment methods used for evaluating care management (CM) development in Dutch residency programs. This paper aims to investigate how assessors and trainees value these methods and examine for any inherent benefits or shortcomings when they are applied in practice. Design/methodology/approach A Delphi survey was conducted among members of the platform for medical leadership in The Netherlands. This panel of experts was made up of clinical educators, practitioners and residents interested in CM education. Findings Of the respondents, 40 (55.6 per cent) and 31 (43 per cent) participated in the first and second rounds of the Delphi survey, respectively. The respondents agreed that assessment methods currently being used to measure residents' CM competencies were weak, though feasible for use in many residency programs. Multi-source feedback (MSF, 92.1 per cent), portfolio/e-portfolio (86.8 per cent) and knowledge testing (76.3 per cent) were identified as the most commonly known assessment methods with familiarity rates exceeding 75 per cent. Practical implications The findings suggested that an "assessment framework" comprising MSF, portfolios, individual process improvement projects or self-reflections and observations in clinical practice should be used to measure CM competencies in residents. Originality/value This study reaffirms the need for objective methods to assess CM skills in post-graduate medical education, as there was not a single assessment method that stood out as the best instrument. PMID:27397747

  18. CART IV: improving automatic camouflage assessment with assistance methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2010-04-01

    In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in multispectral image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007, SPIE 2008 and SPIE 2009 [1], [2], [3]). It comprises a semi-automatic marking of target objects (ground truth generation) including their propagation over the image sequence and the evaluation via user-defined feature extractors. The conspicuity of camouflaged objects due to their movement can be assessed with a purpose-built processing method named MTI snail track algorithm. This paper presents the enhancements over the recent year and addresses procedures to assist the camouflage assessment of moving objects for image data material with strong noise or image artefacts. This extends the evaluation methods significantly to a broader application range. For example, some noisy infrared image data material can be evaluated for the first time by applying the presented methods which fathom the correlations between camouflage assessment, MTI (moving target indication) and dedicated noise filtering.

  19. Poignancy: Mixed Emotional Experience in the Face of Meaningful Endings

    PubMed Central

    Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Mikels, Joseph A.; Sullivan, Sarah J.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    The experience of mixed emotions increases with age. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that mixed emotions are associated with shifting time horizons. Theoretically, perceived constraints on future time increase appreciation for life, which, in turn, elicits positive emotions such as happiness. Yet, the very same temporal constraints heighten awareness that these positive experiences come to an end, thus yielding mixed emotional states. In 2 studies, the authors examined the link between the awareness of anticipated endings and mixed emotional experience. In Study 1, participants repeatedly imagined being in a meaningful location. Participants in the experimental condition imagined being in the meaningful location for the final time. Only participants who imagined “last times” at meaningful locations experienced more mixed emotions. In Study 2, college seniors reported their emotions on graduation day. Mixed emotions were higher when participants were reminded of the ending that they were experiencing. Findings suggest that poignancy is an emotional experience associated with meaningful endings. PMID:18179325

  20. Designing Meaningful Density Functional Theory Calculations in Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, A. E.

    2005-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) methods for calculating the quantum mechanical ground states of condensed matter systems are now a common and significant component of materials research. These methods are also increasingly used in Equation of State work, in particular in the warm dense matter regime. The growing importance of DFT reflects the development of sufficiently accurate functionals, efficient algorithms, and continuing improvements in computing capabilities. As the materials problems to which DFT is applied have become large and complex, so have the sets of calculations necessary to investigate a given problem. Highly versatile, powerful codes exist to serve the practitioner, but designing useful simulations is a complicated task, involving intricate manipulation of many variables, with many pitfalls for the unwary and the inexperienced. We give an overview of DFT and discuss several of the most important issues that go into designing a meaningful DFT calculation. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Effects of a meaningful, a discriminative, and a meaningless stimulus on equivalence class formation.

    PubMed

    Fields, Lanny; Arntzen, Erik; Nartey, Richard K; Eilifsen, Christoffer

    2012-03-01

    Thirty college students attempted to form three 3-node 5-member equivalence classes under the simultaneous protocol. After concurrent training of AB, BC, CD, and DE relations, all probes used to assess the emergence of symmetrical, transitive, and equivalence relations were presented for two test blocks. When the A-E stimuli were all abstract shapes, none of 10 participants formed classes. When the A, B, D, and E stimuli were abstract shapes and the C stimuli were meaningful pictures, 8 of 10 participants formed classes. This high yield may reflect the expansion of existing classes that consist of the associates of the meaningful stimuli, rather than the formation of the ABCDE classes, per se. When the A-E stimuli were abstract shapes and the C stimuli became S(D)s prior to class formation, 5 out of 10 participants formed classes. Thus, the discriminative functions served by the meaningful stimuli can account for some of the enhancement of class formation produced by the inclusion of a meaningful stimulus as a class member. A sorting task, which provided a secondary measure of class formation, indicated the formation of all three classes when the emergent relations probes indicated the same outcome. In contrast, the sorting test indicated "partial" class formation when the emergent relations test indicated no class formation. Finally, the effects of nodal distance on the relatedness of stimuli in the equivalence classes were not influenced by the functions served by the C stimuli in the equivalence classes. PMID:22389524

  2. Effects of a Meaningful, a Discriminative, and a Meaningless Stimulus on Equivalence Class Formation

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Lanny; Arntzen, Erik; Nartey, Richard K; Eilifsen, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    Thirty college students attempted to form three 3-node 5-member equivalence classes under the simultaneous protocol. After concurrent training of AB, BC, CD, and DE relations, all probes used to assess the emergence of symmetrical, transitive, and equivalence relations were presented for two test blocks. When the A–E stimuli were all abstract shapes, none of 10 participants formed classes. When the A, B, D, and E stimuli were abstract shapes and the C stimuli were meaningful pictures, 8 of 10 participants formed classes. This high yield may reflect the expansion of existing classes that consist of the associates of the meaningful stimuli, rather than the formation of the ABCDE classes, per se. When the A–E stimuli were abstract shapes and the C stimuli became SDs prior to class formation, 5 out of 10 participants formed classes. Thus, the discriminative functions served by the meaningful stimuli can account for some of the enhancement of class formation produced by the inclusion of a meaningful stimulus as a class member. A sorting task, which provided a secondary measure of class formation, indicated the formation of all three classes when the emergent relations probes indicated the same outcome. In contrast, the sorting test indicated “partial” class formation when the emergent relations test indicated no class formation. Finally, the effects of nodal distance on the relatedness of stimuli in the equivalence classes were not influenced by the functions served by the C stimuli in the equivalence classes. PMID:22389524

  3. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs. PMID:25342147

  4. A mixed methods assessment of coping with pediatric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alderfer, Melissa A.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Marsac, Meghan L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe child coping and parent coping assistance with cancer-related stressors during treatment. Fifteen children (aged 6-12) with cancer and their parents (N = 17) completed semi-structured interviews and self-report measures to assess coping and coping assistance. Results suggest families utilized a broad array of approach and avoidance strategies to manage cancer and its treatment. Quantitative and qualitative assessments provided complementary and unique contributions to understanding coping among children with cancer and their parents. Using a mixed methods approach to assess coping provides a richer understanding of families’ experiences, which can better inform clinical practice. PMID:24428250

  5. Methods for assessment of trunk stabilization, a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Maaswinkel, E; Griffioen, M; Perez, R S G M; van Dieën, J H

    2016-02-01

    Trunk stabilization is achieved differently in patients with low back pain compared to healthy controls. Many methods exist to assess trunk stabilization but not all measure the contributions of intrinsic stiffness and reflexes simultaneously. This may pose a threat to the quality/validity of the study and might lead to misinterpretation of the results. The aim of this study was to provide a critical review of previously published methods for studying trunk stabilization in relation to low back pain (LBP). We primarily aimed to assess their construct validity to which end we defined a theoretical framework operationalized in a set of methodological criteria which would allow to identify the contributions of intrinsic stiffness and reflexes simultaneously. In addition, the clinimetric properties of the methods were evaluated. A total of 133 articles were included from which four main categories of methods were defined; upper limb (un)loading, moving platform, unloading and loading. Fifty of the 133 selected articles complied with all the criteria of the theoretical framework, but only four articles provided information about reliability and/or measurement error of methods to assess trunk stabilization with test-retest reliability ranging from poor (ICC 0) to moderate (ICC 0.72). When aiming to assess trunk stabilization with system identification, we propose a perturbation method where the trunk is studied in isolation, the perturbation is unpredictable, force controlled, directly applied to the upper body, completely known and results in small fluctuations around the working point. PMID:26803526

  6. [Assessment methods and preventive measures focusing on relationships].

    PubMed

    Gloger-Tippelt, Gabriele; Reichle, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution relationship-oriented assessment methods and preventive measures during infancy and childhood are founded in an ecological and differential understanding of development in context. Using selected developmental milestones it is demonstrated that relationships as a social context play an important role particularly during early infancy. Criteria for describing well functioning and maladaptive relationships can be derived from theoretical presumptions, empirical longitudinal studies and health related clinical judgements. These criteria may serve as guidelines for interventions, especially in cases of children with a clinical diagnosis of child neglect. Possible procedures to assess the quality of relationships are discussed using methods from contributions in this issue of the journal as examples. Diagnostic and preventive procedures are seen as mutually interacting within continuous feedback loops, where assessment procedures serve to both give evidence for the efficacy of interventions and for specifying further preventive methods. PMID:17725182

  7. Assessing and Evaluating Multidisciplinary Translational Teams: A Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Kevin C.; Rose, Robert M.; Ostir, Glenn V.; Calhoun, William J.; Ameredes, Bill T.; Brasier, Allan R.

    2014-01-01

    A case report illustrates how multidisciplinary translational teams can be assessed using outcome, process, and developmental types of evaluation using a mixed methods approach. Types of evaluation appropriate for teams are considered in relation to relevant research questions and assessment methods. Logic models are applied to scientific projects and team development to inform choices between methods within a mixed methods design. Use of an expert panel is reviewed, culminating in consensus ratings of 11 multidisciplinary teams and a final evaluation within a team type taxonomy. Based on team maturation and scientific progress, teams were designated as: a) early in development, b) traditional, c) process focused, or d) exemplary. Lessons learned from data reduction, use of mixed methods, and use of expert panels are explored. PMID:24064432

  8. Assessing subjective workload assessment - A comparison of SWAT and the NASA-bipolar methods. [Subjective Workload Assessment Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, M. A.; Tsang, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT) and the NASA weighted-bipolar method used for evaluating subjective workload assessment are compared. The application of these methods to the rating of single- and dual-task trials of tracking and spatial transformation is described. The methods used to collect the ratings for the SWAT and bipolar technique are examined. Analysis of the transformation-tracking data reveal that the two assessment techniques produce similar results and both measure the differences in task difficulty. The positive and negative characteristics of each technique are analyzed.

  9. Building Passion Develops Meaningful Mentoring Relationships among Canadian Physiotherapists

    PubMed Central

    Ezzat, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe the meaning of mentorship among Canadian orthopaedic physiotherapists. Methods: As part of a phenomenological qualitative study, 14 registered physiotherapists (13 women, 1 man) each participated in a single 60-minute, semi-structured face-to-face interview. Participants reflected on their experiences in receiving and providing mentorship and described the impact of mentorship on their careers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a phenomenological approach. Results: Participants described mentorship as any nurturing process in which they used their skills and experience to guide, teach, and encourage a less skilled or less experienced colleague for the purpose of promoting professional and personal development. Participants experienced mentorship as a positive, reflective phenomenon. According to participants, the true essence of mentorship in physiotherapy consists of building passion, keeping fresh, making us stronger, and promoting deeper learning. Conclusions: Building a shared passion for learning, as well as a mentor's commitment to the mentee's success, forms the foundation of meaningful mentorship in physiotherapy. These mentoring relationships enable physiotherapists to adapt to the changing health care system, advance patient care, and develop the profession. PMID:23277688

  10. The meaningful encounter: patient and next-of-kin stories about their experience of meaningful encounters in health-care.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lena-Karin; Snellma, Ingrid; Gustafsson, Christine

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on the meaningful encounters of patients and next of kin, as seen from their perspective. Identifying the attributes within meaningful encounters is important for increased understanding of caring and to expand and develop earlier formulated knowledge about caring relationships. Caring theory about the caring relationship provided a point of departure to illuminate the meaningful encounter in healthcare contexts. A qualitative explorative design with a hermeneutic narrative approach was used to analyze and interpret written narratives. The phases of the analysis were naïve interpretation, structure analysis on two different levels (narrative structure, and deep structure through metaphors) and finally a dialectic interpretation. The narratives revealed the meaning of the meaningful encounter as sharing, a nourishing fellowship, common responsibility and coming together, experienced as safety and warmth, that gives, by extension, life-changing moments, a healing force and dissipated insight. The meaningful encounter can be seen as a complex phenomenon with various attributes. Understanding the meaningful encounter will enable nurses to plan and provide professional care, based on caring science, focusing on patient and next-of-kin experiences. PMID:23181930

  11. Analysis of CASP8 targets, predictions and assessment methods

    PubMed Central

    Shi, ShuoYong; Pei, Jimin; Sadreyev, Ruslan I.; Kinch, Lisa N.; Majumdar, Indraneel; Tong, Jing; Cheng, Hua; Kim, Bong-Hyun; Grishin, Nick V.

    2009-01-01

    Results of the recent Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction, CASP8, present several valuable sources of information. First, CASP targets comprise a realistic sample of currently solved protein structures and exemplify the corresponding challenges for predictors. Second, the plethora of predictions by all possible methods provides an unusually rich material for evolutionary analysis of target proteins. Third, CASP results show the current state of the field and highlight specific problems in both predicting and assessing. Finally, these data can serve as grounds to develop and analyze methods for assessing prediction quality. Here we present results of our analysis in these areas. Our objective is not to duplicate CASP assessment, but to use our unique experience as former CASP5 assessors and CASP8 predictors to (i) offer more insights into CASP targets and predictions based on expert analysis, including invaluable analysis prior to target structure release; and (ii) develop an assessment methodology tailored towards current challenges in the field. Specifically, we discuss preparing target structures for assessment, parsing protein domains, balancing evaluations based on domains and on whole chains, dividing targets into categories and developing new evaluation scores. We also present evolutionary analysis of the most interesting and challenging targets. Database URL: Our results are available as a comprehensive database of targets and predictions at http://prodata.swmed.edu/CASP8. PMID:20157476

  12. Analysis of CASP8 targets, predictions and assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuoyong; Pei, Jimin; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Kinch, Lisa N; Majumdar, Indraneel; Tong, Jing; Cheng, Hua; Kim, Bong-Hyun; Grishin, Nick V

    2009-01-01

    Results of the recent Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction, CASP8, present several valuable sources of information. First, CASP targets comprise a realistic sample of currently solved protein structures and exemplify the corresponding challenges for predictors. Second, the plethora of predictions by all possible methods provides an unusually rich material for evolutionary analysis of target proteins. Third, CASP results show the current state of the field and highlight specific problems in both predicting and assessing. Finally, these data can serve as grounds to develop and analyze methods for assessing prediction quality. Here we present results of our analysis in these areas. Our objective is not to duplicate CASP assessment, but to use our unique experience as former CASP5 assessors and CASP8 predictors to (i) offer more insights into CASP targets and predictions based on expert analysis, including invaluable analysis prior to target structure release; and (ii) develop an assessment methodology tailored towards current challenges in the field. Specifically, we discuss preparing target structures for assessment, parsing protein domains, balancing evaluations based on domains and on whole chains, dividing targets into categories and developing new evaluation scores. We also present evolutionary analysis of the most interesting and challenging targets.Database URL: Our results are available as a comprehensive database of targets and predictions at http://prodata.swmed.edu/CASP8. PMID:20157476

  13. [Assessment of ecosystem and its services conservation: indicators and methods].

    PubMed

    Lü, Yi-He; Zhang, Li-Wei; Wang, Jiang-Lei

    2013-05-01

    To conserve ecosystem and its services is a frontier and hot topic in the researches of conservation ecology. This paper reviewed the newest concepts and methods in the assessment of ecosystem and its services conservation, with the focus on the indicators and criteria for assessing the conservation status and the endangerment level of ecosystem as well as the main methods of ecosystem services assessment and conservation (including benefit transfer, systematic modeling, and quantitative indicator-based estimation). With the consideration of the research progress and the demands of ecological conservation in China, some issues to be urgently solved were put forward: 1) formulating the indicators, criteria, and methods suitable for the assessment of ecosystem conservation in China, 2) developing the methodologies for the quantitative assessment of ecosystem services, 3) determining the demands and optimal spatial arrangement of ecosystem and its services conservation in China, and 4) establishing the policies and incentive mechanisms for ecosystem and its services conservation. The resolution of these issues would supply important guarantee to the development of ecological civilization in China. PMID:24015539

  14. Stimulus Set Meaningfulness and Neurophysiological Differentiation: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Boly, Melanie; Sasai, Shuntaro; Gosseries, Olivia; Oizumi, Masafumi; Casali, Adenauer; Massimini, Marcello; Tononi, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    A meaningful set of stimuli, such as a sequence of frames from a movie, triggers a set of different experiences. By contrast, a meaningless set of stimuli, such as a sequence of ‘TV noise’ frames, triggers always the same experience—of seeing ‘TV noise’—even though the stimuli themselves are as different from each other as the movie frames. We reasoned that the differentiation of cortical responses underlying the subject’s experiences, as measured by Lempel-Ziv complexity (incompressibility) of functional MRI images, should reflect the overall meaningfulness of a set of stimuli for the subject, rather than differences among the stimuli. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying the differentiation of brain activity patterns in response to a movie sequence, to the same movie scrambled in time, and to ‘TV noise’, where the pixels from each movie frame were scrambled in space. While overall cortical activation was strong and widespread in all conditions, the differentiation (Lempel-Ziv complexity) of brain activation patterns was correlated with the meaningfulness of the stimulus set, being highest in the movie condition, intermediate in the scrambled movie condition, and minimal for ‘TV noise’. Stimulus set meaningfulness was also associated with higher information integration among cortical regions. These results suggest that the differentiation of neural responses can be used to assess the meaningfulness of a given set of stimuli for a given subject, without the need to identify the features and categories that are relevant to the subject, nor the precise location of selective neural responses. PMID:25970444

  15. Method and apparatus of assessing down-hole drilling conditions

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Johnson, Monte L.; Bartholomew, David B.; Fox, Joe

    2007-04-24

    A method and apparatus for use in assessing down-hole drilling conditions are disclosed. The apparatus includes a drill string, a plurality of sensors, a computing device, and a down-hole network. The sensors are distributed along the length of the drill string and are capable of sensing localized down-hole conditions while drilling. The computing device is coupled to at least one sensor of the plurality of sensors. The data is transmitted from the sensors to the computing device over the down-hole network. The computing device analyzes data output by the sensors and representative of the sensed localized conditions to assess the down-hole drilling conditions. The method includes sensing localized drilling conditions at a plurality of points distributed along the length of a drill string during drilling operations; transmitting data representative of the sensed localized conditions to a predetermined location; and analyzing the transmitted data to assess the down-hole drilling conditions.

  16. Reliability of marginal microleakage assessment by visual and digital methods

    PubMed Central

    de Santi Alvarenga, Fábio Augusto; Pinelli, Camila; Monteiro Loffredo, Leonor de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of visual and digital methods to assess marginal microleakage in vitro. Materials and Methods: Typical Class V preparations were made in bovine teeth and filled with composite resin. After dye penetration (0.5% basic fuchsin), teeth were sectioned and the 53 obtained fragments were assessed according to visual (stereomicroscope) and digital methods (Image Tool Software®-ITS) (University of Texas Health Science Center-San Antonio Dental School, USA). Two calibrated examiners (A and B) evaluated dye penetration, by means of a stereomicroscope with ×20 magnification (scores), and by the ITS (millimeters). The intra- and inter-examiner agreement was estimated according to Kappa statistics (κ), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ρ). Results: In relation to the visual method, the intra-examiner agreement was almost perfect (κA = 0.87) and substantial (κB = 0.76), respectively to the examiner A and B. The inter-examiner agreement showed an almost perfect reliability (κ = 0.84). For the digital method, the intra-examiner agreement was almost perfect for both examiners and equal to ρ = 0.99, and so was the inter-examiner agreement value. Conclusion: Visual (stereomicroscope) and digital methods (ITS) showed high levels of intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility when marginal microleakage was assessed. PMID:25713476

  17. Organizational Communication Assessment: Fuzzy Methods and the Accessibility of Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes two interpretive methodological directions available to organizational assessors: textual analysis, or hermeneutics; and ethnomethodology. Explains that to apply these methods, assessment of organizational symbols in messages requires emphasis on three types of data: researcher observations; member responses; and transcripts of…

  18. A Revised Class Play Method of Peer Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Ann S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Revised Class Play (RCP) was presented as a measure of peer reputation designed to improve the assessment of social competence as well as the psychometric properties of class play method. Administered to third through sixth graders three test dimensions were revealed: sociability-leadership, aggressive-disruptive, and sensitive-isolated. Data…

  19. ANALYZING SHORT CUT METHODS FOR LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Work in progress at the U.S. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory is developing methods for quickly, easily, and inexpensively developing Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) inventories. An LCA inventory represents the inputs and outputs from processes, including fuel and ...

  20. Using Empirical Article Analysis to Assess Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachiochi, Peter; Everton, Wendi; Evans, Melanie; Fugere, Madeleine; Escoto, Carlos; Letterman, Margaret; Leszczynski, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Developing students who can apply their knowledge of empirical research is a key outcome of the undergraduate psychology major. This learning outcome was assessed in two research methods courses by having students read and analyze a condensed empirical journal article. At the start and end of the semester, students in multiple sections of an…

  1. A Comparison of Assessment Methods and Raters in Product Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chia-Chen; Luh, Ding-Bang

    2012-01-01

    Although previous studies have attempted to use different experiences of raters to rate product creativity by adopting the Consensus Assessment Method (CAT) approach, the validity of replacing CAT with another measurement tool has not been adequately tested. This study aimed to compare raters with different levels of experience (expert ves.…

  2. Student Teachers' Views about Assessment and Evaluation Methods in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to find out assessment and evaluation approaches in a Mathematics Teacher Training Department based on the views and experiences of student teachers. The study used a descriptive survey method, with the research sample consisting of 150 third- and fourth-year Primary Mathematics student teachers. Data were collected using a…

  3. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  4. Methods of Assessing Bias and Fairness in Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, William R.

    Several methods of assessing test item bias are described, and the concept of fair use of tests is examined. A test item is biased if individuals of equal ability have different probabilities of attaining the item correct. The following seven general procedures used to examine test items for bias are summarized and discussed: (1) analysis of…

  5. A combined scoring method to assess behavioral recovery after mouse spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Pajoohesh-Ganji, Ahdeah; Byrnes, Kimberly R.; Fatemi, Gita; Faden, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    Although the rat has been the predominant rodent used to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of experimental spinal cord injury (SCI), the increasing availability of transgenic animals has led to greater use of mouse models. However, behavioral assessment after SCI in mice has been less extensively investigated than in rats and few studies have critically examined the correlation between behavioral tests and injury severity or tissue damage. The present study characterized hind-limb functional performance in C57Bl/6 mice after contusion SCI at T9 using the weight drop method. A number of behavioral tests were examined with regard to variability, inter-rater reliability, and correlation to injury severity and white matter sparing. Mice were subjected to sham, mild-moderate or moderate-severe SCI and evaluated at day 1 and weekly up to 42 days using the Basso mouse scale (BMS), ladder climb, grid walk, inclined plane, plantar test and tail flick tests. The ladder climb and grid walk tests proved sub-optimal for use in mice, but modifications enhanced their predictive value with regard to injury severity. The inclined plane, plantar test and tail flick test showed far too much variability to have meaningful predictive value. The BMS score proved reliable, as previously reported, but a combined score (BLG) using BMS, Ladder climb (modified), and Grip walk (modified grid walk) provided better separation across injury levels and less variability than the individual tests. These data provide support for use of a combined scoring method to follow motor recovery in mice after SCI contusion injury. PMID:20188770

  6. Improving Educational Assessment: A Computer-Adaptive Multiple Choice Assessment Using NRET as the Scoring Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sie Hoe, Lau; Ngee Kiong, Lau; Kian Sam, Hong; Bin Usop, Hasbee

    2009-01-01

    Assessment is central to any educational process. Number Right (NR) scoring method is a conventional scoring method for multiple choice items, where students need to pick one option as the correct answer. One point is awarded for the correct response and zero for any other responses. However, it has been heavily criticized for guessing and failure…

  7. Assessing the Impact of Tutorial Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticknor, Cindy S.; Shaw, Kimberly A.; Howard, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Many institutions struggle to develop a meaningful way to assess the effectiveness of drop-in tutorial services provided to students. This article discusses the development of a data collection system based on a visitor sign-in system that proved to be an efficient method of gathering assessment data, including frequency of visits, end-of-course…

  8. [Evaluation of the 360-degree assessment method in a hospital].

    PubMed

    Møller, Lars Bo Krag; Ejlskov, Morten Wolff

    2008-09-15

    The present study examines the acceptability of the 360-degree assessment method as a means for evaluating the management and leadership competencies of the clinical staff of a university hospital. Twenty-eight consultants and registered nurses underwent evaluation. One group had debriefing with management consultants, the other with the head of the clinical department. Two months later, the applicability of the method was assessed. The strengths and weaknesses of the leaders were exposed, and areas for improvement were made visible, and acceptance of the method was widespread. Anonymity was required. The group coached by management consultants tended to benefit the most from the evaluation. Using a web-based solution to collect the data was unproblematic. PMID:18808752

  9. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    SciTech Connect

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  10. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    SciTech Connect

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.