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Sample records for meaningful assessment method

  1. The Role of Leadership and Culture in Creating Meaningful Assessment: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Mitchell, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    With increased demands for institutional accountability and improved student learning, involvement in assessment has become a fundamental role of higher education faculty (Rhodes, 2010). However, faculty members and administrators often question whether assessment efforts do indeed improve student learning (Hutchings, 2010). This mixed methods…

  2. Dichotomous versus polytomous response options in psychopathology assessment: method or meaningful variance?

    PubMed

    Finn, Jacob A; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Tellegen, Auke

    2015-03-01

    In previous studies, researchers have examined the optimal number of response options for psychological questionnaires. Several have reported increased scale score reliabilities, but few have documented improved external validities. In the present investigation, we followed-up on Cox (2011) and Cox et al.'s (2012) extensive analyses of a clinical assessment instrument, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). We compared the dichotomous (true/false) response format of this inventory with a 4-choice format. Our sample consisted of 406 undergraduate students from a large Midwestern university who were largely female (64.3%), predominantly Caucasian (76.4%), and had a mean age of 19.24 years. Internal-structural analyses confirmed that more response options increase reliabilities, but the effects were small. The differences between correlations with external criteria were very rarely statistically significant, and the few that were did not consistently favor either format. We recommend that in future response-format investigations the internal-structural analyses continue to be combined with evaluations of relevant external correlations. PMID:25364870

  3. Assessing Meaningful Impact: Moving Beyond the Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Bass, K.; Castori, P.; Wenger, M.

    2014-07-01

    Evaluation of program impacts is an essential part of program implementation from proposal writing, justifying expenses to funders, making improvements to programs, and demonstrating the value of program to stakeholders. Often, funding agencies ask for metrics but may not ask for more substantive outcomes. Alternatively, funding agencies are now asking for more and more evidence of program impacts resulting in broad questions about the type of assessments that are most appropriate for program evaluation. Assessing meaningful impacts presents no one-size-fits-all solution for all programs. Appropriate assessment is based on program goals, audience, activitie s, and resources. Panelists led a discussion about how to choose meaningful assessment for different situations, presenting examples from their own work. One of the best indicators of the value of a teacher professional development workshop is whether teachers can apply what they have learned to their classroom practice. Kristin Bass spoke about her experience documenting classroom implementation for the Galileo Educator Network (GEN) professional development project.

  4. Assessing dead space. A meaningful variable?

    PubMed

    Hedenstierna, G; Sandhagen, B

    2006-06-01

    The recording of dead space will give information on how much of total ventilation that reaches both ventilated and perfused alveoli and thus allows gas exchange between alveoli and pulmonary blood. Realising that CO2 retention can be an effect not only of low total ventilation but also of increased dead space is one important information. Moreover, dead space will give insight into the matching of ventilation and perfusion. This is because dead space is affected by a number of factors: 1) tubings and valves that the subject has to rebreath through (apparatus dead space), 2/ Airways (anatomical dead space), 3/ Non-perfused but ventilated alveoli, e.g. pulmonary embolus (alveolar dead space), 4/ Excessive ventilation of alveoli in relation to their perfusion that can be seen in chronic obstructive lung disease (another form of alveolar dead space), and 5/ So called "shunt dead space" that is an erroneous description of right to left lung shunt that brings the higher CO2 concentration in venous blood to the arterial side thereby producing an arterial-to-end-tidal CO2 difference. The dead spaces 2-5 are called physiological dead space. The recording of dead spaces can be done according to the Riley three-compartment model or by analysis of the expired CO2 curve. However, both are subjected to potential errors that have to be considered to make a dead space recording meaningful. A correct measurement and calculation of the dead space will give valuable information on the ventilatory support of the critically ill patient and can also be a valuable diagnostic tool. It should therefore not be forgotten in the intensive care setting. PMID:16682925

  5. Assessment and Accountability to Support Meaningful Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Scott; Leather, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of New Hampshire's efforts to implement a pilot accountability system designed to support deeper learning for students and powerful organization change for schools and districts. The accountability pilot, referred to as Performance Assessment of Competency Education or PACE, is grounded in a competencybased…

  6. Rising to the Challenge: Meaningful Assessment of Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Public and Land-grant Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Rising to the Challenge: Meaningful Assessment of Student Learning" was envisioned in response to a 2007 request for proposals from the U.S. Department of Education's Fund for Improvement of Post Secondary Education (FIPSE). FIPSE called for national, consortial contributions to improving the knowledge and abilities to assess student learning for…

  7. Meaningful General Education Assessment That Is Integrated and Transformative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehlburg, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Assessing general education is not that different from assessing any other type of academic program, but there are some distinctions that make it even more challenging than other types of assessment. This article addresses methods for working with nondepartmentally based and interdisciplinary areas within general education, providing some examples…

  8. Implementing meaningful, educative curricula, and assessments in complex school environments

    PubMed Central

    Ennis, Catherine D.

    2015-01-01

    This commentary uses the lens of curricular implementation to consider issues and opportunities afforded by the papers in this special edition. While it is interesting to envision innovative approaches to physical education, actually implementing changes in the complex institutional school environment is exceptionally challenging. These authors have done an excellent job presenting viable solutions and fore grounding challenges. Yet, without a concerted effort to invite teachers to engage with us in this process, our implementation initiatives may not enhance the meaningful and educative process that these scholars envision for physical education. PMID:25960685

  9. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  10. Making Alternate Assessment Score Reports a Meaningful Tool for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, William Hollis, III

    2012-01-01

    While No Child Left Behind assessment policies require student performance on alternate assessments to be reported to parents, there have been no research studies and limited guidance on how this information is best reported. There are two issues resulting from the lack of research and guidance. First, there is no established standard for what…

  11. Are Multiple Measures Meaningful?: Lessons from a Statewide Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Gail Lynn; Roswell, Barbara Sherr

    2001-01-01

    To determine the factors that contribute to or compromise the effectiveness of multiscored items, this study combined analysis of statewide score data from the 1996 Maryland School Performance Assessment Program tests with systematic analyses of 60 activities providing measures of writing, language usage, or both, and one or more content areas.…

  12. Strategies for the Meaningful Evaluation of Multiple-Choice Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesbro, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Too many multiple-choice tests are administered without an evaluative component. Teachers often return student assessments or Scantron cards--computerized bubble forms--without review, assuming that the printing of the correct answer will suffice. However, a more constructivist approach to follow up multiple-choice tests can make for more…

  13. Pediatrics milestone project: next steps toward meaningful outcomes assessment.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Patricia J; Englander, Robert; Schumacher, Daniel J; Burke, Ann; Benson, Bradley J; Guralnick, Susan; Ludwig, Stephen; Carraccio, Carol

    2010-12-01

    In the September 2010 issue of JGME, the Pediatric Milestones Working Group published "The Pediatrics Milestones: Conceptual Framework, Guiding Principles, and Approach to Development", a document that describes the construction of the first iteration of the Pediatric Milestones. These Milestones were developed by the Working Group as a group of practical behavioral expectations for each of the 52 sub-competencies. In constructing these Milestones, the authors were cognizant of the need to ground the Milestones themselves in evidence, theories or other conceptual frameworks that would provide the basis for the ontogeny of development for each sub-competency. During this next phase of the Milestones development, the process will continue with consultation with content experts and consideration of assessment of Milestones. We have described possible measurement tools, explored threats to validity, establishment of benchmarks, and possible approaches to reporting of performance. The vision of the Pediatrics Milestone Project is to understand the development of a pediatrician from entry into medical school through the twilight of a physician's career, and the work will require a collaborative effort of the undergraduate and graduate medical education communities, and the accrediting and certifying bodies. PMID:22132281

  14. THE MEANINGFUL ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION ASSESSMENT: A MEASURE OF ENGAGEMENT IN PERSONALLY VALUED ACTIVITIES*

    PubMed Central

    EAKMAN, AARON M.; CARLSON, MIKE E.; CLARK, FLORENCE A.

    2011-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Purpose in Life Test, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and the Rand SF-36v2 Health Survey subscales. Zero-order correlations consistently demonstrated meaningful relationships between the MAPA and scales of psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life. Results from multiple regression analyses further substantiated these findings, as greater meaningful activity participation was associated with better psychological well-being and health-related quality of life. The MAPA appears to be a reliable and valid measure of meaningful activity, incorporating both subjective and objective indicators of activity engagement. PMID:20649161

  15. Methods of obtaining meaningful information from disperse media holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyomin, Victor V.

    1997-05-01

    The problem of nondestructive testing of microstructure parameters, both aerosols and water suspension, is actual for biology, medicine, and environmental control. Among the methods of optical investigations and diagnostics of light scattering media the holographic method plays a special role. A hologram of scattering volume allows us to reproduce the optical wave field to obtain information on the parameters of microparticles: size, shape, and spatial position. Usually this is done by analysis of the particle images reconstructed from the hologram. On the basis of calculated and experimental results, characteristics of holographic methods are analyzed in this paper. These estimations demonstrate a possibility to use the above methods for investigation of media in biomedical science and clinical practice. A lot of micro-organisms and other living particles are transparent or semitransparent ones. In this case the reconstructed image of the particle will show a spot formed due to light focusing by the particle in addition to its cross section. This circumstance allowed us to propose a method of determining of refractive index of transparent and semitransparent microparticles, that, in turn, can provide identification of the particles type. The development of this method is presented. To make measurement of the size-distribution of particles one can do this simultaneously with the reconstruction of scattering optical field from the hologram. In this case a small angle optical meter (for example, focusing lens) can be placed just behind the illuminated hologram. The reconstructed field is composed of the initial one and its conjugate. Each of these components as well as interference between them can bear an additional information on the medium. The possibility of extraction of this information is also discussed.

  16. Assessing Organizational Capacity for Achieving Meaningful Use of Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Christopher M.; Malone, Robb; Weinberger, Morris; Reiter, Kristin L.; Thornhill, Jonathan; Lord, Jennifer; Nguyen, Nicholas G.; Weiner, Bryan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care institutions are scrambling to manage the complex organizational change required for achieving meaningful use (MU) of electronic health records (EHR). Assessing baseline organizational capacity for the change can be a useful step toward effective planning and resource allocation. Purpose This article describes an adaptable method and tool for assessing organizational capacity for achieving MU of EHR. Data on organizational capacity (people, processes, and technology resources) and barriers are presented from outpatient clinics within one integrated health care delivery system; thus, the focus is on MU requirements for eligible professionals, not eligible hospitals. Methods We conducted 109 interviews with representatives from 46 outpatient clinics. Findings Most clinics had core elements of the people domain of capacity in place. However, the process domain was problematic for many clinics, specifically, capturing problem lists as structured data and having standard processes for maintaining the problem list in the EHR. Also, nearly half of all clinics did not have methods for tracking compliance with their existing processes. Finally, most clinics maintained clinical information in multiple systems, not just the EHR. The most common perceived barriers to MU for eligible professionals included EHR functionality, changes to workflows, increased workload, and resistance to change. Practice Implications Organizational capacity assessments provide a broad institutional perspective and an in-depth clinic-level perspective useful for making resource decisions and tailoring strategies to support the MU change effort for eligible professionals. PMID:23380882

  17. Does alignment of constructivist teaching, curriculum, and assessment strategies promote meaningful learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimarez, Teresa

    Despite our national efforts to attract more students to the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, the number of students continues to be small. Empirical studies have suggested that in order to actively engage students in the science learning processes, lessons need to be designed which consider student prior experiences and provide a sound curriculum, within an environment promoting social interaction---that is, allowing for sharing and negotiation of those ideas which promote reflective thinking. These premises require an embedded assessment system that continuously provides feedback to both student and teacher. This technique allows adaptation and modification of lessons to better facilitate conceptual understanding. This study focused on the use of constructivist strategies that, when aligned, promoted conceptual understanding while facilitating development of science process skills. Skill development leads to meaningful learning, known to promote a change of attitude toward science. A mixed research design embedded in a case study approach was used to understand the complexity of the variables examined in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were used to strengthen the validity and interpretation of the findings. Students from one of three ninth-grade physical science classes were selected for this study. The students numbered 29, 13 boys and 16 girls; the majority of these students were of Hispanic background. The analysis of data suggested that the use of constructivist strategies promotes conceptual understanding of science concepts and development of science process skills and a change of attitude towards science. This study concluded that selecting teaching and multiple assessment strategies is vital to engage students in science careers. Due to the limited nature of this case study, the researcher recommends a replication or followup with a different teacher and school, including a control

  18. Towards a meaningful assessment of marine ecological impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Woods, John S; Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Verones, Francesca; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2016-01-01

    Human demands on marine resources and space are currently unprecedented and concerns are rising over observed declines in marine biodiversity. A quantitative understanding of the impact of industrial activities on the marine environment is thus essential. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a widely applied method for quantifying the environmental impact of products and processes. LCA was originally developed to assess the impacts of land-based industries on mainly terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. As such, impact indicators for major drivers of marine biodiversity loss are currently lacking. We review quantitative approaches for cause-effect assessment of seven major drivers of marine biodiversity loss: climate change, ocean acidification, eutrophication-induced hypoxia, seabed damage, overexploitation of biotic resources, invasive species and marine plastic debris. Our review shows that impact indicators can be developed for all identified drivers, albeit at different levels of coverage of cause-effect pathways and variable levels of uncertainty and spatial coverage. Modeling approaches to predict the spatial distribution and intensity of human-driven interventions in the marine environment are relatively well-established and can be employed to develop spatially-explicit LCA fate factors. Modeling approaches to quantify the effects of these interventions on marine biodiversity are less well-developed. We highlight specific research challenges to facilitate a coherent incorporation of marine biodiversity loss in LCA, thereby making LCA a more comprehensive and robust environmental impact assessment tool. Research challenges of particular importance include i) incorporation of the non-linear behavior of global circulation models (GCMs) within an LCA framework and ii) improving spatial differentiation, especially the representation of coastal regions in GCMs and ocean-carbon cycle models. PMID:26826362

  19. A new method for ecoacoustics? Toward the extraction and evaluation of ecologically-meaningful soundscape components using sparse coding methods

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Michael; Moscoso, Paola; Peck, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring is emerging as a promising non-invasive proxy for ecological complexity with potential as a tool for remote assessment and monitoring (Sueur & Farina, 2015). Rather than attempting to recognise species-specific calls, either manually or automatically, there is a growing interest in evaluating the global acoustic environment. Positioned within the conceptual framework of ecoacoustics, a growing number of indices have been proposed which aim to capture community-level dynamics by (e.g., Pieretti, Farina & Morri, 2011; Farina, 2014; Sueur et al., 2008b) by providing statistical summaries of the frequency or time domain signal. Although promising, the ecological relevance and efficacy as a monitoring tool of these indices is still unclear. In this paper we suggest that by virtue of operating in the time or frequency domain, existing indices are limited in their ability to access key structural information in the spectro-temporal domain. Alternative methods in which time-frequency dynamics are preserved are considered. Sparse-coding and source separation algorithms (specifically, shift-invariant probabilistic latent component analysis in 2D) are proposed as a means to access and summarise time-frequency dynamics which may be more ecologically-meaningful. PMID:27413632

  20. A new method for ecoacoustics? Toward the extraction and evaluation of ecologically-meaningful soundscape components using sparse coding methods.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Alice; Casey, Michael; Moscoso, Paola; Peck, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring is emerging as a promising non-invasive proxy for ecological complexity with potential as a tool for remote assessment and monitoring (Sueur & Farina, 2015). Rather than attempting to recognise species-specific calls, either manually or automatically, there is a growing interest in evaluating the global acoustic environment. Positioned within the conceptual framework of ecoacoustics, a growing number of indices have been proposed which aim to capture community-level dynamics by (e.g., Pieretti, Farina & Morri, 2011; Farina, 2014; Sueur et al., 2008b) by providing statistical summaries of the frequency or time domain signal. Although promising, the ecological relevance and efficacy as a monitoring tool of these indices is still unclear. In this paper we suggest that by virtue of operating in the time or frequency domain, existing indices are limited in their ability to access key structural information in the spectro-temporal domain. Alternative methods in which time-frequency dynamics are preserved are considered. Sparse-coding and source separation algorithms (specifically, shift-invariant probabilistic latent component analysis in 2D) are proposed as a means to access and summarise time-frequency dynamics which may be more ecologically-meaningful. PMID:27413632

  1. Mission-driven, Manageable and Meaningful Assessment of an Undergraduate Neuroscience Program.

    PubMed

    Muir, Gary M

    2015-01-01

    Academia has recently been under mounting pressure to increase accountability and intentionality in instruction through development of student "intended learning outcomes" (ILOs) developed at multiple levels (e.g., course, program, major, and even institution). Once these learning goals have been determined, then classroom instruction can be purposefully designed to map onto those intended outcomes in a "backward design" process (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005). The ongoing challenge with any such process, however, is in determining one's effectiveness in achieving these intended learning goals, so it is critical that efficient tools can be developed that enable these goals to be assessed. In addition, an important requirement of any ILOs is that they are mission-driven, meaningful and parsed in such a way that they can be used to obtain evidence in a manageable way. So how can we effectively assess these outcomes in our students? This paper describes key factors to consider in the planning and implementation of assessment for an undergraduate neuroscience program. PMID:26240530

  2. Mission-driven, Manageable and Meaningful Assessment of an Undergraduate Neuroscience Program

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    Academia has recently been under mounting pressure to increase accountability and intentionality in instruction through development of student “intended learning outcomes” (ILOs) developed at multiple levels (e.g., course, program, major, and even institution). Once these learning goals have been determined, then classroom instruction can be purposefully designed to map onto those intended outcomes in a “backward design” process (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005). The ongoing challenge with any such process, however, is in determining one’s effectiveness in achieving these intended learning goals, so it is critical that efficient tools can be developed that enable these goals to be assessed. In addition, an important requirement of any ILOs is that they are mission-driven, meaningful and parsed in such a way that they can be used to obtain evidence in a manageable way. So how can we effectively assess these outcomes in our students? This paper describes key factors to consider in the planning and implementation of assessment for an undergraduate neuroscience program. PMID:26240530

  3. Written Extended-Response Questions as Classroom Assessment Tools for Meaningful Understanding of Evolutionary Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieswandt, Martina; Bellomo, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed grade 12 biology students' answers to written extended-response questions that describe hypothetical scenarios of animals' evolution. We investigated whether these type of questions are suitable for students (n = 24) to express a meaningful understanding of evolutionary theory. Meaningful understanding is comprised…

  4. Development of an Assessment Tool to Measure Students' Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Research on learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory necessitates an understanding of students' perspectives of learning. Novak's Theory of Meaningful Learning states that the cognitive (thinking), affective (feeling), and psychomotor (doing) domains must be integrated for meaningful learning to occur. The psychomotor domain is the…

  5. Cancer Bioinformatic Methods to Infer Meaningful Data From Small-Size Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Bennani-Baiti, Nabila; Bennani-Baiti, Idriss M

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome analyses have uncovered that most cancer-relevant genes cluster into 12 signaling pathways. Knowledge of the signaling pathways and associated gene signatures not only allows us to understand the mechanisms of oncogenesis inherent to specific cancers but also provides us with drug targets, molecular diagnostic and prognosis factors, as well as biomarkers for patient risk stratification and treatment. Publicly available genomic data sets constitute a wealth of gene mining opportunities for hypothesis generation and testing. However, the increasingly recognized genetic and epigenetic inter- and intratumor heterogeneity, combined with the preponderance of small-size cohorts, hamper reliable analysis and discovery. Here, we review two methods that are used to infer meaningful biological events from small-size data sets and discuss some of their applications and limitations. PMID:26568679

  6. Novel methods to collect meaningful data from adolescents for the development of health interventions.

    PubMed

    Hieftje, Kimberly; Duncan, Lindsay R; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2014-09-01

    Health interventions are increasingly focused on young adolescents, and as a result, discussions with this population have become a popular method in qualitative research. Traditional methods used to engage adults in discussions do not translate well to this population, who may have difficulty conceptualizing abstract thoughts and opinions and communicating them to others. As part of a larger project to develop and evaluate a video game for risk reduction and HIV prevention in young adolescents, we were seeking information and ideas from the priority audience that would help us create authentic story lines and character development in the video game. To accomplish this authenticity, we conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with young adolescents aged 10 to 15 years and employed three novel methods: Storytelling Using Graphic Illustration, My Life, and Photo Feedback Project. These methods helped provide a thorough understanding of the adolescents' experiences and perspectives regarding their environment and future aspirations, which we translated into active components of the video game intervention. This article describes the processes we used and the valuable data we generated using these three engaging methods. These three activities are effective tools for eliciting meaningful data from young adolescents for the development of health interventions. PMID:24519998

  7. Novel Methods to Collect Meaningful Data From Adolescents for the Development of Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hieftje, Kimberly; Duncan, Lindsay R.; Fiellin, Lynn E.

    2014-01-01

    Health interventions are increasingly focused on young adolescents, and as a result, discussions with this population have become a popular method in qualitative research. Traditional methods used to engage adults in discussions do not translate well to this population, who may have difficulty conceptualizing abstract thoughts and opinions and communicating them to others. As part of a larger project to develop and evaluate a video game for risk reduction and HIV prevention in young adolescents, we were seeking information and ideas from the priority audience that would help us create authentic story lines and character development in the video game. To accomplish this authenticity, we conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with young adolescents aged 10 to 15 years and employed three novel methods: Storytelling Using Graphic Illustration, My Life, and Photo Feedback Project. These methods helped provide a thorough understanding of the adolescents’ experiences and perspectives regarding their environment and future aspirations, which we translated into active components of the video game intervention. This article describes the processes we used and the valuable data we generated using these three engaging methods. These three activities are effective tools for eliciting meaningful data from young adolescents for the development of health interventions. PMID:24519998

  8. Does kinematics add meaningful information to clinical assessment in post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation? A case report

    PubMed Central

    Bigoni, Matteo; Baudo, Silvia; Cimolin, Veronica; Cau, Nicola; Galli, Manuela; Pianta, Lucia; Tacchini, Elena; Capodaglio, Paolo; Mauro, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this case study were to: (a) quantify the impairment and activity restriction of the upper limb in a hemiparetic patient; (b) quantitatively evaluate rehabilitation program effectiveness; and (c) discuss whether more clinically meaningful information can be gained with the use of kinematic analysis in addition to clinical assessment. The rehabilitation program consisted of the combined use of different traditional physiotherapy techniques, occupational therapy sessions, and the so-called task-oriented approach. [Subject and Methods] Subject was a one hemiplegic patient. The patient was assessed at the beginning and after 1 month of daily rehabilitation using the Medical Research Council scale, Nine Hole Peg Test, Motor Evaluation Scale for Upper Extremity in Stroke Patients, and Hand Grip Dynamometer test as well as a kinematic analysis using an optoelectronic system. [Results] After treatment, significant improvements were evident in terms of total movement duration, movement completion velocity, and some smoothness parameters. [Conclusion] Our case report showed that the integration of clinical assessment with kinematic evaluation appears to be useful for quantitatively assessing performance changes.

  9. A Rubric for Assessing Teachers' Lesson Activities with Respect to TPACK for Meaningful Learning with ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Joyce Hwee Ling

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) for meaningful learning with ICT describes their knowledge for designing ICT lesson activities with respect to five dimensions: active, constructive, authentic, intentional, and cooperative. The ICT lesson activities designed by teachers can be assessed to determine the strengths…

  10. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  11. The Design and Implementation of a Meaningful Learning-Based Evaluation Method for Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Chiu, Po-Sheng; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Chen, Tzung-Shi

    2011-01-01

    If ubiquitous learning (u-learning) is to be effectively developed and feasibly applied to education, it is necessary to evaluate its effectiveness. Yet to achieve a sound evaluation, a particular paradigm must be employed to fit the problem domain. Toward this end, the authors of this study have adopted a meaningful learning paradigm. Meaningful…

  12. Scientific Caricatures in the Earth Science Classroom: An Alternative Assessment for Meaningful Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clary, Renee M.; Wandersee, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Archive-based, historical research of materials produced during the Golden Age of Geology (1788-1840) uncovered scientific caricatures (SCs) which may serve as a unique form of knowledge representation for students today. SCs played important roles in the past, stimulating critical inquiry among early geologists and fueling debates that addressed key theoretical issues. When historical SCs were utilized in a large-enrollment college Earth History course, student response was positive. Therefore, we offered SCs as an optional assessment tool. Paired t-tests that compared individual students’ performances with the SC option, as well as without the SC option, showed a significant positive difference favoring scientific caricatures ( α = 0.05). Content analysis of anonymous student survey responses revealed three consistent findings: (a) students enjoyed expressing science content correctly but creatively through SCs, (b) development of SCs required deeper knowledge integration and understanding of the content than conventional test items, and (c) students appreciated having SC item options on their examinations, whether or not they took advantage of them. We think that incorporation of SCs during assessment may effectively expand the variety of methods for probing understanding, thereby increasing the mode validity of current geoscience tests.

  13. Curriculum-Embedded Performance Assessments (CEPAs): Policy Considerations for Meaningful Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Winslow, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Educational assessments provide data that give policymakers a "snapshot" of how students are performing and serve as a means of holding teachers, schools, and districts accountable. Many contend, however, that assessments could do more to promote deeper learning in K-12 environments. One interesting possibility is the use of…

  14. Toward Meaningful Assessment: Lessons from Five First-Grade Classrooms. Occasional Paper Series 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, Laura R.

    2011-01-01

    Are teachers who are faced with mandated assessments more likely or less likely to explore their students' performance in depth and use their discoveries to enrich learning? This is the story of how six first-grade teachers in New York City responded to a mandated performance assessment--and how that response compared to a set of informal,…

  15. Meaningful Assessment of Content-Area Literacy for Youth with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troia, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses methods for evaluating students' content-area literacy skills. Four specific factors that affect content-area literacy are described: vocabulary knowledge, topic knowledge, text structure knowledge, and textbook readability, along with methods of evaluating each of the factors. Most of these methods have not yet been…

  16. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.; Hannaman, G.W.; Kryska, P.

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

  17. Revisiting Individual Creativity Assessment: Triangulation in Subjective and Objective Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Namgyoo K.; Chun, Monica Youngshin; Lee, Jinju

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the significant development of creativity studies, individual creativity research has not reached a meaningful consensus regarding the most valid and reliable method for assessing individual creativity. This study revisited 2 of the most popular methods for assessing individual creativity: subjective and objective methods. This study…

  18. Validity Argument for Assessing L2 Pragmatics in Interaction Using Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youn, Soo Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the validity of assessing L2 pragmatics in interaction using mixed methods, focusing on the evaluation inference. Open role-plays that are meaningful and relevant to the stakeholders in an English for Academic Purposes context were developed for classroom assessment. For meaningful score interpretations and accurate…

  19. Opioids for cancer breakthrough pain: a pilot study reporting patient assessment of time to meaningful pain relief.

    PubMed

    Zeppetella, Giovambattista

    2008-05-01

    Breakthrough pain is a common and distinct component of cancer pain that is usually managed with normal release opioids (also known as rescue medication) either before or soon after its onset. A prospective survey of hospice inpatients with breakthrough pain was undertaken to characterize their pain and then compare the time to onset of pain relief of their rescue medication. Patients presented with, on average, 1.7 different types of breakthrough pains (range, 1-4). The average number of breakthrough pains was four per day (range, 1-8), and the average duration of breakthrough pain was 35 minutes (range, 15-60); most occurred suddenly and unpredictably. Patients used morphine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, methadone, or oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate as rescue medication and the average time to meaningful pain relief following their administration was 31 minutes (range, 5-75). No difference was found between morphine, oxycodone, and hydromorphone. Methadone appeared to work faster than morphine (P<0.01) but no faster than oxycodone or hydromorphone, whereas oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate worked faster than morphine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, and methadone (P<0.001). PMID:18258412

  20. Making Fractions Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kelly K.

    2015-01-01

    To be able to support meaningful mathematical experiences, preservice elementary school teachers (PSTs) must learn mathematics in deep and meaningful ways (Ma 1999). They need to experience investigating and making sense of the mathematics they will be called on to teach. To expand their own--often limited--views of what it means to teach and…

  1. Iii. Sleep assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Avi

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is a complex phenomenon that could be understood and assessed at many levels. Sleep could be described at the behavioral level (relative lack of movements and awareness and responsiveness) and at the brain level (based on EEG activity). Sleep could be characterized by its duration, by its distribution during the 24-hr day period, and by its quality (e.g., consolidated versus fragmented). Different methods have been developed to assess various aspects of sleep. This chapter covers the most established and common methods used to assess sleep in infants and children. These methods include polysomnography, videosomnography, actigraphy, direct observations, sleep diaries, and questionnaires. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are highlighted. PMID:25704734

  2. Meaningful Measurement: The Role of Assessments in Improving High School Education in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkus, Lyndsay M., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In the chapters presented in this volume, leading experts describe some of the assessment challenges in greater detail and provide federal recommendations on how to address them. In "College and Work Readiness as a Goal of High Schools: The Role of Standards, Assessments, and Accountability," John Tanner of the Center for Innovative Measures at…

  3. Meaningful Responses to Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovarik, Madeline

    2006-01-01

    If students were as engaged in reading as they are in video games, television, and sports, the world would be rife with proficient readers. Using a variety of instructional strategies, teachers can make the reading experience more meaningful, increase comprehension, and build proficiency. Mastering cognitive skills can change student reading…

  4. From Mindless to Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Laura; Roberts, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Despite teachers' best intentions, traditional whole-class discussions sometimes end up sounding like the monotonous drone of Charlie Brown's teacher. But with careful planning, teachers can structure discussions that encourage meaningful student interaction and collaborative thinking, write Laura Billings and Terry Roberts of the…

  5. Grading by Response Category: A simple method for providing students with meaningful feedback on exams in large courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Cassandra; Potter, Wendell; Weiss, Brenda

    2014-11-01

    As instructors, we want our students to develop a deep understanding of course material, and feedback is essential in their sense-making process. Providing effective individualized feedback to students in large courses is especially difficult. While researchers suggest,1 and many instructors of large courses are,2,3 incorporating interactive techniques that allow peer feedback, studies have shown that it's important for students to also have direct feedback from the instructor.4 Since the requirement for individualized feedback is difficult to meet during class time in large courses, providing effective feedback on exams and quizzes takes on added importance. Some instructors choose to assess their students using open-ended written exam items that require students to demonstrate their understanding of physics by solving a problem and/or explaining a concept. Because grading these items can be time consuming, the challenge is to develop an approach to grading and provision of feedback that is both efficient and effective.

  6. Miscues: Meaningful Assessment Aids Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    LeRoy was a deaf sixth grader who used signs and his voice to communicate. Yanetta was a deaf eighth grader who had deaf parents and preferred American Sign Language (ASL). Michael was a deaf fifth grader in a suburban school who attended an oral program and used his voice exclusively to communicate. All three students struggled with reading. They…

  7. Life seems pretty meaningful.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Austin John; Shackelford, Todd K

    2015-09-01

    Comments on the original article "Life is pretty meaningful," by S. J. Heintzelman and L. A. King (see record 2014-03265-001). Heintzelman and King argue that, contrary to popular perception, our lives hold a great deal of meaning. The study of perceived meaning is an interesting and fruitful avenue. The current authors are concerned, however, that Heintzelman and King may have misrepresented and exploited the philosophical debate surrounding meaning to generate interest in their topic. Unless Heintzelman and King wish to argue that life truly is meaningful and that the perception of meaning is evidence enough, the current authors recommend that for the sake of clarity they make the explicit distinction between the widespread perception of meaning and its intrinsic existence. Unfortunately, once this distinction is made clear, these findings are less compelling to individuals who seek confirmation that intrinsic meaning exists. PMID:26348344

  8. Measuring Meaningful Work: The Work and Meaning Inventory (WAMI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steger, Michael F.; Dik, Bryan J.; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    Many people desire work that is meaningful. However, research in this area has attracted diverse ideas about meaningful work (MW), accompanied by an equally disparate collection of ways of assessing MW. To further advance study in this area, the authors propose a multidimensional model of work as a subjectively meaningful experience consisting of…

  9. Educational Assessment and Accountability for All Students: Facilitating the Meaningful Participation of Students with Disabilities in District and Statewide Assessment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.

    This guide provides information about the assessment and inclusion of all students in statewide and district assessment programs. In particular, it focuses on tactics for including students with disabilities in assessment to achieve a more complete picture of student learning and educational accountability. It is designed to help Wisconsin…

  10. In Quest of Meaningful Assessment of International Learning: The Development and Implementation of a Student Survey and ePortfolio Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Jill Wisniewski; Olson, Christa

    2010-01-01

    The article features an analysis of Lessons Learned in Assessing International Learning, the goals of which were to advance the assessment of international learning in order to improve it at U.S. higher education institutions. The project was conducted from 2003 to 2007 and utilized a mixed-methods approach using student surveys and ePortfolios.…

  11. Students' Meaningful Learning Orientation and Their Meaningful Understandings of Meiosis and Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann Liberatore

    This 1-week study explored the extent to which high school students (n=140) acquired meaningful understanding of selected biological topics (meiosis and the Punnett square method) and the relationship between these topics. This study: (1) examined "mental modeling" as a technique for measuring students' meaningful understanding of the topics; (2)…

  12. The Retention of Meaningful Understanding of Meiosis and Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann Liberatore

    This study investigated the retention of meaningful understanding of the biological topics of meiosis, the Punnett square method and the relations between these two topics. This study also explored the predictive influence of students' general tendency to learn meaningfully or by rote (meaningful learning orientation), prior knowledge of meiosis,…

  13. Meaningful Maths: Teaching Map Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittle, Miranda Pacaya

    2007-01-01

    In the author's experience, lessons that are clearly meaningful for students beyond the classroom can foster positive attitudes, increase enjoyment, and enhance learning. In this paper she offers suggestions on how to plan for meaningful mathematics lessons using the topic of map skills as an example. She also presents some specific ideas for…

  14. Meaningful matches in stereovision.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Neus; Almansa, Andrés; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2012-05-01

    This paper introduces a statistical method to decide whether two blocks in a pair of images match reliably. The method ensures that the selected block matches are unlikely to have occurred "just by chance." The new approach is based on the definition of a simple but faithful statistical background model for image blocks learned from the image itself. A theorem guarantees that under this model, not more than a fixed number of wrong matches occurs (on average) for the whole image. This fixed number (the number of false alarms) is the only method parameter. Furthermore, the number of false alarms associated with each match measures its reliability. This a contrario block-matching method, however, cannot rule out false matches due to the presence of periodic objects in the images. But it is successfully complemented by a parameterless self-similarity threshold. Experimental evidence shows that the proposed method also detects occlusions and incoherent motions due to vehicles and pedestrians in nonsimultaneous stereo. PMID:22442122

  15. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  16. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.; Hannaman, G.W.; Kryska, P.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe a qualitative risk assessment process that supplements the requirements of DOE/AL 5481.1B. Although facility managers have a choice of assessing risk either quantitatively or qualitatively, trade offs are involved in making the most appropriate choice for a given application. The results that can be obtained from a quantitative risk assessment are significantly more robust than those results derived from a qualitative approach. However, the advantages derived from quantitative risk assessment are achieved at a greater expenditure of money, time and convenience. This document provides the elements of a framework for performing a much less costly qualitative risk assessment, while retaining the best attributes of quantitative methods. The approach discussed herein will; (1) provide facility managers with the tools to prepare consistent, site wide assessments, and (2) aid the reviewers who may be tasked to evaluate the assessments. Added cost/benefit measures of the qualitative methodology include the identification of mechanisms for optimally allocating resources for minimizing risk in an expeditious, and fiscally responsible manner.

  17. Improving Personal Characterization of Meaningful Activity in Adults with Chronic Conditions Living in a Low-Income Housing Community

    PubMed Central

    Ciro, Carrie A.; Smith, Patsy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To understand how adults living in a low-income, public housing community characterize meaningful activity (activity that gives life purpose) and if through short-term intervention, could overcome identified individual and environmental barriers to activity engagement. Methods: We used a mixed methods design where Phase 1 (qualitative) informed the development of Phase 2 (quantitative). Focus groups were conducted with residents of two low-income, public housing communities to understand their characterization of meaningful activity and health. From these results, we developed a theory-based group intervention for overcoming barriers to engagement in meaningful activity. Finally, we examined change in self-report scores from the Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA) and the Engagement in Meaningful Activity Survey (EMAS). Results: Health literacy appeared to impact understanding of the questions in Phase 1. Activity availability, transportation, income and functional limitations were reported as barriers to meaningful activity. Phase 2 within group analysis revealed a significant difference in MAPA pre-post scores (p =0.007), but not EMAS (p =0.33). Discussion: Health literacy should be assessed and addressed in this population prior to intervention. After a group intervention, participants had a change in characterization of what is considered healthy, meaningful activity but reported fewer changes to how their activities aligned with their values. PMID:26378559

  18. Making Statistics More Meaningful for Policy Research and Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Henry

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of statistics in policy and evaluation research and the need to present statistical information in a form that is meaningful to mixed audiences. Three guidelines for formulating and presenting meaningful statistics are outlined. Understandability ensures that knowledge of statistical methods is not required for…

  19. Meaningful Use of Health Information Technology by Rural Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Jeffrey; Casey, Michelle; Moscovice, Ira; Burlew, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the current status of meaningful use of health information technology (IT) in Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs), other rural, and urban US hospitals, and it discusses the potential role of Medicare payment incentives and disincentives in encouraging CAHs and other rural hospitals to achieve meaningful use. Methods: Data…

  20. State Capacity for Leadership: Ensuring Meaningful Higher Education Involvement in State Implementation of New Assessments Aligned with the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and assessments aligned to them represent a significant milestone in public education reform in the U.S. Developed with consultation from higher education, the rigorous new standards and the assessments now being drafted by two consortia promise to help students reach higher levels of academic achievement and…

  1. Meaningful statistical analysis of large computational clusters.

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, Ann C.; Marzouk, Youssef M.; Brandt, James M.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2005-07-01

    Effective monitoring of large computational clusters demands the analysis of a vast amount of raw data from a large number of machines. The fundamental interactions of the system are not, however, well-defined, making it difficult to draw meaningful conclusions from this data, even if one were able to efficiently handle and process it. In this paper we show that computational clusters, because they are comprised of a large number of identical machines, behave in a statistically meaningful fashion. We therefore can employ normal statistical methods to derive information about individual systems and their environment and to detect problems sooner than with traditional mechanisms. We discuss design details necessary to use these methods on a large system in a timely and low-impact fashion.

  2. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Muna, Alice Baca; LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  3. A Meaningful High School Diploma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Shepherd

    2009-01-01

    Creating a meaningful high school diploma will expose students to the full range of adult options which will enable them to shape their high school education in a way that connects to their current interests and stimulates the growth of new ones. Fully connecting all students to these four worlds of knowledge will equip them to build one…

  4. Eight Steps to Meaningful Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deddeh, Heather; Main, Erin; Fulkerson, Sharon Ratzlaff

    2010-01-01

    A group of teachers at Clifford Smart Middle School in Michigan's Walled Lake Consolidated School District have broken free from traditional grading in order to embrace a more meaningful grading practice. Using standards-based grading practices, they believe their grading now accurately communicates to students and parents the student's mastery…

  5. Relationships between students' meaningful learning orientation and their understanding of genetics topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Ann M. Liberatore; Schafer, Larry E.

    This study explored factors predicting the extent to which high school students (N = 140) acquired meaningful understanding of the biological topics of meiosis, the Punnett-square method, and the relationships between these topics. This study (a) examined mental modeling as a technique for measuring students' meaningful understanding of the topics, (b) measured students' predisposed, generalized tendency to learn meaningfully (meaningful learning orientation), (c) determined the extent to which students' meaningful learning orientation predicted meaningful understanding beyond that predicted by aptitude and achievement motivation, (d) experimentally tested two instructional treatments (relationships presented to students, relationships generated by students), (e) explored the relationships of meaningful learning orientation, prior knowledge, instructional treatment, and all interactions of these variables in predicting meaningful understanding. The results of correlations and multiple regressions indicated that meaningful learning orientation contributed to students' attainment of meaningful understanding independent of aptitude and achievement motivation. Meaningful learning orientation and prior knowledge interacted in unique ways for each topic to predict students' attainment of meaningful understanding. Instructional treatment had relatively little relationship to students' acquisition of meaningful understanding, except for learners midrange between meaningful and rote. These findings imply that a meaningful learning approach among students may be important, perhaps as much or more than aptitude and achievement motivation, for their acquisition of interrelated, meaningful understandings of science.

  6. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  7. Allergic rhinitis: meaningful and less meaningful combination treatments including reminiscences.

    PubMed

    Szelenyi, I

    2014-06-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) results from a complex allergen-driven mucosal inflammation in the nasal cavity. Current guideline-based therapy for allergic rhinitis include oral and nasal antihistamines, topical and systemic glucocorticoids, decongestants, antimuscarinic agents, mast cell stabilizing drugs, leukotriene-receptor antagonists, and others. In spite of guideline recommendations, most patients are using multiple therapies in an attempt to achieve symptom control. Therefore, more effective therapies for the management of AR are clearly required. Recently, a novel fixed dose combination containing azelastine and fluticasone propionate has successfully been introduced. At present, it represents the only meaningful topical drug combination. Perhaps, it will be followed by others. PMID:24974572

  8. The Use of Qualitative Methods in Large-Scale Evaluation: Improving the Quality of the Evaluation and the Meaningfulness of the Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slayton, Julie; Llosa, Lorena

    2005-01-01

    In light of the current debate over the meaning of "scientifically based research", we argue that qualitative methods should be an essential part of large-scale program evaluations if program effectiveness is to be determined and understood. This article chronicles the challenges involved in incorporating qualitative methods into the large-scale…

  9. Clinically meaningful performance benchmarks in MS

    PubMed Central

    Motl, Robert W.; Scagnelli, John; Pula, John H.; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Cadavid, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identify and validate clinically meaningful Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW) performance benchmarks in individuals living with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Cross-sectional study of 159 MS patients first identified candidate T25FW benchmarks. To characterize the clinical meaningfulness of T25FW benchmarks, we ascertained their relationships to real-life anchors, functional independence, and physiologic measurements of gait and disease progression. Candidate T25FW benchmarks were then prospectively validated in 95 subjects using 13 measures of ambulation and cognition, patient-reported outcomes, and optical coherence tomography. Results: T25FW of 6 to 7.99 seconds was associated with a change in occupation due to MS, occupational disability, walking with a cane, and needing “some help” with instrumental activities of daily living; T25FW ≥8 seconds was associated with collecting Supplemental Security Income and government health care, walking with a walker, and inability to do instrumental activities of daily living. During prospective benchmark validation, we trichotomized data by T25FW benchmarks (<6 seconds, 6–7.99 seconds, and ≥8 seconds) and found group main effects on 12 of 13 objective and subjective measures (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Using a cross-sectional design, we identified 2 clinically meaningful T25FW benchmarks of ≥6 seconds (6–7.99) and ≥8 seconds. Longitudinal and larger studies are needed to confirm the clinical utility and relevance of these proposed T25FW benchmarks and to parse out whether there are additional benchmarks in the lower (<6 seconds) and higher (>10 seconds) ranges of performance. PMID:24174581

  10. Accuracy of a semiquantitative method for Dermal Exposure Assessment (DREAM)

    PubMed Central

    van Wendel, de Joo... B; Vermeulen, R; van Hemmen, J J; Fransman, W; Kromhout, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: The authors recently developed a Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM), an observational semiquantitative method to assess dermal exposures by systematically evaluating exposure determinants using pre-assigned default values. Aim: To explore the accuracy of the DREAM method by comparing its estimates with quantitative dermal exposure measurements in several occupational settings. Methods: Occupational hygienists observed workers performing a certain task, whose exposure to chemical agents on skin or clothing was measured quantitatively simultaneously, and filled in the DREAM questionnaire. DREAM estimates were compared with measurement data by estimating Spearman correlation coefficients for each task and for individual observations. In addition, mixed linear regression models were used to study the effect of DREAM estimates on the variability in measured exposures between tasks, between workers, and from day to day. Results: For skin exposures, spearman correlation coefficients for individual observations ranged from 0.19 to 0.82. DREAM estimates for exposure levels on hands and forearms showed a fixed effect between and within surveys, explaining mainly between-task variance. In general, exposure levels on clothing layer were only predicted in a meaningful way by detailed DREAM estimates, which comprised detailed information on the concentration of the agent in the formulation to which exposure occurred. Conclusions: The authors expect that the DREAM method can be successfully applied for semiquantitative dermal exposure assessment in epidemiological and occupational hygiene surveys of groups of workers with considerable contrast in dermal exposure levels (variability between groups >1.0). For surveys with less contrasting exposure levels, quantitative dermal exposure measurements are preferable. PMID:16109819

  11. Identifying Clinically Meaningful Fatigue with the Fatigue Symptom Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Kristine A.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Small, Brent J.; Munster, Pamela N.; Andrykowski, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The Fatigue Symptom Inventory (FSI) has been used extensively to assess and measure fatigue in a number of clinical populations. The purpose of the present study was to further establish its utility by examining its operating characteristics and determining the optimal cutoff score for identifying clinically meaningful fatigue. The SF-36 Vitality scale, a measure widely used to identify individuals with significant fatigue-related disability, was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the FSI. Results indicate that a score of 3 or greater on those items assessing fatigue in the past week is the optimal cutoff score for identifying clinically meaningful fatigue. Individuals who scored at or above the cutoff also reported significantly greater fatigue interference, more days of fatigue on average, and fatigue a greater proportion of each day in the past week. Findings suggest that the FSI can be used to discriminate effectively between individuals with and without clinically meaningful fatigue. PMID:18495413

  12. Method of mucociliary clearance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilova, Tatiana V.; Manturov, Alexey O.; Ermakov, Igor Y.; Mareev, Gleb O.; Mareev, Oleg V.

    2016-04-01

    The article is devoted to the research capabilities of mucociliary clearance in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses using modern techniques of digital video recording and processing. We describe the setup and software for this method and the results of our research. Using microscope and digital camera we can provide a good method to study mucociliary clearance and by usage of special software we able to measure some characteristic of nasal mucosae and its main function.

  13. Methods of airway resistance assessment.

    PubMed

    Urbankowski, Tomasz; Przybyłowski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Airway resistance is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of the airflow in the airways. The most frequent methods used to measure airway resistance are whole-body plethysmography, the interrupter technique and the forced oscillation technique. All these methods allow to measure resistance during respiration at the level close to tidal volume, they do not require forced breathing manoeuvres or deep breathing during measurement. The most popular method for measuring airway resistance is whole-body plethysmography. The results of plethysmography include among others the following parameters: airway resistance (Raw), airway conductance (Gaw), specific airway resistance (sRaw) and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The interrupter technique is based on the assumption that at the moment of airway occlusion, air pressure in the mouth is equal to the alveolar pressure . In the forced oscillation technique (FOT), airway resistance is calculated basing on the changes in pressure and flow caused by air vibration. The methods for measurement of airway resistance that are described in the present paper seem to be a useful alternative to the most common lung function test - spirometry. The target group in which these methods may be widely used are particularly the patients who are unable to perform spirometry. PMID:27238174

  14. Assessment methods for the evaluation of vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, K M; Kumar, A; Taïeb, A; Ezzedine, K

    2012-12-01

    There is no standardized method for assessing vitiligo. In this article, we review the literature from 1981 to 2011 on different vitiligo assessment methods. We aim to classify the techniques available for vitiligo assessment as subjective, semi-objective or objective; microscopic or macroscopic; and as based on morphometry or colorimetry. Macroscopic morphological measurements include visual assessment, photography in natural or ultraviolet light, photography with computerized image analysis and tristimulus colorimetry or spectrophotometry. Non-invasive micromorphological methods include confocal laser microscopy (CLM). Subjective methods include clinical evaluation by a dermatologist and a vitiligo disease activity score. Semi-objective methods include the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI) and point-counting methods. Objective methods include software-based image analysis, tristimulus colorimetry, spectrophotometry and CLM. Morphometry is the measurement of the vitiliginous surface area, whereas colorimetry quantitatively analyses skin colour changes caused by erythema or pigment. Most methods involve morphometry, except for the chromameter method, which assesses colorimetry. Some image analysis software programs can assess both morphometry and colorimetry. The details of these programs (Corel Draw, Image Pro Plus, AutoCad and Photoshop) are discussed in the review. Reflectance confocal microscopy provides real-time images and has great potential for the non-invasive assessment of pigmentary lesions. In conclusion, there is no single best method for assessing vitiligo. This review revealed that VASI, the rule of nine and Wood's lamp are likely to be the best techniques available for assessing the degree of pigmentary lesions and measuring the extent and progression of vitiligo in the clinic and in clinical trials. PMID:22416879

  15. Methods of assessment of antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, N; Richens, A

    1981-01-01

    Epilepsy is a symptom with protean manifestations and as such it is a difficult disease in which to carry out a therapeutic trial. The methods available to research workers for the assessment of new antiepileptic drugs are hampered by the fact that epilepsy is a fluctuant condition. Although it is a chronic disorder open to study using cross-over trials and within-patient comparisons, accurate assessment cannot be easily made at any one point in time. Research workers are therefore automatically placed at a time factor disadvantage and this is especially so for those searching for quick methods of evaluating new compounds. The need for a quick and reliable method of assessing a new antiepileptic drug has long been appreciated. This article will discuss the methods currently available and we will begin by considering the most commonly used method of assessment with particular reference to some of the problems involved in conducting a controlled clinical trial in epilepsy. PMID:7272157

  16. 9. Assessments: structure, concepts, and methods.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Assessments are an essential element of proper disaster management. Assessments help to define the damage and changes in functions at the time of the assessment. Assessments are transectional across the longitudinal phases of the disaster. Any intervention should be preceded by an assessment(s). The assessment process is deconstructed into a series of 10 steps: (1) need to know; (2) define the goal(s) and objectives(s) of an assessment; (3) select the appropriate indicators; (4) define the methods to be used for the assessment; (5) develop and test a plan for data collection; (6) train and brief data collectors; (7) gather (collect) the data; (8) synthesise the data and information collected; (9) output information for decision-making; and (10) compare findings with overarching goal and objectives. Steps 7-9 constitute a production process. Understanding this process is essential for identification of points of success and failure in achieving the desired assessment. Assessments require careful selection of indicators. The selected indicators are used throughout the process. Currently, no standardised set of indicators has been validated. Criteria for the composition of assessment teams are provided and common sources of error are discussed. Prior to, during, and following disasters, assessments are directed by the appropriate coordination and control entity. PMID:24785806

  17. Quantitative statistical methods for image quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Joyita; Ahn, Sangtae; Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative measures of image quality and reliability are critical for both qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis of medical images. While, in theory, it is possible to analyze reconstructed images by means of Monte Carlo simulations using a large number of noise realizations, the associated computational burden makes this approach impractical. Additionally, this approach is less meaningful in clinical scenarios, where multiple noise realizations are generally unavailable. The practical alternative is to compute closed-form analytical expressions for image quality measures. The objective of this paper is to review statistical analysis techniques that enable us to compute two key metrics: resolution (determined from the local impulse response) and covariance. The underlying methods include fixed-point approaches, which compute these metrics at a fixed point (the unique and stable solution) independent of the iterative algorithm employed, and iteration-based approaches, which yield results that are dependent on the algorithm, initialization, and number of iterations. We also explore extensions of some of these methods to a range of special contexts, including dynamic and motion-compensated image reconstruction. While most of the discussed techniques were developed for emission tomography, the general methods are extensible to other imaging modalities as well. In addition to enabling image characterization, these analysis techniques allow us to control and enhance imaging system performance. We review practical applications where performance improvement is achieved by applying these ideas to the contexts of both hardware (optimizing scanner design) and image reconstruction (designing regularization functions that produce uniform resolution or maximize task-specific figures of merit). PMID:24312148

  18. Quantitative Statistical Methods for Image Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Joyita; Ahn, Sangtae; Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative measures of image quality and reliability are critical for both qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis of medical images. While, in theory, it is possible to analyze reconstructed images by means of Monte Carlo simulations using a large number of noise realizations, the associated computational burden makes this approach impractical. Additionally, this approach is less meaningful in clinical scenarios, where multiple noise realizations are generally unavailable. The practical alternative is to compute closed-form analytical expressions for image quality measures. The objective of this paper is to review statistical analysis techniques that enable us to compute two key metrics: resolution (determined from the local impulse response) and covariance. The underlying methods include fixed-point approaches, which compute these metrics at a fixed point (the unique and stable solution) independent of the iterative algorithm employed, and iteration-based approaches, which yield results that are dependent on the algorithm, initialization, and number of iterations. We also explore extensions of some of these methods to a range of special contexts, including dynamic and motion-compensated image reconstruction. While most of the discussed techniques were developed for emission tomography, the general methods are extensible to other imaging modalities as well. In addition to enabling image characterization, these analysis techniques allow us to control and enhance imaging system performance. We review practical applications where performance improvement is achieved by applying these ideas to the contexts of both hardware (optimizing scanner design) and image reconstruction (designing regularization functions that produce uniform resolution or maximize task-specific figures of merit). PMID:24312148

  19. Formal Method of Description Supporting Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Ueno, Maomi; Kikukawa, Isao; Yokoyama, Setsuo; Miyadera, Youzou

    2006-01-01

    Teachers need to assess learner portfolios in the field of education. However, they need support in the process of designing and practicing what kind of portfolios are to be assessed. To solve the problem, a formal method of describing the relations between the lesson forms and portfolios that need to be collected and the relations between…

  20. Expanding Assessment Methods and Moments in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Jennifer; de Pont, Genevieve; Brailsford, Ian

    2012-01-01

    History courses at The University of Auckland are typically assessed at two or three moments during a semester. The methods used normally employ two essays and a written examination answering questions set by the lecturer. This study describes an assessment innovation in 2008 that expanded both the frequency and variety of activities completed by…

  1. Personality, Assessment Methods and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Nuygards, Sarah; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance (AP) assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different…

  2. EMERGY METHODS: VALUABLE INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    NHEERL's Atlantic Ecology Division is investigating emergy methods as tools for integrated assessment in several projects evaluating environmental impacts, policies, and alternatives for remediation and intervention. Emergy accounting is a methodology that provides a quantitative...

  3. Scientific method, adversarial system, and technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    A basic framework is provided for the consideration of the purposes and techniques of scientific method and adversarial systems. Similarities and differences in these two techniques of inquiry are considered with reference to their relevance in the performance of assessments.

  4. Energy efficiency assessment methods and tools evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    McMordie, K.L.; Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Dixon, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    Many different methods of assessing the energy savings potential at federal installations, and identifying attractive projects for capital investment have been used by the different federal agencies. These methods range from high-level estimating tools to detailed design tools, both manual and software assisted. These methods have different purposes and provide results that are used for different parts of the project identification, and implementation process. Seven different assessment methods are evaluated in this study. These methods were selected by the program managers at the DoD Energy Policy Office, and DOE Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Each of the methods was applied to similar buildings at Bolling Air Force Base (AFB), unless it was inappropriate or the method was designed to make an installation-wide analysis, rather than focusing on particular buildings. Staff at Bolling AFB controlled the collection of data.

  5. Assessment and Evaluation Methods for Access Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Dallas

    2014-01-01

    This article serves as a primer for assessment and evaluation design by describing the range of methods commonly employed in library settings. Quantitative methods, such as counting and benchmarking measures, are useful for investigating the internal operations of an access services department in order to identify workflow inefficiencies or…

  6. Science Education and Meaningful Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    Argues that there should be no equation between modern methods of teaching science and discovery methods, suggesting that the emphasis on discovery has resulted from confused thinking among science educators. Also, describes research-based developments promising better theoretical/practical perspectives for improved science teaching, focusing on…

  7. How Do Novice Art Teachers Define and Implement Meaningful Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Christina; Newton, Connie; Kuster, Deborah; Milbrandt, Melody

    2010-01-01

    Four researchers collaborated on this qualitative case study that examined 11 first-year novice art teachers' understanding and implementation of meaningful curriculum. Participants were selected through a criterion method sampling strategy; the subjects were employed in rural, urban, and suburban public school districts. In order to conduct a…

  8. Student Engagement and Teacher Guidance in Meaningful Mathematics: Enduring Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Gregory D.; Lucius, Lisa B.

    2008-01-01

    In mathematics, developing a conceptual understanding and observing properly modeled methods rarely lead to successful student performance. The student must participate. As with bike riding, participation with monitoring and guidance makes initial efforts meaningful and beneficial. In this article, the authors share a bike riding experience and…

  9. Ukrainian Teacher Candidates Develop Dispositions of Socially Meaningful Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshmanova, Tetyana; Ravchyna, Tetyana

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses how the method of peer mediation can be utilized by teacher educators in developing students' attitudes to care for those who are in need, how to actively participate in socially meaningful activity without any expectation of reward, and how to contribute to the democratic development of a post-conflict country via active…

  10. Russian risk assessment methods and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorack, M.A.; Carlson, D.D.; Smith, R.E.

    1996-07-01

    One of the benefits resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union is the increased dialogue currently taking place between American and Russian nuclear weapons scientists in various technical arenas. One of these arenas currently being investigated involves collaborative studies which illustrate how risk assessment is perceived and utilized in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The collaborative studies indicate that, while similarities exist with respect to some methodologies, the assumptions and approaches in performing risk assessments were, and still are, somewhat different in the FSU as opposed to that in the US. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the present knowledge of risk assessment methodologies and philosophies within the two largest nuclear weapons laboratories of the Former Soviet Union, Arzamas-16 and Chelyabinsk-70. Furthermore, This paper will address the relative progress of new risk assessment methodologies, such as Fuzzy Logic, within the framework of current risk assessment methods at these two institutes.

  11. Making Social Studies Meaningful to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Susan

    1982-01-01

    Describes a unit on Ancient Greece designed to make social studies meaningful to fourth and fifth graders. Individual projects and group activities helped students learn about ancient Greek culture. (AM)

  12. Breast density: clinical implications and assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Nicole S; Raza, Sughra; Mackesy, Meaghan; Birdwell, Robyn L

    2015-01-01

    Breast density assessment is an important component of the screening mammography report and conveys information to referring clinicians about mammographic sensitivity and the relative risk for developing breast cancer. These topics have gained substantial attention because of recent legislation in several states that requires patients to be informed of dense breast tissue and the potential for associated breast cancer risk and decreased mammographic sensitivity. Because of the considerable implications of diagnosing a woman with dense breast tissue, radiologists should strive to be as consistent as possible when assessing breast density. Commonly used methods of breast density assessment range from subjective visual estimation to quantitative calculations of area and volume density percentages made with complex computer algorithms. The basic principles of currently available commercial methods of calculating fibroglandular density are described and illustrated. There is no criterion standard for determining breast density, but understanding the pros and cons of the various assessment methods will allow radiologists to make informed decisions. Radiologists should understand the basic factors involved in breast density assessment, the changes related to density assessment described in the fifth edition of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon, and the capabilities of currently available software. Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25763719

  13. Assessing the Assessment Methods: Climate Change and Hydrologic Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, L. D.; Clark, M. P.; Gutmann, E. D.; Mizukami, N.; Mendoza, P. A.; Rasmussen, R.; Ikeda, K.; Pruitt, T.; Arnold, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and other water management agencies have an interest in developing reliable, science-based methods for incorporating climate change information into longer-term water resources planning. Such assessments must quantify projections of future climate and hydrology, typically relying on some form of spatial downscaling and bias correction to produce watershed-scale weather information that subsequently drives hydrology and other water resource management analyses (e.g., water demands, water quality, and environmental habitat). Water agencies continue to face challenging method decisions in these endeavors: (1) which downscaling method should be applied and at what resolution; (2) what observational dataset should be used to drive downscaling and hydrologic analysis; (3) what hydrologic model(s) should be used and how should these models be configured and calibrated? There is a critical need to understand the ramification of these method decisions, as they affect the signal and uncertainties produced by climate change assessments and, thus, adaptation planning. This presentation summarizes results from a three-year effort to identify strengths and weaknesses of widely applied methods for downscaling climate projections and assessing hydrologic conditions. Methods were evaluated from two perspectives: historical fidelity, and tendency to modulate a global climate model's climate change signal. On downscaling, four methods were applied at multiple resolutions: statistically using Bias Correction Spatial Disaggregation, Bias Correction Constructed Analogs, and Asynchronous Regression; dynamically using the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Downscaling results were then used to drive hydrologic analyses over the contiguous U.S. using multiple models (VIC, CLM, PRMS), with added focus placed on case study basins within the Colorado Headwaters. The presentation will identify which types of climate changes are

  14. Hospital characteristics associated with achievement of meaningful use.

    PubMed

    Diana, Mark L; Harle, Christopher A; Huerta, Timothy R; Ford, Eric W; Menachemi, Nir

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with hospitals that achieved the Medicare meaningful use incentive thresholds for payment under the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009. We employed a cross-sectional design using data from the 2011 American Hospital Association Annual Survey, including the Information Technology Supplement; the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services report of hospitals receiving meaningful use payments; and the Health Resources and Services Administration's Area Resource File. We used a lagged value from 2010 to determine electronic health record (EHR) adoption. Our methods were a descriptive analysis and logistic regression to examine how various hospital characteristics are associated with the achievement of Medicare meaningful use incentives. Overall, 1,769 (38%) of 4,683 potentially eligible hospitals achieved meaningful use incentive thresholds by the end of 2012. Characteristics associated with organizations that received incentive payments were having an EHR in place in 2010, having a larger bed size, having a single health information technology vendor, obtaining Joint Commission accreditation, operating under for-profit status, having Medicare share of inpatient days in the middle two quartiles, being eligible for Medicaid incentives, and being located in the Middle Atlantic or South Atlantic census region. Characteristics associated with not receiving incentive payments were being a member of a hospital system and being located in the Mountain or Pacific census region. Thus far, little evidence suggests that the HITECH incentive program has enticed hospitals without an EHR system to adopt meaningful use criteria. Policy makers should consider modifying the incentive program to accelerate the adoption of and meaningful use in hospitals without EHRs. PMID:25154125

  15. A meaningful MESS (Medical Education Scholarship Support)

    PubMed Central

    Whicker, Shari A.; Engle, Deborah L.; Chudgar, Saumil; DeMeo, Stephen; Bean, Sarah M.; Narayan, Aditee P.; Grochowski, Colleen O'Connor; Nagler, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Graduate medical education faculty bear the responsibility of demonstrating active research and scholarship; however, faculty who choose education-focused careers may face unique obstacles related to the lack of promotion tracks, funding, career options, and research opportunities. Our objective was to address education research and scholarship barriers by providing a collaborative peer-mentoring environment and improve the production of research and scholarly outputs. Methods We describe a Medical Education Scholarship Support (MESS) group created in 2013. MESS is an interprofessional, multidisciplinary peer-mentoring education research community that now spans multiple institutions. This group meets monthly to address education research and scholarship challenges. Through this process, we develop new knowledge, research, and scholarly products, in addition to meaningful collaborations. Results MESS originated with eight founding members, all of whom still actively participate. MESS has proven to be a sustainable unfunded local community of practice, encouraging faculty to pursue health professions education (HPE) careers and fostering scholarship. We have met our original objectives that involved maintaining 100% participant retention; developing increased knowledge in at least seven content areas; and contributing to the development of 13 peer-reviewed publications, eight professional presentations, one Masters of Education project, and one educational curriculum. Discussion The number of individuals engaged in HPE research continues to rise. The MESS model could be adapted for use at other institutions, thereby reducing barriers HPE researchers face, providing an effective framework for trainees interested in education-focused careers, and having a broader impact on the education research landscape. PMID:27476538

  16. Method and apparatus for assessing cardiovascular risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Paul (Inventor); Bigger, J. Thomas (Inventor); Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The method for assessing risk of an adverse clinical event includes detecting a physiologic signal in the subject and determining from the physiologic signal a sequence of intervals corresponding to time intervals between heart beats. The long-time structure of fluctuations in the intervals over a time period of more than fifteen minutes is analyzed to assess risk of an adverse clinical event. In a preferred embodiment, the physiologic signal is an electrocardiogram and the time period is at least fifteen minutes. A preferred method for analyzing the long-time structure variability in the intervals includes computing the power spectrum and fitting the power spectrum to a power law dependence on frequency over a selected frequency range such as 10.sup.-4 to 10.sup.-2 Hz. Characteristics of the long-time structure fluctuations in the intervals is used to assess risk of an adverse clinical event.

  17. Using Qualitative Methods to Assess Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattuca, Lisa R.; Domagal-Goldman, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Instructor evaluation forms--those scannable surveys that students use to rate the quality of their instructors and courses at the end of every term--are the most common method of assessing teaching effectiveness in the United States. A considerable body of research on end-of-course evaluations suggests that student ratings are valid sources of…

  18. Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

    2010-01-01

    The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

  19. A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

    2008-01-01

    People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

  20. A classification scheme for risk assessment methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Stamp, Jason Edwin; Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2004-08-01

    This report presents a classification scheme for risk assessment methods. This scheme, like all classification schemes, provides meaning by imposing a structure that identifies relationships. Our scheme is based on two orthogonal aspects--level of detail, and approach. The resulting structure is shown in Table 1 and is explained in the body of the report. Each cell in the Table represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. This report imposes structure on the set of risk assessment methods in order to reveal their relationships and thus optimize their usage.We present a two-dimensional structure in the form of a matrix, using three abstraction levels for the rows and three approaches for the columns. For each of the nine cells in the matrix we identify the method type by name and example. The matrix helps the user understand: (1) what to expect from a given method, (2) how it relates to other methods, and (3) how best to use it. Each cell in the matrix represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. The matrix, with type names in the cells, is introduced in Table 2 on page 13 below. Unless otherwise stated we use the word 'method' in this report to refer to a 'risk assessment method', though often times we use the full phrase. The use of the terms 'risk assessment' and 'risk management' are close enough that we do not attempt to distinguish them in this report. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. In Section 2 we provide context for this report

  1. Clinical experimental stress studies: methods and assessment.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a state of threatened homeostasis during which a variety of adaptive processes are activated to produce physiological and behavioral changes. Stress induction methods are pivotal for understanding these physiological or pathophysiological changes in the body in response to stress. Furthermore, these methods are also important for the development of novel pharmacological agents for stress management. The well-described methods to induce stress in humans include the cold pressor test, Trier Social Stress Test, Montreal Imaging Stress Task, Maastricht Acute Stress Test, CO2 challenge test, Stroop test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, noise stress, and Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test. Stress assessment in humans is done by measuring biochemical markers such as cortisol, cortisol awakening response, dexamethasone suppression test, salivary α-amylase, plasma/urinary norepinephrine, norepinephrine spillover rate, and interleukins. Physiological and behavioral changes such as galvanic skin response, heart rate variability, pupil size, and muscle and/or skin sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) and cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and self-reported anxiety are also monitored to assess stress response. This present review describes these commonly employed methods to induce stress in humans along with stress assessment methods. PMID:26020552

  2. Comparative analysis of selected hydromorphological assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Sípek, Václav; Matousková, Milada; Dvorák, Martin

    2010-10-01

    The European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC aims to achieve a good ecological status of all surface water bodies in Europe. The definition of the ecological status is based on the hydromorphological, hydrochemical, and hydrobiological features of water bodies. Numerous methods are applied for the purpose of hydromorphological status assessment. This study attempts to compare four different methods (EcoRivHab, LAWA Field and Overview Survey, and Rapid Bioassessment Protocol) that were applied at two study areas in the Czech part of the Elbe River Basin. The selected catchments represent areas with different sizes and physical geographic as well as socioeconomic characteristics. All the methods applied showed the capacity to identify the natural and even the completely changed reaches and provided good information on the river physical habitat state. However, they are varied from the viewpoint of the number of parameters, number of monitored zones, time and knowledge demands of the performed assessment. PMID:19760083

  3. New method for assessing risks of email

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Seyyed H.; Afrooz, Farzad

    2013-03-01

    E-mail technology, has become one of the requirements of human lives for correspondence between individuals. Given this, the important point is that the messages, server and client of e-mail and correspondences that exchanged between different people have acceptable security, to make people sure to use of this technology. In the information age, many of financial and non financial transactions are done electronically, data exchange takes place via the internet and theft and manipulation of data can make exorbitant cost in terms of integrity, financial, political, economic and culture. E-mail correspondence in there is same and it is very important. With review took place, a method that will focus on email system for risks assessment is not provided. We are examining ways of assessing for other systems and their strengths and weaknesses, then we use Mr Convery method for assessing email risks which it is for assessing network risks. At the end of paper we have offered special table for email risk assessment.

  4. Methods of geodiversity assessment and theirs application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The concept of geodiversity has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world (Wiedenbein 1993, Sharples 1993, Kiernan 1995, 1996, Dixon 1996, Eberhard 1997, Kostrzewski 1998, 2011, Gray 2004, 2008, 2013, Zwoliński 2004, Serrano, Ruiz- Flano 2007, Gordon et al. 2012). However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage, and in effect not explicitly understood and defined (Najwer, Zwoliński 2014). Nevertheless, despite widespread use of the concept, little progress has been made in its assessment and mapping. Less than the last decade can be observing investigation of methods for geodiversity assessment and its visualisation. Though, many have acknowledged the importance of geodiversity evaluation (Kozłowski 2004, Gray 2004, Reynard, Panizza 2005, Zouros 2007, Pereira et al. 2007, Hjort et al. 2015). Hitherto, only a few authors have undertaken that kind of methodological issues. Geodiversity maps are being created for a variety of purposes and therefore their methods are quite manifold. In the literature exists some examples of the geodiversity maps applications for the geotourism purpose, basing mainly on the geological diversity, in order to point the scale of the area's tourist attractiveness (Zwoliński 2010, Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Zwoliński and Stachowiak 2012). In some studies, geodiversity maps were created and applied to investigate the spatial or genetic relationships with the richness of particular natural environmental components (Burnett et al. 1998, Silva 2004, Jačková, Romportl 2008, Hjort et al. 2012, 2015, Mazurek et al. 2015, Najwer et al. 2014). There are also a few examples of geodiversity assessment in order to geoconservation and efficient management and planning of the natural protected areas (Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Pellitero et al. 2011, 2014, Jaskulska et al. 2013, Melelli 2014, Martinez-Grana et al. 2015). The most popular method of assessing the diversity of abiotic components of the natural

  5. Nondestructive methods to assess dental implant stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Tabrizi, Aydin; Berhanu, Bruk; Ochs, Mark W.

    2012-04-01

    The robustness and reliability of two nondestructive evaluation methods to assess dental prostheses stability is presented. The study aims at addressing an increasing need in the biomedical area where robust, reliable, and noninvasive methods to assess the bone-interface of dental and orthopedic implants are increasingly demanded for clinical diagnosis and direct prognosis. The methods are based on the electromechanical impedance method and on the propagation of solitary waves. Nobel Biocare® 4.3 x 13 mm implants were entrenched inside bovine rib bones that were immersed inside Normal Saline for 24 hours before test in order to avoid dehydration and simulating physiologic osmolarity of the corticocancellous bone and plasma. Afterwards the bones were immersed in a solution of nitric acid to allow material degradation, inversely simulating a bone-healing process. This process was monitored by bonding a Piezoceramic Transducer (PZT) to the abutment and measuring the electrical admittance of the PZT over time. On the other hand the bones calcium loss was calculated after immersing in acid by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy over time for comparison. Moreover a novel transducer based on the generation and detection of highly nonlinear solitary waves was used to assess the stiffness of the abutment-implant bone. In these experiments it was found that the PZT's conductance and some of the solitary waves parameters are sensitive to the degradation of the bones and was correlated to the bone calcium loss over time.

  6. Methods of geodiversity assessment and theirs application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The concept of geodiversity has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world (Wiedenbein 1993, Sharples 1993, Kiernan 1995, 1996, Dixon 1996, Eberhard 1997, Kostrzewski 1998, 2011, Gray 2004, 2008, 2013, Zwoliński 2004, Serrano, Ruiz- Flano 2007, Gordon et al. 2012). However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage, and in effect not explicitly understood and defined (Najwer, Zwoliński 2014). Nevertheless, despite widespread use of the concept, little progress has been made in its assessment and mapping. Less than the last decade can be observing investigation of methods for geodiversity assessment and its visualisation. Though, many have acknowledged the importance of geodiversity evaluation (Kozłowski 2004, Gray 2004, Reynard, Panizza 2005, Zouros 2007, Pereira et al. 2007, Hjort et al. 2015). Hitherto, only a few authors have undertaken that kind of methodological issues. Geodiversity maps are being created for a variety of purposes and therefore their methods are quite manifold. In the literature exists some examples of the geodiversity maps applications for the geotourism purpose, basing mainly on the geological diversity, in order to point the scale of the area's tourist attractiveness (Zwoliński 2010, Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Zwoliński and Stachowiak 2012). In some studies, geodiversity maps were created and applied to investigate the spatial or genetic relationships with the richness of particular natural environmental components (Burnett et al. 1998, Silva 2004, Jačková, Romportl 2008, Hjort et al. 2012, 2015, Mazurek et al. 2015, Najwer et al. 2014). There are also a few examples of geodiversity assessment in order to geoconservation and efficient management and planning of the natural protected areas (Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Pellitero et al. 2011, 2014, Jaskulska et al. 2013, Melelli 2014, Martinez-Grana et al. 2015). The most popular method of assessing the diversity of abiotic components of the natural

  7. Method and apparatus to assess compartment syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatile components on at least one compartment dimension. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring excess pressure in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the reflected imparted ultrasonic waves, and converting them to electrical signals, a pulsed phase-locked loop device for assessing a body compartment configuration and producing an output signal, and means for mathematically manipulating the output signal to thereby categorize pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  8. Method of assessing heterogeneity in images

    DOEpatents

    Jacob, Richard E.; Carson, James P.

    2016-08-23

    A method of assessing heterogeneity in images is disclosed. 3D images of an object are acquired. The acquired images may be filtered and masked. Iterative decomposition is performed on the masked images to obtain image subdivisions that are relatively homogeneous. Comparative analysis, such as variogram analysis or correlogram analysis, is performed of the decomposed images to determine spatial relationships between regions of the images that are relatively homogeneous.

  9. Using Meaningful Interpretation and Chunking to Enhance Memory: The Case of Chinese Character Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaoqiu; Padilla, Amado M.

    2013-01-01

    Learning and retaining Chinese characters are often considered to be the most challenging elements in learning Chinese as a foreign language. Applying the theory of meaningful interpretation, the chunking mnemonic technique, and the linguistic features of Chinese characters, this study examines whether the method of meaningful interpretation and…

  10. [Methods of risk assessment and their validation].

    PubMed

    Baracco, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The review of the literature data shows several methods for the the risks assessment of biomnechanical overload of the musculoskeletal system in activities with repetitive strain of the upper limbs and manual material handling. The application of these methods should allow the quantification ofriskfor the working population, the identification of the preventive measures to reduce the risk and their effectiveness and thle design of a specific health surveillance scheme. In this paper we analyze the factors which must be taken into account in Occupational Medicine to implement a process of validation of these methods. In conclusion we believe it will necessary in the future the availability of new methods able to analyze and reduce the risk already in the design phase of the production process. PMID:25558718

  11. Spatial Heterogeneity of Rana boylii Habitat: Quantification and Ecological Meaningfulness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarnell, S. M.

    2005-05-01

    Analysis of the heterogeneity of stream habitat and how biological communities respond to that complexity are fundamental components of ecosystem analysis that are often inadequately addressed in watershed assessments and restoration practices. Many aquatic species, such as the Foothill Yellow-legged Frog (Rana boylii), known to associate with certain physical habitats at various times throughout their lifecycle may require some degree of habitat complexity at a larger reach scale for a population to persist. Recent research in the field of landscape ecology has expanded the use of spatial heterogeneity indices to other fields of ecology as an objective method to quantify variability in habitat. Provided that indices are used in an appropriate context and are shown to be ecologically meaningful, they provide a potentially useful tool for quantifying the variability in riverine habitat for aquatic species such as R. boylii. This study evaluated whether stream reaches with a high heterogeneity of geomorphic features, as measured by several key spatial heterogeneity indices, correlated with a greater relative abundance of R. boylii. R. boylii habitat associations were quantified throughout a single season to obtain further insight into the local hydraulic and geomorphic conditions preferred by each lifestage. The two best predictors of habitat associations by lifestage were velocity and substrate size, two key characteristics of geomorphic units such as riffles and pools. The heterogeneity of geomorphic units was then quantified and measured at the reach scale using a variety of spatial indices. Indices of spatial composition, such as Shannon's Diversity Index, were found to correlate well with frog abundance, while indices of spatial configuration, such as Contagion, were not significant. These findings indicate R. boylii may select stream reaches with increased geomorphic complexity that potentially provide habitats suitable to each lifestage with multiple functions

  12. Lake ecosystem health assessment: indicators and methods.

    PubMed

    Xu, F L; Tao, S; Dawson, R W; Li, P G; Cao, J

    2001-09-01

    A set of ecological indicators including structural, functional, and system-level aspects were proposed for a lake ecosystem health assessment, according to the structural, functional, and system-level responses of lake ecosystems to chemical stresses including acidification, eutrophication and copper, oil and pesticide contamination. The structural indicators included phytoplankton cell size and biomass, zooplankton body size and biomass, species diversity, macro- and micro-zooplankton biomass, the zooplankton phytoplankton ratio, and the macrozooplankton microzooplankton ratio. The functional indicators encompassed the algal C assimilation ratio, resource use efficiency, community production, gross production/respiration (i.e. P/R) ratio, gross production standing crop biomass (i.e. P/B) ratio, and standing crop biomass unit energy flow (i.e. B/E) ratio. The ecosystem-level indicators conisisted of ecological buffer capacities, energy, and structural energy. Based on these indicators, a direct measurement method (DMM) and an ecological modeling method (EMM) for lake ecosystem health assessment were developed. The DMM procedures were designed to: (1) identify key indicators; (2) measure directly or calculate indirectly the selected indicators; and, (3) assess ecosystem health on the basis of the indicator values. The EMM procedures were designed to: (1) determine the structure and complexity of the ecological model according to the lake's ecosystem structure; (2) establish an ecological model by designing a conceptual diagram, establishing model equations, and estimating model pararmeters; (3) compare the simulated values of important state variables and process rates with actual observations; (4) calculate ecosystem health indicators using the ecological model; and, (5) assess lake ecosystem health according to the values of the ecological indicators. The results of a case study demonstrated that both methods provided similar results which corresponded with the

  13. Meaningful Learning in the Cooperative Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharan, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Meaningful learning is based on more than what teachers transmit; it promotes the construction of knowledge out of learners' experience, feelings and exchanges with other learners. This educational view is based on the constructivist approach to learning and the co-operative learning approach. Researchers and practitioners in various…

  14. Making Biodiversity Meaningful through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Weelie, Daan; Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the crossroads between science education and environmental education and presents a framework for tapping environmental education's potential of biodiversity. Outlines a number of stepping stones for making biodiversity meaningful to learners. From the perspective of environmental education, the ill-defined nature of biodiversity is a…

  15. On Meaningful Measurement: Concepts, Technology and Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, K. C.

    This paper discusses how concepts and procedural skills in problem-solving tasks, as well as affects and emotions, can be subjected to meaningful measurement (MM), based on a multisource model of learning and a constructivist information-processing theory of knowing. MM refers to the quantitative measurement of conceptual and procedural knowledge…

  16. Meaningful Experiences in the Counseling Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackett, Corrine; Lawson, Gerard; Burge, Penny L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers examined the experiences of a counseling session from the perspectives of counselors-intraining (CITs) and clients. Post-session phenomenological interviews were conducted to elicit participants' meaningful experiences, and the analysis revealed both similarities and differences. Researchers found the following themes most meaningful…

  17. Meaningful Use of School Health Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kathleen Hoy; Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2011-01-01

    Meaningful use (MU) of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) is an important development in the safety and security of health care delivery in the United States. Advancement in the use of EHRs occurred with the passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which provides incentives for providers to support adoption and use of EHRs.…

  18. Values: The Natural Result of Meaningful Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beedy, Jeff; Gordon, John

    1997-01-01

    The New Hampton School (New Hampshire) uses the holistic Total Human Development Model with both students and faculty to instill principles focused on relationships as central to teaching and learning; respect and responsibility; sense of community; whole person development within the community; compassion and service; and the meaningful,…

  19. Environmental assessment of used oil management methods.

    PubMed

    Boughton, Bob; Horvath, Arpad

    2004-01-15

    The 1 billion gal of used oil generated in the U.S. each year are managed in three primary ways: rerefined into base oil for reuse, distilled into marine diesel oil fuel, and marketed as untreated fuel oil. Management of used oil has local, regional and global impacts. Because of the globally distributed nature of fuel markets, used oil as fuel has localized and regional impacts in many areas. In this paper, the human health and environmental tradeoffs of the management options are quantified and characterized. The goal of this study was to assess and compare the environmental impacts and benefits of each management method in a product end-of-life scenario using a life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A life-cycle inventory showed that 800 mg of zinc and 30 mg of lead air emissions may result from the combustion of 1 L of used oil as fuel (50-100 times that of crude-derived fuel oils). As an example, up to 136 Mg of zinc and 5 Mg of lead air emissions may be generated from combustion of over 50 M gal of California-generated used oil each year. While occurring elsewhere, these levels are significant (of the same magnitude as reported total stationary source emissions in California). An impact assessment showed that heavy metals-related toxicity dominates the comparison of management methods. Zinc and lead emissions were the primary contributors to the terrestrial and human toxicity impact potentials that were calculated to be 150 and 5 times higher, respectively, for used oil combusted as fuel than for rerefining or distillation. Low profits and weak markets increasingly drive the used oil management method selection toward the untreated fuel oil market. Instead, both the rerefining and distillation methods and associated product markets should be strongly supported because they are environmentally preferable to the combustion of unprocessed used oil as fuel. PMID:14750706

  20. Autonomic pain: features and methods of assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhavadi, B.; Rosen, J.S.; Addison, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of pain originating in the sympathetic nervous system does not match the somatic segmental sensory distribution at the postganglionic level. The two types of distribution are separate and different. At the preganglionic level, fibers show typical segmental sensory distribution, which resembles but is not identical to somatic segmental sensory distribution. Instead, sympathetic pain has its own distribution along the vascular supply and some peripheral nerves. It cannot be called atypical in terms of somatic segmental sensory distribution. Several techniques are available to assess autonomic function in cases of chronic pain. Infrared thermography is superior to any other physiologic or pharmacologic method to assess sympathetic function. Overactivity of sympathetic function in the area of pain is the probable cause of temperature reduction in that area. Accordingly it would appear that in cases in which thermography demonstrates decreased temperature, sympathetic block or sympathectomy would provide relief from the pain.

  1. Rangeland assessment and monitoring methods guide - an interactive tool for selecting methods for assessment and monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common concern expressed by land managers and biologists is that they do not know enough about the strengths and weaknesses of different field and remote-sensing methods for rangeland assessment and monitoring. The Methods Guide is a web-based tool and resource that provides researchers and manage...

  2. An empirical method for dynamic camouflage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blitch, John G.

    2011-06-01

    As camouflage systems become increasingly sophisticated in their potential to conceal military personnel and precious cargo, evaluation methods need to evolve as well. This paper presents an overview of one such attempt to explore alternative methods for empirical evaluation of dynamic camouflage systems which aspire to keep pace with a soldier's movement through rapidly changing environments that are typical of urban terrain. Motivating factors are covered first, followed by a description of the Blitz Camouflage Assessment (BCA) process and results from an initial proof of concept experiment conducted in November 2006. The conclusion drawn from these results, related literature and the author's personal experience suggest that operational evaluation of personal camouflage needs to be expanded beyond its foundation in signal detection theory and embrace the challenges posed by high levels of cognitive processing.

  3. Toward More Substantively Meaningful Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Simon, Anat; Bennett, Randy Elliott

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a "substantively driven" method for scoring NAEP writing assessments automatically. The study used variations of an existing commercial program, e-rater[R], to compare the performance of three approaches to automated essay scoring: a "brute-empirical" approach in which variables are selected and weighted solely according to…

  4. Electrophysiological methods for hearing assessment in pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichmuth Kastak, Colleen; Kastak, David; Finneran, James J.; Houser, Dorian S.; Supin, Alexander

    2005-04-01

    Studies of auditory sensitivity in marine mammals generally rely on behavioral psychophysical methodologies. While these studies are the standard for hearing assessment in marine mammals, data are limited to only a few individuals representing a small proportion of species. Accumulating research on dolphin auditory physiology has resulted in the refinement of electrophysiological methods appropriate for odontocete cetaceans and an increase in available audiometric information. Electrophysiological methods have also been used with pinnipeds, but there are significant gaps in our understanding of pinniped auditory physiology that must be addressed before such appoaches can be broadly applied to investigations of pinniped hearing. We are taking a bottom-up approach to developing suitable methods for evoked potential audiometry in pinnipeds, including technology transfer from studies of cetaceans and other mammals, mapping of response amplitude with respect to recording positions on the skull, characterization of responses in relationship to various stimulus types and presentation parameters, and determination of whether useful frequency-specific data can be reliably obtained using electrophysiological methods. This approach is being taken with representative pinniped species including California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) using both training and chemical immobilization techniques. [Work supported by NOPP.

  5. Ritual, meaningfulness, and interstellar message construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traphagan, John W.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, I am interested in exploring the potential of ritual performance as a means of communication with ETI. I argue that the study of ritual and ritualized behavior, understood as a technique for representation of meaning and meaningfulness about the world, has potential to inform how scientists think about the construction and interpretation of interstellar messages. I do not suggest that ritual activities themselves provide more than limited potential for communication with ETI. However, the structural elements of ritual and the manner in which meaning is conveyed through the formality and repetition of ritual is at least to some extent decipherable cross-culturally and provides one way to think about how to express important aspects of humans and their cultures to ETI and to represent, if not specific meanings themselves, the fact that a message is meaningful.

  6. Methods for probabilistic assessments of geologic hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Although risk analysis today is considered to include three separate aspects: (1) identifying sources of risk, (2) estimating probabilities quantitatively, and (3) evaluating consequences of risk, here, only estimation of probabilities for natural geologic events, processes, and phenomena is addressed. Ideally, evaluation of potential future hazards includes an objective determination of probabilities that has been derived from past occurrences of identical events or components contributing to complex processes or phenomena. In practice, however, data which would permit objective estimation of those probabilities of interest may not be adequate, or may not even exist. Another problem that arises normally, regardless of the extent of data, is that risk assessments involve estimating extreme values. Rarely are extreme values accurately predictable even when an empirical frequency distribution is established well by data. In the absence of objective methods for estimating probabilities of natural events or processes, subjective probabilities for the hazard must be established through Bayesian methods, expert opinion, or Delphi methods. Uncertainty of every probability determination must be stated for each component of an event, process, or phenomenon. These uncertainties also must be propagated through the quantitative analysis so that a realistic estimate of total uncertainty can be associated with each final probability estimate for a geologic hazard.

  7. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    NELSEN LA

    2009-01-30

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

  8. Drug Interaction Alert Override Rates in the Meaningful Use Era

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, A.D.; Fletcher, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Interruptive drug interaction alerts may reduce adverse drug events and are required for Stage I Meaningful Use attestation. For the last decade override rates have been very high. Despite their widespread use in commercial EHR systems, previously described interventions to improve alert frequency and acceptance have not been well studied. Objectives (1) To measure override rates of inpatient medication alerts within a commercial clinical decision support system, and assess the impact of local customization efforts. (2) To compare override rates between drug-drug interaction and drug-allergy interaction alerts, between attending and resident physicians, and between public and academic hospitals. (3) To measure the correlation between physicians’ individual alert quantities and override rates as an indicator of potential alert fatigue. Methods We retrospectively analyzed physician responses to drug-drug and drug-allergy interaction alerts, as generated by a common decision support product in a large teaching hospital system. Results (1) Over four days, 461 different physicians entered 18,354 medication orders, resulting in 2,455 visible alerts; 2,280 alerts (93%) were overridden. (2) The drug-drug alert override rate was 95.1%, statistically higher than the rate for drug-allergy alerts (90.9%) (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in override rates between attendings and residents, or between hospitals. (3) Physicians saw a mean of 1.3 alerts per day, and the number of alerts per physician was not significantly correlated with override rate (R2 = 0.03, p = 0.41). Conclusions Despite intensive efforts to improve a commercial drug interaction alert system and to reduce alerting, override rates remain as high as reported over a decade ago. Alert fatigue does not seem to contribute. The results suggest the need to fundamentally question the premises of drug interaction alert systems. PMID:25298818

  9. An interpolation method for stream habitat assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheehan, Kenneth R.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Interpolation of stream habitat can be very useful for habitat assessment. Using a small number of habitat samples to predict the habitat of larger areas can reduce time and labor costs as long as it provides accurate estimates of habitat. The spatial correlation of stream habitat variables such as substrate and depth improves the accuracy of interpolated data. Several geographical information system interpolation methods (natural neighbor, inverse distance weighted, ordinary kriging, spline, and universal kriging) were used to predict substrate and depth within a 210.7-m2 section of a second-order stream based on 2.5% and 5.0% sampling of the total area. Depth and substrate were recorded for the entire study site and compared with the interpolated values to determine the accuracy of the predictions. In all instances, the 5% interpolations were more accurate for both depth and substrate than the 2.5% interpolations, which achieved accuracies up to 95% and 92%, respectively. Interpolations of depth based on 2.5% sampling attained accuracies of 49–92%, whereas those based on 5% percent sampling attained accuracies of 57–95%. Natural neighbor interpolation was more accurate than that using the inverse distance weighted, ordinary kriging, spline, and universal kriging approaches. Our findings demonstrate the effective use of minimal amounts of small-scale data for the interpolation of habitat over large areas of a stream channel. Use of this method will provide time and cost savings in the assessment of large sections of rivers as well as functional maps to aid the habitat-based management of aquatic species.

  10. Analytic methods in assessment of optic nerve cupping.

    PubMed

    Jindra, L F; Kuběna, T; Gaudino, R N

    2014-06-01

    The intent of this paper is to provide a systems-based analysis of the methods used to evaluate optic nerve cupping, identify potential flaws in these systems, and propose alternatives better to assess this anatomic quantity. Estimation of optic nerve cupping requires an analytic understanding of both the psychophysical as well as the mathematical bases inherent in this measure. When the (decimal-based) cup-to-disc ratio is used to quantitate optic nerve cupping, a one-dimensional, linear estimate is produced, which in turn is derived from two- or three-dimensional, non-linear physical quantities of area or volume, respectively. When extrapolating from volume, to area, to linear measures, due to the psychophysical constraints which limit this task, such a data-compressed estimate of optic nerve cupping may neither accurately reflect, nor correctly represent, the true amount of cupping actually present in the optic nerve head. This type of one-dimensional metric (when comparing calculations from two- or three-dimensional measures over a range of optic nerve cupping), appears to introduce errors which, while most pronounced earlier on in the disease progression, often overestimate the amount of relative cupping (percent cupping) present in a pathological process like glaucoma. The same systemic errors can also lead to overestimation of the progression in cupping, especially in optic nerves with low cup-to disc values. To provide clinically meaningful estimates of optic nerve cupping, the practitioner needs to be aware of psychophysical and mathematical limitations inherent in using a linear cup-to-disc ratio to estimate the amount of cupping observed in a physical structure like the optic disc. The resultant flaws introduced by observer extrapolation from three, to two, to one dimensions (volume, area, and linear); transposition from non-linear to linear quantities; and optical illusions, caused by factors like disc topology, morphology, and ametropia, can all

  11. Quantitative Methods for Assessing Drug Synergism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Two or more drugs that individually produce overtly similar effects will sometimes display greatly enhanced effects when given in combination. When the combined effect is greater than that predicted by their individual potencies, the combination is said to be synergistic. A synergistic interaction allows the use of lower doses of the combination constituents, a situation that may reduce adverse reactions. Drug combinations are quite common in the treatment of cancers, infections, pain, and many other diseases and situations. The determination of synergism is a quantitative pursuit that involves a rigorous demonstration that the combination effect is greater than that which is expected from the individual drug’s potencies. The basis of that demonstration is the concept of dose equivalence, which is discussed here and applied to an experimental design and data analysis known as isobolographic analysis. That method, and a related method of analysis that also uses dose equivalence, are presented in this brief review, which provides the mathematical basis for assessing synergy and an optimization strategy for determining the dose combination. PMID:22737266

  12. Evidence-based vaccination strategies in obstetrics and gynecology settings: Current practices and methods for assessment.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Sean T; Pyrzanowski, Jennifer; Brewer, Sarah E; Dickinson, L Miriam; Dempsey, Amanda F

    2016-04-01

    Obstetrician-gynecologists have the potential to play an important role in the delivery of immunizations to women. However, despite national recommendations, immunization rates among pregnant women and adults in general remain low. Pragmatic immunization delivery trials are needed to demonstrate how best to deliver vaccines in such settings. We report the development and implementation of 2 novel methodologies for immunization delivery research and quality improvement in such settings. The first was the development and application of a 47-point Immunization Delivery Scale that formally assessed variability among practices in their engagement in a variety of evidence-based practices for improving immunization rates. The second was a covariate-constrained randomization technique - a method for achieving balance between study arms in cluster-randomized trials that is especially applicable to pragmatic trials.. To best achieve meaningful and interpretable findings, we recommend use of these or similar techniques in future immunization research and quality improvement projects in OB/GYN settings. PMID:26829978

  13. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  14. Direct toxicity assessment - Methods, evaluation, interpretation.

    PubMed

    Gruiz, Katalin; Fekete-Kertész, Ildikó; Kunglné-Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Hajdu, Csilla; Feigl, Viktória; Vaszita, Emese; Molnár, Mónika

    2016-09-01

    Direct toxicity assessment (DTA) results provide the scale of the actual adverse effect of contaminated environmental samples. DTA results are used in environmental risk management of contaminated water, soil and waste, without explicitly translating the results into chemical concentration. The end points are the same as in environmental toxicology in general, i.e. inhibition rate, decrease in the growth rate or in yield and the 'no effect' or the 'lowest effect' measurement points of the sample dilution-response curve. The measurement unit cannot be a concentration, since the contaminants and their content in the sample is unknown. Thus toxicity is expressed as the sample proportion causing a certain scale of inhibition or no inhibition. Another option for characterizing the scale of toxicity of an environmental sample is equivalencing. Toxicity equivalencing represents an interpretation tool which enables toxicity of unknown mixtures of chemicals be converted into the concentration of an equivalently toxic reference substance. Toxicity equivalencing, (i.e. expressing the toxicity of unknown contaminants as the concentration of the reference) makes DTA results better understandable for non-ecotoxicologists and other professionals educated and thinking based on the chemical model. This paper describes and discusses the role, the principles, the methodology and the interpretation of direct toxicity assessment (DTA) with the aim to contribute to the understanding of the necessity to integrate DTA results into environmental management of contaminated soil and water. The paper also introduces the benefits of the toxicity equivalency method. The use of DTA is illustrated through two case studies. The first case study focuses on DTA of treated wastewater with the aim to characterize the treatment efficacy of a biological wastewater treatment plant by frequent bioassaying. The second case study applied DTA to investigate the cover layers of two bauxite residue (red mud

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: METHODS FORMAT GUIDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) established the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to provide quantitative assessment of the condition of our nation's ecological resources. he Methods Coordination Group is responsible for coordinating methods ...

  16. Meaningful Understanding and Systems Thinking in Organic Chemistry: Validating Measurement and Exploring Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachliotis, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Tzougraki, Chryssa

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was dual: First, to develop and validate assessment schemes for assessing 11th grade students' meaningful understanding of organic chemistry concepts, as well as their systems thinking skills in the domain. Second, to explore the relationship between the two constructs of interest based on students' performance on the applied assessment framework. For this purpose, (a) various types of objective assessment questions were developed and evaluated for assessing meaningful understanding, (b) a specific type of systemic assessment questions (SAQs) was developed and evaluated for assessing systems thinking skills, and (c) the association between students' responses on the applied assessment schemes was explored. The results indicated that properly designed objective questions can effectively capture aspects of students' meaningful understanding. It was also found that the SAQs can elicit systems thinking skills in the context of a formalistic systems thinking theoretical approach. Moreover, a significant relationship was observed between students' responses on the two assessment strategies. This research provides evidence that students' systems thinking level within a science domain is significantly related to their meaningful understanding of relative science concepts.

  17. Extracting meaningful information from metabonomic data using multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Bylesjö, Max

    2015-01-01

    Metabonomics aims to identify and quantify all small-molecule metabolites in biologically relevant samples using high-throughput techniques such as NMR and chromatography/mass spectrometry. This generates high-dimensional data sets with properties that require specialized approaches to data analysis. This chapter describes multivariate statistics and analysis tools to extract meaningful information from metabonomic data sets. The focus is on the use and interpretation of latent variable methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares/projections to latent structures (PLS), and orthogonal PLS (OPLS). Descriptions of the key steps of the multivariate data analyses are provided with demonstrations from example data. PMID:25677152

  18. Meaningful Understanding and Systems Thinking in Organic Chemistry: Validating Measurement and Exploring Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachliotis, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Tzougraki, Chryssa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was dual: First, to develop and validate assessment schemes for assessing 11th grade students' meaningful understanding of organic chemistry concepts, as well as their systems thinking skills in the domain. Second, to explore the relationship between the two constructs of interest based on students' performance…

  19. A Screening Method for Assessing Cumulative Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Alexeeff, George V.; Faust, John B.; August, Laura Meehan; Milanes, Carmen; Randles, Karen; Zeise, Lauren; Denton, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating “cumulative impacts.” As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA [1]: “Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.” The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community’s cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can serve as a screening

  20. Assessment Methods and Tools for Architectural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the process of assessment within the arena of architectural education by questioning traditional assessment practices and probing into the conditions that necessitate change. As architectural educators we have opened our studios to digital technologies for the purposes of design and representation, but how do we measure and…

  1. Using Corporate-Based Methods To Assess Technical Communication Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Brenton; Bekins, Linn; Karis, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Investigates methods of program assessment used by corporate learning sites and profiles value added methods as a way to both construct and evaluate academic programs in technical communication. Examines and critiques assessment methods from corporate training environments including methods employed by corporate universities and value added…

  2. Hemispheric Differences in Processing Dichotic Meaningful and Non-Meaningful Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasin, Ifat

    2007-01-01

    Classic dichotic-listening paradigms reveal a right-ear advantage (REA) for speech sounds as compared to non-speech sounds. This REA is assumed to be associated with a left-hemisphere dominance for meaningful speech processing. This study objectively probed the relationship between ear advantage and hemispheric dominance in a dichotic-listening…

  3. Towards a mathematical theory of meaningful communication.

    PubMed

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Fortuny, Jordi; Solé, Ricard V

    2014-01-01

    Meaning has been left outside most theoretical approaches to information in biology. Functional responses based on an appropriate interpretation of signals have been replaced by a probabilistic description of correlations between emitted and received symbols. This assumption leads to potential paradoxes, such as the presence of a maximum information associated to a channel that creates completely wrong interpretations of the signals. Game-theoretic models of language evolution and other studies considering embodied communicating agents show that the correct (meaningful) match resulting from agent-agent exchanges is always achieved and natural systems obviously solve the problem correctly. Inspired by the concept of duality of the communicative sign stated by the swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, here we present a complete description of the minimal system necessary to measure the amount of information that is consistently decoded. Several consequences of our developments are investigated, such as the uselessness of a certain amount of information properly transmitted for communication among autonomous agents. PMID:24699312

  4. Meaningful surface roughness and quality tolerances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikens, David M.

    2010-08-01

    Most tolerances on optical elements can be derived or calculated from the application requirements using computeraided optical design programs. For surface quality and surface roughness, however, there are few guidelines or tools for calculating appropriate tolerances. Typically, we simply use a legacy specification (e.g. 60-40 and 3 A RMS) with little thought for either the cost of achieving the specification or the penalty for failing to achieve it. Often these legacy specifications are ambiguous, unnecessarily costly and in some cases completely meaningless. This paper provides some basic rules and equations for calculation of the real or perceived impact of these specifications, and some guidelines for the initiate (and for some of us veterans as well) as to how to compose a meaningful tolerance.

  5. Towards a mathematical theory of meaningful communication

    PubMed Central

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Fortuny, Jordi; Solé, Ricard V.

    2014-01-01

    Meaning has been left outside most theoretical approaches to information in biology. Functional responses based on an appropriate interpretation of signals have been replaced by a probabilistic description of correlations between emitted and received symbols. This assumption leads to potential paradoxes, such as the presence of a maximum information associated to a channel that creates completely wrong interpretations of the signals. Game-theoretic models of language evolution and other studies considering embodied communicating agents show that the correct (meaningful) match resulting from agent-agent exchanges is always achieved and natural systems obviously solve the problem correctly. Inspired by the concept of duality of the communicative sign stated by the swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, here we present a complete description of the minimal system necessary to measure the amount of information that is consistently decoded. Several consequences of our developments are investigated, such as the uselessness of a certain amount of information properly transmitted for communication among autonomous agents. PMID:24699312

  6. Facilitating critical discourse through "meaningful disagreement" online.

    PubMed

    Dalley-Hewer, Jayne; Clouder, Deanne Lynn; Jackson, Ann; Goodman, Simon; Bluteau, Patricia; Davies, Bernadette

    2012-11-01

    This paper is concerned with identifying ways of facilitating "meaningful disagreement" amongst students in interprofessional online discussion forums. It builds on previous research that identified a trend toward polite agreement and only limited evidence of disagreement in this setting. Given the suggestion that disagreement indicates a deeper level of engagement in group discussion and therefore leads to deeper learning, our aim was to critique the pedagogical approach adopted by analyzing whether we were promoting a particular interprofessional discourse amongst students that favored agreement and therefore limited potential learning. Agreement in this context has been conceptualized as a form of online interprofessional "netiquette" existing amongst participants. Findings suggest that creating an online context for critical discourse is challenging; however, the careful construction of learning outcomes, trigger material/resources and learning activities, as well as attention to students' stage of study and life experience, can provoke the desired effects. PMID:22897367

  7. Towards a mathematical theory of meaningful communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Fortuny, Jordi; Solé, Ricard V.

    2014-04-01

    Meaning has been left outside most theoretical approaches to information in biology. Functional responses based on an appropriate interpretation of signals have been replaced by a probabilistic description of correlations between emitted and received symbols. This assumption leads to potential paradoxes, such as the presence of a maximum information associated to a channel that creates completely wrong interpretations of the signals. Game-theoretic models of language evolution and other studies considering embodied communicating agents show that the correct (meaningful) match resulting from agent-agent exchanges is always achieved and natural systems obviously solve the problem correctly. Inspired by the concept of duality of the communicative sign stated by the swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, here we present a complete description of the minimal system necessary to measure the amount of information that is consistently decoded. Several consequences of our developments are investigated, such as the uselessness of a certain amount of information properly transmitted for communication among autonomous agents.

  8. How meaningful are heritability estimates of liability?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly acknowledged that estimates of heritability from classical twin studies have many potential shortcomings. Despite this, in the post-GWAS era, these heritability estimates have come to be a continual source of interest and controversy. While the heritability estimates of a quantitative trait are subject to a number of biases, in this article we will argue that the standard statistical approach to estimating the heritability of a binary trait relies on some additional untestable assumptions which, if violated, can lead to badly biased estimates. The ACE liability threshold model assumes at its heart that each individual has an underlying liability or propensity to acquire the binary trait (e.g., disease), and that this unobservable liability is multivariate normally distributed. We investigated a number of different scenarios violating this assumption such as the existence of a single causal diallelic gene and the existence of a dichotomous exposure. For each scenario, we found that substantial asymptotic biases can occur, which no increase in sample size can remove. Asymptotic biases as much as four times larger than the true value were observed, and numerous cases also showed large negative biases. Additionally, regions of low bias occurred for specific parameter combinations. Using simulations, we also investigated the situation where all of the assumptions of the ACE liability model are met. We found that commonly used sample sizes can lead to biased heritability estimates. Thus, even if we are willing to accept the meaningfulness of the liability construct, heritability estimates under the ACE liability threshold model may not accurately reflect the heritability of this construct. The points made in this paper should be kept in mind when considering the meaningfulness of a reported heritability estimate for any specific disease. PMID:23867980

  9. Meaningful use a call to arms.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Adeel; Dreyer, Keith Jay; Gupta, Supriya

    2012-02-01

    The benefits of an interactive online world have affected the way we purchase products and plan our vacations. It is only a matter of time before consumers start demanding health care with the same convenience that comes with booking an airline flight or managing a bank account. The health care industry itself requires periodic and mandatory data analysis for outcome analysis, clinical benchmarking, quality improvement, forming guidelines, and making decisions. The federal government and health care community have been working together to come up with more robust and cost-effective health care informatics solutions. Meaningful use (MU) intends to establish a new standard for health care informatics in the United States. The term "meaningful use" implies that health care information and technology systems not just exist, but also serve as an integral part of physician and hospital workflow; leading to cost savings as well as improved outcomes. Under this concept, the federal government is offering maximum incentive payments of up to $44,000 per physician (including radiologists) if they can meet all the requirements as laid down in the MU measures. Unfortunately, penalties will kick in if physicians are not compliant with MU by 2015. This will be done in at least three stages, with Stage 1 already in effect (as of January 3, 2011). This will be the first in a series of articles outlining MU and what is in store for radiology. We will go in depth about who is eligible, and how the payment schedule is set up. We will break down the core and menu set measures to suggest what can be excluded by most radiologists. We will also go through some case studies and examine what lies in store for radiology. PMID:22212424

  10. 12 CFR 327.9 - Assessment pricing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....S.C. 1831f), and 12 CFR 337.6, including reciprocal deposits as defined in § 327.8(p), and brokered... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assessment pricing methods. 327.9 Section 327.9... ASSESSMENTS In General § 327.9 Assessment pricing methods. (a) Small institutions—(1) Risk Categories....

  11. 12 CFR 327.9 - Assessment pricing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....S.C. 1831f), and 12 CFR 337.6, including reciprocal deposits as defined in § 327.8(p), and brokered... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment pricing methods. 327.9 Section 327.9... ASSESSMENTS In General § 327.9 Assessment pricing methods. (a) Small institutions—(1) Risk Categories....

  12. 12 CFR 327.9 - Assessment pricing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....S.C. 1831f), and 12 CFR 337.6, including reciprocal deposits as defined in § 327.8(p), and brokered... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment pricing methods. 327.9 Section 327.9... ASSESSMENTS In General § 327.9 Assessment pricing methods. (a) Small institutions—(1) Risk Categories....

  13. Micrometeorological methods for assessing greenhouse gas flux

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micrometeorological methods for measuring carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide provide an opportunity for large-scale, long-term monitoring of greenhouse gas flux without the limitations imposed by chamber methods. Flux gradient and eddy covariance methods have been used for several decades to monitor g...

  14. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.; Ravindra, M.K.; Reed, J.W.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Peer Assessment in Small Groups: A Comparison of Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Diane F.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates several peer evaluation tools used to assess student behavior in small groups. The two most common methods of peer assessment found in the literature are rating scales and single score methods. Three peer evaluation instruments, two using a rating scale and one using a single score method, are tested in several…

  16. Cyber Assessment Methods For SCADA Security

    SciTech Connect

    May Robin Permann; Kenneth Rohde

    2005-06-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 brought to light threats and vulnerabilities that face the United States. In response, the U.S. Government is directing the effort to secure the nation's critical infrastructure by creating programs to implement the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (1). One part of this effort involves assessing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essential to the control of critical elements of our national infrastructure, such as electric power, oil, and gas production and distribution. Since their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States, one of the main objectives of this program is to identify vulnerabilities and encourage the public and private sectors to work together to design secure control systems that resolve these weaknesses. This paper describes vulnerability assessment methodologies used in ongoing research and assessment activities designed to identify and resolve vulnerabilities so as to improve the security of the nation's critical infrastructure.

  17. Cyber Assessment Methods for SCADA Security

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-06-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 brought to light threats and vulnerabilities that face the United States. In response, the U.S. Government is directing the effort to secure the nation's critical infrastructure by creating programs to implement the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (1). One part of this effort involves assessing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essential to the control of critical elements of our national infrastructure, such as electric power, oil, and gas production and distribution. Since their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States, one of the main objectives of this program is to identify vulnerabilities and encourage the public and private sectors to work together to design secure control systems that resolve these weaknesses. This paper describes vulnerability assessment methodologies used in ongoing research and assessment activities designed to identify and resolve vulnerabilities so as to improve the security of the nation's critical infrastructure.

  18. Postponement of death until symbolically meaningful occasions.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D P; Smith, D G

    1990-04-11

    This study shows that mortality dips before a symbolically meaningful occasion and peaks just afterward. Mortality among Chinese (n = 1288) dips by 35.1% in the week before the Harvest Moon Festival and peaks by the same amount (34.6%) in the week after. We chose to study mortality among Chinese and a Chinese holiday for two reasons. First, the holiday moves around the calendar, thus allowing separation of the effects of the holiday from fixed, monthly mortality effects. Second, the holiday appeals strongly to one (experimental) group and not to others (which can be used as control groups). In terms of percentage, cerebrovascular diseases displayed the largest dip/peak pattern, followed by diseases of the heart, and then malignant neoplasms. The dip/peak mortality pattern does not appear in various non-Chinese control groups. The statistical significance of the findings was demonstrated with linear and curvilinear regression analysis and with two nonparametric tests. After testing alternative explanations for the findings, we concluded that the dip/peak pattern occurs because death can be briefly postponed until after the occurrence of a significant occasion. PMID:2313872

  19. [Funktionsoberarzt. Pseudo-title or meaningful position?].

    PubMed

    Histing, T; Burkhardt, M; Rollmann, M; Menger, M D; Pohlemann, T

    2014-06-01

    The position of the Funktionsoberarzt ("functioning senior physician") is to date not specified. Nevertheless, in the majority of hospitals the position exists, although the function and responsibilities are not clearly defined. Frequently, it is thought that the position represents a consultant who works independently, but who is still supported by experienced colleagues to achieve the full qualification for a senior physician. In contrast, others indicate that the position represents a consultant who works as a senior physician with all responsibilities, but without an established post and without the corresponding reimbursement. A critical disadvantage of the position is that frequently the duties of both a resident and senior physician must be managed. Rotation between the two functions results in a higher workload, and the lack of identity and acceptance may lead to frustration. Therefore, we feel that the position is only meaningful if the Funktionsoberarzt works exclusively as a senior physician who is supported for complex surgeries and decisions by more experienced colleagues. In addition, the position should only be temporary and the time period for the position should be defined in advance. PMID:24903505

  20. Assessing Social Isolation: Pilot Testing Different Methods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Herbers, Stephanie; Talisman, Samuel; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation is a significant public health problem among many older adults; however, most of the empirical knowledge about isolation derives from community-based samples. There has been less attention given to isolation in senior housing communities. The objectives of this pilot study were to test two methods to identify socially isolated residents in low-income senior housing and compare findings about the extent of isolation from these two methods. The first method, self-report by residents, included 47 out of 135 residents who completed in-person interviews. To determine self-report isolation, residents completed the Lubben Social Network Scale 6 (LSNS-6). The second method involved a staff member who reported the extent of isolation on all 135 residents via an online survey. Results indicated that 26% of residents who were interviewed were deemed socially isolated by the LSNS-6. Staff members rated 12% of residents as having some or a lot of isolation. In comparing the two methods, staff members rated 2% of interviewed residents as having a lot of isolation. The combination of self-report and staff report could be more informative than just self-report alone, particularly when participation rates are low. However, researchers should be aware of the potential discrepancy between these two methods. PMID:27276687

  1. [New assessment method in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Hirata, Shintaro; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2016-06-01

    To assess disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), several composite measures have been used. However, more objective indices have been desired due to subjectivity in conventional indices. The Multi-Biomarker Disease Activity(MBDA) score is a novel serum testing based disease activity score ranging 1-100, derived from pre-specified algorithms in combination with 12 biomarkers. The MBDA score not only reflects disease activity in RA, but also is predictive for radiographic progression and risk of flare after drug reduction. Here we review usefulness of the MBDA score in RA. PMID:27311181

  2. Assessment of User Home Location Geoinference Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Joshua J.; Bell, Eric B.; Corley, Courtney D.; Dowling, Chase P.; Cowell, Andrew J.

    2015-05-29

    This study presents an assessment of multiple approaches to determine the home and/or other important locations to a Twitter user. In this study, we present a unique approach to the problem of geotagged data sparsity in social media when performing geoinferencing tasks. Given the sparsity of explicitly geotagged Twitter data, the ability to perform accurate and reliable user geolocation from a limited number of geotagged posts has proven to be quite useful. In our survey, we have achieved accuracy rates of over 86% in matching Twitter user profile locations with their inferred home locations derived from geotagged posts.

  3. A review of regional mineral resource assessment methods.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.; Mosier, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Over 100 papers on regional mineral resource assessment of nonfuels are classified according to method(s) and form(s) of product in order to help identify possible methods for future assessments. Methods considered are: time-rate, crustal abundance, cumulative tonnage versus grade, simple subjective, complex subjective, Bayesian, frequency, trend, geometric probability, multiple regression, discriminant analysis, modified component, multivariate logistic, cluster analysis or pattern recognition, and simulation. Selection of an assessment method should be based on: 1) appropriateness of the product to the problem; 2) limitations in resources, such as information or time available for the assessment; 3) the level of uncertainty and acceptability of biases in the assessment; and 4) the need for verification of results and acceptance of the method. -Authors

  4. Evaluation of Dynamic Methods for Earthwork Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlček, Jozef; Ďureková, Dominika; Zgútová, Katarína

    2015-05-01

    Rapid development of road construction imposes requests on fast and quality methods for earthwork quality evaluation. Dynamic methods are now adopted in numerous civil engineering sections. Especially evaluation of the earthwork quality can be sped up using dynamic equipment. This paper presents the results of the parallel measurements of chosen devices for determining the level of compaction of soils. Measurements were used to develop the correlations between values obtained from various apparatuses. Correlations show that examined apparatuses are suitable for examination of compaction level of fine-grained soils with consideration of boundary conditions of used equipment. Presented methods are quick and results can be obtained immediately after measurement, and they are thus suitable in cases when construction works have to be performed in a short period of time.

  5. Exploring Formative Assessment as a Tool for Learning: Students' Experiences of Different Methods of Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weurlander, Maria; Soderberg, Magnus; Scheja, Max; Hult, Hakan; Wernerson, Annika

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to provide a greater insight into how formative assessments are experienced and understood by students. Two different formative assessment methods, an individual, written assessment and an oral group assessment, were components of a pathology course within a medical curriculum. In a cohort of 70 students, written accounts were…

  6. Assessment of heliostat control system methods

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, J; Chen, B

    1986-01-01

    Automatic control and communication between the major components in solar thermal central receiver systems is critically needed for the optimal and safe operation of these systems. This report assesses novel and cost-effective approaches to the control of the solar collector field and the communication with the central plant computer/control system. The authors state that radio frequency and carrier-current communication approaches have the greatest potential to improve cost-effectiveness relative to the current dedicated control wiring approaches. In addition, based on their analysis, the authors recommend distributed control, which is becoming an industry-wide control standard, for the individual concentrators within the collector field rather than the current central computer approach. The vastly improved cost and performance ofmicroprocessors and other solid-state electronics, which has continually and rapidly proceeded for more than five years, is the major reason for these conclusions.

  7. [Radiographic assessment of pulmonary hypertension: Methodical aspects].

    PubMed

    Korobkova, I Z; Lazutkina, V K; Nizovtsova, L A; Riden, T V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a menacing complication of a number of diseases, which is responsible for high mortality rates and considerably poorer quality of life in a patient. The timely detection for pulmonary hypertension allows timely initiation of treatment, thus improvement in prognosis in the patient. Chest X-ray is the most commonly used radiographic technique for various causes. Physicians' awareness about the radiographic manifestations of pulmonary hypertension may contribute to the earlier detection of this severe disease. Owing to the natural contrast of reflected structures, a chest X-ray film gives a unique opportunity to assess pulmonary circulation vessels, to reveal the signs of pulmonary hypertension, and to estimate trends in the course of the disease. The paper details a procedure for analysis and the normal radiographic anatomy of pulmonary circulation vessels, gives the present classification of pulmonary hypertension, and sets forth its X-ray semiotics. PMID:26552229

  8. Assessing Institutional Effectiveness: Issues, Methods, and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron, Ed.

    This collection of 12 papers was presented at a 1987 conference at which speakers presented personal perspectives on institutional effectiveness. Papers are organized under three major headings: "Managing Quality: Methods and Outcomes,""Institutional Response," and "Special Issues." Titles include: (1) "Managing the Meaning of Institutional…

  9. METHODS FOR ASSESSING RAT SPERM MOTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems are becoming more widely used. ith this spread of technology come more data from toxicology studies, designed to determine if treatment with putative toxicants affects sperm motion parameters. hile these CASA methods provide us with...

  10. Meaningful metrics for observatory publication statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Becker, Glenn E.

    2012-09-01

    Observatories have wrestled for decades with the questions how to measure their importance to the astronomical community, what their scientific impact is, and how their performance in that respect compares to that of other observatories. There is a general sense that the answer is to be found in the publication record - specifically, in the refereed journal articles. However, simple parameters (such as the number of papers) are not helpful, because in isolation (applied to a single observatory) they are meaningless, while in comparison between observatories they are subject to external influences that all but invalidate the comparisons. We were fortunate in having the Chandra X-ray Observatory's bibliographic database with its rich variety of metadata available as a resource for experimenting with more sophisticated metrics. Out of this project we propose a modest set that contains meaningful information when viewed in the isolation of a single observatory as well as in comparison with other observatories. Even so, we urge users not to draw conclusions on the basis of the face value of the comparisons, but only after a serious analysis of potential causes for any differences or similarities. We have designed our metrics to provide useful information in three main areas of interest: speed of publication; fraction of observing time published; and archival usage. The basic measured parameters are the percentage of available observing time published as a function of the data's age, at a few specific age values; the median time it takes to publish observations; and similar parameters for multiple publications of the same observations. Citation of results is a fourth category, but it does not lend itself well to comparisons and defies the search for definite statements.

  11. A Novel Method for Learner Assessment Based on Learner Annotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorbehbahani, Fakhroddin; Samani, Elaheh Biglar Beigi; Jazi, Hossein Hadian

    2013-01-01

    Assessment is one of the most essential parts of any instructive learning process which aims to evaluate a learner's knowledge about learning concepts. In this work, a new method for learner assessment based on learner annotations is presented. The proposed method exploits the M-BLEU algorithm to find the most similar reference annotations…

  12. Qualitative Assessment of Inquiry-Based Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Michael; Long, George; Owens, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    A new approach to teaching method assessment using student focused qualitative studies and the theoretical framework of mental models is proposed. The methodology is considered specifically for the advantages it offers when applied to the assessment of inquiry-based teaching methods. The theoretical foundation of mental models is discussed, and…

  13. NATO PILOT STUDY ON ADVANCED CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    NCEA scientists are participating in a study of advanced cancer risk assessment methods, conducted under the auspices of NATO's Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society. The product will be a book of case studies that illustrate advanced cancer risk assessment methods, avail...

  14. Qualitative Methods in Family Evaluation: Creative Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Sharon A.; Piercy, Fred P.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role that experiential therapy methods can play in qualitative family assessment. It is believed that these methods can be quite helpful in engaging families in a collaborative evaluation process. The advantages of qualitative assessment are presented as a complement to more quantitative family evaluation measures. (BF)

  15. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Evgeniou, Evgenios; Peter, Loizou; Tsironi, Maria; Iyer, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used. PMID:23441076

  16. Assessment of dental plaque by optoelectronic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrutiu, Meda-Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Bortun, Cristina Maria; Levai, Mihaela-Codrina; Topala, Florin Ionel; Crǎciunescu, Emanuela Lidia; Cojocariu, Andreea Codruta; Duma, Virgil Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2016-03-01

    The formation of dental biofilm follows specific mechanisms of initial colonization on the surface, microcolony formation, development of organized three dimensional community structures, and detachment from the surface. The structure of the plaque biofilm might restrict the penetration of antimicrobial agents, while bacteria on a surface grow slowly and display a novel phenotype; the consequence of the latter is a reduced sensitivity to inhibitors. The aim of this study was to evaluate with different optoelectronic methods the morphological characteristics of the dental biofilm. The study was performed on samples from 25 patients aged between 18 and 35 years. The methods used in this study were Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) working at 870 nm for in vivo evaluations and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for validations. For each patient a sample of dental biofilm was obtained directly from the vestibular surface of the teeth's. SD-OCT produced C- and B-scans that were used to generate three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the sample. The results were compared with SEM evaluations. The biofilm network was dramatically destroyed after the professional dental cleaning. OCT noninvasive methods can act as a valuable tool for the 3D characterization of dental biofilms.

  17. Aerodynamic drag in cycling: methods of assessment.

    PubMed

    Debraux, Pierre; Grappe, Frederic; Manolova, Aneliya V; Bertucci, William

    2011-09-01

    When cycling on level ground at a speed greater than 14 m/s, aerodynamic drag is the most important resistive force. About 90% of the total mechanical power output is necessary to overcome it. Aerodynamic drag is mainly affected by the effective frontal area which is the product of the projected frontal area and the coefficient of drag. The effective frontal area represents the position of the cyclist on the bicycle and the aerodynamics of the cyclist-bicycle system in this position. In order to optimise performance, estimation of these parameters is necessary. The aim of this study is to describe and comment on the methods used during the last 30 years for the evaluation of the effective frontal area and the projected frontal area in cycling, in both laboratory and actual conditions. Most of the field methods are not expensive and can be realised with few materials, providing valid results in comparison with the reference method in aerodynamics, the wind tunnel. Finally, knowledge of these parameters can be useful in practice or to create theoretical models of cycling performance. PMID:21936289

  18. MIMIC Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Three multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) methods, namely, the standard MIMIC method (M-ST), the MIMIC method with scale purification (M-SP), and the MIMIC method with a pure anchor (M-PA), were developed to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. In a series of simulations, it appeared that all three methods…

  19. Retrospective exposure assessment using Bayesian methods.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, G

    2001-11-01

    This paper presents the application of a Bayesian framework for retrospective exposure assessment of workers in a nickel smelter. Using only sparsely available historical measurements will result in exposure estimates with large uncertainties. However, additional information, in the form of expert judgments informed by knowledge of historical plant conditions, can be brought to bear on this process. The experts are provided with an information packet that contains historical process information, process throughput levels for each year, the dimensions of the workplace, ventilation records, and task descriptions for each job category. Based on this information, the experts provide subjective prior probability distributions for input parameters to a general ventilation model that predicts building concentrations. These priors can be synthesized with the historical measurements using Bayes theorem. The prior distributions of exposures are updated using the average measured exposures (historical measurements) and their associated variances to obtain the posterior probability distributions for building concentrations as well as concentrations at specific locations in the building. Expert input was also obtained from a plant industrial hygienist, in the form of probability distributions, regarding the amounts of time spent by each job category in different locations in the building. Monte Carlo sampling, from the posterior probability distributions of concentrations in different micro-environments and the probability distributions of time spent by each job category in those micro-environments, was used to obtain worker exposures using a time-weighted averaging model. PMID:11718661

  20. Methods for Assessing Mitochondrial Function in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Daniel A.; Lanza, Ian R.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research is investigating the potential contribution of mitochondrial function to the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Numerous in vitro, in situ, and in vivo methodologies are available to examine various aspects of mitochondrial function, each requiring an understanding of their principles, advantages, and limitations. This review provides investigators with a critical overview of the strengths, limitations and critical experimental parameters to consider when selecting and conducting studies on mitochondrial function. In vitro (isolated mitochondria) and in situ (permeabilized cells/tissue) approaches provide direct access to the mitochondria, allowing for study of mitochondrial bioenergetics and redox function under defined substrate conditions. Several experimental parameters must be tightly controlled, including assay media, temperature, oxygen concentration, and in the case of permeabilized skeletal muscle, the contractile state of the fibers. Recently developed technology now offers the opportunity to measure oxygen consumption in intact cultured cells. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides the most direct way of assessing mitochondrial function in vivo with interpretations based on specific modeling approaches. The continuing rapid evolution of these technologies offers new and exciting opportunities for deciphering the potential role of mitochondrial function in the etiology and treatment of diabetes. PMID:23520284

  1. A new assessment method for image fusion quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liu; Jiang, Wanying; Li, Jing; Yuchi, Ming; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Xuming

    2013-03-01

    Image fusion quality assessment plays a critically important role in the field of medical imaging. To evaluate image fusion quality effectively, a lot of assessment methods have been proposed. Examples include mutual information (MI), root mean square error (RMSE), and universal image quality index (UIQI). These image fusion assessment methods could not reflect the human visual inspection effectively. To address this problem, we have proposed a novel image fusion assessment method which combines the nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) with the regional mutual information in this paper. In this proposed method, the source medical images are firstly decomposed into different levels by the NSCT. Then the maximum NSCT coefficients of the decomposed directional images at each level are obtained to compute the regional mutual information (RMI). Finally, multi-channel RMI is computed by the weighted sum of the obtained RMI values at the various levels of NSCT. The advantage of the proposed method lies in the fact that the NSCT can represent image information using multidirections and multi-scales and therefore it conforms to the multi-channel characteristic of human visual system, leading to its outstanding image assessment performance. The experimental results using CT and MRI images demonstrate that the proposed assessment method outperforms such assessment methods as MI and UIQI based measure in evaluating image fusion quality and it can provide consistent results with human visual assessment.

  2. Disordered Speech Assessment Using Automatic Methods Based on Quantitative Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Lingyun; Harris, John G.; Shrivastav, Rahul; Sapienza, Christine

    2005-12-01

    Speech quality assessment methods are necessary for evaluating and documenting treatment outcomes of patients suffering from degraded speech due to Parkinson's disease, stroke, or other disease processes. Subjective methods of speech quality assessment are more accurate and more robust than objective methods but are time-consuming and costly. We propose a novel objective measure of speech quality assessment that builds on traditional speech processing techniques such as dynamic time warping (DTW) and the Itakura-Saito (IS) distortion measure. Initial results show that our objective measure correlates well with the more expensive subjective methods.

  3. Regional method to assess offshore slope stability.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.J.; Edwards, B.D.

    1986-01-01

    The slope stability of some offshore environments can be evaluated by using only conventional acoustic profiling and short-core sampling, followed by laboratory consolidation and strength testing. The test results are synthesized by using normalized-parameter techniques. The normalized data are then used to calculate the critical earthquake acceleration factors or the wave heights needed to initiate failure. These process-related parameters provide a quantitative measure of the relative stability for locations from which short cores were obtained. The method is most applicable to offshore environments of gentle relief and simple subsurface structure and is not considered a substitute for subsequent site-specific analysis. -from ASCE Publications Information

  4. Stimulus set meaningfulness and neurophysiological differentiation: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Boly, Melanie; Sasai, Shuntaro; Gosseries, Olivia; Oizumi, Masafumi; Casali, Adenauer; Massimini, Marcello; Tononi, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    A meaningful set of stimuli, such as a sequence of frames from a movie, triggers a set of different experiences. By contrast, a meaningless set of stimuli, such as a sequence of 'TV noise' frames, triggers always the same experience--of seeing 'TV noise'--even though the stimuli themselves are as different from each other as the movie frames. We reasoned that the differentiation of cortical responses underlying the subject's experiences, as measured by Lempel-Ziv complexity (incompressibility) of functional MRI images, should reflect the overall meaningfulness of a set of stimuli for the subject, rather than differences among the stimuli. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying the differentiation of brain activity patterns in response to a movie sequence, to the same movie scrambled in time, and to 'TV noise', where the pixels from each movie frame were scrambled in space. While overall cortical activation was strong and widespread in all conditions, the differentiation (Lempel-Ziv complexity) of brain activation patterns was correlated with the meaningfulness of the stimulus set, being highest in the movie condition, intermediate in the scrambled movie condition, and minimal for 'TV noise'. Stimulus set meaningfulness was also associated with higher information integration among cortical regions. These results suggest that the differentiation of neural responses can be used to assess the meaningfulness of a given set of stimuli for a given subject, without the need to identify the features and categories that are relevant to the subject, nor the precise location of selective neural responses. PMID:25970444

  5. Interlaboratory Validation of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) Method 1313 and Method 1316

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the results of an interlaboratory study conducted to generate precision estimates for two parallel batch leaching methods which are part of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF). These methods are: (1) Method 1313: Liquid-Solid Partition...

  6. Influence of expertise on rockfall hazard assessment using empirical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delonca, Adeline; Verdel, Thierry; Gunzburger, Yann

    2016-07-01

    To date, many rockfall hazard assessment methods still consider qualitative observations within their analysis. Based on this statement, knowledge and expertise are supposed to be major parameters of rockfall assessment. To test this hypothesis, an experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the influence of knowledge and expertise on rockfall hazard assessment. Three populations were selected, having different levels of expertise: (1) students in geosciences, (2) researchers in geosciences and (3) confirmed experts. These three populations evaluated the rockfall hazard level on the same site, considering two different methods: the Laboratoire des Ponts et Chaussées (LPC) method and a method partly based on the "slope mass rating" (SMR) method. To complement the analysis, the completion of an "a priori" assessment of the rockfall hazard was requested of each population, without using any method. The LPC method is the most widely used method in France for official hazard mapping. It combines two main indicators: the predisposition to instability and the expected magnitude. Reversely, the SMR method was used as an ad hoc quantitative method to investigate the effect of quantification within a method. These procedures were applied on a test site divided into three different sectors. A statistical treatment of the results (descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square independent test and ANOVA) shows that there is a significant influence of the method used on the rockfall hazard assessment, whatever the sector. However, there is a non-significant influence of the level of expertise of the population the sectors 2 and 3. On sector 1, there is a significant influence of the level of expertise, explained by the importance of the temporal probability assessment in the rockfall hazard assessment process. The SMR-based method seems highly sensitive to the "site activity" indicator and exhibits an important dispersion in its results. However, the results are more similar

  7. Compounding conservatisms: EPA's health risk assessment methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stackelberg, K. von; Burmaster, D.E. )

    1993-03-01

    Superfund conjures up images of hazardous waste sites, which EPA is spending billions of dollars to remediate. One of the law's most worrisome effects is that it drains enormous economic resources without returning commensurate benefits. In a Sept. 1, 1991, front page article in The New York Times, experts argued that most health dangers at Superfund sites could be eliminated for a fraction of the billions that will be spent cleaning up the 1,200 high-priority sites across the country. Even EPA has suggested that the Superfund program may receive disproportionate resources, compared with other public health programs, such as radon in houses, the diminishing ozone layer and occupational diseases. Public opinion polls over the last decade consistently have mirrored the public's vast fear of hazardous waste sites, a fear as great as that held for nuclear power plants. Fear notwithstanding, the high cost of chosen remedies at given sites may have less to do with public health goals than with the method EPA uses to translate them into acceptable contaminant concentrations in soil, groundwater and other environmental media.

  8. The liquefaction method for assessing paleoseismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, M.P.

    1994-12-01

    Paleoseismicity studies expand our knowledge of seismic activity into the prehistoric period and thereby can improve our understanding of the earthquake potential of various regions. Paleoseismology is proving especially useful in eastern North America, where the recurrence interval of large earthquakes is longer than the historic record of earthquakes. Because surface traces of seismogenic faults have been difficult to identify in eastern North America, most paleoseismicity studies have employed features resulting from liquefaction. The goals of paleoliquefaction studies are to determine the recurrence intervals, magnitudes, and source areas of prehistoric earthquakes. To accomplish these goals, one must be able to identify earthquake-induced liquefaction features, determine their ages, and map their distribution. This report reviews (1) characteristics of earthquake-induced liquefaction features as well as other soft-sediment deformation structures, (2) methods for dating liquefaction features, and (3) relationships between liquefaction and the magnitude and distance of causative earthquakes. Recent studies by the author in Quebec Province, Canada and in the New Madrid seismic zone of the central United States provide the basis for this report. For additional information on the use of liquefaction features in paleoseismology see Amick et al. (1990) and Obermeier et al. (1990 and 1992).

  9. In situ methods for assessing alveolar mechanics.

    PubMed

    Wu, You; Perlman, Carrie E

    2012-02-01

    Lung mechanics are an important determinant of physiological and pathophysiological lung function. Recent light microscopy studies of the intact lung have furthered the understanding of lung mechanics but used methodologies that may have introduced artifacts. To address this concern, we employed a short working distance water immersion objective to capture confocal images of a fluorescently labeled alveolar field on the costal surface of the isolated, perfused rat lung. Surface tension held a saline drop between the objective tip and the lung surface, such that the lung surface was unconstrained. For comparison, we also imaged with O-ring and coverslip; with O-ring, coverslip, and vacuum pressure; and without perfusion. Under each condition, we ventilated the lung and imaged the same region at the endpoints of ventilation. We found use of a coverslip caused a minimal enlargement of the alveolar field; additional use of vacuum pressure caused no further dimensional change; and absence of perfusion did not affect alveolar field dimension. Inflation-induced expansion was unaltered by methodology. In response to inflation, percent expansion was the same as recorded by all four alternative methods. PMID:22074721

  10. Analytical methods to assess nanoparticle toxicity.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Bryce J; Love, Sara A; Braun, Katherine L; Haynes, Christy L

    2009-03-01

    During the past 20 years, improvements in nanoscale materials synthesis and characterization have given scientists great control over the fabrication of materials with features between 1 and 100 nm, unlocking many unique size-dependent properties and, thus, promising many new and/or improved technologies. Recent years have found the integration of such materials into commercial goods; a current estimate suggests there are over 800 nanoparticle-containing consumer products (The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies Consumer Products Inventory, , accessed Oct. 2008), accounting for 147 billion USD in products in 2007 (Nanomaterials state of the market Q3 2008: stealth success, broad impact, Lux Research Inc., New York, NY, 2008). Despite this increase in the prevalence of engineered nanomaterials, there is little known about their potential impacts on environmental health and safety. The field of nanotoxicology has formed in response to this lack of information and resulted in a flurry of research studies. Nanotoxicology relies on many analytical methods for the characterization of nanomaterials as well as their impacts on in vitro and in vivo function. This review provides a critical overview of these techniques from the perspective of an analytical chemist, and is intended to be used as a reference for scientists interested in conducting nanotoxicological research as well as those interested in nanotoxicological assay development. PMID:19238274

  11. Self-Determination and Meaningful Work: Exploring Socioeconomic Constraints.

    PubMed

    Allan, Blake A; Autin, Kelsey L; Duffy, Ryan D

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a model of meaningful work among a diverse sample of working adults. From the perspectives of Self-Determination Theory and the Psychology of Working Framework, we tested a structural model with social class and work volition predicting SDT motivation variables, which in turn predicted meaningful work. Partially supporting hypotheses, work volition was positively related to internal regulation and negatively related to amotivation, whereas social class was positively related to external regulation and amotivation. In turn, internal regulation was positively related to meaningful work, whereas external regulation and amotivation were negatively related to meaningful work. Indirect effects from work volition to meaningful work via internal regulation and amotivation were significant, and indirect effects from social class to meaningful work via external regulation and amotivation were significant. This study highlights the important relations between SDT motivation variables and meaningful work, especially the large positive relation between internal regulation and meaningful work. However, results also reveal that work volition and social class may play critical roles in predicting internal regulation, external regulation, and amotivation. PMID:26869970

  12. 42 CFR 495.210 - Meaningful EHR user attestation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Meaningful EHR user attestation. 495.210 Section... INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.210 Meaningful EHR... EHR user. (b) Qualifying MA organizations are required to attest within 60 days after the close of...

  13. Developing Meaningfulness at Work through Emotional Intelligence Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thory, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    To date, there remains a significant gap in the human resource development (HRD) literature in understanding how training and development contributes to meaningful work. In addition, little is known about how individuals proactively make their work more meaningful. This article shows how emotional intelligence (EI) training promotes learning about…

  14. Self-Determination and Meaningful Work: Exploring Socioeconomic Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Blake A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a model of meaningful work among a diverse sample of working adults. From the perspectives of Self-Determination Theory and the Psychology of Working Framework, we tested a structural model with social class and work volition predicting SDT motivation variables, which in turn predicted meaningful work. Partially supporting hypotheses, work volition was positively related to internal regulation and negatively related to amotivation, whereas social class was positively related to external regulation and amotivation. In turn, internal regulation was positively related to meaningful work, whereas external regulation and amotivation were negatively related to meaningful work. Indirect effects from work volition to meaningful work via internal regulation and amotivation were significant, and indirect effects from social class to meaningful work via external regulation and amotivation were significant. This study highlights the important relations between SDT motivation variables and meaningful work, especially the large positive relation between internal regulation and meaningful work. However, results also reveal that work volition and social class may play critical roles in predicting internal regulation, external regulation, and amotivation. PMID:26869970

  15. Meaningfulness of service and marital satisfaction in Army couples.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jeffrey S; Renshaw, Keith D; Allen, Elizabeth S; Markman, Howard J; Stanley, Scott M

    2014-10-01

    The vast numbers of military service members who have been deployed since 2001 highlights the need to better understand relationships of military couples. A unique consideration in military couples is the concept of meaningfulness of service, or the value service members and their partners place on military service in spite of the sacrifices it requires. In a sample of 606 Army couples, the authors used path analysis to examine how male service members' and female spouses' perceived meaningfulness of service added to the prediction of marital satisfaction in both members of the couple, when accounting for service members' PTSD symptoms. Spouses' perceived meaningfulness of service was linked with higher marital satisfaction in spouses, regardless of service member's perceived meaningfulness of service. Service members' perceived meaningfulness of service was also associated with increased marital satisfaction in service members, but only when their spouses also perceived higher meaningfulness. There were no significant interactions between service members' PTSD and either partner's perceived meaningfulness. Implications for enhanced attention to spousal perceptions of meaningfulness of service are discussed. PMID:25046347

  16. Meaningful Movement for Children: Stay True to Their Natures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgarten, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the meaningful movement for children. In this article, the author discusses "roots" in the "physical education garden" which, when thoroughly examined, reveal tried and true insights about children and their natures. By revisiting these natures or characteristics, one will have a clearer picture of what is meaningful to…

  17. Exploring the Meaningful Learning of Students in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskitalo, Tuulikki; Pyykko, Elli; Ruokamo, Heli

    2011-01-01

    This study reports a case study in which a pedagogical model, namely the Global Virtual Education (GloVEd) model, which is based on the teaching-studying-learning process (TSL process) and the characteristics of meaningful learning, is developed and used to evaluate students' meaningful learning experiences during the Global Virtual Collaboration…

  18. Meaningful Literacy: Writing Poetry in the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanauer, David I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of meaningful literacy and offers a classroom methodology--poetry writing--that manifests this approach to ESL/EFL literacy instruction. The paper is divided into three sections. The first deals with the concept of meaningful literacy learning in second and foreign language pedagogy; the second summarizes empirical…

  19. [Assessment of DNAse activity by the rivanol clot method].

    PubMed

    Generalova, A G; Generalov, I I

    1997-11-01

    A method for assessing DNAse activity in various biological substrata is offered. It is based on the capacity of rivanol to form a clot with DNA inversely proportionate to depolymeraization of DNAse under the effect of nucleases of different origin. The sensitivity of the method is more than 10 times higher than of viscosimetry and the alcohol clot formation test. In addition, the new method permits quantitative assessment of the clot, with the detection performed by any colorimetric or fluorimetric method. The method is adapted to measurement of the activities of commercial DNAse preparations, serum and immunoglobulin DNAse, and bacterial nuclease activities. PMID:9471317

  20. Research iris serial images quality assessment method based on HVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-hui; Zhang, Chang-hai; Ming, Xing; Zhao, Yong-hua

    2006-01-01

    Iris recognition can be widely used in security and customs, and it provides superiority security than other human feature recognition such as fingerprint, face and so on. The iris image quality is crucial to recognition effect. Accordingly reliable image quality assessments are necessary for evaluating iris image quality. However, there haven't uniformly criterion to Image quality assessment. Image quality assessment have Objective and Subjective Evaluation methods, In practice, However Subjective Evaluation method is fussy and doesn't effective on iris recognition. Objective Evaluation method should be used in iris recognition. According to human visual system model (HVS) Multi-scale and selectivity characteristic, it presents a new iris Image quality assessment method. In the paper, ROI is found and wavelet transform zero-crossing is used to find Multi-scale edge, and Multi-scale fusion measure is used to assess iris image quality. In experiment, Objective and Subjective Evaluation methods are used to assess iris images. From the results, the method is effectively to iris image quality assessment.

  1. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION: EVALUATION OF INTEGRATION METHODS AND ASSESSMENTS RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes methods for quantitative regional assessment developed by the Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) program. The goal of ReVA is to develop regional-scale assessments of the magnitude, extent, distribution, and uncertainty of current and anticipated envir...

  2. Adapting Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Methods to Assess Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressor Combinations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation based on the following abstract: Chemical mixtures risk assessment methods are routinely used. To address combined chemical and nonchemical stressors, component-based approaches may be applicable, depending on the toxic action among diverse stressors. Such methods a...

  3. Improved reliability analysis method based on the failure assessment diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Zheng; Zhong, Qunpeng

    2012-07-01

    With the uncertainties related to operating conditions, in-service non-destructive testing (NDT) measurements and material properties considered in the structural integrity assessment, probabilistic analysis based on the failure assessment diagram (FAD) approach has recently become an important concern. However, the point density revealing the probabilistic distribution characteristics of the assessment points is usually ignored. To obtain more detailed and direct knowledge from the reliability analysis, an improved probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) assessment method is proposed. By integrating 2D kernel density estimation (KDE) technology into the traditional probabilistic assessment, the probabilistic density of the randomly distributed assessment points is visualized in the assessment diagram. Moreover, a modified interval sensitivity analysis is implemented and compared with probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The improved reliability analysis method is applied to the assessment of a high pressure pipe containing an axial internal semi-elliptical surface crack. The results indicate that these two methods can give consistent sensitivities of input parameters, but the interval sensitivity analysis is computationally more efficient. Meanwhile, the point density distribution and its contour are plotted in the FAD, thereby better revealing the characteristics of PFM assessment. This study provides a powerful tool for the reliability analysis of critical structures.

  4. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) DEVELOPING METHODS TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA has invested considerable research effort--intended to meet regulatory needs--toward developing methods for assessing the environmental effects of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs). Preliminary investigations centered on the fate, survival, accidental release, ...

  5. Teaching Physics in a Physiologically Meaningful Manner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomer, Michael; Jessen, Karsten; Rangelov, Georgi; Meyer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The learning outcome of a physics laboratory course for medical students was examined in an interdisciplinary field study and discussed for the electrical physiology ("Propagation of Excitation and Nerve Cells"). At the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (LMU) at a time about 300 medicine students were assessed in two successive years.…

  6. Comparison of selected multi-criteria assessment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzemiński, Michał

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the results of earlier work done in conjunction with the author in which the focus was on assessing the impact of the selection methods for the evaluation of multi-criteria and methods of normalization of the input matrix on the final result of the prioritization of possible variants. Also done an assessment of these variants using fuzzy logic. The aim of the article was to compare the results obtained.

  7. Methods of Postural Assessment Used for Sports Persons

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of postural defects has become very common now-a-days not only in general population but also in sports persons. There are various methods which can be used to assess these postural defects. These methods have evolved over a period of many years. This paper is first of its kind to summarize the methods of postural assessment which have been used and which can be used for evaluation of postural abnormalities in sports persons such as the visual observation, plumbline, goniometry, photographic, radiographic, photogrammetric, flexiruler, electromagnetic tracking device etc. We recommend more and more postural evaluation studies to be done in future based on the photogrammetric method. PMID:24959470

  8. A method for the probabilistic design assessment of composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiao, Michael C.; Singhal, Surendra N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1994-01-01

    A formal procedure for the probabilistic design assessment of a composite structure is described. The uncertainties in all aspects of a composite structure (constituent material properties, fabrication variables, structural geometry, service environments, etc.), which result in the uncertain behavior in the composite structural responses, are included in the assessment. The probabilistic assessment consists of design criteria, modeling of composite structures and uncertainties, simulation methods, and the decision making process. A sample case is presented to illustrate the formal procedure and to demonstrate that composite structural designs can be probabilistically assessed with accuracy and efficiency.

  9. Comparison of Neurosensory Assessment Methods in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Karagoz, Huseyin; Ozturk, Sinan; Siemionow, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Sensory assessment of the skin is essential to document the function of the sensory fibers of the tested nerves. The Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, disk-criminator, electrodiagnostic testing, and Pressure-Specified Sensory Device (PSSD) have been currently used to assess sensory function of peripheral nerves. None of these methods is optimal because of different drawbacks; however, an increasing number of articles, which recognize the reliability of PSSD, have been published during the last decade. In this review, following a short overview on basic physiology and assessment methods of the skin sensory receptors, we compared the sensory assessment methods and summarized the applications of the PSSD in the field of different clinical areas, mainly peripheral neuropathies, breast, and flap surgery. PMID:27404470

  10. Unit Costs Provide Basis for Meaningful Evaluation of Efficiency of TV Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gardner; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Efficient use of television for teaching cannot be achieved without meaningful cost comparisons with conventional classroom methods. Considerable effort has been spent at the University of Michigan in developing a unit cost basis for televised filmed lectures to include not only salaries, but administrative costs, supplies, amortization of…

  11. Ideas in Practice - Making Motion More Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutchins, Malcolm A.

    1971-01-01

    Three methods of studying motion are described. A wind tunnel is utilized in demonstrating flutter. Computer graphics with an oscilloscope are used to investigate the natural modes of vibration and to track the simulated motion of missiles. (TS)

  12. Deriving meaningful climate-effects data from social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuka, M. Z.; Fuka, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents our research on extracting meaningful climate indicator data from unsolicited observations ("tweets") made by Twitter users regarding their physical surroundings and events occurring around them. Our goal is to establish whether the existing understanding of climate indicator data collected by more traditional means could be usefully supplemented by information derived from the potentially rich but also statistically diffuse data resource represented by social media. To this end, we've initiated an ongoing effort to collect and analyze Twitter observations made on a wide variety of climate-related phenological, biological, epidemiological and meteorological phenomena. We report on our acquisition methodology and discuss in particular our rationale for selecting keywords, phrases and filters for our searches. The iterative process of assembling an inventory of hundreds of climate-related search terms has in and of itself yielded interesting and sometimes surprising insights on what is and isn't noticed and commented on via social media with respect to climate indicator phenomenology. We report some of the highlights of those analyses along with significant findings from the data acquisition to date. In conclusion, we discuss our preliminary assessment of the approach, how it can be generalized and extended for social media other than Twitter, and how the resulting data could be used to serve climate science objectives.

  13. AN APPROACH TO METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure assessment studies require methods that are rapid, cost-effective and have a high sample through-put. The development of analytical methods for exposure studies should be based on specific information for individual studies. Human exposure studies suggest that di...

  14. A Comparison of Treatment Integrity Assessment Methods for Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Seong A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the similarity of outcomes from three different treatment integrity (TI) methods, and to identify the method which best corresponded to the assessment of a child's behavior. Six raters were recruited through individual contact via snowball sampling. A modified intervention component list and 19 video clips…

  15. Project 6: Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA) Methods and Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project 6: CRA Methods and Applications addresses the need to move beyond traditional risk assessment practices by developing CRA methods to integrate and evaluate impacts of chemical and nonchemical stressors on the environment and human health. Project 6 has three specific obje...

  16. Methods for Assessing Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Wrinkling Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalewski, Bart F.; Dial, William B.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient closed-form methods for predicting the facesheet wrinkling failure mode in sandwich panels are assessed. Comparisons were made with finite element model predictions for facesheet wrinkling, and a validated closed-form method was implemented in the HyperSizer structure sizing software.

  17. Exploring valid and reliable assessment methods for care management education.

    PubMed

    Gennissen, Lokke; Stammen, Lorette; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien; Wieringa, Sietse; Busari, Jamiu

    2016-07-01

    Purpose It is assumed that the use of valid and reliable assessment methods can facilitate the development of medical residents' management and leadership competencies. To justify this assertion, the perceptions of an expert panel of health care leaders were explored on assessment methods used for evaluating care management (CM) development in Dutch residency programs. This paper aims to investigate how assessors and trainees value these methods and examine for any inherent benefits or shortcomings when they are applied in practice. Design/methodology/approach A Delphi survey was conducted among members of the platform for medical leadership in The Netherlands. This panel of experts was made up of clinical educators, practitioners and residents interested in CM education. Findings Of the respondents, 40 (55.6 per cent) and 31 (43 per cent) participated in the first and second rounds of the Delphi survey, respectively. The respondents agreed that assessment methods currently being used to measure residents' CM competencies were weak, though feasible for use in many residency programs. Multi-source feedback (MSF, 92.1 per cent), portfolio/e-portfolio (86.8 per cent) and knowledge testing (76.3 per cent) were identified as the most commonly known assessment methods with familiarity rates exceeding 75 per cent. Practical implications The findings suggested that an "assessment framework" comprising MSF, portfolios, individual process improvement projects or self-reflections and observations in clinical practice should be used to measure CM competencies in residents. Originality/value This study reaffirms the need for objective methods to assess CM skills in post-graduate medical education, as there was not a single assessment method that stood out as the best instrument. PMID:27397747

  18. Poignancy: Mixed Emotional Experience in the Face of Meaningful Endings

    PubMed Central

    Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Mikels, Joseph A.; Sullivan, Sarah J.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    The experience of mixed emotions increases with age. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that mixed emotions are associated with shifting time horizons. Theoretically, perceived constraints on future time increase appreciation for life, which, in turn, elicits positive emotions such as happiness. Yet, the very same temporal constraints heighten awareness that these positive experiences come to an end, thus yielding mixed emotional states. In 2 studies, the authors examined the link between the awareness of anticipated endings and mixed emotional experience. In Study 1, participants repeatedly imagined being in a meaningful location. Participants in the experimental condition imagined being in the meaningful location for the final time. Only participants who imagined “last times” at meaningful locations experienced more mixed emotions. In Study 2, college seniors reported their emotions on graduation day. Mixed emotions were higher when participants were reminded of the ending that they were experiencing. Findings suggest that poignancy is an emotional experience associated with meaningful endings. PMID:18179325

  19. CART IV: improving automatic camouflage assessment with assistance methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Müller, Markus

    2010-04-01

    In order to facilitate systematic, computer aided improvements of camouflage and concealment assessment methods, the software system CART (Camouflage Assessment in Real-Time) was built up for the camouflage assessment of objects in multispectral image sequences (see contributions to SPIE 2007, SPIE 2008 and SPIE 2009 [1], [2], [3]). It comprises a semi-automatic marking of target objects (ground truth generation) including their propagation over the image sequence and the evaluation via user-defined feature extractors. The conspicuity of camouflaged objects due to their movement can be assessed with a purpose-built processing method named MTI snail track algorithm. This paper presents the enhancements over the recent year and addresses procedures to assist the camouflage assessment of moving objects for image data material with strong noise or image artefacts. This extends the evaluation methods significantly to a broader application range. For example, some noisy infrared image data material can be evaluated for the first time by applying the presented methods which fathom the correlations between camouflage assessment, MTI (moving target indication) and dedicated noise filtering.

  20. Designing Meaningful Density Functional Theory Calculations in Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, A. E.

    2005-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) methods for calculating the quantum mechanical ground states of condensed matter systems are now a common and significant component of materials research. These methods are also increasingly used in Equation of State work, in particular in the warm dense matter regime. The growing importance of DFT reflects the development of sufficiently accurate functionals, efficient algorithms, and continuing improvements in computing capabilities. As the materials problems to which DFT is applied have become large and complex, so have the sets of calculations necessary to investigate a given problem. Highly versatile, powerful codes exist to serve the practitioner, but designing useful simulations is a complicated task, involving intricate manipulation of many variables, with many pitfalls for the unwary and the inexperienced. We give an overview of DFT and discuss several of the most important issues that go into designing a meaningful DFT calculation. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Effects of a meaningful, a discriminative, and a meaningless stimulus on equivalence class formation.

    PubMed

    Fields, Lanny; Arntzen, Erik; Nartey, Richard K; Eilifsen, Christoffer

    2012-03-01

    Thirty college students attempted to form three 3-node 5-member equivalence classes under the simultaneous protocol. After concurrent training of AB, BC, CD, and DE relations, all probes used to assess the emergence of symmetrical, transitive, and equivalence relations were presented for two test blocks. When the A-E stimuli were all abstract shapes, none of 10 participants formed classes. When the A, B, D, and E stimuli were abstract shapes and the C stimuli were meaningful pictures, 8 of 10 participants formed classes. This high yield may reflect the expansion of existing classes that consist of the associates of the meaningful stimuli, rather than the formation of the ABCDE classes, per se. When the A-E stimuli were abstract shapes and the C stimuli became S(D)s prior to class formation, 5 out of 10 participants formed classes. Thus, the discriminative functions served by the meaningful stimuli can account for some of the enhancement of class formation produced by the inclusion of a meaningful stimulus as a class member. A sorting task, which provided a secondary measure of class formation, indicated the formation of all three classes when the emergent relations probes indicated the same outcome. In contrast, the sorting test indicated "partial" class formation when the emergent relations test indicated no class formation. Finally, the effects of nodal distance on the relatedness of stimuli in the equivalence classes were not influenced by the functions served by the C stimuli in the equivalence classes. PMID:22389524

  2. Effects of a Meaningful, a Discriminative, and a Meaningless Stimulus on Equivalence Class Formation

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Lanny; Arntzen, Erik; Nartey, Richard K; Eilifsen, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    Thirty college students attempted to form three 3-node 5-member equivalence classes under the simultaneous protocol. After concurrent training of AB, BC, CD, and DE relations, all probes used to assess the emergence of symmetrical, transitive, and equivalence relations were presented for two test blocks. When the A–E stimuli were all abstract shapes, none of 10 participants formed classes. When the A, B, D, and E stimuli were abstract shapes and the C stimuli were meaningful pictures, 8 of 10 participants formed classes. This high yield may reflect the expansion of existing classes that consist of the associates of the meaningful stimuli, rather than the formation of the ABCDE classes, per se. When the A–E stimuli were abstract shapes and the C stimuli became SDs prior to class formation, 5 out of 10 participants formed classes. Thus, the discriminative functions served by the meaningful stimuli can account for some of the enhancement of class formation produced by the inclusion of a meaningful stimulus as a class member. A sorting task, which provided a secondary measure of class formation, indicated the formation of all three classes when the emergent relations probes indicated the same outcome. In contrast, the sorting test indicated “partial” class formation when the emergent relations test indicated no class formation. Finally, the effects of nodal distance on the relatedness of stimuli in the equivalence classes were not influenced by the functions served by the C stimuli in the equivalence classes. PMID:22389524

  3. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs. PMID:25342147

  4. A mixed methods assessment of coping with pediatric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alderfer, Melissa A.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Marsac, Meghan L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe child coping and parent coping assistance with cancer-related stressors during treatment. Fifteen children (aged 6-12) with cancer and their parents (N = 17) completed semi-structured interviews and self-report measures to assess coping and coping assistance. Results suggest families utilized a broad array of approach and avoidance strategies to manage cancer and its treatment. Quantitative and qualitative assessments provided complementary and unique contributions to understanding coping among children with cancer and their parents. Using a mixed methods approach to assess coping provides a richer understanding of families’ experiences, which can better inform clinical practice. PMID:24428250

  5. Methods for assessment of trunk stabilization, a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Maaswinkel, E; Griffioen, M; Perez, R S G M; van Dieën, J H

    2016-02-01

    Trunk stabilization is achieved differently in patients with low back pain compared to healthy controls. Many methods exist to assess trunk stabilization but not all measure the contributions of intrinsic stiffness and reflexes simultaneously. This may pose a threat to the quality/validity of the study and might lead to misinterpretation of the results. The aim of this study was to provide a critical review of previously published methods for studying trunk stabilization in relation to low back pain (LBP). We primarily aimed to assess their construct validity to which end we defined a theoretical framework operationalized in a set of methodological criteria which would allow to identify the contributions of intrinsic stiffness and reflexes simultaneously. In addition, the clinimetric properties of the methods were evaluated. A total of 133 articles were included from which four main categories of methods were defined; upper limb (un)loading, moving platform, unloading and loading. Fifty of the 133 selected articles complied with all the criteria of the theoretical framework, but only four articles provided information about reliability and/or measurement error of methods to assess trunk stabilization with test-retest reliability ranging from poor (ICC 0) to moderate (ICC 0.72). When aiming to assess trunk stabilization with system identification, we propose a perturbation method where the trunk is studied in isolation, the perturbation is unpredictable, force controlled, directly applied to the upper body, completely known and results in small fluctuations around the working point. PMID:26803526

  6. [Assessment methods and preventive measures focusing on relationships].

    PubMed

    Gloger-Tippelt, Gabriele; Reichle, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution relationship-oriented assessment methods and preventive measures during infancy and childhood are founded in an ecological and differential understanding of development in context. Using selected developmental milestones it is demonstrated that relationships as a social context play an important role particularly during early infancy. Criteria for describing well functioning and maladaptive relationships can be derived from theoretical presumptions, empirical longitudinal studies and health related clinical judgements. These criteria may serve as guidelines for interventions, especially in cases of children with a clinical diagnosis of child neglect. Possible procedures to assess the quality of relationships are discussed using methods from contributions in this issue of the journal as examples. Diagnostic and preventive procedures are seen as mutually interacting within continuous feedback loops, where assessment procedures serve to both give evidence for the efficacy of interventions and for specifying further preventive methods. PMID:17725182

  7. Assessing and Evaluating Multidisciplinary Translational Teams: A Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wooten, Kevin C.; Rose, Robert M.; Ostir, Glenn V.; Calhoun, William J.; Ameredes, Bill T.; Brasier, Allan R.

    2014-01-01

    A case report illustrates how multidisciplinary translational teams can be assessed using outcome, process, and developmental types of evaluation using a mixed methods approach. Types of evaluation appropriate for teams are considered in relation to relevant research questions and assessment methods. Logic models are applied to scientific projects and team development to inform choices between methods within a mixed methods design. Use of an expert panel is reviewed, culminating in consensus ratings of 11 multidisciplinary teams and a final evaluation within a team type taxonomy. Based on team maturation and scientific progress, teams were designated as: a) early in development, b) traditional, c) process focused, or d) exemplary. Lessons learned from data reduction, use of mixed methods, and use of expert panels are explored. PMID:24064432

  8. Assessing subjective workload assessment - A comparison of SWAT and the NASA-bipolar methods. [Subjective Workload Assessment Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, M. A.; Tsang, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT) and the NASA weighted-bipolar method used for evaluating subjective workload assessment are compared. The application of these methods to the rating of single- and dual-task trials of tracking and spatial transformation is described. The methods used to collect the ratings for the SWAT and bipolar technique are examined. Analysis of the transformation-tracking data reveal that the two assessment techniques produce similar results and both measure the differences in task difficulty. The positive and negative characteristics of each technique are analyzed.

  9. Building Passion Develops Meaningful Mentoring Relationships among Canadian Physiotherapists

    PubMed Central

    Ezzat, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe the meaning of mentorship among Canadian orthopaedic physiotherapists. Methods: As part of a phenomenological qualitative study, 14 registered physiotherapists (13 women, 1 man) each participated in a single 60-minute, semi-structured face-to-face interview. Participants reflected on their experiences in receiving and providing mentorship and described the impact of mentorship on their careers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a phenomenological approach. Results: Participants described mentorship as any nurturing process in which they used their skills and experience to guide, teach, and encourage a less skilled or less experienced colleague for the purpose of promoting professional and personal development. Participants experienced mentorship as a positive, reflective phenomenon. According to participants, the true essence of mentorship in physiotherapy consists of building passion, keeping fresh, making us stronger, and promoting deeper learning. Conclusions: Building a shared passion for learning, as well as a mentor's commitment to the mentee's success, forms the foundation of meaningful mentorship in physiotherapy. These mentoring relationships enable physiotherapists to adapt to the changing health care system, advance patient care, and develop the profession. PMID:23277688

  10. The meaningful encounter: patient and next-of-kin stories about their experience of meaningful encounters in health-care.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lena-Karin; Snellma, Ingrid; Gustafsson, Christine

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on the meaningful encounters of patients and next of kin, as seen from their perspective. Identifying the attributes within meaningful encounters is important for increased understanding of caring and to expand and develop earlier formulated knowledge about caring relationships. Caring theory about the caring relationship provided a point of departure to illuminate the meaningful encounter in healthcare contexts. A qualitative explorative design with a hermeneutic narrative approach was used to analyze and interpret written narratives. The phases of the analysis were naïve interpretation, structure analysis on two different levels (narrative structure, and deep structure through metaphors) and finally a dialectic interpretation. The narratives revealed the meaning of the meaningful encounter as sharing, a nourishing fellowship, common responsibility and coming together, experienced as safety and warmth, that gives, by extension, life-changing moments, a healing force and dissipated insight. The meaningful encounter can be seen as a complex phenomenon with various attributes. Understanding the meaningful encounter will enable nurses to plan and provide professional care, based on caring science, focusing on patient and next-of-kin experiences. PMID:23181930

  11. Analysis of CASP8 targets, predictions and assessment methods

    PubMed Central

    Shi, ShuoYong; Pei, Jimin; Sadreyev, Ruslan I.; Kinch, Lisa N.; Majumdar, Indraneel; Tong, Jing; Cheng, Hua; Kim, Bong-Hyun; Grishin, Nick V.

    2009-01-01

    Results of the recent Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction, CASP8, present several valuable sources of information. First, CASP targets comprise a realistic sample of currently solved protein structures and exemplify the corresponding challenges for predictors. Second, the plethora of predictions by all possible methods provides an unusually rich material for evolutionary analysis of target proteins. Third, CASP results show the current state of the field and highlight specific problems in both predicting and assessing. Finally, these data can serve as grounds to develop and analyze methods for assessing prediction quality. Here we present results of our analysis in these areas. Our objective is not to duplicate CASP assessment, but to use our unique experience as former CASP5 assessors and CASP8 predictors to (i) offer more insights into CASP targets and predictions based on expert analysis, including invaluable analysis prior to target structure release; and (ii) develop an assessment methodology tailored towards current challenges in the field. Specifically, we discuss preparing target structures for assessment, parsing protein domains, balancing evaluations based on domains and on whole chains, dividing targets into categories and developing new evaluation scores. We also present evolutionary analysis of the most interesting and challenging targets. Database URL: Our results are available as a comprehensive database of targets and predictions at http://prodata.swmed.edu/CASP8. PMID:20157476

  12. Analysis of CASP8 targets, predictions and assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuoyong; Pei, Jimin; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Kinch, Lisa N; Majumdar, Indraneel; Tong, Jing; Cheng, Hua; Kim, Bong-Hyun; Grishin, Nick V

    2009-01-01

    Results of the recent Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction, CASP8, present several valuable sources of information. First, CASP targets comprise a realistic sample of currently solved protein structures and exemplify the corresponding challenges for predictors. Second, the plethora of predictions by all possible methods provides an unusually rich material for evolutionary analysis of target proteins. Third, CASP results show the current state of the field and highlight specific problems in both predicting and assessing. Finally, these data can serve as grounds to develop and analyze methods for assessing prediction quality. Here we present results of our analysis in these areas. Our objective is not to duplicate CASP assessment, but to use our unique experience as former CASP5 assessors and CASP8 predictors to (i) offer more insights into CASP targets and predictions based on expert analysis, including invaluable analysis prior to target structure release; and (ii) develop an assessment methodology tailored towards current challenges in the field. Specifically, we discuss preparing target structures for assessment, parsing protein domains, balancing evaluations based on domains and on whole chains, dividing targets into categories and developing new evaluation scores. We also present evolutionary analysis of the most interesting and challenging targets.Database URL: Our results are available as a comprehensive database of targets and predictions at http://prodata.swmed.edu/CASP8. PMID:20157476

  13. [Assessment of ecosystem and its services conservation: indicators and methods].

    PubMed

    Lü, Yi-He; Zhang, Li-Wei; Wang, Jiang-Lei

    2013-05-01

    To conserve ecosystem and its services is a frontier and hot topic in the researches of conservation ecology. This paper reviewed the newest concepts and methods in the assessment of ecosystem and its services conservation, with the focus on the indicators and criteria for assessing the conservation status and the endangerment level of ecosystem as well as the main methods of ecosystem services assessment and conservation (including benefit transfer, systematic modeling, and quantitative indicator-based estimation). With the consideration of the research progress and the demands of ecological conservation in China, some issues to be urgently solved were put forward: 1) formulating the indicators, criteria, and methods suitable for the assessment of ecosystem conservation in China, 2) developing the methodologies for the quantitative assessment of ecosystem services, 3) determining the demands and optimal spatial arrangement of ecosystem and its services conservation in China, and 4) establishing the policies and incentive mechanisms for ecosystem and its services conservation. The resolution of these issues would supply important guarantee to the development of ecological civilization in China. PMID:24015539

  14. Stimulus Set Meaningfulness and Neurophysiological Differentiation: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Boly, Melanie; Sasai, Shuntaro; Gosseries, Olivia; Oizumi, Masafumi; Casali, Adenauer; Massimini, Marcello; Tononi, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    A meaningful set of stimuli, such as a sequence of frames from a movie, triggers a set of different experiences. By contrast, a meaningless set of stimuli, such as a sequence of ‘TV noise’ frames, triggers always the same experience—of seeing ‘TV noise’—even though the stimuli themselves are as different from each other as the movie frames. We reasoned that the differentiation of cortical responses underlying the subject’s experiences, as measured by Lempel-Ziv complexity (incompressibility) of functional MRI images, should reflect the overall meaningfulness of a set of stimuli for the subject, rather than differences among the stimuli. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying the differentiation of brain activity patterns in response to a movie sequence, to the same movie scrambled in time, and to ‘TV noise’, where the pixels from each movie frame were scrambled in space. While overall cortical activation was strong and widespread in all conditions, the differentiation (Lempel-Ziv complexity) of brain activation patterns was correlated with the meaningfulness of the stimulus set, being highest in the movie condition, intermediate in the scrambled movie condition, and minimal for ‘TV noise’. Stimulus set meaningfulness was also associated with higher information integration among cortical regions. These results suggest that the differentiation of neural responses can be used to assess the meaningfulness of a given set of stimuli for a given subject, without the need to identify the features and categories that are relevant to the subject, nor the precise location of selective neural responses. PMID:25970444

  15. Method and apparatus of assessing down-hole drilling conditions

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Johnson, Monte L.; Bartholomew, David B.; Fox, Joe

    2007-04-24

    A method and apparatus for use in assessing down-hole drilling conditions are disclosed. The apparatus includes a drill string, a plurality of sensors, a computing device, and a down-hole network. The sensors are distributed along the length of the drill string and are capable of sensing localized down-hole conditions while drilling. The computing device is coupled to at least one sensor of the plurality of sensors. The data is transmitted from the sensors to the computing device over the down-hole network. The computing device analyzes data output by the sensors and representative of the sensed localized conditions to assess the down-hole drilling conditions. The method includes sensing localized drilling conditions at a plurality of points distributed along the length of a drill string during drilling operations; transmitting data representative of the sensed localized conditions to a predetermined location; and analyzing the transmitted data to assess the down-hole drilling conditions.

  16. Reliability of marginal microleakage assessment by visual and digital methods

    PubMed Central

    de Santi Alvarenga, Fábio Augusto; Pinelli, Camila; Monteiro Loffredo, Leonor de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of visual and digital methods to assess marginal microleakage in vitro. Materials and Methods: Typical Class V preparations were made in bovine teeth and filled with composite resin. After dye penetration (0.5% basic fuchsin), teeth were sectioned and the 53 obtained fragments were assessed according to visual (stereomicroscope) and digital methods (Image Tool Software®-ITS) (University of Texas Health Science Center-San Antonio Dental School, USA). Two calibrated examiners (A and B) evaluated dye penetration, by means of a stereomicroscope with ×20 magnification (scores), and by the ITS (millimeters). The intra- and inter-examiner agreement was estimated according to Kappa statistics (κ), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ρ). Results: In relation to the visual method, the intra-examiner agreement was almost perfect (κA = 0.87) and substantial (κB = 0.76), respectively to the examiner A and B. The inter-examiner agreement showed an almost perfect reliability (κ = 0.84). For the digital method, the intra-examiner agreement was almost perfect for both examiners and equal to ρ = 0.99, and so was the inter-examiner agreement value. Conclusion: Visual (stereomicroscope) and digital methods (ITS) showed high levels of intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility when marginal microleakage was assessed. PMID:25713476

  17. Student Teachers' Views about Assessment and Evaluation Methods in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to find out assessment and evaluation approaches in a Mathematics Teacher Training Department based on the views and experiences of student teachers. The study used a descriptive survey method, with the research sample consisting of 150 third- and fourth-year Primary Mathematics student teachers. Data were collected using a…

  18. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  19. Organizational Communication Assessment: Fuzzy Methods and the Accessibility of Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes two interpretive methodological directions available to organizational assessors: textual analysis, or hermeneutics; and ethnomethodology. Explains that to apply these methods, assessment of organizational symbols in messages requires emphasis on three types of data: researcher observations; member responses; and transcripts of…

  20. A Revised Class Play Method of Peer Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Ann S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Revised Class Play (RCP) was presented as a measure of peer reputation designed to improve the assessment of social competence as well as the psychometric properties of class play method. Administered to third through sixth graders three test dimensions were revealed: sociability-leadership, aggressive-disruptive, and sensitive-isolated. Data…

  1. ANALYZING SHORT CUT METHODS FOR LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Work in progress at the U.S. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory is developing methods for quickly, easily, and inexpensively developing Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) inventories. An LCA inventory represents the inputs and outputs from processes, including fuel and ...

  2. Using Empirical Article Analysis to Assess Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachiochi, Peter; Everton, Wendi; Evans, Melanie; Fugere, Madeleine; Escoto, Carlos; Letterman, Margaret; Leszczynski, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Developing students who can apply their knowledge of empirical research is a key outcome of the undergraduate psychology major. This learning outcome was assessed in two research methods courses by having students read and analyze a condensed empirical journal article. At the start and end of the semester, students in multiple sections of an…

  3. A Comparison of Assessment Methods and Raters in Product Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chia-Chen; Luh, Ding-Bang

    2012-01-01

    Although previous studies have attempted to use different experiences of raters to rate product creativity by adopting the Consensus Assessment Method (CAT) approach, the validity of replacing CAT with another measurement tool has not been adequately tested. This study aimed to compare raters with different levels of experience (expert ves.…

  4. Methods of Assessing Bias and Fairness in Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, William R.

    Several methods of assessing test item bias are described, and the concept of fair use of tests is examined. A test item is biased if individuals of equal ability have different probabilities of attaining the item correct. The following seven general procedures used to examine test items for bias are summarized and discussed: (1) analysis of…

  5. A combined scoring method to assess behavioral recovery after mouse spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Pajoohesh-Ganji, Ahdeah; Byrnes, Kimberly R.; Fatemi, Gita; Faden, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    Although the rat has been the predominant rodent used to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of experimental spinal cord injury (SCI), the increasing availability of transgenic animals has led to greater use of mouse models. However, behavioral assessment after SCI in mice has been less extensively investigated than in rats and few studies have critically examined the correlation between behavioral tests and injury severity or tissue damage. The present study characterized hind-limb functional performance in C57Bl/6 mice after contusion SCI at T9 using the weight drop method. A number of behavioral tests were examined with regard to variability, inter-rater reliability, and correlation to injury severity and white matter sparing. Mice were subjected to sham, mild-moderate or moderate-severe SCI and evaluated at day 1 and weekly up to 42 days using the Basso mouse scale (BMS), ladder climb, grid walk, inclined plane, plantar test and tail flick tests. The ladder climb and grid walk tests proved sub-optimal for use in mice, but modifications enhanced their predictive value with regard to injury severity. The inclined plane, plantar test and tail flick test showed far too much variability to have meaningful predictive value. The BMS score proved reliable, as previously reported, but a combined score (BLG) using BMS, Ladder climb (modified), and Grip walk (modified grid walk) provided better separation across injury levels and less variability than the individual tests. These data provide support for use of a combined scoring method to follow motor recovery in mice after SCI contusion injury. PMID:20188770

  6. Improving Educational Assessment: A Computer-Adaptive Multiple Choice Assessment Using NRET as the Scoring Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sie Hoe, Lau; Ngee Kiong, Lau; Kian Sam, Hong; Bin Usop, Hasbee

    2009-01-01

    Assessment is central to any educational process. Number Right (NR) scoring method is a conventional scoring method for multiple choice items, where students need to pick one option as the correct answer. One point is awarded for the correct response and zero for any other responses. However, it has been heavily criticized for guessing and failure…

  7. Assessing the Impact of Tutorial Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticknor, Cindy S.; Shaw, Kimberly A.; Howard, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Many institutions struggle to develop a meaningful way to assess the effectiveness of drop-in tutorial services provided to students. This article discusses the development of a data collection system based on a visitor sign-in system that proved to be an efficient method of gathering assessment data, including frequency of visits, end-of-course…

  8. [Evaluation of the 360-degree assessment method in a hospital].

    PubMed

    Møller, Lars Bo Krag; Ejlskov, Morten Wolff

    2008-09-15

    The present study examines the acceptability of the 360-degree assessment method as a means for evaluating the management and leadership competencies of the clinical staff of a university hospital. Twenty-eight consultants and registered nurses underwent evaluation. One group had debriefing with management consultants, the other with the head of the clinical department. Two months later, the applicability of the method was assessed. The strengths and weaknesses of the leaders were exposed, and areas for improvement were made visible, and acceptance of the method was widespread. Anonymity was required. The group coached by management consultants tended to benefit the most from the evaluation. Using a web-based solution to collect the data was unproblematic. PMID:18808752

  9. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    SciTech Connect

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  10. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    SciTech Connect

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.

  11. Reliability of Pubertal Self Assessment Method: An Iranian Study

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Ali; Noorian, Shahab; Fallah, Javad S.; Setoudeh, Arya; Sayarifard, Fatemeh; Abbasi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective This investigation aims to evaluate the validity of a Persian Tanner Stages Self-Assessment Questionnaire. Methods In this cross sectional study, 190 male students aged 8-16 years selected from three layers of different regions of Tehran (North, Central and South) were enrolled. A Persian questionnaire illustrated with Tanner stages of puberty (genital development and pubic hair distribution) was prepared. Children were asked to select the illustration that best described their pubertal development. Tanner status of the children was also estimated by an independent physician using physical examination. The degree of agreement between subjects’ judgments with assessments made by the rater was compared through the calculation of the weighted kappa statistic coefficient. Findings We found a substantial agreement between self-assessment of pubertal development made by the children and doctor's assessment of genital development (kappa=0.63, P<0.0001) and also the pubic hair distribution (kappa= 0.74, P<0.0001). Although a large proportion of subjects in G4 (89.2%) and G5 (85.7%) were capable of accurately or almost accurately identifying their own Tanner sexual stages, some degree of disagreement was observed in G3 Tanner stage (%46.9). Conclusion Self-assessment of puberty should be used very cautiously and may not be a substitute method for routine evaluation of pubertal state especially for early and mid pubertal groups. PMID:23795257

  12. Perspectives of People with Dementia About Meaningful Activities: A Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Areum; Radel, Jeff; McDowd, Joan M; Sabata, Dory

    2016-03-01

    Qualitative studies were synthesized to describe perspectives of people with dementia regarding meaningful activities. Themes of connectedness were identified using a meta-ethnography approach. The theme of being connected with self encompasses engagement for continuity, health promotion, and personal time. The theme of being connected with others includes being with others not to feel alone, doing an activity with others, and meaningful relationships. The theme of being connected with the environment encompasses being connected to one’s familiar environment, community, and nature. This synthesis suggests that connectedness is an important motivation for engagement in daily activities. Findings indicate that identifying the underlying motivation for an individual with dementia to engage in different activities is important for matching a person with activities that will be satisfying. This review may inform the development of interventions for engaging people with dementia in meaningful, daily activities and creating connectedness to self, others, and the environment. PMID:26340962

  13. Diagnostic methods to assess inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength*

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Pedro; de Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira; Santana, Pauliane Vieira; Cardenas, Leticia Zumpano; Ferreira, Jeferson George; Prina, Elena; Trevizan, Patrícia Fernandes; Pereira, Mayra Caleffi; Iamonti, Vinicius; Pletsch, Renata; Macchione, Marcelo Ceneviva; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of (inspiratory and expiratory) respiratory muscles is a common clinical finding, not only in patients with neuromuscular disease but also in patients with primary disease of the lung parenchyma or airways. Although such impairment is common, its recognition is usually delayed because its signs and symptoms are nonspecific and late. This delayed recognition, or even the lack thereof, occurs because the diagnostic tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength are not widely known and available. There are various methods of assessing respiratory muscle strength during the inspiratory and expiratory phases. These methods are divided into two categories: volitional tests (which require patient understanding and cooperation); and non-volitional tests. Volitional tests, such as those that measure maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, are the most commonly used because they are readily available. Non-volitional tests depend on magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve accompanied by the measurement of inspiratory mouth pressure, inspiratory esophageal pressure, or inspiratory transdiaphragmatic pressure. Another method that has come to be widely used is ultrasound imaging of the diaphragm. We believe that pulmonologists involved in the care of patients with respiratory diseases should be familiar with the tests used in order to assess respiratory muscle function.Therefore, the aim of the present article is to describe the advantages, disadvantages, procedures, and clinical applicability of the main tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength. PMID:25972965

  14. Analytical resource assessment method for continuous (unconventional) oil and gas accumulations - The "ACCESS" Method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, Robert A.; revised by Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) periodically assesses petroleum resources of areas within the United States and the world. The purpose of this report is to explain the development of an analytic probabilistic method and spreadsheet software system called Analytic Cell-Based Continuous Energy Spreadsheet System (ACCESS). The ACCESS method is based upon mathematical equations derived from probability theory. The ACCESS spreadsheet can be used to calculate estimates of the undeveloped oil, gas, and NGL (natural gas liquids) resources in a continuous-type assessment unit. An assessment unit is a mappable volume of rock in a total petroleum system. In this report, the geologic assessment model is defined first, the analytic probabilistic method is described second, and the spreadsheet ACCESS is described third. In this revised version of Open-File Report 00-044 , the text has been updated to reflect modifications that were made to the ACCESS program. Two versions of the program are added as appendixes.

  15. Image quality assessment using multi-method fusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tsung-Jung; Lin, Weisi; Kuo, C-C Jay

    2013-05-01

    A new methodology for objective image quality assessment (IQA) with multi-method fusion (MMF) is presented in this paper. The research is motivated by the observation that there is no single method that can give the best performance in all situations. To achieve MMF, we adopt a regression approach. The new MMF score is set to be the nonlinear combination of scores from multiple methods with suitable weights obtained by a training process. In order to improve the regression results further, we divide distorted images into three to five groups based on the distortion types and perform regression within each group, which is called "context-dependent MMF" (CD-MMF). One task in CD-MMF is to determine the context automatically, which is achieved by a machine learning approach. To further reduce the complexity of MMF, we perform algorithms to select a small subset from the candidate method set. The result is very good even if only three quality assessment methods are included in the fusion process. The proposed MMF method using support vector regression is shown to outperform a large number of existing IQA methods by a significant margin when being tested in six representative databases. PMID:23288335

  16. Assessment of nonequilibrium radiation computation methods for hypersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Surendra

    1993-01-01

    The present understanding of shock-layer radiation in the low density regime, as appropriate to hypersonic vehicles, is surveyed. Based on the relative importance of electron excitation and radiation transport, the hypersonic flows are divided into three groups: weakly ionized, moderately ionized, and highly ionized flows. In the light of this division, the existing laboratory and flight data are scrutinized. Finally, an assessment of the nonequilibrium radiation computation methods for the three regimes in hypersonic flows is presented. The assessment is conducted by comparing experimental data against the values predicted by the physical model.

  17. Review of near-infrared methods for wound assessment.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Michael G; Kuo, Wen-Chuan; Ko, Alex C-T; Armstrong, David G

    2016-09-01

    Wound management is a challenging and costly problem that is growing in importance as people are living longer. Instrumental methods are increasingly being relied upon to provide objective measures of wound assessment to help guide management. Technologies that employ near-infrared (NIR) light form a prominent contingent among the existing and emerging technologies. We review some of these technologies. Some are already established, such as indocyanine green fluorescence angiography, while we also speculate on others that have the potential to be clinically relevant to wound monitoring and assessment. These various NIR-based technologies address clinical wound management needs along the entire healing trajectory of a wound. PMID:27087164

  18. In Vivo Methods for the Assessment of Topical Drug Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Herkenne, Christophe; Alberti, Ingo; Naik, Aarti; Kalia, Yogeshvar N.; Mathy, François-Xavier; Préat, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews some current methods for the in vivo assessment of local cutaneous bioavailability in humans after topical drug application. After an introduction discussing the importance of local drug bioavailability assessment and the limitations of model-based predictions, the focus turns to the relevance of experimental studies. The available techniques are then reviewed in detail, with particular emphasis on the tape stripping and microdialysis methodologies. Other less developed techniques, including the skin biopsy, suction blister, follicle removal and confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques are also described. PMID:17985216

  19. Application of geosites assessment method in geopark context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Simon; Perret, Amandine; Renau, Pierre; Cartier-Moulin, Olivier; Regolini-Bissig, Géraldine

    2014-05-01

    The regional natural park of the Monts d'Ardèche (Ardèche and Haute-Loire departments, France) is candidate to the European Geopark Network (EGN) in 2014. The area has a wide geodiversity - with rocks from Cambrian to Pleistocene (basalt flows) - and interesting features like phonolitic protrusions, maars and granite boulders fields. Around 115 sites were selected and documented through a geosites inventory carried out in the territory. This pre-selection was supervised by the Ardèche Geological Society and is therefore expert advice based. In the context of EGN candidature, these potential geosites were assessed with a simplified method. It follows the spirit of the method from the University of Lausanne (Reynard et al., 2007) and its recent developments: assessment of the scientific (central) value and of a set of additional values (ecological and cultural). As this assessment aimed to offer a management tool to the future geopark's authorities, a special focus was given to management aspects. In particular, the opportunities to use the site for education (from schools to universities) and for tourism as well as the existence of protection and of interpretive facilities were documented and assessed. Several interesting conclusions may be drawn from this case study: (1) expert assessment is effective when it is based on a pre-existing inventory which is well structured and documented; (2) even simplified, an assessment method is a very useful framework to expert assessment as it focuses the discussions on most important points and helps to balance the assessment; (3) whereas the inventory can be extensively detailed and partly academic, the assessment in the geopark context is objective-driven in order to answer management needs. The place of the geosites assessment among the three key players of a geopark construction process (i.e. territory's managers, local geoscientists and EGN) is also discussed. This place can be defined as the point of consensus of needs

  20. Meaningful Use Attestations among US Hospitals: The Growing Rural-Urban Divide.

    PubMed

    Sandefer, Ryan H; Marc, David T; Kleeberg, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess EHR Incentive Program attestations of eligible US hospitals across geography and hospital type. The proportions of attestations were compared between metropolitan, micropolitan, and rural hospitals and by whether a hospital was critical access or prospective payment system. From 2011 until December 2013, rural and critical access hospitals were attesting to meaningful use and receiving federal incentive payments at a significantly lower proportion than their urban counterparts. The data suggest that the digital divide between urban and rural hospitals that are adopting electronic health records and using the technology effectively is widening. These findings illustrate that the needs of rural hospitals currently and into the future are different than urban hospitals, and the meaningful use program does not appear to provide the resources needed to propel these rural hospitals forward. PMID:26755900

  1. An Observational Assessment Method for Aging Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Pamela M; Jarema, Kimberly A; Kurtz, David M; MacPhail, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of the aging human population highlights the need for laboratory animal models to study the basic biologic processes of aging and susceptibility to disease, drugs, and environmental pollutants. Methods are needed to evaluate the health of aging animals over time, particularly methods for efficiently monitoring large research colonies. Here we describe an observational assessment method that scores appearance, posture, mobility, and muscle tone on a 5-point scale that can be completed in about 1 min. A score of 1 indicates no deterioration, whereas a score of 5 indicates severe deterioration. Tests were applied to male Brown Norway rats between 12 and 36 mo of age (n = 32). The rats were participating concurrently in experiments on the behavioral effects of intermittent exposure (approximately every 4 mo) to short-acting environmental chemicals. Results demonstrated that aging-related signs of deterioration did not appear before 18 mo of age. Assessment scores and variability then increased with age. Body weights increased until approximately 24 mo, then remained stable, but decreased after 31 mo for the few remaining rats. The incidence of death increased slightly from 20 to 28 mo of age and then rose sharply; median survival age was approximately 30 mo, with a maximum of 36 mo. The results indicate that our observational assessment method supports efficient monitoring of the health of aging rats and may be useful in studies on susceptibility to diseases, drugs, and toxicants during old age. PMID:21205442

  2. How to assess the quality of your analytical method?

    PubMed

    Topic, Elizabeta; Nikolac, Nora; Panteghini, Mauro; Theodorsson, Elvar; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Miler, Marijana; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Infusino, Ilenia; Nordin, Gunnar; Westgard, Sten

    2015-10-01

    Laboratory medicine is amongst the fastest growing fields in medicine, crucial in diagnosis, support of prevention and in the monitoring of disease for individual patients and for the evaluation of treatment for populations of patients. Therefore, high quality and safety in laboratory testing has a prominent role in high-quality healthcare. Applied knowledge and competencies of professionals in laboratory medicine increases the clinical value of laboratory results by decreasing laboratory errors, increasing appropriate utilization of tests, and increasing cost effectiveness. This collective paper provides insights into how to validate the laboratory assays and assess the quality of methods. It is a synopsis of the lectures at the 15th European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Continuing Postgraduate Course in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine entitled "How to assess the quality of your method?" (Zagreb, Croatia, 24-25 October 2015). The leading topics to be discussed include who, what and when to do in validation/verification of methods, verification of imprecision and bias, verification of reference intervals, verification of qualitative test procedures, verification of blood collection systems, comparability of results among methods and analytical systems, limit of detection, limit of quantification and limit of decision, how to assess the measurement uncertainty, the optimal use of Internal Quality Control and External Quality Assessment data, Six Sigma metrics, performance specifications, as well as biological variation. This article, which continues the annual tradition of collective papers from the EFLM continuing postgraduate courses in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine, aims to provide further contributions by discussing the quality of laboratory methods and measurements and, at the same time, to offer continuing professional development to the attendees. PMID:26408611

  3. Efficient method for assessing channel instability near bridges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Bret A.; Thompson, R.E., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Efficient methods for data collection and processing are required to complete channel-instability assessments at 5,600 bridge sites in Indiana at an affordable cost and within a reasonable time frame while maintaining the quality of the assessments. To provide this needed efficiency and quality control, a data-collection form was developed that specifies the data to be collected and the order of data collection. This form represents a modification of previous forms that grouped variables according to type rather than by order of collection. Assessments completed during two field seasons showed that greater efficiency was achieved by using a fill-in-the-blank form that organizes the data to be recorded in a specified order: in the vehicle, from the roadway, in the upstream channel, under the bridge, and in the downstream channel.

  4. DREAM: a method for semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Van-Wendel-de-Joode, Berna; Brouwer, Derk H; Vermeulen, Roel; Van Hemmen, Joop J; Heederik, Dick; Kromhout, Hans

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new method (DREAM) for structured, semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment for chemical or biological agents that can be used in occupational hygiene or epidemiology. It is anticipated that DREAM could serve as an initial assessment of dermal exposure, amongst others, resulting in a ranking of tasks and subsequently jobs. DREAM consists of an inventory and evaluation part. Two examples of dermal exposure of workers of a car-construction company show that DREAM characterizes tasks and gives insight into exposure mechanisms, forming a basis for systematic exposure reduction. DREAM supplies estimates for exposure levels on the outside clothing layer as well as on skin, and provides insight into the distribution of dermal exposure over the body. Together with the ranking of tasks and people, this provides information for measurement strategies and helps to determine who, where and what to measure. In addition to dermal exposure assessment, the systematic description of dermal exposure pathways helps to prioritize and determine most adequate measurement strategies and methods. DREAM could be a promising approach for structured, semi-quantitative, dermal exposure assessment. PMID:12505908

  5. Methods for Developing Emissions Scenarios for Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect

    Prinn, Ronald; Webster, Mort

    2007-08-20

    The overall objective of this research was to contribute data and methods to support the future development of new emissions scenarios for integrated assessment of climate change. Specifically, this research had two main objectives: 1. Use historical data on economic growth and energy efficiency changes, and develop probability density functions (PDFs) for the appropriate parameters for two or three commonly used integrated assessment models. 2. Using the parameter distributions developed through the first task and previous work, we will develop methods of designing multi-gas emission scenarios that usefully span the joint uncertainty space in a small number of scenarios. Results on the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) parameter are summarized, an uncertainty analysis of elasticities of substitution is described, and the probabilistic emissions scenario approach is presented.

  6. Assessing Security of Supply: Three Methods Used in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivonen, Hannu

    Public Private Partnership (PPP) has an important role in securing supply in Finland. Three methods are used in assessing the level of security of supply. First, in national expert groups, a linear mathematical model has been used. The model is based on interdependency estimates. It ranks societal functions or its more detailed components, such as items in the food supply chain, according to the effect and risk pertinent to the interdependencies. Second, the security of supply is assessed in industrial branch committees (clusters and pools) in the form of indicators. The level of security of supply is assessed against five generic factors (dimension 1) and tens of business branch specific functions (dimension 2). Third, in two thousand individual critical companies, the maturity of operational continuity management is assessed using Capability Maturity Model (CMM) in an extranet application. The pool committees and authorities obtain an anonymous summary. The assessments are used in allocating efforts for securing supply. The efforts may be new instructions, training, exercising, and in some cases, investment and regulation.

  7. Methods to Assess Subcellular Compartments of Muscle in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, Christopher J.; Bass, Joseph J.; Barratt, Thomas F.; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle is a dynamic tissue that responds to changes in nutrition, exercise, and disease state. The loss of muscle mass and function with disease and age are significant public health burdens. We currently understand little about the genetic regulation of muscle health with disease or age. The nematode C. elegans is an established model for understanding the genomic regulation of biological processes of interest. This worm’s body wall muscles display a large degree of homology with the muscles of higher metazoan species. Since C. elegans is a transparent organism, the localization of GFP to mitochondria and sarcomeres allows visualization of these structures in vivo. Similarly, feeding animals cationic dyes, which accumulate based on the existence of a mitochondrial membrane potential, allows the assessment of mitochondrial function in vivo. These methods, as well as assessment of muscle protein homeostasis, are combined with assessment of whole animal muscle function, in the form of movement assays, to allow correlation of sub-cellular defects with functional measures of muscle performance. Thus, C. elegans provides a powerful platform with which to assess the impact of mutations, gene knockdown, and/or chemical compounds upon muscle structure and function. Lastly, as GFP, cationic dyes, and movement assays are assessed non-invasively, prospective studies of muscle structure and function can be conducted across the whole life course and this at present cannot be easily investigated in vivo in any other organism. PMID:25489753

  8. Using the statistical analysis method to assess the landslide susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hsun-Chuan; Chen, Bo-An; Wen, Yo-Ting

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the landslide susceptibility in Jing-Shan River upstream watershed, central Taiwan. The landslide inventories during typhoons Toraji in 2001, Mindulle in 2004, Kalmaegi and Sinlaku in 2008, Morakot in 2009, and the 0719 rainfall event in 2011, which were established by Taiwan Central Geological Survey, were used as landslide data. This study aims to assess the landslide susceptibility by using different statistical methods including logistic regression, instability index method and support vector machine (SVM). After the evaluations, the elevation, slope, slope aspect, lithology, terrain roughness, slope roughness, plan curvature, profile curvature, total curvature, average of rainfall were chosen as the landslide factors. The validity of the three established models was further examined by the receiver operating characteristic curve. The result of logistic regression showed that the factor of terrain roughness and slope roughness had a stronger impact on the susceptibility value. Instability index method showed that the factor of terrain roughness and lithology had a stronger impact on the susceptibility value. Due to the fact that the use of instability index method may lead to possible underestimation around the river side. In addition, landslide susceptibility indicated that the use of instability index method laid a potential issue about the number of factor classification. An increase of the number of factor classification may cause excessive variation coefficient of the factor. An decrease of the number of factor classification may make a large range of nearby cells classified into the same susceptibility level. Finally, using the receiver operating characteristic curve discriminate the three models. SVM is a preferred method than the others in assessment of landslide susceptibility. Moreover, SVM is further suggested to be nearly logistic regression in terms of recognizing the medium-high and high susceptibility.

  9. PATHOS: a quick screening method for assessing sexual addiction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pennie; Cashwell, Craig S; Cress, Jim; Barber, Tim; Dunn, Mary Clayton

    2013-01-01

    Pastors may understand that sex addiction exists and are frequently faced with people who need non-clinical and clinical services for the addiction. However, the pastoral counselors have no quick reliable method of assessing them. The purpose of this article is to define sexual addiction and provide information about a tool called PATHOS that can be used in clinical and non-clinical settings to identify potential sex addicts. PMID:24720235

  10. New image quality assessment method using wavelet leader pyramids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaolin; Yang, Xiaokang; Zheng, Shibao; Lin, Weiyao; Zhang, Rui; Zhai, Guangtao

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a wave leader pyramids based Visual Information Fidelity method for image quality assessment. Motivated by the observations that the human vision systems (HVS) are more sensitive to edge and contour regions and that the human visual sensitivity varies with spatial frequency, we first introduce the two-dimensional wavelet leader pyramids to robustly extract the multiscale information of edges. Based on the wavelet leader pyramids, we further propose a visual information fidelity metric to evaluate the quality of images by quantifying the information loss between the original and the distorted images. Experimental results show that our method outperforms many state-of-the-art image quality metrics.

  11. Assessment of nerve agent exposure: existing and emerging methods.

    PubMed

    Langenberg, Jan P; van der Schans, Marcel J; Noort, Daan

    2009-07-01

    The perceived threat of the use of nerve agents by terrorists against civilian targets implies the need for methods for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis. This review presents an overview of methods that are currently available for the assessment of exposure to nerve agents. Since these methods are mostly MS based, they require complex and expensive equipment and well-trained personnel and, consequently, they are not very suitable for rapid POC diagnosis. However, new technologies are emerging that allow, among others, immunochemical detection of acetylcholinesterase inhibited by nerve agents. Also, lab-on-a-chip methodologies are under development. It is anticipated that MS methods will be suitable for POC diagnosis within a few years, due to the miniaturization of equipment and the emergence of methodologies that enable mass spectrometric analysis with little sample pretreatment and that are potentially fieldable, such as direct analysis in real time and desorption electrospray ionization MS. PMID:21083135

  12. Assessment of mesoscopic particle-based methods in microfluidic geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tongyang; Wang, Xiaogong; Jiang, Lei; Larson, Ronald G.

    2013-08-01

    We assess the accuracy and efficiency of two particle-based mesoscopic simulation methods, namely, Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) and Stochastic Rotation Dynamics (SRD) for predicting a complex flow in a microfluidic geometry. Since both DPD and SRD use soft or weakly interacting particles to carry momentum, both methods contain unavoidable inertial effects and unphysically high fluid compressibility. To assess these effects, we compare the predictions of DPD and SRD for both an exact Stokes-flow solution and nearly exact solutions at finite Reynolds numbers from the finite element method for flow in a straight channel with periodic slip boundary conditions. This flow represents a periodic electro-osmotic flow, which is a complex flow with an analytical solution for zero Reynolds number. We find that SRD is roughly ten-fold faster than DPD in predicting the flow field, with better accuracy at low Reynolds numbers. However, SRD has more severe problems with compressibility effects than does DPD, which limits the Reynolds numbers attainable in SRD to around 25-50, while DPD can achieve Re higher than this before compressibility effects become too large. However, since the SRD method runs much faster than DPD does, we can afford to enlarge the number of grid cells in SRD to reduce the fluid compressibility at high Reynolds number. Our simulations provide a method to estimate the range of conditions for which SRD or DPD is preferable for mesoscopic simulations.

  13. Water Habitat Study: Prediction Makes It More Meaningful.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Dennis R.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests a teaching strategy for water habitat studies to help students make a meaningful connection between physiochemical data (dissolved oxygen content, pH, and water temperature) and biological specimens they collect. Involves constructing a poster and using it to make predictions. Provides sample poster. (DC)

  14. Operating Room Delays: Meaningful Use in Electronic Health Record.

    PubMed

    Van Winkle, Rachelle A; Champagne, Mary T; Gilman-Mays, Meri; Aucoin, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Perioperative areas are the most costly to operate and account for more than 40% of expenses. The high costs prompted one organization to analyze surgical delays through a retrospective review of their new electronic health record. Electronic health records have made it easier to access and aggregate clinical data; 2123 operating room cases were analyzed. Implementing a new electronic health record system is complex; inaccurate data and poor implementation can introduce new problems. Validating the electronic health record development processes determines the ease of use and the user interface, specifically related to user compliance with the intent of the electronic health record development. The revalidation process after implementation determines if the intent of the design was fulfilled and data can be meaningfully used. In this organization, the data fields completed through automation provided quantifiable, meaningful data. However, data fields completed by staff that required subjective decision making resulted in incomplete data nearly 24% of the time. The ease of use was further complicated by 490 permutations (combinations of delay types and reasons) that were built into the electronic health record. Operating room delay themes emerged notwithstanding the significant complexity of the electronic health record build; however, improved accuracy could improve meaningful data collection and a more accurate root cause analysis of operating room delays. Accurate and meaningful use of data affords a more reliable approach in quality, safety, and cost-effective initiatives. PMID:27046388

  15. Creating Meaningful Inquiry in Inclusive Classrooms: Practitioners' Stories of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phyllis, Ed.; Whitehurst, Teresa, Ed.; Egerton, Jo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of teachers as researchers in both special and mainstream school settings has become part of our everyday language. Whilst many educational practitioners will see the need for research within their setting, many may not be familiar with the technical elements they believe are required. "Creating Meaningful Inquiry in…

  16. 42 CFR 495.210 - Meaningful EHR user attestation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.210 Meaningful EHR user attestation. (a) Qualifying MA organizations are required to attest, in a form and manner specified by CMS, that each qualifying MA EP and qualifying MA-affiliated eligible hospitals is a...

  17. 42 CFR 495.210 - Meaningful EHR user attestation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.210 Meaningful EHR user attestation. (a) Qualifying MA organizations are required to attest, in a form and manner specified by CMS, that each qualifying MA EP and qualifying MA-affiliated eligible hospitals is a...

  18. 42 CFR 495.210 - Meaningful EHR user attestation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.210 Meaningful EHR user attestation. (a) Qualifying MA organizations are required to attest, in a form and manner specified by CMS, that each qualifying MA EP and qualifying MA-affiliated eligible hospitals is a...

  19. 42 CFR 495.210 - Meaningful EHR user attestation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to Medicare Advantage (MA) Organizations § 495.210 Meaningful EHR user attestation. (a) Qualifying MA organizations are required to attest, in a form and manner specified by CMS, that each qualifying MA EP and qualifying MA-affiliated eligible hospitals is a...

  20. Kilimanjaro: A Case of Meaningful Adventure and Service Learning Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Cathy; Gajer, Ewa; Mayberry, John; O'Connor, Brendan; Hargis, Jace

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative evaluation explored how female undergraduate students developed an understanding of themselves and the broader world as a result of an adventure and service learning experience in Tanzania, Africa. The project built upon theoretical frameworks regarding meaningful learning--active, constructive, intentional, and authentic--and…

  1. The meaningful conversation: a leadership skill for all times.

    PubMed

    Rackner, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Would you like to generate more referrals, improve your staff's performance, and increase patient compliance? Master the meaningful conversation. The ability to build rapport and influence others is a leadership skill that will serve you at work, at home, and at play. PMID:22920017

  2. Making "Professionalism" Meaningful to Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Anna; Åkerlind, Gerlese; Walsh, Barbara; Stevens, Bruce; Turner, Bethany; Shield, Alison

    2013-01-01

    With rising vocational expectations of higher education, universities are increasingly promoting themselves as preparing students for future professional lives. This makes it timely to ask what makes professionalism meaningful to students. In addressing this question, we first identify aspects of professionalism that might represent appropriate…

  3. Concept Maps: An Instructional Tool to Facilitate Meaningful Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safdar, Muhammad; Hussain, Azhar; Shah, Iqbal; Rifat, Qudsia

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the procedure of developing an instructional tool, "concept mapping" and its effectiveness in making the material meaningful to the students. In Pakistan, the traditional way of teaching science subjects at all levels at school relies heavily on memorization. The up-to-date data obtained from qualitative and…

  4. Facilitating Meaningful Discussion Groups in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Lindsey; Ogden, Meridith; Kelly, Laura Beth

    2015-01-01

    This Teaching Tips describes a yearlong process of facilitating meaningful discussion groups about literature with first-grade students in an urban Title I school. At the beginning of the year, the teacher provided explicit instruction in speaking and listening skills to support students with the social skills needed for thoughtful discussion. She…

  5. The Role of Meaningful Dialogue in Early Childhood Education Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deakins, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Action research was used to study the effectiveness of Learning Organisation and Adaptive Enterprise theories for promoting organisation-wide learning and creating a more effective early childhood education organisation. This article describes the leadership steps taken to achieve shared vision via meaningful dialogue between board, management and…

  6. Preparing Meaningful and Communicative Exercises for the Language Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strei, Gerry

    1980-01-01

    A workshop was given to identify and point out the limitations of mechanical language laboratory drills, and to compare them to drills which have been classified as being meaningful or communicative. Mechanical drills do not require an understanding of the meaning of the sentence; there is not consideration of context; and there is no connection…

  7. Cache-Cache Comparison for Supporting Meaningful Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jingyun; Fujino, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a meaningful discovery learning environment called "cache-cache comparison" for a personalized learning support system. The processing of seeking hidden relations or concepts in "cache-cache comparison" is intended to encourage learners to actively locate new knowledge in their knowledge framework and check…

  8. Increasing Meaningful Assistive Technology Use in the Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Cynthia; Beard, Lawrence A.

    2015-01-01

    Although personal technology is consistently used by students and teachers, meaningful use of technology for instruction may not be feasible without providing teachers specific training and support. One university is providing workshops, feedback through coursework, and hands-on training to teacher candidates and local area teachers. In addition,…

  9. Using Meaningful Contexts to Promote Understanding of Pronumerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsell, Chris; Cavanagh, Michael; Tahir, Salma

    2013-01-01

    Developing a conceptual understanding of elementary algebra has been the focus of a number of recent articles in this journal. Baroudi (2006) advocated problem solving to assist students' transition from arithmetic to algebra, and Shield (2008) described the use of meaningful contexts for developing the concept of function. Samson (2011, 2012)…

  10. Categorizing Drugs and Drug-Taking: A More Meaningful Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Robert S.; Duncan, David F.

    This document reviews various definitions of the nature and classification of drugs. Difficulties with existing categorizations which use such bases as clinical utility, molecular structure, effects on the central nervous system, legality, and hazard potential are disucssed. A more meaningful categorization based on the availability and sources of…

  11. The OnyCOE-t™ questionnaire: responsiveness and clinical meaningfulness of a patient-reported outcomes questionnaire for toenail onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Lori P; Mathias, Susan D; Raut, Monika; Kianifard, Farid; Tavakkol, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Background This research was conducted to confirm the validity and reliability and to assess the responsiveness and clinical meaningfulness of the OnyCOE-t™, a questionnaire specifically designed to measure patient-reported outcomes (PRO) associated with toenail onychomycosis. Methods 504 patients with toenail onychomycosis randomized to receive 12 weeks of terbinafine 250 mg/day with or without target toenail debridement in the IRON-CLAD® trial completed the OnyCOE-t™ at baseline, weeks 6, 12, 24, and 48. The OnyCOE-t™ is composed of 6 multi-item scales and 1 single-item scale. These include a 7-item Toenail Symptom assessment, which comprises both Symptom Frequency and Symptom Bothersomeness scales; an 8-item Appearance Problems scale; a 7-item Physical Activities Problems scale; a 1-item Overall Problem scale; a 7-item Stigma scale; and a 3-item Treatment Satisfaction scale. In total, 33 toenail onychomycosis-specific items are included in the OnyCOE-t™. Clinical data, in particular the percent clearing of mycotic involvement in the target toenail, and OnyCOE-t™ responses were used to evaluate the questionnaire's reliability, validity, responsiveness, and the minimally clinical important difference (MCID). Results The OnyCOE-t™ was shown to be reliable and valid. Construct validity and known groups validity were acceptable. Internal consistency reliability of multi-item scales was demonstrated by Cronbach's alpha > .84. Responsiveness was good, with the Treatment Satisfaction, Symptom Frequency, Overall Problem, and Appearance Problem scales demonstrating the most responsiveness (Guyatt's statistic of 1.72, 1.31, 1.13, and 1.11, respectively). MCID was evaluated for three different clinical measures, and indicated that approximately an 8.5-point change (on a 0 to 100 scale) was clinically meaningful based on a 25% improvement in target nail clearing. Conclusion The OnyCOE-t™ questionnaire is a unique, toenail-specific PRO questionnaire that can be

  12. Comparing potential early caries assessment methods for teledentistry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Optical caries detection has the potential to be incorporated in telehealth medicine for preventive dental screening. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare visible and near infrared detection methods for identifying early non-cavitated ex vivo occlusal demineralization. Methods Six blinded examiners were used to compare the accuracy of the following three examinations in detecting occlusal demineralization: Midwest Caries ID™ (MID), visual photographic examination (CAM) and Cross Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography (CP-OCT). For each diagnostic method, two examiners assessed the extracted tooth samples 1–2 weeks apart. Teeth were then sectioned and lesion depth was confirmed (n = 42) by a blinded histological examination using a glycol based caries indicator dye. The sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Sp), Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), and Area under the Receiver Operator Curve (AUC) were calculated. Results For detecting any demineralization versus sound pit and fissure enamel, the mean Sen/Sp found was 46.9/85.0 for MID, 80.5/52.5 for CAM, and 83.4/45.0 for CP-OCT. For detecting non-cavitated demineralization that progressed into the dentin, the mean Sen/Sp found was 17.3/88.0 for MID, 48.0/57.8 for CAM, and 44.2/72.7 for CP-OCT. AUC values were statistically significant (P < 0.05) in three out of four examiner assessments when MID and CP-OCT were used to detect any demineralization. AUC values were significant for a single CAM examination. When assessing deeper non-cavitated lesions, none of the assessment methods were able to yield AUC values that were significantly different than a random ‘coin flip’ test. When examining reliability, MID demonstrated the highest ICC score (0.83) and CP-OCT had the lowest (0.49). Conclusion Although MID and CP-OCT were useful in detecting the presence of demineralization, examiners were not able to utilize these devices to adequately assess the depth of the

  13. Assessing the sensitivity of methods for estimating principal causal effects.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Elizabeth A; Jo, Booil

    2015-12-01

    The framework of principal stratification provides a way to think about treatment effects conditional on post-randomization variables, such as level of compliance. In particular, the complier average causal effect (CACE) - the effect of the treatment for those individuals who would comply with their treatment assignment under either treatment condition - is often of substantive interest. However, estimation of the CACE is not always straightforward, with a variety of estimation procedures and underlying assumptions, but little advice to help researchers select between methods. In this article, we discuss and examine two methods that rely on very different assumptions to estimate the CACE: a maximum likelihood ('joint') method that assumes the 'exclusion restriction,' (ER) and a propensity score-based method that relies on 'principal ignorability.' We detail the assumptions underlying each approach, and assess each methods' sensitivity to both its own assumptions and those of the other method using both simulated data and a motivating example. We find that the ER-based joint approach appears somewhat less sensitive to its assumptions, and that the performance of both methods is significantly improved when there are strong predictors of compliance. Interestingly, we also find that each method performs particularly well when the assumptions of the other approach are violated. These results highlight the importance of carefully selecting an estimation procedure whose assumptions are likely to be satisfied in practice and of having strong predictors of principal stratum membership. PMID:21971481

  14. A proposed impact assessment method for genetically modified plants (AS-GMP Method)

    SciTech Connect

    Jesus-Hitzschky, Katia Regina Evaristo de; Silveira, Jose Maria F.J. da

    2009-11-15

    An essential step in the development of products based on biotechnology is an assessment of their potential economic impacts and safety, including an evaluation of the potential impact of transgenic crops and practices related to their cultivation on the environment and human or animal health. The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment method to evaluate the impact of biotechnologies that uses quantifiable parameters and allows a comparative analysis between conventional technology and technologies using GMOs. This paper introduces a method to perform an impact analysis associated with the commercial release and use of genetically modified plants, the Assessment System GMP Method. The assessment is performed through indicators that are arranged according to their dimension criterion likewise: environmental, economic, social, capability and institutional approach. To perform an accurate evaluation of the GMP specific indicators related to genetic modification are grouped in common fields: genetic insert features, GM plant features, gene flow, food/feed field, introduction of the GMP, unexpected occurrences and specific indicators. The novelty is the possibility to include specific parameters to the biotechnology under assessment. In this case by case analysis the factors of moderation and the indexes are parameterized to perform an available assessment.

  15. Getting Ready for ICD-10 and Meaningful Use Stage 2.

    PubMed

    Bert, Jack M; Beach, William R; McIntyre, Louis F; Sachdev, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    For the past 24 years, most developed countries have used the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) to report physician services. In the United States, physicians have continued to use the American Medical Association Current Procedural Terminology, Fourth Edition and the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System. The ICD-10-Clinical Modification (CM) has approximately 4.9 times more codes than the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. ICD-10-CM allows for more specific descriptors of a procedure and is broken down by category, etiology, anatomic site, severity, and extension. ICD-10-CM is scheduled to be implemented by Medicare and commercial payers on October 1, 2015. In addition to ICD-10 implementation, physicians have to meet the requirements of the Meaningful Use Electronic Health Record Incentive Program. The Meaningful Use program is designed to promote the use of certified electronic health technology by providing eligible professionals with incentive payments if they meet the defined core and menu objectives of each stage of the program. All core measures must be met; however, providers can choose to meet a preset number of menu measures. Meaningful Use Stage 1 required eligible professionals to meet core and menu objectives that focused on data capture and sharing. Meaningful Use Stage 2 requires eligible professionals to meet core and menu objects that focus on advanced clinical processes for a full year in 2015. Stage 3 has been delayed until 2017, and core and menu measures that will focus on improving outcomes have not yet been defined. It is important for orthopaedic surgeons to understand the history of and techniques for the use of ICD-10-CM in clinical practice. Orthopaedic surgeons also should understand the requirements for Meaningful Use Stages 1 and 2, including the core objectives that must be met to achieve satisfactory attestation. PMID:27049227

  16. [Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bekkering, G E; Kleijnen, J

    2008-12-01

    implement a scoping process to support the development of the research question. 2. To separate the work of the external experts performing the evidence assessment from that of the institute formulating recommendations. Therefore, the preliminary report as produced by external experts needs to be public, and published separately from any subsequent amendments or (draft-)reports made by the institute, which includes the institute's recommendations. 3. To implement open peer review by publishing both the comments of the reviewers and their names. Based on the legal framework, the institute must provide for adequate participation of relevant parties. These include organisations representing the interests of patients; experts of medical, pharmaceutical and health economic science and practice; the professional organisations of pharmacists and pharmaceutical companies; and experts on alternative therapies. Patients and health care professionals bring in new insights with respect to research priorities, treatment and outcomes. The relevant parties should be identified and contacted whenever the global scope of the assessment has been drafted. Subsequently, the relevant parties should be involved in defining the research question, developing the protocol and commenting on the preliminary report. To implement the involvement of relevant parties in defining the research question a scoping process is suggested. For the other phases, written comments followed by an oral discussion should be used. Finally, the relevant parties should have the right to appeal the final decision on judicial grounds. None of these steps mean that the institute would lose any part of its scientific independence. From the relevant sections of the legal framework with respect to the assessment methods, it can be concluded that: 1. The institute must ensure that the assessment is made in accordance with internationally recognised standards of evidence-based medicine (EBM). 2. The assessment is conducted in

  17. Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bekkering, Geertruida E; Kleijnen, Jos

    2008-11-01

    process to support the development of the research question. 2. To separate the work of the external experts performing the evidence assessment from that of the institute formulating recommendations. Therefore, the preliminary report as produced by external experts needs to be public, and published separately from any subsequent amendments or (draft-)reports made by the institute, which includes the institute's recommendations. 3. To implement open peer review by publishing both the comments of the reviewers and their names. Based on the legal framework, the institute must provide for adequate participation of relevant parties. These include organisations representing the interests of patients; experts of medical, pharmaceutical and health economic science and practice; the professional organisations of pharmacists and pharmaceutical companies; and experts on alternative therapies. Patients and health care professionals bring in new insights with respect to research priorities, treatment and outcomes.The relevant parties should be identified and contacted whenever the global scope of the assessment has been drafted. Subsequently, the relevant parties should be involved in defining the research question, developing the protocol and commenting on the preliminary report. To implement the involvement of relevant parties in defining the research question a scoping process is suggested. For the other phases, written comments followed by an oral discussion should be used. Finally, the relevant parties should have the right to appeal the final decision on judicial grounds. None of these steps mean that the institute would lose any part of its scientific independence.From the relevant sections of the legal framework with respect to the assessment methods, it can be concluded that: 1. The institute must ensure that the assessment is made in accordance with internationally recognised standards of evidence-based medicine (EBM). 2. The assessment is conducted in comparison with other

  18. Developing the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) in the context of impact significance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ijaes, Asko; Kuitunen, Markku T.; Jalava, Kimmo

    2010-02-15

    In this paper the applicability of the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) is evaluated in the context of impact significance assessment. The methodological issues considered in the study are: 1) to test the possibilities of enlarging the scoring system used in the method, and 2) to compare the significance classifications of RIAM and unaided decision-making to estimate the consistency between these methods. The data used consisted of projects for which funding had been applied for via the European Union's Regional Development Trust in the area of Central Finland. Cases were evaluated with respect to their environmental, social and economic impacts using an assessment panel. The results showed the scoring framework used in RIAM could be modified according to the problem situation at hand, which enhances its application potential. However the changes made in criteria B did not significantly affect the final ratings of the method, which indicates the high importance of criteria A1 (importance) and A2 (magnitude) to the overall results. The significance classes obtained by the two methods diverged notably. In general the ratings given by RIAM tended to be smaller compared to intuitive judgement implying that the RIAM method may be somewhat conservative in character.

  19. The Effects of Cognitive Process and Decision Making Training in Reading Experience on Meaningful Learning with Underachieving College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Rebecca J.

    2010-01-01

    The ability of underprepared college students to read and learn from their reading is essential to their academic success and to their ability to persist towards completing their degree. The purposes of this study were to (a) assess the relationship between the cognitive processes of reading-based decision making and meaningful learning and (b)…

  20. Computerized Communication Assessment Management: A Multi-Method Approach to Skills and Field Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitken, Joan E.

    The Department of Communication Studies at the University of Missouri-Kansas City is developing a computer package designed to teach and assess aural, visual, and oral communication skills through a multi-media approach with classroom tests, portfolios, and performance measures. Before developing the multi-method approach, the department tried six…

  1. An interlaboratory comparison of methods used to assess antioxidant potentials.

    PubMed

    Buenger, J; Ackermann, H; Jentzsch, A; Mehling, A; Pfitzner, I; Reiffen, K-A; Schroeder, K-R; Wollenweber, U

    2006-04-01

    Many analytical methods are used to measure the antioxidative activity of substances yet little is known about the comparability of the test results between laboratories. After an initial evaluation of a broad range of methods conducted by one laboratory, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, the lipid assay (or 2,2'-azobis(2-aminepropane) (ABAP) assay) and the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay were selected to be evaluated in the interlaboratory study. The antioxidative potentials of trolox, tocopherol, lipochroman-6, ascorbic acid, 4-methyl-brenzcatechin, and/or 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT) were assessed using each of the methods. These methods were then evaluated in respect of their reproducibility and classification properties. Based on the results of this study, the DPPH assay followed by the TEAC assay yielded the best results based on reproducibility and sensitivity both within one laboratory and between laboratories. The results of the interlaboratory study were then compared with the single center results obtained from the commercially available photochemolumiescence (PCL) kit. To assess the transferability of chemical data to biological systems, they were also compared with the single center results obtained using the cell-based Dichlorodihydrofluoresceine (DCFH) assay. PMID:18492148

  2. Methods to Assess Measurement Error in Questionnaires of Sedentary Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Joshua N; Matthews, Charles E; Freedman, Laurence; Carroll, Raymond J.; Kipnis, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behavior has already been associated with mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Questionnaires are an affordable tool for measuring sedentary behavior in large epidemiological studies. Here, we introduce and evaluate two statistical methods for quantifying measurement error in questionnaires. Accurate estimates are needed for assessing questionnaire quality. The two methods would be applied to validation studies that measure a sedentary behavior by both questionnaire and accelerometer on multiple days. The first method fits a reduced model by assuming the accelerometer is without error, while the second method fits a more complete model that allows both measures to have error. Because accelerometers tend to be highly accurate, we show that ignoring the accelerometer’s measurement error, can result in more accurate estimates of measurement error in some scenarios. In this manuscript, we derive asymptotic approximations for the Mean-Squared Error of the estimated parameters from both methods, evaluate their dependence on study design and behavior characteristics, and offer an R package so investigators can make an informed choice between the two methods. We demonstrate the difference between the two methods in a recent validation study comparing Previous Day Recalls (PDR) to an accelerometer-based ActivPal. PMID:27340315

  3. Geomorphometry-based method of landform assessment for geodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najwer, Alicja; Zwoliński, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    Climate variability primarily induces the variations in the intensity and frequency of surface processes and consequently, principal changes in the landscape. As a result, abiotic heterogeneity may be threatened and the key elements of the natural diversity even decay. The concept of geodiversity was created recently and has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world. However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage. Moreover, little progress has been made concerning its assessment and geovisualisation. Geographical Information System (GIS) tools currently provide wide possibilities for the Earth's surface studies. Very often, the main limitation in that analysis is acquisition of geodata in appropriate resolution. The main objective of this study was to develop a proceeding algorithm for the landform geodiversity assessment using geomorphometric parameters. Furthermore, final maps were compared to those resulting from thematic layers method. The study area consists of two peculiar valleys, characterized by diverse landscape units and complex geological setting: Sucha Woda in Polish part of Tatra Mts. and Wrzosowka in Sudetes Mts. Both valleys are located in the National Park areas. The basis for the assessment is a proper selection of geomorphometric parameters with reference to the definition of geodiversity. Seven factor maps were prepared for each valley: General Curvature, Topographic Openness, Potential Incoming Solar Radiation, Topographic Position Index, Topographic Wetness Index, Convergence Index and Relative Heights. After the data integration and performing the necessary geoinformation analysis, the next step with a certain degree of subjectivity is score classification of the input maps using an expert system and geostatistical analysis. The crucial point to generate the final maps of geodiversity by multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) with GIS-based Weighted Sum technique is to assign appropriate weights for each factor map by

  4. A GIS-based method for flood risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeropoulos, Kleomenis; Stathopoulos, Nikos; Psarogiannis, Athanasios; Penteris, Dimitris; Tsiakos, Chrisovalantis; Karagiannopoulou, Aikaterini; Krikigianni, Eleni; Karymbalis, Efthimios; Chalkias, Christos

    2016-04-01

    Floods are physical global hazards with negative environmental and socio-economic impacts on local and regional scale. The technological evolution during the last decades, especially in the field of geoinformatics, has offered new advantages in hydrological modelling. This study seeks to use this technology in order to quantify flood risk assessment. The study area which was used is an ungauged catchment and by using mostly GIS hydrological and geomorphological analysis together with a GIS-based distributed Unit Hydrograph model, a series of outcomes have risen. More specifically, this paper examined the behaviour of the Kladeos basin (Peloponnese, Greece) using real rainfall data, as well hypothetical storms. The hydrological analysis held using a Digital Elevation Model of 5x5m pixel size, while the quantitative drainage basin characteristics were calculated and were studied in terms of stream order and its contribution to the flood. Unit Hydrographs are, as it known, useful when there is lack of data and in this work, based on time-area method, a sequences of flood risk assessments have been made using the GIS technology. Essentially, the proposed methodology estimates parameters such as discharge, flow velocity equations etc. in order to quantify flood risk assessment. Keywords Flood Risk Assessment Quantification; GIS; hydrological analysis; geomorphological analysis.

  5. Assessments of lung digestion methods for recovery of fibers.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Hwang, H C; Achinko, L

    1991-04-01

    Evaluation of the pulmonary hazards associated with exposure to fibrous materials tends to be more complicated than assessments required for particulate materials. Fibers are defined by aspect ratios and it is generally considered that physical dimensions play an important role in the pathogenesis of fiber-related lung diseases. Several digestion techniques have been used to recover fibers from exposed lung tissue for clearance studies. Because many of the digestion fluids are corrosive (e.g., bleach, KOH), it is conceivable that the dimensions of recovered fibers are modified during the tissue digestion methods to assess whether the physical dimensions of bulk samples of fibers were altered following simulated digestion processing. Aliquots of crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos, Kevlar aramid, wollastonite, polyacrylonitrile (pan)-based carbon, and glass fibers were incubated with either saline, bleach, or KOH and then filtered. Scanning electron microscopy techniques were utilized to measure the physical dimensions (i.e., lengths and diameters) of at least 160 fibers per treatment group of each fiber type. Our results showed that the lengths and diameters of glass fibers and wollastonite were altered after treatment with KOH. In addition, treatment with bleach produced a small reduction in both asbestos fiber-type diameters, and greater changes in Kevlar and wollastonite diameters and carbon fiber lengths (P less than 0.05). These results indicate that lung digestion methods should be carefully assessed for each fiber type before initiating fiber clearance studies. PMID:1851478

  6. Methods for assessment of keel bone damage in poultry.

    PubMed

    Casey-Trott, T; Heerkens, J L T; Petrik, M; Regmi, P; Schrader, L; Toscano, M J; Widowski, T

    2015-10-01

    Keel bone damage (KBD) is a critical issue facing the laying hen industry today as a result of the likely pain leading to compromised welfare and the potential for reduced productivity. Recent reports suggest that damage, while highly variable and likely dependent on a host of factors, extends to all systems (including battery cages, furnished cages, and non-cage systems), genetic lines, and management styles. Despite the extent of the problem, the research community remains uncertain as to the causes and influencing factors of KBD. Although progress has been made investigating these factors, the overall effort is hindered by several issues related to the assessment of KBD, including quality and variation in the methods used between research groups. These issues prevent effective comparison of studies, as well as difficulties in identifying the presence of damage leading to poor accuracy and reliability. The current manuscript seeks to resolve these issues by offering precise definitions for types of KBD, reviewing methods for assessment, and providing recommendations that can improve the accuracy and reliability of those assessments. PMID:26287001

  7. Survey and evaluation of aging risk assessment methods and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanzo, D.L.; Kvam, P.; Apostolakis, G.; Wu, J.; Milici, T.; Ghoniem, N.; Guarro, S.

    1993-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated the nuclear power plant aging research (NPAR) program about 6 years ago to gather information about nuclear power plant aging. Since then, this program has collected a significant amount of information, largely qualitative, on plant aging and its potential effects on plant safety. However, this body of knowledge has not yet been integrated into formalisms that can be used effectively and systematically to assess plant risk resulting from aging, although models for assessing the effect of increasing failure rates on core damage frequency have been proposed. The purpose of this review is to survey the work conducted to address the aging of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) of nuclear power plants (NPPs), as well as the associated data bases. The review takes a critical look at the need to revise probabilistic risk assessment (PRAs) so that they will include the contribution to risk from plant aging, the adequacy of existing methods for evaluating this contribution, and the adequacy of the data that have been used in these evaluation methods. A preliminary framework is identified for integrating the aging of SSCs into the PRA, including the identification of needed data for such an integration.

  8. Survey methods for assessing land cover map accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nusser, S.M.; Klaas, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing availability of digital photographic materials has fueled efforts by agencies and organizations to generate land cover maps for states, regions, and the United States as a whole. Regardless of the information sources and classification methods used, land cover maps are subject to numerous sources of error. In order to understand the quality of the information contained in these maps, it is desirable to generate statistically valid estimates of accuracy rates describing misclassification errors. We explored a full sample survey framework for creating accuracy assessment study designs that balance statistical and operational considerations in relation to study objectives for a regional assessment of GAP land cover maps. We focused not only on appropriate sample designs and estimation approaches, but on aspects of the data collection process, such as gaining cooperation of land owners and using pixel clusters as an observation unit. The approach was tested in a pilot study to assess the accuracy of Iowa GAP land cover maps. A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design addressed sample size requirements for land covers and the need for geographic spread while minimizing operational effort. Recruitment methods used for private land owners yielded high response rates, minimizing a source of nonresponse error. Collecting data for a 9-pixel cluster centered on the sampled pixel was simple to implement, and provided better information on rarer vegetation classes as well as substantial gains in precision relative to observing data at a single-pixel.

  9. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier; Requena, Ignacio; Duarte, Oscar; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2013-11-15

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown.

  10. A new assessment method of outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyeri; Lee, Kiyoung

    2014-04-01

    Outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) is concerned due to potential health effects. An assessment method of OTS exposure is needed to determine effects of OTS and validate outdoor smoking policies. The objective of this study was to develop a new method to assess OTS exposure. This study was conducted at 100 bus stops including 50 centerline bus stops and 50 roadside bus stops in Seoul, Korea. Using real-time aerosol monitor, PM2.5 was measured for 30 min at each bus stop in two seasons. ‘Peak analysis' method was developed to assess short term PM2.5 exposure by OTS. The 30-min average PM2.5 exposure at each bus stop was associated with season and bus stop location but not smoking activity. The PM2.5 peak occurrence rate by the peak analysis method was significantly associated with season, bus stop location, observed smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. The PM2.5 peak concentration was significantly associated with season, smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. When a smoker was standing still at the bus stop, magnitude of peak concentrations were significantly higher than when the smoker walking-through the bus stop. People were exposed to high short-term PM2.5 peak levels at bus stops, and the magnitude of peak concentrations were highest when a smoker was located close to the monitor. The magnitude of peak concentration was a good indicator helped distinguish nearby OTS exposure. Further research using ‘peak analysis' is needed to measure smoking-related exposure to PM2.5 in other outdoor locations.

  11. A new method for assessing surface solar irradiance: Heliosat-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Z.; Oumbe, A.; Blanc, P.; Lefèvre, M.; Wald, L.; Schroedter-Homscheidt, M.; Gesell, G.

    2012-04-01

    Downwelling shortwave irradiance at surface (SSI) is more and more often assessed by means of satellite-derived estimates of optical properties of the atmosphere. Performances are judged satisfactory for the time being but there is an increasing need for the assessment of the direct and diffuse components of the SSI. MINES ParisTech and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) are currently developing the Heliosat-4 method to assess the SSI and its components in a more accurate way than current practices. This method is composed by two parts: a clear sky module based on the radiative transfer model libRadtran, and a cloud-ground module using two-stream and delta-Eddington approximations for clouds and a database of ground albedo. Advanced products derived from geostationary satellites and recent Earth Observation missions are the inputs of the Heliosat-4 method. Such products are: cloud optical depth, cloud phase, cloud type and cloud coverage from APOLLO of DLR, aerosol optical depth, aerosol type, water vapor in clear-sky, ozone from MACC products (FP7), and ground albedo from MODIS of NASA. In this communication, we briefly present Heliosat-4 and focus on its performances. The results of Heliosat-4 for the period 2004-2010 will be compared to the measurements made in five stations within the Baseline Surface Radiation Network. Extensive statistic analysis as well as case studies are performed in order to better understand Heliosat-4 and have an in-depth view of the performance of Heliosat-4, to understand its advantages comparing to existing methods and to identify its defaults for future improvements. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement no. 218793 (MACC project) and no. 283576 (MACC-II project).

  12. Diffuse optical methods for assessing breast cancer chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2014-03-01

    In his talk, "Diffuse Optical Methods for Assessing Breast Cancer Chemotherapy," SPIE Fellow Bruce Tromberg (Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic) describes a method combining frequency domain photon migration, essentially a method of tracking photon motion in tissue, with a NIR spectroscopy technique using 850nm LEDs. The result is a scatter corrected absorption spectra. The technique takes advantage of elevated blood and water levels and decreased lipid levels in the presence of tumors to provide a more accurate mapping of the breast, allowing more effective treatment. Tromberg's team recently completed their first full mapping of the breast and have taken the instrument from a standalone unit to a portable one suitable for travel. In addition to providing feedback to enhance breast cancer treatment, Tromberg expects that this technique will be applicable in treating other forms of cancer as well.

  13. Falcon: automated optimization method for arbitrary assessment criteria

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Tser-Yuan; Moses, Edward I.; Hartmann-Siantar, Christine

    2001-01-01

    FALCON is a method for automatic multivariable optimization for arbitrary assessment criteria that can be applied to numerous fields where outcome simulation is combined with optimization and assessment criteria. A specific implementation of FALCON is for automatic radiation therapy treatment planning. In this application, FALCON implements dose calculations into the planning process and optimizes available beam delivery modifier parameters to determine the treatment plan that best meets clinical decision-making criteria. FALCON is described in the context of the optimization of external-beam radiation therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), but the concepts could also be applied to internal (brachytherapy) radiotherapy. The radiation beams could consist of photons or any charged or uncharged particles. The concept of optimizing source distributions can be applied to complex radiography (e.g. flash x-ray or proton) to improve the imaging capabilities of facilities proposed for science-based stockpile stewardship.

  14. Comparison of Body Composition Assessment Methods in Pediatric Intestinal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Nilesh M.; Raphael, Bram; Guteirrez, Ivan; Quinn, Nicolle; Mitchell, Paul D.; Litman, Heather J.; Jaksic, Tom; Duggan, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the agreement of multifrequency bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometry with reference methods for body composition assessment in children with intestinal failure (IF). Methods We conducted a prospective pilot study in children 14 years of age or younger with IF resulting from either short bowel syndrome (SBS) or motility disorders. Bland Altman analysis was used to examine the agreement between BIA and deuterium dilution in measuring total body water (TBW) and lean body mass (LBM); and between BIA and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) techniques in measuring LBM and FM. Fat mass (FM) and percent body fat (%BF) measurements by BIA and anthropometry, were also compared in relation to those measured by deuterium dilution. Results Fifteen children with IF, median (IQR) age 7.2 (5.0, 10.0) years, 10 (67%) male, were studied. BIA and deuterium dilution were in good agreement with a mean bias (limits of agreement) of 0.9 (-3.2, 5.0) for TBW (L) and 0.1 (-5.4 to 5.6) for LBM (kg) measurements. The mean bias (limits) for FM (kg) and %BF measurements were 0.4 (-3.8, 4.6) kg and 1.7 (-16.9, 20.3)% respectively. The limits of agreement were within 1 SD of the mean bias in 12/14 (86%) subjects for TBW and LBM, and in 11/14 (79%) for FM and %BF measurements. Mean bias (limits) for LBM (kg) and FM (kg) between BIA and DXA were 1.6 (-3.0 to 6.3) kg and -0.1 (-3.2 to 3.1) kg, respectively. Mean bias (limits) for FM (kg) and %BF between anthropometry and deuterium dilution were 0.2 (-4.2, 4.6) and -0.2 (-19.5 to 19.1), respectively. The limits of agreement were within 1 SD of the mean bias in 10/14 (71%) subjects. Conclusions In children with intestinal failure, TBW and LBM measurements by multifrequency BIA method were in agreement with isotope dilution and DXA methods, with small mean bias. In comparison to deuterium dilution, BIA was comparable to anthropometry for FM and %BF assessments with small mean bias. However, the limits of agreement

  15. Revisiting Psychoacoustic Methods for the Assessment of Fish Hearing.

    PubMed

    Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral methods have been critical in the study of auditory perception and discrimination in fishes. In this chapter, we review some of the common methods used in fish psychoacoustics. We discuss associative methods, such as operant, avoidance, and classical conditioning, and their use in constructing audiograms, measuring frequency selectivity, and auditory stream segregation. We also discuss the measurement of innate behavioral responses, such as the acoustic startle response (ASR), prepulse inhibition (PPI), and phonotaxis, and their use in the assessment of fish hearing to determine auditory thresholds and in the testing of mechanisms for sound source localization. For each psychoacoustic method, we provide examples of their use and discuss the parameters and situations where such methods can be best utilized. In the case of the ASR, we show how this method can be used to construct and compare audiograms between two species of larval fishes, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We also discuss considerations for experimental design with respect to stimulus presentation and threshold criteria and how these techniques can be used in future studies to investigate auditory perception in fishes. PMID:26515314

  16. Explorations in Statistics: Permutation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This eighth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores permutation methods, empiric procedures we can use to assess an experimental result--to test a null hypothesis--when we are reluctant to trust statistical…

  17. Comparative assessment of regionalisation methods of monitored atmospheric deposition loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinstorf, Frido; Binder, Maja; Schirmer, Mario; Grimm-Strele, Jost; Walther, Wolfgang

    The objective of this investigation is to assess the suitability of well-known regionalisation methods of data from existing deposition monitoring networks for use in water resources management. For this purpose a comparison of the applicability and accuracy of various regionalisation methods was made. A crucial point is the data demand of the various methods. In this investigation the deterministic and geostatistical methods inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK) and external drift kriging (EDK) as well as the chemical transport models METRAS-MUSCAT, EMEP, EDACS and EUTREND have been characterised and evaluated. The methods IDW and OK have been applied to the investigation areas—the German Federal States of Lower Saxony and Saxony. An evaluation of these methods was carried out with a cross-validation procedure. The result was in most cases a higher accuracy for the OK method. The EDK method has been investigated in order to find suitable drift variables from the parameters precipitation amount, altitude and wind direction. With help of a correlation analysis a suitable drift variable could not be found. After the application of OK, verification was carried out by a comparison of the estimated data set with an independently determined data set. The result was a relatively smaller deviation of the estimated data set. The investigation considers data from routine monitoring networks as well as networks for special applications and has been carried out on the basis of monitoring networks of the two states. The investigated database was wet and bulk deposition of the substances NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Na +, Pb 2+, and Cd 2+ in Lower Saxony and SO 42- in Saxony. From this, a consistent database of bulk deposition data was built. From all applied methods OK proved to cope best with the data deficiencies that were found.

  18. Electromechanical impedance method to assess dental implant stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabrizi, Aydin; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Ochs, Mark W.

    2012-11-01

    The stability of a dental implant is a prerequisite for supporting a load-bearing prosthesis and establishment of a functional bone-implant system. Reliable and noninvasive methods able to assess the bone interface of dental and orthopedic implants (osseointegration) are increasingly demanded for clinical diagnosis and direct prognosis. In this paper, we propose the electromechanical impedance method as a novel approach for the assessment of dental implant stability. Nobel Biocare® implants with a size of 4.3 mm diameter ×13 mm length were placed inside bovine bones that were then immersed in a solution of nitric acid to allow material degradation. The degradation simulated the inverse process of bone healing. The implant-bone systems were monitored by bonding a piezoceramic transducer (PZT) to the implants’ abutment and measuring the admittance of the PZT over time. It was found that the PZT’s admittance and the statistical features associated with its analysis are sensitive to the degradation of the bones and can be correlated to the loss of calcium measured by means of the atomic absorption spectroscopy method. The present study shows promising results and may pave the road towards an innovative approach for the noninvasive monitoring of dental implant stability and integrity.

  19. Comparison of methods for assessing integrity of equine sperm membranes.

    PubMed

    Foster, M L; Love, C C; Varner, D D; Brinsko, S P; Hinrichs, K; Teague, S; Lacaze, K; Blanchard, T L

    2011-07-15

    Sperm membrane integrity (SMI) is thought to be an important measure of stallion sperm quality. The objective was to compare three methods for evaluating SMI: flow cytometry using SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI) stain; an automated cell counting device using PI stain; and eosin-nigrosin stain. Raw equine semen was subjected to various treatments containing 20 to 80% seminal plasma in extender, with differing sperm concentrations, to simulate spontaneous loss of SMI. The SMI was assessed immediately, and after 1 and 2 d of cooled storage. Agreement between methods was determined according to Bland-Altman methodology. Eosin-nigrosin staining yielded higher (2%) overall mean values for SMI than did flow cytometry. Flow cytometry yielded higher (6%) overall mean values for SMI than did the automated cell counter. As percentage of membrane-damaged sperm increased, agreement of SMI measurement between methods decreased. When semen contained 50-79% membrane-intact sperm, the 95% limits of agreement between SMI determined by flow cytometry and eosin-nigrosin staining were greater (range = -26.9 to 24.3%; i.e., a 51.2% span) than for SMI determined by flow cytometry and the automated cell counter (range = -3.1 to 17.0%; 20.1% span). When sperm populations contained <50% membrane-intact sperm, the 95% limits of agreement between SMI determined by flow cytometry and eosin-nigrosin staining were greater (range = -35.9 to 19.0%; 54.9% span) than for SMI determined by flow cytometry and the automated cell counter (range = -11.6 to 28.7%; 40.3% span). We concluded that eosin-nigrosin staining assessments of percent membrane-intact sperm agreed less with flow cytometry when <80% of sperm had intact membranes, whereas automated cell counter assessments of percent membrane-intact sperm agreed less with flow cytometry when <30% of sperm had intact membranes. PMID:21496902

  20. Data processing costs for three posture assessment methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Data processing contributes a non-trivial proportion to total research costs, but documentation of these costs is rare. This paper employed a priori cost tracking for three posture assessment methods (self-report, observation of video, and inclinometry), developed a model describing the fixed and variable cost components, and simulated additional study scenarios to demonstrate the utility of the model. Methods Trunk and shoulder postures of aircraft baggage handlers were assessed for 80 working days using all three methods. A model was developed to estimate data processing phase costs, including fixed and variable components related to study planning and administration, custom software development, training of analysts, and processing time. Results Observation of video was the most costly data processing method with total cost of € 30,630, and was 1.2-fold more costly than inclinometry (€ 26,255), and 2.5-fold more costly than self-reported data (€ 12,491). Simulated scenarios showed altering design strategy could substantially impact processing costs. This was shown for both fixed parameters, such as software development and training costs, and variable parameters, such as the number of work-shift files processed, as well as the sampling frequency for video observation. When data collection and data processing costs were combined, the cost difference between video and inclinometer methods was reduced to 7%; simulated data showed this difference could be diminished and, even, reversed at larger study sample sizes. Self-report remained substantially less costly under all design strategies, but produced alternate exposure metrics. Conclusions These findings build on the previously published data collection phase cost model by reporting costs for post-collection data processing of the same data set. Together, these models permit empirically based study planning and identification of cost-efficient study designs. PMID:24118872

  1. Shifting from Instruction to Construction: A Personal Meaningful Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blocher, J. Michael; Echols, Jennifer; de Montes, Laura Sujo; Willis, Elizabeth; Tucker, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Presents a case study of one student's passage through an online M.ED. in Educational Technology degree program and her subsequent experience integrating her newly acquired knowledge, skills, and methods in the real world of her own teaching practice, focusing on her dilemma in assessing her students' learning as she shifted her educational…

  2. Epidemiological designs for vaccine safety assessment: methods and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Nick

    2012-09-01

    Three commonly used designs for vaccine safety assessment post licensure are cohort, case-control and self-controlled case series. These methods are often used with routine health databases and immunisation registries. This paper considers the issues that may arise when designing an epidemiological study, such as understanding the vaccine safety question, case definition and finding, limitations of data sources, uncontrolled confounding, and pitfalls that apply to the individual designs. The example of MMR and autism, where all three designs have been used, is presented to help consider these issues. PMID:21985898

  3. Research Spotlight: New method to assess coral reef health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-03-01

    Coral reefs around the world are becoming stressed due to rising temperatures, ocean acidification, overfishing, and other factors. Measuring community level rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and biogenic calcification is essential to assessing the health of coral reef ecosystems because the balance between these processes determines the potential for reef growth and the export of carbon. Measurements of biological productivity have typically been made by tracing changes in dissolved oxygen in seawater as it passes over a reef. However, this is a labor-intensive and difficult method, requiring repeated measurements. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2010GL046179, 2011)

  4. A solution quality assessment method for swarm intelligence optimization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaojun; Wang, Gai-Ge; Zou, Kuansheng; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, swarm intelligence optimization has become an important optimization tool and wildly used in many fields of application. In contrast to many successful applications, the theoretical foundation is rather weak. Therefore, there are still many problems to be solved. One problem is how to quantify the performance of algorithm in finite time, that is, how to evaluate the solution quality got by algorithm for practical problems. It greatly limits the application in practical problems. A solution quality assessment method for intelligent optimization is proposed in this paper. It is an experimental analysis method based on the analysis of search space and characteristic of algorithm itself. Instead of "value performance," the "ordinal performance" is used as evaluation criteria in this method. The feasible solutions were clustered according to distance to divide solution samples into several parts. Then, solution space and "good enough" set can be decomposed based on the clustering results. Last, using relative knowledge of statistics, the evaluation result can be got. To validate the proposed method, some intelligent algorithms such as ant colony optimization (ACO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFS) were taken to solve traveling salesman problem. Computational results indicate the feasibility of proposed method. PMID:25013845

  5. Comparative assessment of the methods for exchangeable acidity measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanchikova, E. V.; Shamrikova, E. V.; Bespyatykh, N. V.; Zaboeva, G. A.; Bobrova, Yu. I.; Kyz"yurova, E. V.; Grishchenko, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    A comparative assessment of the results of measuring the exchangeable acidity and its components by different methods was performed for the main mineral genetic horizons of texturally-differentiated gleyed and nongleyed soddy-podzolic and gley-podzolic soils of the Komi Republic. It was shown that the contents of all the components of exchangeable soil acidity determined by the Russian method (with potassium chloride solution as extractant, c(KCl) = 1 mol/dm3) were significantly higher than those obtained by the international method (with barium chloride solution as extractant, c(BaCl2) = 0.1 mol/dm3). The error of the estimate of the concentration of H+ ions extracted with barium chloride solution equaled 100%, and this allowed only qualitative description of this component of the soil acidity. In the case of the extraction with potassium chloride, the error of measurements was 50%. It was also shown that the use of potentiometric titration suggested by the Russian method overestimates the results of soil acidity measurement caused by the exchangeable metal ions (Al(III), Fe(III), and Mn(II)) in comparison with the atomic emission method.

  6. Concept Mapping Using Cmap Tools to Enhance Meaningful Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañas, Alberto J.; Novak, Joseph D.

    Concept maps are graphical tools that have been used in all facets of education and training for organizing and representing knowledge. When learners build concept maps, meaningful learning is facilitated. Computer-based concept mapping software such as CmapTools have further extended the use of concept mapping and greatly enhanced the potential of the tool, facilitating the implementation of a concept map-centered learning environment. In this chapter, we briefly present concept mapping and its theoretical foundation, and illustrate how it can lead to an improved learning environment when it is combined with CmapTools and the Internet. We present the nationwide “Proyecto Conéctate al Conocimiento” in Panama as an example of how concept mapping, together with technology, can be adopted by hundreds of schools as a means to enhance meaningful learning.

  7. Patient experience should be part of meaningful-use criteria.

    PubMed

    Ralston, James D; Coleman, Katie; Reid, Robert J; Handley, Matthew R; Larson, Eric B

    2010-04-01

    The proposed federal "meaningful use" criteria for electronic health records include the direct engagement of patients in their care. In this study, we sought to describe the adoption and use of online services linked to the electronic health record at Group Health Cooperative. By August 2009, six years after the introduction of these services, 30 percent of outpatient "encounters" were actually conducted through secure electronic messaging. Meanwhile, 10 percent of enrollees reviewed medical test results online, while 10 percent went online to request medication refills. These results highlight the need to measure the patient experience as part of meaningful use and to enact policies supporting online and phone communication by patients and providers. PMID:20368589

  8. Compatibility assessment of methods used for soil hydrophobicity determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papierowska, Ewa; Szatyłowicz, Jan; Kalisz, Barbara; Łachacz, Andrzej; Matysiak, Wojciech; Debaene, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Soil hydrophobicity is a global problem. Effect of hydrophobicity on the soil environment is very important, because it can cause irreversible changes in ecosystems, leading to their complete degradation. The choice of method used to determine soil hydrophobicity is not simple because there is no obvious criteria for their selection. The results obtained by various methods may not be coherent and may indicate different degrees of hydrophobicity within the same soil sample. The objective of the study was to assess the compatibility between methods used to determine the hydrophobicity of selected organic and mineral-organic soils. Two groups of soil materials were examined: hydrogenic (87 soil samples) and autogenic soils (19 soil samples) collected from 41 soil profiles located in north-eastern Poland. Air-dry soil samples were used. Hydrophobicity was determined using two different methods i.e. on the basis of wetting contact angle measurements between water and solid phase of soils and with water drop penetration time tests. The value of the wetting contact angle was measured using the sessile drop method with optical goniometer CAM 100 (KSV Instruments). The wetting contact angles were determined at room temperature (20° C) within 10 min after sample preparation using standard procedure. In addition, water drop penetration time was measured. In order to compare the methods used for the assessment of soil hydrophobicity, the agreement between observers model was applied. In this model five categories of soil hydrophobicity were proposed according to the class used in the soil hydrofobicity classification based on water drop penetration time test. Based on this classification the values of the weighted kappa coefficients were calculated using SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute, 2013, Cary NC) for evaluating relationships between between the different investigated methods. The results of agreement were presented in forms of agreement charts. Research results indicated good

  9. Meaningful QQ adjustment of TRMM/GPM daily rainfall estimates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegram, Geoff; Bardossy, Andras; Sinclair, Scott

    2016-04-01

    In many parts of the world, particularly in Africa, the daily raingauge networks are sparse. It is therefore sensible to use remote sensing estimates of precipitation to fill the gaps, but readily available products like TRMM and it successor GPM are frequently found to be biased. This presentation describes a method of bias adjustment of TRMM using quantile-quantile (QQ) transforms of the probability distributions of TRMM daily rainfall accumulations over its grid of 0.25 degree pixels/blocks. There are 4 main steps in the procedure. The first is to collect the daily gauge readings in those TRMM pixels containing gauges to obtain useful estimates of spatial rainfall for ground referencing. These estimates need to be adjusted from gauge to areal estimates taking the number of gauges in each pixel into account. We found that the distributions of the areal rainfall estimates are influenced by the number of gauges in each block, so we devised a means of transforming point to areal rainfall meaningfully. The second step is to determine the parameters of the probability distributions of the gauge-based block areal rainfall; we found that the Weibull distribution with 2 parameters is a suitable and useful choice. The pairs of Weibull parameters of rainfall on many blocks are correlated. To enable their interpolation, as an intermediate step, they have to be decorrelated using canonical decomposition. These transformed parameter pairs are then separately interpolated to empty blocks over the region of choice. They are then back-transformed at each TRMM pixel to Weibull parameters to provide gauge referenced daily rainfall distributions. The third step is to determine the Weibull distributions of the TRMM daily rainfall estimates in each block, based on their brief 11-year history. The fourth and last step is to QQ transform the individual daily TRMM rainfall estimates via the interpolated gauge-block rainfall distributions. This procedure achieves the desired corrected

  10. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    PubMed Central

    MacDonell, Margaret M.; Haroun, Lynne A.; Teuschler, Linda K.; Rice, Glenn E.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Butler, James P.; Chang, Young-Soo; Clark, Shanna L.; Johns, Alan P.; Perry, Camarie S.; Garcia, Shannon S.; Jacobi, John H.; Scofield, Marcienne A.

    2013-01-01

    The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1) planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2) environmental fate and transport; (3) exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4) toxicity analysis; and (5) risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities. PMID:23762048

  11. Medical Imaging Image Quality Assessment with Monte Carlo Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michail, C. M.; Karpetas, G. E.; Fountos, G. P.; Kalyvas, N. I.; Martini, Niki; Koukou, Vaia; Valais, I. G.; Kandarakis, I. S.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess image quality of PET scanners through a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plane source. The source was simulated using a previously validated Monte Carlo model. The model was developed by using the GATE MC package and reconstructed images obtained with the STIR software for tomographic image reconstruction, with cluster computing. The PET scanner simulated in this study was the GE DiscoveryST. A plane source consisted of a TLC plate, was simulated by a layer of silica gel on aluminum (Al) foil substrates, immersed in 18F-FDG bath solution (1MBq). Image quality was assessed in terms of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). MTF curves were estimated from transverse reconstructed images of the plane source. Images were reconstructed by the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE)-OSMAPOSL algorithm. OSMAPOSL reconstruction was assessed by using various subsets (3 to 21) and iterations (1 to 20), as well as by using various beta (hyper) parameter values. MTF values were found to increase up to the 12th iteration whereas remain almost constant thereafter. MTF improves by using lower beta values. The simulated PET evaluation method based on the TLC plane source can be also useful in research for the further development of PET and SPECT scanners though GATE simulations.

  12. Methods of assessing craving to gamble: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Ashrafioun, Lisham; Rosenberg, Harold

    2012-09-01

    Although the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) does not explicitly list craving as a diagnostic criterion for pathological gambling, theories of disordered gambling and research on relapse precipitants suggest that cravings--among other factors--provoke and maintain episodes of gambling. Assessment of craving to gamble is complicated by questions regarding (a) the emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components of such craving; (b) the degree to which craving is viewed as an acute and fluctuating experience or as a relatively stable preoccupation with or inclination to gamble; (c) the threshold separating mild desire from pathological craving to gamble; and (d) the degree to which disordered gamblers are aware of, and able to report on, their experience of craving. Our literature search revealed various self-report methods that could be used to assess craving to gamble, including single-item rating scales, multi-item questionnaires, and application of the think-aloud procedure. In addition, psychophysiological reactivity (e.g., heart rate, brain activation) to gambling-related stimuli and reaction time (RT) tasks (e.g., gambling Stroop, Lexical Salience Task) may serve as proxy measures of subjective craving to gamble. Although researchers have assessed elements of reliability and validity of many measures, most require additional evaluation to examine their predictive and construct validity and their utility across different modes of gambling. The field would also benefit from further research to develop and evaluate additional self-report and proxy measures. PMID:22121917

  13. Effective and clinically meaningful non-hormonal hot flash therapies.

    PubMed

    Guttuso, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Although many non-hormonal compounds have shown statistically significant benefit over placebo in hot flash randomized controlled trials (RCTs), these studies have varied considerably in basic methodology making it challenging to deduce which compounds have the greatest potential to provide clinically meaningful benefit. This review used evidence-based methodology closely mirroring the FDA and EMEA guidelines as a template to identify "well-designed" RCTs from which effective and clinically meaningful non-hormonal hot flash therapies could be identified. In addition, pertinent safety information was reviewed. Out of 3548 MEDLINE citations and abstracts, 51 well-designed hot flash RCTs were identified. From these trials, gabapentin, oxybutynin ER, desvenlafaxine, soy-derived isoflavones and black cohosh each showed a clinically meaningful treatment effect in at least 1 RCT. Among these 5 compounds, only gabapentin demonstrated consistent and statistically significant benefit over placebo in all of its well-designed RCTs. Desvenlafaxine, soy-derived isoflavones, and black cohosh demonstrated statistically significant benefit over placebo in 75%, 21%, and 17% of the well-designed RCTs for each compound, respectively. There was only 1 well-designed RCT using oxybutynin ER, which showed it to have a robust and clinically meaningful benefit. In terms of safety, there have been cardiovascular risks associated with desvenlafaxine use in postmenopausal women with hot flashes. The use of anticonvulsants, in general, has been associated with an absolute 0.21% increase in suicidal thoughts and behavior. Further research is needed with several of these nonhormonal compounds to replicate these findings and to also directly compare their efficacy and tolerability with those of hormone replacement therapy. PMID:22377187

  14. Providing Professionally Meaningful Recognition to Enhance Frontline Engagement.

    PubMed

    Zwickel, Karen; Koppel, Jenna; Katz, Marie; Virkstis, Katherine; Rothenberger, Sarah; Boston-Fleischhauer, Carol

    2016-01-01

    To achieve transformation in care delivery, frontline nursing staff must be committed to their organization's mission, engaged in their work, and capable of delivering high-quality care. However, data from Advisory Board Survey Solutions show that, when compared with other frontline staff, nurses are the least engaged and most disengaged. In this article, the authors describe strategies for addressing a top opportunity for improving nurse engagement-ensuring nurses feel meaningfully recognized for their professional impact. PMID:27442898

  15. Novel Method for Border Irregularity Assessment in Dermoscopic Color Images

    PubMed Central

    Jaworek-Korjakowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background. One of the most important lesion features predicting malignancy is border irregularity. Accurate assessment of irregular borders is clinically important due to significantly different occurrence in benign and malignant skin lesions. Method. In this research, we present a new approach for the detection of border irregularities, as one of the major parameters in a widely used diagnostic algorithm the ABCD rule of dermoscopy. The proposed work is focused on designing an efficient automatic algorithm containing the following steps: image enhancement, lesion segmentation, borderline calculation, and irregularities detection. The challenge lies in determining the exact borderline. For solving this problem we have implemented a new method based on lesion rotation and borderline division. Results. The algorithm has been tested on 350 dermoscopic images and achieved accuracy of 92% indicating that the proposed computational approach captured most of the irregularities and provides reliable information for effective skin mole examination. Compared to the state of the art, we obtained improved classification results. Conclusions. The current study suggests that computer-aided system is a practical tool for dermoscopic image assessment and could be recommended for both research and clinical applications. The proposed algorithm can be applied in different fields of medical image analysis including, for example, CT and MRI images. PMID:26604980

  16. Terrestrial Method for Airborne Lidar Quality Control and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsubaie, N. M.; Badawy, H. M.; Elhabiby, M. M.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2014-11-01

    Most of LiDAR systems do not provide the end user with the calibration and acquisition procedures that can use to validate the quality of the data acquired by the airborne system. Therefore, this system needs data Quality Control (QC) and assessment procedures to verify the accuracy of the laser footprints and mainly at building edges. This research paper introduces an efficient method for validating the quality of the airborne LiDAR point clouds data using terrestrial laser scanning data integrated with edge detection techniques. This method will be based on detecting the edge of buildings from these two independent systems. Hence, the building edges are extracted from the airborne data using an algorithm that is based on the standard deviation of neighbour point's height from certain threshold with respect to centre points using radius threshold. The algorithm is adaptive to different point densities. The approach is combined with another innovative edge detection technique from terrestrial laser scanning point clouds that is based on the height and point density constraints. Finally, statistical analysis and assessment will be applied to compare these two systems in term of edge detection extraction precision, which will be a priori step for 3D city modelling generated from heterogeneous LiDAR systems

  17. Thermography as a quantitative imaging method for assessing postoperative inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, J; Matzen, LH; Vaeth, M; Schou, S; Wenzel, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess differences in skin temperature between the operated and control side of the face after mandibular third molar surgery using thermography. Methods 127 patients had 1 mandibular third molar removed. Before the surgery, standardized thermograms were taken of both sides of the patient's face using a Flir ThermaCam™ E320 (Precisions Teknik AB, Halmstad, Sweden). The imaging procedure was repeated 2 days and 7 days after surgery. A region of interest including the third molar region was marked on each image. The mean temperature within each region of interest was calculated. The difference between sides and over time were assessed using paired t-tests. Results No significant difference was found between the operated side and the control side either before or 7 days after surgery (p > 0.3). The temperature of the operated side (mean: 32.39 °C, range: 28.9–35.3 °C) was higher than that of the control side (mean: 32.06 °C, range: 28.5–35.0 °C) 2 days after surgery [0.33 °C, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22–0.44 °C, p < 0.001]. No significant difference was found between the pre-operative and the 7-day post-operative temperature (p > 0.1). After 2 days, the operated side was not significantly different from the temperature pre-operatively (p = 0.12), whereas the control side had a lower temperature (0.57 °C, 95% CI: 0.29–0.86 °C, p < 0.001). Conclusions Thermography seems useful for quantitative assessment of inflammation between the intervention side and the control side after surgical removal of mandibular third molars. However, thermography cannot be used to assess absolute temperature changes due to normal variations in skin temperature over time. PMID:22752326

  18. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Risk assessment and management

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Marc S; Chapman, Peter M; Allan, Ian J; Anderson, Kim A; Apitz, Sabine E; Beegan, Chris; Bridges, Todd S; Brown, Steve S; Cargill, John G; McCulloch, Megan C; Menzie, Charles A; Shine, James P; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    This paper details how activity-based passive sampling methods (PSMs), which provide information on bioavailability in terms of freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree), can be used to better inform risk management decision making at multiple points in the process of assessing and managing contaminated sediment sites. PSMs can increase certainty in site investigation and management, because Cfree is a better predictor of bioavailability than total bulk sediment concentration (Ctotal) for 4 key endpoints included in conceptual site models (benthic organism toxicity, bioaccumulation, sediment flux, and water column exposures). The use of passive sampling devices (PSDs) presents challenges with respect to representative sampling for estimating average concentrations and other metrics relevant for exposure and risk assessment. These challenges can be addressed by designing studies that account for sources of variation associated with PSMs and considering appropriate spatial scales to meet study objectives. Possible applications of PSMs include: quantifying spatial and temporal trends in bioavailable contaminants, identifying and evaluating contaminant source contributions, calibrating site-specific models, and, improving weight-of-evidence based decision frameworks. PSM data can be used to assist in delineating sediment management zones based on likelihood of exposure effects, monitor remedy effectiveness, and, evaluate risk reduction after sediment treatment, disposal, or beneficial reuse after management actions. Examples are provided illustrating why PSMs and freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree) should be incorporated into contaminated sediment investigations and study designs to better focus on and understand contaminant bioavailability, more accurately estimate exposure to sediment-associated contaminants, and better inform risk management decisions. Research and communication needs for encouraging broader use are discussed. Integr

  19. Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): reactor-accident assessment methods. Vol. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    As part of the continuing emphasis on emergency preparedness, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the development of a rapid dose assessment system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This system, the Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program for rapidly assessing the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. This document describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations. IRDAM calculates whole body (5-cm depth) and infant thyroid doses at six fixed downwind distances between 500 and 20,000 meters. Radionuclides considered primarily consist of noble gases and radioiodines. In order to provide a rapid assessment capability consistent with the capacity of the Osborne-1 computer, certain simplifying approximations and assumptions are made. These are described, along with default values (assumptions used in the absence of specific input) in the text of this document. Two companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. The user's Guide (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 1) describes the setup and operation of equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Scenarios for Comparing Dose Assessment Models (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 3) provides the results of calculations made by IRDAM and other models for specific accident scenarios.

  20. Assessment of gene set analysis methods based on microarray data.

    PubMed

    Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Khodakarim, Soheila; Zayeri, Farid; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Tabatabaei, Seyyed Mohammad; Heydarpour-Meymeh, Maryam

    2014-01-25

    Gene set analysis (GSA) incorporates biological information into statistical knowledge to identify gene sets differently expressed between two or more phenotypes. It allows us to gain an insight into the functional working mechanism of cells beyond the detection of differently expressed gene sets. In order to evaluate the competence of GSA approaches, three self-contained GSA approaches with different statistical methods were chosen; Category, Globaltest and Hotelling's T(2) together with their assayed power to identify the differences expressed via simulation and real microarray data. The Category does not take care of the correlation structure, while the other two deal with correlations. In order to perform these methods, R and Bioconductor were used. Furthermore, venous thromboembolism and acute lymphoblastic leukemia microarray data were applied. The results of three GSAs showed that the competence of these methods depends on the distribution of gene expression in a dataset. It is very important to assay the distribution of gene expression data before choosing the GSA method to identify gene sets differently expressed between phenotypes. On the other hand, assessment of common genes among significant gene sets indicated that there was a significant agreement between the result of GSA and the findings of biologists. PMID:24012817

  1. Methods for assessing blood pressure values in humans.

    PubMed

    Mancia, G

    1983-01-01

    In clinical medicine and epidemiology, measurements of blood pressure largely rely upon the use of cuff inflation and Korotkoff sounds. Although still the most practical, this method has been recognized to have important limitations. This paper focuses on two limitations of the cuff method that have been found while recording 24-hour intraarterial blood pressure in free-living normotensive and hypertensive patients. First, the 24-hour blood pressure is characterized by large long- and short-term variabilities whose magnitudes vary according to the patient's basal blood pressure and age. This is likely to reduce the possibility that a few isolated cuff measurements are accurate and representative of the patient's average blood pressure. Second, during cuff blood pressure assessment by the doctor (and to a lesser degree by the nurse), the patient's blood pressure normally rises due to an alarm reaction, with a large peak within the first 4 minutes and a subsequent decline. The magnitude of the peak rise, as well as its large and unpredictable difference among subjects may be responsible for seriously and variably overestimating the blood pressure. A 10-minute wait from the beginning of the doctor's visit usually avoids this inconvenience. Finally, the paper briefly considers alternative methods to the cuff method, including invasive intraarterial 24-hour recording in ambulatory subjects, which provides a large amount of information but is impractical, and noninvasive automatic blood pressure devices, which offer a promising practical approach but must wait for technical validation. PMID:6629462

  2. Assessment study of lichenometric methods for dating surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomelli, Vincent; Grancher, Delphine; Naveau, Philippe; Cooley, Daniel; Brunstein, Daniel

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the most classical approaches used in lichenometry. In particular, we perform a detailed comparison among methods based on the statistical analysis of either the largest lichen diameters recorded on geomorphic features or the frequency of all lichens. To assess the performance of each method, a careful comparison design with well-defined criteria is proposed and applied to two distinct data sets. First, we study 350 tombstones. This represents an ideal test bed because tombstone dates are known and, therefore, the quality of the estimated lichen growth curve can be easily tested for the different techniques. Secondly, 37 moraines from two tropical glaciers are investigated. This analysis corresponds to our real case study. For both data sets, we apply our list of criteria that reflects precision, error measurements and their theoretical foundations when proposing estimated ages and their associated confidence intervals. From this comparison, it clearly appears that two methods, the mean of the n largest lichen diameters and the recent Bayesian method based on extreme value theory, offer the most reliable estimates of moraine and tombstones dates. Concerning the spread of the error, the latter approach provides the smallest uncertainty and it is the only one that takes advantage of the statistical nature of the observations by fitting an extreme value distribution to the largest diameters.

  3. Improving Academic Program Assessment: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Megan; Grays, Makayla P.; Fulcher, Keston H.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Starting with the premise that better assessment leads to more informed decisions about student learning, we investigated the factors that lead to assessment improvement. We used "meta-assessment" (i.e., evaluating the assessment process) to identify academic programs in which the assessment process had improved over a two-year period.…

  4. Expanding the Aperture of Psychological Assessment: Introduction to the Special Section on Innovative Clinical Assessment Technologies and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trull, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary psychological assessment is dominated by tried-and-true methods like clinical interviewing, self-report questionnaires, intellectual assessment, and behavioral observation. These approaches have served as the mainstays of psychological assessment for decades. To be sure, these methods have survived over the years because clinicians…

  5. A Quantitative Assessment Method for Ascaris Eggs on Hands

    PubMed Central

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders; Sengupta, Mita E.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1% and cetylpyridinium chloride CPC 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt] and non-ionic [Tween80 0.1% -polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate]) and two egg detection methods (McMaster technique and FLOTAC). A modified concentration McMaster technique showed the highest egg recovery rate from bags. Two of the four diluted detergents (benzethonium chloride 0.1% and 7X 1%) also showed a higher egg recovery rate and were then compared with de-ionized water for recovery of helminth eggs from hands. The highest recovery rate (95.6%) was achieved with a hand rinse performed with 7X 1%. Washing hands with de-ionized water resulted in an egg recovery rate of 82.7%. This washing method performed with a low concentration of detergent offers potential for quantitative investigation of contamination of hands with Ascaris eggs and of their role in human infection. Follow-up studies are needed that validate the hand washing method under field conditions, e.g. including people of different age, lower levels of contamination and various levels of hand cleanliness. PMID:24802859

  6. Alternative Assessment Methods Based on Categorizations, Supporting Technologies, and a Model for Betterment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Jacob, Marion G.; Ben-Jacob, Tyler E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores alternative assessment methods from the perspective of categorizations. It addresses the technologies that support assessment. It discusses initial, formative, and summative assessment, as well as objective and subjective assessment, and formal and informal assessment. It approaches each category of assessment from the…

  7. Assessment of Proper Bonding Methods and Mechanical Characterization FPGA CQFPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Milton C.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discusses fractured leads on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) during flight vibration. Actions taken to determine root cause and resolution of the failure include finite element analysis (FEA) and vibration testing and scanning electron microscopy (with X-ray microanalysis) and energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS) failure assessment. Bonding methods for surface mount parts is assessed, including critical analysis and assessment of random fatigue damage. Regarding ceramic quad flat pack (CQFP) lead fracture, after disassembling the attitude control electronics (ACE) configuration, photographs showed six leads cracked on FPGA RTSX72SU-1 CQ208B package located on the RWIC card. An identical package (FPGA RTSX32SU-1 CQ208B) mounted on the RWIC did not results in cracked pins due to vibration. FPGA lead failure theories include workmanship issues in the lead-forming, material defect in the leads of the FPGA packages, and the insecure mounting of the board in the card guides, among other theories. Studies were conducted using simple calculations to determine the response and fatigue life of the package. Shorter packages exhibited more response when loaded by out-of-plane displacement of PCB while taller packages exhibit more response when loaded by in-plane acceleration of PCB. Additionally, under-fill did not contribute to reducing stress in leads due to out-of-plane PCB loading or from component twisting, as much as corner bonding. The combination of corner bond and under-fill is best to address mechanical and thermal S/C environment. Test results of bonded parts showed reduced (dampened) amplitude and slightly shifted peaks at the un-bonded natural frequency and an additional response at the bonded frequency. Stress due to PCBB out-of-plane loading was decreased on in the corners when only a corner bond was used. Future work may address CQFP fatigue assessment, including the investigation of discrepancy in predicted fatigue damage, as well as

  8. Comparison of methods for assessing thyroid function in nonthyroidal illness

    SciTech Connect

    Melmed, S.; Geola, F.L.; Reed, A.W.; Pekary, A.E.; Park, J.; Hershman, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    Various tests of thyroid function were studied in sick patients with nonthyroidal illness (NTI) in order to determine the utility of each test for differentiating these patients from a group with hypothyroidism. We evaluated each test in 22 healthy volunteers who served as controls, 20 patients with hypothyroidism, 14 patients admitted to medical intensive care unit whose serum T/sub 4/ was less than 5 ..mu..g/dl, 13 patients with chronic liver disease, 32 patients on chronic hemodialysis for renal failure, 13 ambulatory oncology patients receiving chemotherapy 16 pregnant women, 7 women on estrogens, and 20 hyperthyroid patients. On all samples, we measured serum T/sub 4/, the free T/sub 4/ index by several methods, free T/sub 4/ by equilibrium dialysis, free T/sub 4/ calculated from thyronine-binding globulin (TBG) RIA, free T/sub 4/ by three commercial kits (Gammacoat, Immophase, and Liquisol), T/sub 3/, rT/sub 3/, and TSH (by 3 different RIA). Although all of the methods used for measuring free T/sub 4/ (including free T/sub 4/ index, free T/sub 4/ by dialysis, free T/sub 4/ assessed by TBG, and free T/sub 4/ assessed by the 3 commercial kits) were excellent for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and euthyroidism in the presence of high TBG, none of these methods showed that free T/sub 4/ was consistently normal in patients with NTI; with each method, a number of NTI patients had subnormal values. In the NTI groups, free T/sub 4/ measured by dialysis and the free T/sub 4/ index generally correlated significantly with the commercial free T/sub 4/ methods. Serum rT/sub 3/ was elevated or normal in NTI patients and low in hypothyroid subjects. Serum TSH provided the most reliable differentiation between patients with primary hypothyroidism and those with NTI and low serum T/sub 4/ levels.

  9. A comparison of radiological risk assessment methods for environmental restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Peterson, J.M.

    1993-09-01

    Evaluation of risks to human health from exposure to ionizing radiation at radioactively contaminated sites is an integral part of the decision-making process for determining the need for remediation and selecting remedial actions that may be required. At sites regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a target risk range of 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}6} incremental cancer incidence over a lifetime is specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as generally acceptable, based on the reasonable maximum exposure to any individual under current and future land use scenarios. Two primary methods currently being used in conducting radiological risk assessments at CERCLA sites are compared in this analysis. Under the first method, the radiation dose equivalent (i.e., Sv or rem) to the receptors of interest over the appropriate period of exposure is estimated and multiplied by a risk factor (cancer risk/Sv). Alternatively, incremental cancer risk can be estimated by combining the EPA`s cancer slope factors (previously termed potency factors) for radionuclides with estimates of radionuclide intake by ingestion and inhalation, as well as radionuclide concentrations in soil that contribute to external dose. The comparison of the two methods has demonstrated that resulting estimates of lifetime incremental cancer risk under these different methods may differ significantly, even when all other exposure assumptions are held constant, with the magnitude of the discrepancy depending upon the dominant radionuclides and exposure pathways for the site. The basis for these discrepancies, the advantages and disadvantages of each method, and the significance of the discrepant results for environmental restoration decisions are presented.

  10. In vitro method for medical risk assessment of laser fumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkusch, W.; Rehn, B.; Bruch, J.

    1995-02-01

    Laser processing of different materials may produce toxic fumes. In preventive occupational medicine it is necessary to evaluate valid hygienic standards for work places. The basis for such hygienic standards is the classification of laser fumes by their fibrogenic, emphysematous, immunological or other harmful potencies in biological assay systems. This paper is part of a European project on laser safety. Our part in this project is the development of a method for the investigation of lung responses using in vitro cell assays. The appropriate laser fume samples will be supplied by other groups in this European project. In contrast to the cell assays usually used in risk assessment, our method is based on isolated target cells in the lung, such as alveolar macrophages. The test criteria are mediator release, surfactant reactions, release of reactive oxygen species and cell proliferation. As demonstrated in the lung response to other dusts (minerals, fibres etc) these parameters are medically relevant factors in the pathogenic alveolar dust response. The paper gives basic information about the method using lung cell assays and the results of known substances, in comparison with a dust generated by laser processing.

  11. Object relations and real life relationships: a cross method assessment.

    PubMed

    Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Fisher, Shimrit; Naot, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between the psychoanalytic concept of object relations and real life behavior of being in an intimate relationship among heterosexual women. In a multi-method approach we used two different measures; the self-report Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI; Bell, Billington & Becker, 1986) and the performance based Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Social Cognition & Object Relations Scale- Global Rating Method SCORS-G (Westen, 1995) to measure the object relations of 60 women. The Alienation subscale of the BORRTI and understanding of social causality subscale of the SCORS-G explained 34.8% of variance of the intimate relationship variable. Thus, women involved in a romantic relationship reported lower rates of alienation on the BORRTI and produced TAT narratives that were more adaptive with regard to understanding of social causality as measured by the SCORS-G than those not currently in a relationship. Results are discussed with reference to the relationship between object relations and real life measures of healthy individuals and in light of the need for a multi-method approach of assessment. PMID:24506278

  12. Critical comparison of elastography methods to assess chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Poynard, Thierry; Castera, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Staging of liver fibrosis and diagnosis, or exclusion, of early compensated liver cirrhosis are important in the treatment decisions and surveillance of patients with chronic liver disease. Good diagnostic accuracy, increased availability and the possibility to perform follow-up examinations led to the implementation of noninvasive methods into clinical practice. Noninvasive tests are increasingly included in national and international guidelines, leaving liver biopsy reserved for patients with unexplained discordance or suspected additional aetiologies of liver disease. In addition to staging of liver fibrosis, data on the prognostic value of these methods have increased in the past few years and are of great importance for patient care. This Review focuses on elastography methods for noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis, disease severity and prognosis. Although liver elastography started with transient elastography, at present all large ultrasonography companies offer an elastography technique integrated in their machines. The goal of this Review is to summarize the methodological problems of noninvasive tests in general, in addition to providing an overview on currently available techniques and latest developments in liver elastography. PMID:27273167

  13. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    PubMed Central

    Aissaoui, Abir; Salem, Nidhal Haj; Mougou, Meryam; Maatouk, Fethi; Chadly, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia). Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8–16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Results: Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from −0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years). Conclusions: The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age. PMID:27051223

  14. Rapid assessment methods of resilience for natural and agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Torrico, Juan C; Janssens, Marc J J

    2010-12-01

    The resilience, ecological function and quality of both agricultural and natural systems were evaluated in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Rain Forest of Rio de Janeiro through Rapid Assessment Methods. For this goal new indicators were proposed, such as eco-volume, eco-height, bio-volume, volume efficiency, and resilience index. The following agricultural and natural systems have been compared according: (i) vegetables (leaf, fruit and mixed); (ii) citrus; (iii) ecological system; (iv) cattle, (v) silvo-pastoral system, (vi) forest fragment and (vii) forest in regeneration stage (1, 2 and 3 years old). An alternative measure (index) of resilience was proposed by considering the actual bio-volume as a function of the potential eco-volume. The objectives and hypotheses were fulfilled; it is shown that there does exist a high positive correlation between resilience index, biomass, energy efficiency and biodiversity. Cattle and vegetable systems have lowest resilience, whilst ecological and silvo-pastoral systems have greatest resilience. This new approach offers a rapid, though valuable assessment tool for ecological studies, agricultural development and landscape planning, particularly in tropical countries. PMID:21152779

  15. Viscoelastic Methods of Blood Clotting Assessment – A Multidisciplinary Review

    PubMed Central

    Benes, Jan; Zatloukal, Jan; Kletecka, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Viscoelastic methods (VEM) made available the bedside assessment of blood clotting. Unlike standard laboratory tests, the results are based on the whole blood coagulation and are available in real time at a much faster turnaround time. In combination with our new knowledge about pathophysiology of the trauma-induced coagulopathy, the goal-oriented treatment protocols have been recently proposed for the initial management of bleeding in trauma victims. Additionally, the utility of viscoelastic monitoring devices has been proved even outside this setting in cardiosurgical patients or those undergoing liver transplantation. Many other situations were described in literature showing the potential use of bedside analysis of coagulation for the management of bleeding or critically ill patients. In the near future, we may expect further improvement in current bedside diagnostic tools enabling not only the assessment of secondary hemostasis but also the platelet aggregation. More sensitive assays for new anticoagulants are underway. Aim of this review is to offer the reader a multidisciplinary overview of VEM and their potential use in anesthesiology and critical care. PMID:26442265

  16. Development of a method for assessing flood vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Connor, R F; Hiroki, K

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few decades, a growing number of studies have been conducted on the mechanisms responsible for climate change and the elaboration of future climate scenarios. More recently, studies have emerged examining the potential effects of climate change on human societies, including how variations in hydrological regimes impact water resources management. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's third assessment report, climate change will lead to an intensification of the hydrological cycle, resulting in greater variability in precipitation patterns and an increase in the intensity and frequency of severe storms and other extreme events. In other words, climate change will likely increase the risks of flooding in many areas. Structural and non-structural countermeasures are available to reduce flood vulnerability, but implementing new measures can be a lengthy process requiring political and financial support. In order to help guide such policy decisions, a method for assessing flood vulnerability due to climate change is proposed. In this preliminary study, multivariate analysis has been used to develop a Flood Vulnerability Index (FVI), which allows for a comparative analysis of flood vulnerability between different basins. Once fully developed, the FVI will also allow users to identify the main factors responsible for a basin's vulnerability, making it a valuable tool to assist in priority setting within decision-making processes. PMID:15918359

  17. An improved image sharpness assessment method based on contrast sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Tian, Yan; Yin, Yili

    2015-10-01

    An image sharpness assessment method based on the property of Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) was proposed to realize the sharpness assessment of unfocused image. Firstly, image was performed the two-dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), and intermediate frequency coefficients and high frequency coefficients are divided into two parts respectively. Secondly the four parts were performed the inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) to obtain subimages. Thirdly, using Range Function evaluates the four sub-image sharpness value. Finally, the image sharpness is obtained through the weighted sum of the sub-image sharpness value. In order to comply with the CSF characteristics, weighting factor is setting based on the Contrast Sensitivity Function. The new algorithm and four typical evaluation algorithm: Fourier, Range , Variance and Wavelet are evaluated based on the six quantitative evaluation index, which include the width of steep part of focusing curve, the ration of sharpness, the steepness, the variance of float part of focusing curve, the factor of local extreme and the sensitivity. On the other hand, the effect of noise, and image content on algorithm is analyzed in this paper. The experiment results show that the new algorithm has better performance of sensitivity, anti-nose than the four typical evaluation algorithms. The evaluation results are consistent with human visual characteristics.

  18. Assessments of lung digestion methods for recovery of fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Warheit, D.B.; Hwang, H.C.; Achinko, L. )

    1991-04-01

    Evaluation of the pulmonary hazards associated with exposure to fibrous materials tends to be more complicated than assessments required for particulate materials. Fibers are defined by aspect ratios and it is generally considered that physical dimensions play an important role in the pathogenesis of fiber-related lung diseases. Several digestion techniques have been used to recover fibers from exposed lung tissue for clearance studies. Because many of the digestion fluids are corrosive (e.g., bleach, KOH), it is conceivable that the dimensions of recovered fibers are modified during the tissue digestion process, thus creating erroneous data. Accordingly, the authors evaluated two lung digestion methods to assess whether the physical dimensions of bulk samples of fibers were altered following simulated digestion processing. Aliquots of crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos, Kevlar aramid, wollastonite, polyacrylonitrile (pan)-based carbon, and glass fibers were incubated with either saline, bleach, or KOH and then filtered. Scanning electron microscopy techniques were utilized to measure the physical dimensions (i.e., lengths and diameters) of at least 160 fibers per treatment group of each fiber type. Their results showed that the lengths and diameters of glass fibers and wollastonite were altered after treatment with KOH. In addition, treatment with bleach produced a small reduction in both asbestos fiber-type diameters, and greater changes in Kevlar and wollastonite diameters and carbon fiber lengths.

  19. Performance Assessment Method for a Forged Fingerprint Detection Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong Nyuo; Jun, In-Kyung; Kim, Hyun; Shin, Woochang

    The threat of invasion of privacy and of the illegal appropriation of information both increase with the expansion of the biometrics service environment to open systems. However, while certificates or smart cards can easily be cancelled and reissued if found to be missing, there is no way to recover the unique biometric information of an individual following a security breach. With the recognition that this threat factor may disrupt the large-scale civil service operations approaching implementation, such as electronic ID cards and e-Government systems, many agencies and vendors around the world continue to develop forged fingerprint detection technology, but no objective performance assessment method has, to date, been reported. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a methodology designed to evaluate the objective performance of the forged fingerprint detection technology that is currently attracting a great deal of attention.

  20. Development of exposure assessment method with the chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, N.; Koyama, Y.; Yokoyama, H.; Matsui, Y.; Yoneda, M.

    2015-05-01

    This study aims at developing the measurement method of nanoparticle concentration and at getting a representative value of nanoparticle uniform concentration due to chamber ventilation. We conducted a chamber equipped with HEPA filter and control the background nanoparticles concentration by using an adequate ventilation. Then, we used generator to evaluate concentration in the chamber uniformity. We measured background value and source counts at the particle size distribution by SMPS. In addition, we performed numerical analysis with CFD model OpenFoam. As results, we found that there is no aggregate in experimental conditions in this study. Though we confirmed that it is difficult to uniformalise nanoparticle concentration, However we also found simulation results showed higher reproducibility. Therefore, we could assess nanoparticle size distribution and concentration in our chamber at this stage.

  1. Terminology and assessment methods of solid propellant rocket exhaust signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-02-01

    The Propulsion and Energetics Panel's Specialists' Meeting in autumn 1985 on Smokeless Propellants demonstrated that no common standard was available in this field and that the lack of common understanding led to misunderstanding amongst the NATO community. After some preparatory discussion, the Panel, therefore, formed Working Group Number 21 with the objectives of defining methods for the assessment of rocket motor exhaust optical properties in the visible and in the infrared range, and of recommending a terminology based on quantitative criteria. The Working Group discussed the subject in a total of eight sessions and prepared this Advisory Report. Following an Introduction and Summary there are six chapters, commencing with an Overview and continuing with Propellant Smoke Classification, Plume Primary Smoke, Plume Secondary Smoke, Plume Radiation and Plume Microwave Properties. In most cases, the conclusions and recommendations follow the chapters and are not repeated at the end of the report.

  2. Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods

    SciTech Connect

    M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

    2009-06-30

    Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

  3. A comparison between two methods for assessing heartbeat perception.

    PubMed

    Knoll, J F; Hodapp, V

    1992-03-01

    In this study two methods assessing heartbeat perception ability were compared. Subjects (N = 64) completed Schandry's (1981) mental tracking task and Störmer's (1988) heartbeat discrimination procedure (based on Whitehead, Drescher, Heiman, & Blackwell, 1977). In addition, subjects were tested on their ability to estimate the duration of time intervals. A high degree of correspondence was found between the two heartbeat perception tasks for the extreme groups of very good and very poor perceivers, but a low degree of correspondence emerged for the middle range of performance (overall r = .59, p less than .001). Time estimation did not correlate significantly with either heartbeat detection procedure. Blood pressure measurements taken after the Schandry task and between Störmer test blocks showed that blood pressure amplitude was elevated among good perceivers on both heartbeat detection tasks. PMID:1635964

  4. Methods for assessing the quality of runoff from Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    The quality of runoff from large, undisturbed peatlands in Minnesota is chaaracterized and sampling results from a number of bogs (referred to as a multiple watershed approach) was used to assess the effects of peat mining on the quality of bog runoff. Runoff from 45 natural peatlands and one mined bog was sampled five times in 1979-80 and analyzed for 34 water quality characteristics. Peatland watersheds were classified as bog, transition, or fen, based upon both water quality and watershed characteristics. Alternative classification methods were based on frequency distributions, cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, and principal component analysis results. A multiple watershed approach was used as a basis of drawing inferences regarding the quality of runoff from a representative sample of natural bogs and a mined bog. The multiple watershed technique applied provides an alternative to long-term paired watershed experiments in evaluating the effects of land use activities on the quality of runoff from peatlands in Minnesota.

  5. Ultrasonic Apparatus and Method to Assess Compartment Syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Ueno, Toshiaki (Inventor); Hargens, Alan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A process and apparatus for measuring pressure buildup in a body compartment that encases muscular tissue. The method includes assessing the body compartment configuration and identifying the effect of pulsatible components on compartment dimensions and muscle tissue characteristics. This process is used in preventing tissue necrosis, and in decisions of whether to perform surgery on the body compartment for prevention of Compartment Syndrome. An apparatus is used for measuring pressure build-up in the body compartment having components for imparting ultrasonic waves such as a transducer, placing the transducer to impart the ultrasonic waves, capturing the imparted ultrasonic waves, mathematically manipulating the captured ultrasonic waves and categorizing pressure build-up in the body compartment from the mathematical manipulations.

  6. Methods for assessing uncertainty in fundamental assumptions and associated models for cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Small, Mitchell J

    2008-10-01

    The distributional approach for uncertainty analysis in cancer risk assessment is reviewed and extended. The method considers a combination of bioassay study results, targeted experiments, and expert judgment regarding biological mechanisms to predict a probability distribution for uncertain cancer risks. Probabilities are assigned to alternative model components, including the determination of human carcinogenicity, mode of action, the dosimetry measure for exposure, the mathematical form of the dose-response relationship, the experimental data set(s) used to fit the relationship, and the formula used for interspecies extrapolation. Alternative software platforms for implementing the method are considered, including Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) that facilitate assignment of prior probabilities, specification of relationships among model components, and identification of all output nodes on the probability tree. The method is demonstrated using the application of Evans, Sielken, and co-workers for predicting cancer risk from formaldehyde inhalation exposure. Uncertainty distributions are derived for maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) and 95th percentile upper confidence limit (UCL) unit cancer risk estimates, and the effects of resolving selected model uncertainties on these distributions are demonstrated, considering both perfect and partial information for these model components. A method for synthesizing the results of multiple mechanistic studies is introduced, considering the assessed sensitivities and selectivities of the studies for their targeted effects. A highly simplified example is presented illustrating assessment of genotoxicity based on studies of DNA damage response caused by naphthalene and its metabolites. The approach can provide a formal mechanism for synthesizing multiple sources of information using a transparent and replicable weight-of-evidence procedure. PMID:18844862

  7. Qualitative Insights from a Canadian Multi-Institutional Research Study: In Search of Meaningful E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lorraine M.; Salyers, Vince; Myers, Sue; Hipfner, Carol; Hoffart, Caroline; MacLean, Christa; White, Kathy; Matus, Theresa; Forssman, Vivian; Barrett, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the qualitative findings of a mixed methods research study conducted at three Canadian post-secondary institutions. Called the Meaningful E-learning or MEL project, the study was an exploration of the teaching and learning experiences of faculty and students as well as their perceptions of the benefits and challenges of…

  8. Parental Functioning in Families of Children with ADHD: Evidence for Behavioral Parent Training and Importance of Clinically Meaningful Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Schneider, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective/Method: Statistically significant and clinically meaningful effects of behavioral parent training on parental functioning were examined for 20 children with ADHD and their parents who had successfully completed a psychosocial treatment for ADHD. Results/Conclusion: Findings suggest that behavioral parent training resulted in…

  9. The Myth of Objectivity in Mathematics Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romagnano, Lew

    2001-01-01

    Investigates meaningful assessment to give teachers information on students' understanding of mathematical ideas and how their understanding changes over time. Presents examples collected from a teacher-made quiz, the Advanced Placement calculus test, and the SAT-I Mathematics test. Illustrates both the inherent subjectivity of these methods and…

  10. Measuring meaningful learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Kelli R.

    The undergraduate chemistry laboratory has been an essential component in chemistry education for over a century. The literature includes reports on investigations of singular aspects laboratory learning and attempts to measure the efficacy of reformed laboratory curriculum as well as faculty goals for laboratory learning which found common goals among instructors for students to learn laboratory skills, techniques, experimental design, and to develop critical thinking skills. These findings are important for improving teaching and learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory, but research is needed to connect the faculty goals to student perceptions. This study was designed to explore students' ideas about learning in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Novak's Theory of Meaningful Learning was used as a guide for the data collection and analysis choices for this research. Novak's theory states that in order for meaningful learning to occur the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains must be integrated. The psychomotor domain is inherent in the chemistry laboratory, but the extent to which the cognitive and affective domains are integrated is unknown. For meaningful learning to occur in the laboratory, students must actively integrate both the cognitive domain and the affective domains into the "doing" of their laboratory work. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was designed to measure students' cognitive and affective expectations and experiences within the context of conducting experiments in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. Evidence for the validity and reliability of the data generated by the MLLI were collected from multiple quantitative studies: a one semester study at one university, a one semester study at 15 colleges and universities across the United States, and a longitudinal study where the MLLI was administered 6 times during two years of general and organic chemistry laboratory courses. Results from

  11. Overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer—what is clinically meaningful?

    PubMed Central

    Fenchel, Klaus; Sellmann, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    The development of molecularly targeted therapies [tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and monoclonal antibodies] has significantly improved outcomes for patients with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resulting in improved progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and quality of life (QoL). In addition, targeting the immune axis (CTLA-4, PD-1/PD-L1) has also shown promising results. Major goals of almost all clinical trials based on histology and molecular markers for NSCLC patients are improvements of OS and QoL. However, in the majority of these trials only small incremental improvements in OS were seen. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other health authorities have recommended to consider OS to be the standard clinical benefit endpoint that should be used to establish the efficacy of a treatment for NSCLC patients, however, the question remains what is clinically meaningful and how can this outcome be measured. According to suggestions of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Cancer Research Committee a relative improvement in median OS of at least 20% (3–4 months) is regarded to define a clinically meaningful improvement in outcome of NSCLC patients. However, this should not diminish PFS as a valid endpoint since a PFS improvement can also result in a meaningful palliation (e.g., painful bone metastases). Other factors (e.g., QoL) may also be involved to measure and to define the clinical importance of a given trial result. Using the “Quality-adjusted Time Without Symptoms of Toxicity” (Q-TWiST) analysis method it has been demonstrated that a clinically important and meaningful difference for Q-TWiST is 10–15% of OS in a study. Trials that are designed with less ambitious goals, however, may still be of benefit to individual NSCLC patients if the trial endpoints are met. Since there is no single factor which will make a trial clinically meaningful, these recommendations, however, are not intended to

  12. A method for assessing the arm movement performance: probability tube.

    PubMed

    Kostić, Miloš; Popović, Mirjana B; Popović, Dejan B

    2013-12-01

    Quantification of motor performance is an important component of the rehabilitation of humans with sensory-motor disability. We developed a method for assessing arm movement performance of trainees (patients) termed "probability tube" (PT). PT captures the stochastic characteristics of a desired movement when repeated by an expert (therapist). The PT is being generated automatically from data recorded during point-to-point movement executed not more than 15 repetitions by the clinician and/or other non-expert programmer in just a few minutes. We introduce the index, termed probability tube score (PTS), as a single "goodness-of-fit" value allowing quantified analysis of the recovery and effects of the therapy. This index in fact scores the difference between the movement (velocity profile) executed by the trainee and the velocity profile of the desired movement (executed by the expert). We document the goodness of the automatic method with results from studies which included healthy subjects and show the use of the PTS in healthy and post-stroke hemiplegic subjects. PMID:23921787

  13. [Methods of nutritional assessment in chronic obstructive lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Doré, M F; Laaban, J P

    1999-06-01

    A poor nutritional state is often encountered in the course of chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) and worsens the prognosis. The methods used to assess nutritional status proposed in the literature vary greatly. We detail here the methods used in clinical practice and in research, describing results obtained in patients with COLD. Appropriate routine tests are discussed. Body weight should be followed in this population, but weight loss may be masked by sodium-water retention. Bioelectric impedancemetry or biphotonic absorptiometry are used to define body composition in patients with COLD. Lean mass can be measured with the creatinine/height index but is difficult in the ambulatory patient. Plasma levels of visceral proteins are often normal and do not appear to be useful markers in these patients. Immunology tests (delayed hypersensitivity, total lymphocyte counts) are not sensitive screening tests. An evaluation of skeletal muscle function using the walking test or an exercise test is recommended before starting a renutrition program and to evaluate its efficacy. PMID:10486837

  14. Assessment of diagnostic methods for solenoid-operated valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryter, R. C.; Farmer, W. S.

    Solenoid-operated valves (SOV's) were studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The primary objective of the study was to identify, evaluate, and recommend methods for inspection, surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of SOV's that can help ensure their operational readiness - that is, their ability to perform required safety functions under all anticipated operating conditions, since failure of one of these small and relatively inexpensive devices could have serious consequences under certain circumstances. Intrusive techniques requiring the addition of magnetic or acoustic sensors or the application of special test signals were investigated briefly, but major emphasis was placed on the examination of condition-indicating techniques that can be applied with minimal cost and impact on plant operation. These include monitoring coil mean temperature remotely by means of coil dc resistance or ac impedance, determining valve plunger position by means of coil ac impedance, verifying unrestricted SOV plunger movement by measuring current and voltage at their critical bistable (pull-in and drop-out) values, and detecting the presence of shorted turns or insulation breakdown within the solenoid coil using interrupted-current test methods. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the technical feasibility and practicality of the monitoring techniques assessed in the study, and recommendations for further work are provided.

  15. Advanced criticality assessment method for sewer pipeline assets.

    PubMed

    Syachrani, S; Jeong, H D; Chung, C S

    2013-01-01

    For effective management of water and wastewater infrastructure, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) has long emphasized the significant role of risk in prioritizing and optimizing asset management decisions. High risk assets are defined as assets with a high probability of failure (e.g. soon to fail, old, poor condition) and high consequences of failure (e.g. environmental impact, high expense, safety concerns, social disruption). In practice, the consequences of failure are often estimated by experts through a Delphi method. However, the estimation of the probability of failure has been challenging as it requires the thorough analysis of the historical condition assessment data, repair and replacement records, and other factors influencing the deterioration of the asset. The most common predictor in estimating the probability of failure is calendar age. However, a simple reliance on calendar age as a basis for estimating the asset's deterioration pattern completely ignores the different aging characteristics influenced by various operational and environmental conditions. This paper introduces a new approach of using 'real age' in estimating the probability of failure. Unlike the traditional calendar age method, the real age represents the adjusted age based on the unique operational and environmental conditions of the asset. Depending on the individual deterioration pattern, the real age could be higher or lower than its calendar age. Using the concept of real age, the probability of failure of an asset can be more accurately estimated. PMID:23508155

  16. Assessment of methods for hydrogen production using concentrated solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Glatzmaier, G.; Blake, D.; Showalter, S.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess methods for hydrogen production using concentrated solar energy. The results of this work can be used to guide future work in the application of concentrated solar energy to hydrogen production. Specifically, the objectives were to: (1) determine the cost of hydrogen produced from methods that use concentrated solar thermal energy, (2) compare these costs to those of hydrogen produced by electrolysis using photovoltaics and wind energy as the electricity source. This project had the following scope of work: (1) perform cost analysis on ambient temperature electrolysis using the 10 MWe dish-Stirling and 200 MWe power tower technologies; for each technology, sue two cases for projected costs, years 2010 and 2020 the dish-Stirling system, years 2010 and 2020 for the power tower, (2) perform cost analysis on high temperature electrolysis using the 200 MWe power tower technology and projected costs for the year 2020, and (3) identify and describe the key technical issues for high temperature thermal dissociation and the thermochemical cycles.

  17. Indirect methods of dried sewage sludge contamination assessments.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz; Grübel, Klaudiusz

    2016-07-28

    Thermal conversion (combustion, co-combustion, gasification and pyrolysis) appears to be the most promising alternative for sewage sludge management in the future. Nevertheless, safe and ecological usage of sewage sludge as a fuel requires information about their contamination. The aim of this paper is to present the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) as a good method for contamination assessments of dried sewage sludge. Two types of granular sewage sludge: Sewage sludge 1 (SS1) taken from Polish wastewater treatment plant operating in the mechanical-biological system and sewage sludge 2 (SS2) taken from mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment plant with phosphorus precipitation were analysed. The spectrophotometer FTIR Nicolet 6700 equipped with photoacoustic cell (Model 300, MTEC, USA) was used. The comparison with the most popular analytical methods (GC-MS) was also done. The results of PAS studies confirm the difference between the SS1 and SS2 which is in agreement with the GC-MS analysis. Higher absorbance was observed at each wavelength characteristics for the oscillator of chemical moieties for the SS1 with respect to the SS2. PMID:27149560

  18. Organisational impact: Definition and assessment methods for medical devices.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Christophe; Carbonneil, Cédric; Audry, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a rapidly developing area and the value of taking non-clinical fields into consideration is growing. Although the health-economic aspect is commonly recognised, evaluating organisational impact has not been studied nearly as much. The goal of this work was to provide a definition of organisational impact in the sector of medical devices by defining its contours and exploring the evaluation methods specific to this field. Following an analysis of the literature concerning the impact of technologies on organisations as well as the medical literature, and also after reviewing the regulatory texts in this respect, the group of experts identified 12 types of organisational impact. A number of medical devices were carefully screened using the criteria grid, which proved to be operational and to differentiate properly. From the analysis of the practice and of the methods described, the group was then able to derive a few guidelines to successfully evaluate organisational impact. This work shows that taking organisational impact into consideration may be critical alongside of the other criteria currently in favour (clinically and economically). What remains is to confer a role in the decision-making process on this factor and one that meets the economic efficiency principle. PMID:27080633

  19. The time line method for assessing galloping exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, A.S.

    1982-08-01

    The design of double circuit transmission structures is often determined by the need to allow sufficient electrical clearance between phases under galloping span conditions. In the past such designs have been arrived at according to certain ''galloping ellipse'' criteria in which the ellipse geometry is based on mid-span sag. The new method, disclosed herein, starts with the statistical history of the weather in the particular region, as to wind, wind direction, temperature, and ice leading to an exposure rate (Hrs./Yr.) for the normal component of wind speed. These data are combined with estimates of galloping motion including amplitude dependence on wind speed, gusting, and frequency mis-match between galloping and horizontal (swinging) movement at mid-span. A comparison is included between untreated and treated spans, the latter having galloping control devices with only 50% amplitude reduction capability. A range of span lengths between 750 ft. (227M) and 1,500 ft. (454M) is considered. The new method, for the first time, provides a means to assess the benefits of alternative designs in quantitative terms.

  20. Quantitative assessment of gene expression network module-validation methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Zhang, Yingying; Yu, Yanan; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Yongcheng; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yongyan

    2015-01-01

    Validation of pluripotent modules in diverse networks holds enormous potential for systems biology and network pharmacology. An arising challenge is how to assess the accuracy of discovering all potential modules from multi-omic networks and validating their architectural characteristics based on innovative computational methods beyond function enrichment and biological validation. To display the framework progress in this domain, we systematically divided the existing Computational Validation Approaches based on Modular Architecture (CVAMA) into topology-based approaches (TBA) and statistics-based approaches (SBA). We compared the available module validation methods based on 11 gene expression datasets, and partially consistent results in the form of homogeneous models were obtained with each individual approach, whereas discrepant contradictory results were found between TBA and SBA. The TBA of the Zsummary value had a higher Validation Success Ratio (VSR) (51%) and a higher Fluctuation Ratio (FR) (80.92%), whereas the SBA of the approximately unbiased (AU) p-value had a lower VSR (12.3%) and a lower FR (45.84%). The Gray area simulated study revealed a consistent result for these two models and indicated a lower Variation Ratio (VR) (8.10%) of TBA at 6 simulated levels. Despite facing many novel challenges and evidence limitations, CVAMA may offer novel insights into modular networks. PMID:26470848

  1. Assessment of Methods for the Intracellular Blockade of GABAA Receptors.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Laura A; Burnell, Erica S; Mellor, Jack R

    2016-01-01

    Selective blockade of inhibitory synaptic transmission onto specific neurons is a useful tool for dissecting the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic components of ongoing network activity. To achieve this, intracellular recording with a patch solution capable of blocking GABAA receptors has advantages over other manipulations, such as pharmacological application of GABAergic antagonists or optogenetic inhibition of populations of interneurones, in that the majority of inhibitory transmission is unaffected and hence the remaining network activity preserved. Here, we assess three previously described methods to block inhibition: intracellular application of the molecules picrotoxin, 4,4'-dinitro-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DNDS) and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). DNDS and picrotoxin were both found to be ineffective at blocking evoked, monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) onto mouse CA1 pyramidal cells. An intracellular solution containing DIDS and caesium fluoride, but lacking nucleotides ATP and GTP, was effective at decreasing the amplitude of IPSCs. However, this effect was found to be independent of DIDS, and the absence of intracellular nucleotides, and was instead due to the presence of fluoride ions in this intracellular solution, which also blocked spontaneously occurring IPSCs during hippocampal sharp waves. Critically, intracellular fluoride ions also caused a decrease in both spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic currents and precluded the inclusion of nucleotides in the intracellular solution. Therefore, of the methods tested, only fluoride ions were effective for intracellular blockade of IPSCs but this approach has additional cellular effects reducing its selectivity and utility. PMID:27501143

  2. Basic theory and methods of dosimetry for use in risk assessment of genotoxic chemicals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrenberg, L.; Granath, F.

    1992-12-31

    This project is designed to be theoretical, with limited experimental input. The work then would have to be directed towards an identification of problems, with an emphasis on the potential ability of molecular/biochemical methods to reach a solution, rather than aiming at solutions of the problems. In addition, the work is dependent on experimental work within parallel projects. Initially, projects running at this laboratory were strongly tied up with practical matters, such as the development of monitoring methods for specific exposures, with limited resources for basic research. As sketched in the scientific report below, section 4 the meaningfulness of molecular/biochemical methods and their potential contribution to the problem of dsk estimation has to be seen against a broad overview of this problem and current efforts to solve it. This overview, given as a brief summary in section 3, shows the necessity of combining different fields of research, holding them together by strictly quantitative aspects.

  3. Chronic intraoral pain--assessment of diagnostic methods and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Pigg, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The overall goal of this thesis was to broaden our knowledge of chronic intraoral pain. The research questions were: What methods can be used to differentiate inflammatory, odontogenic tooth pain from pain that presents as toothache but is non-odontogenic in origin? What is the prognosis of chronic tooth pain of non-odontogenic origin, and which factors affect the prognosis? Atypical odontalgia (AO) is a relatively rare but severe and chronic pain condition affecting the dentoalveolar region. Recent research indicates that the origin is peripheral nerve damage: neuropathic pain. The condition presents as tooth pain and is challenging to dentists because it is difficult to distinguish from ordinary toothache due to inflammation or infection. AO is of interest to the pain community because it shares many characteristics with other chronic pain conditions, and pain perpetuation mechanisms are likely to be similar. An AO diagnosis is made after a comprehensive examination and assessment of patients' self-reported characteristics: the pain history. Traditional dental diagnostic methods do not appear to suffice, since many patients report repeated care-seeking and numerous treatment efforts with little or no pain relief. Developing methods that are useful in the clinical setting is a prerequisite for a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment decisions. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is used to assess sensory function on skin when nerve damage or disease is suspected. A variety of stimuli has been used to examine the perception of, for example, touch, temperature (painful and non-painful), vibration, pinprick pain, and pressure pain. To detect sensory abnormalities and nerve damage in the oral cavity, the same methods may be possible to use. Study I examined properties of thermal thresholds in and around the mouth in 30 pain-free subjects: the influence of measurement location and stimulation area size on threshold levels, and time variability of thresholds

  4. Use of the Attribute Hierarchy Method for Development of Student Cognitive Models and Diagnostic Assessments in Geoscience Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, S.; Brodsky, L. M.; Loper, S.; Brown, N.; Curley, J.; Baker, J.; Goss, M.; Castek, J.; Barber, J.

    2010-12-01

    There is a recognized need to better understand student learning in the geosciences (Stofflet, 1994; Zalles, Quallmalz, Gobert and Pallant, 2007). Educators, cognitive psychologists and practicing scientists have also called for instructional approaches that support deep conceptual development (Manduca, Mogk and Stillings, 2004, Libarkin and Kurdziel, 2006). In both cases there is an important role for educational measures that can generate descriptions of how student understanding develops over time and inform instruction. The presenters will suggest one way of responding to these needs by describing the Attribute Hierarchy Method (AHM) of assessment (Leighton, Gierl and Hunka, 2004; Gierl, Cui, Wang and Zhou, 2008) as enacted in a large-scale earth science curriculum development project funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The AHM is one approach to criterion referenced, diagnostic assessment that ties measure design to cognitive models of student learning in order to support justified inferences about students’ understanding and the knowledge required for continued development. The Attribute Hierarchy Method bears potential for researchers and practitioners interested in learning progressions and solves many problems associated with making meaningful, justified inferences about students’ understanding based on their assessment performances. The process followed to design and develop the project’s cognitive models as well as a description of how they are used in subsequent assessment task design will be emphasized in order to demonstrate how the AHM may be applied in the context of geoscience education. Results from over twenty student cognitive interviews, and two hypothesized cognitive models -- one describing a student pathway for understanding rock formation and a second describing a student pathway for increasingly sophisticated use of maps and models in the geosciences - are also described. Sample assessment items will be provided as

  5. Critical Assessment of Correction Methods for Fisheye Lens Distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Tian, C.; Huang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    A fisheye lens is widely used to create a wide panoramic or hemispherical image. It is an ultra wide-angle lens that produces strong visual distortion. The distortion modeling and estimation of the fisheye lens are the crucial step for fisheye lens calibration and image rectification in computer vision and close-range photography. There are two kinds of distortion: radial and tangential distortion. Radial distortion is large for fisheye imaging and critical for the subsequent image processing. Although many researchers have developed calibration algorithms of radial distortion of fisheye lens, quantitative evaluation of the correction performance has remained a challenge. This is the first paper that intuitively and objectively evaluates the performance of five different calibration algorithms. Upto- date research on fisheye lens calibration is comprehensively reviewed to identify the research need. To differentiate their performance in terms of precision and ease-using, five methods are then tested using a diverse set of actual images of the checkerboard that are taken at Wuhan University, China under varying lighting conditions, shadows, and shooting angles. The method of rational function model, which was generally used for wide-angle lens correction, outperforms the other methods. However, the one parameter division model is easy for practical use without compromising too much the precision. The reason is that it depends on the linear structure in the image and requires no preceding calibration. It is a tradeoff between correction precision and ease-using. By critically assessing the strengths and limitations of the existing algorithms, the paper provides valuable insight and guideline for future practice and algorithm development that are important for fisheye lens calibration. It is promising for the optimal design of lens correction models that are suitable for the millions of portable imaging devices.

  6. Evaluation of a method for assessing pulmonary function in laryngectomees.

    PubMed

    Castro, M A; Dedivitis, R A; Macedo, A G

    2011-08-01

    In total laryngectomies the impairment of pulmonary function reflects the sum of pre- and post-operative ventilatory changes. Objective information on the respiratory condition in laryngectomees, as assessed in the pulmonary function laboratory is somewhat limited, perhaps because of difficulties related to methodology. The aim of our study was to evaluate the reproducibility of a method employed to assess the pulmonary function in laryngectomized patients. The experimental extra-tracheal device was set up with a silicone adapter through a cardboard tube to the skin around the tracheostoma. Pulmonary function tests included measurements of forced vital capacity, force expiratory volume at 1 second and Tiffeneau index in 3 consecutive evaluations, in 11 patients who underwent total laryngectomy. The control group comprised 11 patients, not laryngectomized, evaluated by conventional spirometry. Those responsible for evaluating were asked to report possible technical failures and to demonstrate the reproducibility of the curves resulting from the tests. The use of the silicone adapter and skin adhesive provided a complete, airtight seal of the system, in all cases. The presence of the tracheo-oesophageal prosthesis did not negatively affect the test results. All patients attributed a maximum value, both for comfort and acceptance, of the device. The values are comparable in both groups, thus indicating the accuracy of the proposed methodology. All examinations were reproducible. After total laryngectomy, pulmonary function testing, with an extra-tracheal device, is not only reliable but also easy to perform in a routine out-patient setting. The methodology did not present air leaks and was, therefore, well accepted by all patients tested. PMID:22065707

  7. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Marc S; Chapman, Peter M; Allan, Ian J; Anderson, Kim A; Apitz, Sabine E; Beegan, Chris; Bridges, Todd S; Brown, Steve S; Cargill, John G; McCulloch, Megan C; Menzie, Charles A; Shine, James P; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2014-04-01

    This paper details how activity-based passive sampling methods (PSMs), which provide information on bioavailability in terms of freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree ), can be used to better inform risk management decision making at multiple points in the process of assessing and managing contaminated sediment sites. PSMs can increase certainty in site investigation and management, because Cfree is a better predictor of bioavailability than total bulk sediment concentration (Ctotal ) for 4 key endpoints included in conceptual site models (benthic organism toxicity, bioaccumulation, sediment flux, and water column exposures). The use of passive sampling devices (PSDs) presents challenges with respect to representative sampling for estimating average concentrations and other metrics relevant for exposure and risk assessment. These challenges can be addressed by designing studies that account for sources of variation associated with PSMs and considering appropriate spatial scales to meet study objectives. Possible applications of PSMs include: quantifying spatial and temporal trends in bioavailable contaminants, identifying and evaluating contaminant source contributions, calibrating site-specific models, and, improving weight-of-evidence based decision frameworks. PSM data can be used to assist in delineating sediment management zones based on likelihood of exposure effects, monitor remedy effectiveness, and, evaluate risk reduction after sediment treatment, disposal, or beneficial reuse after management actions. Examples are provided illustrating why PSMs and freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree ) should be incorporated into contaminated sediment investigations and study designs to better focus on and understand contaminant bioavailability, more accurately estimate exposure to sediment-associated contaminants, and better inform risk management decisions. Research and communication needs for encouraging broader use are discussed. PMID

  8. An evaluation of meaningful learning in a high school chemistry course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bross, April J.

    This study utilized an action research methodology to examine students' understandings of science knowledge, and meaningful learning using the SLD (Science Lecture Demonstration) and laboratory instructional method in a high school chemistry classroom. This method was a modification of the Science Lecture Demonstration Method as developed by Majerich and Schmuckler (2004, in press), the modification due to the addition of a laboratory component. The participants in this study represented a convenience sample which included one class of twenty-two, middle to high socio-economic status students (Mean family income over $75,000/year in 2005 U.S. dollars) in an honors chemistry course at a public high school in the state of New Jersey. These participants included nine girls and thirteen boys. The results of this study indicated what the students' understandings of science knowledge were, how the understandings differed among students, and to what extent those understandings were indicative of meaningful learning. These results were obtained by careful analysis of student generated concept maps, narratives from demonstration quizzes, laboratory reports, and test questions, as well as a teacher/researcher reflection upon the classroom experience. A simple taxonomy for analyzing students' understandings of science knowledge was developed, based upon the work of Majerich (2004). Findings indicated that the students' understanding of science knowledge, as well as the extent of meaningful learning that occurs in the chemistry classroom may be influenced by the roles of: explicit directions, pre-existing knowledge from elementary and middle school science classes, using examples vs. non-examples, macroscopic vs. microscopic views of nature, time for reflection, and everyday vs. scientific language. Results obtained from high school student responses confirmed Novak's observation of elementary students' lack of differentiation between the terms vapor and gas (Novak, 1998).

  9. REGIONAL REFERENCE SITES: A METHOD FOR ASSESSING STREAM POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field assessments of impacted streams require a control or at least an unbiased estimate of attainable conditions. Control sites, such as upstream/downstream or wilderness sites, have proven inadequate for assessing attainable ecological conditions where the control streams diffe...

  10. Making risk meaningful: developing caring relationships with AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Reutter, L I; Northcott, H C

    1993-09-01

    A qualitative study was conducted in order to understand how nurses cope with the risk of contagion while providing care to persons with AIDS (PWAs). Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 13 nurses who had cared for PWAs in an acute-care hospital in a western Canadian city. The data were analysed using the constant comparative methodology of grounded theory. The analysis revealed that caring for PWAs involved achieving a sense of control over uncertainty. One aspect of this process, making risk meaningful, centred on efforts to justify caring for PWAs in the face of risk. The purpose of this paper is to describe how nurses make risk meaningful. A sense of meaning was found to be related to three major factors: accepting the patient as a person who needs and deserves care, finding work enjoyable and worthwhile, and professional commitment to care for all patients. Attaining a sense of meaning led to a reappraisal of the risk situation as worthy of investment and provided the motivation to care for patients in spite of risk. The paper concludes with implications for practice and suggestions for further research. PMID:8258595

  11. Evaluation of Current Assessment Methods in Engineering Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purzer, Senay; Fila, Nicholas; Nataraja, Kavin

    2016-01-01

    Quality assessment is an essential component of education that allows educators to support student learning and improve educational programs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current state of assessment in engineering entrepreneurship education. We identified 52 assessment instruments covered in 29 journal articles and conference…

  12. Making Each Other’s Daily Life: Nurse Assistants’ Experiences and Knowledge on Developing a Meaningful Daily Life in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    James, Inger; Fredriksson, Carin; Wahlström, Catrin; Kihlgren, Annica; Blomberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background: In a larger action research project, guidelines were generated for how a meaningful daily life could be developed for older persons. In this study, we focused on the nurse assistants’ (NAs) perspectives, as their knowledge is essential for a well-functioning team and quality of care. The aim was to learn from NAs’ experiences and knowledge about how to develop a meaningful daily life for older persons in nursing homes and the meaning NAs ascribe to their work. Methods: The project is based on Participatory and Appreciative Action and Reflection. Data were generated through interviews, participating observations and informal conversations with 27 NAs working in nursing homes in Sweden, and a thematic analysis was used. Result: NAs developed a meaningful daily life by sensing and finding the “right” way of being (Theme 1). They sense and read the older person in order to judge how the person was feeling (Theme 2). They adapt to the older person (Theme 3) and share their daily life (Theme 4). NAs use emotional involvement to develop a meaningful daily life for the older person and meaning in their own work (Theme 5), ultimately making each other’s daily lives meaningful. Conclusion: It was obvious that NAs based the development of a meaningful daily life on different forms of knowledge: the oreticaland practical knowledge, and practical wisdom, all of which are intertwined. These results could be used within the team to constitute a meaningful daily life for older persons in nursing homes. PMID:25246997

  13. Assessment of Methods for the Intracellular Blockade of GABAA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Atherton, Laura A.; Burnell, Erica S.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    Selective blockade of inhibitory synaptic transmission onto specific neurons is a useful tool for dissecting the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic components of ongoing network activity. To achieve this, intracellular recording with a patch solution capable of blocking GABAA receptors has advantages over other manipulations, such as pharmacological application of GABAergic antagonists or optogenetic inhibition of populations of interneurones, in that the majority of inhibitory transmission is unaffected and hence the remaining network activity preserved. Here, we assess three previously described methods to block inhibition: intracellular application of the molecules picrotoxin, 4,4’-dinitro-stilbene-2,2’-disulphonic acid (DNDS) and 4,4’-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2’-disulphonic acid (DIDS). DNDS and picrotoxin were both found to be ineffective at blocking evoked, monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) onto mouse CA1 pyramidal cells. An intracellular solution containing DIDS and caesium fluoride, but lacking nucleotides ATP and GTP, was effective at decreasing the amplitude of IPSCs. However, this effect was found to be independent of DIDS, and the absence of intracellular nucleotides, and was instead due to the presence of fluoride ions in this intracellular solution, which also blocked spontaneously occurring IPSCs during hippocampal sharp waves. Critically, intracellular fluoride ions also caused a decrease in both spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic currents and precluded the inclusion of nucleotides in the intracellular solution. Therefore, of the methods tested, only fluoride ions were effective for intracellular blockade of IPSCs but this approach has additional cellular effects reducing its selectivity and utility. PMID:27501143

  14. Assessment of voltage security methods and tools. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vaahedi, E.

    1995-10-01

    The main objective of this project was to provide a comprehensive assessment and evaluation of tools that allow the optimal placement and operation of VAr control devices to ensure voltage secure operation of the power system. These tools included the ones currently used by utilities as well as the most promising OPF/optimal VAr allocation programs. To achieve the project objectives, the following tasks were undertaken: An industry survey was conducted to determine the current practices by utilities in regard to voltage security. This was reinforced with comprehensive reviews of (a) technical and economic considerations in establishing voltage profile and (b) optimal power flow/VAr planning methods. Load response tests were performed to identify load models for voltage security. Parameter estimation methods were developed to extract parameters from measured data for static and dynamic models. A generic dynamic load model was developed and incorporated within EPRI`s LOADSYN program. Voltage stability and VAr design studies were carried out on four utility systems using existing static and dynamic simulation tools. Voltage security and VAr planning issues were formulated as optimization problems. Three OPF/optimal VAr planning tools were used to address these problems. Studies were conducted on four utility systems. Based on the findings of the project, recommendations were made in the following primary areas: Bridging the gap of knowledge related to voltage stability among utilities; Load modeling for voltage stability applications; Procedure for voltage stability analysis using existing tools; Procedures for voltage security analysis using OPF/optimal VAr planning tools; Recommendations for further development of OPF/optimal VAr planning tools as well as specifications for a new generation of optimal VAr planning tools.

  15. 76 FR 4345 - A Method To Assess Climate-Relevant Decisions: Application in the Chesapeake Bay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... AGENCY A Method To Assess Climate-Relevant Decisions: Application in the Chesapeake Bay AGENCY... review draft document titled, ``A Method to Assess Climate-Relevant Decisions: Application in the.../conferences/peerreview/register-chesapeake.htm . The draft ``A Method to Assess Climate-Relevant...

  16. 75 FR 53298 - A Method to Assess Climate-Relevant Decisions: Application in the Chesapeake Bay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY A Method to Assess Climate-Relevant Decisions: Application in the Chesapeake Bay AGENCY... 60-day public comment period for the draft document titled, ``A Method to Assess Climate-Relevant... and must be received by EPA by November 1, 2010. ADDRESSES: The draft ``A Method To Assess...

  17. Full scale assessment of pansharpening methods and data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiazzi, B.; Alparone, L.; Baronti, S.; Carlà, R.; Garzelli, A.; Santurri, L.

    2014-10-01

    Quality assessment of pansharpened images is traditionally carried out either at degraded spatial scale by checking the synthesis property ofWald's protocol or at the full spatial scale by separately checking the spectral and spatial consistencies. The spatial distortion of the QNR protocol and the spectral distortion of Khan's protocol may be combined into a unique quality index, referred to as hybrid QNR (HQNR), that is calculated at full scale. Alternatively, multiscale measurements of indices requiring a reference, like SAM, ERGAS and Q4, may be extrapolated to yield a quality measurement at the full scale of the fusion product, where a reference does not exist. Experiments on simulated Pĺeiades data, of which reference originals at full scale are available, highlight that quadratic polynomials having three-point support, i.e. fitting three measurements at as many progressively doubled scales, are adequate. Q4 is more suitable for extrapolation than ERGAS and SAM. The Q4 value predicted from multiscale measurements and the Q4 value measured at full scale thanks to the reference original, differ by very few percents for six different state-of-the-art methods that have been compared. HQNR is substantially comparable to the extrapolated Q4.

  18. Standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrby, N. E. Sverker

    1995-11-01

    The relative merits of three standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses are discussed based on theoretical modulation-transfer-function calculations. The standards are ANSI Z80.7 1984 from the American National Standards Institute, now superseded by ANSI Z80.7 1994, and the proposed ISO 11979-2 from the International Organization for Standardization. They entail different test 60% resolution efficiency in air, 70% resolutionefficiency in aqueous humor, and 0.43 modulation at 100 line pairs/mm in a model eye. The ISO working group found that the latter corresponds to 60% resolution efficiency in air in a ring test among eight laboratories on a sample of 39 poly(methyl) methacrylate lenses and four silicone lenses spanning the power (in aqueous humor) range of 10-30 D. In both ANSI Z80.7 1994 and ISO 11979-2, a 60% resolution efficiency in air remains an optional approval limit. It is concluded that the ISO configuration is preferred, because it puts the intraocular lens into the context of the optics of the eye. Note that the ISO standard is tentative and is currently being voted on.

  19. Standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Norrby, N E

    1995-11-01

    The relative merits of three standardized methods for assessing the imaging quality of intraocular lenses are discussed based on theoretical modulation-transfer-function calculations. The standards are ANSI Z80.7 1984 from the American National Standards Institute, now superseded by ANSI Z80.7 1994, and the proposed ISO 11979-2 from the International Organization for Standardization. They entail different test configurations and approval limits, respectively: 60% resolution efficiency in air, 70% resolution efficiency in aqueous humor, and 0.43 modulation at 100 line pairs/mm in a model eye. The ISO working group found that the latter corresponds to 60% resolution efficiency in air in a ring test among eight laboratories on a sample of 39 poly(methyl) methacrylate lenses and four silicone lenses spanning the power (in aqueous humor) range of 10-30 D. In both ANSI Z80.7 1994 and ISO 11979-2, a 60% resolution efficiency in air remains an optional approval limit. It is concluded that the ISO configuration is preferred, because it puts the intraocular lens into the context of the optics of the eye. Note that the ISO standard is tentative and is currently being voted on. PMID:21060604

  20. On methods for assessing water-resource risks and vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    2015-11-01

    Because of the critical role that freshwater plays in maintaining ecosystem health and supporting human development through agricultural and industrial production there have been numerous efforts over the past few decades to develop indicators and indices of water vulnerability. Each of these efforts has tried to identify key factors that both offer insights into water-related risks and strategies that might be useful for reducing those risks. These kinds of assessments have serious limitations associated with data, the complexity of water challenges, and the changing nature of climatic and hydrologic variables. This new letter by Padowski et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 104014) adds to the field by broadening the kinds of measures that should be integrated into such tools, especially in the area of institutional characteristics, and analyzing them in a way that provides new insights into the similarities and differences in water risks facing different countries, but much more can and should be done with new data and methods to improve our understanding of water challenges.

  1. The use of aerospace methods for forest state assessment.

    PubMed

    Isaev, A S

    1988-01-01

    Siberian forests occupy a significant part of the Asian continent. Their role as an essential component of the Earth's surface, biomass and oxygen producer is increasing annually. Expanded reproduction of taiga forests necessitated by the intensive development of Siberian productive forces, results in an evergrowing need of forest productivity constancy and increase. Proper forest exploitation is a crucial part of the solution of such important problems as the rational use of land and water resources, stable crop yields, and the creation of favourable conditions for human life.To solve these important economic problems, the Siberian branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences has devised a long-term programme of ecological monitoring of Siberian forest resources using aerospace techniques. The programme provides for the establishment and improvement of ecogeographical and physicotechnological principles of the remote sensing of forests and the development of fundamental forest-biological research based on new methodologies, the results of which are used to solve urgent forestry and nature protection problems. The research is carried out in the following major directions: studying spectral characteristics of forest vegetation for forest-state indication; thematic mapping of taiga territories; assessing biological productivity of natural complexes; environmental state monitoring; fire protection of forests; pest and disease control; developin instruments and methods for automatized aerospace data processing for real-time use.We consider forest-state monitoring to be one of the crucial tools in providing the optimum use of forest ecosystems for resource and ecological functions. PMID:24248966

  2. 76 FR 2910 - HIT Policy Committee's Meaningful Use Workgroup Meetings; Notice of Meetings and Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Technology (ONC). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Subcommittee: HIT Policy Committee... stages of meaningful use. Date and Time: The Meaningful Use Workgroup will hold the following public... Meaningful Use Workgroup is seeking comments particularly on proposed stage 2 measures from the public on...

  3. Processing Instruction and Meaningful Output-Based Instruction: Effects on Second Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Bowden, Harriet Wood

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of meaningful input- and output-based practice on SLA. First-semester Spanish students (n = 45) were assigned to processing instruction, meaningful output-based instruction, or control groups. Experimental groups received the same input in instruction but received meaningful practice that was input or output…

  4. HDMR methods to assess reliability in slope stability analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozubal, Janusz; Pula, Wojciech; Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    -soil masses) resulting in sliding mechanisms have been investigated in this study. The reliability indices values drawn from the HDRM method have been compared with conventional approaches as neural networks: the efficiency of HDRM is shown in the case studied. References Chowdhury R., Rao B.N. and Prasad A.M. 2009. High-dimensional model representation for structural reliability analysis. Commun. Numer. Meth. Engng, 25: 301-337. Chowdhury R. and Rao B. 2010. Probabilistic Stability Assessment of Slopes Using High Dimensional Model Representation. Computers and Geotechnics, 37: 876-884.

  5. The higher vocational colleges’ exploration of “Tour Guide Service Skills” curriculum assessment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yin; Gao, Jin Yue

    There are many problems in assessment methods of the higher vocational education curricula. In the exploration of assessment methods ofTour Guide Service Skills, our school proposes the theory that the assessment methods should take the competency assessment as the orientation, and take the improvement of the students' multi-faceted capacities as the principle. Besides, assessment methods should be diversified and gradually developed, combining the traditional standardized tests and hierarchical tests, assessing and grading at different stages, and breaking the pattern that a test determines the results.

  6. Current Development in Elderly Comprehensive Assessment and Research Methods

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shantong; Li, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is a core and an essential part of the comprehensive care of the aging population. CGA uses specific tools to summarize elderly status in several domains that may influence the general health and outcomes of diseases of elderly patients, including assessment of medical, physical, psychological, mental, nutritional, cognitive, social, economic, and environmental status. Here, in this paper, we review different assessment tools used in elderly patients with chronic diseases. The development of comprehensive assessment tools and single assessment tools specially used in a dimension of CGA was discussed. CGA provides substantial insight into the comprehensive management of elderly patients. Developing concise and effective assessment instruments is helpful to carry out CGA widely to create a higher clinical value. PMID:27042661

  7. Are there meaningful individual differences in temporal inconsistency in self-reported personality?

    PubMed

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-11-01

    The current project had three goals. The first was to examine whether it is meaningful to refer to across-time variability in self-reported personality as an individual differences characteristic. The second was to investigate whether negative affect was associated with variability in self-reported personality, while controlling for mean levels, and correcting for measurement errors. The third goal was to examine whether variability in self-reported personality would be larger among young adults than among older adults, and whether the relation of variability with negative affect would be stronger at older ages than at younger ages. Two moderately large samples of participants completed the International Item Pool Personality questionnaire assessing the Big Five personality dimensions either twice or thrice, in addition to several measures of negative affect. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that within-person variability in self-reported personality is a meaningful individual difference characteristic. Some people exhibited greater across-time variability than others after removing measurement error, and people who showed temporal instability in one trait also exhibited temporal instability across the other four traits. However, temporal variability was not related to negative affect, and there was no evidence that either temporal variability or its association with negative affect varied with age. PMID:25132698

  8. Are there meaningful individual differences in temporal inconsistency in self-reported personality?

    PubMed Central

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A.; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    The current project had three goals. The first was to examine whether it is meaningful to refer to across-time variability in self-reported personality as an individual differences characteristic. The second was to investigate whether negative affect was associated with variability in self-reported personality, while controlling for mean levels, and correcting for measurement errors. The third goal was to examine whether variability in self-reported personality would be larger among young adults than among older adults, and whether the relation of variability with negative affect would be stronger at older ages than at younger ages. Two moderately large samples of participants completed the International Item Pool Personality questionnaire assessing the Big Five personality dimensions either twice or thrice, in addition to several measures of negative affect. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that within-person variability in self-reported personality is a meaningful individual difference characteristic. Some people exhibited greater across-time variability than others after removing measurement error, and people who showed temporal instability in one trait also exhibited temporal instability across the other four traits. However, temporal variability was not related to negative affect, and there was no evidence that either temporal variability or its association with negative affect varied with age. PMID:25132698

  9. Meaningful rehabilitation of the end-stage renal disease patient.

    PubMed

    Thornton, T A; Hakim, R M

    1997-05-01

    In this highly technological age, health care providers are called to attend to the patient as a whole person, with dreams and goals and a desire for purpose and meaning in life. In this article, we propose a broadened definition of rehabilitation and a rehabilitation program designed to effect an improvement in the quality of life of each renal patient by aiming to restore meaningful existence in each of their lives. An individualized plan for rehabilitation can be constructed and implemented with far-reaching success when the focus is on the life goals of the patient, whether physical, social, psychological, or intellectual. These programs not only enhance the quality of life of the patient with end-stage renal disease, but are cost-effective, both at the societal level and at the level of the dialysis clinic. PMID:9165654

  10. Meaningful use: participating in the federal incentive program.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, Arun; Siddiqui, Adeel; Goldszal, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Meaningful use legislation was first introduced in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 as a multistaged program to incentivize adoption of electronic health record technology. Since that time, numerous eligible providers and eligible hospitals have captured incentive payments by installing certified electronic health record technology and capturing and reporting on key elements for patients whose health records are stored in an electronic format. Although the question of whether radiologists should participate in the program was initially debated, the evidence is now clear that lack of participation leaves a significant amount of money at risk. This article provides an overview of how the program is structured, what technology needs to be installed, the necessary data elements to capture in an electronic format, and how radiologists can effectively participate in the program to capture their maximum incentive payment. PMID:25467896

  11. School nurse evaluations: making the process meaningful and motivational.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Kathryn H; Overman, Muriel; Guttu, Martha; Engelke, Martha Keehner

    2013-02-01

    The professional standards of school nursing practice provide a framework to help school nurses focus on their unique mission of promoting health and academic achievement for all students. Without the standards, the nurse's role can become task oriented and limited in scope. By using an evaluation tool that reflects the standards, nurses not only become aware and begin to understand the standards; they also become directly accountable for meeting them. In addition, developing an evaluation process based on the standards of school nurse practice increases the visibility of school nurses and helps school administrators understand the role of the school nurse. This article describes how one school district integrated the scope and standards of school nursing into the job description and performance evaluation of the nurse. The process which is used to complete the evaluation in a manner that is meaningful and motivational to the school nurse is described. PMID:23263263

  12. Meaningful Engagement to Enhance Diversity: Broadened Impact Actualized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, V. W.; Pyrtle, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    The MS PHD'S Professional Development Program was established by and for UR/US populations to facilitate increased and sustained participation within the Earth system science community. MS PHD'S is jointly funded by NSF and NASA. Fourteen (14) minority Earth system scientists served as Program mentors and one- hundred fifteen (115) minority and non-minority scientists served as Meeting Mentors to student participants. Representatives from fifty-six (56) agencies and institutions provided support and exposure to MS PHD'S student participants. Two hundred fifty-eight (258) highly qualified UR/US students completed on-line applications to participate in the MS PHD'S Professional Development Program. Because of funding limitations, slightly fewer than 50% of the applicants were selected to participate. One-hundred twenty-six (126) undergraduate and graduate students from 26 states and Puerto Rico participated in the MS PHD'S program. Sixty-eight (68) MS PHD'S student participants self-identified as African American; thirty-four (34) as Puerto Rican; nine (9) as Hispanic/Mexican American, ten (10) as Native American and one (1) each as African, Asian, Pacific Islander, Hispanic and Multi-Ethnic. During the five year span of MS PHD'S programming, sixteen (16) student participants completed BS degrees, twelve (12) completed MS degrees and ten (10) completed the Doctoral degrees. How did MS PHD'S establish meaningful engagement to enhance diversity within the Earth system science community? This case study reveals replicable processes and constructs to enhance the quality of meaningful collaboration and engagement. In addition, the study addresses frequently asked questions (FAQ's) on outreach, recruitment, engagement, retention and success of students from underrepresented populations within diversity-focused programs.

  13. Quantifying isocenter measurements to establish clinically meaningful thresholds.

    PubMed

    Denton, Travis R; Shields, Lisa B E; Howe, Jonathan N; Spalding, Aaron C

    2015-01-01

    A dataset range of isocenter congruency verification tests have been examined from a statistical perspective for the purpose of establishing tolerance levels that are meaningful, based on the fundamental limitation of linear accelerator isocentricity and the demands of a high-precision stereotactic radiosurgery program. Using a laser-defined isocenter, a total of 149 individual isocenter congruency tests were examined with recorded values for ideal spatial corrections to the isocenter test tool. These spatial corrections were determined from radiation exposures recorded on an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) at various gantry, collimator, and treatment couch combinations. The limitations of establishing an ideal isocenter were quantified from each variable which contributed to uncertainty in isocenter definition. Individual contributors to uncertainty, specifically, daily positioning setup errors, gantry sag, multileaf collimator (MLC) offset, and couch walkout, were isolated from isocenter congruency measurements to determine a clinically meaningful isocenter measurement. Variations in positioning of the test tool constituted, on average, 0.38 mm magnitude of correction. Gantry sag and MLC offset contributed 0.4 and 0.16 mm, respectively. Couch walkout had an average degrading effect to isocenter of 0.72 mm. Considering the magnitude of uncertainty contributed by each uncertainty variable and the nature of their combination, an appropriate schedule action and immediate action level were determined for use in analyzing daily isocenter congruency test results in a stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) program. The recommendations of this study for this linear accelerator include a schedule action level of 1.25 mm and an immediate action level of 1.50mm, requiring prompt correction response from clinical medical physicists before SRS or stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) is administered. These absolute values were derived from considering relative data from a

  14. New Methods for Assessing the Fascinating Nature of Nature Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Joye, Yannick; Pals, Roos; Steg, Linda; Evans, Ben Lewis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual’s mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART) the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an “attentional”, an “affective” and an “effort” dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional) depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a) the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1), (b) the dot probe paradigm (Study 2) and (c) a cognitively effortful task (Study 3). These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension) and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban) environments (cfr., attentional dimension). The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks. PMID:23922645

  15. Assessing groundwater quality for irrigation using indicator kriging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbari, Masoomeh; Amiri, Meysam; Motlagh, Masoud Bahraini

    2014-09-01

    One of the key parameters influencing sprinkler irrigation performance is water quality. In this study, the spatial variability of groundwater quality parameters (EC, SAR, Na+, Cl-, HCO3 - and pH) was investigated by geostatistical methods and the most suitable areas for implementation of sprinkler irrigation systems in terms of water quality are determined. The study was performed in Fasa county of Fars province using 91 water samples. Results indicated that all parameters are moderately to strongly spatially correlated over the study area. The spatial distribution of pH and HCO3 - was mapped using ordinary kriging. The probability of concentrations of EC, SAR, Na+ and Cl- exceeding a threshold limit in groundwater was obtained using indicator kriging (IK). The experimental indicator semivariograms were often fitted well by a spherical model for SAR, EC, Na+ and Cl-. For HCO3 - and pH, an exponential model was fitted to the experimental semivariograms. Probability maps showed that the risk of EC, SAR, Na+ and Cl- exceeding the given critical threshold is higher in lower half of the study area. The most proper agricultural lands for sprinkler irrigation implementation were identified by evaluating all probability maps. The suitable areas for sprinkler irrigation design were determined to be 25,240 hectares, which is about 34 percent of total agricultural lands and are located in northern and eastern parts. Overall the results of this study showed that IK is an appropriate approach for risk assessment of groundwater pollution, which is useful for a proper groundwater resources management.

  16. Ocular bubble formation as a method of assessing decompression stress.

    PubMed

    Mekjavić, I B; Campbell, D G; Jaki, P; Dovsak, P A

    1998-01-01

    Tear film bubble formation and ultrasound reflectivity of the lens-vitreous humor compartments were monitored following simulated dives in a hyperbaric chamber. the sensitivity of these methods in determining decompression stress was compared with the results of precordial Doppler ultrasound. In addition, the utility of these diagnostic techniques in testing decompression dive profiles was evaluated. Eleven divers completed two series of chamber dives according to the decompression schedule of the Professional Association of Diving Instructors. The first dive series comprised dives to 70 feet of seawater (fsw) for 15, 29, and 40 min. The second series comprised maximum duration no-stop decompression dives to 40 fsw for 140 min, 70 fsw for 40 min, 90 fsw for 25 min, and 120 fsw for 13 min. Before and immediately after each dive, the following measurements were obtained from each subject: eye surface tear film bubble counts with a slit-lamp microscope, lens and vitreous humor reflectivity using A- and B-mode ophthalmic ultrasonic scan, and precordial Doppler ultrasonic detection of venous gas bubbles. Tear film bubble assessment and ocular scanning ultrasound were observed to be more sensitive in detecting decompression stress than the conventional Doppler ultrasonic surveillance of the precordial region. In contrast to precordial Doppler ultrasonic surveillance, which failed to detect any significant changes in circulating bubbles, tear film bubble formation displayed a dose-response relationship with increasing duration of the 70-fsw dives. Reflectivity changes of the lens-vitreous humor interface were not significant until the no-stop decompression limit was reached. In addition, for each of the no-stop decompression limit dives, increases in the average tear film bubble formation and lens-vitreous humor interface reflectivity were similar. Ocular bubble observations may provide a practical and objective ocular bubble index for analyzing existing decompression

  17. New methods for assessing the fascinating nature of nature experiences.

    PubMed

    Joye, Yannick; Pals, Roos; Steg, Linda; Evans, Ben Lewis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous environmental psychology studies have demonstrated that contact with nature as opposed to urban settings can improve an individual's mood, can lead to increased levels of vitality, and can offer an opportunity to recover from stress. According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART) the restorative potential of natural environments is situated in the fact that nature can replenish depleted attentional resources. This replenishment takes place, in part, because nature is deemed to be a source of fascination, with fascination being described as having an "attentional", an "affective" and an "effort" dimension. However, the claim that fascination with nature involves these three dimensions is to a large extent based on intuition or derived from introspection-based measurement methods, such as self-reports. In three studies, we aimed to more objectively assess whether these three dimensions indeed applied to experiences related to natural environments, before any (attentional) depletion has taken place. The instruments that were used were: (a) the affect misattribution procedure (Study 1), (b) the dot probe paradigm (Study 2) and (c) a cognitively effortful task (Study 3). These instrument were respectively aimed at verifying the affective, attentional and effort dimension of fascination. Overall, the results provide objective evidence for the claims made within the ART framework, that natural as opposed to urban settings are affectively positive (cfr., affective dimension) and that people have an attentional bias to natural (rather than urban) environments (cfr., attentional dimension). The results regarding the effort dimension are less straightforward, and suggest that this dimension only becomes important in sufficiently difficult cognitive tasks. PMID:23922645

  18. Peer Assessment as a Method of Improving Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Debbi; Esposto, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    To encourage increased student attendance and engagement in a third-year economics unit, the curriculum was redesigned to incorporate continuous assessment throughout the semester. A component of group project marks were allocated to peer assessment, in an attempt to address concerns about free-riding colleagues sharing a common mark. This study…

  19. Evaluation of Stimulus Preference Assessment Methods with General Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanding, G. Thomas, Jr.; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Sterling-Turner, Heather E.

    2009-01-01

    The current exploratory study examined the ability of three stimulus preference assessments to identify effective reinforcers for general education students. Four students from Grades K through 5 and their teachers participated. A student nomination, teacher nomination, and ongoing (daily) stimulus preference assessment were evaluated. The results…

  20. School Violence Assessment: A Conceptual Framework, Instruments, and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbenishty, Rami; Astor, Ron Avi; Estrada, Joey Nunez

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines a philosophical and theoretical framework for conducting school violence assessments at the local level. The authors advocate that assessments employ a strong conceptual foundation based on social work values. These values include the active measurement of ecological factors inside and outside the school that reflect the…

  1. Predicting Optimal Preference Assessment Methods for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kendra M.; Czarnecki, Diana; Martin, Toby L.; Yu, C. T.; Martin, Garry L.

    2007-01-01

    The single-stimulus (SS) preference assessment procedure has been described as more appropriate than the paired stimulus (PS) procedure for "lower functioning" individuals, but this guideline's vagueness limits its usefulness. We administered the SS and PS preference assessment procedures with food items to seven individuals with severe or…

  2. AN OVERVIEW OF DATA INTEGRATION METHODS FOR REGIONAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the goals of the EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (ReVA) project is to take diverse environmental data and develop objective criteria to evaluate environmental risk assessments at the regions: scale. The data include (but are not limited to) variables for forests, ...

  3. Effects of Rater Characteristics and Scoring Methods on Speaking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsugu, Sawako

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the sources of variance in speaking assessment is important in Japan where society's high demand for English speaking skills is growing. Three challenges threaten fair assessment of speaking. First, in Japanese university speaking courses, teachers are typically the only raters, but teachers' knowledge of their students may…

  4. Assessing Mantle Models with the Spectral-Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromp, J.; Komatitsch, D.; Ritsema, J.; Allen, R.

    2001-12-01

    We have developed and implemented a spectral-element method (SEM) to simulate seismic wave propagation throughout the entire globe. Our SEM incorporates the effects of fluid-solid boundaries, attenuation, anisotropy, the oceans, rotation, self-gravitation and 3-D mantle and crustal heterogeneity. The method is implemented on a massively parallel PC cluster computer using message-passing software (MPI). The effects of crustal thickness, anisotropy, and attenuation on surface waves are quite dramatic. Self-gravitation and, in particular, the presence of a water layer slow the Rayleigh wave down. For spherically symmetric Earth models the SEM is in excellent agreement with normal-mode synthetics at periods greater than 20~seconds. We use the SEM to assess the quality of mantle model S20RTS, developed by Ritsema and colleagues, and Iceland model ICEMAN, developed by Allen and colleagues. The effects of 3-D heterogeneity can be spectacular. For example, along oceanic paths from Fiji-Tonga to Western North America or Japan the Rayleigh wave arrives more than a minute earlier than in PREM, and the Love wave exhibits very little dispersion, unlike in PREM. These effects are largely due to the fact that the oceanic crust is much thinner than in PREM. For a set of well-recorded earthquakes we use the SEM to determine how well model S20RTS fits the travel-time data. Because the SEM synthetics are essentially exact at periods greater than 20~seconds, this facilitates a difficult test for a 3-D model. For Iceland we are investigating whether or not a narrow plume can explain the differential travel-time data used to constrain the model. The width of the plume is so small that standard ray theory may be inadequate for waves with periods greater than 20~seconds. Due to finite-frequency effects, a ray that `misses' the plume can still be significantly affected by its presence. The question is whether a thin plume, which is preferred in geodynamic models, can explain the data as

  5. A semi-probabilistic assessment method for flow slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ham, G.; Mastbergen, D.; de Groot, M.

    2013-12-01

    Flow slides in submerged slopes in non-lithified sandy and silty sediments form a major threat for flood defences along (estuary) coastlines and riverbanks in the Netherlands. Such flow slides may result in failure of levees and structures, eventually leading to flooding of the hinterland. Flow slide is a complex failure mechanism that includes both soil mechanical and hydraulic features. Two important sub-mechanisms are static liquefaction and breach flow. Static liquefaction entails the sudden loss of strength of loosely packed saturated sand or silt resulting in a collapse of the sand body. Breach flow is a more superficial process, involving the upslope retrogression of a local steep part of the slope which generates a turbulent sand-water mixture flow along the sand surface of the under water slope. Both mechanisms need a trigger, e.g. local steepening of the slope by erosion or slip failure. Although a breach flow slide generally takes more time than a liquefaction flow slide, both mechanisms result in a flowing sand-water mixture, that eventually resedimentates under a very gentle slope. Therefore in the analysis of historical flow slides it is often not clear to what extent static soil liquefaction and/or breach flow has played a role. In the current Dutch practice the prediction of levee failure due to flow sliding is based on either simple but conservative empirical rules based on documented historical flow slides in which distinction between mentioned sub-mechanisms is disregarded, or rather complex physical-based models describing mechanisms such as static liquefaction or breach flow. It will be presented how both approaches can be combined into a practical, probabilistic method for assessing dike failure due to flow sliding, accounting for uncertainties of the main influence factors. The method has recently been implemented in the so-called Dike Analysis Module (DAM). DAM is a platform for performing semi-automatic stability analyses on a large number

  6. Friends in the Classroom: A Comparison between Two Methods for the Assessment of Students' Friendship Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijl, Sip Jan; Koster, Marloes; Hannink, Anne; Stratingh, Anna

    2011-01-01

    One of the methods used most often to assess students' friendships and friendship networks is the reciprocal nomination method. However, an often heard complaint is that this technique produces rather negative outcomes. This study compares the reciprocal nomination method with another method to assess students' friendships and friendship networks:…

  7. Comparing Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark Standard Setting Methods in the Context of English Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Mingchuan

    2013-01-01

    The Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark method for setting standards on educational assessment are currently two of the most popular standard-setting methods. However, there is no research into the comparability of these two methods in the context of language assessment. This study compared results from the Yes/No Angoff and Bookmark methods as applied to…

  8. Structural assessment of roof decking using visual inspection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Giller, R.A.; McCoy, R.M.; Wagenblast, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Site has approximately 1,100 buildings, some of which date back to the early 1940s. The roof on these buildings provides a weather resisting cover as well as the load resisting structure. Past experience has been that these roof structures may have structural modifications, the weather resisting membrane may have been replaced several times, and the members may experience some type of material degradation. This material degradation has progressed to cause the collapse of some roof deck members. The intent of the Hanford Site Central Engineering roof assessment effort is to provide an expedient structural assessment of the large number of buildings at the Hanford Site. This assessment is made by qualified structural inspectors following the {open_quotes}Preliminary Assessment{close_quote} procedures given in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standard ASCE 11-90. This roof assessment effort does not provide a total qualification of the roof for the design or in-place loads. This inspection does provide a reasonable estimate of the roof loading capacity to determine if personnel access restrictions are needed. A document search and a visual walkdown inspection provide the initial screening to identify modifications and components having questionable structural integrity. The structural assessment consists of baseline dead and live load stress calculations of all roofing components based on original design material strengths. The results of these assessments are documented in a final report which is retrievable form that future inspections will have comparative information.

  9. A Faculty Team Works to Create Content Linkages among Various Courses to Increase Meaningful Learning of Targeted Concepts of Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Briken, Volker; Frauwirth, Kenneth; Gao, Lian-Yong; Hutcheson, Steven W.; Joseph, Sam W.; Mosser, David; Parent, Beth; Shields, Patricia; Song, Wenxia; Stein, Daniel C.; Swanson, Karen; Thompson, Katerina V.; Yuan, Robert

    2007-01-01

    As research faculty with expertise in the area of host–pathogen interactions (HPI), we used a research group model to effect our professional development as scientific educators. We have established a working hypothesis: The implementation of a curriculum that forms bridges between our seven HPI courses allows our students to achieve deep and meaningful learning of HPI concepts. Working collaboratively, we identified common learning goals, and we chose two microorganisms to serve as anchors for student learning. We instituted variations of published active-learning methods to engage students in research-oriented learning. In parallel, we are developing an assessment tool. The value of this work is in the development of a teaching model that successfully allowed faculty who already work collaboratively in the research area of HPI to apply a “research group approach” to further scientific teaching initiatives at a research university. We achieved results that could not be accomplished by even the most dedicated instructor working in isolation. PMID:17548877

  10. Review of Methods Related to Assessing Human Performance in Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Katya L Le Blanc; Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman

    2001-11-01

    With the increased use of digital systems in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control rooms comes a need to thoroughly understand the human performance issues associated with digital systems. A common way to evaluate human performance is to test operators and crews in NPP control room simulators. However, it is often challenging to characterize human performance in meaningful ways when measuring performance in NPP control room simulations. A review of the literature in NPP simulator studies reveals a variety of ways to measure human performance in NPP control room simulations including direct observation, automated computer logging, recordings from physiological equipment, self-report techniques, protocol analysis and structured debriefs, and application of model-based evaluation. These methods and the particular measures used are summarized and evaluated.

  11. Adaptive classification of marine ecosystems: Identifying biologically meaningful regions in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregr, Edward J.; Bodtker, Karin M.

    2007-03-01

    The move to ecosystem-based management of marine fisheries and endangered species would be greatly facilitated by a quantitative method for identifying marine ecosystems that captures temporal dynamics at meso-scale (10s or 100s of kilometers) resolutions. Understanding the dynamics of ecosystem boundaries, which may differ according to the species of interest or the management objectives, is a fundamental challenge of ecosystem-based management. We present an adaptive ecosystem classification that begins to address these challenges. To demonstrate the approach, we quantitatively bounded distinct, biologically meaningful marine regions in the North Pacific Ocean based on physical oceanography. We identified the regions by applying image classification algorithms to a comprehensive description of the ocean's surface, derived from an oceanographic circulation model. Our resulting maps illustrate 15 distinct marine regions. The size and location of these regions related well to previously described water masses in the North Pacific. We investigated seasonal and long-term changes in the pattern of regions and their boundaries by dividing the oceanographic data into four seasons and two 10-year time periods, one on either side of the 1976-1977 North Pacific Ocean climate regime shift. We compared our results for each season across the regime shift and for sequential seasons within regimes using the Kappa Index of Agreement and the index of Average Mutual Information. Seasonal patterns were more similar between regimes than from one season to the next within a regime, while the magnitude of seasonal transitions appeared to differ before and after the regime shift. We assessed the biological relevance of the identified regions using seasonal maps derived from remotely sensed chlorophyll- a concentrations ([chl-a]). We used Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests to evaluate the correspondence between the [chl-a] maps and our post-regime shift regions. There was a

  12. Application of WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT Methods to Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds are frequently used to study and manage environmental resources because hydrologic boundaries define the flow of contaminants and other stressors. Ecological assessments of watersheds are complex because watersheds typically overlap multiple jurisdictional boundaries,...

  13. Application of Watershed Ecological Risk Assessment Methods to Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds are frequently used to study and manage environmental resources because hydrologic boundaries define the flow of contaminants and other stressors. Ecological assessments of watersheds are complex because watersheds typically overlap multiple jurisdictional boundaries,...

  14. Assessment of Automated Measurement and Verification (M&V) Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Touzani, Samir; Custodio, Claudine; Sohn, Michael; Fernandes, Samuel; Jump, David

    2015-07-01

    This report documents the application of a general statistical methodology to assess the accuracy of baseline energy models, focusing on its application to Measurement and Verification (M&V) of whole-building energy savings.

  15. Use of Augmented Meaningful Use Criteria to Identify Patients Eligible for Lung Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Dan J.; Dunham, Rachel; Tiep, Brian; Sandoval, Argelia; Grannis, Frederic; Rotter, Arnold; Kim, Jae Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung cancer screening (LCS) with low dose radiation computed tomography saves lives. Despite recent US Preventative Services Task Force draft endorsement of LCS, a minority of patients eligible is screened. Meaningful use is a set of standards for Electronic Health Records (EHR) established by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and includes reporting of smoking status. We sought to improve rates of LCS among patients treated at our institution by identifying eligible patients using augmented smoking-related meaningful use criteria. Methods We launched a LCS program at our institution, an NCCN cancer center, in January 2013. We developed a “Tobacco Screen”, administered by clinic staff to all adult outpatients every 6 months and entered into the EHR. This contained smoking-related meaningful use criteria, as well as a pack-year calculation and quit date, if applicable. Weekly electronic reports of patients who met eligibility criteria for LCS were generated, and EHR review excluded patients who had a chest CT within 12 months or who were undergoing cancer treatment. We then contacted those patients to review eligibility for LCS and communicated with the primary treating physician regarding the plan for LCS. Results During the first 3 months of the program, 4 patients were enrolled, 2 by physician-referral and 2 by self-referral. We then began to utilize the Tobacco Screen reports and identified 418 patients potentially eligible for LCS. Over the next 7 months, we enrolled a total of 110 patients. 58 (53%) were identified from the Tobacco Screen, 32 (29%) were self-referred, and 20 (18%) were physician referrals. Three stage I lung cancers were detected and treated. The tobacco screen was easily implemented by clinic staff and took a median time of 2 minutes to enter for current and former smokers. Lack of response to attempts at telephone contact and objection to paying out-of-pocket costs were the most common reasons for failing to screen

  16. Relative Contributions of Three Descriptive Methods: Implications for Behavioral Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Sacha T.; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Bourret, Jason C.; Ahearn, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the outcomes of three descriptive analysis methods--the ABC method, the conditional probability method, and the conditional and background probability method--to each other and to the results obtained from functional analyses. Six individuals who had been diagnosed with developmental delays and exhibited problem behavior…

  17. Early Interventionists' Reports of Authentic Assessment Methods through Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keilty, Bonnie; LaRocco, Diana J.; Casell, Faye Bankler

    2009-01-01

    Authentic assessments are naturalistic methods to obtain functional, contextual information relevant to learning in routine activities. Seven focus groups were conducted with 73 practicing Part C early interventionists to gather their reports on authentic assessments. Participants reported various ways of applying authentic assessment methods,…

  18. Silent Reading Fluency Using Underlining: Evidence for an Alternative Method of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Katherine W.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Louwerse, Max M.; D'Mello, Sidney K.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing silent reading fluency in classroom environments is challenging. This article reports on a method of assessing silent reading using underlining, an approach that solves many problems other silent reading fluency assessment measures face. This method computationally monitors readers' silent reading fluency by the speed they underline…

  19. 12 CFR 327.9 - Assessment risk categories and pricing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment risk categories and pricing methods. 327.9 Section 327.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ASSESSMENTS In General § 327.9 Assessment risk categories and pricing methods. (a) Risk Categories.—Each insured...

  20. 12 CFR 327.9 - Assessment risk categories and pricing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... defined in Section 29 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1831f), and 12 CFR 337.6, including... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment risk categories and pricing methods... OF GENERAL POLICY ASSESSMENTS In General § 327.9 Assessment risk categories and pricing methods....

  1. Developing Meaningful and Manageable Research Opportunities for Community College Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boryta, M. D.; Walker, B.; Cano, E.; Chi, B.; De Martinez, L.; Diaz, M.; Eckert, S.; Hoffman, A.; Lee, T.

    2012-12-01

    Independent research experience opportunities are bountiful for juniors and seniors at 4-year institutions, but far fewer opportunities exist for community college geoscience students. At Mt. San Antonio College (a community college in Los Angeles County), we sometimes offer an independent study course to 1 or 2 exceptional students. In the Spring 2012 semester our goal, for a few qualified students, was to extend their understanding (beyond what they had learned in Physical Geology) of some of the techniques, tools, and ways of thinking used by professional geoscientists, in an effort to better prepare them to transfer to 4-year institutions as geoscience majors. However, when 7 students became excited to participate, we quickly expanded the goals to include giving students the responsibility of defining the project's scope and procedures, introducing them to collaborative and ongoing research, and growing the scope of the project over several semesters. The project involved a preliminary assessment of a tributary in the San Juan Creek watershed in Orange County; techniques included stream and beach profiling, bedrock geology mapping, and sediment sampling and analysis. In addition to presenting preliminary results, we will report on lessons learned about necessary course elements, the importance of establishing academic and personal conduct expectations for students, and methods of assessing student work in a lower-division research experience. We will also discuss several barriers that were encountered during the first semester of the project, including involving faculty, students, and resources as well as strategies that we are currently employing to address these challenges.

  2. Searching Remotely Sensed Images for Meaningful Nested Gestalten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelsen, E.; Muench, D.; Arens, M.

    2016-06-01

    Even non-expert human observers sometimes still outperform automatic extraction of man-made objects from remotely sensed data. We conjecture that some of this remarkable capability can be explained by Gestalt mechanisms. Gestalt algebra gives a mathematical structure capturing such part-aggregate relations and the laws to form an aggregate called Gestalt. Primitive Gestalten are obtained from an input image and the space of all possible Gestalt algebra terms is searched for well-assessed instances. This can be a very challenging combinatorial effort. The contribution at hand gives some tools and structures unfolding a finite and comparably small subset of the possible combinations. Yet, the intended Gestalten still are contained and found with high probability and moderate efforts. Experiments are made with images obtained from a virtual globe system, and use the SIFT method for extraction of the primitive Gestalten. Comparison is made with manually extracted ground-truth Gestalten salient to human observers.

  3. Alignathon: a competitive assessment of whole-genome alignment methods.

    PubMed

    Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Harris, Robert S; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Beal, Kathryn; Seledtsov, Igor; Molodtsov, Vladimir; Raney, Brian J; Clawson, Hiram; Kim, Jaebum; Kemena, Carsten; Chang, Jia-Ming; Erb, Ionas; Poliakov, Alexander; Hou, Minmei; Herrero, Javier; Kent, William James; Solovyev, Victor; Darling, Aaron E; Ma, Jian; Notredame, Cedric; Brudno, Michael; Dubchak, Inna; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) are a prerequisite for a wide variety of evolutionary analyses. Published assessments and benchmark data sets for protein and, to a lesser extent, global nucleotide MSAs are available, but less effort has been made to establish benchmarks in the more general problem of whole-genome alignment (WGA). Using the same model as the successful Assemblathon competitions, we organized a competitive evaluation in which teams submitted their alignments and then assessments were performed collectively after all the submissions were received. Three data sets were used: Two were simulated and based on primate and mammalian phylogenies, and one was comprised of 20 real fly genomes. In total, 35 submissions were assessed, submitted by 10 teams using 12 different alignment pipelines. We found agreement between independent simulation-based and statistical assessments, indicating that there are substantial accuracy differences between contemporary alignment tools. We saw considerable differences in the alignment quality of differently annotated regions and found that few tools aligned the duplications analyzed. We found that many tools worked well at shorter evolutionary distances, but fewer performed competitively at longer distances. We provide all data sets, submissions, and assessment programs for further study and provide, as a resource for future benchmarking, a convenient repository of code and data for reproducing the simulation assessments. PMID:25273068

  4. Alignathon: a competitive assessment of whole-genome alignment methods

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Harris, Robert S.; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Beal, Kathryn; Seledtsov, Igor; Molodtsov, Vladimir; Raney, Brian J.; Clawson, Hiram; Kim, Jaebum; Kemena, Carsten; Chang, Jia-Ming; Erb, Ionas; Poliakov, Alexander; Hou, Minmei; Herrero, Javier; Kent, William James; Solovyev, Victor; Darling, Aaron E.; Ma, Jian; Notredame, Cedric; Brudno, Michael; Dubchak, Inna; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) are a prerequisite for a wide variety of evolutionary analyses. Published assessments and benchmark data sets for protein and, to a lesser extent, global nucleotide MSAs are available, but less effort has been made to establish benchmarks in the more general problem of whole-genome alignment (WGA). Using the same model as the successful Assemblathon competitions, we organized a competitive evaluation in which teams submitted their alignments and then assessments were performed collectively after all the submissions were received. Three data sets were used: Two were simulated and based on primate and mammalian phylogenies, and one was comprised of 20 real fly genomes. In total, 35 submissions were assessed, submitted by 10 teams using 12 different alignment pipelines. We found agreement between independent simulation-based and statistical assessments, indicating that there are substantial accuracy differences between contemporary alignment tools. We saw considerable differences in the alignment quality of differently annotated regions and found that few tools aligned the duplications analyzed. We found that many tools worked well at shorter evolutionary distances, but fewer performed competitively at longer distances. We provide all data sets, submissions, and assessment programs for further study and provide, as a resource for future benchmarking, a convenient repository of code and data for reproducing the simulation assessments. PMID:25273068

  5. Methods of failure and reliability assessment for mechanical heart pumps.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sonna M; Allaire, Paul E; Wood, Houston G; Throckmorton, Amy L; Tribble, Curt G; Olsen, Don B

    2005-01-01

    Artificial blood pumps are today's most promising bridge-to-recovery (BTR), bridge-to-transplant (BTT), and destination therapy solutions for patients suffering from intractable congestive heart failure (CHF). Due to an increased need for effective, reliable, and safe long-term artificial blood pumps, each new design must undergo failure and reliability testing, an important step prior to approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), for clinical testing and commercial use. The FDA has established no specific standards or protocols for these testing procedures and there are only limited recommendations provided by the scientific community when testing an overall blood pump system and individual system components. Product development of any medical device must follow a systematic and logical approach. As the most critical aspects of the design phase, failure and reliability assessments aid in the successful evaluation and preparation of medical devices prior to clinical application. The extent of testing, associated costs, and lengthy time durations to execute these experiments justify the need for an early evaluation of failure and reliability. During the design stages of blood pump development, a failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) should be completed to provide a concise evaluation of the occurrence and frequency of failures and their effects on the overall support system. Following this analysis, testing of any pump typically involves four sequential processes: performance and reliability testing in simple hydraulic or mock circulatory loops, acute and chronic animal experiments, human error analysis, and ultimately, clinical testing. This article presents recommendations for failure and reliability testing based on the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Society for Thoracic Surgeons (STS) and American Society for Artificial Internal Organs (ASAIO), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Association for Advancement of

  6. EVALUATION RETREAT: A SENSIBLE METHOD FOR PROGRAM’S ASSESSMENT

    PubMed Central

    Rios, R.; Estapé, E.; Díaz, C.; Segarra, B.; Martin, M. San

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The University of Puerto Rico (UPR), Medical Sciences Campus (MSC) post-doctoral Master of Science in Clinical and Translational Research (MSc) program aims to train Hispanic post-doctoral candidates to advance their careers and become successful clinical and translational researchers geared to help eliminate health disparities. Its curriculum highlights the use of technology and online resources to maximize time use of time and efforts. As part of the assessment efforts, the program’s Evaluation Committee leads an annual activity, Evaluation Retreat (ER), to evaluate the program’s curriculum, research component, and mentoring experience according to Scholars’ perspective. Results are used by the Program Executive committee for further planning and improvement. This analysis presents the most relevant results from these activities. Design Methods Data collection (from last 5 years), include quantitative (online surveys) and qualitative approaches (a group meeting with Scholars.) Questionnaires request Scholars to rate specific features of the program’s research component, mentoring experience and curriculum. It also includes questions about the program in general (major strengths and challenges, and recommendations for improvement. During the group meeting, Scholars discuss these results and present consensus in a plenary session. Quantitative data are managed and analyzed using the statistical software SPSS. Qualitative data are examined using content analysis. Results Scholars identified as program’s strengths the networking opportunities (local and with U.S. experts), the diversity of peers and faculty, the faculty support, the technical and audiovisual support, the physical facilities and resources, the guest speakers and consultants, and the quality of the curriculum. Challenges vary as cohorts change, but time limitations and the need for technical/statistical support are always highlighted. Recommendations for improvement emphasize the need

  7. Splitting statistical potentials into meaningful scoring functions: Testing the prediction of near-native structures from decoy conformations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent advances on high-throughput technologies have produced a vast amount of protein sequences, while the number of high-resolution structures has seen a limited increase. This has impelled the production of many strategies to built protein structures from its sequence, generating a considerable amount of alternative models. The selection of the closest model to the native conformation has thus become crucial for structure prediction. Several methods have been developed to score protein models by energies, knowledge-based potentials and combination of both. Results Here, we present and demonstrate a theory to split the knowledge-based potentials in scoring terms biologically meaningful and to combine them in new scores to predict near-native structures. Our strategy allows circumventing the problem of defining the reference state. In this approach we give the proof for a simple and linear application that can be further improved by optimizing the combination of Zscores. Using the simplest composite score () we obtained predictions similar to state-of-the-art methods. Besides, our approach has the advantage of identifying the most relevant terms involved in the stability of the protein structure. Finally, we also use the composite Zscores to assess the conformation of models and to detect local errors. Conclusion We have introduced a method to split knowledge-based potentials and to solve the problem of defining a reference state. The new scores have detected near-native structures as accurately as state-of-art methods and have been successful to identify wrongly modeled regions of many near-native conformations. PMID:19917096

  8. Cervical spinal cord injury: tailoring clinical trial endpoints to reflect meaningful functional improvements

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Lisa M.; McKerracher, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) results in partial to full paralysis of the upper and lower extremities. Traditional primary endpoints for acute SCI clinical trials are too broad to assess functional recovery in cervical subjects, raising the possibility of false positive outcomes in trials for cervical SCI. Endpoints focused on the recovery of hand and arm control (e.g., upper extremity motor score, motor level change) show the most potential for use as primary outcomes in upcoming trials of cervical SCI. As the field moves forward, the most reliable way to ensure meaningful clinical testing in cervical subjects may be the development of a composite primary endpoint that measures both neurological recovery and functional improvement. PMID:25317162

  9. Fostering Self-Reflection and Meaningful Learning: Earth Science Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monet, Julie A.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes the analysis of teachers’ journal reflections during an inquiry-based professional development program. As a part of their learning experience, participants reflected on what they learned and how they learned. Progress of subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge was assessed though surveys and pre- and posttests. We found that teachers have difficulties reflecting on their learning and posing meaningful questions. The teachers who could describe how they reasoned from evidence to understand a concept had the highest learning gains. In contrast those teachers who seldom or never described learning a concept by reasoning from evidence showed the smallest learning gains. This analysis suggests that learning to reflect on one’s learning should be an integral part of teachers’ professional development experiences.

  10. Sacrifice: an ethical dimension of caring that makes suffering meaningful.

    PubMed

    Helin, Kaija; Lindström, Unni A

    2003-07-01

    This article is intended to raise the question of whether sacrifice can be regarded stituting a deep ethical structure in the relationship between patient and carer. The significance of sacrifice in a patient-carer relationship cannot, however, be fully understood from the standpoint of the consistently utilitarian ethic that characterizes today's ethical discourse. Deontological ethics, with its universal principles, also does not provide a suitable point of departure. Ethical recommendations and codices are important and serve as general sources of knowledge when making decisions, but they should be supplemented by an ethic that takes into consideration contextual and situational factors that make every encounter between patient and carer unique. Caring science research literature presents, on the whole, general agreement on the importance of responsibility and devotian with regard to sense of duty, warmth and genuine engagement in caring. That sacrifice may also constitute an important ethical element in the patient-carer relationship is, however, a contradictory and little considered theme. Caring literature that deals with sacrifice/self-sacrifice indicates contradictory import. It is nevertheless interesting to notice that both the negative and the positive aspects bring out importance of the concept for the professional character of caring. The tradition of ideas in medieval Christian mysticism with reference to Lévinas' ethic of responsibility offers a deeper perspective in which the meaningfulness of sacrifice in the caring relationship can be sought. The theme of sacrifice is not of interest merely as a carer's ethical outlook, but sacrifice can also be understood as a potential process of transformation health. The instinctive or conscious experience of sacrifice on the part of the individual patient can, on a symbolic level, be regarded as analogous to the cultic or religious sacrifice aiming at atonement. Sacrifice appears to the patient as an act of

  11. INTEGRATION OF SPATIAL DATA: METHODS EVALUATION WITH REGARD TO DATA ISSUES AND ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) Program is developing and demonstrating approaches to assess current and future environmental vulnerabilities at a regional scale. An initial effort within this research program has been to develop and evaluate methods to synthesize ...

  12. QUANTITATIVE CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY USING SHORT-TERM GENETIC BIOASSAYS: THE COMPARATIVE POTENCY METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative risk assessment is fraught with many uncertainties. The validity of the assumptions underlying the methods employed are often difficult to test or validate. Cancer risk assessment has generally employed either human epidemiological data from relatively high occupatio...

  13. DO TIE LABORATORY BASED ASSESSMENT METHODS REALLY PREDICT FIELD EFFECTS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both porewaters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whethe...

  14. RECOVERY ACT - Methods for Decision under Technological Change Uncertainty and Risk Assessment for Integrated Assessment of Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Mort David

    2015-03-10

    This report presents the final outcomes and products of the project as performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The research project consists of three main components: methodology development for decision-making under uncertainty, improving the resolution of the electricity sector to improve integrated assessment, and application of these methods to integrated assessment. Results in each area is described in the report.

  15. Informativeness Improvement of Hardness Test Methods for Metal Product Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, S.; Podshivalov, I.; Osipov, O.; Zhantybaev, A.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a combination of theoretical suggestions, results, and observations allowing to improve the informativeness of hardness testing process in solving problems of metal product assessment while in operation. The hardness value of metal surface obtained by a single measurement is considered to be random. Various measures of location and scattering of the random variable were experimentally estimated for a number of test samples using the correlation analysis, and their close interaction was studied. It was stated that in metal assessment, the main informative characteristics of hardness testing process are its average value and mean-square deviation for measures of location and scattering, respectively.

  16. Individual olfactory perception reveals meaningful nonolfactory genetic information

    PubMed Central

    Secundo, Lavi; Snitz, Kobi; Weissler, Kineret; Pinchover, Liron; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Loewenthal, Ron; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Frumin, Idan; Bar-Zvi, Dana; Shushan, Sagit; Sobel, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Each person expresses a potentially unique subset of ∼400 different olfactory receptor subtypes. Given that the receptors we express partially determine the odors we smell, it follows that each person may have a unique nose; to capture this, we devised a sensitive test of olfactory perception we termed the “olfactory fingerprint.” Olfactory fingerprints relied on matrices of perceived odorant similarity derived from descriptors applied to the odorants. We initially fingerprinted 89 individuals using 28 odors and 54 descriptors. We found that each person had a unique olfactory fingerprint (P < 10−10), which was odor specific but descriptor independent. We could identify individuals from this pool using randomly selected sets of 7 odors and 11 descriptors alone. Extrapolating from this data, we determined that using 34 odors and 35 descriptors we could individually identify each of the 7 billion people on earth. Olfactory perception, however, fluctuates over time, calling into question our proposed perceptual readout of presumably stable genetic makeup. To test whether fingerprints remain informative despite this temporal fluctuation, building on the linkage between olfactory receptors and HLA, we hypothesized that olfactory perception may relate to HLA. We obtained olfactory fingerprints and HLA typing for 130 individuals, and found that olfactory fingerprint matching using only four odorants was significantly related to HLA matching (P < 10−4), such that olfactory fingerprints can save 32% of HLA tests in a population screen (P < 10−6). In conclusion, a precise measure of olfactory perception reveals meaningful nonolfactory genetic information. PMID:26100865

  17. Neural dissociations between meaningful and mere inconsistency in impression updating.

    PubMed

    Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Todorov, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Recent neuroimaging work has identified a network of regions that work in concert to update impressions of other people, particularly in response to inconsistent behavior. However, the specific functional contributions of these regions to the updating process remain unclear. Using fMRI, we tested whether increases in activity triggered by inconsistent behavior reflect changes in the stored representations of other people in response to behavioral inconsistency, or merely a response to the inconsistency itself. Participants encountered a series of individuals whose behavior either changed in an attributionally meaningful fashion or was merely inconsistent with the immediately preceding behavior. We observed that left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were preferentially recruited in response to unexpected, immoral behavior, whereas a separate set of regions (including dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and temporoparietal junction/inferior parietal lobule) was preferentially recruited in response to more mundane inconsistencies in behavior. These results shed light on the distributed systems supporting impression updating. Specifically, while many regions supporting updating may primarily respond to moment-to-moment changes in behavior, a subset of regions (e.g. vlPFC and IFG) may contribute to updating person representations in response to trait-relevant changes in behavior. PMID:27217118

  18. Peer Assessment in Group Projects Accounting for Assessor Reliability by an Iterative Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Sung-Seok

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes an advanced method to factor in the contributions of individual group members engaged in an integrated group project using peer assessment procedures. Conway et al. proposed the Individual Weight Factor (IWF) method for peer assessment which has been extensively developed over the years. However, most methods associated with…

  19. Pecan scab severity-effects of assessment methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan scab is caused by the pathogenic fungus Fusicladium effusum, and is the most destructive disease of US pecans. Accurate and reliable disease assessments are needed to ensure that data reflect actual disease. The Horsfall-Barratt (H-B) category scale and its derivatives are commonly used to a...

  20. Using Qualitative Methods to Assess Diverse Institutional Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on describing how institutional researchers can use qualitative cultural assessments to better understand the role that their campus cultures play in shaping individual and group behaviors and experiences. A special emphasis is given to the implications of institutional diversity in the processes of designing and conducting…

  1. Assessment of in silico methods to estimate aquatic species sensitivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the sensitivity of a diversity of species to environmental contaminants continues to be a significant challenge in ecological risk assessment because toxicity data are generally limited to a few standard species. In many cases, QSAR models are used to estimate toxici...

  2. "Portfolios" as a method of assessment in medical education.

    PubMed

    Haldane, Thea

    2014-01-01

    Portfolios are increasingly used in postgraduate medical education and in gastroenterology training as an assessment tool, as documentation of competence, a database of procedure experience (for example endoscopy experience) and for revalidation purposes. In this paper the educational theory behind their use is described and the evidence for their use is discussed. PMID:24834299

  3. The Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA): A Diagnostic Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Robinson, Janine; Woodbury-Smith, Marc

    2005-01-01

    At the present time there are a large number of adults who have "suspected" Asperger syndrome (AS). In this paper we describe a new instrument, the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA), developed in our clinic for adults with AS. The need for a new instrument relevant to the diagnosis of AS in adulthood arises because existing instruments are designed…

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATING PROTECTIVE CLOTHING PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approaches for predicting the permeation resistance of chemical protective clothing polymers were assessed for accuracy and applicability to the Premanufacture Notification (PMN) review process of the U.S. EPA Office of Toxic Substances (OTS). The predictive models are based on r...

  5. Out of This World Genetics: A Fun, Simple Assessment Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Julie M.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a science activity in genetics that explains concepts such as dominant and recessive traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses, Punnett squares, and Mendel's Laws of Segregation and Independent Assortment. Uses the activity as an assessment tool to measure students' fundamental understanding. (YDS)

  6. Paper Trail: One Method of Information Literacy Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutefall, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Assessing students' information literacy skills can be difficult depending on the involvement of the librarian in a course. To overcome this, librarians created an assignment called the Paper Trail, where students wrote a short essay about their research process and reflected on what they would do differently. Through reviewing and grading these…

  7. Metric Similarity in Vegetation-Based Wetland Assessment Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetland vegetation is a recognized indicator group for wetland assessments, but until recently few published protocols used plant-based indicators. To examine the proliferation of such protocols since 1999, this report reviewed 20 published index of biotic integrity (IBI) type p...

  8. Developing New Tools and Methods for Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, risk assessment for environmental chemicals is based upon epidemiological and/or animal toxicity data. Since the release of the National Academy of Sciences Toxicity in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy (2007) and Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Asses...

  9. Engine non-containment: UK risk assessment methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallin, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    More realistic guideline data must be developed for use in aircraft design in order to comply with recent changes in British civil airworthiness requirements. Unrealistically pessimistic results were obtained when the methodology developed during the Concorde SST certification program was extended to assess catastrophic risks resulting from uncontained engine rotors.

  10. Whole farm environmental and economic assessments of manure application methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process-level whole-farm simulation provides a tool for evaluating the potential impacts of alternative production strategies without cost or risk to the producer. When the performance of simulated systems is supported through field measurements, a more accurate assessment is obtained. The Integrate...

  11. The potential for new methods to assess human reproductive genotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1987-09-01

    The immediate prospects are not good for practical methods for measuring the human heritable mutation rate. The methods discussed here range from speculative to impractical, and at best are sensitive enough only for large numbers of subjects. Given the rapid development of DNA methods and the current status of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, there is some hope that the intermediate prospects may be better. In contrast, the prospects for useful cellular-based male germinal methods seem more promising and immediate. Effective specific locus methods for sperm are already conceivable and may be practical in a few years. Obviously such methods will not predict heritable effects definitively, but they will provide direct information on reproductive genotoxicity and should contribute significantly to many current medical and environmental situations where genetic damage is suspected. 22 refs.

  12. Principals' Use of Assessment Data to Drive Student Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Stephanie Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Principals are expected to use data to develop a clear vision, stimulate meaningful dialogue among stakeholders, create interventions for struggling students, and improve school programs. The purpose of this three-phase, sequential, mixed-methods study was to examine how principals use summative and formative assessment data to improve academic…

  13. Self-Assessment and Dialogue as Tools for Appreciating Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Gwenelle S.

    2012-01-01

    As social work educators continue to examine methods and techniques to provide meaningful knowledge about racism and discrimination, the role of self-assessment and dialogue should also be explored. This teaching note presents a tool for students and educators to use in considering literature discrimination and increasing awareness of…

  14. Attitude before method: disability in vulnerability and capacity assessment.

    PubMed

    Twigg, John

    2014-07-01

    Many agencies working on disaster risk reduction use vulnerability and capacity assessment (VCA) to identify vulnerable groups, to assess their needs and capacities, and to develop appropriate programmes and policies. In theory, VCA offers a good opportunity to incorporate disabled people's needs and resources in counter-disaster programming. This paper seeks to establish and explain the extent to which disability is included in VCA in practice. It reviews VCA reports and findings, formal VCA guidance, and other methodological literature. The review indicates that disability is a neglected issue in VCA practice and that manuals and guidelines, while promoting the general ideal of inclusiveness, are insufficiently aware of the challenges to achieving this in practice and do not offer enough guidance on how to reach and include disabled people. Ways of overcoming these problems are suggested. However, the real challenge may be to change core attitudes and perceptions of disability within implementing organisations. PMID:24905706

  15. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, J.D.; Otaduy, P.J.

    1997-03-18

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices is disclosed. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques. 15 figs.

  16. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, John D.; Otaduy, Pedro J.

    1997-01-01

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques.

  17. An observational assessment method for aging laboratory rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growth of the aging population highlights the need for laboratory animal models to study the basic biological processes ofaging and susceptibility to toxic chemicals and disease. Methods to evaluate health ofaging animals over time are needed, especially efficient methods for...

  18. Method and system for dynamic probabilistic risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Joanne Bechta (Inventor); Xu, Hong (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The DEFT methodology, system and computer readable medium extends the applicability of the PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) methodology to computer-based systems, by allowing DFT (Dynamic Fault Tree) nodes as pivot nodes in the Event Tree (ET) model. DEFT includes a mathematical model and solution algorithm, supports all common PRA analysis functions and cutsets. Additional capabilities enabled by the DFT include modularization, phased mission analysis, sequence dependencies, and imperfect coverage.

  19. Improving Assessment Methods in University Science Education with Negotiated Self- and Peer-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Wai-Yin; McNaught, Carmel; Lam, Paul; Kwan, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether, in the Hong Kong context, self- and peer-assessment promote students' self-reflection and enable students to understand their own strengths and weaknesses better. A three-stage assessment strategy was employed in three Science courses at The Chinese University of Hong Kong: (1) students developing…

  20. Measurement Properties of Indirect Assessment Methods for Functional Behavioral Assessment: A Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Phaneuf, Robin L.; Wilczynski, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Indirect assessment instruments used during functional behavioral assessment, such as rating scales, interviews, and self-report instruments, represent the least intrusive techniques for acquiring information about the function of problem behavior. This article provides criteria for examining the measurement properties of these instruments…

  1. Comparative assessment of bioanalytical method validation guidelines for pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Kadian, Naveen; Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Rashid, Mamunur; Malik, Mohd Yaseen; Taneja, Isha; Wahajuddin, Muhammad

    2016-07-15

    The concepts, importance, and application of bioanalytical method validation have been discussed for a long time and validation of bioanalytical methods is widely accepted as pivotal before they are taken into routine use. United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) guidelines issued in 2001 have been referred for every guideline released ever since; may it be European Medical Agency (EMA) Europe, National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) Brazil, Ministry of Health and Labour Welfare (MHLW) Japan or any other guideline in reference to bioanalytical method validation. After 12 years, USFDA released its new draft guideline for comments in 2013, which covers the latest parameters or topics encountered in bioanalytical method validation and approached towards the harmonization of bioanalytical method validation across the globe. Even though the regulatory agencies have general agreement, significant variations exist in acceptance criteria and methodology. The present review highlights the variations, similarities and comparison between bioanalytical method validation guidelines issued by major regulatory authorities worldwide. Additionally, other evaluation parameters such as matrix effect, incurred sample reanalysis including other stability aspects have been discussed to provide an ease of access for designing a bioanalytical method and its validation complying with the majority of drug authority guidelines. PMID:27179186

  2. A model for selecting assessment methods for evaluating medical students in African medical schools.

    PubMed

    Walubo, Andrew; Burch, Vanessa; Parmar, Paresh; Raidoo, Deshandra; Cassimjee, Mariam; Onia, Rudy; Ofei, Francis

    2003-09-01

    Introduction of more effective and standardized assessment methods for testing students' performance in Africa's medical institutions has been hampered by severe financial and personnel shortages. Nevertheless, some African institutions have recognized the problem and are now revising their medical curricula, and, therefore, their assessment methods. These institutions, and those yet to come, need guidance on selecting assessment methods so as to adopt models that can be sustained locally. The authors provide a model for selecting assessment methods for testing medical students' performance in African medical institutions. The model systematically evaluates factors that influence implementation of an assessment method. Six commonly used methods (the essay examinations, short-answer questions, multiple-choice questions, patient-based clinical examination, problem-based oral examination [POE], and objective structured clinical examination) are evaluated by scoring and weighting against performance, cost, suitability, and safety factors. In the model, the highest score identifies the most appropriate method. Selection of an assessment method is illustrated using two institutional models, one depicting an ideal situation in which the objective structured clinical examination was preferred, and a second depicting the typical African scenario in which the essay and short-answer-question examinations were best. The POE method received the highest score and could be recommended as the most appropriate for Africa's medical institutions, but POE assessments require changing the medical curricula to a problem-based learning approach. The authors' model is easy to understand and promotes change in the medical curriculum and method of student assessment. PMID:14507620

  3. XENOBIOTIC METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomarkers from blood, breath, urine, and other physiological matrices can provide useful information regarding exposures to environmental pollutants. Once developed and applied appropriately, specific and sensitive methods can often provide definitive data identifying the vario...

  4. Assessment of left ventricular function by noninvasive methods.

    PubMed

    Luisada, A A; Singhal, A; Portaluppi, F

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of evaluating left ventricular function by noninvasive methods is discussed in detail. The methods that are considered are electrocardiograph, phonocardiography, apex cardiography, sphygmography, impedance cardiography, electrokymography, and echocardiography. Following a brief section of 'definitions', each method is described in detail including technical problems, difficulties, and results. The systolic time intervals and the stress tests are briefly discussed. Based on modern experimental studies, the stress test should include both an electro- and a phonocardiogram. In the latter, one would measure the amplitude of the first heart sound as an index of contractility. The conclusion is that combined methods give the best results. They are electrocardiography, phonocardiography, impedance cardiography, and echocardiography. An alternative, dictated by technical problems, is to use at first phonocardiography and impedance plus electrocardiography; then echocardiography plus electrocardiography; and then, if indicated, a stress test might complete the study; the latter should include both an electrocardiogram and a phonocardiogram. PMID:4003144

  5. Use of scientometrics to assess nuclear and other analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Scientometrics involves the use of quantitative methods to investigate science viewed as an information process. Scientometric studies can be useful in ascertaining which methods have been most employed for various analytical determinations as well as for predicting which methods will continue to be used in the immediate future and which appear to be losing favor with the analytical community. Published papers in the technical literature are the primary source materials for scientometric studies; statistical methods and computer techniques are the tools. Recent studies have included growth and trends in prompt nuclear analysis impact of research published in a technical journal, and institutional and national representation, speakers and topics at several IAEA conferences, at modern trends in activation analysis conferences, and at other non-nuclear oriented conferences. Attempts have also been made to predict future growth of various topics and techniques. 13 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Anti-aging cosmetics and its efficacy assessment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms of skin aging, the active ingredients used in anti-aging cosmetics and evaluation methods for anti-aging cosmetics were surmised in this paper. And the mechanisms of skin aging were introduced in the intrinsic and extrinsic ways. Meanwhile, the anti-aging cosmetic active ingredients were classified in accordance with the mechanism of action. Various evaluation methods such as human evaluation, in vitro evaluation were also summarized.

  7. The Assessment of Experimental Methods of Serial Number Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argo, Mackenzie

    Serial number restoration is a common and successful process of revealing obliterated serial numbers on firearms. In a crime laboratory setting, obliterated serial numbers are commonly processed in order to tie a person to a crime scene or provide an investigative lead for officers. Currently serial numbers are restored using a chemical etchant method that can eat away at the metal on the firearm even after the examination is complete. It can also take several hours to complete and only provide an examiner with a partial number. There are other nondestructive options however little to no literature is available. The purpose of this study is to discover new methods for nondestructive serial number restoration and to compare them to the traditional chemical method used. Metal bars of premeasured obliteration depths and different compositions were examined using three proposed experimental methods: near infrared imaging, cold frost, and scanning acoustic microscopy. Results did not indicate significant difference in the median number of visible digits recovered for each of the three proposed methods compared to the traditional chemical method. There were significant results in the median number of composition utilized and depth of obliteration. This indicates that different firearm compositions and depth of obliteration has an effect on serial number restoration.

  8. Quantitative assessment of susceptibility weighted imaging processing methods

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ningzhi; Wang, Wen-Tung; Sati, Pascal; Pham, Dzung L.; Butman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate different susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) phase processing methods and parameter selection, thereby improving understanding of potential artifacts, as well as facilitating choice of methodology in clinical settings. Materials and Methods Two major phase processing methods, Homodyne-filtering and phase unwrapping-high pass (HP) filtering, were investigated with various phase unwrapping approaches, filter sizes, and filter types. Magnitude and phase images were acquired from a healthy subject and brain injury patients on a 3T clinical Siemens MRI system. Results were evaluated based on image contrast to noise ratio and presence of processing artifacts. Results When using a relatively small filter size (32 pixels for the matrix size 512 × 512 pixels), all Homodyne-filtering methods were subject to phase errors leading to 2% to 3% masked brain area in lower and middle axial slices. All phase unwrapping-filtering/smoothing approaches demonstrated fewer phase errors and artifacts compared to the Homodyne-filtering approaches. For performing phase unwrapping, Fourier-based methods, although less accurate, were 2–4 orders of magnitude faster than the PRELUDE, Goldstein and Quality-guide methods. Conclusion Although Homodyne-filtering approaches are faster and more straightforward, phase unwrapping followed by HP filtering approaches perform more accurately in a wider variety of acquisition scenarios. PMID:24923594

  9. New method of Scoliosis Deformity Assessment: ISIS2 System.

    PubMed

    Zubović, A; Davies, N; Berryman, F; Pynsent, P; Quraishi, N; Lavy, C; Bowden, G; Wilson-Macdonald, J; Fairbank, J

    2008-01-01

    Scoliosis deformity has been assessed using radiographic angle measurements. Surface topography systems are an alternative and complementary methodology. Working systems include the original ISIS1 system, Quantec and COMOT techniques. Over the last five years the new ISIS2 (Integrated Shape Imaging System) has been developed from basic principles to improve the speed, accuracy, reliability and ease of use of ISIS1. The aim of this study was to confirm that ISIS2 3D back shape measurements are valid for assessment and follow up of patients with scoliosis. Three-dimensional back measurements were performed in Oxford. ISIS2 includes a camera/projector stand, patient stand with a reference plane, and Mac computer. Pixel size is approximately 0.5 mm with fringe frequency of approximately 0.16 fringes/mm ( approximately 6.5 mm/fringe). Clinical reports in pdf format are of coloured images with numerical values. Reports include a height map, contour plot, transverse section plots, coronal plot, sagittal sections and bilateral asymmetry maps. A total of 520 ISIS2 scans on 242 patients were performed from February 2006 to December 2007. There were 58 male patients (median age 16 years, SD 3.71, min 7, max 25) and 184 female patients (median age 14.5 years, SD 3.23, min 5, max 45). Average number of scans per patient was 2.01 with the range of 1-10 scans. Right sided thoracic curves were the most frequent pattern. The median values and 95% CI are reported of back length; pelvic rotation; flexion/extension; imbalance; lateral asymmetry; skin angle; kyphosis angle; lordosis angle; volumetric asymmetry. ISIS2 scoliosis measurements are non-invasive, low-cost, three-dimensional topographic back measurements which can be confidently used in scoliosis assessment and monitoring of curve progression. PMID:18810019

  10. Caries assessment: establishing mathematical link of clinical and benchtop method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-02-01

    It is well established that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental caries at its early stage could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction of the time required for clinical trials of anti-caries agents. However, the new technologies currently used in clinical setting cannot assess and monitor caries using the actual mineral concentration within the lesion, while a laboratory-based microcomputed tomography (MCT) has been shown to possess this capability. Thus we envision the establishment of mathematical equations relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT will enable the mineral concentration of lesions detected and assessed in clinical practice to be extrapolated from the equation, and this will facilitate preventitive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost. We utilize MCT and the two prominent clinical caries assessment devices (Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence [QLF] and Diagnodent) to longitudinally monitor the development of caries in a continuous flow mixed-organisms biofilm model (artificial mouth), and then used the collected data to establish mathematical equation relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT. A linear correlation was observed between the measurements of MicroCT and that of QLF and Diagnodent. Thus mineral density in a carious lesion detected and measured using QLF or Diagnodent can be extrapolated using the developed equation. This highlights the usefulness of MCT for monitoring the progress of an early caries being treated with therapeutic agents in clinical practice or trials.

  11. Effects of Node-Link Mapping on Non-Science Majors' Meaningful Learning and Conceptual Change in a Life-Science Survey Lecture Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park-Martinez, Jayne Irene

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of node-link mapping on students' meaningful learning and conceptual change in a 1-semester introductory life-science course. This study used node-link mapping to integrate and apply the National Research Council's (NRC, 2005) three principles of human learning: engaging students' prior…

  12. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    SciTech Connect

    Coroama, Vlad C.; Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  13. Signal Processing Methods for Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Stability Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy; Lee, Erik; Hulka, James R.; Casiano, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The J2X Gas Generator engine design specifications include dynamic, spontaneous, and broadband combustion stability requirements. These requirements are verified empirically based high frequency chamber pressure measurements and analyses. Dynamic stability is determined with the dynamic pressure response due to an artificial perturbation of the combustion chamber pressure (bomb testing), and spontaneous and broadband stability are determined from the dynamic pressure responses during steady operation starting at specified power levels. J2X Workhorse Gas Generator testing included bomb tests with multiple hardware configurations and operating conditions, including a configuration used explicitly for engine verification test series. This work covers signal processing techniques developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to help assess engine design stability requirements. Dynamic stability assessments were performed following both the CPIA 655 guidelines and a MSFC in-house developed statistical-based approach. The statistical approach was developed to better verify when the dynamic pressure amplitudes corresponding to a particular frequency returned back to pre-bomb characteristics. This was accomplished by first determining the statistical characteristics of the pre-bomb dynamic levels. The pre-bomb statistical characterization provided 95% coverage bounds; these bounds were used as a quantitative measure to determine when the post-bomb signal returned to pre-bomb conditions. The time for post-bomb levels to acceptably return to pre-bomb levels was compared to the dominant frequency-dependent time recommended by CPIA 655. Results for multiple test configurations, including stable and unstable configurations, were reviewed. Spontaneous stability was assessed using two processes: 1) characterization of the ratio of the peak response amplitudes to the excited chamber acoustic mode amplitudes and 2) characterization of the variability of the peak response

  14. Apparatus and Method for Assessing Vestibulo-Ocular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system for assessing vestibulo-ocular function includes a motion sensor system adapted to be coupled to a user's head; a data processing system configured to communicate with the motion sensor system to receive the head-motion signals; a visual display system configured to communicate with the data processing system to receive image signals from the data processing system; and a gain control device arranged to be operated by the user and to communicate gain adjustment signals to the data processing system.

  15. Purpose in Life Test assessment using latent variable methods.

    PubMed

    Harlow, L L; Newcomb, M D; Bentler, P M

    1987-09-01

    A psychometric assessment was conducted on a slightly revised version of the Purpose in Life Test (PIL-R). Factor analyses revealed a large general factor plus four primary factors comprising lack of purpose in life, positive sense of purpose, motivation for meaning, and existential confusion. Validity models showed that the PIL-R was positively related to a construct of happiness and was negatively related to suicidality and meaninglessness. Reliability estimates ranged from 0.78 to 0.86. The revised version can be presented compactly and may be less confusing to subjects than the original PIL. PMID:3664045

  16. USING AN INTENSIVE ASSESSMENT METHOD TO CALIBRATE A RAPID WETLAND ASSESSMENT METHOD: AN EXAMPLE FROM NANTICOKE BASIN, DELAWARE AND MARYLAND, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of rapid assessment methods has become a priority for many organizations that want to report on the condition of wetlands at larger scales requiring many sampling sites. To have faith in these rapid methods, however, requires that they be verified with more compr...

  17. A method based on IHS cylindrical transform model for quality assessment of image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaokun; Jia, Yonghong

    2005-10-01

    Image fusion technique has been widely applied to remote sensing image analysis and processing, and methods for quality assessment of image fusion in remote sensing have also become the research issues at home and abroad. Traditional assessment methods combine calculation of quantitative indexes and visual interpretation to compare fused images quantificationally and qualitatively. However, in the existing assessment methods, there are two defects: on one hand, most imdexes lack the theoretic support to compare different fusion methods. On the hand, there is not a uniform preference for most of the quantitative assessment indexes when they are applied to estimate the fusion effects. That is, the spatial resolution and spectral feature could not be analyzed synchronously by these indexes and there is not a general method to unify the spatial and spectral feature assessment. So in this paper, on the basis of the approximate general model of four traditional fusion methods, including Intensity Hue Saturation(IHS) triangle transform fusion, High Pass Filter(HPF) fusion, Principal Component Analysis(PCA) fusion, Wavelet Transform(WT) fusion, a correlation coefficient assessment method based on IHS cylindrical transform is proposed. By experiments, this method can not only get the evaluation results of spatial and spectral features on the basis of uniform preference, but also can acquire the comparison between fusion image sources and fused images, and acquire differences among fusion methods. Compared with the traditional assessment methods, the new methods is more intuitionistic, and in accord with subjective estimation.

  18. Assessing Autonomous Learning in Research Methods Courses: Implementing the Student-Driven Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandiver, Donna M.; Walsh, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    As empirical assessments of teaching strategies increase in many disciplines and across many different courses, a paucity of such assessment seems to exist in courses devoted to social science research methods. This lack of assessment and evaluation impedes progress in developing successful teaching pedagogy. The teaching-learning issue addressed…

  19. Comparing Assessment Methods as Predictors of Student Learning in an Undergraduate Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorter, Nichole A.; Young, Cynthia Y.

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was designed to determine which assessment method: continuous assessment (in the form of daily in-class quizzes), cumulative assessment (in the form of online homework), or project-based learning, best predicted student learning (dependent upon post-test grades) in an undergraduate mathematics course. Participants included 117…

  20. A Method for Evaluating Competency in Assessment and Management of Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Erick K.; Binder, Renee L.; Fordwood, Samantha R.; Hall, Stephen E.; Cramer, Robert J.; McNiel, Dale E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although health professionals increasingly are expected to be able to assess and manage patients' risk for suicide, few methods are available to evaluate this competency. This report describes development of a competency-assessment instrument for suicide risk-assessment (CAI-S), and evaluates its use in an objective structured clinical…