Science.gov

Sample records for measurements indispensable tools

  1. Modelling as an indispensible research tool in the information society.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Science and society would be well advised to develop a different relationship as the information revolution penetrates all aspects of modern life. Rather than produce clear answers to clear questions in a top-down manner, land-use issues related to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present "wicked"problems involving different, strongly opiniated, stakeholders with conflicting ideas and interests and risk-averse politicians. The Dutch government has invited its citizens to develop a "science agenda", defining future research needs, implicitly suggesting that the research community is unable to do so. Time, therefore, for a pro-active approach to more convincingly define our:"societal license to research". For soil science this could imply a focus on the SDGs , considering soils as living, characteristically different, dynamic bodies in a landscape, to be mapped in ways that allow generation of suitable modelling data. Models allow a dynamic characterization of water- and nutrient regimes and plant growth in soils both for actual and future conditions, reflecting e.g. effects of climate or land-use change or alternative management practices. Engaging modern stakeholders in a bottom-up manner implies continuous involvement and "joint learning" from project initiation to completion, where modelling results act as building blocks to explore alternative scenarios. Modern techniques allow very rapid calculations and innovative visualization. Everything is possible but only modelling can articulate the economic, social and environmental consequences of each scenario, demonstrating in a pro-active manner the crucial and indispensible role of research. But choices are to be made by stakeholders and reluctant policy makers and certainly not by scientists who should carefully guard their independance. Only clear results in the end are convincing proof for the impact of science, requiring therefore continued involvement of scientists up to the very end of projects. To

  2. Intraoperative neurophysiological mapping and monitoring in spinal tumor surgery: sirens or indispensable tools?

    PubMed

    Scibilia, Antonino; Terranova, Carmen; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Raffa, Giovanni; Morelli, Adolfo; Esposito, Felice; Mallamace, Raffaella; Buda, Gaetano; Conti, Alfredo; Quartarone, Angelo; Germanò, Antonino

    2016-08-01

    Spinal tumor (ST) surgery carries the risk of new neurological deficits in the postoperative period. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring and mapping (IONM) represents an effective method of identifying and monitoring in real time the functional integrity of both the spinal cord (SC) and the nerve roots (NRs). Despite consensus favoring the use of IONM in ST surgery, in this era of evidence-based medicine, there is still a need to demonstrate the effective role of IONM in ST surgery in achieving an oncological cure, optimizing patient safety, and considering medicolegal aspects. Thus, neurosurgeons are asked to establish which techniques are considered indispensable. In the present study, the authors focused on the rationale for and the accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) of IONM in ST surgery in light of more recent evidence in the literature, with specific emphasis on the role of IONM in reducing the incidence of postoperative neurological deficits. This review confirms the role of IONM as a useful tool in the workup for ST surgery. Individual monitoring and mapping techniques are clearly not sufficient to account for the complex function of the SC and NRs. Conversely, multimodal IONM is highly sensitive and specific for anticipating neurological injury during ST surgery and represents an important tool for preserving neuronal structures and achieving an optimal postoperative functional outcome. PMID:27476842

  3. Is Language Planning an Indispensable Tool for Developing Nations? The Case of Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enoch, Tabe Florence Ako

    2000-01-01

    Suggest that because language planning is a tool in the service of many different latent goals, it rarely conforms to a rational paradigm of decision-making or problem-solving. This article presents a linguistic profile of Cameroon. (Author/VWL)

  4. Neutron scattering and reactions as indispensable tools for fundamental and applied investigations in KINR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dryapachenko, I. P.

    2000-03-01

    The Kyiv Institute of Nuclear Research (KINR) has been carring out fundamental researches and measurements in neutron physics since many years. A century of extreme historical political modifications unfortunately lead to the cessation of direct researches “on beam” on installations of institute (reactor, tandem, two cyclotron). The most negative tendencies, as it seems to us that must overcome, are these of conceptual and intellectual detachment from the world scientific community and very dangerous rupture between older and new (a lack) generations of the contributors. It is possible to arrest these destructive tendencies from becoming irreversible. Ukraine as the new independent state entering the Council of Europe motivates us to actively participate in the scientific creative process. The purpose of the present manuscript is to inform members of the European Association after Neutron Scattering concerning the existence in Ukraine, in our institute, of old traditions of occupations in the field of neutron physics and to offer interaction and cooperation in joint researches.

  5. Women Empowerment and Participation in Economic Activities: Indispensable Tools for Self-Reliance and Development of Nigerian Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    E. N., Ekesionye; A. N., Okolo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine women empowerment and participation in economic activities as tools for self-reliance and development of the Nigerian society. Research questions and hypothesis were used to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. Copies of questionnaires were…

  6. Body Fat Measurement Tools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cyberkitchen Fitness Center Shape Up & Drop 10 Body Fat Lab BMI Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Children Assessing ... Contact List Request for Support Measurement Tools Body fat has many important functions. It is: a "storage ...

  7. Measurement and Research Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on measurement and research tools for human resource development (HRD). "The 'Best Fit' Training: Measure Employee Learning Style Strengths" (Daniel L. Parry) discusses a study of the physiological aspect of sensory intake known as modality, more specifically, modality as measured by the…

  8. Measurement and Research Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on measurement and research tools. "Income Effects of Human Resource Development for Higher Educated Professionals" (Martin Mulder, Bob Witziers) reports on a study of 1,876 higher-educated professionals that found no correlation between participation in human resource development activities and…

  9. The Indispensable Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Rebecca S.; Reiter, Doris

    1995-01-01

    Defines seven characteristics that make a counselor indispensable to the schools of today and tomorrow: (1) humanness; (2) professionalism; (3) expertise as a program creator; (4) team player; (5) facilitator; (6) public relations expert; and (7) futurist. Counselors who work from a strong guidance program and who embody these characteristics are…

  10. Measuring Light with Useful Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Hebert, Paulette; Frazier, Robert Scott; Knag, Mihyun

    2013-01-01

    Lighting, a necessary part of our home and work environment, is often considered as an afterthought. This article describes tools that Extension educators (Agriculture, Family and Consumer Sciences, and 4-H) can use to measure light levels. 4-H youth may also participate. These tools include light meters and Illuminating Engineering Society (IES)…

  11. Making yourself indispensable.

    PubMed

    Zenger, John H; Folkman, Joseph R; Edinger, Scott K

    2011-10-01

    Peter Drucker and other leadership thinkers have long argued that leaders should focus on strengthening their strengths. How should they do that? Improving on a weakness is pretty easy and straight forward: You can make measurable progress by honing and practicing basic techniques. But developing a strength is a different matter, because simply doing more of what you're good at will yield only incremental improvements. If you are strong technically, becoming even more of a technical expert won't make you a dramatically better leader. If, however, you use what the authors call "nonlinear development"--similar to an athlete's cross-training--you can achieve exponential results. Your technical expertise will become more powerful if, for instance, you build on your communication skills, enabling you to explain technical problems both more broadly and more effectively. The authors, all from the leadership development consultancy Zenger Folkman, present a step-by-step process by which developing leaders can identify their strengths (through either a formal or an informal 360-degree evaluation), select appropriate complementary skills (the article identifies up to a dozen for each core strength), and develop those skills to dramatically improve their strengths--making themselves uniquely valuable to their companies. PMID:22111433

  12. Tools for measuring surface cleanliness

    DOEpatents

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  13. Olfaction:. an indispensable kitchen "utensil"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meloni, M.

    2000-12-01

    A good olfactory sense is indispensable for any professional chef because it is not only an essential means of establishing the quality and state of conservation of the ingredients they buy, but is also one of the most effective ways of following the progress of their cooking. Chefs are therefore also faced with the challenge of refining this capacity in such a way as to ensure that aromas and flavours are combined in a pleasing and appealing manner. By following the typical everyday activities of a professional chef, it is possible to discover how important a "trained" olfactory sense is in ensuring that a customer entering a restaurant is duly satisfied. The aim of this paper is to offer some insights into the language, practice and use of olfaction in the culinary field.

  14. Niobium and tantalum: indispensable twins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, Klaus; Papp, John

    2014-01-01

    Niobium and tantalum are transition metals almost always paired together in nature. These “twins” are difficult to separate because of their shared physical and chemical properties. In 1801, English chemist Charles Hatchett uncovered an unknown element in a mineral sample of columbite; John Winthrop found the sample in a Massachusetts mine and sent it to the British Museum in London in 1734. The name columbium, which Hatchet named the new element, came from the poetic name for North America—Columbia—and was used interchangeably for niobium until 1949, when the name niobium became official. Swedish scientist Anders Ekberg discovered tantalum in 1802, but it was confused with niobium, because of their twinned properties, until 1864, when it was recognized as a separate element. Niobium is a lustrous, gray, ductile metal with a high melting point, relatively low density, and superconductor properties. Tantalum is a dark blue-gray, dense, ductile, very hard, and easily fabricated metal. It is highly conductive to heat and electricity and renowned for its resistance to acidic corrosion. These special properties determine their primary uses and make niobium and tantalum indispensable.

  15. Performance measurement: A tool for program control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    Performance measurement is a management tool for planning, monitoring, and controlling as aspects of program and project management--cost, schedule, and technical requirements. It is a means (concept and approach) to a desired end (effective program planning and control). To reach the desired end, however, performance measurement must be applied and used appropriately, with full knowledge and recognition of its power and of its limitations--what it can and cannot do for the project manager. What is the potential of this management tool? What does performance measurement do that a traditional plan vs. actual technique cannot do? Performance measurement provides an improvement over the customary comparison of how much money was spent (actual cost) vs. how much was planned to be spent based on a schedule of activities (work planned). This commonly used plan vs. actual comparison does not allow one to know from the numerical data if the actual cost incurred was for work intended to be done.

  16. Tools for Measuring and Improving Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurow, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains the need for meaningful performance measures in libraries and the Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to data collection. Five tools representing different stages of a TQM inquiry are covered (i.e., the Shewhart Cycle, flowcharts, cause-and-effect diagrams, Pareto charts, and control charts), and benchmarking is addressed. (Contains…

  17. Measurement tools needed for pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R.S. )

    1994-03-01

    Pollution prevention concepts are gathering momentum, and will impact manufacturing and the commercial environmental industry significantly. Management tools that accurately measure, document and prioritize pollution prevention programs are critically needed at the corporate and national levels. Numerous environmental information management systems are available to catalog and track waste flows. However, companies also need to measure the effectiveness of waste minimization programs. An accurate way to measure and document progress would allow companies to prioritize programs with the greatest impact and display environmental progress to the public. Few proprietary software programs interface environmental data with financial and productivity databases to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention programs.

  18. Coordinate measurement machines as an alignment tool

    SciTech Connect

    Wand, B.T.

    1991-03-01

    In February of 1990 the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) purchased a LEITZ PM 12-10-6 CMM (Coordinate measurement machine). The machine is shared by the Quality Control Team and the Alignment Team. One of the alignment tasks in positioning beamline components in a particle accelerator is to define the component's magnetic centerline relative to external fiducials. This procedure, called fiducialization, is critical to the overall positioning tolerance of a magnet. It involves the definition of the magnetic center line with respect to the mechanical centerline and the transfer of the mechanical centerline to the external fiducials. To perform the latter a magnet coordinate system has to be established. This means defining an origin and the three rotation angles of the magnet. The datum definition can be done by either optical tooling techniques or with a CMM. As optical tooling measurements are very time consuming, not automated and are prone to errors, it is desirable to use the CMM fiducialization method instead. The establishment of a magnet coordinate system based on the mechanical center and the transfer to external fiducials will be discussed and presented with 2 examples from the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). 7 figs.

  19. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  20. EZ: A Tool For Automatic Redshift Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garilli, B.; Fumana, M.; Franzetti, P.; Paioro, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Le Fèvre, O.; Paltani, S.; Scaramella, R.

    2010-07-01

    We present EZ (Easy redshift), a tool we have developed within the VVDS project to help in redshift measurement from optical spectra. EZ has been designed with large spectroscopic surveys in mind, and in its development particular care has been given to the reliability of the results obtained in an automatic and unsupervised mode. Nevertheless, the possibility of running it interactively has been preserved, and a graphical user interface for results inspection has been designed. EZ has been successfully used within the VVDS project, as well as the zCosmos one. In this article we describe its architecture and the algorithms used, and evaluate its performances both on simulated and real data. EZ is an open-source program, freely downloadable from the Pandora Web Site.1

  1. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jun; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality. PMID:27258266

  2. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality. PMID:27258266

  3. Making Psychologists in Schools Indispensable: Critical Questions & Emerging Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talley, Ronda C., Ed.; And Others

    Making psychologists in schools indispensable is essential if psychology in education is going to survive and prosper during the 21st century. This book presents the reflections of 27 leaders in the field of school psychology on the issue of what can make psychologists in schools indispensable. Chapters are: Becoming Indispensable Through Mental…

  4. CASRE ?? Eay-to-Use Software Reliability Measurement Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, A.; Lyu, M.; Farr, W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a software reliability measurement tool, CASRE, that incorporates the methematical modeling capabilities of the public domain tool SMERFS, and is being implemented in a Microsoft Windows environment.

  5. Contour-measuring tool for composite layups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontes, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Simple handtool helps form contours and complex shapes from laminae of resin-impregnated fabric. Tool, which consists of yoke having ballpoint pen and spindle and gage, is placed so that it straddles model. As toll is moved, pen draws constant thickness focus that is used as template.

  6. MEASURING FITNESS IN FEMALE GYMNASTS: THE GYMNASTICS FUNCTIONAL MEASUREMENT TOOL

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Lisa K.; Casey, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: A reliable and valid method of measuring and monitoring a gymnast's total physical fitness level is needed to assist female gymnasts in achieving healthy, injury-free participation in the sport. The Gymnastics Functional Measurement Tool (GFMT) was previously designed as a field-test to assess physical fitness in female competitive gymnasts. The purpose of this study was to further develop the GFMT by establishing a scoring system for individual test items and to initiate the process of establishing the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the GFMT. Methods: A total of 105 competitive female gymnasts ages 6-18 underwent testing using the GFMT. Fifty of these subjects underwent re-testing one week later in order to assess test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed using a simple regression analysis between total GFMT scores and the gymnasts' competition level to calculate the coefficient of determination (r2). Test-retest reliability was analyzed using Model 1 Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Statistical significance was set at the p<0.05 level. Results: The relationship between total GFMT scores and subjects' current USAG competitive level was found to be good (r2 = 0.60). Reliability testing of the GFMT total score showed good test-retest reliability over a one week period (ICC=0.97). Test-retest reliability of the individual component items was good (ICC = 0.80-0.92). Conclusions: The results of this study provide initial support for the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the GFMT. PMID:22530187

  7. Tools to measure CD-SEM performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihoon; Jalhadi, Kiran; Deo, Sachin; Lee, Soo-Young; Joy, David

    2006-03-01

    It is important to be able to quantify the imaging performance of CD-SEMs for such purposes as verifying the specification, rechecking after a routine maintenance, or for tool matching. To perform tests such as these it is necessary to have both appropriate software for image analysis and suitable test samples. A package of 2-D Fourier transform and analysis software, designed as a plug-in for the shareware IMAGE-Java program, has been developed and is freely available on line. The requirement for a reproducible and well characterized sample has been met by using direct-write electron beam lithography to fabricate suitable Fresnel zone plate structures.

  8. Functional Measurement: An Incredibly Flexible Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullet, Etienne; Morales Martinez, Guadalupe Elizabeth; Makris, Ioannis; Roge, Bernadette; Munoz Sastre, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Functional Measurement (FM) has been applied to a variety of settings that can be considered as "extreme" settings; that is, settings involving participants with severe cognitive disabilities or involving unusual stimulus material. FM has, as instance, been successfully applied for analyzing (a) numerosity judgments among children as young as 3…

  9. Analytical Tools for Cloudscope Ice Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnott, W. Patrick

    1998-01-01

    The cloudscope is a ground or aircraft instrument for viewing ice crystals impacted on a sapphire window. It is essentially a simple optical microscope with an attached compact CCD video camera whose output is recorded on a Hi-8 mm video cassette recorder equipped with digital time and date recording capability. In aircraft operation the window is at a stagnation point of the flow so adiabatic compression heats the window to sublimate the ice crystals so that later impacting crystals can be imaged as well. A film heater is used for ground based operation to provide sublimation, and it can also be used to provide extra heat for aircraft operation. The compact video camera can be focused manually by the operator, and a beam splitter - miniature bulb combination provide illumination for night operation. Several shutter speeds are available to accommodate daytime illumination conditions by direct sunlight. The video images can be directly used to qualitatively assess the crystal content of cirrus clouds and contrails. Quantitative size spectra are obtained with the tools described in this report. Selected portions of the video images are digitized using a PCI bus frame grabber to form a short movie segment or stack using NIH (National Institute of Health) Image software with custom macros developed at DRI. The stack can be Fourier transform filtered with custom, easy to design filters to reduce most objectionable video artifacts. Particle quantification of each slice of the stack is performed using digital image analysis. Data recorded for each particle include particle number and centroid, frame number in the stack, particle area, perimeter, equivalent ellipse maximum and minimum radii, ellipse angle, and pixel number. Each valid particle in the stack is stamped with a unique number. This output can be used to obtain a semiquantitative appreciation of the crystal content. The particle information becomes the raw input for a subsequent program (FORTRAN) that

  10. P2 performance measurement tools workbook: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The underlying purpose of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program is compliance with the waste management regulations set forth by the DOE, the federal government, and individual state and local agencies 1. In addition to these regulatory mandates, the increases in waste management costs and public interest in environmental issues have created other drivers to develop and demonstrate an effective WMin/P2 Program. The Waste Minimization Division (EM-334) must have adequate methods to calculate and roll up pollution prevention (P2) progress to meet the WMin/P2 requirements; these requirements support DOE and national objectives and direct funding. This document outlines a system to evaluate DOE`s P2 progress towards the waste reduction requirements. The emphasis of these pollution prevention measurements is to evaluate whether P2 activities are effective, (i.e., has the required amount of waste been reduced as a result of the P2 activities) and to evaluate the cost management of P2 projects. The performance evaluation system presented in this document encompass these aspects: (1) site requirements that apply to all DOE waste generating organizations, (2) a baseline that is not affected by short-term waste generation, and (3) key indicators that can be rolled up across DOE sites and across specific Cognizant Secretarial Officers` (CSO) sites. In a performance-based management system, requirements are the fundamental link between the planning and measurement process. The site requirements are {open_quotes}targets{close_quotes} at the process or activity level. Measuring DOE`s P2 progress toward these requirements provides the necessary feedback to (1) compare performance with the requirements/standards (i.e., whether the reduction requirement of 50% by 1999 is achievable) (2) detect departures from planned levels of performance, and (3) restore performance to the planned levels or achieve new levels of performance.

  11. PIV as a temperature measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2015-11-01

    In particle image velocimetry (PIV), a camera records time-lapse snapshot images of the positions of particles embedded in a fluid, which faithfully trace the flow path. Cross correlating sequential particle image pairs results in 2D maps of the particle displacement and velocity fields. Here, the same PIV method is extended to temperature measurements in viscoelastic material. The motivation originates in a need for tissue temperature measurements in hyperthermia therapies such as laser ablation eye surgery and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) tumor ablation. Micron sized particles are embedded in an optically clear tissue mimicking phantom, illuminated with a laser sheet, and imaged with a CCD camera. When the phantom is subjected to heating from a focused ultrasound beam, the particles remain stationary, but not their spatial distribution in the recorded images. The images manifest particle displacements commensurate with alterations in the temperature distribution from heating. The underlying principle behind the thermometric capability of PIV is discussed. Temperature changes can be detected with high sensitivity, and the method works best with spatially localized temperature distributions.

  12. Measuring Rater Reliability on a Special Education Observation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmelroth, Carrie Lisa; Johnson, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This study used generalizability theory to measure reliability on the Recognizing Effective Special Education Teachers (RESET) observation tool designed to evaluate special education teacher effectiveness. At the time of this study, the RESET tool included three evidence-based instructional practices (direct, explicit instruction; whole-group…

  13. Three-dimensional measurement and characterization of grinding tool topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Changcai; Blunt, Liam; Jiang, Xiangqian; Xu, Xipeng; Huang, Hui; Ye, Ruifang

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive 3-dimensional measurement and characterization method for grinding tool topography was developed. A stylus instrument (SOMICRONIC, France) was used to measure the surface of a metal-bonded diamond grinding tool. The sampled data was input the software SurfStand developed by Centre for Precision Technology (CPT) for reconstruction and further characterization of the surface. Roughness parameters pertaining to the general surface and specific feature parameters relating to the grinding grits, such as height and angle peak curvature have been calculated. The methodology of measurement has been compared with that using an optical microscope. The comparison shows that the three-dimensional characterization has distinct advantages for grinding tool topography assessment. It is precise, convenient and comprehensive so it is suitable for precision measurement and analysis where an understanding of the grinding tool and its cutting ability are required.

  14. Measurement Learning Trajectories: A Tool for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCool, Jenni K.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which a teacher developed conceptions of measurement teaching and learning as she collaborated with a researcher to learn and implement a measurement learning trajectory with two of her students. Teachers need tools that effectively address the content area of measurement and can be used to improve their…

  15. Measuring fault tolerance with the FTAPE fault injection tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The major parts of the tool include a system-wide fault-injector, a workload generator, and a workload activity measurement tool. The workload creates high stress conditions on the machine. Using stress-based injection, the fault injector is able to utilize knowledge of the workload activity to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio, performance degradation, and number of system crashes are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  16. Measuring fault tolerance with the FTAPE fault injection tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The major parts of the tool include a system-wide fault-injector, a workload generator, and a workload activity measurement tool. The workload creates high stress conditions on the machine. Using stress-based injection, the fault injector is able to utilize knowledge of the workload activity to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio, performance degradation, and number of system crashes are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  17. [Volumetrics: an indispensable complementary test in lymphology].

    PubMed

    Auvert, J F; Vayssairat, M

    2002-06-01

    In patients with lymphedema, the volume of the affected limb is rarely measured in routine practice or may only be appreciated by a method giving a result in centimetres, an incorrect unit for volume quantification. Measurement of limb volume allows early diagnosis of lymphedema, long before the clinical signs appear. Two methods exhibit excellent reproducibility: the water displacement method which is the gold standard, with an accuracy of 0.7% and reproducibility of 1.3%, and the perimetric method, which has a good intraclass coefficient of correlation of 0.99. The water displacement method is the gold standard because it is the only one that gives the exact volume of the limb, including its extremity (hand or foot), but it has the drawback of requiring water. The perimetric method has two drawbacks: it does not include the hand or foot in the volume measure, and therefore gives an approximate volume of the affected limb, and it requires a computer to calculate the cone volumes. Taking, as an example of limb volume measurement, the case of patients operated for breast cancer, a difference between the post and pre postoperative volumes of < or = 100 mL is reassuring, a difference > 100 and < or = 250 mL requires regular surveillance, and a difference exceeding 250 mL is an indication for drainage and elastic compression. When the preoperative limb volume is unknown, the volume of the ipsilateral limb can be used. PMID:12162201

  18. Stress among charge nurses: tool development and stress measurement.

    PubMed

    Admi, Hanna; Moshe-Eilon, Yael

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and implement a tool for measuring the role stress of charge nurses. Tools are lacking regarding measurement of nursing role stressors, particularly for charge nurses. Based on focus groups and in-depth interviews with charge nurses within a large tertiary hospital, a charge nurse stress questionnaire was developed which measures six factors of stress: authority-responsibility conflict, patient-nurse interaction, deficient resources, managerial decision making, role conflict, and overload. The prominent stressors on charge nurses were specific to the role. Mean levels of stress were significantly higher for nurses who attended post-graduate clinical courses than for those who did not. The mean level of stress was higher for department nurse managers than for nurses without a managerial position. This tool was designed to measure charge nurse stress demonstrates reliability, and highlights the specific stressors demanded by the role. Preparation and ongoing support for fulfilling this position are recommended. PMID:20672537

  19. Development of a New Measurement Tool for Individualism and Collectivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Dixon, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    A new measurement tool for individualism and collectivism has been developed to address critical methodological issues in this field of social psychology. This new measure, the Auckland Individualism and Collectivism Scale (AICS), defines three dimensions of individualism: (a) responsibility (acknowledging one's responsibility for one's actions),…

  20. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1995-01-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  1. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  2. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1994-07-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  3. Region Three Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool - 12006

    SciTech Connect

    Messick, Chuck; Pham, Minh; Smith, Ron; Isiminger, Dave

    2012-07-01

    The Region 3 Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool is used by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA), United States Department of Energy, Radiological Assistance Program, Region 3, to respond to emergency radiological situations. The tool automates the flight planning package process while decreasing Aerial Measuring System response times and decreases the potential for human error. Deployment of the Region Three Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool has resulted in an immediate improvement to the flight planning process in that time required for mission planning has been reduced from 1.5 hours to 15 minutes. Anecdotally, the RAP team reports that the rate of usable data acquired during surveys has improved from 40-60 percent to over 90 percent since they began using the tool. Though the primary product of the flight planning tool is a pdf format document for use by the aircraft flight crew, the RAP team has begun carrying their laptop computer on the aircraft during missions. By connecting a Global Positioning System (GPS) device to the laptop and using ESRI ArcMap's GPS tool bar to overlay the aircraft position directly on the flight plan in real time, the RAP team can evaluate and correct the aircraft position as the mission is executed. (authors)

  4. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  5. [Factor Analysis: Principles to Evaluate Measurement Tools for Mental Health].

    PubMed

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin; Oviedo, Heidi Celina

    2012-09-01

    The validation of a measurement tool in mental health is a complex process that usually starts by estimating reliability, to later approach its validity. Factor analysis is a way to know the number of dimensions, domains or factors of a measuring tool, generally related to the construct validity of the scale. The analysis could be exploratory or confirmatory, and helps in the selection of the items with better performance. For an acceptable factor analysis, it is necessary to follow some steps and recommendations, conduct some statistical tests, and rely on a proper sample of participants. PMID:26572119

  6. Topography measurements and applications in ballistics and tool mark identifications*

    PubMed Central

    Vorburger, T V; Song, J; Petraco, N

    2016-01-01

    The application of surface topography measurement methods to the field of firearm and toolmark analysis is fairly new. The field has been boosted by the development of a number of competing optical methods, which has improved the speed and accuracy of surface topography acquisitions. We describe here some of these measurement methods as well as several analytical methods for assessing similarities and differences among pairs of surfaces. We also provide a few examples of research results to identify cartridge cases originating from the same firearm or tool marks produced by the same tool. Physical standards and issues of traceability are also discussed. PMID:27182440

  7. Consequential Validity and the Transformation of Tests from Measurement Tools to Policy Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welner, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Recent U.S. policy has brought a shift in assessment use, from measurement tools to policy levers. In particular, testing has become a core part of teacher evaluation policies in many states, with test results becoming akin to a job evaluation. Purpose: To explore the notion of consequential validity in assessment use and…

  8. Measurement and Research Tools. Symposium 37. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on measurement and research tools consists of three presentations. "An Examination of the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS)" (Albert Wiswell et al.) explores MIDAS's psychometric saliency. Findings indicates this instrument represents an incomplete attempt to develop a valid assessment of multiple…

  9. Volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules: variability in automated analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juluru, Krishna; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William; King, Tara; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot

    2007-03-01

    Over the past decade, several computerized tools have been developed for detection of lung nodules and for providing volumetric analysis. Incidentally detected lung nodules have traditionally been followed over time by measurements of their axial dimensions on CT scans to ensure stability or document progression. A recently published article by the Fleischner Society offers guidelines on the management of incidentally detected nodules based on size criteria. For this reason, differences in measurements obtained by automated tools from various vendors may have significant implications on management, yet the degree of variability in these measurements is not well understood. The goal of this study is to quantify the differences in nodule maximum diameter and volume among different automated analysis software. Using a dataset of lung scans obtained with both "ultra-low" and conventional doses, we identified a subset of nodules in each of five size-based categories. Using automated analysis tools provided by three different vendors, we obtained size and volumetric measurements on these nodules, and compared these data using descriptive as well as ANOVA and t-test analysis. Results showed significant differences in nodule maximum diameter measurements among the various automated lung nodule analysis tools but no significant differences in nodule volume measurements. These data suggest that when using automated commercial software, volume measurements may be a more reliable marker of tumor progression than maximum diameter. The data also suggest that volumetric nodule measurements may be relatively reproducible among various commercial workstations, in contrast to the variability documented when performing human mark-ups, as is seen in the LIDC (lung imaging database consortium) study.

  10. Multiwavelength digital holography for polishing tool shape measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lédl, Vít.; Psota, Pavel; Václavík, Jan; Doleček, Roman; Vojtíšek, Petr

    2013-09-01

    Classical mechano-chemical polishing is still a valuable technique, which gives unbeatable results for some types of optical surfaces. For example, optics for high power lasers requires minimized subsurface damage, very high cosmetic quality, and low mid spatial frequency error. One can hardly achieve this with use of subaperture polishing. The shape of the polishing tool plays a crucial role in achieving the required form of the optical surface. Often the shape of the polishing tool or pad is not known precisely enough during the manufacturing process. The tool shape is usually premachined and later is changed during the polishing procedure. An experienced worker could estimate the shape of the tool indirectly from the shape of the polished element, and that is why he can achieve the required shape in few reasonably long iterative steps. Therefore the lack of the exact tool shape knowledge is tolerated. Sometimes, this indirect method is not feasible even if small parts are considered. Moreover, if processes on machines like planetary (continuous) polishers are considered, the incorrect shape of the polishing pad could extend the polishing times extremely. Every iteration step takes hours. Even worse, polished piece could be wasted if the pad has a poor shape. The ability of the tool shape determination would be very valuable in those types of lengthy processes. It was our primary motivation to develop a contactless measurement method for large diffusive surfaces and demonstrate its usability. The proposed method is based on application of multiwavelength digital holographic interferometry with phase shift.

  11. Measuring cognitive function in MDD: emerging assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Russo, Manuela; Mahon, Katie; Burdick, Katherine E

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive impairment is emerging as an important therapeutic target in patients with psychiatric illnesses, including major depressive disorder (MDD). The objective of this general overview is to briefly review the evidence for cognitive impairment in MDD and to summarize a representative sample of cognitive assessment tools currently available to assess cognitive function in depressed patients. Study results in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction are somewhat inconsistent, likely due to the heterogeneity of the disorder as well as the use of diverse assessment tools. Measuring cognitive changes in this population is challenging. Cognitive symptoms are typically less severe than in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, requiring greater sensitivity than afforded by existing tools. Preliminary evidence suggests antidepressant treatments may improve cognitive functioning as a direct result of ameliorating depressive symptoms; however, any procognitive effects have not been elucidated. To evaluate antidepressant efficacy in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction, a standardized cognitive battery for use in clinical trials is essential. PMID:25421437

  12. Slope Error Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed an optical measurement tool for parabolic solar collectors that measures the combined errors due to absorber misalignment and reflector slope error. The combined absorber alignment and reflector slope errors are measured using a digital camera to photograph the reflected image of the absorber in the collector. Previous work using the image of the reflection of the absorber finds the reflector slope errors from the reflection of the absorber and an independent measurement of the absorber location. The accuracy of the reflector slope error measurement is thus dependent on the accuracy of the absorber location measurement. By measuring the combined reflector-absorber errors, the uncertainty in the absorber location measurement is eliminated. The related performance merit, the intercept factor, depends on the combined effects of the absorber alignment and reflector slope errors. Measuring the combined effect provides a simpler measurement and a more accurate input to the intercept factor estimate. The minimal equipment and setup required for this measurement technique make it ideal for field measurements.

  13. Topography measurements and applications in ballistics and tool mark identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorburger, T. V.; Song, J.; Petraco, N.

    2016-03-01

    The application of surface topography measurement methods to the field of firearm and toolmark analysis is fairly new. The field has been boosted by the development of a number of competing optical methods, which has improved the speed and accuracy of surface topography acquisitions. We describe here some of these measurement methods as well as several analytical methods for assessing similarities and differences among pairs of surfaces. We also provide a few examples of research results to identify cartridge cases originating from the same firearm or tool marks produced by the same tool. Physical standards and issues of traceability are also discussed. Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this paper to specify adequately the experimental procedure. Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

  14. Simulation of laser radar tooling ball measurements: focus dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Daniel G.; Slotwinski, Anthony; Hedges, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The Nikon Metrology Laser Radar system focuses a beam from a fiber to a target object and receives the light scattered from the target through the same fiber. The system can, among other things, make highly accurate measurements of the position of a tooling ball by locating the angular position of peak signal quality, which is related to the fiber coupling efficiency. This article explores the relationship between fiber coupling efficiency and focus condition.

  15. ACCELERATORS: A GUI tool for beta function measurement using MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang-Ling; Tian, Shun-Qiang; Jiang, Bo-Cheng; Liu, Gui-Min

    2009-04-01

    The beta function measurement is used to detect the shift in the betatron tune as the strength of an individual quadrupole magnet is varied. A GUI (graphic user interface) tool for the beta function measurement is developed using the MATLAB program language in the Linux environment, which facilitates the commissioning of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) storage ring. In this paper, we describe the design of the application and give some measuring results and discussions about the definition of the measurement. The program has been optimized to solve some restrictions of the AT tracking code. After the correction with LOCO (linear optics from closed orbits), the horizontal and the vertical root mean square values (rms values) can be reduced to 0.12 and 0.10.

  16. Codifference as a practical tool to measure interdependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Chechkin, Aleksei; Gajda, Janusz; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2015-03-01

    Correlation and spectral analysis represent the standard tools to study interdependence in statistical data. However, for the stochastic processes with heavy-tailed distributions such that the variance diverges, these tools are inadequate. The heavy-tailed processes are ubiquitous in nature and finance. We here discuss codifference as a convenient measure to study statistical interdependence, and we aim to give a short introductory review of its properties. By taking different known stochastic processes as generic examples, we present explicit formulas for their codifferences. We show that for the Gaussian processes codifference is equivalent to covariance. For processes with finite variance these two measures behave similarly with time. For the processes with infinite variance the covariance does not exist, however, the codifference is relevant. We demonstrate the practical importance of the codifference by extracting this function from simulated as well as real data taken from turbulent plasma of fusion device and financial market. We conclude that the codifference serves as a convenient practical tool to study interdependence for stochastic processes with both infinite and finite variances as well.

  17. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Safety Inhibit Timeline Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dion, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Observatory is a joint mission under the partnership by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Japan. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the lead management responsibility for NASA on GPM. The GPM program will measure precipitation on a global basis with sufficient quality, Earth coverage, and sampling to improve prediction of the Earth's climate, weather, and specific components of the global water cycle. As part of the development process, NASA built the spacecraft (built in-house at GSFC) and provided one instrument (GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) developed by Ball Aerospace) JAXA provided the launch vehicle (H2-A by MHI) and provided one instrument (Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) developed by NTSpace). Each instrument developer provided a safety assessment which was incorporated into the NASA GPM Safety Hazard Assessment. Inhibit design was reviewed for hazardous subsystems which included the High Gain Antenna System (HGAS) deployment, solar array deployment, transmitter turn on, propulsion system release, GMI deployment, and DPR radar turn on. The safety inhibits for these listed hazards are controlled by software. GPM developed a "pathfinder" approach for reviewing software that controls the electrical inhibits. This is one of the first GSFC in-house programs that extensively used software controls. The GPM safety team developed a methodology to document software safety as part of the standard hazard report. As part of this process a new tool "safety inhibit time line" was created for management of inhibits and their controls during spacecraft buildup and testing during 1& Tat GSFC and at the Range in Japan. In addition to understanding inhibits and controls during 1& T the tool allows the safety analyst to better communicate with others the changes in inhibit states with each phase of hardware and software testing. The tool was very

  18. Small-size measuring gauges for metal cutting machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, B. M.; Lyapkov, V. N.; Myasnikov, Y. A.; Kirsanova, L. N.

    1984-02-01

    Recently two new models of suspension type optical measuring gauges have been developed with a 0.01 mm scale division, for measuring displacements of movable parts in metal cutting machine tools. The first one is the IG-98 consisting of an STs-80 incandescent lamp, a light filter, two reference rulers, two objectives, a light splitter cube, four plane mirrors, two condenser lenses, a graduated circle and a magnifying glass. The second one is the IG-119 consisting of an STs-61 incandescent lamp, a light filter, a rectangular prism with cover, two reference rulers, two objectives, a light splitter cube, one mirror, one condenser lens, a cylindrical shield and a magnifying glass. A complete accuracy analysis of both instruments indicates that two out of the seven principal error components are negligible, namely the angular error of the null adjustment guides and the temperature error referred to the plane of one of the reference rulers.

  19. Confocal stereology: an efficient tool for measurement of microscopic structures.

    PubMed

    Kubínová, Lucie; Janáček, Jiří

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative measurements of geometric forms or counting of objects in microscopic specimens is an essential tool in studies of microstructure. Confocal stereology represents a contemporary approach to the evaluation of microscopic structures by using a combination of stereological methods and confocal microscopy. 3-D images acquired by confocal microscopy can be used for the estimation of geometrical characteristics of microscopic structures by stereological methods, based on the evaluation of optical sections within a thick slice and using computer-generated virtual test probes. Such methods can be used for estimating volume, number, surface area and length using relevant spatial probes, which are generated by specific software. The interactions of the probes with the structure under study are interactively evaluated. An overview of the methods of confocal stereology developed during the past 30 years is presented. Their advantages and pitfalls in comparison with other methods for measurement of geometrical characteristics of microscopic structures are discussed. PMID:25743691

  20. ``Tools for Astrometry": A Windows-based Research Tool for Asteroid Discovery and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. A.; Marschall, L. A.; Good, R. F.; Hayden, M. B.; Cooper, P. R.

    1998-12-01

    We have developed a Windows-based interactive digital astrometry package with a simple, ergonomic interface, designed for the discovery, measurement, and recording of asteroid positions by individual observers. The software, "Tools For Astrometry", will handle FITS and SBIG format images up to 2048 x 2048 (or larger, depending on RAM), and provides features for blinking images or subframes of images, and measurement of positions and magnitudes against both the HST Guide Star Catalog and the USNO SA-1 catalog,. In addition, the program can calculate ephemerides from element tables, including the Lowell Asteroid Database available online, can generate charts of star-fields showing the motion of asteroids from the ephemeris superimposed against the background star field, can project motions of measured asteroids ahead several days using linear interpolation for purposes of reacquisition, and can calculate projected baselines for asteroid parallax measurements. Images, charts, and tables of ephemerides can printed as well as displayed, and reports can be generated in the standard format of the IAU Minor Planet Center. The software is designed ergonomically, and one can go from raw images to completed astrometric report in a matter of minutes. The software is an extension of software developed for introductory astronomy laboratories by Project CLEA, which is supported by grants from Gettysburg College and the National Science Foundation.

  1. Biomimetic Signal Processing Using the Biosonar Measurement Tool (BMT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abawi, Ahmad T.; Hursky, Paul; Porter, Michael B.; Tiemann, Chris; Martin, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    In this paper data recorded on the Biosonar Measurement Tool (BMT) during a target echolocation experiment are used to 1) find ways to separate target echoes from clutter echoes, 2) analyze target returns and 3) find features in target returns that distinguish them from clutter returns. The BMT is an instrumentation package used in dolphin echolocation experiments developed at SPAWARSYSCEN. It can be held by the dolphin using a bite-plate during echolocation experiments and records the movement and echolocation strategy of a target-hunting dolphin without interfering with its motion through the search field. The BMT was developed to record a variety of data from a free-swimming dolphin engaged in a bottom target detection task. These data include the three dimensional location of the dolphin, including its heading, pitch roll and velocity as well as passive acoustic data recorded on three channels. The outgoing dolphin click is recorded on one channel and the resulting echoes are recorded on the two remaining channels. For each outgoing click the BMT records a large number of echoes that come from the entire ensonified field. Given the large number of transmitted clicks and the returned echoes, it is almost impossible to find a target return from the recorded data on the BMT. As a means of separating target echoes from those of clutter, an echo-mapping tool was developed. This tool produces an echomap on which echoes from targets (and other regular objects such as surface buoys, the side of a boat and so on) stack together as tracks, while echoes from clutter are scattered. Once these tracks are identified, the retuned echoes can easily be extracted for further analysis.

  2. Measuring vaccine hesitancy: The development of a survey tool.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Jarrett, Caitlin; Schulz, William S; Chaudhuri, Mohuya; Zhou, Yuqing; Dube, Eve; Schuster, Melanie; MacDonald, Noni E; Wilson, Rose

    2015-08-14

    In March 2012, the SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy was convened to define the term "vaccine hesitancy", as well as to map the determinants of vaccine hesitancy and develop tools to measure and address the nature and scale of hesitancy in settings where it is becoming more evident. The definition of vaccine hesitancy and a matrix of determinants guided the development of a survey tool to assess the nature and scale of hesitancy issues. Additionally, vaccine hesitancy questions were piloted in the annual WHO-UNICEF joint reporting form, completed by National Immunization Managers globally. The objective of characterizing the nature and scale of vaccine hesitancy issues is to better inform the development of appropriate strategies and policies to address the concerns expressed, and to sustain confidence in vaccination. The Working Group developed a matrix of the determinants of vaccine hesitancy informed by a systematic review of peer reviewed and grey literature, and by the expertise of the working group. The matrix mapped the key factors influencing the decision to accept, delay or reject some or all vaccines under three categories: contextual, individual and group, and vaccine-specific. These categories framed the menu of survey questions presented in this paper to help diagnose and address vaccine hesitancy. PMID:25896384

  3. Disassembling "evapotranspiration" in-situ with a complex measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chormanski, Jaroslaw; Kleniewska, Malgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; Sporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Okruszko, Tomasz; Szatylowicz, Jan; Batelaan, Okke

    2014-05-01

    In this work we present a complex tool for measuring water fluxes in wetland ecosystems. The tool was designed to quantify processes related to interception storage on plants leafs. The measurements are conducted by combining readings from various instruments, including: eddy covariance tower (EC), field spectrometer, SapFlow system, rain gauges above and under canopy, soil moisture probes and other. The idea of this set-up is to provide continuous measurement of overall water flux from the ecosystem (EC tower), intercepted water volume and timing (field spectrometers), through-fall (rain gauges above and under canopy), transpiration (SapFlow), evaporation and soil moisture (soil moisture probes). Disassembling the water flux to the above components allows giving more insight to the interception related processes and differentiates them from the total evapotranspiration. The measurements are conducted in the Upper Biebrza Basin (NE Poland). The study area is part of the valley and is covered by peat soils (mainly peat moss with the exception of areas near the river) and receives no inundations waters of the Biebrza. The plant community of Agrostietum-Carici caninae has a dominant share here creating an up to 0.6 km wide belt along the river. The area is covered also by Caricion lasiocarpae as well as meadows and pastures Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Phragmitetum communis. Sedges form a hummock pattern characteristic for the sedge communities in natural river valleys with wetland vegetation. The main result of the measurement set-up will be the analyzed characteristics and dynamics of interception storage for sedge ecosystems and a developed methodology for interception monitoring by use spectral reflectance technique. This will give a new insight to processes of evapotranspiration in wetlands and its components transpiration, evaporation from interception and evaporation from soil. Moreover, other important results of this project will be the estimation of energy and

  4. Lilith: a tool for constraining new physics from Higgs measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernon, Jérémy; Dumont, Béranger

    2015-09-01

    The properties of the observed Higgs boson with mass around 125 GeV can be affected in a variety of ways by new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The wealth of experimental results, targeting the different combinations for the production and decay of a Higgs boson, makes it a non-trivial task to assess the patibility of a non-SM-like Higgs boson with all available results. In this paper we present Lilith, a new public tool for constraining new physics from signal strength measurements performed at the LHC and the Tevatron. Lilith is a Python library that can also be used in C and C++/ ROOT programs. The Higgs likelihood is based on experimental results stored in an easily extensible XML database, and is evaluated from the user input, given in XML format in terms of reduced couplings or signal strengths.The results of Lilith can be used to constrain a wide class of new physics scenarios.

  5. Tool Measures Depths of Defects on a Case Tang Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, M. Bryan; Montgomery, Ronald B.; Mecham, Brent A.; Keirstead, Bums W.

    2005-01-01

    A special-purpose tool has been developed for measuring the depths of defects on an O-ring seal surface. The surface lies in a specially shaped ringlike fitting, called a capture feature tang, located on an end of a cylindrical segment of a case that contains a solid-fuel booster rocket motor for launching a space shuttle. The capture feature tang is a part of a tang-and-clevis, O-ring joint between the case segment and a similar, adjacent cylindrical case segment. When the segments are joined, the tang makes an interference fit with the clevis and squeezes the O-ring at the side of the gap.

  6. Slim hole MWD tool accurately measures downhole annular pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Burban, B.; Delahaye, T. )

    1994-02-14

    Measurement-while-drilling of downhole pressure accurately determines annular pressure losses from circulation and drillstring rotation and helps monitor swab and surge pressures during tripping. In early 1993, two slim-hole wells (3.4 in. and 3 in. diameter) were drilled with continuous real-time electromagnetic wave transmission of downhole temperature and annular pressure. The data were obtained during all stages of the drilling operation and proved useful for operations personnel. The use of real-time measurements demonstrated the characteristic hydraulic effects of pressure surges induced by drillstring rotation in the small slim-hole annulus under field conditions. The interest in this information is not restricted to the slim-hole geometry. Monitoring or estimating downhole pressure is a key element for drilling operations. Except in special cases, no real-time measurements of downhole annular pressure during drilling and tripping have been used on an operational basis. The hydraulic effects are significant in conventional-geometry wells (3 1/2-in. drill pipe in a 6-in. hole). This paper describes the tool and the results from the field test.

  7. Laser arrival measurement tools for SwissFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csatari Divall, Marta; Romann, Albert; Mutter, Patrick; Hunziker, Stephan; Hauri, Christoph P.

    2015-05-01

    SwissFEL is aiming to produce X-ray pulses from 30 fs down to the attosecond time scale. This requires the compression of the several picosecond long electron bunches produced by a photo-injector to sub-fs level. To achieve this, 40fs accurate injection of the electron bunches into the main linear accelerator is necessary. Therefore high timing accuracy is required from the drive laser of the electron gun. Furthermore fs scan capability is foreseen for the experimental stations of the FEL. The ultra-short pulse pump-probe lasers therefore need to exhibit outstanding, below 10fs short term jitter relative to the X-rays. Timing tools for both the electron gun laser and for the experiments are developed. The former is based on electro-optical modulation of the optical reference at 1560nm by a signal produced from the gun laser at 260nm, a concept similar to beam arrival monitors in the linear accelerator, with an expected resolution below 20fs. The latter will use spectrally resolved cross-correlation technique to determine relative jitter between the optical reference and the laser used at the experiments at 800nm, with fs resolution. These systems will be complemented by electron and X-ray timing tools. In this paper we present the general concept for the laser arrival time measurement and correction, with first results obtained on a Ti:sapphire chirped pulse amplifier system. Shot to shot, short term jitter and long term timing drift measurements are presented, with discussion on the sources of the noise. Plans for the feedback stabilization and the resolution and limitation of the systems are also covered.

  8. A measuring tool for tree-rings analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilov, Oleg; Kanatjev, Alexander; Kasatkina, Elena

    2013-04-01

    A special tool has been created for the annual tree-ring widths measurement and analysis. It consists of professional scanner, computer system and software. This created complex in many aspects does not yield the similar systems (LINTAB, WinDENDRO), but in comparison to manual measurement systems, it offers a number of advantages: productivity gain, possibility of archiving the results of the measurements at any stage of the processing, operator comfort. It has been developed a new software, allowing processing of samples of different types (cores, saw cuts), including those which is difficult to process, having got a complex wood structure (inhomogeneity of growing in different directions, missed, light and false rings etc.). This software can analyze pictures made with optical scanners, analog or digital cameras. The complex software program was created on programming language C++, being compatible with modern operating systems like Windows X. Annual ring widths are measured along paths traced interactively. These paths can have any orientation and can be created so that ring widths are measured perpendicular to ring boundaries. A graphic of ring-widths in function of the year is displayed on a screen during the analysis and it can be used for visual and numerical cross-dating and comparison with other series or master-chronologies. Ring widths are saved to the text files in a special format, and those files are converted to the format accepted for data conservation in the International Tree-Ring Data Bank. The created complex is universal in application that will allow its use for decision of the different problems in biology and ecology. With help of this complex it has been reconstructed a long-term juniper (1328-2004) and pine (1445-2005) tree-ring chronologies on the base of samples collected at Kola Peninsula (northwestern Russia).

  9. Cylindrical surface profile and diameter measuring tool and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, James R. (Inventor); Kissel, Ralph R. (Inventor); Smith, Earnest C. (Inventor); Oliver, Charles E. (Inventor); Redmon, John W., Sr. (Inventor); Wallace, Charles C. (Inventor); Swanson, Charles P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A tool is shown having a cross beam assembly made of beams joined by a center box structure. The assembly is adapted to be mounted by brackets to the outer end of a cylindrical case. The center box structure has a vertical shaft rotatably mounted therein and extending beneath the assembly. Secured to the vertical shaft is a radius arm which is adapted to rotate with the shaft. On the longer end of the radius arm is a measuring tip which contacts the cylindrical surface to be measured and which provides an electric signal representing the radius of the cylindrical surface from the center of rotation of the radius arm. An electric servomotor rotates the vertical shaft and an electronic resolver provides an electric signal representing the angle of rotation of the shaft. The electric signals are provided to a computer station which has software for its computer to calculate and print out the continuous circumference profile of the cylindrical surface, and give its true diameter and the deviations from the ideal circle.

  10. Reliability-Productivity Curve, a Tool for Adaptation Measures Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez-Jiménez, A.; Granados, A.; Garrote, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Due to climate change effects, water scarcity problems would intensify in several regions. These problems are going to impact negatively in the water low-priority demands, since these will be reduced in favor of those with high-priority. An example would be the reduction of agriculture water resources in favor of the urban ones. Then, it is important the evaluation of adaptation measures for a better water resources management. An important tool to face this challenge is the economic valuation of the water demands' impact within a water resources system. In agriculture this valuation is usually performed through the water productivity evaluation. The water productivity evaluation requires detailed information regarding the different crops like the applied technology, the agricultural supplies management, the water availability, etc. This is a restriction for an evaluation at basin scale due to the difficulty of gathers this level of detailed information. Besides, only the water availability is taken into account, but not the period when the water is distributed (i.e. water resources reliability). Water resources reliability is one of the most important variables in water resources management. This research proposes a methodology to determine the agriculture water productivity, using as variables the crops information, the crops price, the water resources availability, and the water resources reliability, at a basin scale. This methodology would allow identifying general water resources adaptation measures, providing the basis for further detailed studies in critical regions.

  11. Cylindrical surface profile and diameter measuring tool and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, James R. (Inventor); Kissel, Ralph R. (Inventor); Oliver, Charles E. (Inventor); Smith, Earnest C. (Inventor); Redmon, John W. (Inventor); Wallace, Charles C. (Inventor); Swanson, Charles P. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A tool is shown having a cross beam assembly (15) made of beams (18, 19, 20, 21) joined by a center box structure (23). The assembly (15) is adapted to be mounted by brackets (16) to the outer end of a cylindrical case (11). The center box structure (23) has a vertical shaft (25) rotatably mounted therein and extending beneath the assembly (15). Secured to the vertical shaft (25) is a radius arm (28) which is adapted to rotate with shaft (25). On the longer end of the radius arm (28) is a measuring tip (30) which contacts the cylindrical surface to be measured and which provides an electric signal representing the radius of the cylindrical surface from the center of rotation of the radius arm (28). An electric servomotor (49) rotates the vertical shaft (25) and an electronic resolver (61) provides an electric signal representing the angle of rotation of the shaft (25). The electric signals are provided to a computer station (73) which has software for its computer to calculate and print out the continuous circumference profile of the cylindrical surface, and give its true diameter and the deviations from the ideal circle.

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  13. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  16. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  17. Dolphin echolocation strategies studied with the Biosonar Measurement Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, Dorian S.; Martin, Steve W.; Phillips, Michael; Bauer, Eric; Moore, Patrick W.

    2003-10-01

    Two free-swimming dolphins (Tt722 and Tt673) were trained to carry the Biosonar Measurement Tool (BMT) during open water, proud target searches in order to explore echolocation behavior without the constraints of traditional experimental designs. The BMT recorded the angular motion, depth, and velocity of the dolphin as well as echolocation clicks and echoes returning from insonified targets. Mean search time for Tt722 was 24.6+/-7.3 s and 6.5+/-3.0 s for Tt673 on target present trials, the former strategy resulting in the lower false alarm rate. The majority of clicks exceeded 195 dB re: 1 μPa throughout all trials for both animals but each demonstrated preferences for particular frequency bands of echolocation. Considering all trials, only 3.6% of all clicks produced by Tt722 contained peak frequencies greater than 60 kHz whereas Tt673 produced clicks with peak frequencies above 60 kHz 20.4% of the time. Distinctive frequency bands in the distribution of clicks were notable: bands for Tt673 occurred at 38, 54, and 69 kHz with less defined higher order bands; bands for Tt722 occurred at 25, 35, and 40 kHz. Distinctive frequency bands suggest a preferential use or mechanical constraint on harmonically related click frequencies.

  18. Monitoring measurement tools: new methods for driving continuous improvements in fleet measurement uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Sendelbach, Matthew; Fiege, Ron; Zaitz, Mary; Shneyder, Dmitriy; Strocchia-rivera, Carlos; Munoz, Andres; Rangarajan, Srinivasan; Muth, William; Brendler, Andrew; Banke, Bill; Schulz, Bernd; Hartig, Carsten; Hoeft, Jon-Tobias; Vaid, Alok; Kelling, Mark; Bunday, Benjamin; Allgair, John

    2009-03-01

    Ever shrinking measurement uncertainty requirements are difficult to achieve for a typical metrology toolset, especially over the entire expected life of the fleet. Many times, acceptable performance can be demonstrated during brief evaluation periods on a tool or two in the fleet. Over time and across the rest of the fleet, the most demanding processes often have measurement uncertainty concerns that prevent optimal process control, thereby limiting premium part yield, especially on the most aggressive technology nodes. Current metrology statistical process control (SPC) monitoring techniques focus on maintaining the performance of the fleet where toolset control chart limits are derived from a stable time period. These tools are prevented from measuring product when a statistical deviation is detected. Lastly, these charts are primarily concerned with daily fluctuations and do not consider the overall measurement uncertainty. It is possible that the control charts implemented for a given toolset suggest a healthy fleet while many of these demanding processes continue to suffer measurement uncertainty issues. This is especially true when extendibility is expected in a given generation of toolset. With this said, there is a need to continually improve the measurement uncertainty of the fleet until it can no longer meet the needed requirements at which point new technology needs to be entertained. This paper explores new methods in analyzing existing SPC monitor data to assess the measurement performance of the fleet and look for opportunities to drive improvements. Long term monitor data from a fleet of overlay and scatterometry tools will be analyzed. The paper also discusses using other methods besides SPC monitors to ensure the fleet stays matched; a set of SPC monitors provides a good baseline of fleet stability but it cannot represent all measurement scenarios happening in product recipes. The analyses presented deal with measurement uncertainty on non-measurement

  19. Measurement Model for Division as a Tool in Computing Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovich, Sergei; Strock, Tracy

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the use of a spreadsheet in a mathematics teacher education course. It shows how the tool can serve as a link between seemingly disconnected mathematical concepts. The didactical triad of using a spreadsheet as an agent, consumer, and amplifier of mathematical activities allows for an extended investigation of simple yet…

  20. Novel pilot films providing indispensable information in pharmaco-cavernosography

    PubMed Central

    Hill, James W.; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Huang, Sheng-Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional pharmaco-cavernosography provides little information on penile venous anatomy, although it is indispensible in documenting veno-occlusive erectile dysfunction (ED). We propose an innovative method, which may provide additional insight into the penile venous structure. Methods From July 2010 to November 2012, 96 impotent men, aged 20 to 75 years, underwent this method of pharmaco-cavernosography in which two sets of 60 mL of 50% omnipaque solution administered intracavernously by themselves. The first set of pilot cavernosograms was taken at intervals of five, ten, twenty and thirty seconds after the commencement of the injection. The second set of cavernosograms was taken in the same intervals within 30 minutes following the pilot set, preceded by the injection of 20 µg prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). Analysis was conducted on the drainage veins including deep dorsal vein (DDV), cavernosal veins (CVs) and para-arterial veins (PAVs) accordingly. The veins demonstrated in the pilot cavernosograms, and the second set, were compared in terms of venous numbers and presentation percentage. Results There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.001) between the total number of independent venous drainage channels and the presentation percentage of DDV, CVs and PAVs observed in the pilot cavernosograms, and those in second set (4.5 vs. 2.1; 97.47%, 60.33%, and 38.91% vs. 57.06%, 29.34%, and 19.08%, respectively). Conclusions Compared with conventional pharmaco-cavernosography methods, pilot cavernosograms are readily able to show detailed penile venous anatomy. It is therefore may be concluded that pilot cavernosograms is a valuable addition to conventional protocols of pharmaco-cavernosography. PMID:26816838

  1. Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement. II. Development of Research-Based Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials and peer-instruction tools to reduce students' common difficulties with issues related to measurement in quantum mechanics. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students'…

  2. Development of an Outcome Measurement Tool for a Teen Parent Wraparound Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fries, Derrick; Carney, Karen J.; Blackman-Urteaga, Laura; Savas, Sue Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article chronicles the search for and development of an outcome measurement tool for teen parents receiving community-based wraparound services. The criteria for selecting functional assessment tools available in the literature is presented along with the barriers experienced in using two of these well-cited tools. The rationale for in-house…

  3. The promise of exergames as tools to measure physical health

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Exergames are popular video games that combine physical activity with digital gaming. To measure effects of exergame play on physical outcomes and health behaviors, most studies use external measures including accelerometry, indirect calorimetry, heart rate monitors, and written surveys. These measures may reduce external validity by burdening participants during gameplay. Many exergames have the capability to measure activity levels unobtrusively through monitors built into game equipment, and preliminary analysis indicates that exergame measures are significantly correlated with external measures of caloric expenditure, duration of play, and balance. Exergames also have unique capabilities to measure additional data, such as the game challenges, player movement, and levels of performance that affect aerobic activity. Researchers could capitalize on the data collected by the exergame itself, providing an efficient, unobtrusive, comprehensive measure of physical activity during exergame play. PMID:23378860

  4. The promise of exergames as tools to measure physical health.

    PubMed

    Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    Exergames are popular video games that combine physical activity with digital gaming. To measure effects of exergame play on physical outcomes and health behaviors, most studies use external measures including accelerometry, indirect calorimetry, heart rate monitors, and written surveys. These measures may reduce external validity by burdening participants during gameplay. Many exergames have the capability to measure activity levels unobtrusively through monitors built into game equipment, and preliminary analysis indicates that exergame measures are significantly correlated with external measures of caloric expenditure, duration of play, and balance. Exergames also have unique capabilities to measure additional data, such as the game challenges, player movement, and levels of performance that affect aerobic activity. Researchers could capitalize on the data collected by the exergame itself, providing an efficient, unobtrusive, comprehensive measure of physical activity during exergame play. PMID:23378860

  5. Systematic Review of the Measurement Properties of Tools Used to Measure Behaviour Problems in Young Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Hanratty, Jennifer; Livingstone, Nuala; Robalino, Shannon; Terwee, Caroline B.; Glod, Magdalena; Oono, Inalegwu P.; Rodgers, Jacqui; Macdonald, Geraldine; McConachie, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Behaviour problems are common in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are many different tools used to measure behavior problems but little is known about their validity for the population. Objectives To evaluate the measurement properties of behaviour problems tools used in evaluation of intervention or observational research studies with children with ASD up to the age of six years. Methods Behaviour measurement tools were identified as part of a larger, two stage, systematic review. First, sixteen major electronic databases, as well as grey literature and research registers were searched, and tools used listed and categorized. Second, using methodological filters, we searched for articles examining the measurement properties of the tools in use with young children with ASD in ERIC, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. The quality of these papers was then evaluated using the COSMIN checklist. Results We identified twelve tools which had been used to measure behaviour problems in young children with ASD, and fifteen studies which investigated the measurement properties of six of these tools. There was no evidence available for the remaining six tools. Two questionnaires were found to be the most robust in their measurement properties, the Child Behavior Checklist and the Home Situations Questionnaire—Pervasive Developmental Disorders version. Conclusions We found patchy evidence on reliability and validity, for only a few of the tools used to measure behaviour problems in young children with ASD. More systematic research is required on measurement properties of tools for use in this population, in particular to establish responsiveness to change which is essential in measurement of outcomes of intervention. PROSPERO Registration Number CRD42012002223 PMID:26659821

  6. Development of the Assessment of Burden of COPD tool: an integrated tool to measure the burden of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Slok, Annerika H M; in ’t Veen, Johannes C C M; Chavannes, Niels H; van der Molen, Thys; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H; Kerstjens, Huib A M; Salomé, Philippe L; Holverda, Sebastiaan; Dekhuijzen, PN Richard; Schuiten, Denise; Asijee, Guus M; van Schayck, Onno C P

    2014-01-01

    In deciding on the treatment plan for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the burden of COPD as experienced by patients should be the core focus. It is therefore important for daily practice to develop a tool that can both assess the burden of COPD and facilitate communication with patients in clinical practice. This paper describes the development of an integrated tool to assess the burden of COPD in daily practice. A definition of the burden of COPD was formulated by a Dutch expert team. Interviews showed that patients and health-care providers agreed on this definition. We found no existing instruments that fully measured burden of disease according to this definition. However, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire meets most requirements, and was therefore used and adapted. The adapted questionnaire is called the Assessment of Burden of COPD (ABC) scale. In addition, the ABC tool was developed, of which the ABC scale is the core part. The ABC tool is a computer program with an algorithm that visualises outcomes and provides treatment advice. The next step in the development of the tool is to test the validity and effectiveness of both the ABC scale and tool in daily practice. PMID:25010353

  7. A web-based tool for ranking landslide mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasse, S.; Vaciago, G.; Choi, Y. J.; Kalsnes, B.

    2012-04-01

    As part of the research done in the European project SafeLand "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies", a compendium of structural and non-structural mitigation measures for different landslide types in Europe was prepared, and the measures were assembled into a web-based "toolbox". Emphasis was placed on providing a rational and flexible framework applicable to existing and future mitigation measures. The purpose of web-based toolbox is to assist decision-making and to guide the user in the choice of the most appropriate mitigation measures. The mitigation measures were classified into three categories, describing whether the mitigation measures addressed the landslide hazard, the vulnerability or the elements at risk themselves. The measures considered include structural measures reducing hazard and non-structural mitigation measures, reducing either the hazard or the consequences (or vulnerability and exposure of elements at risk). The structural measures include surface protection and control of surface erosion; measures modifying the slope geometry and/or mass distribution; measures modifying surface water regime - surface drainage; measures mo¬difying groundwater regime - deep drainage; measured modifying the mechanical charac¬teristics of unstable mass; transfer of loads to more competent strata; retaining structures (to modify slope geometry and/or to transfer stress to compe¬tent layer); deviating the path of landslide debris; dissipating the energy of debris flows; and arresting and containing landslide debris or rock fall. The non-structural mitigation measures, reducing either the hazard or the consequences: early warning systems; restricting or discouraging construction activities; increasing resistance or coping capacity of elements at risk; relocation of elements at risk; sharing of risk through insurance. The measures are described in the toolbox with fact sheets providing a

  8. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  9. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  10. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  11. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  12. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  13. Measuring, Layout and Leveling Tools. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on measuring, layout, and leveling tools is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to enable students to identify, explain, and demonstrate correct procedures for the use and care of measuring tools, gauges, squares, and levels. The module may…

  14. Seismic tomography as a tool for measuring stress in mines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Douglas F.; Williams, T.J.; Denton, D.K.; Friedel, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Spokane Research Center personnel have been investigating the use of seismic tomography to monitor the behavior of a rock mass, detect hazardous ground conditions and assess the mechanical integrity of a rock mass affected by mining. Seismic tomography can be a valuable tool for determining relative stress in deep, >1,220-m (>4,000-ft), underground pillars. If high-stress areas are detected, they can be destressed prior to development or they can be avoided. High-stress areas can be monitored with successive seismic surveys to determine if stress decreases to a level where development can be initiated safely. There are several benefits to using seismic tomography to identify high stress in deep underground pillars. The technique is reliable, cost-effective, efficient and noninvasive. Also, investigators can monitor large rock masses, as well as monitor pillars during the mining cycle. By identifying areas of high stress, engineers will be able to assure that miners are working in a safer environment.Spokane Research Center personnel have been investigating the use of seismic tomography to monitor the behavior of a rock mass, detect hazardous ground conditions and assess the mechanical integrity of a rock mass affected by mining. Seismic tomography can be a valuable tool for determining relative stress in deep, >1,200-m (>4,000-ft), underground pillars. If high-stress areas are detected, they can be destressed prior to development or they can be avoided. High-stress areas can be monitored with successive seismic surveys to determine if stress decreases to a level where development can be initiated safely. There are several benefits to using seismic tomography to identify high stress in deep underground pillars. The technique is reliable, cost-effective, efficient and noninvasive. Also, investigators can monitor large rock masses, as well as monitor pillars during the mining cycle. By identifying areas of high stress. engineers will be able to assure that miners are

  15. The Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS): An Integrated Suite of Tools for Measuring Performance and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Connor, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This is a report of work in progress. In it, I summarize the status of the research and development of the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) for managing, processing, and analyzing digital flight-recorded data, The objectives of the NASA-FAA APMS research project are to establish a sound scientific and technological basis for flight-data analysis, to define an open and flexible architecture for flight-data analysis systems, and to articulate guidelines for a standardized database structure on which to continue to build future flight-data-analysis extensions. APMS offers to the air transport community an open, voluntary standard for flight-data-analysis software; a standard that will help to ensure suitable functionality and data interchangeability among competing software programs. APMS will develop and document the methodologies, algorithms, and procedures for data management and analyses to enable users to easily interpret the implications regarding safety and efficiency of operations. APMS does not entail the implementation of a nationwide flight-data-collection system. It is intended to provide technical tools to ease the large-scale implementation of flight-data analyses at both the air-carrier and the national-airspace levels in support of their Flight Operations and Quality Assurance (FOQA) Programs and Advanced Qualifications Programs (AQP). APMS cannot meet its objectives unless it develops tools that go substantially beyond the capabilities of the current commercially available software and supporting analytic methods that are mainly designed to count special events. These existing capabilities, while of proven value, were created primarily with the needs-of aircrews in mind. APMS tools must serve the needs of the government and air carriers, as well as aircrews, to fully support the FOQA and AQP programs. They must be able to derive knowledge not only through the analysis of single flights (special-event detection), but also through

  16. Cumulants and the moment algebra: Tools for analyzing weak measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, Johan; Mitchison, Graeme

    2009-04-15

    Recently it has been shown that cumulants significantly simplify the analysis of multipartite weak measurements. Here we consider the mathematical structure that underlies this and find that it can be formulated in terms of what we call the moment algebra. Apart from resulting in simpler proofs, the flexibility of this structure allows generalizations of the original results to a number of weak measurement scenarios, including one where the weakly interacting pointers reach thermal equilibrium with the probed system.

  17. Some new measures of entropy, useful tools in biocomputing.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Angel

    2010-01-01

    The basic problem rooted in Information Theory (IT) foundations (Shannon, Bell Syst Tech J 27:379-423 and 623-656, 1948; Volkenstein, Entropy and Information. Series: Progress in Mathematical Physics, 2009) is to reconstruct, as closely as possible, the input signal after observing the received output signal.The Shannon information measure is the only possible one in this context, but it must be clear that it is only valid within the more restricted scope of coding problems that C. E. Shannon himself had seen in his lifetime (Shannon, Bell Syst Tech J 27:379-423 and 623-656, 1948). As pointed out by Alfred Rényi (1961), in his essential paper (Rényi, Proc. of the 4th Berkeley Symposium on Mathematics, Statistics and Probability, 547-561, 1961) on generalized information measures, for other sorts of problems other quantities may serve just as well as measures of information, or even better. This would be supported either by their operational significance or by a set of natural postulates characterizing them, or preferably by both. Thus, the idea of generalized entropies arises in scientific literature.We analyze here some new measures of Entropy, very useful to be applied on Biocomputing (Ulanowicz and Hannon, Proc R Soc Lond B 232:181-192, 1987; Volkenstein, Entropy and Information. Series: Progress in Mathematical Physics, 2009). PMID:20865562

  18. An Indispensable Tool for Research and Evaluation: A Functional Pupil Data System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penry, Edward B.

    The School District of Philadelphia has had a continuously maintained computerized data system for its 270,000 pupils since 1967. This paper outlines: the general procedures and descriptions of the file; the need for establishing a pupil data-base file; the systems products and services; its value to research and evaluation as well as to the…

  19. Bioorthogonal Click Chemistry: An Indispensable Tool to Create Multifaceted Cell Culture Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, bioorthogonal click chemistry has led the field of biomaterial science into a new era of diversity and complexity by its extremely selective, versatile, and biocompatible nature. In this viewpoint, we seek to emphasize recent endeavors of exploiting this versatile chemistry toward the development of poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels as cell culture scaffolds. In these cell-laden materials, the orthogonality of these reactions has played an effective role in allowing the creation of diverse biochemical patterns in complex biological environments that provide new found opportunities for researchers to delineate and control cellular phenotypes more precisely than ever. PMID:23336091

  20. Isocyanide based [4+1] cycloaddition reactions: an indispensable tool in multi-component reactions (MCRs).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tanpreet; Wadhwa, Preeti; Bagchi, Sourav; Sharma, Anuj

    2016-05-19

    The advent of cycloaddition reactions in the synthesis of heterocycles and their ever burgeoning applications in the fields of material chemistry, catalysis and drugs have been a profound scientific development. In particular, isocyanide based cycloaddition reactions have been harbingers of an exciting new chapter in the realms of organic synthesis. The emergence of numerous synthetic protocols utilizing formal cycloaddition of isocyanides with conjugated heterodienes has unleashed countless opportunities to design and synthesize diverse heterocyclic scaffolds. To date, there has not been any exclusive review on a formal [4+1] cycloaddition involving isocyanides. The present review highlights the journey of formal [4+1] cycloaddition reactions of isocyanides with diverse electrophilic substrates viz. oxadienes, azadienes, thioacyl imines, alkylidene amides, alkylidene hydrazines, α,β-unsaturated nitro compounds, α-thioxothioamides, nitroso alkenes, acyl imines, vinyl ketenes, vinyl isocyanates, etc. to afford functionalized pyrroles, imidazoles, furans, oxazoles, pyrazoles, etc. PMID:27063921

  1. Cold denaturation as a tool to measure protein stability.

    PubMed

    Sanfelice, Domenico; Temussi, Piero Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Protein stability is an important issue for the interpretation of a wide variety of biological problems but its assessment is at times difficult. The most common parameter employed to describe protein stability is the temperature of melting, at which the populations of folded and unfolded species are identical. This parameter may yield ambiguous results. It would always be preferable to measure the whole stability curve. The calculation of this curve is greatly facilitated whenever it is possible to observe cold denaturation. Using Yfh1, one of the few proteins whose cold denaturation occurs at neutral pH and low ionic strength, we could measure the variation of its full stability curve under several environmental conditions. Here we show the advantages of gauging stability as a function of external variables using stability curves. PMID:26026885

  2. Cold denaturation as a tool to measure protein stability

    PubMed Central

    Sanfelice, Domenico; Temussi, Piero Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Protein stability is an important issue for the interpretation of a wide variety of biological problems but its assessment is at times difficult. The most common parameter employed to describe protein stability is the temperature of melting, at which the populations of folded and unfolded species are identical. This parameter may yield ambiguous results. It would always be preferable to measure the whole stability curve. The calculation of this curve is greatly facilitated whenever it is possible to observe cold denaturation. Using Yfh1, one of the few proteins whose cold denaturation occurs at neutral pH and low ionic strength, we could measure the variation of its full stability curve under several environmental conditions. Here we show the advantages of gauging stability as a function of external variables using stability curves. PMID:26026885

  3. Measurement, Certification, and Quality: Meeting Enduring Challenges with Modern Tools.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    The author, a former chair of the ABIM, describes the challenges that the board certification enterprise is experiencing as medicine shifts from being a paper-based to a digital industry. While there are clearly threats to board certification, he argues that boards can remain highly relevant if they focus on areas in which they can make unique contributions, such as the measurement of cognitive skills, diagnostic accuracy, "keeping up," and procedural skills. PMID:27550005

  4. Comsol Simulations as a Tool in Validating a Measurement Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakka, Antti; Sairanen, Hannu; Heinonen, Martti; Högström, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The Centre for Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES) is developing a temperature-humidity calibration system for radiosondes. The target minimum air temperature and dew-point temperature are -80° C and -90° C, respectively. When operating in this range, a major limiting factor is the time of stabilization which is mainly affected by the design of the measurement chamber. To find an optimal geometry for the chamber, we developed a numerical simulation method taking into account heat and mass transfer in the chamber. This paper describes the method and its experimental validation using two stainless steel chambers with different geometries. The numerical simulation was carried out using Comsol Multiphysics simulation software. Equilibrium states of dry air flow at -70° C with different inlet air flow rates were used to determine the geometry of the chamber. It was revealed that the flow is very unstable despite having relatively small Reynolds number values. Humidity saturation abilities of the new chamber were studied by simulating water vapor diffusion in the chamber in time-dependent mode. The differences in time of humidity stabilization after a step change were determined for both the new chamber model and the MIKES Relative Humidity Generator III (MRHG) model. These simulations were used as a validation of the simulation method along with experimental measurements using a spectroscopic hygrometer. Humidity saturation stabilization simulations proved the new chamber to be the faster of the two, which was confirmed by experimental measurements.

  5. Crimped tool marks measurement using structured laser analysis: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarr, Dennis P.; Mullen, Joey H.

    1997-12-01

    Heating and cooling air for an aircraft interior is transported using metal ducts. These ducts vary in size from a few centimeters to 20 centimeters in diameter. In the assembly of aircraft components, a coupling is swaged onto the ducts. In assuring the mechanical dies are operating properly, the crimp mark is checked. The current method of visual inspection and checking with calipers does not allow implementation of statistical process control methods. In an effort to improve this process check, a new measurement method is being developed. A feasibility study indicated that a structured light laser system would be a good approach. A few requirements were: it must be portable to be used at different locations within the fabrication area, it must be fast, it should be easy to use by the mechanic/inspector, the readings must be accurate, and the system is non destructive. Due to the mechanical configuration of the tube and coupling, a camera with magnification optics is used. The measurement of the bump has a maximum of 50.8 microns (0.0020 inch). The system uses computer vision, and custom software written in C++. A low cost frame grabber is used. This paper shows the final production prototype system and its configuration for factory testing. This paper discusses the design and testing of the system.

  6. Flexible tools for interpreting tracer measurements and recent applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M.; Stewart, M.

    2012-04-01

    Steady increase of groundwater abstraction and nitrate concentrations in groundwater due to agricultural and industrial practices is a major concern for groundwater availability and deterioration of groundwater quality in New Zealand. Studies on groundwater in the Waimea Plains (for example) have shown effects of nitrate input from both diffuse and point sources since 1940. Groundwaters in gravel aquifers under Christchurch have also been studied since 1970 to characterise their flowpaths and recharge sources. In these and other cases, the mixing of waters from different recharge sources following different flow paths can be determined with the use of various tracers and the future course of nitrate concentration in the groundwaters predicted. The input of radionuclides to hydrological systems from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 60s revealed that outflows from such systems often comprise mixtures of water with very wide ranges of ages. Many authors have described methods of deconvolving such outputs with the use of lumped parameter models (LPMs). LPMs are evaluated using specialized software or Excel spreadsheets to compute simulations to measurements of system outputs and therefore estimate parameters of the age distribution. Excel allows easy modification of the code to enable application to individual hydrological features and for a variety of isotopes and chemicals. For the New Zealand studies, Excel spreadsheets with coded Visual Basic functions are used to deduce age distributions based on stable isotope, SF6, CFCs, 3H and 14C data (in order of ages). In particular, 3H is becoming increasingly useful as an age tracer due to the decrease of ambiguity from nuclear testing provided that the measurements can be made with high accuracy (Stewart et al., 2012).These age distributions allow us to derive the input histories of chemicals (e.g. nitrate) and the groundwater recharge sources. In addition, recent developments in modelling groundwater flow and

  7. [Conventional perimetry. Antiquated or indispensable for functional glaucoma diagnostics?].

    PubMed

    Tonagel, F; Voykov, B; Schiefer, U

    2012-04-01

    Despite its relatively long history conventional perimetry has preserved its role in (glaucoma) diagnostics by the continuous advancement of technical equipment, examination strategies and new methods for analysis and visualization of progression. A high standardization in execution and evaluation of visual field examination can now be obtained by the increasing use of computer technology. Standardized protocols become increasingly more useful especially in cases of chronic diseases, such as glaucoma where several suitable diagnostic methods must be applied over a long time period. For the assessment of functional deterioration several (numeric) perimetric indices are available in addition to clinical evaluation. The use of fast threshold estimating strategies and locally condensed grids are promising tools for early detection of the functional manifestation or progression of (glaucomatous) loss of visual field. In cases of advanced (glaucomatous) visual field loss, perimetry with (computer generated) moving stimuli (semi-automated kinetic perimetry) allows an efficient, standardized and patient-friendly edge detection of scotoma borders. This method is also very well suited for expert opinions and ability testing. The assessment by morphological or morphometric, hydrodynamic and other functional parameters serve as complementary diagnostic aids or as elementary tools for plausibility control. PMID:22527729

  8. Identifying Audiences of E-Infrastructures - Tools for Measuring Impact

    PubMed Central

    van den Besselaar, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Research evaluation should take into account the intended scholarly and non-scholarly audiences of the research output. This holds too for research infrastructures, which often aim at serving a large variety of audiences. With research and research infrastructures moving to the web, new possibilities are emerging for evaluation metrics. This paper proposes a feasible indicator for measuring the scope of audiences who use web-based e-infrastructures, as well as the frequency of use. In order to apply this indicator, a method is needed for classifying visitors to e-infrastructures into relevant user categories. The paper proposes such a method, based on an inductive logic program and a Bayesian classifier. The method is tested, showing that the visitors are efficiently classified with 90% accuracy into the selected categories. Consequently, the method can be used to evaluate the use of the e-infrastructure within and outside academia. PMID:23239995

  9. Identifying audiences of e-infrastructures--tools for measuring impact.

    PubMed

    Duin, Daphne; King, David; van den Besselaar, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Research evaluation should take into account the intended scholarly and non-scholarly audiences of the research output. This holds too for research infrastructures, which often aim at serving a large variety of audiences. With research and research infrastructures moving to the web, new possibilities are emerging for evaluation metrics. This paper proposes a feasible indicator for measuring the scope of audiences who use web-based e-infrastructures, as well as the frequency of use. In order to apply this indicator, a method is needed for classifying visitors to e-infrastructures into relevant user categories. The paper proposes such a method, based on an inductive logic program and a bayesian classifier. The method is tested, showing that the visitors are efficiently classified with 90% accuracy into the selected categories. Consequently, the method can be used to evaluate the use of the e-infrastructure within and outside academia. PMID:23239995

  10. Developing the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Environment Tool to Measure Qualities of the Obesogenic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Deborah H.; Gunter, Katherine; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical tools are needed that reliably measure the complex physical activity (PA) and nutrition environments of elementary schools that influence children's health and learning behaviors for obesity prevention. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition-Environment Tool (SPAN-ET) was developed and beta tested in 6 rural Oregon…

  11. Outcomes evaluation in TBI Rehabilitation. Part II: measurement tools for a nationwide data system.

    PubMed

    Hall, K M; Johnston, M V

    1994-12-01

    In Part II we address tools for describing general functional levels of clients in acute care, in traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation programs, and in the community. Tools must be brief, have proven reliability, and measure characteristics common to moderately and severely brain-injured individuals. Possible components of a uniform dataset dedicated to TBI are described. PMID:7993177

  12. Measuring Person-Centered Care: A Critical Comparative Review of Published Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edvardsson, David; Innes, Anthea

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To present a critical comparative review of published tools measuring the person-centeredness of care for older people and people with dementia. Design and Methods: Included tools were identified by searches of PubMed, Cinahl, the Bradford Dementia Group database, and authors' files. The terms "Person-centered,"…

  13. The in-situ 3D measurement system combined with CNC machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huijie; Jiang, Hongzhi; Li, Xudong; Sui, Shaochun; Tang, Limin; Liang, Xiaoyue; Diao, Xiaochun; Dai, Jiliang

    2013-06-01

    With the development of manufacturing industry, the in-situ 3D measurement for the machining workpieces in CNC machine tools is regarded as the new trend of efficient measurement. We introduce a 3D measurement system based on the stereovision and phase-shifting method combined with CNC machine tools, which can measure 3D profile of the machining workpieces between the key machining processes. The measurement system utilizes the method of high dynamic range fringe acquisition to solve the problem of saturation induced by specular lights reflected from shiny surfaces such as aluminum alloy workpiece or titanium alloy workpiece. We measured two workpieces of aluminum alloy on the CNC machine tools to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed measurement system.

  14. A measurement method of cutting tool position for relay fabrication of microstructured surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Gao, Wei; Ju, Bing-Feng; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So

    2014-06-01

    By using the secondary function of a force sensor integrated fast tool servo (FTS) for surface profile measurement, the three-dimensional tip position of a micro-cutting tool in the FTS with respect to the fabricated microstructures was measured without using any additional instrument for realizing the concept of relay fabrication of microstructured surface. It was verified from the experiments for testing the basic performances of tool tip position measurement that the delay of the force feedback control loop of the FTS was a big factor influencing the position measurement accuracy. A bidirectional scanning strategy was then employed to reduce the position measurement error due to the delay of the feedback control loop. Tool tip position measurement experiments by using micro-tools with a nose radius of 100 µm for relay fabrications with sub-micrometer accuracies, including stitching fabrication of a micro-groove line array and filling fabrication of a microlens lattice pattern, were carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the tool position measurement method.

  15. CUAHSI's Hydrologic Measurement Facility: Putting Advanced Tools in Scientists' Hands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. P.; Robinson, D.; Selker, J.; Duncan, J.

    2006-05-01

    Like related environmental sciences, the hydrologic sciences community has been defining environmental observatories and the support components necessary for their successful implementation, such as informatics (cyberinfrastructure) and instrumentation. Unlike programs, such as NEON and OOI, that have been pursuing large-scale capital funding through the Major Research Equipment program of the National Science Foundation, CUAHSI has been pursuing incremental development of observatories that has allowed us to pilot different parts of these support functions, namely Hydrologic Information Systems and a Hydrologic Measurement Facility (HMF), the subject of this paper. The approach has allowed us to gain greater specificity of the requirements for these facilities and their operational challenges. The HMF is developing the foundation to support innovative research across the breadth of the Hydrologic Community, including classic PI-driven projects as well as over 20 grass-roots observatories that have been developing over the past 2 years. HMF is organized around three basic areas: water cycle instrumentation, biogeochemistry and geophysics. Committees have been meeting to determined the most effective manner to deliver instrumentation, whether by special instrumentation packages proposed by host institutions; collaborative agreements with federal agencies; and contributions from industrial partners. These efforts are guided by the results of a community wide survey conducted in Nov-Dec 2005, and a series of ongoing workshops. The survey helped identify the types of equipment that will advance hydrological sciences and are often beyond the capabilities of individual PI's. Respondents to the survey indicated they were keen for HMF to focus on providing supported equipment such as atmospheric profilers like LIDAR, geophysical instrumentation ranging from airborne sensors to ground-penetrating radar, and field-deployed mass spectrophotometers. A recently signed agreement

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT X, USE OF MEASURING TOOLS IN DIESEL MAINTENANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE PRECISION MEASURING TOOLS USED IN DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE. TOPICS ARE (1) LINEAR MEASURE, (2) MEASURING WITH RULES AND TAPES, (3) GETTING PRECISION WITH MICROMETERS, (4) DIAL INDICATORS, (5) TACHOMETERS, (6) TORQUE WRENCH, (7) THICKNESS (TECHER) GAGE, AND (8) VALVE…

  17. An Innovative High-Temperature High-Pressure Measurement While Drilling (MWD) Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Boling

    2007-06-01

    Measurement while drilling (MWD) tools specified to 150 C (302 F) that provide wellbore surveys, real-time inclination, and natural gamma ray detection are a commodity item in the oilfield services industry. MWD tools specified to 175 C (347 F) that routinely demonstrate highly reliable operation are available from only a few service companies. Commercial MWD tools that reliably operate to 200 C (392 F) for extended periods of time and offer features like real-time gamma ray, retrievability, and reseatability are nonexistent. Need for these higher temperature tools will increase as wells become hotter in the search for new oil and gas resources. The goal of this project was to design a retrievable and reseatable high-pressure/high-temperature MWD tool with real-time continuous inclination, vibration detection, annular pressure, and gamma ray detection. This report describes the development of such a tool from concept, through feasibility, and into field testing and preliminary development planning. It describes the challenges encountered in the design of the tool, along with testing results and decisions about the commercial viability of the tool in the configuration in which it was developed. The decision was made not to commercialize the tool developed under this project because of a combination of battery technology problems and modulation power consumption at the required depths.

  18. Measurement technique for in situ characterizing aberrations of projection optics in lithographic tools

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Fan; Wang Xiangzhao; Ma Mingying

    2006-08-20

    As the feature size decreases, degradation of image quality caused by wavefront aberrations of projection optics in lithographic tools has become a serious problem in the low-k1 process. We propose a novel measurement technique for in situ characterizing aberrations of projection optics in lithographic tools.Considering the impact of the partial coherence illumination, we introduce a novel algorithm that accurately describes the pattern displacement and focus shift induced by aberrations. Employing the algorithm, the measurement condition is extended from three-beam interference to two-, three-, and hybrid-beam interferences. The experiments are performed to measure the aberrations of projection optics in an ArF scanner.

  19. Measuring Complex Features of Science Instruction: Developing Tools to Investigate the Link between Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thadani, Vandana; Stevens, Ronald H.; Tao, Annie

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing national recognition that teachers and teaching are at the heart of successful educational reform. However, few tools exist for measuring classroom instruction. The primary purpose of this article is to describe methods we developed to measure and study teaching, specifically while teachers were using a multimedia intervention…

  20. Final Report: Geothermal Dual Acoustic Tool for Measurement of Rock Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, Randy A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  1. Final Report. Geothermal Dual Acoustic Tool for Measurement of Rock Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, Randy A

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  2. AMP Activated Protein Kinase Is Indispensable for Myocardial Adaptation to Caloric Restriction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Kobayashi, Satoru; Xu, Xianmin; Viollet, Benoit; Liang, Qiangrong

    2013-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is a robust dietary intervention known to enhance cardiovascular health. AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested to mediate the cardioprotective effects of CR. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested by using definitive loss-of-function animal models. In the present study, we subjected AMPKα2 knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates to a CR regimen that reduces caloric intake by 20%–40% for 4 weeks. CR decreased body weight, heart weight and serum levels of insulin in both WT and KO mice to the same degree, indicating the effectiveness of the CR protocol. CR activated cardiac AMPK signaling in WT mice, but not in AMPKα2 KO mice. Correspondingly, AMPKα2 KO mice had markedly reduced cardiac function during CR as determined by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements. The compromised cardiac function was associated with increased markers of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and myocyte apoptosis. Mechanistically, CR down-regulated the expression of ATP5g2, a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase, and reduced ATP content in AMPKα2 KO hearts, but not in WT hearts. In addition, CR accelerated cardiac autophagic flux in WT mice, but failed to do so in AMPKα2 KO mice. These results demonstrated that without AMPK, CR triggers adverse effects that can lead to cardiac dysfunction, suggesting that AMPK signaling pathway is indispensible for energy homeostasis and myocardial adaptation to CR, a dietary intervention that normally produces beneficial cardiac effects. PMID:23527250

  3. EFT fitter: a tool for interpreting measurements in the context of effective field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Nuno; Erdmann, Johannes; Grunwald, Cornelius; Kröninger, Kevin; Rosien, Nils-Arne

    2016-08-01

    Over the past years, the interpretation of measurements in the context of effective field theories has attracted much attention in the field of particle physics. We present a tool for interpreting sets of measurements in such models using a Bayesian ansatz by calculating the posterior probabilities of the corresponding free parameters numerically. An example is given, in which top-quark measurements are used to constrain anomalous couplings at the Wtb-vertex.

  4. The error analysis and online measurement of linear slide motion error in machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, H.; Hong, M. S.; Li, Z. J.; Wei, Y. L.; Xiong, S. B.

    2002-06-01

    A new accurate two-probe time domain method is put forward to measure the straight-going component motion error in machine tools. The characteristics of non-periodic and non-closing in the straightness profile error are liable to bring about higher-order harmonic component distortion in the measurement results. However, this distortion can be avoided by the new accurate two-probe time domain method through the symmetry continuation algorithm, uniformity and least squares method. The harmonic suppression is analysed in detail through modern control theory. Both the straight-going component motion error in machine tools and the profile error in a workpiece that is manufactured on this machine can be measured at the same time. All of this information is available to diagnose the origin of faults in machine tools. The analysis result is proved to be correct through experiment.

  5. A SOFTWARE TOOL TO COMPARE MEASURED AND SIMULATED BUILDING ENERGY PERFORMANCE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Maile, Tobias; Bazjanac, Vladimir; O'Donnell, James; Garr, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    Building energy performance is often inadequate when compared to design goals. To link design goals to actual operation one can compare measured with simulated energy performance data. Our previously developed comparison approach is the Energy Performance Comparison Methodology (EPCM), which enables the identification of performance problems based on a comparison of measured and simulated performance data. In context of this method, we developed a software tool that provides graphing and data processing capabilities of the two performance data sets. The software tool called SEE IT (Stanford Energy Efficiency Information Tool) eliminates the need for manual generation of data plots and data reformatting. SEE IT makes the generation of time series, scatter and carpet plots independent of the source of data (measured or simulated) and provides a valuable tool for comparing measurements with simulation results. SEE IT also allows assigning data points on a predefined building object hierarchy and supports different versions of simulated performance data. This paper briefly introduces the EPCM, describes the SEE IT tool and illustrates its use in the context of a building case study.

  6. Placement of the material temperature sensor during measuring the accuracy of CNC machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dong-sheng; Jia, Min-qiang; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Lei; Li, Wei-jun

    2013-10-01

    In view of the dispute on the placement of material sensor when measuring the positional accuracy of a linear axis of a CNC machine tool, this paper presents the method and principle of deciding where to put the material temperature sensor. The positional accuracy of the linear axis of the machine tool is one of the most important performance parameters, and it must be measured when setup and check. The placement of the material temperature sensor has great influence on the measurement accuracy. At present, there are two main views on this issue: one is to place the sensor on the table of the machine tool, the other is to place it on the feedback system. This conflict between these two debates often makes the measurers feel confused and as a result influences the measure quality, sometimes. This thesis attempts to classify the CNC machine tools positional accuracy measurement according to its different purposes, then further presents the best placement. The thesis also elaborates other relevant questions of the placement of the material temperature sensor.

  7. Measuring quality improvement in public health: the development and psychometric testing of a QI Maturity Tool.

    PubMed

    Joly, Brenda M; Booth, Maureen; Mittal, Prashant; Shaler, George

    2012-06-01

    There is growing interest and investment in improving the quality of public health services and outcomes. Following the lead of other sectors, efforts are underway to introduce systematic quality improvement (QI) tools and approaches to state and local public health agencies. Little is known, however, about how to describe and reliably measure the level of QI maturity within a public health agency. The authors describe the development of a QI Maturity Tool using research from the fields of organizational design, psychology, health care, and complexity theory. The 37-item assessment tool is based on four quality domains derived from the literature: (a) organizational culture, (b) capacity and competency, (c) practice, and (d) alignment and spread. The tool was designed to identify features of an organization that may be enhancing or impeding QI; monitor the impact of efforts to create a more favorable environment for QI; and define potential cohorts of public health agencies for evaluation purposes. The article presents initial steps in testing and validating the QI Maturity Tool including: (a) developing a theoretical framework, (b) assuring face and content validity, (c) determining the tool's reliability based on estimates of internal consistency, (d) assessing the dimensionality, and (f) determining the construct validity of the instrument. The authors conclude that there is preliminary evidence that the QI Maturity Tool is a promising instrument. Further work is underway to explore whether self-reported survey results align with an agency's actions and the products of their QI efforts. PMID:22315505

  8. Carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yu; Sha, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool used in a cylindrical borehole environment during oil-based mud drilling processes. The new tool is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access-based contactless multi-measurand detection tool. The tool can measure formation resistivity in different azimuthal angles and elevational depths. It can measure many more measurands simultaneously in a specified bandwidth than the legacy frequency division multiplexing multi-measurand tool without a channel-select filter while avoiding inter-carrier interference. The paper also shows that formation resistivity is not sensitive to frequency in certain frequency bands. The average resistivity collected from N subcarriers can increase the measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by N times given no amplitude clipping in the current-injection electrode. If the clipping limit is taken into account, with the phase rotation of each single carrier, the amplitude peak-to-average ratio can be reduced by 3 times, and the SNR can achieve a 9/N times gain over the single-carrier system. The carrier-interleaving technique is also introduced to counter the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effect, where the CFO will cause inter-pad interference. A qualitative analysis and simulations demonstrate that block-interleaving performs better than tone-interleaving when coping with a large CFO. The theoretical analysis also suggests that increasing the subcarrier number can increase the measurement speed or enhance elevational resolution without sacrificing receiver performance. The complex orthogonal multi-pad multi-carrier resistivity logging tool, in which all subcarriers are complex signals, can provide a larger available subcarrier pool than other types of transceivers.

  9. Utilization of Software Tools for Uncertainty Calculation in Measurement Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangl, Hubert; Zine-Zine, Mariam; Hoermaier, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Despite its importance, uncertainty is often neglected by practitioners in the design of system even in safety critical applications. Thus, problems arising from uncertainty may only be identified late in the design process and thus lead to additional costs. Although there exists numerous tools to support uncertainty calculation, reasons for limited usage in early design phases may be low awareness of the existence of the tools and insufficient training in the practical application. We present a teaching philosophy that addresses uncertainty from the very beginning of teaching measurement science, in particular with respect to the utilization of software tools. The developed teaching material is based on the GUM method and makes use of uncertainty toolboxes in the simulation environment. Based on examples in measurement science education we discuss advantages and disadvantages of the proposed teaching philosophy and include feedback from students.

  10. Herring roe protein has a high digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model.

    PubMed

    Havenaar, Robert; Maathuis, Annet; de Jong, Aard; Mancinelli, Daniele; Berger, Alvin; Bellmann, Susann

    2016-08-01

    It is hypothesized that the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) can be determined based on dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal digestion experiments as replacement for invasive animal studies. We determined the in vitro DIAAS for immature herring eggs (roe) proteins in comparison with reference proteins. The true ileal digestibility of protein and indispensable amino acids (IAA) was measured under human conditions simulated in a gastrointestinal model (tiny-TIM). The in vitro true ileal digestibility of ovalbumin, cooked and raw chicken egg white, and casein was similar to that found in humans (r(2) = 0.96), providing a casual observation to support the validity of tiny-TIM. The digestibility of the immature herring egg proteins was 71% to 92%. The highest IAA digestibility was found for immature whole herring egg protein (55%-80%) in comparison to immature herring egg membrane and immature de-membraned herring protein (50%-70%). The DIAAS as recommended by FAO for children and adults, but measured in vitro, were 91% for immature whole herring egg protein (lysine first limiting), 71% for immature herring egg membrane protein (histidine first limiting), and 88% for immature herring egg de-membraned protein (sulfur AA first limiting). True ileal protein and amino acid digestibility can be determined in a dynamic gastrointestinal model, such as tiny-TIM, which can be used for estimating the DIAAS. Immature herring egg proteins, a previously underutilized resource, were determined to be an important and valuable source of IAA for human consumption. PMID:27440534

  11. A quantitative tool for measuring the quality of medical training in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Simon M; Davis, Peyton; Davies, Llion

    2015-12-01

    The most common method of assessing the quality of medical education is through a selection of qualitative assessments, usually as part of a programme evaluation. Common qualitative assessments include measurements of students' and teachers' participation, outcome measures such as assessment results, and qualitative assessments such as interviews and questionnaires of students and teachers. Programme evaluation can therefore be a process that is both laborious and subject to accusations of a lack of objectivity. As a result, the development of a quantitative tool that could be used alongside a programme evaluation may be both useful and desirable. A pragmatic scoring system, utilizing routinely collected quantitative data, termed as the Quality Assessment Tool, was developed during the 2013 academic year within the setting of an Emergency Medicine training programme in the UK. This tool was tested against the standard assessment currently used for this programme to establish whether the quantitative tool correlated with the programme evaluation. Second, the individual items within the tool were investigated to identify any correlations with the current assessment of quality established by the programme evaluation. The Quality Assessment Tool appears to be correlated to the quality of training delivered at individual training sites in a single specialty. It certainly identifies those centres delivering the highest quality of training and also identifies those centres whose training is consistently of a lower standard. The assessment tool is less accurate at ranking those training centres whose training is merely 'satisfactory'; whether this is a result of the imprecision of the tool itself or a reflection of the subjective nature of the current assessment (i.e. whether the current evaluation system lacks validity) cannot be stated. In summary, it appears to be possible to use a single quantitative tool to reliably, and with validity, measure the quality of training

  12. Assessment tools in obesity- psychological measures, diet, activity, and body composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has led to an increased need for measurement tools for research, management and treatment of the obese person. The physical size limitations imposed by obesity, variations in body composition from that of normal weight, and a complex psychopathology a...

  13. Measuring New Media Literacies: Towards the Development of a Comprehensive Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literat, Ioana

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the psychometric properties of a newly tested self-report assessment tool for media literacy, based on the twelve new media literacy skills (NMLs) developed by Jenkins et al. (2006). The sample (N = 327) consisted of normal volunteers who completed a comprehensive online survey that measured their NML skills, media exposure,…

  14. CD measurement evaluation on periodic patterns between optic tools and CD-SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yongkyoo; Kim, Munsik; Oh, Sunghyun; Han, Oscar

    2006-10-01

    As feature size is shrinking and MEEF (Mask error enhancement factor) is increasing, CD measurement accuracy is more important, and CD SEM is widely used to replace optic tools because of their resolution. But CD-SEM is not representing the effect of Cr profile or transmittance of light which is transferred to wafer. Recently, new OCD (optic CD) tool which use scatterometry (Spectroscopic Ellipsometry) *1) is introduced to compensate the demerit of SEM of low through-put and reflected surface information of mask. This scatterometry tool can be used only on periodic pattern like DRAM. And this tool must be calibrated on each pattern type and shape. This calibration is the barrier to use this scatterometry method to mask process where all masks are processed one time. In this work, new optical CD measurement method which use conventional optic microscope of transmitted and reflected light with high resolution lens of DUV on periodic patterns is introduced. To enhance the accuracy of measurement, interpolating method and FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) are used. CD measurement results of linearity by optic CD, SE and CD-SEM were compared on several patterns. And CD variations on full field of image were evaluated on L/S patterns and active layer of DRAM.

  15. The Autism Impact Measure (AIM): Initial Development of a New Tool for Treatment Outcome Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanne, Stephen M.; Mazurek, Micah O.; Sikora, Darryn; Bellando, Jayne; Branum-Martin, Lee; Handen, Benjamin; Katz, Terry; Freedman, Brian; Powell, Mary Paige; Warren, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure targeting sensitivity to change of core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, the Autism Impact Measure (AIM). The AIM uses a 2-week recall period with items rated on two corresponding 5-point scales (frequency and impact). Psychometric properties were…

  16. Development and early application of the Scottish Community Nursing Workload Measurement Tool.

    PubMed

    Grafen, May; Mackenzie, Fiona C

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the development and early application of the Scottish Community Nursing Workload Measurement Tool, part of a suite of tools aiming to ensure a consistent approach to measuring nursing workload across NHS Scotland. The tool, which enables community nurses to record and report their actual workload by collecting information on six categories of activity, is now being used by all NHS boards as part of a triangulated approach. Data being generated by the tool at national level include indications that approximately 50% of band 6 district nurses' time is spent in face-to-face and non-face-to-face contact and planned sessions with patients, and that over 60% of face-to-face contacts are at 'moderate' and 'complex' levels of intervention (2012 data). These data are providing hard evidence of key elements of community nursing activity and practice that will enable informed decisions about workforce planning to be taken forward locally and nationally. The article features an account of the early impact of the tool's implementation in an NHS board by an associate director of nursing. Positive effects from implementation include the generation of reliable data to inform planning decisions, identification of issues around nursing time spent on administrative tasks, clarification of school nursing roles, and information being fed back to teams on various aspects of performance. PMID:25651283

  17. Indirect measurement of machine tool motion axis error with single laser tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhaoyong; Li, Liangliang; Du, Zhengchun

    2015-02-01

    For high-precision machining, a convenient and accurate detection of motion error for machine tools is significant. Among common detection methods such as the ball-bar method, the laser tracker approach has received much more attention. As a high-accuracy measurement device, laser tracker is capable of long-distance and dynamic measurement, which increases much flexibility during the measurement process. However, existing methods are not so satisfactory in measurement cost, operability or applicability. Currently, a plausible method is called the single-station and time-sharing method, but it needs a large working area all around the machine tool, thus leaving itself not suitable for the machine tools surrounded by a protective cover. In this paper, a novel and convenient positioning error measurement approach by utilizing a single laser tracker is proposed, followed by two corresponding mathematical models including a laser-tracker base-point-coordinate model and a target-mirror-coordinates model. Also, an auxiliary apparatus for target mirrors to be placed on is designed, for which sensitivity analysis and Monte-Carlo simulation are conducted to optimize the dimension. Based on the method proposed, a real experiment using single API TRACKER 3 assisted by the auxiliary apparatus is carried out and a verification experiment using a traditional RENISHAW XL-80 interferometer is conducted under the same condition for comparison. Both results demonstrate a great increase in the Y-axis positioning error of machine tool. Theoretical and experimental studies together verify the feasibility of this method which has a more convenient operation and wider application in various kinds of machine tools.

  18. A new deformation measurement method for heavy-duty machine tool base by multipoint distributed FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruiya; Tan, Yuegang; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Zude; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-10-01

    The deformation of machine tool base is one of main error elements of heavy-duty CNC machine tool. A new deformation measurement method for heavy-duty machine tool base by multipoint distributed FBG sensors is developed in this study. Experiment is implemented on a real moving beam gantry machine tool. 16 FBG strain sensors are installed on the side-surface of the machine tool base. Moving the machine tool column to different positions, varying strain signals are collected. The testing results show that this distributed measurement method based on FBG sensors can effectively detect the deformation of the machine tool base. The largest deflection in vertical direction (axis Z) can be 75μm. This work is of great significance to the structure optimizing of machine tool base and real-time error compensation of heavy-duty CNC machine tool.

  19. An integrated data analysis tool for improving measurements on the MST RFP

    SciTech Connect

    Reusch, L. M. Galante, M. E.; Johnson, J. R.; McGarry, M. B.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Franz, P.; Stephens, H. D.

    2014-11-15

    Many plasma diagnostics contain complementary information. For example, the double-foil soft x-ray system (SXR) and the Thomson Scattering diagnostic (TS) on the Madison Symmetric Torus both measure electron temperature. The complementary information from these diagnostics can be combined using a systematic method based on integrated data analysis techniques, leading to more accurate and sensitive results. An integrated data analysis tool based on Bayesian probability theory was able to estimate electron temperatures that are consistent with both the SXR and TS diagnostics and more precise than either. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to increase the flexibility of the tool was implemented and benchmarked against a grid search method.

  20. The Acute Respiratory Infection Quality Dashboard: a performance measurement reporting tool in an electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jeffrey A; Jung, Eunice; Housman, Dan; Eskin, Michael S; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Middleton, Blackford; Einbinder, Jonathan S

    2007-01-01

    Quality reporting tools, integrated with electronic health records, can help clinicians understand performance, manage populations, and improve quality. The Acute Respiratory Infection Quality Dashboard (ARI QD) for LMR users is a secure web report for performance measurement of an acute condition delivered through a central data warehouse and custom-built reporting tool. Pilot evaluation of the ARI QD indicates that clinicians prefer a quality report that combines not only structured data regarding diagnosis and antibiotic prescribing rates entered into EHRs but one that also shows billing data. The ARI QD has the potential to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs. PMID:18694133

  1. Measurement Variability of Vertical Scanning Interferometry Tool Used for Orbiter Window Defect Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Santo, II

    2009-01-01

    The ability to sufficiently measure orbiter window defects to allow for window recertification has been an ongoing challenge for the orbiter vehicle program. The recent Columbia accident has forced even tighter constraints on the criteria that must be met in order to recertify windows for flight. As a result, new techniques are being investigated to improve the reliability, accuracy and resolution of the defect detection process. The methodology devised in this work, which is based on the utilization of a vertical scanning interferometric (VSI) tool, shows great promise for meeting the ever increasing requirements for defect detection. This methodology has the potential of a 10-100 fold greater resolution of the true defect depth than can be obtained from the currently employed micrometer based methodology. An added benefit is that it also produces a digital elevation map of the defect, thereby providing information about the defect morphology which can be utilized to ascertain the type of debris that induced the damage. However, in order to successfully implement such a tool, a greater understanding of the resolution capability and measurement repeatability must be obtained. This work focused on assessing the variability of the VSI-based measurement methodology and revealed that the VSI measurement tool was more repeatable and more precise than the current micrometer based approach, even in situations where operator variation could affect the measurement. The analysis also showed that the VSI technique was relatively insensitive to the hardware and software settings employed, making the technique extremely robust and desirable

  2. A Prospective Validation Study of a Rainbow Model of Integrated Care Measurement Tool in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Valentijn, Pim P.; Bautista, Mary Ann C.; Wei, Lim Yee; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Johannes Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The conceptual ambiguity of the integrated care concept precludes a full understanding of what constitutes a well-integrated health system, posing a significant challenge in measuring the level of integrated care. Most available measures have been developed from a disease-specific perspective and only measure certain aspects of integrated care. Based on the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care, which provides a detailed description of the complex concept of integrated care, a measurement tool has been developed to assess integrated care within a care system as a whole gathered from healthcare providers’ and managerial perspectives. This paper describes the methodology of a study seeking to validate the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care measurement tool within and across the Singapore Regional Health System. The Singapore Regional Health System is a recent national strategy developed to provide a better-integrated health system to deliver seamless and person-focused care to patients through a network of providers within a specified geographical region. Methods: The validation process includes the assessment of the content of the measure and its psychometric properties. Conclusion: If the measure is deemed to be valid, the study will provide the first opportunity to measure integrated care within Singapore Regional Health System with the results allowing insights in making recommendations for improving the Regional Health System and supporting international comparison.

  3. Making Psychologists Indispensable in the Schools: School Psychologists as Specialists in Neurologic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elaine

    School psychologists have a long and successful history in making themselves indispensable in schools by expanding their roles and their skills to meet the demands of an ever-changing clientele. As the rates of survival of children with a wide spectrum of genetic and neurodevelopmental disorders and acquired injuries and disease affecting the…

  4. Validation of Multiple Tools for Flat Plate Photovoltaic Modeling Against Measured Data

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.; Whitmore, J.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    This report expands upon a previous work by the same authors, published in the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists conference. In this validation study, comprehensive analysis is performed on nine photovoltaic systems for which NREL could obtain detailed performance data and specifications, including three utility-scale systems and six commercial scale systems. Multiple photovoltaic performance modeling tools were used to model these nine systems, and the error of each tool was analyzed compared to quality-controlled measured performance data. This study shows that, excluding identified outliers, all tools achieve annual errors within +/-8% and hourly root mean squared errors less than 7% for all systems. It is further shown using SAM that module model and irradiance input choices can change the annual error with respect to measured data by as much as 6.6% for these nine systems, although all combinations examined still fall within an annual error range of +/-8.5%. Additionally, a seasonal variation in monthly error is shown for all tools. Finally, the effects of irradiance data uncertainty and the use of default loss assumptions on annual error are explored, and two approaches to reduce the error inherent in photovoltaic modeling are proposed.

  5. Comparison of the Wii Balance Board and the BESS tool measuring postural stability in collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Jill; Aktan, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    Concussions are a major health concern for athletes given the potential for these injuries in a wide range of sport activities. The leading concern for clinicians is that athletes are at risk for devastating consequences if they are not evaluated properly and cleared too early to return to play or competition. The evaluation of postural stability has been identified as an important aspect to the comprehensive management of such injuries. Clinicians are in need of a portable tool they can use in various settings to aid in decision making and health care delivery for concussed athletes. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (Nintendo of America Inc., Redmond, Washington) is a portable, cost-effective tool that has the potential to aid in the evaluation of postural stability in concussed individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Wii Balance Board as an objective, user-friendly, cost effective, valid alternative tool for the measurement of postural stability in college athletes. This study questioned whether the Wii Balance Board, when compared to the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), is an objective tool that can be used as an acceptable measurement of postural stability in college athletes. PMID:26856479

  6. Design and Manufacture of Laser Tool for Measurement of Turbine Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooraniazad, M.; Daneshi, A.; Fakhri, M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary concern in different manufacturing processes is cutting down time by reserving quality at the same time. Measurement is one of the important processes in manufacturing different kinds of parts. In this paper an Optomechanical system has been proposed which is faster, cheaper and more accurate compared to the usual contact tools and can be used for measuring points to points or scanning surfaces of different parts. The measurement process is done by means of laser sensors and suitable positioning of parts with mechanical device. The proposed system used as a measurement process in production line of turbine blade. The results illustrated that the measurement times compared with CMM machine significantly have been reduced significantly. Also the results show that they are in good agreement with each other.

  7. Measuring concentricity and coaxial tolerance of nozzle and cavity with tool microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xizhao; Jiang, Feng; Ye, Ruifang; Lei, Tingping

    2016-01-01

    While the equipment of Micro-jet wave-guided laser was assembled, high-precision of concentricity and coaxiality between nozzle and cavity are required, which directly or indirectly influent the laser coupling precision of nozzle, the micro-jet stability and the steady length of micro-jet as well. As a result, the measurement of concentricity and coaxiality is important to improve the processing quality of Micro-jet wave-guided laser Through the new digital universal tool microscope measuring both ends of micro nozzle and diameter of nozzle, more resolution the other hand, the backlight detection the edge of nozzle is utilized. When the position of the center of a circle is indirect measured and then find out the concentricity through the uncertainty of the measurement and calculation method. V shaped groove is utilized to make certain its position. Otherwise, digital imaging through setting fixture and the use of new digital universal tool microscope and processed by software, which will cause to reduce measurement human error in tradition, after that, error theory analysis will be carried out, uncertainty theory will be utilized to make the experiment more sure at the same time. Above all, the reliability of data is obtained, compared with the traditional measurement methods are more accurate. Therefore, the processing quality of laser drilling will be enhanced significantly.

  8. Assessment of a tool for measuring non-profit advocacy efforts in India, Uganda and Yemen.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Tanya; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; McOwen, Jordan; Gordis, Deborah J; Bowen, Lisa A; Bernson, Jeff

    2016-03-01

    To improve maternal and child health, the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood (WRA) implemented an innovative policy advocacy project in India, Uganda and Yemen from 2009 to 2011. PATH assisted WRA in designing an approach to measure the short- and long-term results of WRA's advocacy efforts.Expert rating instruments have been widely used since 1970s to track country-level program efforts focusing on family planning, maternal and neonatal health, and HIV/AIDS. This article assesses and establishes the strength and applicability of an expert rating tool, the Maternal Health Policy Score (MHPS), in measuring and guiding a non-profit's advocacy efforts.The tool was assessed using five criteria: validity of results, reproducibility of results, acceptability to respondents, internal consistency and cost. The tool proved effective for measuring improvements in the policy environment at both the national and subnational levels that the non-profit intended to effect and useful for identifying strong and weak policy domains. The results are reproducible, though ensuring fidelity in implementation during different rounds of data collection may be difficult. The acceptability of the tool was high among respondents, and also among users of the information.MHPS provides a quick, low-cost method to measure overall changes in the policy environment, giving advocacy organizations and grant makers timely information to gauge the influence of their work and take corrective action. WRA demonstrated the use of MHPS at multiple points in the project: at the onset of a project to identify and strategize around policy domains that need attention, during and at the end of the project to monitor progress made and redirect efforts. PMID:25149099

  9. Optimized slim-line logging NMR tool to measure soil moisture in situ.

    PubMed

    Perlo, Josefina; Danieli, Ernesto; Perlo, Juan; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2013-08-01

    We report the optimization of a slim-line logging NMR tool carried out by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the NMR measurements. The tool, based on cylindrical permanent magnets of 20 cm length and 5 cm diameter, has a penetration depth of about 2 cm measured from its surface. This is obtained thanks to a large radio frequency coil whose dimensions are comparable to the sensor size. An analytical expression of the SNR as a function of parameters which take into account the interaction between the radio frequency coil and the magnet shielding is developed. In view of the external constrains such as the one imposed by the excavation hole, a proper tool size is determined in the optimization process. Due to its size and properties, the sensor is suitable to measure water content in the vadose zone, which is the zone comprised within the first meters of the Earth surface and whose study is important for improving water management in agriculture and for refining climate models. PMID:23757362

  10. Optimized slim-line logging NMR tool to measure soil moisture in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlo, Josefina; Danieli, Ernesto; Perlo, Juan; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2013-08-01

    We report the optimization of a slim-line logging NMR tool carried out by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the NMR measurements. The tool, based on cylindrical permanent magnets of 20 cm length and 5 cm diameter, has a penetration depth of about 2 cm measured from its surface. This is obtained thanks to a large radio frequency coil whose dimensions are comparable to the sensor size. An analytical expression of the SNR as a function of parameters which take into account the interaction between the radio frequency coil and the magnet shielding is developed. In view of the external constrains such as the one imposed by the excavation hole, a proper tool size is determined in the optimization process. Due to its size and properties, the sensor is suitable to measure water content in the vadose zone, which is the zone comprised within the first meters of the Earth surface and whose study is important for improving water management in agriculture and for refining climate models.

  11. Techniques and tools for measuring energy efficiency of scientific software applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurachmanov, David; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert; Niemi, Tapio; Nurminen, Jukka K.; Nyback, Filip; Pestana, Gonçalo; Ou, Zhonghong; Khan, Kashif

    2015-05-01

    The scale of scientific High Performance Computing (HPC) and High Throughput Computing (HTC) has increased significantly in recent years, and is becoming sensitive to total energy use and cost. Energy-efficiency has thus become an important concern in scientific fields such as High Energy Physics (HEP). There has been a growing interest in utilizing alternate architectures, such as low power ARM processors, to replace traditional Intel x86 architectures. Nevertheless, even though such solutions have been successfully used in mobile applications with low I/O and memory demands, it is unclear if they are suitable and more energy-efficient in the scientific computing environment. Furthermore, there is a lack of tools and experience to derive and compare power consumption between the architectures for various workloads, and eventually to support software optimizations for energy efficiency. To that end, we have performed several physical and software-based measurements of workloads from HEP applications running on ARM and Intel architectures, and compare their power consumption and performance. We leverage several profiling tools (both in hardware and software) to extract different characteristics of the power use. We report the results of these measurements and the experience gained in developing a set of measurement techniques and profiling tools to accurately assess the power consumption for scientific workloads.

  12. Optical Tweezers as a New Biomedical Tool to Measure Zeta Potential of Stored Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Carlos A. L.; Fernandes, Heloise P.; Filho, Milton M.; Lucena, Sheyla C.; Costa, Ana Maria D. N.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Barjas-Castro, Maria L.; Santos, Beate S.; Fontes, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    During storage, red blood cells (RBCs) for transfusion purposes suffer progressive deterioration. Sialylated glycoproteins of the RBC membrane are responsible for a negatively charged surface which creates a repulsive electrical zeta potential. These charges help prevent the interaction between RBCs and other cells, and especially among each RBCs. Reports in the literature have stated that RBCs sialylated glycoproteins can be sensitive to enzymes released by leukocyte degranulation. Thus, the aim of this study was, by using an optical tweezers as a biomedical tool, to measure the zeta potential in standard RBCs units and in leukocyte reduced RBC units (collected in CPD-SAGM) during storage. Optical tweezers is a sensitive tool that uses light for measuring cell biophysical properties which are important for clinical and research purposes. This is the first study to analyze RBCs membrane charges during storage. In addition, we herein also measured the elasticity of RBCs also collected in CPD-SAGM. In conclusion, the zeta potential decreased 42% and cells were 134% less deformable at the end of storage. The zeta potential from leukodepleted units had a similar profile when compared to units stored without leukoreduction, indicating that leukocyte lyses were not responsible for the zeta potential decay. Flow cytometry measurements of reactive oxygen species suggested that this decay is due to membrane oxidative damages. These results show that measurements of zeta potentials provide new insights about RBCs storage lesion for transfusion purposes. PMID:22363729

  13. Dynamic tool to estimate the measurement error in radiometric IR cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbach, Bernd

    2001-03-01

    In various applications of Infrared (IR) Thermography there is need for measuring true surface temperatures. Modern radiometric IR cameras are equipped with sophisticated tools like internal temperature sensors or internal temperature references to provide stabilized temperature read-outs and can guarantee a specified accuracy. But these manufacturer's accuracy specifications are only valid for known objects and under controlled laboratory conditions. In field use there are external effects such as unknown object emissivity, reflections or absorption that can be compensated by means of mathematical models. These factors usually have a significant influence on the results thus making it difficult for the user to estimate the real accuracy of the measurement. This paper introduces a computer tool where the thermographic measurement situation has been implemented in an MS Excel spreadsheet file. The user can vary the measurement parameters in the spreadsheet very easily using graphic controls called sliders. In a mixed numeric and graphical presentation the user can get a feel for the influence of a certain parameter in a specific situation and the model provides a good estimate of the measurement accuracy under realistic conditions.

  14. Tool ranking using aberration measurements in a high-volume manufacturing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, Cesar M.; Warrick, Scott P.; Seligman, Gary S.; Zavyalova, Lena V.; van Zwol, Adrian; Foster, James

    2003-06-01

    The exposure tool is a critical enabler to continue improving the packing density and transistor speed in the semiconductor industry. In addition to increasing resolution (packing density) a scanner is also expected to provide tight control of the Across Chip Linewidth Variation, ACLV, (transistor speed). An important component of ACLV is lens aberrations. Techniques that measure in-situ the lens aberrations are now available. In a previous paper we reported good agreement between the first 25 Zernike coefficients measured in-situ using one of these techniques ARTEMIS and PMI (Phase Metrology Interferometry) data collected at the lens manufacturer. However questions have arisen as to the practicality of ARTEMIS, especially in view of its heavy reliance on a very large number of SEM images. We have measured the first 25 Zernike coefficients for 13 ASML 500/700 DUV Step & Scan systems in a high-volume wafer fab. In this paper we report on certain enhancements that were made to the best practice of ARTEMIS. We will also present a summary of the measurements taken and our first attempt to cluster the tools according to the aberrations measured.

  15. Vision-based on-machine measurement for CNC machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ruixue; Han, Jiang; Lu, Rongsheng; Xia, Lian

    2015-02-01

    A vision-based on-machine measurement system (OMM) was developed to improve manufacturing effectiveness. It was based on a visual probe to enable the CNC machine tool itself to act as a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) to inspect a workpiece. The proposed OMM system was composed of a visual probe and two software modules: computer-aided inspection planning (CAIP) module and measurement data processing (MDP) module. The auto-focus function of the visual probe was realized by using astigmatic method. The CAIP module was developed based on a CAD development platform with Open CASCADE as its kernel. The MDP module includes some algorithms for determination of inspection parameters, for example, the chamfered hole was measured through focus variation. The entire system was consequently verified on a CNC milling machine.

  16. Data Visualization and Analysis Tools for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Validation Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Kenneth R.; Schwaller, Mathew

    2010-01-01

    The Validation Network (VN) prototype for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission compares data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite Precipitation Radar (PR) to similar measurements from U.S. and international operational weather radars. This prototype is a major component of the GPM Ground Validation System (GVS). The VN provides a means for the precipitation measurement community to identify and resolve significant discrepancies between the ground radar (GR) observations and similar satellite observations. The VN prototype is based on research results and computer code described by Anagnostou et al. (2001), Bolen and Chandrasekar (2000), and Liao et al. (2001), and has previously been described by Morris, et al. (2007). Morris and Schwaller (2009) describe the PR-GR volume-matching algorithm used to create the VN match-up data set used for the comparisons. This paper describes software tools that have been developed for visualization and statistical analysis of the original and volume matched PR and GR data.

  17. Measurement Tools and Target Symptoms/Skills Used to Assess Treatment Response for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Erin Elizabeth; Diehl, Joshua John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the measurement tools and target symptoms/skills used to assess treatment response during Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) intervention trials from 2001 through 2010. Data from 195 prospective trials were analyzed. There were 289 unique measurement tools, of which 61.6% were used only once, and 20.8 % were investigator-designed.…

  18. An Overview of Public Domain Tools for Measuring the Sustainability of Environmental Remediation - 12060

    SciTech Connect

    Claypool, John E.; Rogers, Scott

    2012-07-01

    comes to the public domain, Federal government agencies are spearheading the development of software tools to measure and report emissions of air pollutants (e.g., carbon dioxide, other greenhouse gases, criteria air pollutants); consumption of energy, water and natural resources; accident and safety risks; project costs and other economic metrics. Most of the tools developed for the Government are available to environmental practitioners without charge, so they are growing in usage and popularity. The key features and metrics calculated by the available public-domain tools for measuring the sustainability of environmental remediation projects share some commonalities but there are differences amongst the tools. The SiteWise{sup TM} sustainability tool developed for the Navy and US Army will be compared with the Sustainable Remediation Tool (SRT{sup TM}) developed for the US Air Force (USAF). In addition, the USAF's Clean Solar and Wind Energy in Environmental Programs (CleanSWEEP), a soon-to-be-released tool for evaluating the economic feasibility of utilizing renewal energy for powering remediation systems will be described in the paper. (authors)

  19. Reliability of a store observation tool in measuring availability of alcohol and selected foods.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah A; Schoeff, Diane; Farley, Thomas A; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Scribner, Richard; Overton, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Alcohol and food items can compromise or contribute to health, depending on the quantity and frequency with which they are consumed. How much people consume may be influenced by product availability and promotion in local retail stores. We developed and tested an observational tool to objectively measure in-store availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and selected food items that have an impact on health. Trained observers visited 51 alcohol outlets in Los Angeles and southeastern Louisiana. Using a standardized instrument, two independent observations were conducted documenting the type of outlet, the availability and shelf space for alcoholic beverages and selected food items, the purchase price of standard brands, the placement of beer and malt liquor, and the amount of in-store alcohol advertising. Reliability of the instrument was excellent for measures of item availability, shelf space, and placement of malt liquor. Reliability was lower for alcohol advertising, beer placement, and items that measured the "least price" of apples and oranges. The average kappa was 0.87 for categorical items and the average intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.83 for continuous items. Overall, systematic observation of the availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and food items was feasible, acceptable, and reliable. Measurement tools such as the one we evaluated should be useful in studies of the impact of availability of food and beverages on consumption and on health outcomes. PMID:17763963

  20. An integrated data analysis tool for improving measurements on the MST RFP.

    PubMed

    Reusch, L M; Galante, M E; Franz, P; Johnson, J R; McGarry, M B; Stephens, H D; Den Hartog, D J

    2014-11-01

    Many plasma diagnostics contain complementary information. For example, the double-foil soft x-ray system (SXR) and the Thomson Scattering diagnostic (TS) on the Madison Symmetric Torus both measure electron temperature. The complementary information from these diagnostics can be combined using a systematic method based on integrated data analysis techniques, leading to more accurate and sensitive results. An integrated data analysis tool based on Bayesian probability theory was able to estimate electron temperatures that are consistent with both the SXR and TS diagnostics and more precise than either. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to increase the flexibility of the tool was implemented and benchmarked against a grid search method. PMID:25430257

  1. Measuring safe staff levels in the community: the 'DominiC' workforce management tool.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Ben; Durrant, Kay

    2014-02-01

    There is significant need to establish and predict what numbers of district nursing staff are needed to provide quality patient care. This is the first in a series of articles sharing the evidence-based and tested solutions being used in clinical practice across the UK to inform caseload and workforce planning. Stockport NHS Foundation Trust's electronic workload management tool 'DominiC' is explored in this article. The tool promotes continuity of patient care, efficient resource allocation and the benchmarking of care. It predicts future service demands and measures these against the staff resources available. Lessons learned from the process of developing and implementing DominiC are shared to help inform clinicians and managers looking for similar workforce planning solutions. PMID:24514105

  2. Limitations of A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and suggestions for improvement.

    PubMed

    Burda, Brittany U; Holmer, Haley K; Norris, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) is a commonly used tool to assess the quality of systematic reviews; however, modifications are needed to improve its usability, reliability, and validity. In this commentary, we summarize our experience and the experiences of others who have used AMSTAR and provide suggestions for its improvement. We propose that AMSTAR should modify a number of individual items and their instructions and responses to make them more congruent with an assessment of the methodologic quality of systematic reviews. We recommend adding new items and modifying existing items to assess the quality of the body of evidence and to address subgroup and sensitivity analyses. More detailed instructions are needed for scoring individual items across multiple reviewers, and we recommend that a total score should not be calculated. These suggestions need to be empirically tested prior to implementation. PMID:27072548

  3. Prompt gamma radiation as a new tool to measure reactor power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jalali, Majid; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; davati, Mojtaba Mostajabod

    2013-10-01

    A new method, based on reactor prompt gamma radiation detection, for reactor power measurement is introduced and validated. To verify, the ex-core gamma radiation spectrum from the Iranian Heavy Water Zero Power Reactor (HWZPR) were measured by HPGe and NaI detectors each suitably positioned. The collective prompt gamma count rates for all or for a portion of each of 2″×2″ NaI detector spectra were obtained for seven power level readings from calibrated reactor power monitors. A good linear behavior was found between gamma count rate and reactor power. The method of calibrated prompt gamma reactor power determination is a stable and reliable tool, on-line, sensitive to sudden variation of power, working in pulse mode, increasing redundancy and diversity and so improving the reactor safety. The prompt gamma counting system can be adopted and installed in other nuclear reactors to measure power.

  4. The Brief Accessibility, Responsiveness, and Engagement Scale: A Tool for Measuring Attachment Behaviors in Clinical Couples.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Jonathan G; Novak, Joshua R; Davis, Stephanie Y; Busby, Dean M

    2016-01-01

    Measuring attachment behaviors is relevant to creating secure couple relationships. This article seeks to test and examine the reliability and validity of the Brief Accessibility, Responsiveness, and Engagement (BARE) Scale-a practical measure of couple attachment-in a clinical sample. Couples took the BARE and other assessments measuring relationship functioning (self and partner reports of relationship satisfaction, relationship stability, positive and negative communication, and attachment styles). Results suggest that the BARE appears to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing couple attachment and can accurately predict and classify whether the couples belong in the clinical or nonclinical group, as well as their level of relationship satisfaction. Results also indicate attachment behaviors are related to relationship outcomes. PMID:26748730

  5. Development and validation of a new tool to measure Iranian pregnant women's empowerment.

    PubMed

    Borghei, N S; Taghipour, A; Roudsari, R Latifnejad; Keramat, A

    2016-12-01

    Empowering pregnant women improves their health and reduces maternal mortality, but there is a lack of suitable tools to measure women's empowerment in some cultures. This study aimed to design and validate a questionnaire for measuring the dimensions of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. After a literature review, and face and content validity testing, a 38-item questionnaire was developed and tested on a sample of 161 pregnant women. Factor analysis grouped the items into 3 subscales: educational empowerment (e.g. prenatal training), autonomy (e.g. financial independency and mental ability) and sociopolitical empowerment (e.g. involvement in social and political activities). Criterion validity testing showed a strong positive correlation of the total scale and subscales scores with the Kameda and the Spritzer empowerment scales. Cronbach alpha was 0.92 for total empowerment. A total of 32 items remained in the Self-Structured Pregnancy Empowerment Questionnaire, which is a valid new tool to measure the dimensions of pregnant women's empowerment. PMID:26996363

  6. Review of Coping in Children Exposed to Mass Trauma: Measurement Tools, Coping Styles, and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Nitiéma, Pascal; Jacobs, Anne K; Noffsinger, Mary A; Wind, Leslie H; Allen, Sandra F

    2016-04-01

    Evidence-based practice requires the use of data grounded in theory with clear conceptualization and reliable and valid measurement. Unfortunately, developing a knowledge base regarding children's coping in the context of disasters, terrorism, and war has been hampered by a lack of theoretical consensus and a virtual absence of rigorous test construction, implementation, and evaluation. This report presents a comprehensive review of measurement tools assessing child and adolescent coping in the aftermath of mass trauma, with a particular emphasis on coping dimensions identified through factor analytic procedures. Coping measurement and issues related to the assessment of coping are reviewed. Concepts important in instrument development and psychometric features of coping measures used in disasters, terrorism, and war are presented. The relationships between coping dimensions and both youth characteristics and clinical outcomes also are presented. A discussion of the reviewed findings highlights the difficulty clinicians may experience when trying to integrate the inconsistencies in coping dimensions across studies. Incorporating the need for multiple informants and the difference between general and context-specific coping measures suggests the importance of a multilevel, theoretical conceptualization of coping and thus, the use of more advanced statistical measures. Attention also is given to issues deemed important for further exploration in child disaster coping research. PMID:26887259

  7. Critical dosimetry measures and surrogate tools that can facilitate clinical success in PDT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Davis, Scott C.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Maytin, Edward V.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Palanisami, Akilan; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy can be a highly complex treatment with more than one parameter to control, or in some cases it is easily implemented with little control other than prescribed drug and light values. The role of measured dosimetry as related to clinical adoption has not been as successful as it could have been, and part of this may be from the conflicting goals of advocating for as many measurements as possible for accurate control, versus companies and clinical adopters advocating for as few measurements as possible, to keep it simple. An organized approach to dosimetry selection is required, which shifts from mechanistic measurements in pre-clinical and early phase I trials, towards just those essential dose limiting measurements and a focus on possible surrogate measures in phase II/III trials. This essential and surrogate approach to dosimetry should help successful adoption of clinical PDT if successful. The examples of essential dosimetry points and surrogate dosimetry tools which might be implemented in phase II and higher trials are discussed for solid tissue PDT with verteporfin and skin lesion treatment with aminolevulinc acid.

  8. Gage cookbook: Tools and techniques to measure stresses and motions on explosive experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Tools and techniques developed to measure stresses and motions on underground nuclear and high explosive tests in the tuff geologies at the Nevada Test Site are described in this document. The thrust of the measurements was to understand containment phenomenology. The authors concentrate on the fluid-coupled ytterbium gage; it was fielded to measure dynamic stress in the 0.2 to 20 kilobar range and the subsequent, low amplitude residual stress. Also described are accelerometer packages; their traces were integrated to obtain particle motion. Various cable survival techniques were investigated with field measurements for they wished to extend the measurements to late-time. Field measurements were also made to address the gage inclusion problem. Work to date suggests that the problem is a minimum when the stress level is above the yield strength of the host rock and grout. Below the yield level stress amplitudes in the grouted hole can range from 60 to 200% of the stress in the host rock.

  9. The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals served to children.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Nicole; Mandell, Cami; Ball, Sarah; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4-8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy "Adequacy foods" and the absence of "Moderation foods", (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children. PMID:26994739

  10. Reconstruction of Huygens' gedanken experiment and measurements based on video analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malgieri, Massimiliano; Onorato, Pasquale; Mascheretti, Paolo; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we describe the practical realization and the analysis of a thought experiment devised by Christiaan Huygens, which was pivotal in his derivation of the formula for the radius of gyration of a compound pendulum. Measurements are realized by recording the experiment with a digital camera, and using a video analysis and modelling software tool to process and extract information from the acquired videos. Using this setup, detailed quantitative comparisons between measurements and theoretical predictions can be carried out, focusing on many relevant topics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, such as the ‘radius of gyration’, conservation of energy, moment of inertia, constraint and reaction forces, and the behaviour of the centre of mass.

  11. High temperature dielectric constant measurement - another analytical tool for ceramic studies?

    SciTech Connect

    Hutcheon, R.M.; Hayward, P.; Alexander, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    The automation of a high-temperature (1400{degrees}C), microwave-frequency, dielectric constant measurement system has dramatically increased the reproducibility and detail of data. One can now consider using the technique as a standard tool for analytical studies of low-conductivity ceramics and glasses. Simultaneous temperature and frequency scanning dielectric analyses (SDA) yield the temperature-dependent complex dielectric constant. The real part of the dielectric constant is especially sensitive to small changes in the distance and distribution of neighboring ions or atoms, while the absorptive part is strongly dependent on the position and population of electron/hole conduction bands, which are sensitive to impurity concentrations in the ceramic. SDA measurements on a few specific materials will be compared with standard differential thermal analysis (DTA) results and an attempt will be made to demonstrate the utility of both the common and complementary aspects of the techniques.

  12. The ion microscope as a tool for quantitative measurements in the extreme ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Tsatrafyllis, N.; Bergues, B.; Schröder, H.; Veisz, L.; Skantzakis, E.; Gray, D.; Bodi, B.; Kuhn, S.; Tsakiris, G. D.; Charalambidis, D.; Tzallas, P.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a tool for quantitative measurements in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region measuring spatially resolved atomic ionization products at the focus of an EUV beam. The ionizing radiation is a comb of the 11th–15th harmonics of a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser beam produced in a Xenon gas jet. The spatial ion distribution at the focus of the harmonics is recorded using an ion microscope. Spatially resolved single- and two-photon ionization products of Argon and Helium are observed. From such ion distributions single- and two-photon generalized cross sections can be extracted by a self-calibrating method. The observation of spatially resolved two-EUV-photon ionization constitutes an initial step towards future single-shot temporal characterization of attosecond pulses. PMID:26868370

  13. Mobile Phones Democratize and Cultivate Next-Generation Imaging, Diagnostics and Measurement Tools

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I discuss some of the emerging applications and the future opportunities and challenges created by the use of mobile phones and their embedded components for the development of next-generation imaging, sensing, diagnostics and measurement tools. The massive volume of mobile phone users, which has now reached ~7 billion, drives the rapid improvements of the hardware, software and high-end imaging and sensing technologies embedded in our phones, transforming the mobile phone into a cost-effective and yet extremely powerful platform to run e.g., biomedical tests and perform scientific measurements that would normally require advanced laboratory instruments. This rapidly evolving and continuing trend will help us transform how medicine, engineering and sciences are practiced and taught globally. PMID:24647550

  14. Development and validation of a tool to measure incivility in clinical nursing education.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Maureen; Yastik, Joanne; MacDonald, Douglas A; Marshall, Katherine A

    2014-01-01

    Although the literature suggests that incivility on the part of staff nurses toward student nurses in the clinical setting exists, no instrument was found that addressed this phenomenon. This article describes the development and validation of the uncivil behavior in clinical nursing education (UBCNE) tool to measure nursing students' experiences with incivility in the clinical learning environment. The 20-item UBCNE was administered to 118 nursing students at a midwestern school of nursing. Analyses included evaluation of interitem response consistency, internal structure via principal components analysis using both orthogonal and oblique rotation, and assessment of the association to demographic variables and stress while on placement as a criterion measure. Six items were dropped due to high loading on more than 1 component. This resulted in a 12-item test with 2 modified subscales-hostile/mean/dismissive and exclusionary behavior. The revised subscales and total test demonstrate good reliability, and both subscales are clearly represented in the separate components. The UBCNE is an easily administered tool with good internal consistency. Future studies with a larger sample and in different settings need to be conducted. PMID:24503315

  15. AIMBAT: A Python/Matplotlib Tool for Measuring Teleseismic Arrival Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, X.; van der Lee, S.; Lloyd, S.

    2013-12-01

    Python is an open-source, platform-independent, and object-oriented scripting language. It became more popular in the seismologist community since the appearance of ObsPy (Beyreuther et al. 2010, Megies et al. 2011), which provides a powerful framework for seismic data access and processing. This study introduces a new Python-based tool named AIMBAT (Automated and Interactive Measurement of Body-wave Arrival Times) for measuring teleseismic body-wave arrival times on large-scale seismic event data (Lou et al. 2013). Compared to ObsPy, AIMBAT is a lighter tool that is more focused on a particular aspect of seismic data processing. It originates from the widely used MCCC (Multi-Channel Cross-Correlation) method developed by VanDecar and Crosson (1990). On top of the original MCCC procedure, AIMBAT is automated in initial phase picking and is interactive in quality control. The core cross-correlation function is implemented in Fortran to boost up performance in addition to Python. The GUI (graphical user interface) of AIMBAT depends on Matplotlib's GUI-neutral widgets and event-handling API. A number of sorting and (de)selecting options are designed to facilitate the quality control of seismograms. By using AIMBAT, both relative and absolute teleseismic body-wave arrival times are measured. AIMBAT significantly improves efficiency and quality of the measurements. User interaction is needed only to pick the target phase arrival and to set a time window on the array stack. The package is easy to install and use, open-source, and is publicly available. Graphical user interface of AIMBAT.

  16. Hospital process orientation from an operations management perspective: development of a measurement tool and practical testing in three ophthalmic practices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although research interest in hospital process orientation (HPO) is growing, the development of a measurement tool to assess process orientation (PO) has not been very successful yet. To view a hospital as a series of processes organized around patients with a similar demand seems to be an attractive proposition, but it is hard to operationalize this idea in a measurement tool that can actually measure the level of PO. This research contributes to HPO from an operations management (OM) perspective by addressing the alignment, integration and coordination of activities within patient care processes. The objective of this study was to develop and practically test a new measurement tool for assessing the degree of PO within hospitals using existing tools. Methods Through a literature search we identified a number of constructs to measure PO in hospital settings. These constructs were further operationalized, using an OM perspective. Based on five dimensions of an existing questionnaire a new HPO-measurement tool was developed to measure the degree of PO within hospitals on the basis of respondents’ perception. The HPO-measurement tool was pre-tested in a non-participating hospital and discussed with experts in a focus group. The multicentre exploratory case study was conducted in the ophthalmic practices of three different types of Dutch hospitals. In total 26 employees from three disciplines participated. After filling in the questionnaire an interview was held with each participant to check the validity and the reliability of the measurement tool. Results The application of the HPO-measurement tool, analysis of the scores and interviews with the participants resulted in the possibility to identify differences of PO performance and the areas of improvement – from a PO point of view – within each hospital. The result of refinement of the items of the measurement tool after practical testing is a set of 41 items to assess the degree of PO from an OM

  17. APT: An Autonomous Tool for Measuring Acceleration, Pressure, and Temperature with Large Dynamic Range and Bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heesemann, M.; Davis, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new tool developed to facilitate the study of inter-related geodetic, geodynamic, seismic, and oceanographic phenomena. It incorporates a novel tri-axial accelerometer developed by Quartz Seismic Sensors, Inc, a pressure sensor developed by Paroscientific Inc., and a low-power, high-precision frequency counter and data logger built by RBR, Ltd. The sensors, counters, and loggers are housed in a 7 cm o.d., 70 cm long pressure case designed for use in up to 12 km of water. Sampling intervals are programmable from 0.1 s to 1 hr; standard memory can store up to 30 million samples; total power consumption is roughly 115 mW when operating continuously (1 s.p.s. or higher) and proportionately lower when operating intermittently (e.g., 2 mW at 1 sample per min.). Serial and USB communications protocols allow a variety of download and cable-connection options. Measurement precision of the order of 10-8 of full scale (e.g., 4000 m water depth, 1 g) allows observations of pressure and acceleration variations of 0.4 Pa and 0.1 μm s-2. Long-term variations in vertical acceleration are sensitive to displacement through the gravity gradient at a level of roughly 2 cm; long-term variations in horizontal acceleration are sensitive to tilt at a level of 0.01 μRad. With these sensitivities and the broad bandwidth (5 Hz to DC), ground motion associated with microseisms and seismic waves, tidal loading, and slow and rapid geodynamic deformation normally studied by disparate instruments can be observed with a single tool. The first c. 1-year deployment with the instrument connected to the Ocean Networks Canada NEPTUNE observatory cable is underway to study interseismic deformation of the Cascadia subduction zone. It will then be deployed at the Hikurangi subduction zone to study episodic slow slip. Deployment of the tool for the initial test was accomplished by pushing the tool vertically below the seafloor with the remotely operated vehicle Jason, with no profile

  18. Quality assurance of solar spectral UV-measurements: methods and use of the SHICrivm software tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. E.; den Outer, P. N.; Slaper, H.

    2003-04-01

    Ground-based UV-irradiance measurements are crucial for determining the long-term changes and trends in biologically and/or photo-chemically relevant solar UV-radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Such changes in UV-radiation levels have probably occurred and/or are expected due to ozone depletion and climate change. In order to analyse UV-irradiation levels in relation to atmospheric parameters and to facilitate an assessment of the European UV-climate a European database (EUVDatabase) has been set up within the EDUCE-project (EC-contract EVK2-CT-1999-00028). High quality UV-data-sets from across the continent are assessable from the EUVDatabase (http://uv.fmi.fi/uvdb/). An accurate analysis of the UV-climate and long term changes therein requires quality assurance of the spectral data. The SHICrivm software tool (http://www.rivm.nl/shicrivm) is developed to analyse several quality aspects of measured UV-spectra. The SHICrivm tool is applied to over one million spectra from the EUVDatabase and detects for each measured spectrum: the accuracy of the wavelength calibration from 290 up to 500 nm, the lowest detectable irradiance level, the occurrence of non-natural spikes in spectra, deviations in spectral shape, and identifies possible irradiance scale errors in the UV-range. In addition the SHIC-package can be used to correct wavelength scale errors and non-natural spectral spikes. A deconvolution and convolution algorithm is included to improve the comparibility of spectra obtained with different instruments, and to allow a fully comparable analysis of biologically weighted UV-dose for instruments with various spectral characteristics. Within the context of the EDUCE-project data from over 20 UV-monitoring stations are retrieved from the database and a quality assessment is performed using the SHIC-tool. The quality parameters are presented by means of a simple scheme of coloured quality flags. Spectra that meet the WMO-criteria for spectral measurements are

  19. Validation of a fornix depth measurer: a putative tool for the assessment of progressive cicatrising conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Geraint P; Saw, Valerie P J; Saeed, Tariq; Evans, Simon T; Cottrell, Paul; Curnow, S John; Nightingale, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background/aims Documentation of conjunctival forniceal foreshortening in cases of progressive cicatrising conjunctivitis (PCC) is important in ascertaining disease stage and progression. Lower fornix shortening is often documented subjectively or semi-objectively, whereas upper forniceal obliteration is seldom quantified. Although tools such as fornix depth measurers (FDMs) have been described, their designs limit upper fornix measurement. The purpose of this study was to custom-design a FDM to evaluate the upper fornix and to assess variability in gauging fornix depth. Methods A polymethylmethacrylate FDM was constructed using industry-standard jewellery computer software and machinery. Two observers undertook a prospective independent evaluation of central lower fornix depth in a heterogeneous cohort of patients with clinically normal and abnormal conjunctival fornices both subjectively and by using the FDM (in mm). Upper central fornix depth was also measured. Agreement was assessed using Bland–Altman plots. Results Fifty-one eyes were evaluated. There was 100% intraobserver agreement to within 1 mm for each observer for lower fornix measurement. The mean difference in fornix depth loss using the FDM between observer 1 and 2 was 1.19%, with 95% confidence of agreement (±2SD) of −15% to +20%. In total, 86% (44/51) of measurements taken by the two observers agreed to within 10% of total lower fornix depth (ie, ±1 mm) versus only 63% (32/51) of the subjective measurements. Mean upper fornix difference was 0.57 mm, with 95% confidence of agreement of between −2 and +3 mm. Conclusions This custom-designed FDM is well tolerated by patients and shows low intraobserver and interobserver variability. This enables repeatable and reproducible measurement of upper and lower fornix depths, facilitating improved rates of detection and better monitoring of progression of conjunctival scarring. PMID:20956276

  20. What can management theories offer evidence-based practice? A comparative analysis of measurement tools for organisational context

    PubMed Central

    French, Beverley; Thomas, Lois H; Baker, Paula; Burton, Christopher R; Pennington, Lindsay; Roddam, Hazel

    2009-01-01

    Background Given the current emphasis on networks as vehicles for innovation and change in health service delivery, the ability to conceptualise and measure organisational enablers for the social construction of knowledge merits attention. This study aimed to develop a composite tool to measure the organisational context for evidence-based practice (EBP) in healthcare. Methods A structured search of the major healthcare and management databases for measurement tools from four domains: research utilisation (RU), research activity (RA), knowledge management (KM), and organisational learning (OL). Included studies were reports of the development or use of measurement tools that included organisational factors. Tools were appraised for face and content validity, plus development and testing methods. Measurement tool items were extracted, merged across the four domains, and categorised within a constructed framework describing the absorptive and receptive capacities of organisations. Results Thirty measurement tools were identified and appraised. Eighteen tools from the four domains were selected for item extraction and analysis. The constructed framework consists of seven categories relating to three core organisational attributes of vision, leadership, and a learning culture, and four stages of knowledge need, acquisition of new knowledge, knowledge sharing, and knowledge use. Measurement tools from RA or RU domains had more items relating to the categories of leadership, and acquisition of new knowledge; while tools from KM or learning organisation domains had more items relating to vision, learning culture, knowledge need, and knowledge sharing. There was equal emphasis on knowledge use in the different domains. Conclusion If the translation of evidence into knowledge is viewed as socially mediated, tools to measure the organisational context of EBP in healthcare could be enhanced by consideration of related concepts from the organisational and management sciences

  1. Excitation-emission matrices measurements of human cutaneous lesions: tool for fluorescence origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelyazkova, A.; Borisova, E.; Angelova, L.; Pavlova, E.; Keremedchiev, M.

    2013-11-01

    The light induced fluorescence (LIF) technique has the potential of providing real-time diagnosis of malignant and premalignant skin tissue; however, human skin is a multilayered and inhomogeneous organ with different optical properties that complicate the analysis of cutaneous fluorescence spectra. In spite of the difficulties related to the detection and analysis of fluorescent data from skin lesions, this technique is among the most widely applied techniques in laboratorial and pre-clinical investigations for early skin neoplasia diagnosis. The important point is to evaluate all sources of intrinsic fluorescence and find any significant alterations distinguishing the normal skin from a cancerous state of the tissue; this would make the autofluorescence signal obtained useful for the development of a non-invasive diagnostic tool for the dermatological practice. Our investigations presented here were based on ex vivo point-by-point measurements of excitation-emission matrices (EEM) from excised tumor lesions and the surrounding skin taken during the daily clinical practice of Queen Jiovanna- ISUL University Hospital, Sofia, the local Ethical Committee's approval having already been obtained. The fluorescence emission was measured between 300 nm and 800 nm using excitation in the 280-440 nm spectral range. In the process of excitation-emission matrices (EEM) measurements we could establish the origin of the autofluorescence and the compounds related by assigning the excitation and emission maxima obtained during the experiments. The EEM were compared for normal human skin, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, benign nevi and malignant melanoma lesions to obtain information for the most common skin malignancies and their precursors. The main spectral features and the applicability of the technique of autofluorescent spectroscopy of human skin in general as an initial diagnostic tool are discussed as well.

  2. Assessment of computational tools for MRI RF dosimetry by comparison with measurements on a laboratory phantom.

    PubMed

    Bottauscio, O; Cassarà, A M; Hand, J W; Giordano, D; Zilberti, L; Borsero, M; Chiampi, M; Weidemann, G

    2015-07-21

    This paper presents an extended comparison between numerical simulations using the different computational tools employed nowadays in electromagnetic dosimetry and measurements of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field distributions in phantoms with tissue-simulating liquids at 64 MHz, 128 MHz and 300 MHz, adopting a customized experimental setup. The aim is to quantify the overall reliability and accuracy of RF dosimetry approaches at frequencies in use in magnetic resonance imaging transmit coils. Measurements are compared against four common techniques used for electromagnetic simulations, i.e. the finite difference time domain (FDTD), the finite integration technique (FIT), the boundary element method (BEM) and the hybrid finite element method-boundary element method (FEM-BEM) approaches. It is shown that FDTD and FIT produce similar results, which generally are also in good agreement with those of FEM-BEM. On the contrary, BEM seems to perform less well than the other methods and shows numerical convergence problems in presence of metallic objects. Maximum uncertainties of about 30% (coverage factor k = 2) can be attributed to measurements regarding electric and magnetic field amplitudes. Discrepancies between simulations and experiments are found to be in the range from 10% to 30%. These values confirm other previously published results of experimental validations performed on a limited set of data and define the accuracy of our measurement setup. PMID:26147075

  3. High angular accuracy manufacture method of micro v-grooves based on tool alignment by on-machine measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Jiang, Lili; Zeng, Zhen; Fang, Fengzhou; Liu, Xianlei

    2015-10-19

    Micro v-groove has found wide applications in optical areas as one of the most important structures. However, its performance is significantly affected by its angular geometry accuracy. The diamond cutting has been commonly used as the fabrication method of micro v-groove, but it is still difficult to guarantee the cutting tool angle, which is limited by the measurement accuracy in the manufacture and mounting of the diamond tool. A cutting tool alignment method based on the on-machine measurement is proposed to improve the fabricated quality of the v-groove angle. An on-machine probe is employed to scan the v-groove geometrical deviation precisely. The system errors model, data processing algorithm and tool alignment methods are analyzed in details. Experimental results show that the measurement standard deviation within 0.01° can be achieved. Retro-reflection mirrors are fabricated and measured finally by the proposed method for verification. PMID:26480443

  4. Radioactivity measurements and dose rate calculations using ERICA tool in the terrestrial environment of Greece.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulou, Maria; Florou, Heleny; Manolopoulou, Metaxia

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the radioactivity levels to which terrestrial non-human biota were exposed are examined. Organisms (grass and herbivore mammals) and abiotic components (soil) were collected during the period of 2010 to 2014 from grasslands where sheep and goats were free-range grazing. Natural background radionuclides ((226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs, (134)Cs, (131)I) were detected in the collected samples using gamma spectrometry. The actual measured activity concentrations and site-specific data of the studied organisms were imported in ERICA Assessment Tool (version 1.2.0) in order to provide an insight of the radiological dose rates. The highest activity concentrations were detected in samples collected from Lesvos island and the lowest in samples collected from Attiki and Etoloakarnania prefectures. The highest contribution to the total dose rate was clearly derived from the internal exposure and is closely related to the exposure to alpha emitters of natural background ((226)Ra and (228)Th). The Fukushima-derived traces of (137)Cs, (134)Cs, and (131)I, along with the residual (137)Cs, resulted in quite low contribution to the total dose rate. The obtained results may strengthen the adaptation of software tools to a wider range of ecosystems and may be proved useful in further research regarding the possible impact of protracted low level ionizing radiation on non-human biota. This kind of studies may contribute to the effective incorporation of dosimetry tools in the development of integrated environmental and radiological impact assessment policies. PMID:26897581

  5. Assessing the Efficacy of the Measure of Understanding of Macroevolution as a Valid Tool for Undergraduate Non-Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, William Lee; Walter, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of the Measure of Understanding of Macroevolution (MUM) as a measurement tool has been a point of contention among scholars needing a valid measure for knowledge of macroevolution. We explored the structure and construct validity of the MUM using Rasch methodologies in the context of a general education biology course designed with an…

  6. Combining in situ and Remote Measurements with Models: Picking the Right Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Hains, J. C.; Burrows, J. P.

    2004-05-01

    Visibility reduction, photochemical smog, and the global climate changes these pollutants engender involve complex interactions of emissions, atmospheric transformations, and transport. In situ measurements, numerical simulations, and remotely sensed data all have strengths and weaknesses, but picking the right combination of tools can avoid the limitations of any one method to advance the science and provide policy-relevant research on the causes and nature of air pollution. The Regional Atmospheric Measurement, Modeling, and Prediction Program (RAMMPP) seeks a balanced approach to air pollution studies in the Mid Atlantic. We employ surface and airborne measurements as input and tests for air quality models of the Baltimore/Washington area. Both ozone and summertime haze tend to form in blobs covering areas hundreds of km on a side and lasting several days. Point and aircraft measurements offer high accuracy, but cannot always characterize the spatial and temporal extent of these masses. To provide the big picture, we are exploring the use of satellite data including GOME and SCIAMACHY for SO2, TOMS for tropospheric O3, and MODIS for aerosol optical depth. Comparison with direct measurements can greatly improve retrievals of atmospheric composition. For example, GOME identified a persistent hot spot in SO2 over eastern North America where many large, coal-fired power plants are located. Aircraft measurements confirmed the presence of this hotspot, but indicated an average column content of 0.65 DU (m atm cm), while the satellite instrument, indicated only 0.14 DU. GOME uses, however, an initial guess for the altitudinal distribution of the SO2, and when the retrieval algorithm is corrected with the observed profile, the result is 0.42 DU. Further improving the retrieval with more representative background values yields a mean SO2 column content of 0.52 DU, within experimental uncertainty of the aircraft value. Ozone and aerosol retrievals can be similarly

  7. A tool for estimating the mix of energy conservation measures given competing acquisition scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, R.W.

    1991-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is conducting analyses that are to serve the Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement (RP/EIS). Parts of the RP/EIS are to address the impacts of commercial sector electricity conservation acquisitions under various conservation acquisition alternatives. These impacts include the energy conservation measure (ECM) mix adopted by the commercial sector and the equipment/technology that would be replaced by implementing new ECMs. The goal of this project was to develop a tool that has the capability to detail region-wide numerical estimates of the commercial sector ECM and replaced technology mix. The tool (hereafter called ECMMIX) was to be sufficiently flexible and user friendly that analysts could easily perform sensitivity tests of alternative forecasts of energy conservation acquisitions. It needed to have the capability to assess impacts across different building types, utility regions, vintage and end-use categories, as well as to aggregate similar ECMs across all categories. The aggregation capability was to exist for the replaced technology as well. Chapter 2 presents specific details about the methodology and assumptions adopted in developing ECMMIX. Included is a discussion of data disaggregation, adjustment to forecasted savings estimates, and incorporation of ADM and Ecotope ECMs. Chapter 3 contains a users guide to ECMMIX and concluding comments. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. [The measurement of pain in patients with dementia: a review of the most appropriate tools].

    PubMed

    Storti, Matteo; Bertozzo, Elena; Dal Santo, Pierluigi; Mari, Marcello; Dal Cengio, Luisa; Forni, Cristiana; Giantin, Valter; Zucchi, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    Pain is one of the most frequent symptom in elderly people with dementia and despite of this, it is still under-acknowledged and under-treated. The best approach to pain assessment is to evaluate it with the most appropriate scale. While in the elderly suffering mild-moderate cognitive impairment, it's possible to use self-report scales, in the elderly with severe cognitive impairment the use of observational scales is recommended. The objective of this review is to analyze the various types of pain assessment tools used in patients with cognitive impairment. Literature review was carried out through consultation of the most important bio-medical databases: Medline (PubMed), KT+, Trip Database, Cinahl, Cochrane Library, Embase. The keywords used were: "pain measurement", "pain assessment", "dementia", "validation study", "aged". All keywords were linked using AND and OR boolean operators. Altogether 5 self-report scales and 17 observational scales were retrieved, 7 of which available in Italian validated versions. The review analyzes potential and limitations of each assessment tool, in order to assist the clinician to make the most appropriate choice when using it in health care contexts. PMID:24770543

  9. Revision of the Measurement Tool for Patients' Health Information Protection Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Song, Youngshin; Lee, Miyoung; Jun, Younghee; Lee, Yoonhee; Cho, Jeonghwa; Kwon, Myoungjin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Despite the importance of the protection of patients' health information in clinical settings, little is known about the awareness of this concept in nursing students due to the lack of a suitable measurement tool. Hence, this study attempted to redevelop the Patients' Health Information Protection Awareness Scale, and evaluate its construct validity and reliability for nursing students. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Nursing students who were in their 3rd and 4th year were recruited from 10 universities in Korea to assess the construct validity, and 30 experts (27 nurses and 3 faculty members) participated in the content validation process. Results The content validity assessment indicated that 23 items were ideal. The assessment of construct validity using exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors: communication, management, and referrals. They together accounted for 54.1% of the variance in scale scores. The three-factor scale had good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis. Scale reliability was confirmed, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.94 for all items. Conclusions This study was the first attempt to redevelop the Patients' Health Information Protection Awareness Scale for student nurses. The 23-item scale was shown to be a reliable and valid tool. It facilitates the assessment of nursing students' awareness of patient information protection. Academic nursing programs and health organizations can use its scores to implement adequate education plans to safeguard information in nursing students. PMID:27525162

  10. APMS: An Integrated Suite of Tools for Measuring Performance and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Lynch, Robert E.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of work in progress. In it, I summarize the status of the research and development of the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) for managing, processing, and analyzing digital flight-recorded data. The objectives of the NASA-FAA APMS research project are to establish a sound scientific and technological basis for flight-data analysis, to define an open and flexible architecture for flight-data-analysis systems, and to articulate guidelines for a standardized database structure on which to continue to build future flight-data-analysis extensions. APMS will offer to the air transport community an open, voluntary standard for flight-data-analysis software, a standard that will help to ensure suitable functionality, and data interchangeability, among competing software programs. APMS will develop and document the methodologies, algorithms, and procedures for data management and analyses to enable users to easily interpret the implications regarding safety and efficiency of operations. APMS does not entail the implementation of a nationwide flight-data-collection system. It is intended to provide technical tools to ease the large-scale implementation of flight-data analyses at both the air-carrier and the national-airspace levels in support of their Flight Operations and Quality Assurance (FOQA) Programs and Advanced Qualifications Programs (AQP). APMS cannot meet its objectives unless it develops tools that go substantially beyond the capabilities of the current commercially available software and supporting analytic methods that are mainly designed to count special events. These existing capabilities, while of proven value, were created primarily with the needs of air crews in mind. APMS tools must serve the needs of the government and air carriers, as well as air crews, to fully support the FOQA and AQP programs. They must be able to derive knowledge not only through the analysis of single flights (special-event detection), but through

  11. A tool for obtaining oriented samples of weakly to moderately indurated sedimentary rocks for paleomagnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerbekmo, J. F.

    1990-03-01

    The tool is designed to take 1 inch (2.5 cm) diameter cores up to 2 inches (5 cm) in length in sedimentary rocks of moderate induration that cannot normally be sampled by traditional methods. A stainless steel core-barrel with internal scriber is hammered vertically into the rock and twisted out. The core-barrel is attached to an extruder which also holds a plastic bottle. The core is screwed out of the core-barrel directly into the bottle of the same internal diameter. The vial is later cut to an acceptable length for the magnetometer and sealed with a plastic cap. Inasmuch as the sample is never removed from the plastic bottle, fractured and bentonitic rocks which cannot be sampled by means of hand-blocks or by diamond-drilling, can be magnetically measured.

  12. A Tool Measuring Remaining Thickness of Notched Acoustic Cavities in Primary Reaction Control Thruster NDI Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Yushi; Sun, Changhong; Zhu, Harry; Wincheski, Buzz

    2006-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking in the relief radius area of a space shuttle primary reaction control thruster is an issue of concern. The current approach for monitoring of potential crack growth is nondestructive inspection (NDI) of remaining thickness (RT) to the acoustic cavities using an eddy current or remote field eddy current probe. EDM manufacturers have difficulty in providing accurate RT calibration standards. Significant error in the RT values of NDI calibration standards could lead to a mistaken judgment of cracking condition of a thruster under inspection. A tool based on eddy current principle has been developed to measure the RT at each acoustic cavity of a calibration standard in order to validate that the standard meets the sample design criteria.

  13. Inactivation of indispensable bacterial proteins by early proteins of bacteriophages: implication in antibacterial drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Sau, S; Chattoraj, P; Ganguly, T; Chanda, P K; Mandal, N C

    2008-06-01

    Bacteriophages utilize host bacterial cellular machineries for their own reproduction and completion of life cycles. The early proteins that phage synthesize immediately after the entry of their genomes into bacterial cells participate in inhibiting host macromolecular biosynthesis, initiating phage-specific replication and synthesizing late proteins. Inhibition of synthesis of host macromolecules that eventually leads to cell death is generally performed by the physical and/or chemical modification of indispensable host proteins by early proteins. Interestingly, most modified bacterial proteins were shown to take part actively in phage-specific transcription and replication. Research on phages in last nine decades has demonstrated such lethal early proteins that interact with or chemically modify indispensable host proteins. Among the host proteins inhibited by lethal phage proteins, several are not inhibited by any chemical inhibitor available today. Under the context of widespread dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria in recent years, the information of lethal phage proteins and cognate host proteins could be extremely invaluable as they may lead to the identification of novel antibacterial compounds. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about some early phage proteins, their cognate host proteins and their mechanism of action and also describe how the above interacting proteins had been exploited in antibacterial drug discovery. PMID:18537683

  14. Cytoplasmic proteasomes are not indispensable for cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, Hikaru; Arai, Naoko; Tanaka, Keiji Saeki, Yasushi

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •We succeeded to control the proteasome localization by the anchor-away technique. •Nuclear proteasome-depleted cells showed a lethal phenotype. •Cytoplasmic proteasomes are not indispensable for cell growth in dividing cells. -- Abstract: The 26S proteasome is an essential protease complex responsible for the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins in eukaryotic cells. In rapidly proliferating yeast cells, proteasomes are mainly localized in the nucleus, but the biological significance of the proteasome localization is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the proteasome localization and the functions by the anchor-away technique, a ligand-dependent sequestration of a target protein into specific compartment(s). Anchoring of the proteasome to the plasma membrane or the ribosome resulted in conditional depletion of the nuclear proteasomes, whereas anchoring to histone resulted in the proteasome sequestration into the nucleus. We observed that the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in all the proteasome-targeted cells, suggesting that both the nuclear and cytoplasmic proteasomes have proteolytic functions and that the ubiquitinated proteins are produced and degraded in each compartment. Consistent with previous studies, the nuclear proteasome-depleted cells exhibited a lethal phenotype. In contrast, the nuclear sequestration of the proteasome resulted only in a mild growth defect, suggesting that the cytoplasmic proteasomes are not basically indispensable for cell growth in rapidly growing yeast cells.

  15. Developing a Tool for Measuring the Decision-Making Competence of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Finucane, Melissa L.; Gullion, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated the reliability and validity of a tool for measuring older adults’ decision-making competence (DMC). Two-hundred-five younger adults (25-45 years), 208 young-older adults (65-74 years), and 198 old-older adults (75-97 years) made judgments and decisions related to health, finance, and nutrition. Reliable indices of comprehension, dimension weighting, and cognitive reflection were developed. Unlike previous research, the authors were able to compare old-older with young-older adults’ performance. As hypothesized, old-older adults performed more poorly than young-older adults; both groups of older adults performed more poorly than younger adults. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that a large amount of variance in decision performance across age groups (including mean trends) could be accounted for by social variables, health measures, basic cognitive skills, attitudinal measures, and numeracy. Structural equation modeling revealed significant pathways from three exogenous latent factors (crystallized intelligence, other cognitive abilities, and age) to the endogenous DMC latent factor. Further research is needed to validate the meaning of performance on these tasks for real-life decision making. PMID:20545413

  16. The Molecular Bronchoscope: A Tool for Measurement of Spatially Dependent CO2 Concentrations in the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Ciaffoni, Luca; Couper, John H; Richmond, Graham; Hancock, Gus; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory physicians use bronchoscopy for visual assessment of the lungs' topography and collecting tissue samples for external analysis. We propose a novel bronchoscope tool that would enable spatially dependent measurements of the functioning of the lungs by determining local concentrations of carbon dioxide, which will be produced by healthy parts of the lung at rates that are higher than from portions where gas exchange is impaired. The gas analyzer is based on a compact laser absorption spectrometer making use of fiber optics for delivery and return of low intensity diode laser radiation to and from the measurement chamber at the distal end of a flexible conduit. The appropriate optical wavelength was chosen such that light is selectively absorbed only by gaseous CO2. The optical absorption takes place over a short path (8.8 mm) within a rigid, 12 mm long, perforated probe tip. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy was adopted as the analytical technique to reduce the noise on the optical signal and yield measurements of relative CO2 concentration every 180 ms with a precision as low as 600 part-per-million by volume. The primary objective of such a device is to see if additional spatial information about the lungs functionality can be gathered, which will complement visual observation. PMID:27487178

  17. Airfoil-Shaped Fluid Flow Tool for Use in Making Differential Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A fluid flow tool includes an airfoil structure and a support arm. The airfoil structure's high-pressure side and low-pressure side are positioned in a conduit by the support arm coupled to the conduit. The high-pressure and low-pressure sides substantially face opposing walls of the conduit. At least one measurement port is formed in the airfoil structure at each of its high-pressure side and low-pressure side. A first manifold, formed in the airfoil structure and in fluid communication with each measurement port so-formed at the high-pressure side, extends through the airfoil structure and support arm to terminate and be accessible at the exterior wall of the conduit. A second manifold, formed in the airfoil structure and in fluid communication with each measurement port so-formed at the low-pressure side, extends through the airfoil structure and support arm to terminate and be accessible at the exterior wall of the conduit.

  18. Open Source Software Openfoam as a New Aerodynamical Simulation Tool for Rocket-Borne Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszak, T.; Brede, M.; Strelnikov, B.

    2015-09-01

    The only way to do in-situ measurements, which are very important experimental studies for atmospheric science, in the mesoshere/lower thermosphere (MLT) is to use sounding rockets. The drawback of using rockets is the shock wave appearing because of the very high speed of the rocket motion (typically about 1000 mIs). This shock wave disturbs the density, the temperature and the velocity fields in the vicinity of the rocket, compared to undisturbed values of the atmosphere. This effect, however, can be quantified and the measured data has to be corrected not just to make it more precise but simply usable. The commonly accepted and widely used tool for this calculations is the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique developed by GA. Bird which is available as stand-alone program limited to use a single processor. Apart from complications with simulations of flows around bodies related to different flow regimes in the altitude range of MLT, that rise due to exponential density change by several orders of magnitude, a particular hardware configuration introduces significant difficulty for aerodynamical calculations due to choice of the grid sizes mainly depending on the demands on adequate DSMCs and good resolution of geometries with scale differences of factor of iO~. This makes either the calculation time unreasonably long or even prevents the calculation algorithm from converging. In this paper we apply the free open source software OpenFOAM (licensed under GNU GPL) for a three-dimensional CFD-Simulation of a flow around a sounding rocket instrumentation. An advantage of this software package, among other things, is that it can run on high performance clusters, which are easily scalable. We present the first results and discuss the potential of the new tool in applications for sounding rockets.

  19. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy: a potential tool for outdoor measurements in precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiwald, Martin; Müller, André; Selbeck, Jörn; Käthner, Jana; Zude, Manuela; Fleury, Dominique; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther

    2015-06-01

    In this work we present Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS) as a potential spectroscopic tool for outdoor measurements in precision agriculture. A dual-wavelength diode laser at 785 nm is used as an excitation light source which provides an optical power up to 100 mW in cw-operation. Both emission lines for SERDS show single mode operation with a spectral width of <= 11 pm and a spectral distance of about 10 cm-1 over the whole power range. Raman experiments on apples are carried out and show Raman signals from wax layer and β-carotene. Raman investigations under daylight conditions are performed to simulate outdoor measurements. Here, polystyrene (PS) is used as test sample. A broadband signal together with narrow absorption lines of water vapor and Fraunhofer lines of singly ionized calcium (Ca II) mask the Raman lines of PS. Only the strong Raman signal at 999 cm-1 is visible. SERDS efficiently separates the Raman signals of PS from the background signals and a 14-fold improvement of the signal-tobackground noise ratio is achieved.

  20. Software Tool for Analysis of Breathing-Related Errors in Transthoracic Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abtahi, F.; Gyllensten, I. C.; Lindecrantz, K.; Seoane, F.

    2012-12-01

    During the last decades, Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (EBIS) has been applied in a range of different applications and mainly using the frequency sweep-technique. Traditionally the tissue under study is considered to be timeinvariant and dynamic changes of tissue activity are ignored and instead treated as a noise source. This assumption has not been adequately tested and could have a negative impact and limit the accuracy for impedance monitoring systems. In order to successfully use frequency-sweeping EBIS for monitoring time-variant systems, it is paramount to study the effect of frequency-sweep delay on Cole Model-based analysis. In this work, we present a software tool that can be used to simulate the influence of respiration activity in frequency-sweep EBIS measurements of the human thorax and analyse the effects of the different error sources. Preliminary results indicate that the deviation on the EBIS measurement might be significant at any frequency, and especially in the impedance plane. Therefore the impact on Cole-model analysis might be different depending on method applied for Cole parameter estimation.

  1. PACE Continuous Innovation Indicators—a novel tool to measure progress in cancer treatments

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Silvia; Brum, Lauren; Sorrow, Kathleen; Thomas, Samuel; Spence, Susan; Maulbecker-Armstrong, Catharina; Goodman, Clifford; Peake, Michael; McVie, Gordon; Geipel, Gary; Li, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about rising health care costs and the often incremental nature of improvements in health outcomes continue to fuel intense debates about ‘progress’ and ‘value’ in cancer research. In times of tightening fiscal constraints, it is increasingly important for patients and their representatives to define what constitutes ’value’ to them. It is clear that diverse stakeholders have different priorities. Harmonisation of values may be neither possible nor desirable. Stakeholders lack tools to visualise or otherwise express these differences and to track progress in cancer treatments based on variable sets of values. The Patient Access to Cancer care Excellence (PACE) Continuous Innovation Indicators are novel, scientifically rigorous progress trackers that employ a three-step process to quantify progress in cancer treatments: 1) mine the literature to determine the strength of the evidence supporting each treatment; 2) allow users to weight the analysis according to their priorities and values; and 3) calculate Evidence Scores (E-Scores), a novel measure to track progress, based on the strength of the evidence weighted by the assigned value. We herein introduce a novel, flexible value model, show how the values from the model can be used to weight the evidence from the scientific literature to obtain E-Scores, and illustrate how assigning different values to new treatments influences the E-Scores. The Indicators allow users to learn how differing values lead to differing assessments of progress in cancer research and to check whether current incentives for innovation are aligned with their value model. By comparing E-Scores generated by this tool, users are able to visualise the relative pace of innovation across areas of cancer research and how stepwise innovation can contribute to substantial progress against cancer over time. Learning from experience and mapping current unmet needs will help to support a broad audience of stakeholders in their

  2. PACE Continuous Innovation Indicators-a novel tool to measure progress in cancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Silvia; Brum, Lauren; Sorrow, Kathleen; Thomas, Samuel; Spence, Susan; Maulbecker-Armstrong, Catharina; Goodman, Clifford; Peake, Michael; McVie, Gordon; Geipel, Gary; Li, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about rising health care costs and the often incremental nature of improvements in health outcomes continue to fuel intense debates about 'progress' and 'value' in cancer research. In times of tightening fiscal constraints, it is increasingly important for patients and their representatives to define what constitutes 'value' to them. It is clear that diverse stakeholders have different priorities. Harmonisation of values may be neither possible nor desirable. Stakeholders lack tools to visualise or otherwise express these differences and to track progress in cancer treatments based on variable sets of values. The Patient Access to Cancer care Excellence (PACE) Continuous Innovation Indicators are novel, scientifically rigorous progress trackers that employ a three-step process to quantify progress in cancer treatments: 1) mine the literature to determine the strength of the evidence supporting each treatment; 2) allow users to weight the analysis according to their priorities and values; and 3) calculate Evidence Scores (E-Scores), a novel measure to track progress, based on the strength of the evidence weighted by the assigned value. We herein introduce a novel, flexible value model, show how the values from the model can be used to weight the evidence from the scientific literature to obtain E-Scores, and illustrate how assigning different values to new treatments influences the E-Scores. The Indicators allow users to learn how differing values lead to differing assessments of progress in cancer research and to check whether current incentives for innovation are aligned with their value model. By comparing E-Scores generated by this tool, users are able to visualise the relative pace of innovation across areas of cancer research and how stepwise innovation can contribute to substantial progress against cancer over time. Learning from experience and mapping current unmet needs will help to support a broad audience of stakeholders in their efforts to

  3. Improved efficiency in clinical workflow of reporting measured oncology lesions via PACS-integrated lesion tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Sevenster, Merlijn; Travis, Adam R; Ganesh, Rajiv K; Liu, Peng; Kose, Ursula; Peters, Joost; Chang, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Imaging provides evidence for the response to oncology treatment by the serial measurement of reference lesions. Unfortunately, the identification, comparison, measurement, and documentation of several reference lesions can be an inefficient process. We tested the hypothesis that optimized workflow orchestration and tight integration of a lesion tracking tool into the PACS and speech recognition system can result in improvements in oncologic lesion measurement efficiency. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. A lesion management tool tightly integrated into the PACS workflow was developed. We evaluated the effect of the use of the tool on measurement reporting time by means of a prospective time-motion study on 86 body CT examinations with 241 measureable oncologic lesions with four radiologists. RESULTS. Aggregated measurement reporting time per lesion was 11.64 seconds in standard workflow, 16.67 seconds if readers had to register measurements de novo, and 6.36 seconds for each subsequent follow-up study. Differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for each reader, except for one difference for one reader. CONCLUSION. Measurement reporting time can be reduced by using a PACS workflow-integrated lesion management tool, especially for patients with multiple follow-up examinations, reversing the onetime efficiency penalty at baseline registration. PMID:25714288

  4. Focused beam reflectance measurement as a tool for in situ monitoring of the lactose crystallization process.

    PubMed

    Pandalaneni, K; Amamcharla, J K

    2016-07-01

    Lactose accounts for about 75 and 85% of the solids in whey and deproteinized whey, respectively. Production of lactose is usually carried out by a process called crystallization. Several factors including rate of cooling, presence of impurities, and mixing speed influence the crystal size characteristics. To optimize the lactose crystallization process parameters to maximize the lactose yield, it is important to monitor the crystallization process. However, efficient in situ tools to implement at concentrations relevant to the dairy industry are lacking. The objective of the present work was to use a focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) system for in situ monitoring of lactose crystallization at supersaturated concentrations (wt/wt) 50, 55, and 60% at 20 and 30°C. The FBRM data were compared with Brix readings collected using a refractometer during isothermal crystallization. Chord length distributions obtained from FBRM in the ranges of <50 µm (fine crystals) and 50 to 300 µm (coarse crystals) were recorded and evaluated in relation to the extent of crystallization and rate constants deduced from the refractometer measurements. Extent of crystallization and rate constants increased with increasing supersaturation concentration and temperature. The measured fine crystal counts from FBRM increased at higher supersaturated concentration and temperature during isothermal crystallization. On the other hand, coarse counts were observed to increase with decreasing supersaturated concentration and temperature. Square weighted chord length distribution obtained from FBRM showed that as concentration increased, a decrease in chord lengths occurred at 20°C and similar observations were made from microscopic images. The robustness of FBRM in understanding isothermal lactose crystallization at various concentrations and temperatures was successfully assessed in the study. PMID:27132102

  5. The common marmoset as an indispensable animal model for immunotherapy development in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kap, Yolanda S; Jagessar, S Anwar; Dunham, Jordon; 't Hart, Bert A

    2016-08-01

    New drugs often fail in the translation from the rodent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model to human multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we present the marmoset EAE model as an indispensable model for translational research into MS. The genetic heterogeneity of this species and lifelong exposure to chronic latent infections and environmental pathogens create a human-like immune system. Unique to this model is the presence of the pathological hallmark of progressive MS, in particular cortical grey matter lesions. Another great possibility of this model is systemic and longitudinal immune profiling, whereas in humans and mice immune profiling is usually performed in a single compartment (i.e. blood or spleen, respectively). Overall, the marmoset model provides unique opportunities for systemic drug-effect profiling. PMID:27060373

  6. Applicability, Indispensability, and Underdetermination: Puzzling Over Wigner's `Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfert, Axel

    2014-05-01

    In his influential 1960 paper `The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences', Eugene P. Wigner raises the question of why something that was developed without concern for empirical facts—mathematics—should turn out to be so powerful in explaining facts about the natural world. Recent philosophy of science has developed `Wigner's puzzle' in two different directions: First, in relation to the supposed indispensability of mathematical facts to particular scientific explanations and, secondly, in connection with the idea that aesthetic criteria track theoretical desiderata such as empirical success. An important aspect of Wigner's article has, however, been overlooked in these debates: his worries about the underdetermination of physical theories by mathematical frameworks. The present paper argues that, by restoring this aspect of Wigner's argument to its proper place, Wigner's puzzle may become an instructive case study for the teaching of core issues in the philosophy of science and its history.

  7. Developing a Tool to Measure the Impact of E-Learning on the Teachers of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, M. Rajesh; Kumar, R. Krishna

    2008-01-01

    The trend of using e-learning as a teaching tool is now rapidly expanding into education. Although e-learning environments are becoming popular there is minimal research on the impact of e-learning on the teachers. The purpose of this study is to develop a tool to measure the impact of e-learning on the teachers' of higher education in the Indian…

  8. Answering the call: a tool that measures functional breast cancer literacy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Karen Patricia; Templin, Thomas N; Hines, Resche D

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for health care providers and health care educators to ensure that the messages they communicate are understood. The purpose of this research was to test the reliability and validity, in a culturally diverse sample of women, of a revised Breast Cancer Literacy Assessment Tool (Breast-CLAT) designed to measure functional understanding of breast cancer in English, Spanish, and Arabic. Community health workers verbally administered the 35-item Breast-CLAT to 543 Black, Latina, and Arab American women. A confirmatory factor analysis using a 2-parameter item response theory model was used to test the proposed 3-factor Breast-CLAT (awareness, screening and knowledge, and prevention and control). The confirmatory factor analysis using a 2-parameter item response theory model had a good fit (TLI = .91, RMSEA = .04) to the proposed 3-factor structure. The total scale reliability ranged from .80 for Black participants to .73 for total culturally diverse sample. The three subscales were differentially predictive of family history of cancer. The revised Breast-CLAT scales demonstrated internal consistency reliability and validity in this multiethnic, community-based sample. PMID:23905580

  9. Mental Imagery Scale: a new measurement tool to assess structural features of mental representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ercole, Martina; Castelli, Paolo; Giannini, Anna Maria; Sbrilli, Antonella

    2010-05-01

    Mental imagery is a quasi-perceptual experience which resembles perceptual experience, but occurring without (appropriate) external stimuli. It is a form of mental representation and is often considered centrally involved in visuo-spatial reasoning and inventive and creative thought. Although imagery ability is assumed to be functionally independent of verbal systems, it is still considered to interact with verbal representations, enabling objects to be named and names to evoke images. In literature, most measurement tools for evaluating imagery capacity are self-report instruments focusing on differences in individuals. In the present work, we applied a Mental Imagery Scale (MIS) to mental images derived from verbal descriptions in order to assess the structural features of such mental representations. This is a key theme for those disciplines which need to turn objects and representations into words and vice versa, such as art or architectural didactics. To this aim, an MIS questionnaire was administered to 262 participants. The questionnaire, originally consisting of a 33-item 5-step Likert scale, was reduced to 28 items covering six areas: (1) Image Formation Speed, (2) Permanence/Stability, (3) Dimensions, (4) Level of Detail/Grain, (5) Distance and (6) Depth of Field or Perspective. Factor analysis confirmed our six-factor hypothesis underlying the 28 items.

  10. A New Tool to Measure Malevolent Creativity: The Malevolent Creativity Behavior Scale

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ning; Tang, Mengying; Yang, Jing; Wang, Qifei; Runco, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study developed the malevolent creativity behavior scale (MCBS), which contains 13 items and was designed to measure individuals’ malevolent creativity through the behavior of daily lives. A total of 958 participants from different regions of China completed the MCBS in an online fashion. Cronbach’s α coefficient, using the 908 MCBSs with entirely complete data, indicated that the MCBS had satisfactory reliability. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that the MCBS had 3 dimensions: hurting people, lying, and playing tricks. MCBS scores were positively correlated with individuals’ aggression, openness, extraversion, and scores on the Runco Ideational Behavior Scale (RIBS). MCBS scores also predicted individuals’ malevolent creativity performances when solving realistic, open-ended problems. The MCBS has a simple response medium and scoring procedure. This, along with the adequate psychometric properties uncovered here, indicates that it is a useful tool for research on malevolent creativity. Given that the MCBS contains a relatively small number of categories and items, further research could expand the categories of items and develop and test more items. Moreover, it would be useful to test MCBS’s reliability and validity with other criteria. Perhaps future research could obtain actual MC data from criminal or other unambiguously malevolent samples. PMID:27242596

  11. A New Tool to Measure Malevolent Creativity: The Malevolent Creativity Behavior Scale.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ning; Tang, Mengying; Yang, Jing; Wang, Qifei; Runco, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    The present study developed the malevolent creativity behavior scale (MCBS), which contains 13 items and was designed to measure individuals' malevolent creativity through the behavior of daily lives. A total of 958 participants from different regions of China completed the MCBS in an online fashion. Cronbach's α coefficient, using the 908 MCBSs with entirely complete data, indicated that the MCBS had satisfactory reliability. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that the MCBS had 3 dimensions: hurting people, lying, and playing tricks. MCBS scores were positively correlated with individuals' aggression, openness, extraversion, and scores on the Runco Ideational Behavior Scale (RIBS). MCBS scores also predicted individuals' malevolent creativity performances when solving realistic, open-ended problems. The MCBS has a simple response medium and scoring procedure. This, along with the adequate psychometric properties uncovered here, indicates that it is a useful tool for research on malevolent creativity. Given that the MCBS contains a relatively small number of categories and items, further research could expand the categories of items and develop and test more items. Moreover, it would be useful to test MCBS's reliability and validity with other criteria. Perhaps future research could obtain actual MC data from criminal or other unambiguously malevolent samples. PMID:27242596

  12. Evoked response study tool: a portable, rugged system for single and multiple auditory evoked potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Finneran, James J

    2009-07-01

    Although the potential of using portable auditory evoked potential systems for field testing of stranded cetaceans has been long recognized, commercial systems for evoked potential measurements generally do not possess the bandwidth required for testing odontocete cetaceans and are not suitable for field use. As a result, there have been a number of efforts to develop portable evoked potential systems for field testing of cetaceans. This paper presents another such system, called the evoked response study tool (EVREST). EVREST is a Windows-based hardware/software system designed for calibrating sound stimuli and recording and analyzing transient and steady-state evoked potentials. The EVREST software features a graphical user interface, real-time analysis and visualization of recorded data, a variety of stimulus options, and a high level of automation. The system hardware is portable, rugged, battery-powered, and possesses a bandwidth that encompasses the audible range of echolocating odontocetes, making the system suitable for field testing of stranded or rehabilitating cetaceans. PMID:19603907

  13. Inversion of calcite twin data for stress (2) : EBSD as a tool for data measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlangeau, Camille; Lacombe, Olivier; Brisset, Francois; Kohler, Eric; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Schueller, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    Inversion of calcite twin data are known to be a powerful tool to reconstruct the past state(s) of stress in carbonate rocks of the crust, especially in fold-and-thrust belts and sedimentary basins. Twin data measurements have been for long carried out optically using a Universal-Stage. This data collection is time-consuming and suffers from limitations and bias related to measurements of twin planes oblique at low angle or parallel to the thin section, or the unambiguous evaluation of the twinned/untwinned character of collected twin data. EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) is a well-known technique applied to characterize textures and microstructures of metals or deformed fine-grained rocks. The challenge is to define a strategy for measuring calcite-twin orientations that should be fast, without any loss of information, and which must reconcile (1) the need for a large amount of calcite twin data (3 mutually perpendicular thin sections and at least 30 crystals per thin section), (2) the spacing between EBSD spots, that should take into account (3) the small width of twin lamellae within grains deformed at low pressure and temperature and (4) the large size (usually several hundreds of microns) of twinned calcite grains used for stress analysis. To date, these multiple requirements preclude any (classical) automatic twin data acquisition but instead imply a preliminary definition of the areas of the thin section to be scanned by the EBSD spots, including grain boundaries, because the stress inversion technique requires to know for each grain the orientations of the C axis and of the 3 potential e twin planes. In order to reconcile a perfectly polished surface as required by EBSD and the recognition of grain boundaries, we adopted the double etching technique (Herwegh, 2000) to first reveal grain and twin boundaries. Then, with a SEM and a very fine coating sample, the section is scanned using secondary electrons bin; each spot of interest is visually defined

  14. Measurement of the Ion Distribution Function in a Dual Frequency Plasma Etch Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, Walter; Moore, Nathaniel; Pribyl, Patrick; Kushner, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The ion energy distribution function, (IEDF) was measured in detail in an industrial etch tool. The plasma was made with an ICP source (440 kHz, 500 W) and two independently controlled bias sources. The Si wafer was placed on a ceramic electrostatic chuck with an embedded capacitor plate. The first source ran at 2.2 MHz (600 Vpp and 2500 W) with a maximum sheath potential drop of 650 V or 2000V. The second source ran at 19 MHz with Vpp of 600 V. The principal diagnostic was Laser Induced Fluorescence on Argon using 611.49 nm light from a tunable dye laser with ions responding to Doppler shifted light. Using cylindrical lens combinations the laser light was transformed into a sheet 15 cm wide and 0.5 cm thick. The beam could be transverse or parallel to the normal of the wafer. The glowing ions (at 461 nm) were photographed by a CCD camera with 400 micron resolution. The laser was phase locked to the 2.2 MHz rf and the IDDF measured as a function of radial position, height above the wafer and at 8 phases. With Vpp = 600 V the highest energy ions observed were 500 eV, 1.2 mm above the wafer. These observations as well as the angular distribution agreed well with a computer simulation. In the dual frequency case when the potential of the wafer was most negative wrt the bulk plasma the IEDF structure 0.8 mm above the wafer was well fitted by 4 Gaussians. The ion flux to the wafer was far more uniform in the dual frequency case. This research supported by the NSF and DOE.

  15. Automatic registration method for multisensor datasets adopted for dimensional measurements on cutting tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, L.; Ettl, S.; Mehari, F.; Weckenmann, A.; Häusler, G.

    2013-04-01

    Multisensor systems with optical 3D sensors are frequently employed to capture complete surface information by measuring workpieces from different views. During coarse and fine registration the resulting datasets are afterward transformed into one common coordinate system. Automatic fine registration methods are well established in dimensional metrology, whereas there is a deficit in automatic coarse registration methods. The advantage of a fully automatic registration procedure is twofold: it enables a fast and contact-free alignment and further a flexible application to datasets of any kind of optical 3D sensor. In this paper, an algorithm adapted for a robust automatic coarse registration is presented. The method was originally developed for the field of object reconstruction or localization. It is based on a segmentation of planes in the datasets to calculate the transformation parameters. The rotation is defined by the normals of three corresponding segmented planes of two overlapping datasets, while the translation is calculated via the intersection point of the segmented planes. First results have shown that the translation is strongly shape dependent: 3D data of objects with non-orthogonal planar flanks cannot be registered with the current method. In the novel supplement for the algorithm, the translation is additionally calculated via the distance between centroids of corresponding segmented planes, which results in more than one option for the transformation. A newly introduced measure considering the distance between the datasets after coarse registration evaluates the best possible transformation. Results of the robust automatic registration method are presented on the example of datasets taken from a cutting tool with a fringe-projection system and a focus-variation system. The successful application in dimensional metrology is proven with evaluations of shape parameters based on the registered datasets of a calibrated workpiece.

  16. Relative validity of a tool to measure food acculturation in children of Mexican descent.

    PubMed

    Vera-Becerra, Luz Elvia; Lopez, Martha L; Kaiser, Lucia L

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to measure food acculturation in young Mexican-origin children. In 2006, Spanish-speaking staff interviewed mothers in a community-based sample of households from Ventura, California (US) (n = 95) and Guanajuato, Mexico (MX) (n = 200). Data included two 24-h dietary recalls (24-DR); a 30-item FFQ; and anthropometry of the children. To measure construct, convergent, and discriminant validity, data analyses included factor analysis, Spearman correlations, t-test, respectively. Factor analysis revealed two constructs: 1) a US food pattern including hamburgers, pizza, hot dogs, fried chicken, juice, cereal, pastries, lower fat milk, quesadillas, and American cheese and 2) a MX food pattern including tortillas, fried beans, rice/noodles, whole milk, and pan dulce (sweet bread). Out of 22 food items that could be compared across the FFQ and mean 24-DRs, 17 were significantly, though weakly, correlated (highest r = 0.62, for whole milk). The mean US food pattern score was significantly higher, and the MX food pattern score, lower in US children than in MX children (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for child's age and gender; mother's education; and household size, the US food pattern score was positively related to body mass index (BMI) z-scores (beta coefficient: +0.29, p = - 0.004), whereas the MX food pattern score was negatively related to BMI z-scores (beta coefficient: -0.28, p = 0.002). This tool may be useful to evaluate nutrition education interventions to prevent childhood obesity on both sides of the border. PMID:26603574

  17. Research on Error Modelling and Identification of 3 Axis NC Machine Tools Based on Cross Grid Encoder Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Z. C.; Lv, C. F.; Hong, M. S.

    2006-10-01

    A new error modelling and identification method based on the cross grid encoder is proposed in this paper. Generally, there are 21 error components in the geometric error of the 3 axis NC machine tools. However according our theoretical analysis, the squareness error among different guide ways affects not only the translation error component, but also the rotational ones. Therefore, a revised synthetic error model is developed. And the mapping relationship between the error component and radial motion error of round workpiece manufactured on the NC machine tools are deduced. This mapping relationship shows that the radial error of circular motion is the comprehensive function result of all the error components of link, worktable, sliding table and main spindle block. Aiming to overcome the solution singularity shortcoming of traditional error component identification method, a new multi-step identification method of error component by using the Cross Grid Encoder measurement technology is proposed based on the kinematic error model of NC machine tool. Firstly, the 12 translational error components of the NC machine tool are measured and identified by using the least square method (LSM) when the NC machine tools go linear motion in the three orthogonal planes: XOY plane, XOZ plane and YOZ plane. Secondly, the circular error tracks are measured when the NC machine tools go circular motion in the same above orthogonal planes by using the cross grid encoder Heidenhain KGM 182. Therefore 9 rotational errors can be identified by using LSM. Finally the experimental validation of the above modelling theory and identification method is carried out in the 3 axis CNC vertical machining centre Cincinnati 750 Arrow. The entire 21 error components have been successfully measured out by the above method. Research shows the multi-step modelling and identification method is very suitable for 'on machine measurement'.

  18. Overview of existing residential energy-efficiency rating systems and measuring tools

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Williams, T.A.

    1982-10-01

    Three categories of rating systems/tools were identified: prescriptive, calculational, and performance. Prescriptive systems include rating systems that assign points to various conservation features. Most systems that have been implemented to date have been prescriptive systems. The vast majority of these are investor-owned utility programs affiliated with the National Energy Watch program of the Edison Electric Institute. The calculational category includes computational tools that can be used to estimate energy consumption. This estimate could then be transformed, probably by indexing, into a rating. The available computational tools range from very simple to complex tools requiring use of a main-frame computer. Performance systems refer to residential energy-efficiency ratings that are based on past fuel consumption of a home. There are few of these systems. For each identified system/tool, the name, address, and telephone number of the developer is included. In addition, relevant publications discussing the system/tool are cited. The extent of field validation/verification of individual systems and tools is discussed. In general, there has been little validation/verification done. A bibliography of literature relevant to the use and implementation of a home energy rating system is also included.

  19. A Tool for Measuring NASA's Aeronautics Research Progress Toward Planned Strategic Community Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. For efficiency and speed, the tool takes advantage of a function developed in Excels Visual Basic for Applications. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly discussed. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples of using the tool are also presented.

  20. NDVI as a tool for measuring impact of climate variability upon vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitala, Alessandro M. S.; Vizzari, Marco; Capece, Paolo; Fiori, Michele; Mannu, Giovanna Maria; Pacicco, Ciro Luca; Pinna Nossai, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Land-atmosphere interactive processes are useful to understand impacts of year by year climate variability and to highlight possible trends, since the status of the natural vegetation cover is strongly controlled by climate factors. The so-called NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), derived from the red and the near infrared channels of NOAA satellite, is a reliable indicator applicable to the analysis of photosynthetic biomass variations in vegetated areas. NDVI images, derived on a monthly basis by maximum composite value technique, can become a useful tool to monitor the dynamics of vegetation and to determine the maximum level of vegetation greenness observed over every year. Interannual variability of precipitation is likely to have a significant impact on the greenness of vegetation cover, since rainy seasons are expected to stimulate a much richer plants development than drier ones. The present poster intends to outline a research, jointly carried by ARPAS (the Regional Environmental Protection Agency of Sardinia) and the 'Department of Man and Territory' of the University of Perugia, that aimed to correlate the year by year variability of hydrological variables (precipitation and soil water content) and the maximum annual NDVI over the island of Sardinia. In order to do that, the authors defined four test areas, extending from 235 km2 to 1015 km2. Test areas were chosen in order to be mostly covered by natural vegetations, according to CORINE land-cover. Over such areas surface measures by ARPAS stations were compared against annual maximum NDVI index from 1998 to 2008, focusing on the so-called 'rainy season' that in Sardinia ranges from October to April. Precipitation for the selected areas was measured with the network of ground stations of ARPAS. Evapotranspiration was estimated by means of Hargreaves-Samani method applied to data from the above stations. Finally, estimation of the soil moisture content was carried out by means of a daily time

  1. 14-3-3zeta is indispensable for aggregate formation of polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin protein.

    PubMed

    Omi, Kazuya; Hachiya, Naomi S; Tanaka, Mayumi; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Kaneko, Kiyotoshi

    2008-01-24

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) expansions in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. A hallmark of HD is the presence of aggregates-predominantly composed of NH(2)-terminal fragments of polyQ-expanded Htt-in the nucleus and cytoplasm of affected neurons. We previously proposed that 14-3-3zeta might act as a sweeper of misfolded proteins by facilitating the formation of aggregates possibly for neuroprotection; these aggregates are referred to as inclusion bodies. However, evidence available in this regard is indirect and circumstantial. In this study, analysis of the aggregation-prone protein Htt encoded by HD gene exon 1 containing polyglutamine expansions (Htt86Q) revealed that 17 residues in the NH(2)-terminal of this protein are indispensable for its aggregate formation. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that 14-3-3beta, gamma, eta, and zeta interact with Htt86Q transfected in N2a cells. Interestingly, the small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) suppression of 14-3-3zeta exclusively abolished Htt86Q aggregate formation, whereas 14-3-3beta or eta siRNA suppression did not. This indicates that 14-3-3zeta participates in aggregate formation under nonnative conditions. Our data support a novel role for 14-3-3zeta in the aggregate formation of nonnative, aggregation-prone proteins. PMID:18078716

  2. Is Ammonium Peroxydisulate Indispensable for Preparation of Aniline-Derived Iron-Nitrogen-Carbon Electrocatalysts?

    PubMed

    Xie, Nan-Hong; Yan, Xiang-Hui; Xu, Bo-Qing

    2016-09-01

    Iron and nitrogen co-doped carbon (Fe-N-C) materials are among the most active non-precious metal catalysts that could replace Pt-based electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries. The synthesis of the Fe-N-C catalysts often involves the use of aniline as the precursor for both N and C and ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) as an indispensable oxidative initiator for aniline polymerization. Herein, a detailed structure and catalytic ORR performance comparison of aniline-derived Fe-N-C catalysts synthesized with and without the use of APS is reported. The APS-free preparation, which uses Fe(III) ions as the Fe source as well as the aniline polymerization initiator, results in a simple Fe-N-C catalyst with a high activity for the ORR. We show that APS is not necessary for the preparation and even detrimental to the performance of the catalyst. PMID:27514790

  3. Glutamine Oxidation Is Indispensable for Survival of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Tohyama, Shugo; Fujita, Jun; Hishiki, Takako; Matsuura, Tomomi; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Ohno, Rei; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Seki, Tomohisa; Nakajima, Kazuaki; Kishino, Yoshikazu; Okada, Marina; Hirano, Akinori; Kuroda, Takuya; Yasuda, Satoshi; Sato, Yoji; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Sano, Motoaki; Suematsu, Makoto; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2016-04-12

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are uniquely dependent on aerobic glycolysis to generate ATP. However, the importance of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) has not been elucidated. Detailed amino acid profiling has revealed that glutamine is indispensable for the survival of hPSCs. Under glucose- and glutamine-depleted conditions, hPSCs quickly died due to the loss of ATP. Metabolome analyses showed that hPSCs oxidized pyruvate poorly and that glutamine was the main energy source for OXPHOS. hPSCs were unable to utilize pyruvate-derived citrate due to negligible expression of aconitase 2 (ACO2) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2/3 (IDH2/3) and high expression of ATP-citrate lyase. Cardiomyocytes with mature mitochondria were not able to survive without glucose and glutamine, although they were able to use lactate to synthesize pyruvate and glutamate. This distinguishing feature of hPSC metabolism allows preparation of clinical-grade cell sources free of undifferentiated hPSCs, which prevents tumor formation during stem cell therapy. PMID:27050306

  4. Ligand affinity chromatography, an indispensable method for the purification of soluble cytokine receptors and binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Novick, Daniela; Rubinstein, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    Ligand affinity chromatography separation is based on unique interaction between the target analyte and a ligand, which is coupled covalently to a resin. It is a simple, rapid, selective, and efficient purification procedure of proteins providing tens of thousands fold purification in one step. The biological activity of the isolated proteins is retained in most cases thus function is revealed concomitantly with the isolation. Prior to the completion of the genome project this method facilitated rapid and reliable cloning of the corresponding gene. Upon completion of this project, a partial protein sequence is enough for retrieving its complete mRNA and hence its complete protein sequence. This method is indispensable for the isolation of both expected (e.g. receptors) but mainly unexpected, unpredicted and very much surprising binding proteins. No other approach would yield the latter. This chapter provides examples for both the expected target proteins, isolated from rich sources of human proteins, as well as the unexpected binding proteins, found by serendipity. PMID:22131033

  5. Structural basis for the indispensable role of a unique zinc finger motif in LNX2 ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Digant; Sivaraman, J.

    2015-01-01

    LNX (Ligand of Numb Protein-X) proteins, LNX1 and LNX2, are RING- and PDZ-based E3-ubiquitin ligases known to interact with Numb. Silencing of LNX2 has been reported to down-regulate WNT and NOTCH, two key signaling pathways in tumorigenesis. Here we report the identification of the domain boundary of LNX2 to confer its ubiquitination activity, its crystal structure along with functional studies. We show that the RING domain in LNX2 is flanked by two Zinc-binding motifs (Zn-RING-Zn), in which the N-terminal Zinc-binding motif adopts novel conformation. Although this motif follows the typical Cys2His2-type zinc finger configuration, it is devoid of any secondary structure and forms an open circle conformation, which has not been reported yet. This unique N-terminal Zn-finger motif is indispensable for the activity and stability of LNX2, as verified using mutational studies. The Zn-RING-Zn domain of LNX2 is a dimer and assumes a rigid elongated structure that undergoes autoubiquitination and undergoes N-terminal polyubiquitination. The ubiquitin chains consist of all seven possible isopeptide linkages. These results were validated using full-length LNX2. Moreover we have demonstrated the ubiquitination of cell fate determinant protein, Numb by LNX2. Our study provides a structural basis for the functional machinery of LNX2 and thus provides the opportunity to investigate suitable drug targets against LNX2. PMID:26451611

  6. KCNK5 channels mostly expressed in cochlear outer sulcus cells are indispensable for hearing.

    PubMed

    Cazals, Yves; Bévengut, Michelle; Zanella, Sébastien; Brocard, Frédéric; Barhanin, Jacques; Gestreau, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In the cochlea, K(+) is essential for mechano-electrical transduction. Here, we explore cochlear structure and function in mice lacking K(+) channels of the two-pore domain family. A profound deafness associated with a decrease in endocochlear potential is found in adult Kcnk5(-/-) mice. Hearing occurs around postnatal day 19 (P19), and completely disappears 2 days later. At P19, Kcnk5(-/-) mice have a normal endolymphatic [K(+)] but a partly lowered endocochlear potential. Using Lac-Z as a gene reporter, KCNK5 is mainly found in outer sulcus Claudius', Boettcher's and root cells. Low levels of expression are also seen in the spiral ganglion, Reissner's membrane and stria vascularis. Essential channels (KCNJ10 and KCNQ1) contributing to K(+) secretion in stria vascularis have normal expression in Kcnk5(-/-) mice. Thus, KCNK5 channels are indispensable for the maintenance of hearing. Among several plausible mechanisms, we emphasize their role in K(+) recycling along the outer sulcus lateral route. PMID:26549439

  7. Proteasome activators, PA28γ and PA200, play indispensable roles in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Haratake, Kousuke; Miyahara, Hatsumi; Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Protein degradation mediated by the proteasome is important for the protein homeostasis. Various proteasome activators, such as PA28 and PA200, regulate the proteasome function. Here we show double knockout (dKO) mice of Psme3 and Psme4 (genes for PA28γ and PA200), but not each single knockout mice, are completely infertile in male. The dKO sperms exhibited remarkable defects in motility, although most of them showed normal appearance in morphology. The proteasome activity of the mutant sperms decreased notably, and the sperms were strongly positive with ubiquitin staining. Quantitative analyses of proteins expressed in dKO sperms revealed up-regulation of several proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Furthermore, increased 8-OHdG staining was observed in dKO sperms head, suggesting defective response to oxidative damage. This report verified PA28γ and PA200 play indispensable roles in male fertility, and provides a novel insight into the role of proteasome activators in antioxidant response. PMID:27003159

  8. KCNK5 channels mostly expressed in cochlear outer sulcus cells are indispensable for hearing

    PubMed Central

    Cazals, Yves; Bévengut, Michelle; Zanella, Sébastien; Brocard, Frédéric; Barhanin, Jacques; Gestreau, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In the cochlea, K+ is essential for mechano-electrical transduction. Here, we explore cochlear structure and function in mice lacking K+ channels of the two-pore domain family. A profound deafness associated with a decrease in endocochlear potential is found in adult Kcnk5−/− mice. Hearing occurs around postnatal day 19 (P19), and completely disappears 2 days later. At P19, Kcnk5−/− mice have a normal endolymphatic [K+] but a partly lowered endocochlear potential. Using Lac-Z as a gene reporter, KCNK5 is mainly found in outer sulcus Claudius', Boettcher's and root cells. Low levels of expression are also seen in the spiral ganglion, Reissner's membrane and stria vascularis. Essential channels (KCNJ10 and KCNQ1) contributing to K+ secretion in stria vascularis have normal expression in Kcnk5−/− mice. Thus, KCNK5 channels are indispensable for the maintenance of hearing. Among several plausible mechanisms, we emphasize their role in K+ recycling along the outer sulcus lateral route. PMID:26549439

  9. Indispensable role for mouse ELP3 in embryonic stem cell maintenance and early development.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyunjin; Son, Dabin; Jang, Young-Joo; Hong, Kwonho

    2016-09-16

    ELP3, a core component of Elongator, has been implicated in translational regulation via modification of tRNA at the wobble position. However, the precise biological function of ELP3 in early mouse development has not yet been defined. We here provide evidence that ELP3 plays crucial roles in mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) maintenance and early development. ELP3 was detected ubiquitously in blastocysts and E10.5 embryos and shown to be increased during ESC differentiation. Depletion of ELP3 in ESC led to aberrant cell cycle progression, along with reduced expression of genes for pluripotency. Interestingly, our analyses revealed that, although the mRNA levels of the genes related to cell cycle were increased, protein levels were diminished in knockdown (KD) ESCs. The data, therefore, suggest that ELP3 function is critical for translational efficiency of the genes. Consistent with a proliferation defect in KD cells, Elp3 knockout (KO) embryos suffered from severe growth retardation and failed to develop beyond E12.5. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that ELP3 plays an indispensable role in ESC survival, differentiation and embryonic development in mouse. PMID:27476491

  10. The Indispensable Role of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1 in Skeletal Development

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masanori; Mulati, Mieradili; Talib, S. Zakiah A.; Kaldis, Philipp; Takeda, Shu; Okawa, Atsushi; Inose, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal development is tightly regulated through the processes of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Although the involvement of transcription and growth factors on the regulation of skeletal development has been extensively studied, the role of cell cycle regulatory proteins in this process remains elusive. To date, through cell-specific loss-of-function experiments in vivo, no cell cycle regulatory proteins have yet been conclusively shown to regulate skeletal development. Here, we demonstrate that cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) regulates skeletal development based on chondrocyte-specific loss-of-function experiments performed in a mouse model. Cdk1 is highly expressed in columnar proliferative chondrocytes and is greatly downregulated upon differentiation into hypertrophic chondrocytes. Cdk1 is essential for proper chondrocyte proliferation and deletion of Cdk1 resulted in accelerated differentiation of chondrocytes. In vitro and ex vivo analyses revealed that Cdk1 is an essential cell cycle regulatory protein for parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) signaling pathway, which is critical to chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. These results demonstrate that Cdk1 functions as a molecular switch from proliferation to hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and thus is indispensable for skeletal development. Given the availability of inhibitors of Cdk1 activity, our results could provide insight for the treatment of diseases involving abnormal chondrocyte proliferation, such as osteoarthritis. PMID:26860366

  11. The Learning Loss Scale as an Assessment Tool: An Empirical Examination of Convergent Validity with Performative Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, John; Denker, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Higher education has placed an increasingly greater value on assessment. The Learning Loss Scale may be an appropriate tool to assess learning across disciplines. In this paper, we review the culture of assessment, conceptualizations of cognitive learning, the Learning Loss Scale, and a theoretical explanation, and then we test this measure to…

  12. Measuring Educators' Perceptions of Their Skills Relative to Response to Intervention: A Psychometric Study of a Survey Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; March, Amanda L.; Stockslager, Kevin M.; Hines, Constance V.

    2016-01-01

    The "Perceptions of RtI Skills Survey" is a self-report measure that assesses educators' perceptions of their data-based problem-solving skills--a critical element of many Response-to-Intervention (RtI) models. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the underlying factor structure of this tool. Educators from 68 (n =…

  13. Reliability of a tool for measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs for use in evaluating research use in policymaking

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although measures of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) effectiveness based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) have been used among patients and providers, no measure has been developed for use among health system policymakers and stakeholders. A tool that measures the intention to use research evidence in policymaking could assist researchers in evaluating the effectiveness of KTE strategies that aim to support evidence-informed health system decision-making. Therefore, we developed a 15-item tool to measure four TPB constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived control) and assessed its face validity through key informant interviews. Methods We carried out a reliability study to assess the tool's internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Our study sample consisted of 62 policymakers and stakeholders that participated in deliberative dialogues. We assessed internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and generalizability (G) coefficients, and we assessed test-retest reliability by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and G coefficients for each construct and the tool overall. Results The internal consistency of items within each construct was good with alpha ranging from 0.68 to alpha = 0.89. G-coefficients were lower for a single administration (G = 0.34 to G = 0.73) than for the average of two administrations (G = 0.79 to G = 0.89). Test-retest reliability coefficients for the constructs ranged from r = 0.26 to r = 0.77 and from G = 0.31 to G = 0.62 for a single administration, and from G = 0.47 to G = 0.86 for the average of two administrations. Test-retest reliability of the tool using G theory was moderate (G = 0.5) when we generalized across a single observation, but became strong (G = 0.9) when we averaged across both administrations. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence for the reliability of a tool that can be used to measure TPB constructs in relation to research use in policymaking

  14. Initial Validation of a Brief Pictorial Measure of Caregiver Aggression: The Family Aggression Screening Tool.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; McCrory, Eamon J; Viding, Essi; Holden, George W; Barker, Edward D

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Family Aggression Screening Tool (FAST). The FAST is a brief, self-report tool that makes use of pictorial representations to assess experiences of caregiver aggression, including direct victimization and exposure to intimate partner violence. It is freely available on request and takes under 5 minutes to complete. Psychometric properties of the FAST were investigated in a sample of 168 high-risk youth aged 16 to 24 years. For validation purposes, maltreatment history was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire; levels of current psychiatric symptoms were also assessed. Internal consistency of the FAST was good. Convergent validity was supported by strong and discriminative associations with corresponding Childhood Trauma Questionnaire subscales. The FAST also correlated significantly with multi-informant reports of psychiatric symptomatology. Initial findings provide support for the reliability and validity of the FAST as a brief, pictorial screening tool of caregiver aggression. PMID:26085494

  15. Loneliness, social isolation and social relationships: what are we measuring? A novel framework for classifying and comparing tools

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Mona; Gilbody, Simon; Hanratty, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We present a novel way of classifying and comparing measures of social relationships to help readers interpret the growing literature on loneliness and social isolation and to provide researchers with a starting point to guide their choice of measuring tool. Methods Measures of social relationships used in epidemiological studies were identified from two systematic reviews—one review on the association between social relationships and health and social care service use, and a second review on the association between social relationships and health. Questions from each measure were retrieved and tabulated to derive a classification of social relationship measures. Results We present a classification of measures according to two dimensions: (1) whether instruments cover structural or functional aspects of social relationships and (2) the degree of subjectivity asked of respondents. We explain how this classification can be used to clarify the remit of the many questionnaires used in the literature and to compare them. Conclusions Different dimensions of social relationships are likely to have different implications for health. Our classification of social relationship measures transcends disciplinary and conceptual boundaries, allowing researchers to compare tools that developed from different theoretical perspectives. Careful choice of measures is essential to further our understanding of the links between social relationships and health, to identify people in need of help and to design appropriate prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:27091822

  16. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor is indispensable for both proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast progenitors.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, S; Takahashi, N; Udagawa, N; Tamura, T; Akatsu, T; Stanley, E R; Kurokawa, T; Suda, T

    1993-01-01

    The mechanism of action of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in osteoclast development was examined in a co-culture system of mouse osteoblastic cells and spleen cells. In this co-culture, osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs) were formed within 6 d in response to 10 nM 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 added only for the final 2 d of culture. Simultaneously adding hydroxyurea for the final 2 d completely inhibited proliferation of cultured cells without affecting 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3-stimulated MNC formation. Autoradiographic examination using [3H]-thymidine revealed that osteoclast progenitors primarily proliferated during the first 4 d, whereas their differentiation into MNCs occurred predominantly during the final 2 d of culture in response to 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3. When anti-M-CSF antibody or anti-M-CSF receptor antibody was added either for the first 4 d or for the final 2 d, the MNC formation was similarly inhibited. In co-cultures of normal spleen cells and osteoblastic cells obtained from op/op mice, which cannot produce functionally active M-CSF, the lack of M-CSF either for the first 4 d or for the final 2 d failed to form MNCs in response to 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 added for the last 2 d. These results clearly indicate that M-CSF is indispensable for both proliferation of osteoclast progenitors and their differentiation into mature osteoclasts. Images PMID:8423223

  17. The optimum dietary indispensable amino acid pattern for growing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry.

    PubMed

    Rollin, Xavier; Mambrini, Muriel; Abboudi, Tarik; Larondelle, Yvan; Kaushik, Sadasivam J

    2003-11-01

    To determine the optimum indispensable (I) amino acid (AA) balance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry, a single protocol established for the pig was adapted. The balance was calculated from the reduction in N gain after replacing about 45% of a single IAA by a mixture of dispensable AA in isonitrogenous diets. We confirmed that the mixture of AA simulating the AA pattern of cod-meal protein and gelatine (46:3, w/w) was used with the same efficiency as cod-meal protein and gelatine. From the deletion experiment an optimum balance between the IAA was derived. Expressed relative to lysine = 100, the optimal balance was: arginine 76 (SE 0.2), histidine 28 (SE 2.2), methionine + cystine 64 (SE 1.7), phenylalanine + tyrosine 105 (SE 1.6), threonine 51 (SE 2.4), tryptophan 14 (SE 0.7), valine 59 (SE 1.7). No estimates were made for isoleucine and leucine. Expressed as g/16 g N, the optimal balance was: arginine 4.0 (SE 0.0), histidine 1.5 (SE 0.1), lysine 5.3 (SE 0.2), methionine + cystine 3.4 (SE 0.1), phenylaline + tyrosine 5.6 (SE 0.1), threonine 2.7 (SE 0.1), tryptophan 0.7 (SE 0.0), valine 3.1 (SE 0.1). This AA composition is close to that of the Atlantic salmon whole-body, but using it as an estimation of the IAA requirements may lead to an overestimation of the branched-chain AA requirements and an underestimation of aromatic and S-containing AA requirements. The results are discussed in accordance with the key assumptions associated with the model used (broken-line model, IAA efficiencies and maintenance requirements). PMID:14667180

  18. The Use of Economic Analytical Tools in Quantifying and Measuring Educational Benefits and Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, I. Thomas, Jr.

    The general objective of this study was to devise quantitative guidelines that school officials can accurately follow in using benefit-cost analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, ratio analysis, and other similar economic analytical tools in their particular local situations. Specifically, the objectives were to determine guidelines for the…

  19. Variables Control Charts: A Measurement Tool to Detect Process Problems within Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use quality improvement tools to determine if the current process of supplying hot water to a high-rise residence hall for women at a southeastern Doctoral I granting institution was in control. After a series of focus groups among the residents in the hall, it was determined that they were mostly concerned about…

  20. [Establishing IAQ Metrics and Baseline Measures.] "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update #20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update ("IAQ TfS" Update) contains the following items: (1) News and Events; (2) IAQ Profile: Establishing Your Baseline for Long-Term Success (Feature Article); (3) Insight into Excellence: Belleville Township High School District #201, 2009 Leadership Award Winner; and (4) Have Your Questions…

  1. Assessing Learning Dispositions: Is the "Effective Lifelong Learning Inventory" Valid and Reliable as a Measurement Tool?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Ruth Deakin; Yu, Guoxing

    2008-01-01

    Background: The "Effective lifelong learning inventory" (ELLI) has been used as a diagnostic self assessment tool in schools and universities and other learning contexts as a means of raising an individual's awareness of their own learning dispositions and encouraging them to take responsibility for their own learning. The demand for the ELLI, in…

  2. Measuring Civic Engagement Processes and Youth Civic Empowerment in the Classroom: The CIVVICS Observation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolte, Laurel Cadwallader; Isenbarger, Molly; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in the context of the gap in civic participation, action-based civics curricula, and how classroom interactions may affect student development, we present the CIVVICS (Civic Interactions motiVating diVerse Individuals in Classroom Settings) observation tool. CIVVICS's four domains--Lesson Planning and Implementation, Classroom…

  3. A Portfolio Analysis Tool for Measuring NASAs Aeronautics Research Progress toward Planned Strategic Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly described. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples are also presented.

  4. Biomonitoring: Measuring Toxins in Our Bodies as a Tool in Protecting Children's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Sharyle

    2005-01-01

    Biomonitoring is a public health tool that has been used by scientists and researchers for decades to test blood, bone, urine, hair, human milk, adipose tissue, and other body substances for the presence of toxic chemicals, in order to assess what is called the "chemical body burden." Biomonitoring helps to: (1) identify which chemicals are…

  5. TEMPORALLY-RESOLVED AMMONIA EMISSION INVENTORIES: CURRENT ESTIMATES, EVALUATION TOOLS, AND MEASUREMENT NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we evaluate the suitability of a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) as a tool for assessing ammonia emission inventories, calculate the improvement in CTM performance owing to recent advances in temporally-varying ammonia emission estimates, and ident...

  6. Identification, summary and comparison of tools used to measure organizational attributes associated with chronic disease management within primary care settings

    PubMed Central

    Lukewich, Julia; Corbin, Renée; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G; Edge, Dana S; Williamson, Tyler; Tranmer, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives Given the increasing emphasis being placed on managing patients with chronic diseases within primary care, there is a need to better understand which primary care organizational attributes affect the quality of care that patients with chronic diseases receive. This study aimed to identify, summarize and compare data collection tools that describe and measure organizational attributes used within the primary care setting worldwide. Methods Systematic search and review methodology consisting of a comprehensive and exhaustive search that is based on a broad question to identify the best available evidence was employed. Results A total of 30 organizational attribute data collection tools that have been used within the primary care setting were identified. The tools varied with respect to overall focus and level of organizational detail captured, theoretical foundations, administration and completion methods, types of questions asked, and the extent to which psychometric property testing had been performed. The tools utilized within the Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe study and the Canadian Primary Health Care Practice-Based Surveys were the most recently developed tools. Furthermore, of the 30 tools reviewed, the Canadian Primary Health Care Practice-Based Surveys collected the most information on organizational attributes. Conclusions There is a need to collect primary care organizational attribute information at a national level to better understand factors affecting the quality of chronic disease prevention and management across a given country. The data collection tools identified in this review can be used to establish data collection strategies to collect this important information. PMID:24840066

  7. Assessing the efficacy of the Measure of Understanding of Macroevolution as a valid tool for undergraduate non-science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, William Lee; Walter, Emily Marie

    2014-11-01

    Efficacy of the Measure of Understanding of Macroevolution (MUM) as a measurement tool has been a point of contention among scholars needing a valid measure for knowledge of macroevolution. We explored the structure and construct validity of the MUM using Rasch methodologies in the context of a general education biology course designed with an emphasis on macroevolution content. The Rasch model was utilized to quantify item- and test-level characteristics, including dimensionality, reliability, and fit with the Rasch model. Contrary to previous work, we found that the MUM provides a valid, reliable, and unidimensional scale for measuring knowledge of macroevolution in introductory non-science majors, and that its psychometric behavior does not exhibit large changes across time. While we found that all items provide productive measurement information, several depart substantially from ideal behavior, warranting a collective effort to improve these items. Suggestions for improving the measurement characteristics of the MUM at the item and test levels are put forward and discussed.

  8. Tools and methods for experimental in-vivo measurement and biomechanical characterization of an Octopus vulgaris arm.

    PubMed

    Margheri, Laura; Mazzolai, Barbara; Cianchetti, Matteo; Dario, Paolo; Laschi, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    This work illustrates new tools and methods for an in vivo and direct, but non-invasive, measurement of an octopus arm mechanical properties. The active elongation (longitudinal stretch) and the pulling force capability are measured on a specimen of Octopus vulgaris in order to quantitatively characterize the parameters describing the arm mechanics, for biomimetic design purposes. The novel approach consists of observing and measuring a living octopus with minimally invasive methods, which allow the animal to move with its complete ability. All tools are conceived in order to create a collaborative interaction with the animal for the acquisition of active measures. The data analysis is executed taking into account the presence of an intrinsic error due to the mobility of the subject and the aquatic environment. Using a system of two synchronized high-speed high-resolution cameras and purpose-made instruments, the maximum elongation of an arm and its rest length (when all muscles fibres are relaxed during propulsion movement) are measured and compared to define the longitudinal stretch, with the impressive average result of 194%. With a similar setup integrated with a force sensor, the pulling force capability is measured as a function of grasp point position along the arm. The measured parameters are used as real specifications for the design of an octopus-like arm with a biomimetic approach. PMID:19965276

  9. Development and evaluation of tools for measuring the quality of experience (QoE) in mHealth applications.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Candelas-Plasencia, Sonia; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2013-10-01

    The rapid spread of smartphones and tablets in the last years has created a new software industry whose fast growth has propitiated numerous low-quality applications to be revised and improved. The main aim of this paper is to develop a tool to assess the Quality of Experience (QoE) of mobile Health (mHealth) applications in order to improve the quality of the existing apps and the ones to be released. Firstly, a review of the applications of mHealth has been done in order to obtain a general classification. Secondly, the tool for measuring the QoE is developed in the form of a survey with the help of psychologists. Finally, this tool is evaluated using a sample of applications selected with the aid of the classification obtained. A survey with 21 questions using the Likert scale and destined to users has been successfully created, and its evaluation has been positive, resulting in a good method for measuring the QoE of the different features that the applications in the field of health care usually have. The tool created can be very useful for developers in order to assess the quality of their health care apps, indicating their positive aspects and the ones which must be revised and improved, avoiding the releasing of low-quality apps. PMID:24014255

  10. A Statistical Method and Tool to Account for Indirect Calorimetry Differential Measurement Error in a Single-Subject Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tenan, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry and oxygen consumption (VO2) are accepted tools in human physiology research. It has been shown that indirect calorimetry systems exhibit differential measurement error, where the error of a device is systematically different depending on the volume of gas flow. Moreover, systems commonly report multiple decimal places of precision, giving the clinician a false sense of device accuracy. The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate the use of a novel statistical tool which models the reliability of two specific indirect calorimetry systems, Douglas bag and Parvomedics 2400 TrueOne, as univariate normal distributions and implements the distribution overlapping coefficient to determine the likelihood that two VO2 measures are the same. A command line implementation of the tool is available for the R programming language as well as a web-based graphical user interface (GUI). This tool is valuable for clinicians performing a single-subject analysis as well as researchers interested in determining if their observed differences exceed the error of the device. PMID:27242546

  11. A Statistical Method and Tool to Account for Indirect Calorimetry Differential Measurement Error in a Single-Subject Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tenan, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry and oxygen consumption (VO2) are accepted tools in human physiology research. It has been shown that indirect calorimetry systems exhibit differential measurement error, where the error of a device is systematically different depending on the volume of gas flow. Moreover, systems commonly report multiple decimal places of precision, giving the clinician a false sense of device accuracy. The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate the use of a novel statistical tool which models the reliability of two specific indirect calorimetry systems, Douglas bag and Parvomedics 2400 TrueOne, as univariate normal distributions and implements the distribution overlapping coefficient to determine the likelihood that two VO2 measures are the same. A command line implementation of the tool is available for the R programming language as well as a web-based graphical user interface (GUI). This tool is valuable for clinicians performing a single-subject analysis as well as researchers interested in determining if their observed differences exceed the error of the device. PMID:27242546

  12. Web-based Tool Identifies and Quantifies Potential Cost Savings Measures at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Renevitz, Marisa J.; Peschong, Jon C.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Simpson, Brett C.

    2014-01-09

    The Technical Improvement system is an approachable web-based tool that is available to Hanford DOE staff, site contractors, and general support service contractors as part of the baseline optimization effort underway at the Hanford Site. Finding and implementing technical improvements are a large part of DOE’s cost savings efforts. The Technical Improvement dashboard is a key tool for brainstorming and monitoring the progress of submitted baseline optimization and potential cost/schedule efficiencies. The dashboard is accessible to users over the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN) and provides a highly visual and straightforward status to management on the ideas provided, alleviating the need for resource intensive weekly and monthly reviews.

  13. Development of the Environmental Assessment Tool (EAT) to Measure Organizational Physical and Social Support for Worksite Obesity Prevention Programs

    PubMed Central

    DeJoy, David M.; Wilson, Mark G.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Ozminkowski, Ronald J.; Wang, Shaohung; Baker, Kristin M.; Bowen, Heather M.; Tully, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the development, reliability, and validity of the Environmental Assessment Tool (EAT) for assessing worksite physical and social environmental support for obesity prevention. Methods The EAT was developed using a multi-step process. Inter-rater reliability was estimated via Kappa and other measures. Concurrent and predictive validity were estimated using site-level correlations and person-level multiple regression analyses comparing EAT scores and employee absenteeism and healthcare expenditures. Results Results show high inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity for many measures and predictive validity for absenteeism expenditures. Conclusions The primary use of the EAT is as a physical and social environment assessment tool for worksite obesity prevention efforts. It can be used as a reliable and valid means to estimate relationships between environmental interventions and absenteeism and medical expenditures, provided those expenditures are for the same year that the EAT is administered. PMID:18301169

  14. Aberration measurement of projection optics in lithographic tools by use of an alternating phase-shifting mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fan; Wang, Xiangzhao; Ma, Mingying; Zhang, Dongqing; Shi, Weijie; Hu, Jianming

    2006-01-01

    As a critical dimension shrinks, the degradation in image quality caused by wavefront aberrations of projection optics in lithographic tools becomes a serious problem. It is necessary to establish a technique for a fast and accurate in situ aberration measurement. We introduce what we believe to be a novel technique for characterizing the aberrations of projection optics by using an alternating phase-shifting mask. The even aberrations, such as spherical aberration and astigmatism, and the odd aberrations, such as coma, are extracted from focus shifts and image displacements of the phase-shifted pattern, respectively. The focus shifts and the image displacements are measured by a transmission image sensor. The simulation results show that, compared with the accuracy of the previous straightforward measurement technique, the accuracy of the coma measurement increases by more than 30% and the accuracy of the spherical-aberration measurement increases by approximately 20%.

  15. Utilizing a scope and span of control tool to measure workload and determine supporting resources for nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dawndra; McLaughlin, Maribeth; Gebbens, Christopher; Terhorst, Lauren

    2015-05-01

    The scope and span of control of the nurse manager directly impact turnover, succession planning, and satisfaction. Measuring and benchmarking scope and span of control remain a challenge. An interprofessional team across an integrated health delivery system developed and implemented such a tool, which was used to determine the amount of operational and clerical support for managers. Since implementation, there has been a decrease in turnover and time to fill nurse manager positions. PMID:25906131

  16. Collaborative Measurement Development as a Tool in CBPR: Measurement Development and Adaptation within the Cultures of Communities

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, John; Trickett, Edison J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the processes we engaged in to develop a measurement protocol used to assess the outcomes in a community based suicide and alcohol abuse prevention project with two Alaska Native communities. While the literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) is substantial regarding the importance of collaborations, few studies have reported on this collaboration in the process of developing measures to assess CBPR projects. We first tell a story of the processes around the standard issues of doing cross-cultural work on measurement development related to areas of equivalence. A second story is provided that highlights how community differences within the same cultural group can affect both the process and content of culturally relevant measurement selection, adaptation, and development. PMID:24748283

  17. Scanning tunneling microscopy-based in situ measurement of fast tool servo-assisted diamond turning micro-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Bing-Feng; Zhu, Wu-Le; Yang, Shunyao; Yang, Keji

    2014-05-01

    We propose a new in situ measurement system based on scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to realize spiral scanning of a micro-structure without removing it after fast tool servo (FTS) cutting. To avoid distortion of the machined and measured surface, the center alignment of the FTS tool and the STM tip was first implemented by an STM in situ raster scan of two circular grooves cut by the machine tool. To originally observe the machined surface, the trace of the STM tip is put in accord with that of the FTS by setting the same start and end points of cutting and scanning and the same feed rate, and both are triggered by the subdivided rotary encoder of the spindle of the diamond turning machine. The profile data of the in situ spiral scanning of the machined micro-lens array can be fed back to compensate the depth of the cut to guarantee sub-micron form accuracy after second machining. The efficient spiral scanning, proper matching and accurate evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed STM in situ measurement approach is of great significance to the fabrication process.

  18. Empirical analysis of the efficient use of geometric error identification in a machine tool by tracking measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, S.; Santolaria, J.; Samper, D.; Velazquez, J.; Aguilar, J. J.

    2016-03-01

    Volumetric verification is becoming increasingly accepted as a suitable technique with which to improve machine tool accuracy. In the same way, the use of laser trackers to obtain machine error information using the new Active Target motorised retro-reflector allows the verification of all types of machine tool throughout their workspaces. Non-linear optimisation methods and machine tool kinematic models are the mainstays of this technique. Whereas the latter provide the relationship between the nominal coordinates, the geometric errors of the machine and laser tracker measurement, the former reduces the combined influence of geometric errors by obtaining their approximation functions. However, within these two procedures, several factors affect the scope of the produced verification results. The present paper focuses on the analysis of the adequacy of commercial measurement techniques using laser trackers and the new motorised retro-reflector in a real milling machine. An examination is also made regarding the influence of the optimisation sequence defined by the identification strategy, as well as the impact of the number of measured points in relation to the employed regression functions.

  19. Research in physical medicine and rehabilitation. XII. Measurement tools with application to brain injury.

    PubMed

    Johnston, M V; Findley, T W; DeLuca, J; Katz, R T

    1991-02-01

    There are basic principles and techniques of measurement that are relevant across biomedical disciplines. The purpose of this article is to explain some of the most important of these for medical rehabilitation, to illustrate how to use them to choose assessment instruments and to describe the nature of measurement in medical rehabilitation by examples in brain injury rehabilitation. Reliability is basic to any scientific measure. Validity, the ultimate criterion, is closely associated with the purpose of the measure. Content validity, criterion validity and construct validity are explained. Sensitivity to rehabilitative interventions and significance in patients' real lives (ecological validity) are emphasized. Measures of functional outcomes (disability) may show improvement after rehabilitation even when impairment measures do not. An extensive but selected list of measures of coma, global status, disabilities, communicative and cognitive impairments, and handicaps is presented, and their main uses are illustrated. Examples illustrate how to choose measures to study comprehensive program-level outcomes, to study learning-based interventions and to develop a general purpose database. Although there are many measures of activities of daily living and mobility, little published evidence of reliability and validity could be found even for some well-known scales. Ecologically valid and sensitive outcome measures are especially needed. Studies of the clinical utility of measures were also scarce. Many of these gaps can be spanned by clinical researchers with limited resources. Physical medicine and rehabilitation will benefit from formal studies of the reliabilities and validities of both its old and its new measurement instruments and by increased sophistication in choice of measures. PMID:1994970

  20. Inter- and intraobserver reliability assessment of the Cobb angle: manual versus digital measurement tools

    PubMed Central

    Gstoettner, Michaela; Sekyra, Katrin; Walochnik, Nadja; Winter, Peter; Wachter, Roland

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of end vertebra definition and Cobb angle measurement using printed and digital radiographs of 48 patients with scoliosis. The Cobb angle and the end vertebra were assessed by six observers in 48 patients with scoliosis using printed and digital radiographs. Definition of end vertebra and measurement of the Cobb angle was repeated three times with a 3 week interval. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to determine the interobserver and intraobserver reliabilities. 95% prediction limits for the errors in measurements are provided. For the Cobb angle a mean ICC of 0.97 was determined for intra- and interobserver reliability measurement of the printed radiographs. For the electronic radiographs a mean ICC value of 0.93 was determined for interobserver reliability and a mean ICC value of 0.96 for intraobserver reliability. Intraobserver ICC for definition of end vertebrae was 0.8 for both methods. Interobserver ICC was 0.83 for the manual and 0.74 in the digital method. One pitfall in angle measurement implies the Cobb method itself which measures in two dimensions. Until we develop a proper tri-dimensional measuring system an error is introduced. For the Cobb angle measurement the definition of end vertebrae introduces the main source of error. Digital radiography does not improve the measurement accuracy. PMID:17549526

  1. Development of the assessment for collaborative environments (ACE-15): A tool to measure perceptions of interprofessional "teamness".

    PubMed

    Tilden, Virginia P; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Dieckmann, Nathan F

    2016-05-01

    As interprofessional education moves from classroom to clinical settings, assessing clinical training sites for a high level of "teamness" to ensure optimal learning environments is critical but often problematic ahead of student placement. We developed a tool (Assessment for Collaborative Environments, or ACE), suitable for a range of clinical settings and health professionals, that allows rapid assessment of a clinical practice's teamwork qualities. We collected evidence of tool validity including content, response process, internal structure, and convergent validity. Expert review and cognitive interviews allowed reduction of the initial 30-item tool to 15 items (the ACE-15). Data from 192 respondents from 17 clinical professions and varied clinical settings (inpatient, ambulatory, urban, and rural) were used for factor analysis, which resulted in a single factor solution. Internal consistency reliability Cronbach's alpha was high at 0.91. Subgroup analysis of 121 respondents grouped by their clinical teams (n = 16 teams) showed a wide range of intra-team agreement. Data from a subsequent sample of 54 clinicians who completed the ACE-15 and a measure of team cohesion indicated convergent validity, with a correlation of the tools at r = 0.81. We conclude that the ACE-15 has acceptable psychometric properties and promising utility for assessing interprofessional teamness in clinical training sites that are settings for learners, and, in addition may be useful for team development. PMID:27029641

  2. The measurement of psychosis in dementia: a comparison of assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Golander, Hava

    2011-01-01

    The precise operational definition of psychosis in dementia lacks consensus, partially owing to incongruence in the various assessment tools used. This study compares assessments of psychotic symptoms in persons with dementia, specifically of hallucinations and delusions, through the 4 most frequently used assessments. Participants were 74 nursing home residents from 9 nursing homes in Israel, diagnosed with dementia. Assessment tools used included the Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Homes (NPI-NH), the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia (CERAD-BRSD), and the Columbia University Scale for Psychopathology in Alzheimer's Disease (CUSPAD). The highest prevalence rates of delusions were found through the CUSPAD, and the lowest through the CERAD-BRSD. Rates identified by the BEHAVE-AD were intermediate and similar to those of the NPI-NH. As for hallucinations, rates indicated by the BEHAVE-AD, the NPI-NH, and the CUSPAD were similar, with small sample-based differences, and higher than those found through the CERAD-BRSD. The CERAD-BRSD, soliciting reports of the fewest specific symptoms, detected the fewest psychotic symptoms. The CUSPAD, soliciting the most items, presented the highest prevalence rates. The BEHAVE-AD and the NPI-NH had similar rates and showed a high convergent validity. PMID:20921878

  3. REACH-ER: a tool to evaluate river basin remediation measures for contaminants at the catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Griensven, Ann; Haest, Pieter Jan; Broekx, Steven; Seuntjens, Piet; Campling, Paul; Ducos, Geraldine; Blaha, Ludek; Slobodnik, Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    The European Union (EU) adopted the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in 2000 ensuring that all aquatic ecosystems meet ‘good status' by 2015. However, it is a major challenge for river basin managers to meet this requirement in river basins with a high population density as well as intensive agricultural and industrial activities. The EU financed AQUAREHAB project (FP7) specifically examines the ecological and economic impact of innovative rehabilitation technologies for multi-pressured degraded water bodies. For this purpose, a generic collaborative management tool ‘REACH-ER' is being developed that can be used by stakeholders, citizens and water managers to evaluate the ecological and economical effects of different remedial actions on waterbodies. The tool is built using databases from large scale models simulating the hydrological dynamics of the river basing and sub-basins, the costs of the measures and the effectiveness of the measures in terms of ecological impact. Knowledge rules are used to describe the relationships between these data in order to compute the flux concentrations or to compute the effectiveness of measures. The management tool specifically addresses nitrate pollution and pollution by organic micropollutants. Detailed models are also used to predict the effectiveness of site remedial technologies using readily available global data. Rules describing ecological impacts are derived from ecotoxicological data for (mixtures of) specific contaminants (msPAF) and ecological indices relating effects to the presence of certain contaminants. Rules describing the cost-effectiveness of measures are derived from linear programming models identifying the least-cost combination of abatement measures to satisfy multi-pollutant reduction targets and from multi-criteria analysis.

  4. The Measure of Adolescent Potential for Suicide (MAPS): A Tool for Assessment and Crisis Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Elaine; Randell, Brooke P.; Eggert, Leona L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an instrument that uses questionnaires and interviews to measure adolescents' potential for suicide. Describes the measure's use with a group of students involved in a school-based drop-out- and drug-abuse prevention program. Youth showed significant decreases in suicide risk behaviors, depression, hopelessness, stress, and anger in…

  5. Is the Process of Special Measures an Effective Tool for Bringing about Authentic School Improvement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Managing change in education is a complex process, but to do so under the pressure of a punishment-based measurement system (Fullan, 2008) makes sustainable and meaningful change increasingly difficult. Systems which produce high stakes accountability measures, which bring with it sanctions that create a greater sense of distrust, demoralization…

  6. RESNA Resource Guide for Assistive Technology Outcomes: Measurement Tools. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RESNA: Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology, Arlington, VA.

    This resource guide, the first of three volumes, lays out the fundamentals of outcome measurements for assistive technology. It includes the whys and hows of gathering data so that assistive technology practitioners can integrate outcomes measurement activities in their daily practice. Chapters include: (1) "Concepts and Rationale for…

  7. Amino acid profiles and digestible indispensable amino acid scores of proteins from the prioritized key foods in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Nazma; Islam, Saiful; Munmun, Sarah; Mohiduzzaman, Md; Longvah, Thingnganing

    2016-12-15

    Concentrations of standard amino acids were determined in the composite samples (representing 30 agro-ecological zones of Bangladesh) of six prioritized key dietary protein sources: Oryza sativa (rice), Triticum aestivum (wheat flour), Lens culinaris (lentils), Pangusius pangusius (pangas), Labeo rohita (rohu) and Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia). Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) was calculated using published data on amino acids' digestibility to evaluate the protein quality of these foods. Indispensable amino acid (IAA) contents (mg IAA/g protein), found to be highest in pangas (430) and lowest in wheat (336), of all these analyzed foods exceeded the FAO recommended daily allowance (277mg IAA/g protein) and contributed on average 40% to total amino acid contents. Untruncated DIAAS values ranged from 51% (lysine) in wheat to 106% (histidine) in pangas and distinguished pangas, rohu, and tilapia containing 'excellent quality' protein (DIAAS>100%) with potential to complement lower quality protein of cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:27451158

  8. Protein quality as determined by the Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score: evaluation of factors underlying the calculation.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Robert R; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Kim, Il-Young; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations recently recommended the adoption of a new and improved scoring system (Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score [DIAAS]) to quantify dietary protein quality. The DIAAS is based on the relative digestible content of the indispensable amino acids (IAAs) and the amino acid requirement pattern. Factors involved in calculation of the DIAAS include: use of the content and profile of IAAs as the basis for quality; methods for determination of the protein and amino acid content of the protein source; accuracy of individual requirement values for IAAs; normalization of IAA requirements by the estimated average requirement for protein; and basing the DIAAS on the true ileal digestibility of each IAA in the test protein. This review outlines the rationale for including each of these factors in the calculation of the DIAAS and describes associated potential errors. PMID:27452871

  9. R-CEPIA1er as a new tool to directly measure sarcoplasmic reticulum [Ca] in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Elisa; Martin, Jody L; Tyryfter, Jollyn; de Tombe, Pieter P; Zima, Aleksey V

    2016-07-01

    In cardiomyocytes, [Ca] within the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR; [Ca]SR) partially determines the amplitude of cytosolic Ca transient that, in turn, governs myocardial contraction. Therefore, it is critical to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate [Ca]SR handling. Until recently, the best approach available to directly measure [Ca]SR was to use low-affinity Ca indicators (e.g., Fluo-5N). However, this approach presents several limitations, including nonspecific cellular localization, dye extrusion, and species limitation. Recently a new genetically encoded family of Ca indicators has been generated, named Ca-measuring organelle-entrapped protein indicators (CEPIA). Here, we tested the red fluorescence SR-targeted Ca sensor (R-CEPIA1er) as a tool to directly measure [Ca]SR dynamics in ventricular myocytes. Infection of rabbit and rat ventricular myocytes with an adenovirus expressing the R-CEPIA1er gene displayed prominent localization in the SR and nuclear envelope. Calibration of R-CEPIA1er in myocytes resulted in a Kd of 609 μM, suggesting that this sensor is sensitive in the whole physiological range of [Ca]SR [Ca]SR dynamics measured with R-CEPIA1er were compared with [Ca]SR measured with Fluo5-N. We found that both the time course of the [Ca]SR depletion and fractional SR Ca release induced by an action potential were similar between these two Ca sensors. R-CEPIA1er fluorescence did not decline during experiments, indicating lack of dye extrusion or photobleaching. Furthermore, measurement of [Ca]SR with R-CEPIA1er can be combined with cytosolic [Ca] measurements (with Fluo-4) to obtain more detailed information regarding Ca handling in cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, R-CEPIA1er is a promising tool that can be used to measure [Ca]SR dynamics in myocytes from different animal species. PMID:27233762

  10. Methods and apparatus for measuring a length of cable suspending a well logging tool in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Broding, R.A.

    1986-07-01

    A system is described for measuring depth from the mouth of a borehole to a well logging tool connected to one end of an electrically conductive cable suspended in the borehole comprising: means for applying an initial electrical time pulse signal to one end of the cable, whereby the initial electrical time pulse signal propagates the length of the cable to one end of the cable to the well logging tool connected to the other end of the cable; means for detecting at the mouth of the borehole, which is intermediate both ends of the cable, the passage of the initial electrical time pulse signal along the length of the cable; means for detecting at the mouth of the borehole a subsequent electrical time pulse propagating along the length of the cable reflected from the other end of the cable; means for determining a time interval between the detection of the initial electrical time pulse signal at the mouth of the borehole and the detection of the subsequent electrical time pulse signal at the mouth of the borehole; and means for correlating the time interval with the depth to which the well logging tool is suspended in the borehole as measured from the mouth of the borehole.

  11. Measure for measure: Collaboration on R and D yields new tool for quantifying gas-energy content

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    It`s only a unobtrusive box mounted on a wall--a gas energy-content meter, to be precise. But the several parties that have been working closely on its development and field-testing, currently in the second (Alpha II prototype) phase, have high hopes for it, on several counts. The new meter, just recently christened GEC-100, achieves two important objectives. It provides real-time energy measurement (the ability to organize and report data at nearly the same time it`s measured). And it provides cost savings, selling at less than $3,500; its competitors in real-time energy technology cost roughly $10,000--$30,000. Its developers also say the device will offer important competitive advantages in the turbulent new world of deregulation, where timely and accurate measurement of both energy value and volume consumed translate to greater precision in areas like customer metering and transportation custody transfer. The paper explains how the new meter works, what motivated the GRI to support development of the device, and the field testing.

  12. Measurements from an Aerial Vehicle: A New Tool for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Henry S.; Levine, Joel S.; Croom, Mark A.; Edwards, William C.; Qualls, Garry D.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.

    2004-01-01

    Aerial vehicles fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Aerial vehicles used in planetary exploration bridge the scale and resolution measurement gaps between orbiters (global perspective with limited spatial resolution) and landers (local perspective with high spatial resolution) thus complementing and extending orbital and landed measurements. Planetary aerial vehicles can also survey scientifically interesting terrain that is inaccessible or hazardous to landed missions. The use of aerial assets for performing observations on Mars, Titan, or Venus will enable direct measurements and direct follow-ons to recent discoveries. Aerial vehicles can be used for remote sensing of the interior, surface and atmosphere of Mars, Venus and Titan. Types of aerial vehicles considered are airplane "heavier than air" and airships and balloons "lighter than air". Interdependencies between the science measurements, science goals and objectives, and platform implementation illustrate how the proper balance of science, engineering, and cost, can be achieved to allow for a successful mission. Classification of measurement types along with how those measurements resolve science questions and how these instruments are accommodated within the mission context are discussed.

  13. The panel management questionnaire: a tool to measure panel management capability.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Elizabeth Ann; Hessler, Danielle; Dube, Kate; Willard-Grace, Rachel; Gupta, Reena; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Grumbach, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Primary care practices are turning toward team-based strategies such as panel management, in which nonclinicians address routine preventive and chronic disease care tasks for a group of patients. No known validated instruments have been published for measuring panel management implementation. The authors developed the 12-item Panel Management Questionnaire (PMQ) measuring 4 domains. Data were assembled from self-administered cross-sectional surveys of 136 staff and 204 clinicians in 9 county and 5 university adult primary care clinics. Staff and clinician PMQ scores in each clinic were correlated. The clinic-level median PMQ score was positively associated with a composite clinic quality measure. PMID:25785637

  14. RiboTag is a flexible tool for measuring the translational state of targeted cells in heterogeneous cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lesiak, Adam J.; Brodsky, Matthew; Neumaier, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Primary neuronal cultures are a useful tool for measuring pharmacological- and transgene-regulated gene expression; however, accurate measurements can be confounded by heterogeneous cell-types and inconsistent transfection efficiency. Here we describe our adaptation of a ribosomal capture strategy that was designed to be used in transgenic mice expressing tagged ribosomal subunits (RiboTag) in specific cell types, thereby allowing measurement of translating RNA from desired cell types within complex tissues. Using this strategy we were able to isolate and analyze neuron-specific RNA despite the presence of glia by co-transfecting experimental plasmids with plasmids that selectively express RiboTag in neurons. RiboTag immunoprecipitation was capable of recovering high integrity RNA from small numbers of transfected cells that can then be interrogated by a variety of methods (e.g. RT-qPCR, PCR array, RNAseq) and compared to basal RNA expression of the entire culture. Additionally, we demonstrate how co-transfection of RiboTag with sh-RNA constructs can validate and accurately assess the degree of gene expression knockdown, and how RiboTag can be used to measure receptor-mediated gene regulation with transiently expressed DREADD-receptors. RiboTag co-transfection represents a convenient and powerful tool to isolate RNA from a specific subset of cultured cells with a variety of applications for experiments in vitro. PMID:26054767

  15. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Patrick; Im, Piljae

    2012-04-01

    ) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of excavation

  16. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Patrick; Im, Piljae

    2012-01-01

    ) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of excavation

  17. Netest: A Tool to Measure the Maximum Burst Size, Available Bandwidth and Achievable Throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Guojun; Tierney, Brian

    2003-01-31

    Distinguishing available bandwidth and achievable throughput is essential for improving network applications' performance. Achievable throughput is the throughput considering a number of factors such as network protocol, host speed, network path, and TCP buffer space, where as available bandwidth only considers the network path. Without understanding this difference, trying to improve network applications' performance is like ''blind men feeling the elephant'' [4]. In this paper, we define and distinguish bandwidth and throughput, and debate which part of each is achievable and which is available. Also, we introduce and discuss a new concept - Maximum Burst Size that is crucial to the network performance and bandwidth sharing. A tool, netest, is introduced to help users to determine the available bandwidth, and provides information to achieve better throughput with fairness of sharing the available bandwidth, thus reducing misuse of the network.

  18. Star-Shaped Fluid Flow Tool for Use in Making Differential Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A fluid flow tool's plate-like structure has a ring portion defining a flow hole, a support portion extending radially away from the ring portion and adapted to be coupled to conduit wall, and extensions extending radially away from the ring portion such that a periphery of the plate-like structure is defined by the extensions and trough regions between adjacent extensions. One or more ports formed in the ring portion are in fluid communication with the flow hole. A first manifold in the plate-like structure is in fluid communication with each port communicating with the flow hole. One or more ports are formed in the periphery of the plate-like structure. A second manifold in the plate-like structure is in fluid communication with each port formed in the periphery. The first and second manifolds extend through the plate-like structure to terminate and be accessible at the conduit wall.

  19. Developing and testing a street audit tool using Google Street View to measure environmental supportiveness for physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Walking for physical activity is associated with substantial health benefits for adults. Increasingly research has focused on associations between walking behaviours and neighbourhood environments including street characteristics such as pavement availability and aesthetics. Nevertheless, objective assessment of street-level data is challenging. This research investigates the reliability of a new street characteristic audit tool designed for use with Google Street View, and assesses levels of agreement between computer-based and on-site auditing. Methods The Forty Area STudy street VIEW (FASTVIEW) tool, a Google Street View based audit tool, was developed incorporating nine categories of street characteristics. Using the tool, desk-based audits were conducted by trained researchers across one large UK town during 2011. Both inter and intra-rater reliability were assessed. On-site street audits were also completed to test the criterion validity of the method. All reliability scores were assessed by percentage agreement and the kappa statistic. Results Within-rater agreement was high for each category of street characteristic (range: 66.7%-90.0%) and good to high between raters (range: 51.3%-89.1%). A high level of agreement was found between the Google Street View audits and those conducted in-person across the nine categories examined (range: 75.0%-96.7%). Conclusion The audit tool was found to provide a reliable and valid measure of street characteristics. The use of Google Street View to capture street characteristic data is recommended as an efficient method that could substantially increase potential for large-scale objective data collection. PMID:23972205

  20. Pilot study of an assessment tool for measuring head and neck lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Jodie; Purcell, Amanda; Fleming, Jennifer; McCann, Andrew; Porceddu, Sandro

    2014-04-01

    Head and neck lymphoedema (HNL) is a persistent symptom for many patients following head and neck cancer treatment. There is limited research into the benefits of lymphoedema treatment with this population. This pilot study (n=8) employs the Assessment of Lymphoedema of Head and Neck (ALOHA) system to evaluate treatment changes in this clinical population. The ALOHA assessment combines the use of the Princess Alexandra Hospital tape measurement system and the use of Tissue Dielectric Constant (MoistureMeterD) to measure HNL. Baseline measures were taken at the start of treatment and were repeated when the participants had reduced one level on the MD Anderson Cancer Centre HNL rating scale. The MoistureMeterD and three of the four tape measurement points showed a statistically significant change over time. This indicates the ALOHA system was useful in objectively detecting changes associated with clinical improvements. PMID:24704756

  1. [Choice and consequence: measurement level determines the statistical tool-box].

    PubMed

    Svensson, Elisabeth

    Various types of data are used in health and behavioural sciences. Some of the variables, such as blood variables, can be measured by standardised, calibrated methods while others are based on subjective judgements from an expert or from the patients. There is a strong link between the measurement process and the choice of statistical toolbox. The statistically important measurement levels are; categorical, ordinal, quantitative discrete and quantitative continuous data. Special attention should be paid to non-negative quantitative data, and to ordinal data which are very common in medicine. In this paper the properties of the measurement levels are given and their consequences on the choice of statistical methods for description and analysis. PMID:15921110

  2. The Definition and Measurement of Evaluation Quality as a Management Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chelimsky, Eleanor

    1983-01-01

    Evaluation management requires a system for measuring, improving, and accounting for quality. The Institute for Program Evaluation in the United States General Accounting Office is developing such a system. (Author)

  3. Dark current-voltage measurements on photovoltaic modules as a diagnostic or manufacturing tool

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.L.; Hansen, B.R.; Quintana, M.A.; Kratochvil, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Dark current-voltage (dark I-V) measurements are commonly used to analyze the electrical characteristics of solar cells, providing an effective way to determine fundamental performance parameters without the need for a solar simulator. The dark I-V measurement procedure does not provide information regarding short-circuit current, but is more sensitive than light I-V measurements in determining the other parameters (series resistance, shunt resistance, diode factor, and diode saturation currents) that dictate the electrical performance of a photovoltaic device. The work documented here extends the use of dark I-V measurements to photovoltaic modules, illustrates their use in diagnosing module performance losses, and proposes their use for process monitoring during manufacturing.

  4. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF OUTCOME TOOLS USED TO MEASURE LOWER LEG CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Susan; Olszewski, Amanda; Ramsey, Olivia; Schmitz, Michelle; Wyatt, Verrelle

    2013-01-01

    Background Context: A variety of self‐report and physical performance‐based outcome measures are commonly used to assess progress and recovery in the lower leg, ankle, and foot. A requisite attribute of any outcome measure is its ability to detect change in a condition, a construct known as “responsiveness”. There is a lack of consistency in how responsiveness is defined in all outcome measures. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review the currently used recovery outcome measures for lower leg, ankle and foot conditions in order to determine and report recommended responsiveness values. Methods: A systematic literature search that included electronic searches of PubMed, CINAHL and SportDiscus as well extensive cross‐referencing was performed in January, 2013. Studies were included if each involved: 1) a prospective, longitudinal study of any design; 2) any condition associated with the lower leg, ankle or foot; 3) a measure of responsiveness; and 4) was an acceptable type of outcome measure (eg. self‐report, physical performance, or clinician report). The quality of the included articles was assessed by two independent authors using the responsiveness sub‐component of the Consensus‐based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN). Results: Sixteen different studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The most commonly used outcome measures were the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale. Responsiveness was calculated in a variety of methods including effect size, standardized response mean, minimal clinically important difference/importance, minimal detectable change, and minimal important change. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this systematic review there is a lack of consistency for reporting responsiveness among recovery measures used in the lower leg, ankle or foot studies. It is possible that the variability of conditions that involve the lower leg

  5. Twilight sky brightness measurements as a useful tool for stratospheric aerosol investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateshvili, Nina; Fussen, Didier; Vanhellemont, Filip; Bingen, Christine; KyröLä, Erkki; Mateshvili, Iuri; Mateshvili, Giuli

    2005-05-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how twilight sky brightness measurements can be used to obtain information about stratospheric aerosols. Beside this, the measurements of the distribution and the variability of the twilight sky brightness may help to understand how the stratospheric aerosols affect the radiation field, which is important for correct calculations of photodissociation rates. Multispectral measurements of twilight sky brightness were carried out in Abastumani Observatory (41.8°N, 42.8°E), Georgia, South Caucasus, during the period (1991-1993) when the level of stratospheric aerosols was substantially enhanced after the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption. The twilight sky brightness was measured at 9 wavelengths (422, 474, 496, 542, 610, 642, 678, 713, and 820 nm) for solar zenith angles from 89° to 107°. There are clear indications of a growth of the stratospheric aerosol layer after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo that manifests itself by "humps" in twilight sky brightness dependences versus solar zenith angle. Similar features were obtained using a radiative transfer code constrained by the SAGE II aerosol optical thicknesses. It is shown how an enhancement of stratospheric aerosol loading perturbs the twilight sky brightness due to light scattering and absorption in the aerosol layer. The influence of ozone variations and background stratospheric aerosols on twilight sky brightness has also been analyzed. The optical thicknesses of the stratospheric aerosol layer obtained from the twilight measurements of 1990-1993 show a good agreement with SAGE II results. The spectral variations of the stratospheric aerosol extinction for pre-Pinatubo and post-Pinatubo measurements reflect the aerosol growth after the eruption. Finally, the utilization of twilight sky brightness measurements for validation of satellite-based measurements of the stratospheric aerosol is proposed.

  6. The CERN n_TOF facility: a unique tool for nuclear data measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingrone, F.; Aberle, O.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bécares, V.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea-Correa, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Barros, S.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cortés, G.; Cosentino, L.; Damone, L.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Ganesan, S.; Garcia-Rios, A. A.; Gawlik, A.; Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; Gonzàlez, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Göbel, K.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lerendegui, J.; Lo Meo, S.; Lonsdale, S.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Musumarra, A.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Rout, P.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiss, C.; Wolf, C.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2016-06-01

    The study of the resonant structures in neutron-nucleus cross-sections, and therefore of the compound-nucleus reaction mechanism, requires spectroscopic measurements to determine with high accuracy the energy of the neutron interacting with the material under study. To this purpose, the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF has been operating since 2001 at CERN. Its characteristics, such as the high intensity instantaneous neutron flux, the wide energy range from thermal to few GeV, and the very good energy resolution, are perfectly suited to perform high-quality measurements of neutron-induced reaction cross sections. The precise and accurate knowledge of these cross sections plays a fundamental role in nuclear technologies, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear physics. Two different measuring stations are available at the n_TOF facility, called EAR1 and EAR2, with different characteristics of intensity of the neutron flux and energy resolution. These experimental areas, combined with advanced detection systems lead to a great flexibility in performing challenging measurement of high precision and accuracy, and allow the investigation isotopes with very low cross sections, or available only in small quantities, or with very high specific activity. The characteristics and performances of the two experimental areas of the n_TOF facility will be presented, together with the most important measurements performed to date and their physics case. In addition, the significant upcoming measurements will be introduced.

  7. Gripping tool for MEMS Assembly with an absolute distance measurement sensor using a fibre optic WL interferometer with high measuring frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Tilo; Aleriano, Ubaldo; Depiereux, Frank

    2003-03-01

    Reduction in the size of produced parts, increases the difficulty for precise manufacturing observation-processes and it makes manufacturing control cycles even more complex. Among all the production steps for micro-systems, assembly seems to be specially affected with this manufacturing handicap. Usual sensors used for the macro-world have to be modified or redesigned in order to address its use for the micro-world. This document presents the integration of a white light interferometer into a flexible fibre-scope used already for process monitoring purposes and which is mounted into a gripping-tool. The goal is to achieve a linear measurement between a gripping-tool and a target-part during the assembly process of hybrid micro systems.

  8. Optical-fiber-coupled inferometric measurement of tympanic membrane temperature: a new diagnostic tool for acute otitis media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRowe, Ari; Ophir, Eyal; Sade, Sharon; Fishman, Gadi; Ophir, Dov; Grankin, Mila; Katzir, Abraham

    1998-07-01

    A novel infrared (IR) transparent optical fiber coupled to a hand held otoscope and a radiometer was constructed and used to measure the temperatures of the tympanic membrane (TM) and to distinguish between diseased and healthy middle ears. A greater temperature difference between TM readings was found when Acute Otitis Media (AOM) existed in one of the ears examined. This supports the hypothesis that acute inflammation of the middle ear will result in elevated local temperature when measured in such a way that the reading is taken only from the TM without interference of the external canal. The use of an optical fiber enabled temperature measurements of the TM with high spatial resolution eliminating the external ear canal interference. A small patient population was examined and the initial results were statistically significant. In the hands of the primary care physician, this tool would prevent misdiagnosis of AOM preventing indiscriminate use of antibiotics and avoiding complications by early diagnosis.

  9. Optical property measurements as a diagnostic tool for control of materials processing in space and on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, Shankar; Weber, J. K. Richard; Nordine, Paul C.; Schiffman, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    A new method is described, including results, to measure, control, and follow containerless processing in ground based levitators. This technique enables instantaneous optical property measurements from a transient solid or liquid surface concurrent with true temperature measurement. This was used successfully as a diagnostic tool to follow processing of Al, Si, and Ti during electromagnetic levitation. Experiments on Al show the disappearance of the oxide (emittance 0.33) at ca. 1300 C leaving a liquid surface with an emittance of 0.06. Electromagnetic levitation of silicon shows a liquid with a constant emittance (0.2) but with a solid whose emittance decreases very rapidly with increasing temperature. Consequently, the processing of materials at high temperatures can be controlled quite well through the control of surface optical properties.

  10. Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC): A Practical Tool to Measure Quality Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Amy E; Wagner, Edward H; Glasgow, Russell E; VonKorff, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Objective To describe initial testing of the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC), a practical quality-improvement tool to help organizations evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their delivery of care for chronic illness in six areas: community linkages, self-management support, decision support, delivery system design, information systems, and organization of care. Data Sources (1) Pre-post, self-report ACIC data from organizational teams enrolled in 13-month quality-improvement collaboratives focused on care for chronic illness; (2) independent faculty ratings of team progress at the end of collaborative. Study design Teams completed the ACIC at the beginning and end of the collaborative using a consensus format that produced average ratings of their system's approach to delivering care for the targeted chronic condition. Average ACIC subscale scores (ranging from 0 to 11, with 11 representing optimal care) for teams across all four collaboratives were obtained to indicate how teams rated their care for chronic illness before beginning improvement work. Paired t-tests were used to evaluate the sensitivity of the ACIC to detect system improvements for teams in two (of four) collaboratives focused on care for diabetes and congestive heart failure (CHF). Pearson correlations between the ACIC subscale scores and a faculty rating of team performance were also obtained. Results Average baseline scores across all teams enrolled at the beginning of the collaboratives ranged from 4.36 (information systems) to 6.42 (organization of care), indicating basic to good care for chronic illness. All six ACIC subscale scores were responsive to system improvements diabetes and CHF teams made over the course of the collaboratives. The most substantial improvements were seen in decision support, delivery system design, and information systems. CHF teams had particularly high scores in self-management support at the completion of the collaborative. Pearson correlations

  11. A Magnetic Field Response Recorder: A New Tool for Measurement Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2006-01-01

    A magnetic field response recorder was developed to facilitate a measurement acquisition method that uses magnetic fields to power and to interrogate all sensors. Sensors are designed as electrically passive inductive-capacitive or passive inductive-capacitive-resistive circuits that produce magnetic field responses when electrically activated by oscillating magnetic fields. When electrically activated, the sensor's magnetic field response attributes (frequency, amplitude and bandwidth) correspond to the one or more physical states that each sensor measures. The response recorder makes it possible to simultaneously measure two unrelated physical properties using this class of sensors. The recorder is programmable allowing it to analyze one or more response attributes simultaneously. A single sensor design will be used to demonstrate that the acquisition method and the sensor example can be used to for all phases of a component's life from manufacturing to damage that can destroy it.

  12. Continuous measurement of viscous magnetization decay: an alternative tool in magnetic granulometry of sediments and soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadima, M.

    2013-12-01

    The ultra-fine magnetic grains in sediments and soils usually span across the superparamagnetic/stable single domain (SP/SSD) boundary. The SP grains carry no remanent magnetization but possess a very high magnetic susceptibility. While the SSD grains carry a very stable magnetic remanence, the magnetization of the grains just around the SP/SSD boundary is highly viscous. The presence of the SP magnetic particles has been traditionally investigated using the in-phase magnetic susceptibility measured in several operating frequencies. In addition, it has been suggested that the out-of-phase susceptibility measured on a single frequency can provide us with comparable results since there is a direct relationship between the frequency-dependent in-phase susceptibility and the out-of-phase susceptibility. Assuming a broad distribution of the ultra-fine magnetic particles spanning across the SP/SSD boundary we suggest to assess their presence using the continuous measurement of the decay of viscous magnetization. For that purpose we use a newly-developed Agico pulse magnetizer coupled with a JR6 spinner magnetometer which allows the automatic repeated measurements of magnetic remanence. Since both instruments are controlled from the same computer, the exact time of DC pulse termination is known and used as a zero time for evaluation of time-dependent viscous decay. Magnetic remanence is then measured repeatedly as a function of time for about five minutes. Exponential decay curve is fitted on the acquired data and the relative ratio of viscous and non-viscous grains is estimated. Our method is tested on the loess/paleosol samples from the European loess belt. The relative amount of the ultra-fine grains assessed by the suggested viscous decay method can be very well correlated with the results obtained from the frequency-dependent and out-of-phase susceptibility measurements.

  13. Intense ion beams as a tool for opacity measurements in warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, Joseph; Tauschwiz, An; Jacoby, J; Maruhn, J A; Novikov, V G; Tauschwitz, A; Onkels, E; Wittle, K; Rosmej, F B; Schott, R

    2009-01-01

    Opacity measurements in warm dense matter (WDM) provide a valuable benchmark for the diverging theoretical models in this regime. Heating of thin foils with intense heavy-ion beams allows one to create isolated samples of warm dense matter suitable for experimental determination of frequency-dependent opacities. A prerequisite for the measurements is the isothermal expansion of the heated foil. Hydrodynamic simulations predict that this condition is fulfilled. The analysis shows that existing ion-beam accelerators are capable to contribute to this field of research.

  14. The Discrete Emotions Questionnaire: A New Tool for Measuring State Self-Reported Emotions.

    PubMed

    Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Bastian, Brock; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-01-01

    Several discrete emotions have broad theoretical and empirical importance, as shown by converging evidence from diverse areas of psychology, including facial displays, developmental behaviors, and neuroscience. However, the measurement of these states has not progressed along with theory, such that when researchers measure subjectively experienced emotions, they commonly rely on scales assessing broad dimensions of affect (positivity and negativity), rather than discrete emotions. The current manuscript presents four studies that validate a new instrument, the Discrete Emotions Questionnaire (DEQ), that is sensitive to eight distinct state emotions: anger, disgust, fear, anxiety, sadness, happiness, relaxation, and desire. Emotion theory supporting the importance of distinguishing these specific emotions is reviewed. PMID:27500829

  15. Smartphones as experimental tools to measure acoustical and mechanical properties of vibrating rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Manuel Á.; González, Miguel Á.

    2016-07-01

    Modern smartphones have calculation and sensor capabilities that make them suitable for use as versatile and reliable measurement devices in simple teaching experiments. In this work a smartphone is used, together with low cost materials, in an experiment to measure the frequencies emitted by vibrating rods of different materials, shapes and lengths. The results obtained with the smartphone have been compared with theoretical calculations and the agreement is good. Alternatively, physics students can perform the experiment described here and use their results to determine the dependencies of the obtained frequencies on the rod characteristics. In this way they will also practice research methods that they will probably use in their professional life.

  16. The Discrete Emotions Questionnaire: A New Tool for Measuring State Self-Reported Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Bastian, Brock

    2016-01-01

    Several discrete emotions have broad theoretical and empirical importance, as shown by converging evidence from diverse areas of psychology, including facial displays, developmental behaviors, and neuroscience. However, the measurement of these states has not progressed along with theory, such that when researchers measure subjectively experienced emotions, they commonly rely on scales assessing broad dimensions of affect (positivity and negativity), rather than discrete emotions. The current manuscript presents four studies that validate a new instrument, the Discrete Emotions Questionnaire (DEQ), that is sensitive to eight distinct state emotions: anger, disgust, fear, anxiety, sadness, happiness, relaxation, and desire. Emotion theory supporting the importance of distinguishing these specific emotions is reviewed. PMID:27500829

  17. An automated tool for three types of saturated hydraulic conductivity laboratory measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wietsma, Thomas W.; Oostrom, Martinus; Covert, Matthew A.; Queen, Theresa E.; Fayer, Michael J.

    2009-03-01

    Acquisition of porous medium hydraulic conductivity in the laboratory is usually time-consuming and costly because of the manual labor associated with the currently available techniques. Lately, there has been increased interest in automating hydraulic conductivity laboratory techniques to reduce analysis time and improve data consistency. A new apparatus is presented that is able to determine hydraulic conductivity values with the falling head, constant head, and constant flux methods in an automated fashion. In addition, the columns are designed forcing water to flow in a nominally one-dimensional manner throughout the porous medium. In this paper, hydraulic conductivity data for standard laboratory sands are presented and compared to results obtained using a standard Tempe cell configuration. Hydraulic conductivity values obtained with the new tool for the laboratory sands are consistent with literature data. For highly permeable sands, the newly obtained hydraulic conductivity values are considerable larger then values acquired using a Tempe cell configuration. The lower conductivity values for the Tempe Cell configuration are primarily the result of insufficient spreading of water in the inlet and outlet reservoirs.

  18. Cell Deformation by Single-beam Acoustic Trapping: A Promising Tool for Measurements of Cell Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Kim, Jihun; Park, Jin Man; Lee, Changyang; Jung, Hayong; Lee, Jungwoo; Shung, K. Kirk

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a noncontact single-beam acoustic trapping method for the quantification of the mechanical properties of a single suspended cell with label-free. Experimentally results show that the single-beam acoustic trapping force results in morphological deformation of a trapped cell. While a cancer cell was trapped in an acoustic beam focus, the morphological changes of the immobilized cell were monitored using bright-field imaging. The cell deformability was then compared with that of a trapped polystyrene microbead as a function of the applied acoustic pressure for a better understanding of the relationship between the pressure and degree of cell deformation. Cell deformation was found to become more pronounced as higher pressure levels were applied. Furthermore, to determine if this acoustic trapping method can be exploited in quantifying the cell mechanics in a suspension and in a non-contact manner, the deformability levels of breast cancer cells with different degrees of invasiveness due to acoustic trapping were compared. It was found that highly-invasive breast cancer cells exhibited greater deformability than weakly-invasive breast cancer cells. These results clearly demonstrate that the single-beam acoustic trapping technique is a promising tool for non-contact quantitative assessments of the mechanical properties of single cells in suspensions with label-free. PMID:27273365

  19. Cell Deformation by Single-beam Acoustic Trapping: A Promising Tool for Measurements of Cell Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Kim, Jihun; Park, Jin Man; Lee, Changyang; Jung, Hayong; Lee, Jungwoo; Shung, K. Kirk

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a noncontact single-beam acoustic trapping method for the quantification of the mechanical properties of a single suspended cell with label-free. Experimentally results show that the single-beam acoustic trapping force results in morphological deformation of a trapped cell. While a cancer cell was trapped in an acoustic beam focus, the morphological changes of the immobilized cell were monitored using bright-field imaging. The cell deformability was then compared with that of a trapped polystyrene microbead as a function of the applied acoustic pressure for a better understanding of the relationship between the pressure and degree of cell deformation. Cell deformation was found to become more pronounced as higher pressure levels were applied. Furthermore, to determine if this acoustic trapping method can be exploited in quantifying the cell mechanics in a suspension and in a non-contact manner, the deformability levels of breast cancer cells with different degrees of invasiveness due to acoustic trapping were compared. It was found that highly-invasive breast cancer cells exhibited greater deformability than weakly-invasive breast cancer cells. These results clearly demonstrate that the single-beam acoustic trapping technique is a promising tool for non-contact quantitative assessments of the mechanical properties of single cells in suspensions with label-free.

  20. Cell Deformation by Single-beam Acoustic Trapping: A Promising Tool for Measurements of Cell Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Kim, Jihun; Park, Jin Man; Lee, Changyang; Jung, Hayong; Lee, Jungwoo; Shung, K Kirk

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a noncontact single-beam acoustic trapping method for the quantification of the mechanical properties of a single suspended cell with label-free. Experimentally results show that the single-beam acoustic trapping force results in morphological deformation of a trapped cell. While a cancer cell was trapped in an acoustic beam focus, the morphological changes of the immobilized cell were monitored using bright-field imaging. The cell deformability was then compared with that of a trapped polystyrene microbead as a function of the applied acoustic pressure for a better understanding of the relationship between the pressure and degree of cell deformation. Cell deformation was found to become more pronounced as higher pressure levels were applied. Furthermore, to determine if this acoustic trapping method can be exploited in quantifying the cell mechanics in a suspension and in a non-contact manner, the deformability levels of breast cancer cells with different degrees of invasiveness due to acoustic trapping were compared. It was found that highly-invasive breast cancer cells exhibited greater deformability than weakly-invasive breast cancer cells. These results clearly demonstrate that the single-beam acoustic trapping technique is a promising tool for non-contact quantitative assessments of the mechanical properties of single cells in suspensions with label-free. PMID:27273365

  1. A least-squares computational ``tool kit``. Nuclear data and measurements series

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1993-04-01

    The information assembled in this report is intended to offer a useful computational ``tool kit`` to individuals who are interested in a variety of practical applications for the least-squares method of parameter estimation. The fundamental principles of Bayesian analysis are outlined first and these are applied to development of both the simple and the generalized least-squares conditions. Formal solutions that satisfy these conditions are given subsequently. Their application to both linear and non-linear problems is described in detail. Numerical procedures required to implement these formal solutions are discussed and two utility computer algorithms are offered for this purpose (codes LSIOD and GLSIOD written in FORTRAN). Some simple, easily understood examples are included to illustrate the use of these algorithms. Several related topics are then addressed, including the generation of covariance matrices, the role of iteration in applications of least-squares procedures, the effects of numerical precision and an approach that can be pursued in developing data analysis packages that are directed toward special applications.

  2. Toxmatch--a chemical classification and activity prediction tool based on similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Saliner, Ana; Poater, Albert; Jeliazkova, Nina; Patlewicz, Grace; Worth, Andrew P

    2008-11-01

    Chemical similarity forms the underlying basis for the development of (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships ((Q)SARs), expert systems and chemical groupings. Recently a new software tool to facilitate chemical similarity calculations named Toxmatch was developed. Toxmatch encodes a number of similarity indices to help in the systematic development of chemical groupings, including endpoint specific groupings and read-across, and the comparison of model training and test sets. Two rule-based classification schemes were additionally implemented, namely: the Verhaar scheme for assigning mode of action for aquatic toxicants and the BfR rulebase for skin irritation and corrosion. In this study, a variety of different descriptor-based similarity indices were used to evaluate and compare the BfR training set with respect to its test set. The descriptors utilised in this comparison were the same as those used to derive the original BfR rules i.e. the descriptors selected were relevant for skin irritation/corrosion. The Euclidean distance index was found to be the most predictive of the indices in assessing the performance of the rules. PMID:18617309

  3. Development of the Domain Identification Measure: A Tool for Investigating Stereotype Threat Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jessi L.; White, Paul H.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the psychometric properties of an individual difference measure of identification within the mathematics and English domains. Factor analytic results substantiated the presence of English and Mathematics subscales, which yielded scores that were internally consistent and stable over time. Results for samples of 1,143 and 98 college…

  4. Lung Perfusion Measured Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging: New Tools for Physiological Insights Into the Pulmonary Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Susan R.; Prisk, G. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Since the lung receives the entire cardiac output, sophisticated imaging techniques are not required in order to measure total organ perfusion. However, for many years studying lung function has required physiologists to consider the lung as a single entity: in imaging terms as a single voxel. Since imaging, and in particular functional imaging, allows the acquisition of spatial information important for studying lung function, these techniques provide considerable promise and are of great interest for pulmonary physiologists. In particular, despite the challenges of low proton density and short T2* in the lung, noncontrast MRI techniques to measure pulmonary perfusion have several advantages including high reliability and the ability to make repeated measurements under a number of physiologic conditions. This brief review focuses on the application of a particular arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique, ASL-FAIRER (flow sensitive inversion recovery with an extra radiofrequency pulse), to answer physiologic questions related to pulmonary function in health and disease. The associated measurement of regional proton density to correct for gravitational-based lung deformation (the “Slinky” effect (Slinky is a registered trademark of PaufSlinky incorporated)) and issues related to absolute quantification are also discussed. PMID:21105135

  5. TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON ANALYZERS AS TOOLS FOR MEASURING CARBONACEOUS MATTER IN NATURAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For some utilities, new US drinking water regulations may require removal of disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursor material as a means of mimnimizing DBP formation. The EPa's Stage 1 DBP Rule relies on total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations as a measure of the effectiveness o...

  6. Gravity gradiometry difference measurement as a tool for monitoring pumping and injection; forward modeling results

    SciTech Connect

    Creed, R.; Edwards, A.

    1997-08-01

    Gravity gradiometry forward models have been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL) that can characterize gravity gradient changes with the development of a cone of depression or injection mound in water table aquifers. Difference measurements at long time intervals reduce delayed drainage effects and eliminate the need for determining an initial density structure. Qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis of the gradient signal to determine changes in groundwater distribution with injection or pumping may be possible, particularly if the time varying nature of the signal is of interest. Gravity gradiometer instruments (such as the Gravity Gradient Survey System) have progressed to the point where the complete second order gravity gradient tensor can be measured with an instrument noise level of less than 1 Eotvos (0.1 microgals/meter). Modeling indicates direct gravity measurements for the injection mound perched aquifier case could produce similar signal to noise ratios. However gravity gradients provide 5 independent measurements and due to the common mode nature of the instruments are less susceptible to other effects (tide, latitude, elevation, etc.). The gradients also provide a sharper image of the edge of the anomaly. The systematic identification and removal of specific retention, rainfall and subsidence or uplift effects may be required to make gradiometry difference imaging practical for field use.

  7. Measuring situation awareness in emergency settings: a systematic review of tools and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Simon; Porter, Joanne; Peach, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Background Nontechnical skills have an impact on health care outcomes and improve patient safety. Situation awareness is core with the view that an understanding of the environment will influence decision-making and performance. This paper reviews and describes indirect and direct measures of situation awareness applicable for emergency settings. Methods Electronic databases and search engines were searched from 1980 to 2010, including CINAHL, Ovid Medline, Pro-Quest, Cochrane, and the search engine, Google Scholar. Access strategies included keyword, author, and journal searches. Publications identified were assessed for relevance, and analyzed and synthesized using Oxford evidence levels and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme guidelines in order to assess their quality and rigor. Results One hundred and thirteen papers were initially identified, and reduced to 55 following title and abstract review. The final selection included 14 papers drawn from the fields of emergency medicine, intensive care, anesthetics, and surgery. Ten of these discussed four general nontechnical skill measures (including situation awareness) and four incorporated the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique. Conclusion A range of direct and indirect techniques for measuring situation awareness is available. In the medical literature, indirect approaches are the most common, with situation awareness measured as part of a nontechnical skills assessment. In simulation-based studies, situation awareness in emergencies tends to be suboptimal, indicating the need for improved training techniques to enhance awareness and improve decision-making. PMID:27147872

  8. Measuring Student-Faculty Interaction for Nontraditional College Students: A Comparison of Data Collection Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calsolaro Smulsky, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    As an online institution of higher education, Excelsior College strives to ensure delivery of high quality online courses leading to student success. A key benchmark for student success is student-faculty interaction (SFI). The decade-old National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) measures several benchmarks including student-faculty interaction…

  9. Measuring Up: Online Technology Assessment Tools Ease the Teacher's Burden and Help Students Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Standards are a reality in all academic disciplines, and they can be hard to measure using conventional methods. Technology skills in particular are hard to assess using multiple-choice, paper-based tests. A new generation of online assessments of student technology skills allows students to prove proficiency by completing tasks in their natural…

  10. Tips and Tools: The Art of Virtual Program Evaluation--Measuring What We Do with Pizzazz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Walter; Killian, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating and communicating the results of 4-H programs are critical for Extension. The measuring of the goals and objectives guide the program. It helps with issues in Extension's accountability, program direction, and even one's personal satisfaction. This article focuses on a quick, easy, and exciting method to conduct program evaluation using…

  11. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions…

  12. Measuring the transmittivity of light: A tool for testing the quality of magnetic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosa, Gabriela; Bădescu, Rodica; Călugăru, Ghiorghe; Bădescu, Vasile

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of our work is to demonstrate that the time dependence measuring of optical transmittivity of magnetic liquids provide a way for testing the magnetic field induced structure evolution. We report on some time evolution of transmittivity of polarized rays in two different obtained kerosene base ferrofluids and in a transformer oil ferrofluid forming an emulsion in water.

  13. Pathways to Participatory Research in Developing a Tool to Measure Feelings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Michelle; Davies, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    People with a learning disability, the experts of their own experience are increasingly involved in research. We will be discussing in this paper their centrality in the development of a psychological therapy outcome measure for people with learning disabilities. Their involvement needs to go beyond giving their views to being included in the…

  14. Developing a Measurement Tool for Assessing Physiotherapy Students' Self-Efficacy: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anne; Sheppard, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine if self-efficacy can be correlated with prior academic achievement and whether self-efficacy can be an outcome measure of education. A self-efficacy instrument was developed and administered to physiotherapy students following completion of their pre-clinical theory experience. The questionnaire results…

  15. Research and Teaching: A New Tool for Measuring Student Behavioral Engagement in Large University Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Erin S.; Harris, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    The authors developed a classroom observation protocol for quantitatively measuring student engagement in large university classes. The Behavioral Engagement Related to instruction (BERI) protocol can be used to provide timely feedback to instructors as to how they can improve student engagement in their classrooms.

  16. Curriculum-Based Measurement: A Proven Tool to Increase Achievement. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This ERS "Focus On" discusses curriculum-based measurement (CBM), the most widely used research-based method for student progress monitoring, which is required in Response to Intervention (RTI) approaches. CBM is supported by nearly 30 years of empirical evidence of its effectiveness in monitoring student progress to increase achievement. Teachers…

  17. Road analysis: a tool for cost-effective rehabilitation measures for Finnish roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roimela, Petri; Salmenkaita, Seppo; Maijala, Pekka; Saarenketo, Timo

    2000-04-01

    Public funding for road network maintenance has decreased 30% during the last few years in Finland. Reduced resources, together with the current rehabilitation strategies, will in the long term result in increasing deterioration of the Finnish road network. For this reason road rehabilitation funding should be focused more specifically on those roads and road sections requiring measures and these measures should be optimized to ensure that only the specific problem structure will be repaired. Roadscanners Oy, in cooperation with the Finnish National Road Administration (Finnra), has developed a new and effective Road Analysis technique to survey the condition of roads and road networks. Road Analysis is based on the integrated analysis of the measured data collected from the road under survey. The basic survey methods used in Road Analysis include Ground Penetrating Data (GPR), falling weight deflectometer (FWD), roughness and rutting measurements, pavement distress mapping and GPS-positioning, as well as reference drilling based on preliminary GPR data analysis. The collected road survey data is processed, interpreted, analyzed and classified using Road Doctor software, specifically developed for this purpose. GPR measurements in road analysis are carried out using a 400 MHz ground-coupled antenna and a 1.0 GHz horn antenna. Horn antenna data is used to measure the thickness of the pavement and base course layers, as well as to evaluate their quality based on their dielectric properties. The 400 MHz ground-coupled data is used to estimate the thickness of the pavement structure and embankment. Ground-coupled antenna data is used for subgrade quality estimations and in evaluating the causes of subgrade- related frost defects. GPR data also provides important location information about special structures, such as steel reinforcements, cables and pipelines. Road Analysis includes a classification of the critical elements affecting the lifetime of the road: (1

  18. Inertial sensors as measurement tools of elbow range of motion in gerontology

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, G; Turpin, JM; Marteu, A; Sakarovitch, C; Teboul, B; Boscher, L; Brocker, P; Robert, P; Guerin, O

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Musculoskeletal system deterioration among the aging is a major reason for loss of autonomy and directly affects the quality of life of the elderly. Articular evaluation is part of physiotherapeutic assessment and helps in establishing a precise diagnosis and deciding appropriate therapy. Reference instruments are valid but not easy to use for some joints. The main goal of our study was to determine reliability and intertester reproducibility of the MP-BV, an inertial sensor (the MotionPod® [MP]) combined with specific software (BioVal [BV]), for elbow passive range-of-motion measurements in geriatrics. Methods This open, monocentric, randomized study compared inertial sensor to inclinometer in patients hospitalized in an acute, post-acute, and long-term-care gerontology unit. Results Seventy-seven patients (mean age 83.5±6.4 years, sex ratio 1.08 [male/female]) were analyzed. The MP-BV was reliable for each of the three measurements (flexion, pronation, and supination) for 24.3% (CI 95% 13.9–32.8) of the patients. Separately, the percentages of reliable measures were 59.7% (49.2–70.5) for flexion, 68.8% (58.4–79.5) for pronation, and 62.3% (51.2–73.1) for supination. The intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.15 (0.07–0.73), 0.46 (0.27–0.98), and 0.50 (0.31–40 0.98) for flexion, pronation, and supination, respectively. Conclusion This study shows the convenience of the MP-BV in terms of ease of use and of export of measured data. However, this instrument seems less reliable and valuable compared to the reference instruments used to measure elbow range of motion in gerontology. PMID:25759568

  19. Core Outcome Sets and Multidimensional Assessment Tools for Harmonizing Outcome Measure in Chronic Pain and Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Ulrike; Neustadt, Katrin; Kopkow, Christian; Schmitt, Jochen; Sabatowski, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Core Outcome Sets (COSs) are a set of domains and measurement instruments recommended for application in any clinical trial to ensure comparable outcome assessment (both domains and instruments). COSs are not exclusively recommended for clinical trials, but also for daily record keeping in routine care. There are several COS recommendations considering clinical trials as well as multidimensional assessment tools to support daily record keeping in low back pain. In this article, relevant initiatives will be described, and implications for research in COS development in chronic pain and back pain will be discussed. PMID:27589816

  20. A Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) as a Measurement Tool for Wind-Energy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Bange, Jens

    2014-05-01

    In wind energy meteorology, RPA have the clear advantage compared to manned aircraft that they allow to fly very close to the ground and even in between individual wind turbines in a wind farm. Compared to meteorological towers and lidar systems, the advantage is the flexibility of the system, which makes it possible to measure at the desired site on short notice and not only in main wind direction. At the Center of Applied Geoscience at the University of Tübingen, the research RPA MASC (Multi-purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed. RPA of type MASC have a wingspan of about 3 m and a maximum take-off weight of 7.5 kg, including payload. The standard meteorological payload includes instruments for temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and wind measurement. It is possible to resolve turbulence fluctuations of wind and temperature up to 20 Hz. The autopilot ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System), which is developed at the Institute of Flight Mechanics and Control, University of Stuttgart, makes it possible to automatically follow predefined waypoints at constant altitude and airspeed. At a cruising speed of 24 m/s and a battery life of approx. one hour, a range of 80 km is feasible. The project 'Lidar Complex', funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, is part of the research network 'WindForS', based in Southern Germany. The goal of the project is to establish lidar technology for wind energy plant site evaluation in complex terrain. Additional goals are the comparison of different measurement techniques and the validation of wind-field models in not IEC 61400 conform terrain. It is planned to design a turbulent wind-field generator, fed by real measurement data, which can be used to analyse WEC behaviour. Two test sites were defined for the 'Lidar Complex' project, one in IEC-conform terrain about 15 km from the Baltic Sea, the other in the Swabian Alb, only 2 km downstream of a 100 m steep

  1. Nuclear Alignment in Projectile Fragmentation as a Tool for Moment Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Georgiev, G.; Matea, I.; Oliveira Santos, F. de; Lewitowicz, M.; Daugas, J.M.; Belier, G.; Goutte, H.; Meot, V.; Roig, O.; Astabatyan, R.; Lukyanov, S.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Balabanski, D.L.; Borremans, D.; Himpe, P.; Neyens, G.; Sawicka, M.

    2004-02-27

    The application of the Time Dependent Perturbed Angular Distribution (TDPAD) method to study isomeric states produced and oriented in projectile-fragmentation reactions provides the opportunity to perform nuclear-moment measurements in a wide range of neutron-rich nuclei, unaccessible by other means. An absolute necessity for the application of the TDPAD technique is a spin-aligned ensemble of nuclei. The preliminary results from a recent application of this method on 61mFe and 54mFe at GANIL, Caen, France showed that a significant increase of the amount of the observed alignment, compared to our previous measurement on 67mNi and 69mCu, can be obtained. Some experimental details, concerning the conservation of the reaction obtained alignment, are discussed.

  2. Perturbation Centrality and Turbine: A Novel Centrality Measure Obtained Using a Versatile Network Dynamics Tool

    PubMed Central

    Szalay, Kristóf Z.; Csermely, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of network dynamics became a focal point to understand and predict changes of complex systems. Here we introduce Turbine, a generic framework enabling fast simulation of any algorithmically definable dynamics on very large networks. Using a perturbation transmission model inspired by communicating vessels, we define a novel centrality measure: perturbation centrality. Hubs and inter-modular nodes proved to be highly efficient in perturbation propagation. High perturbation centrality nodes of the Met-tRNA synthetase protein structure network were identified as amino acids involved in intra-protein communication by earlier studies. Changes in perturbation centralities of yeast interactome nodes upon various stresses well recapitulated the functional changes of stressed yeast cells. The novelty and usefulness of perturbation centrality was validated in several other model, biological and social networks. The Turbine software and the perturbation centrality measure may provide a large variety of novel options to assess signaling, drug action, environmental and social interventions. PMID:24205090

  3. The right tool for the right job: the value of alternative patient experience measures.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lynn; Swartz, Adam; Wasson, John H

    2013-01-01

    Patient-reported experience of care predicts health care outcomes. Fourteen US and Canadian practices intercalated a standard ambulatory care Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) survey within their usual Internet-based survey to compare results from the Internet survey, Internet CAHPS survey, and a mailed CAHPS survey. They found that practice performance rankings obtained via the multi-item CAHPS survey were equivalent to a single measure captured by the Internet survey. PMID:23748272

  4. Penn State Worry Questionnaire - 10: A new tool for measurement-based care.

    PubMed

    Yao, Beier; Sripada, Rebecca K; Klumpp, Heide; Abelson, James L; Muzik, Maria; Zhao, Zhuo; Rosenblum, Katherine; Briggs, Hedieh; Kaston, Michelle; Warren, Ricks

    2016-05-30

    The Penn State Worry Questionnaire - Past Week (PSWQ-PW) is an adaptation of the widely used Penn State Worry Questionnaire, measuring pathological worry weekly. However, it contains problematic negatively worded items and has not been validated in a large sample yet. To meet the needs of measurement-based care (MBC), we developed a shortened version (PSWQ-10) based on the PSWQ-PW, retaining only positively worded items, and examined its psychometric properties and clinical utility. Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and other anxiety disorders completed the PSWQ-10 and other instruments during routine evaluation in an academic anxiety clinic. A second cohort from a perinatal clinic was evaluated similarly. The PSWQ-10 displayed excellent internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and criterion group validity. Patients with GAD scored significantly higher than those with other anxiety disorders but did not differ from those with MDD. The PSWQ-10 showed sensitivity to change over time and demonstrated excellent psychometric properties in the perinatal population. The PSWQ-10 is a reliable, valid, efficient, and straightforward worry-focused instrument that can be readily used in MBC and help clinicians objectively measure worry as a treatment outcome in broad clinical populations. PMID:27137962

  5. Flow injection analysis as a tool for enhancing oceanographic nutrient measurements--a review.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Paul J; Clough, Robert; Lohan, Maeve C; Monbet, Philippe; Ellis, Peter S; Quétel, Christophe R; Floor, Geerke H; McKelvie, Ian D

    2013-11-25

    Macronutrient elements (C, N and P) and micronutrient elements (Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Mn) are widely measured in their various physico-chemical forms in open ocean, shelf sea, coastal and estuarine waters. These measurements help to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of these elements in marine waters and highlight the ecological and socio-economic importance of the oceans. Due to the dynamic nature of marine waters in terms of chemical, biological and physical processes, it is advantageous to make these measurements in situ and in this regard flow injection analysis (FIA) provides a suitable shipboard platform. This review, therefore, discusses the role of FIA in the determination of macro- and micro-nutrient elements, with an emphasis on manifold design and detection strategies for the reliable shipboard determination of specific nutrient species. The application of various FIA manifolds to oceanographic nutrient determinations is discussed, with an emphasis on sensitivity, selectivity, high throughput analysis and suitability for underway analysis and depth profiles. Strategies for enhancing sensitivity and minimizing matrix effects, e.g. refractive index (schlieren) effects and the important role of uncertainty budgets in underpinning method validation and data quality are discussed in some detail. PMID:24216194

  6. In-situ measurement of processing properties during fabrication in a production tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D. E.; Haverty, P.; Hoff, M.; Loos, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    Progress is reported on the use of frequency-dependent electromagnetic measurements (FDEMs) as a single, convenient technique for continuous in situ monitoring of polyester cure during fabrication in a laboratory and manufacturing environment. Preliminary FDEM sensor and modeling work using the Loss-Springer model in order to develop an intelligent closed-loop, sensor-controlled cure process is described. FDEMs using impedance bridges in the Hz to MHz region is found to be ideal for automatically monitoring polyester processing properties continuously throughout the cure cycle.

  7. Confocal microscopy: A new tool for erosion measurements on large scale plasma facing components in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, E.; Brosset, C.; Roche, H.; Tsitrone, E.; Pégourié, B.; Martinez, A.; Languille, P.; Courtois, X.; Lallier, Y.; Salami, M.

    2013-07-01

    A diagnostic based on confocal microscopy was developed at CEA Cadarache in order to measure erosion on large plasma facing components during shutdown in situ in Tore Supra. This paper describes the diagnostic and presents results obtained on Beryllium and Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) materials. Erosion in the range of 800 μm was found on one sector of the Toroidal Pumped Limiter (TPL) which provides, by integration to the full limiter a net carbon erosion of about 900 g over the period 2002-2007.

  8. An observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to measure in-class learner engagement: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Alimoglu, Mustafa K.; Sarac, Didar B.; Alparslan, Derya; Karakas, Ayse A.; Altintas, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Background Efforts are made to enhance in-class learner engagement because it stimulates and enhances learning. However, it is not easy to quantify learner engagement. This study aimed to develop and validate an observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to determine and compare in-class learner engagement levels in four different class types delivered by the same instructor. Methods Observer pairs observed instructor and student behaviors during lectures in large class (LLC, n=2) with third-year medical students, lectures in small class (LSC, n=6) and case-based teaching sessions (CBT, n=4) with fifth-year students, and problem-based learning (PBL) sessions (~7 hours) with second-year students. The observation tool was a revised form of STROBE, an instrument for recording behaviors of an instructor and four randomly selected students as snapshots for 5-min cycles. Instructor and student behaviors were scored 1–5 on this tool named ‘in-class engagement measure (IEM)’. The IEM scores were parallel to the degree of behavior's contribution to active student engagement, so higher scores were associated with more in-class learner engagement. Additionally, the number of questions asked by the instructor and students were recorded. A total of 203 5-min observations were performed (LLC 20, LSC 85, CBT 50, and PBL 48). Results Interobserver agreement on instructor and student behaviors was 93.7% (κ=0.87) and 80.6% (κ=0.71), respectively. Higher median IEM scores were found in student-centered and problem-oriented methods such as CBT and PBL. A moderate correlation was found between instructor and student behaviors (r=0.689). Conclusions This study provides some evidence for validity of the IEM scores as a measure of student engagement in different class types. PMID:25308966

  9. Measuring Adverse Drug Events on Hospital Medicine Units with the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Trigger Tool: A Chart Review

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Iris; Kirkwood, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Background: An adverse drug event (ADE) is a noxious, unintended response to a drug, occurring at doses used in humans for prophylaxis, diagnosis, or treatment of disease or for modification of physiological function. ADEs account for about one-quarter of all adverse events in Canadian hospitals. Canadian data on specific types of ADEs and commonly implicated drugs are lacking. In particular, there is a paucity of data on ADEs that occur during hospital admissions. Objectives: The primary objective was to identify the incidence of ADEs in a sample of adult general medicine inpatients over a 1-year period. The secondary objective was to identify the 5 drugs most frequently responsible for ADEs in this setting. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis was conducted for general medicine patients discharged from St Paul’s Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, from January to December 2011. ADEs were identified using the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) Trigger Tool for Measuring Adverse Drug Events. The Naranjo criteria were applied to assess causality, and a physician independently authenticated the ADEs for preventability and harm using the categories of harm set out by the US National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention. Results: Of the 204 patient encounters reviewed, 15 involved ADEs, which represented an incidence of 7% over the 1-year study period. The 5 drugs most frequently implicated in ADEs were vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, piperacillin–tazobactam, and moxifloxacin. Conclusions: The rate of ADEs during hospital admissions was substantial. These events may necessitate additional investigations and interventions and may prolong the hospital stay. The authors do not recommend the IHI Trigger Tool for Measuring Adverse Drug Events for efficient prospective detection of ADEs in manual chart reviews. Possible modifications to improve the utility of this tool might include incorporating it into a compatible

  10. Objective performance measures using motion sensors on an endoscopic tool for evaluating skills in natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES).

    PubMed

    Chin, Lauren I; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Dargar, Saurabh; Matthes, Kai; De, Suvranu

    2013-01-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery is an emerging procedure. High fidelity virtual reality-based simulators allow development of new surgical procedures and tools and train medical personnel without risk to human patients. As part of a project funded by the National Institutes of Health, we are developing a Virtual Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery Trainer (VTEST TM) for this purpose. In this work, objective performance measures derived from motion tracking sensors attached to an endoscope was tested for the transgastric NOTES appendectomy procedure performed with ex-vivo pig organs using the EASIE-R(TM) trainer box. Results from our study shows that both completion time and economy of motion parameters were able to differentiate between expert and novice NOTES surgeons with p value of 0.039 and 0.02 respectively. Jerk computed on sensor 2 data also showed significant results (p = 0.02). We plan to incorporate these objective performance measures in VTEST(TM). PMID:23400134

  11. The Unmanned Aerial System SUMO: an alternative measurement tool for polar boundary layer studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, S.; Jonassen, M. O.; Reuder, J.

    2012-04-01

    Numerical weather prediction and climate models face special challenges in particular in the commonly stable conditions in the high-latitude environment. For process studies as well as for model validation purposes in-situ observations in the atmospheric boundary layer are highly required, but difficult to retrieve. We introduce a new measurement system for corresponding observations. The Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer SUMO consists of a small and light-weight auto-piloted model aircraft, equipped with a meteorological sensor package. SUMO has been operated in polar environments, among others during IPY on Spitsbergen in the year 2009 and has proven its capabilities for atmospheric measurements with high spatial and temporal resolution even at temperatures of -30 deg C. A comparison of the SUMO data with radiosondes and tethered balloons shows that SUMO can provide atmospheric profiles with comparable quality to those well-established systems. Its high data quality allowed its utilization for evaluation purposes of high-resolution model runs performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting model WRF and for the detailed investigation of an orographically modified flow during a case study.

  12. Non-invasive tools for measuring metabolism and biophysical analyte transport: self-referencing physiological sensing.

    PubMed

    McLamore, Eric S; Porterfield, D Marshall

    2011-11-01

    Biophysical phenomena related to cellular biochemistry and transport are spatially and temporally dynamic, and are directly involved in the regulation of physiology at the sub-cellular to tissue spatial scale. Real time monitoring of transmembrane transport provides information about the physiology and viability of cells, tissues, and organisms. Combining information learned from real time transport studies with genomics and proteomics allows us to better understand the functional and mechanistic aspects of cellular and sub-cellular systems. To accomplish this, ultrasensitive sensing technologies are required to probe this functional realm of biological systems with high temporal and spatial resolution. In addition to ongoing research aimed at developing new and enhanced sensors (e.g., increased sensitivity, enhanced analyte selectivity, reduced response time, and novel microfabrication approaches), work over the last few decades has advanced sensor utility through new sensing modalities that extend and enhance the data recorded by sensors. A microsensor technique based on phase sensitive detection of real time biophysical transport is reviewed here. The self-referencing technique converts non-invasive extracellular concentration sensors into dynamic flux sensors for measuring transport from the membrane to the tissue scale. In this tutorial review, we discuss the use of self-referencing micro/nanosensors for measuring physiological activity of living cells/tissues in agricultural, environmental, and biomedical applications comprehensible to any scientist/engineer. PMID:21761069

  13. Computer Vision Tools for Low-Cost and Noninvasive Measurement of Autism-Related Behaviors in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Vallin Spina, Thiago; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos; Egger, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The early detection of developmental disorders is key to child outcome, allowing interventions to be initiated which promote development and improve prognosis. Research on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that behavioral signs can be observed late in the first year of life. Many of these studies involve extensive frame-by-frame video observation and analysis of a child's natural behavior. Although nonintrusive, these methods are extremely time-intensive and require a high level of observer training; thus, they are burdensome for clinical and large population research purposes. This work is a first milestone in a long-term project on non-invasive early observation of children in order to aid in risk detection and research of neurodevelopmental disorders. We focus on providing low-cost computer vision tools to measure and identify ASD behavioral signs based on components of the Autism Observation Scale for Infants (AOSI). In particular, we develop algorithms to measure responses to general ASD risk assessment tasks and activities outlined by the AOSI which assess visual attention by tracking facial features. We show results, including comparisons with expert and nonexpert clinicians, which demonstrate that the proposed computer vision tools can capture critical behavioral observations and potentially augment the clinician's behavioral observations obtained from real in-clinic assessments. PMID:25045536

  14. Development of a measurement and feedback training tool for the arm strokes of high-performance luge athletes.

    PubMed

    Lembert, Sandra; Schachner, Otto; Raschner, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that the start plays a critical role in sliding events and explains more than 55% of the variance of the final time in luge. Experts evaluate the contribution of the arm strokes to be 23% of the total starting performance. The aim of the present study was to develop a measurement and feedback training tool (Speedpaddler) for the arm strokes of high-performance luge athletes. The construction is an aluminium alloy framework with a customary belt conveyor system, which is driven by two synchronized servo motors. Training is possible with constant speeds up to 12 m · s(-1) or several speed curves, which simulate the acceleration of different luge tracks. The construction facilitates variations in the inclination and speed of the conveyor belts and thereby the resistance and movement speed. If the athlete accelerates the conveyor belts during arm-paddling, the torque of the motors decreases. Torque measurements and high-speed video offer valuable insights into the several technique criteria. Comparisons of arm-paddle cycle durations on ice and on the Speedpaddler with 18 luge athletes (national team and juniors) showed no statistical differences. The Speedpaddler might be a useful tool to improve starting performance all year round. PMID:22077383

  15. Development of an observational measure of healthcare worker hand-hygiene behaviour: the hand-hygiene observation tool (HHOT).

    PubMed

    McAteer, J; Stone, S; Fuller, C; Charlett, A; Cookson, B; Slade, R; Michie, S

    2008-03-01

    Previous observational measures of healthcare worker (HCW) hand-hygiene behaviour (HHB) fail to provide adequate standard operating procedures (SOPs), accounts of inter-rater agreement testing or evidence of sensitivity to change. This study reports the development of an observational tool in a way that addresses these deficiencies. Observational categories were developed systematically, guided by a clinical guideline, previous measures and pilot hand-hygiene behaviour observations (HHOs). The measure, a simpler version of the Geneva tool, consists of HHOs (before and after low-risk, high-risk or unobserved contact), HHBs (soap, alcohol hand rub, no action, unknown), and type of HCW. Inter-observer agreement for each category was assessed by observation of 298 HHOs and HHBs by two independent observers on acute elderly and intensive care units. Raw agreement (%) and Kappa were 77% and 0.68 for HHB; 83% and 0.77 for HHO; and 90% and 0.77 for HCW. Inter-observer agreement for overall compliance of a group of HCWs was assessed by observation of 1191 HHOs and HHBs by two pairs of independent observers. Overall agreement was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.79). Sensitivity to change was examined by autoregressive time-series modelling of longitudinal observations for 8 months on the intensive therapy unit during an Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak and subsequent strengthening of infection control measures. Sensitivity to change was demonstrated by a rise in compliance from 80 to 98% with an odds ratio of increased compliance of 7.00 (95% confidence interval: 4.02-12.2) P < 0.001. PMID:18478625

  16. Differential GPS measurements as a tool to quantify Late Cenozoic crustal deformation (Oman, Arabian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupprechter, M.; Roepert, A.; Hoffmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Sultanate of Oman is situated in the north-eastern part of the Arabian Plate. It therefore represents the leading edge as the plate is drifting north relative to the Eurasian Plate. The movement results in continent-continent collision in the northwest (Zagros fold and thrust belt) and ocean-continent collision in the northeast (Makran subduction zone). We follow the hypothesis that this plate tectonic setting results in an internal deformation of the Arabian Plate. The study presented here is part of a larger project that aims at quantifying the forcing factors of coastal evolution (Hoffmann et al. 2012). The sea level development, climate - and associated rates of weathering and sediment supply - and differential land movement (neotectonics) are identified as key factors during the Late Cenozoic. Recent vertical land movement is obvious and expressed in differences of the coastal morphology. Parts of the coastline are subsiding: these areas show drowned wadi mouths. Other parts are characterised by a straightened coastline and raised wave-cut terraces are evident well above present mean sea-level. Despite these erosional terraces, depositional terraces on alluvial fans are also encountered in close vicinity to the mountain chain. Detailed topographic profile measurements are carried out using a LEICA Viva GNSS-GS15 differential GPS. The instrument yields data with an accuracy of 1-2 cm relatively to the base station. The profile measurements are orientated perpendicular to the coastline and therefore perpendicular to the raised wave-cut terraces. Up to 6 terraces are encountered in elevations up to 400 m above present sea level with the older ones being the highest. The data allow calculating the scarp height, tread length and tread angle of the terraces. The results indicate that the terraces show an increased seaward tilting with age. This observation is interpreted as reflecting ongoing uplift. A coast-parallel deformation pattern becomes obvious when

  17. Use of slide presentation software as a tool to measure hip arthroplasty wear.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ho Hyun; Jajodia, Nirmal K; Myung, Jae Sung; Oh, Jong Keon; Park, Sang Won; Shon, Won Yong

    2009-12-01

    The authors propose a manual measurement method for wear in total hip arthroplasty (PowerPoint method) based on the well-known Microsoft PowerPoint software (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Wash). In addition, the accuracy and reproducibility of the devised method were quantified and compared with two methods previously described by Livermore and Dorr, and accuracies were determined at different degrees of wear. The 57 hips recruited were allocated to: class 1 (retrieval series), class 2 (clinical series), and class 3 (a repeat film analysis series). The PowerPoint method was found to have good reproducibility and to better detect wear differences between classes. The devised method can be easily used for recording wear at follow-up visits and could be used as a supplementary method when computerized methods cannot be employed. PMID:19896061

  18. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Lisa A; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes. PMID:26466990

  19. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    PubMed Central

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students’ perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes. PMID:26466990

  20. Weighted averages of magnetization from magnetic field measurements: A fast interpretation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, Maurizio

    2003-08-01

    Magnetic anomalies may be interpreted in terms of weighted averages of magnetization (WAM) by a simple transformation. The WAM transformation consists of dividing at each measurement point the experimental magnetic field by a normalizing field, computed from a source volume with a homogeneous unit-magnetization. The transformation yields a straightforward link among source and field position vectors. A main WAM outcome is that sources at different depths appear well discriminated. Due to the symmetry of the problem, the higher the considered field altitude, the deeper the sources outlined by the transformation. This is shown for single and multi-source synthetic cases as well as for real data. We analyze the real case of Mt. Vulture volcano (Southern Italy), where the related anomaly strongly interferes with that from deep intrusive sources. The volcanic edifice is well identified. The deep source is estimated at about 9 km depth, in agreement with other results.

  1. The VALS: A new tool to measure people's general valued attributes of landscapes.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Dave; Ford, Rebecca M; Anderson, Nerida M; Farrar, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Research on values for natural areas has largely focussed on theoretical concerns such as distinguishing different kinds of values held by people. However practice, policymaking, planning and management is typically focused on more tangible valued attributes of the landscape such as biodiversity and recreation infrastructure that can be manipulated by management actions. There is a need for valid psychometric measures of such values that are suited to informing land management policies. A Valued Attributes of Landscape Scale (VALS) was developed, derived from a document analysis of values expressed in public land policy documents. The validity of the VALS was tested in an online survey comparing values across one of three randomly presented landscape contexts in Victoria, Australia: all publicly managed natural land, coastal areas, and large urban parks. A purposive snowball sample was used to recruit participants with a range of views and professional experience with land management, including members of the urban public. Factor analysis of responses (n = 646) separated concepts relating to natural attributes, social functions, the experience of being in natural areas, cultural attributes and productive uses. Relative importance of valued attribute factors was similar across all landscape contexts, although there were small but significant differences in the way people valued social functions (higher in urban parks) and productive uses (lower in urban parks). We conclude that the concept of valued attributes is useful for linking theoretical understandings of people's environmental values to the way values are considered by land managers, and that these attributes can be measured using the VALS instrument to produce data that should be useful for the policy and planning of natural resources. PMID:26321532

  2. Using reactive strength index-modified as an explosive performance measurement tool in Division I athletes.

    PubMed

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Bailey, Christopher A; Sole, Christopher J; Grazer, Jacob L; Beckham, George K

    2015-04-01

    The purposes of this study included examining the reliability of reactive strength index-modified (RSImod), the relationships between RSImod and force-time variables, and the differences in RSImod between male and female collegiate athletes. One hundred six Division I collegiate athletes performed unloaded and loaded countermovement jumps (CMJs). Intraclass correlation coefficients and typical error expressed as a coefficient of variation were used to establish the relative and absolute reliability of RSImod, respectively. Pearson zero-order product-moment correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationships between RSImod and rate of force development, peak force (PF), and peak power (PP) during unloaded and loaded jumping conditions. Finally, independent samples t-tests were used to examine the sex differences in RSImod between male and female athletes. Intraclass correlation coefficient values for RSImod ranged from 0.96 to 0.98, and typical error values ranged from 7.5 to 9.3% during all jumping conditions. Statistically significant correlations existed between RSImod and all force-time variables examined for male and female athletes during both jumping conditions (p ≤ 0.05). Statistically significant differences in RSImod existed between male and female athletes during both unloaded and loaded CMJs (p < 0.001). Reactive strength index-modified seems to be a reliable performance measurement in male and female athletes. Reactive strength index-modified may be described and used as a measure of explosiveness. Stronger relationships between RSImod, PF, and PP existed in female athletes as compared with that in male athletes; however, further evidence investigating these relationships is needed before conclusive statements can be made. Male athletes produced greater RSImod values as compared with that produced by female athletes. PMID:25426515

  3. Medical Information on the Internet: A Tool for Measuring Consumer Perception of Quality Aspects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Most of adult Internet users have searched for health information on the Internet. The Internet has become one of the most important sources for health information and treatment advice. In most cases, the information found is not verified with a medical doctor, but judged by the “online-diagnosers” independently. Facing this situation, public health authorities raise concern over the quality of medical information laypersons can find on the Internet. Objective The objective of the study was aimed at developing a measure to evaluate the credibility of websites that offer medical advice and information. The measure was tested in a quasi-experimental study on two sleeping-disorder websites of different quality. Methods There were 45 survey items for rating the credibility of websites that were tested in a quasi-experimental study with a random assignment of 454 participants to either a high- or a low-quality website exposure. Using principal component analysis, the original items were reduced to 13 and sorted into the factors: trustworthiness, textual deficits of the content, interferences (external links on the Web site), and advertisements. The first two factors focus more on the provided content itself, while the other two describe the embedding of the content into the website. The 45 survey items had been designed previously using exploratory observations and literature research. Results The final scale showed adequate power and reliability for all factors. The loadings of the principal component analysis ranged satisfactorily (.644 to .854). Significant differences at P<.001 were found between the low- and high-quality groups. Advertisements on the website were rated as disturbing in both experimental conditions, meaning that they do not differentiate between good and bad information. Conclusions The scale reliably distinguished high- and low-quality of medical advice given on websites. PMID:25835333

  4. Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement (RSAM): a volcano monitoring and prediction tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Endo, E.T.; Murray, T.

    1991-01-01

    Seismicity is one of the most commonly monitored phenomena used to determine the state of a volcano and for the prediction of volcanic eruptions. Although several real-time earthquake-detection and data acquisition systems exist, few continuously measure seismic amplitude in circumstances where individual events are difficult to recognize or where volcanic tremor is prevalent. Analog seismic records provide a quick visual overview of activity; however, continuous rapid quantitative analysis to define the intensity of seismic activity for the purpose of predicing volcanic eruptions is not always possible because of clipping that results from the limited dynamic range of analog recorders. At the Cascades Volcano Observatory, an inexpensive 8-bit analog-to-digital system controlled by a laptop computer is used to provide 1-min average-amplitude information from eight telemetered seismic stations. The absolute voltage level for each station is digitized, averaged, and appended in near real-time to a data file on a multiuser computer system. Raw realtime seismic amplitude measurement (RSAM) data or transformed RSAM data are then plotted on a common time base with other available volcano-monitoring information such as tilt. Changes in earthquake activity associated with dome-building episodes, weather, and instrumental difficulties are recognized as distinct patterns in the RSAM data set. RSAM data for domebuilding episodes gradually develop into exponential increases that terminate just before the time of magma extrusion. Mount St. Helens crater earthquakes show up as isolated spikes on amplitude plots for crater seismic stations but seldom for more distant stations. Weather-related noise shows up as low-level, long-term disturbances on all seismic stations, regardless of distance from the volcano. Implemented in mid-1985, the RSAM system has proved valuable in providing up-to-date information on seismic activity for three Mount St. Helens eruptive episodes from 1985 to

  5. Heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing: a tool for measuring soil water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Zubelzu, Sergio; Sánchez-Calvo, Raúl; Horcajo, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The use of Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature Measurement (DFOT) method for estimating temperature variation along a cable of fiber optic has been assessed in multiple environmental applications. Recently, the application of DFOT combined with an active heating pulses technique has been reported as a sensor to estimate soil moisture. This method applies a known amount of heat to the soil and monitors the temperature evolution, which mainly depends on the soil moisture content . This study presents the application of the Active Heated DFOT method to determine the soil water retention curve under experimental conditions. The experiment was conducted in a rectangular methacrylate box of 2.5 m x 0.25 m x 0.25 m which was introduced in a larger box 2.8 m x 0.3 m x 0.3 m of the same material. The inner box was filled with a sandy loamy soil collected from the nearest garden and dried under ambient temperature for 30 days. Care was taking to fill up the box maintaining the soil bulk density determined "in-situ". The cable was deployed along the box at 10 cm depth. At the beginning of the experiment, the box was saturated bottom-up, by filling the outer box with water, and then it kept dried for two months. The circulation of heated air at the bottom box accelerated the drying process. In addition, fast growing turf was also sowed to dry it fast. The DTS unit was a SILIXA ULTIMA SR (Silixa Ltd, UK) and has spatial and temporal resolution of 0.29 m and 5 s, respectively. In this study, heat pulses of 7 W/m for 2 1/2 min were applied uniformly along the fiber optic cable and the thermal response on an adjacent cable was monitored in different soil water status. Then, the heating and drying phase integer (called Tcum) was determined following the approach of Sayde et al., (2010). For each water status,  was measured by the gravimetric method in several soil samples collected in three box locations at the same depth that the fiber optic cable and after each heat pulse

  6. Developing a tool to measure satisfaction among health professionals in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, lack of motivation and job dissatisfaction have been cited as causes of poor healthcare quality and outcomes. Measurement of health workers’ satisfaction adapted to sub-Saharan African working conditions and cultures is a challenge. The objective of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure satisfaction among health professionals in the sub-Saharan African context. Methods A survey was conducted in Senegal and Mali in 2011 among 962 care providers (doctors, midwives, nurses and technicians) practicing in 46 hospitals (capital, regional and district). The participation rate was very high: 97% (937/962). After exploratory factor analysis (EFA), construct validity was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The discriminant validity of our subscales was evaluated by comparing the average variance extracted (AVE) for each of the constructs with the squared interconstruct correlation (SIC), and finally for criterion validity, each subscale was tested with two hypotheses. Two dimensions of reliability were assessed: internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha subscales and stability over time using a test-retest process. Results Eight dimensions of satisfaction encompassing 24 items were identified and validated using a process that combined psychometric analyses and expert opinions: continuing education, salary and benefits, management style, tasks, work environment, workload, moral satisfaction and job stability. All eight dimensions demonstrated significant discriminant validity. The final model showed good performance, with a root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) of 0.0508 (90% CI: 0.0448 to 0.0569) and a comparative fit index (CFI) of 0.9415. The concurrent criterion validity of the eight dimensions was good. Reliability was assessed based on internal consistency, which was good for all dimensions but one (moral satisfaction < 0.70). Test-retest showed satisfactory temporal

  7. QHELIX: a computational tool for the improved measurement of inter-helical angles in proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Sun; Choi, Jiwon; Yoon, Sukjoon

    2007-12-01

    Knowledge about the assembled structures of the secondary elements in proteins is essential to understanding protein folding and functionality. In particular, the analysis of helix geometry is required to study helix packing with the rest of the protein and formation of super secondary structures, such as, coiled coils and helix bundles, formed by packing of two or more helices. Here we present an improved computational method, QHELIX, for the calculation of the orientation angles between helices. Since a large number of helices are known to be in curved shapes, an appropriate definition of helical axes is a prerequisite for calculating the orientation angle between helices. The present method provides a quantitative measure on the irregularity of helical shape, resulting in discriminating irregular-shaped helices from helices with an ideal geometry in a large-scale analysis of helix geometry. It is also capable of straightforwardly assigning the direction of orientation angles in a consistent way. These improvements will find applications in finding a new insight on the assembly of protein secondary structure. PMID:17805951

  8. Measuring Science Instructional Practice: A Survey Tool for the Age of NGSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Kathryn N.; Lee, Christine S.; DiStefano, Rachelle; O'Connor, Dawn; Seitz, Jeffery C.

    2016-03-01

    Ambitious efforts are taking place to implement a new vision for science education in the United States, in both Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)-adopted states and those states creating their own, often related, standards. In-service and pre-service teacher educators are involved in supporting teacher shifts in practice toward the new standards. With these efforts, it will be important to document shifts in science instruction toward the goals of NGSS and broader science education reform. Survey instruments are often used to capture instructional practices; however, existing surveys primarily measure inquiry based on previous definitions and standards and with a few exceptions, disregard key instructional practices considered outside the scope of inquiry. A comprehensive survey and a clearly defined set of items do not exist. Moreover, items specific to the NGSS Science and Engineering practices have not yet been tested. To address this need, we developed and validated a Science Instructional Practices survey instrument that is appropriate for NGSS and other related science standards. Survey construction was based on a literature review establishing key areas of science instruction, followed by a systematic process for identifying and creating items. Instrument validity and reliability were then tested through a procedure that included cognitive interviews, expert review, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (using independent samples), and analysis of criterion validity. Based on these analyses, final subscales include: Instigating an Investigation, Data Collection and Analysis, Critique, Explanation and Argumentation, Modeling, Traditional Instruction, Prior Knowledge, Science Communication, and Discourse.

  9. Cancellation of simulated environmental noise as a tool for measuring vocal performance during noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Ternström, Sten; Södersten, Maria; Bohman, Mikael

    2002-06-01

    It can be difficult for the voice clinician to observe or measure how a patient uses his voice in a noisy environment. We consider here a novel method for obtaining this information in the laboratory. Worksite noise and filtered white noise were reproduced over high-fidelity loudspeakers. In this noise, 11 subjects read an instructional text of 1.5 to 2 minutes duration, as if addressing a group of people. Using channel estimation techniques, the site noise was suppressed from the recording, and the voice signal alone was recovered. The attainable noise rejection is limited only by the precision of the experimental setup, which includes the need for the subject to remain still so as not to perturb the estimated acoustic channel. This feasibility study, with 7 female and 4 male subjects, showed that small displacements of the speaker's body, even breathing, impose a practical limit on the attainable noise rejection. The noise rejection was typically 30 dB and maximally 40 dB down over the entire voice spectrum. Recordings thus processed were clean enough to permit voice analysis with the long-time average spectrum and the computerized phonetogram. The effects of site noise on voice sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, long-term average spectrum centroid, phonetogram area, and phonation time were much as expected, but with some interesting differences between females and males. PMID:12150372

  10. Laryngeal Measurements and Diagnostic Tools for Diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Casado, Verónica; Navarro, Sandra M.; Alvarez, Andrés E.; Villafañe, Mercedes; Miranda, Ana; Spaans, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of laryngeal height, lung function, and diagnostic questionnaires for screening and diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study of 233 people aged between 40 and 75 years. Measured variables were age, sex, weight, height, body mass index, tobacco use, maximum laryngeal height, and spirometry, and we administered a COPD questionnaire and the Lung Function Questionnaire. RESULTS For laryngeal height, we found a positive likelihood ratio of 5.21, and for the Lung Function Questionnaire, we found a negative likelihood ratio of 0.10. Combining a maximum laryngeal height of ≤4 cm with Lung Function Questionnaire findings of ≤18 yielded a positive likelihood ratio of 29.06, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.26. CONCLUSIONS The intrinsic validity of the lung function questionnaire makes it useful for screening. Combining Lung Function Questionnaire results and laryngeal height can help confirm or dismiss COPD. PMID:25583892

  11. DiameterJ: A validated open source nanofiber diameter measurement tool.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, Nathan A; Bharti, Kapil; Kriel, Haydn; Simon, Carl G

    2015-08-01

    Despite the growing use of nanofiber scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, there is not a validated, readily available, free solution for rapid, automated analysis of nanofiber diameter from scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Thus, the goal of this study was to create a user friendly ImageJ/FIJI plugin that would analyze SEM micrographs of nanofibers to determine nanofiber diameter on a desktop computer within 60 s. Additional design goals included 1) compatibility with a variety of existing segmentation algorithms, and 2) an open source code to enable further improvement of the plugin. Using existing algorithms for centerline determination, Euclidean distance transforms and a novel pixel transformation technique, a plugin called "DiameterJ" was created for ImageJ/FIJI. The plugin was validated using 1) digital synthetic images of white lines on a black background and 2) SEM images of nominally monodispersed steel wires of known diameters. DiameterJ analyzed SEM micrographs in 20 s, produced diameters not statistically different from known values, was over 10-times closer to known diameter values than other open source software, provided hundreds of times the sampling of manual measurement, and was hundreds of times faster than manual assessment of nanofiber diameter. DiameterJ enables users to rapidly and thoroughly determine the structural features of nanofiber scaffolds and could potentially allow new insights to be formed into fiber diameter distribution and cell response. PMID:26043061

  12. Evaluation of candidate rain gages for upgrading precipitation measurement tools for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.

    2003-01-01

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) was established in 1977 to investigate atmospheric deposition and its effects on the environment. Since its establishment, precipitation records have been obtained at all NADP sites using a gage developed approximately 50 years ago-the Belfort 5-780 mechanical rain gage. In 1998 and 1999, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate four recently developed, technologically advanced rain gages as possible replacement candidates for the mechanical gage currently (2002) in use by the NADP. The gage types evaluated were the Belfort 3200, Geonor T-200, ETI Noah II, and the OTT PLUVIO. The Belfort 5-780 was included in the study to compare the performance of the rain gage currently (2002) used by NADP to the performance of the more recently developed gages. As a reference gage, the NovaLynx Model 260-2510 National Weather Service type stick gage also was included in the study. Two individual gages of each type were included in the study to evaluate precision between gages of the same type. A two-phase evaluation was completed. Phase I consisted of indoor bench tests with known amounts of simulated rainfall applied in 20 individual tests. Phase II consisted of outdoor testing by collecting precipitation during a 26-week period near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The ETI Noah II, OTT PLUVIO, and NovaLynx stick gages consistently recorded depths more commensurate with the amounts of applied simulated rainfall in Phase I testing than the Geonor T-200, Belfort 5-780, and Belfort 3200 gages. Gages where both the median difference between the measured and applied simulated rainfall and the interquartile range of all of their measured minus applied simulated rainfall differences were small (less than or equal to 0.01 inch) were judged to have performed very well in Phase I testing. The median and interquartile-range values were 0.01 inch or less for each of the ETI Noah II gages, OTT PLUVIO gages, and NovaLynx stick

  13. Calculation of brain atrophy using computed tomography and a new atrophy measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Zahid, Abdullah; Mikheev, Artem; Yang, Andrew Il; Samadani, Uzma; Rusinek, Henry

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To determine if brain atrophy can be calculated by performing volumetric analysis on conventional computed tomography (CT) scans in spite of relatively low contrast for this modality. Materials & Method: CTs for 73 patients from the local Veteran Affairs database were selected. Exclusion criteria: AD, NPH, tumor, and alcohol abuse. Protocol: conventional clinical acquisition (Toshiba; helical, 120 kVp, X-ray tube current 300mA, slice thickness 3-5mm). Locally developed, automatic algorithm was used to segment intracranial cavity (ICC) using (a) white matter seed (b) constrained growth, limited by inner skull layer and (c) topological connectivity. ICC was further segmented into CSF and brain parenchyma using a threshold of 16 Hu. Results: Age distribution: 25-95yrs; (Mean 67+/-17.5yrs.). Significant correlation was found between age and CSF/ICC(r=0.695, p<0.01 2-tailed). A quadratic model (y=0.06-0.001x+2.56x10-5x2 ; where y=CSF/ICC and x=age) was a better fit to data (r=0.716, p < 0.01). This is in agreement with MRI literature. For example, Smith et al. found annual CSF/ICC increase in 58 - 94.5 y.o. individuals to be 0.2%/year, whereas our data, restricted to the same age group yield 0.3%/year(0.2-0.4%/yrs. 95%C.I.). Slightly increased atrophy among elderly VA patients is attributable to the presence of other comorbidities. Conclusion: Brain atrophy can be reliably calculated using automated software and conventional CT. Compared to MRI, CT is more widely available, cheaper, and less affected by head motion due to ~100 times shorter scan time. Work is in progress to improve the precision of the measurements, possibly leading to assessment of longitudinal changes within the patient.

  14. Implementation of OSCE Test to Develop Appropriate Tool to Measure Mothers’ Parenting Skills

    PubMed Central

    Norouzi, Saiideh; Moghaddam, Mohammad H. Baghiani; Sharifabad, Mohammad A. Morowwaty; Norouzi, Ali; Jafari, Ali R.; Zadeh, Hossein Fallah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Parents play a vital role throughout a child’s life. This role is very significant in the beginning years of a child’s life. In this period, the child encounters new experiences and these experiences make him or her to learn and grow. These days, in order to help the parents build a bright future for their children, different parenting programs have been designed. These programs provide a great opportunity for parents to enhance positive parenting skills. The aim of this study was to design a reliable and valid instrument for assessing the mothers’ parenting skills. Methodology: 44 mothers who had children aged 3–8 were invited to participate in this study. They took part in parenting-skills training sessions for more than two months. Then they were asked to attend the test center after six months to be tested on trained skills. In this study, mothers’ parenting skills were measured by the OSCE test. The reliability of the test was determined with three methods including split half, Cronbach alpha, and correlation between assessors’ scores in two similar stations. The construct validity of the test was determined with Explanatory Factor Analysis. Results: The total Cronbach alpha coefficient obtained was 0.83 which indicated that the test had a high internal reliability. The Spearman correlation coefficient obtained for two halves of the test was 0.76. The results of Explanatory Factor Analysis showed that nine stations of OSCE were focused on two factors. The first factor was named positive positions and the second factor was named negative positions. Conclusion: The designed OSCE test has the suitable psychometric features to be used by researchers to assess mothers’ parenting skills. PMID:25716400

  15. Photoassociation spectroscopy: Progress in theory for a new precision measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julienne, Paul

    1997-04-01

    Photoassociation spectroscopy of cooled and trapped atoms measures with high precision the position of energy levels of excited state diatomic molecules near their dissociation limit to one excited and one ground state atom. Such data can be analyzed to extract the atomic dipole matrix element for the atomic resonance transition, and the high resolution spectral lineshapes can be used to obtain an accurate ground state scattering length. The NIST experimental/theoretical collaboration has utilized the spectrum for the 0_g^- state of Na2 to determine the lifetime of the ^2P_3/2 state of Na to be 16.230(16) ns and to observe the 120 MHz shift due to relativistic retardation corrections to the R-3 interaction (K. M. Jones, P. S. Julienne, P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, E. Tiesinga, and C. J. Williams, Europhys. Lett 35), 85 (1996) and to determine the scattering length for the collision of Na F=1,M=-1 atoms to be 52 a0 (1 a0 = 0.0529nm) (E. Tiesinga, C. J. Williams, P. S. Julienne, K. M. Jones, P. D. Lett, and W. D. Phillips, J. Res. Natl. Inst Stand. Technol. 101), 505 (1996). Obtaining such accuracy from the data requires a careful understanding of all the subtle effects which influence the eigenstates and wavefunctions. We have set up a comprehensive theory for ground and excited states including the molecular potentials from the chemical bonding region to long range, including retardation corrections, molecular vibration and rotation, electron and nuclear spins, interaction between all degrees of freedom, and including to first order the optical coupling between ground and excited states. After taking all such effects into account, simple models can be utilized to interpret the data. This work was supported in part by the Army Research Office and the Office of Naval Research.

  16. Simulation as a New Tool to Establish Benchmark Outcome Measures in Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There are not enough clinical data from rare critical events to calculate statistics to decide if the management of actual events might be below what could reasonably be expected (i.e. was an outlier). Objectives In this project we used simulation to describe the distribution of management times as an approach to decide if the management of a simulated obstetrical crisis scenario could be considered an outlier. Design Twelve obstetrical teams managed 4 scenarios that were previously developed. Relevant outcome variables were defined by expert consensus. The distribution of the response times from the teams who performed the respective intervention was graphically displayed and median and quartiles calculated using rank order statistics. Results Only 7 of the 12 teams performed chest compressions during the arrest following the ‘cannot intubate/cannot ventilate’ scenario. All other outcome measures were performed by at least 11 of the 12 teams. Calculation of medians and quartiles with 95% CI was possible for all outcomes. Confidence intervals, given the small sample size, were large. Conclusion We demonstrated the use of simulation to calculate quantiles for management times of critical event. This approach could assist in deciding if a given performance could be considered normal and also point to aspects of care that seem to pose particular challenges as evidenced by a large number of teams not performing the expected maneuver. However sufficiently large sample sizes (i.e. from a national data base) will be required to calculate acceptable confidence intervals and to establish actual tolerance limits. PMID:26107661

  17. High-accuracy diagnostic tool for electron cloud observation in the LHC based on synchronous phase measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban Müller, J. F.; Baudrenghien, P.; Mastoridis, T.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Valuch, D.

    2015-11-01

    Electron cloud effects, which include heat load in the cryogenic system, pressure rise, and beam instabilities, are among the main intensity limitations for the LHC operation with 25 ns spaced bunches. A new observation tool was proposed and developed to monitor the e-cloud activity and it has already been used successfully during the LHC run 1 (2010-2012) and it is being intensively used in operation during the start of the LHC run 2 (2015-2018). It is based on the fact that the power loss of each bunch due to e-cloud can be estimated using bunch-by-bunch measurement of the synchronous phase. The measurements were done using the existing beam phase module of the low-level rf control system. In order to achieve the very high accuracy required, corrections for reflection in the cables and for systematic errors need to be applied followed by a post-processing of the measurements. Results clearly show the e-cloud buildup along the bunch trains and its time evolution during each LHC fill as well as from fill to fill. Measurements during the 2012 LHC scrubbing run reveal a progressive reduction in the e-cloud activity and therefore a decrease in the secondary electron yield. The total beam power loss can be computed as a sum of the contributions from all bunches and compared with the heat load deposited in the cryogenic system.

  18. Web-based Tools for Educators: Outreach Activities of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braaten, D. A.; Holvoet, J. F.; Gogineni, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Kansas (KU) has implemented extensive outreach activities focusing on Polar Regions as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project. The PRISM project is developing advanced intelligent remote sensing technology that involves radar systems, an autonomous rover, and communications systems to measure detailed ice sheet characteristics, and to determine bed conditions (frozen or wet) below active ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica. These measurements will provide a better understanding of the response of polar ice sheets to global climate change and the resulting impact the ice sheets will have on sea level rise. Many of the research and technological development aspects of the PRISM project, such as robotics, radar systems, climate change and exploration of harsh environments, can kindle an excitement and interest in students about science and technology. These topics form the core of our K-12 education and training outreach initiatives, which are designed to capture the imagination of young students, and prompt them to consider an educational path that will lead them to scientific or engineering careers. The K-12 PRISM outreach initiatives are being developed and implemented in a collaboration with the Advanced Learning Technology Program (ALTec) of the High Plains Regional Technology in Education Consortium (HPR*TEC). ALTec is associated with the KU School of Education, and is a well-established educational research center that develops and hosts web tools to enable teachers nationwide to network, collaborate, and share resources with other teachers. An example of an innovative and successful web interface developed by ALTec is called TrackStar. Teachers can use TrackStar over the Web to develop interactive, resource-based lessons (called tracks) on-line for their students. Once developed, tracks are added to the TrackStar database and can be accessed and modified

  19. Epigenetic regulation by BAF (mSWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes is indispensable for embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong; Sokpor, Godwin; Pham, Linh; Rosenbusch, Joachim; Stoykova, Anastassia; Staiger, Jochen F; Tuoc, Tran

    2016-05-18

    The multi-subunit chromatin-remodeling SWI/SNF (known as BAF for Brg/Brm-associated factor) complexes play essential roles in development. Studies have shown that the loss of individual BAF subunits often affects local chromatin structure and specific transcriptional programs. However, we do not fully understand how BAF complexes function in development because no animal mutant had been engineered to lack entire multi-subunit BAF complexes. Importantly, we recently reported that double conditional knock-out (dcKO) of the BAF155 and BAF170 core subunits in mice abolished the presence of the other BAF subunits in the developing cortex. The generated dcKO mutant provides a novel and powerful tool for investigating how entire BAF complexes affect cortical development. Using this model, we found that BAF complexes globally control the key heterochromatin marks, H3K27me2 and -3, by directly modulating the enzymatic activity of the H3K27 demethylases, Utx and Jmjd3. Here, we present further insights into how the scaffolding ability of the BAF155 and BAF170 core subunits maintains the stability of BAF complexes in the forebrain and throughout the embryo during development. Furthermore, we show that the loss of BAF complexes in the above-described model up-regulates H3K27me3 and impairs forebrain development and embryogenesis. These findings improve our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms and their modulation by the chromatin-remodeling SWI/SNF complexes that control embryonic development. PMID:26986003

  20. A pilot study of scanning acoustic microscopy as a tool for measuring arterial stiffness in aortic biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Riaz; Cruickshank, J. Kennedy; Zhao, Xuegen; Derby, Brian; Weber, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the use of scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) as a potential tool for characterisation of arterial stiffness using aortic biopsies. SAM data is presented for human tissue collected during aortic bypass graft surgery for multi-vessel coronary artery disease. Acoustic wave speed as determined by SAM was compared to clinical data for the patients namely, pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose levels. There was no obvious trend relating acoustic wave speed to PWV values, and an inverse relationship was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and acoustic wave speed. However, in patients with a higher cholesterol or glucose level, the acoustic wave speed increased. A more detailed investigation is needed to relate SAM data to clinical measurements. PMID:26985242

  1. Developing Tools to Measure Quality in Congenital Catheterization and Interventions: The Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes (C3PO)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The broad range of relatively rare procedures performed in pediatric cardiac catheterization laboratories has made the standardization of care and risk assessment in the field statistically quite problematic. However, with the growing number of patients who undergo cardiac catheterization, it has become imperative that the cardiology community overcomes these challenges to study patient outcomes. The Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes was able to develop benchmarks, tools for measurement, and risk adjustment methods while exploring procedural efficacy. Based on the success of these efforts, the collaborative is pursuing a follow-up project, the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes—Quality Improvement, aimed at improving the outcomes for all patients undergoing catheterization for congenital heart disease by reducing radiation exposure. PMID:25114756

  2. UMEL: A new regression tool to identify measurement peaks in LIDAR/DIAL systems for environmental physics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfusa, M.; Gaudio, P.; Malizia, A.; Murari, A.; Vega, J.; Richetta, M.; Gonzalez, S.

    2014-06-01

    Recently, surveying large areas in an automatic way, for early detection of both harmful chemical agents and forest fires, has become a strategic objective of defence and public health organisations. The Lidar and Dial techniques are widely recognized as a cost-effective alternative to monitor large portions of the atmosphere. To maximize the effectiveness of the measurements and to guarantee reliable monitoring of large areas, new data analysis techniques are required. In this paper, an original tool, the Universal Multi Event Locator, is applied to the problem of automatically identifying the time location of peaks in Lidar and Dial measurements for environmental physics applications. This analysis technique improves various aspects of the measurements, ranging from the resilience to drift in the laser sources to the increase of the system sensitivity. The method is also fully general, purely software, and can therefore be applied to a large variety of problems without any additional cost. The potential of the proposed technique is exemplified with the help of data of various instruments acquired during several experimental campaigns in the field.

  3. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: an efficient tool for measuring size, size-distribution and polydispersity of microemulsion droplets in solution.

    PubMed

    Pal, Nibedita; Dev Verma, Sachin; Singh, Moirangthem Kiran; Sen, Sobhan

    2011-10-15

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is an ideal tool for measuring molecular diffusion and size under extremely dilute conditions. However, the power of FCS has not been utilized to its best to measure diffusion and size parameters of complex chemical systems. Here, we apply FCS to measure the size, and, most importantly, the size distribution and polydispersity of a supramolecular nanostructure (i.e., microemulsion droplets, MEDs) in dilute solution. It is shown how the refractive index mismatch of a solution can be corrected in FCS to obtain accurate size parameters of particles, bypassing the optical matching problem of light scattering techniques that are used often for particle-size measurements. We studied the MEDs of 13 different W(0) values from 2 to 50 prepared in a ternary mixture of water, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT), and isooctane, with sulforhodamine-B as a fluorescent marker. We find that, near the optical matching point of MEDs, the dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements underestimate the droplet sizes while FCS estimates the accurate ones. A Gaussian distribution model (GDM) and a maximum-entropy-based FCS data fitting model (MEMFCS) are used to analyze the fluorescence correlation curves that unfold Gaussian-type size distributions of MEDs in solution. We find the droplet size varies linearly with W(0) up to ~20, but beyond this W(0) value, the size variation deviates from this linearity. To explain nonlinear variation of droplet size for W(0) values beyond ~20, we invoke a model (the coated-droplet model) that incorporates the size polydispersity of the droplets. PMID:21899251

  4. Perceived problems with computer gaming and internet use among adolescents: measurement tool for non-clinical survey studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing instruments for measuring problematic computer and console gaming and internet use are often lengthy and often based on a pathological perspective. The objective was to develop and present a new and short non-clinical measurement tool for perceived problems related to computer use and gaming among adolescents and to study the association between screen time and perceived problems. Methods Cross-sectional school-survey of 11-, 13-, and 15-year old students in thirteen schools in the City of Aarhus, Denmark, participation rate 89%, n = 2100. The main exposure was time spend on weekdays on computer- and console-gaming and internet use for communication and surfing. The outcome measures were three indexes on perceived problems related to computer and console gaming and internet use. Results The three new indexes showed high face validity and acceptable internal consistency. Most schoolchildren with high screen time did not experience problems related to computer use. Still, there was a strong and graded association between time use and perceived problems related to computer gaming, console gaming (only boys) and internet use, odds ratios ranging from 6.90 to 10.23. Conclusion The three new measures of perceived problems related to computer and console gaming and internet use among adolescents are appropriate, reliable and valid for use in non-clinical surveys about young people’s everyday life and behaviour. These new measures do not assess Internet Gaming Disorder as it is listed in the DSM and therefore has no parity with DSM criteria. We found an increasing risk of perceived problems with increasing time spent with gaming and internet use. Nevertheless, most schoolchildren who spent much time with gaming and internet use did not experience problems. PMID:24731270

  5. Microfabricated thermal conductivity sensor: a high resolution tool for quantitative thermal property measurement of biomaterials and solutions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xin M; Ding, Weiping; Chen, Hsiu-hung; Shu, Zhiquan; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Hai-feng; Gao, Dayong

    2011-10-01

    Obtaining accurate thermal properties of biomaterials plays an important role in the field of cryobiology. Currently, thermal needle, which is constructed by enclosing a manually winded thin metal wire with an insulation coating in a metallic sheath, is the only available device that is capable of measuring thermal conductivity of biomaterials. Major drawbacks, such as macroscale sensor size, lack of versatile format to accommodate samples with various shapes and sizes, neglected effects of heat transfer inside the probe and thermal contact resistance between the sensing element and the probe body, difficult to mass produce, poor data repeatability and reliability and labor-intense sensor calibration, have significantly reduced their potential to be an essential measurement tool to provide key thermal property information of biological specimens. In this study, we describe the development of an approach to measure thermal conductivity of liquids and soft bio-tissues using a proof-of-concept MEMS based thermal probe. By employing a microfabricated closely-packed gold wire to function as the heater and the thermistor, the presented thermal sensor can be used to measure thermal conductivities of fluids and natural soft biomaterials (particularly, the sensor may be directly inserted into soft tissues in living animal/plant bodies or into tissues isolated from the animal/plant bodies), where other more standard approaches cannot be used. Thermal standard materials have been used to calibrate two randomly selected thermal probes at room temperature. Variation between the obtained system calibration constants is less than 10%. By incorporating the previously obtained system calibration constant, three randomly selected thermal probes have been successfully utilized to measure the thermal conductivities of various solutions and tissue samples under different temperatures. Overall, the measurements are in agreement with the recommended values (percentage error less than 5

  6. Development of a downhole tool measuring real-time concentration of ionic tracers and pH in geothermal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Ryan F.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Limmer, Steven; Yelton, William G.; Bingham, Samuel; Stillman, Greg; Lindblom, Scott; Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    For enhanced or Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) geothermal brine is pumped to the surface via the production wells, the heat extracted to turn a turbine to generate electricity, and the spent brine re-injected via injection wells back underground. If designed properly, the subsurface rock formations will lead this water back to the extraction well as heated brine. Proper monitoring of these geothermal reservoirs is essential for developing and maintaining the necessary level of productivity of the field. Chemical tracers are commonly used to characterize the fracture network and determine the connectivity between the injection and production wells. Currently, most tracer experiments involve injecting the tracer at the injection well, manually collecting liquid samples at the wellhead of the production well, and sending the samples off for laboratory analysis. While this method provides accurate tracer concentration data at very low levels of detection, it does not provide information regarding the location of the fractures which were conducting the tracer between wellbores. Sandia is developing a high-temperature electrochemical sensor capable of measuring tracer concentrations and pH downhole on a wireline tool. The goal of this effort is to collect real-time pH and ionic tracer concentration data at temperatures up to 225 °C and pressures up to 3000 psi. In this paper, a prototype electrochemical sensor and the initial data obtained will be presented detailing the measurement of iodide tracer concentrations at high temperature and pressure in a newly developed laboratory scale autoclave.

  7. Study on a mean radiant temperature measure tool based on an almost spherical array of radiometric sensors.

    PubMed

    Fontana, L

    2012-11-01

    Mean radiant temperature has significant influence on indoor thermal comfort conditions. It has gained greater importance with the wider application of heating and cooling systems based on the use of large surfaces with a temperature slightly higher or lower than the indoor temperature (hot/cold floors or ceilings), because these systems operate through the radiant temperature control. The most used tool to measure radiant temperature, the globe thermometer, still has large margins of error, most of all due to the uncertainty in the evaluation of the convection heat exchanges between the globe surface and the indoor air. The feasibility of a device to measure mean radiant temperature in indoor condition, alternative to the globe-thermometer (obtained placing radiometric sensors (thermopiles) on the sides of different geometric regular solids), is proposed. The behavior has been investigated for different regular solids, such as the residual error and its dependence on walls average temperature, non-uniformity magnitude, orientation and position of the solid in the enclosure, room shape, non-uniformity temperature distribution. Icosahedron shape shows an excellent behavior, with errors lower than 0.1 K in all the examined conditions. PMID:23206088

  8. Emotional Intelligence among Dental Undergraduate Students: An Indispensable and Ignored Aspect in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Ravichandra, K S; Ravi, G R; Kandregula, Chaitanya Ram; Vundavalli, Sudhakar; Srikanth, Koya; Lakhotia, Disha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emotional intelligence (EI) is a measure of pure intelligence of cognitive ability that translates psychological knowledge into terms that are useable by people not professionally trained in psychology, like dentists. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, self-administered, structured questionnaire survey in English was distributed among 186 undergraduate students to assess their EI. It consisted of 30 questions, 5 each to assess the self-awareness, empathy, self-confidence, motivation, social control, and self-competency. All the participants were asked to answer each question, anything between virtually never to virtually always using the rating scale 1-5. Results: The collected data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS version 20 (Chicago, Inc.). The mean, median, and mode for various responses between the groups were compared. Only 11.55% of the participants had good EI with scores above 20 in all domains, while a majority of 54.02% proved to have average EI. A mere 2.05% showed to have very poor EI and 28.84% demonstrated poor EI. Conclusions: The study showed that only 11.55% had a good EI and a major percentage of the students require immediate intervention to improve their EI. PMID:25954075

  9. Needs for Data and Tools to Plan and Interpret in situ Measurements of Small Solar System Bodies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, W. F.

    Spacecraft missions to small solar system bodies (asteroids and comet nuclei) are increasing in numbers and in complexities. Here we summarize observational and experimental needs for basic data, development of tools for mission planning and data analysis, and list some resources that need further development. We categorize them in several broad domains: For solid bodies (asteroid and comet nuclei) we need properties such as material strengths and thermal and electrical properties (e.g., conductivities and heat capacities). While we know many properties of analog materials, they may not be applicable to the extreme conditions found in space. For example, densities of asteroids are usually lower than metallic, stony, or carbonaceous analog materials on Earth. This implies porosity at various scales that can fundamentally modify some properties. There are orders at magnitude differences in thermal conductivity of amorphous water ice. Small solar system bodies are not spherical; they have different moments of inertia about different axes. Nonalignment between principal axes of inertia and the spin axes causes tumbling motion and internal strains and stresses that can interfere with many measurements. For example, we have no models to estimate strain and stress induced noise that could interfere with seismology. We lack technology how to deliver and anchor instruments efficiently over a wide but unknown surface area on an asteroid or a comet nucleus in the absence of gravity. For comet comae we need more atomic and molecular data, particularly in the area of electron and energetic particle collisions. We provide lists of available databases and summarize data and tools that are urgently needed. We suggest the formation of an international working group to attack these issues and exchange information and data.

  10. Evaluation of manometric temperature measurement (MTM), a process analytical technology tool in freeze drying, part III: heat and mass transfer measurement.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaolin Charlie; Nail, Steven L; Pikal, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    This article evaluates the procedures for determining the vial heat transfer coefficient and the extent of primary drying through manometric temperature measurement (MTM). The vial heat transfer coefficients (Kv) were calculated from the MTM-determined temperature and resistance and compared with Kv values determined by a gravimetric method. The differences between the MTM vial heat transfer coefficients and the gravimetric values are large at low shelf temperature but smaller when higher shelf temperatures were used. The differences also became smaller at higher chamber pressure and smaller when higher resistance materials were being freeze-dried. In all cases, using thermal shields greatly improved the accuracy of the MTM Kv measurement. With use of thermal shields, the thickness of the frozen layer calculated from MTM is in good agreement with values obtained gravimetrically. The heat transfer coefficient "error" is largely a direct result of the error in the dry layer resistance (ie, MTM-determined resistance is too low). This problem can be minimized if thermal shields are used for freeze-drying. With suitable use of thermal shields, accurate Kv values are obtained by MTM; thus allowing accurate calculations of heat and mass flow rates. The extent of primary drying can be monitored by real-time calculation of the amount of remaining ice using MTM data, thus providing a process analytical tool that greatly improves the freeze-drying process design and control. PMID:17285746

  11. Indispensable functions of ABL and PDGF receptor kinases in epithelial adherence of attaching/effacing pathogens under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Manthey, Carolin F; Calabio, Christine B; Wosinski, Anna; Hanson, Elaine M; Vallance, Bruce A; Groisman, Alex; Martín, Martín G; Wang, Jean Y J; Eckmann, Lars

    2014-07-15

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Citrobacter rodentium are attaching-and-effacing (A/E) pathogens that cause intestinal inflammation and diarrhea. The bacteria adhere to the intestinal epithelium, destroy microvilli, and induce actin-filled membranous pedestals but do not invade the mucosa. Adherence leads to activation of several host cell kinases, including FYN, n-SRC, YES, ABL, and ARG, phosphorylation of the bacterial translocated intimin receptor, and actin polymerization and pedestal formation in cultured cells. However, marked functional redundancy appears to exist between kinases, and their physiological importance in A/E pathogen infections has remained unclear. To address this question, we employed a novel dynamic in vitro infection model that mimics transient and short-term interactions in the intestinal tract. Screening of a kinase inhibitor library and RNA interference experiments in vitro revealed that ABL and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor (PDGFR) kinases, as well as p38 MAP kinase, have unique, indispensable roles in early attachment of EPEC to epithelial cells under dynamic infection conditions. Studies with mutant EPEC showed that the attachment functions of ABL and PDGFR were independent of the intimin receptor but required bacterial bundle-forming pili. Furthermore, inhibition of ABL and PDGFR with imatinib protected against infection of mice with modest loads of C. rodentium, whereas the kinases were dispensable for high inocula or late after infection. These results indicate that ABL and PDGFR have indispensable roles in early A/E pathogen attachment to intestinal epithelial cells and for in vivo infection with limiting inocula but are not required for late intimate bacterial attachment or high inoculum infections. PMID:24848114

  12. A New Tool for Automated Data Collection and Complete On-site Flux Data Processing for Eddy Covariance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begashaw, I. G.; Kathilankal, J. C.; Li, J.; Beaty, K.; Ediger, K.; Forgione, A.; Fratini, G.; Johnson, D.; Velgersdyk, M.; Hupp, J. R.; Xu, L.; Burba, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The eddy covariance method is widely used for direct measurements of turbulent exchange of gases and energy between the surface and atmosphere. In the past, raw data were collected first in the field and then processed back in the laboratory to achieve fully corrected publication-ready flux results. This post-processing consumed significant amount of time and resources, and precluded researchers from accessing near real-time final flux results. A new automated measurement system with novel hardware and software designs was developed, tested, and deployed starting late 2013. The major advancements with this automated flux system include: 1) Enabling logging high-frequency, three-dimensional wind speeds and multiple gas densities (CO2, H2O and CH4), low-frequency meteorological data, and site metadata simultaneously through a specially designed file format 2) Conducting fully corrected, real-time on-site flux computations using conventional as well as user-specified methods, by implementing EddyPro Software on a small low-power microprocessor 3) Providing precision clock control and coordinate information for data synchronization and inter-site data comparison by incorporating a GPS and Precision Time Protocol. Along with these innovations, a data management server application was also developed to chart fully corrected real-time fluxes to assist remote system monitoring, to send e-mail alerts, and to automate data QA/QC, transfer and archiving at individual stations or on a network level. Combination of all of these functions was designed to help save substantial amount of time and costs associated with managing a research site by eliminating the post-field data processing, reducing user errors and facilitating real-time access to fully corrected flux results. The design, functionality, and test results from this new eddy covariance measurement tool will be presented.

  13. Hyperspectral laboratory and airborne measurements as tools for local mapping of swelling soils in Orléans area (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Dufrechou, Gregory; Hohmann, Audrey

    2013-04-01

    Swelling soils contain clay minerals that change volume with water content and cause extensive and expensive damage on infrastructures. Based on spatial distribution of infrastructure damages and existing geological maps, the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM, the French Geological Survey) published in 2010 a 1:50 000 swelling hazard map of France. This map indexes the territory to low, intermediate, or high swell susceptibility, but does not display smallest and isolated clays lithologies. At local scale, identification of clay minerals and characterization of swell potential of soils using conventional soil analysis (DRX, chemical, and geotechnical analysis) are slow, expensive, and does not permit integrated measurements. Shortwave infrared (SWIR: 1100-2500 nm) spectral domains are characterized by significant spectral absorption bands that provide an underused tool for estimate the swell potential of soils. Reflectance spectroscopy, using an ASD Fieldspec Pro spectrometer, permits a rapid and less expensive measurement of soil reflectance spectra in the field and laboratory. In order to produce high precision map of expansive soils, the BRGM aims to optimize laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for mapping swelling soils. Geotechnical use of laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for local characterization of swell potential of soils could be assessable from an economical point of view. A new high resolution airborne hyperspectral survey (covering ca. 280 km², 380 channels ranging from 400 to 2500 nm) located at the W of Orléans (Loiret, France) will also be combined with field and laboratory measurements to detect and map swelling soils.

  14. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory noninvasive continuous finger blood pressure measurement with PORTAPRES: a new tool in cardiovascular research.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T F; Wittenhaus, J; Steinmetz, T F; Piccolo, P; Lüpsen, H

    1992-01-01

    PORTAPRES model 1 is a portable 24 h continuous noninvasive blood pressure recorder based on the same principles as FINAPRES, the volume-clamp method of Peñaz and the physiocal criteria of Wesseling. In addition, PORTAPRES measures two adjacent fingers in alternation every 30 min and automatically corrects hydrostatic effects due to height changes of the measured fingers. The device measures 255 x 210 x 60 mm and weights about 3,000 g, including a lithium battery pack and a TEAC cassette FM instrumentation tape recorder to record the finger pressure wave form, the height signal, and beat-to-beat derived systolic, mean and diastolic pressure as well as heart rate. It appears to be an excellent new tool for cardiovascular research in humans. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study the effect of oral administration of 2.5 mg cilazapril, a new potent long-acting, nonsulfhydryl-group angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, given once daily for 7 days, was investigated in 16 healthy young men (mean age 25.3 +/- 1.6 years). Finger blood pressure and heart rate were measured with PORTAPRES for 24 h during everyday life and during standardized laboratory tasks, once about 1 to 2 h A.M. and once about 10 to 11 h P.M. once about 1 to 2 h A.M. and once about 10 to 11 h P.M. after drug administration. Physical activity was controlled by integrated thigh-EMG. Using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis it was shown that based on 64 s mean values, this measure of physical activity explains 34-77% of the heart rate variance within 24 h (median 53%), 10-52% (31%) of systolic, and 4-38% (25%) of diastolic blood pressure variance when up to 20 time lags of the EMG signal were introduced as possible predictors. This indicates that varying degrees of physical activity have a great impact on everyday blood pressure and heart rate. After one week cilazapril did not alter 24-h means of systolic and diastolic blood pressure or heart rate

  15. Are We Being Effective? Measuring the Long Term Impact of a Minority Bridging Program Using Short Term Tools.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanks, C. L.; Levine, R.; Wartes, D.; Gonzalez, R.

    2005-12-01

    Theoretically and anecdotally, bridging programs that facilitate the transition from high school to college should increase the recruitment and retention of students into universities. Ideally, this type of program is deemed `effective' if the program results in an increased number of the target population actually receiving a college degree. Thus, unless short term indicators of success can be identified and measured, the program cannot be evaluated until a sufficient number of years have passed. The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) is a bridging program aimed at preparing rural Alaska Native high school juniors and seniors for college. A geoscience course was recently added to the program in an effort to recruit Alaska Native students into geoscience careers. Anecdotal data suggests that the RAHI program is effective at improving Alaska Native graduation rates from university; however measuring the effectiveness of the geoscience elective at recruiting geoscience majors required a complex evaluation procedure. This included: 1. Identification of key factors that lead to increased likelihood of high school students continuing in a geosciences career pipeline (e.g., knowledge of geology as a science and as a career option); 2. Identification of a `control' group within the RAHI student body against which success could be measured (e.g., RAHI students that did not take the geoscience option); 3. Development of pre-course and post-course evaluation tools (i.e., surveys) that focused on changes in the key factors identified in step 1; 4. Cognitive testing of the surveys in order to ensure the target population (i.e., rural Alaska Native high school students) comprehended the intent of each survey question; 5. Revision of the surveys based on the cognitive testing; 6. Administration of the survey to all RAHI students; 7. Evaluation and interpretation of the survey results. Cognitive testing (step 4) was key in developing a meaningful survey instrument. Rural Alaska

  16. SU-E-T-472: A Multi-Dimensional Measurements Comparison to Analyze a 3D Patient Specific QA Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Ashmeg, S; Jackson, J; Zhang, Y; Oldham, M; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate a 3D patient specific QA tool using 2D film and 3D Presage dosimetry. Methods: A brain IMRT case was delivered to Delta4, EBT2 film and Presage plastic dosimeter. The film was inserted in the solid water slabs at 7.5cm depth for measurement. The Presage dosimeter was inserted into a head phantom for 3D dose measurement. Delta4's Anatomy software was used to calculate the corresponding dose to the film in solid water slabs and to Presage in the head phantom. The results from Anatomy were compared to both calculated results from Eclipse and measured dose from film and Presage to evaluate its accuracy. Using RIT software, we compared the “Anatomy” dose to the EBT2 film measurement and the film measurement to ECLIPSE calculation. For 3D analysis, DICOM file of “Anatomy” was extracted and imported to CERR software, which was used to compare the Presage dose to both “Anatomy” calculation and ECLIPSE calculation. Gamma criteria of 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm was used for comparison. Results: Gamma passing rates of film vs “Anatomy”, “Anatomy” vs ECLIPSE and film vs ECLIPSE were 82.8%, 70.9% and 87.6% respectively when 3% - 3mm criteria is used. When the criteria is changed to 5% - 5mm, the passing rates became 87.8%, 76.3% and 90.8% respectively. For 3D analysis, Anatomy vs ECLIPSE showed gamma passing rate of 86.4% and 93.3% for 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm respectively. The rate is 77.0% for Presage vs ECLIPSE analysis. The Anatomy vs ECLIPSE were absolute dose comparison. However, film and Presage analysis were relative comparison Conclusion: The results show higher passing rate in 3D than 2D in “Anatomy” software. This could be due to the higher degrees of freedom in 3D than in 2D for gamma analysis.

  17. Ductile cutting of silicon microstructures with surface inclination measurement and compensation by using a force sensor integrated single point diamond tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Cai, Yindi; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a measurement and compensation method of surface inclination for ductile cutting of silicon microstructures by using a diamond tool with a force sensor based on a four-axis ultra-precision lathe. The X- and Y-directional inclinations of a single crystal silicon workpiece with respect to the X- and Y-motion axes of the lathe slides were measured respectively by employing the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe, in which the tool-workpiece contact is sensitively detected by monitoring the force sensor output. Based on the measurement results, fabrication of silicon microstructures can be thus carried out directly along the tilted silicon workpiece by compensating the cutting motion axis to be parallel to the silicon surface without time-consuming pre-adjustment of the surface inclination or turning of a flat surface. A diamond tool with a negative rake angle was used in the experiment for superior ductile cutting performance. The measurement precision by using the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe was investigated. Experiments of surface inclination measurement and ultra-precision ductile cutting of a micro-pillar array and a micro-pyramid array with inclination compensation were carried out respectively to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  18. Tools for NEPA compliance: Baseline reports and compliance guides

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, T.A.; Hansen, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    Environmental baseline documents and NEPA compliance guides should be carried in every NEPA implementation ``tool kit``. These two indispensable tools can play a major role in avoiding repeated violations of NEPA requirements that have occurred over the past 26 years. This paper describes these tools, discusses their contents, and explains how they are used to prepare better NEPA documents more cost-effectively. Focus is on experience at Sandia Laboratories (NM).

  19. Dataset for the validation and use of DiameterJ an open source nanofiber diameter measurement tool.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, Nathan A; Bharti, Kapil; Kriel, Haydn; Simon, Carl G

    2015-12-01

    DiameterJ is an open source image analysis plugin for ImageJ. DiameterJ produces ten files for every image that it analyzes. These files include the images that were analyzed, the data to create histograms of fiber radius, pore size, fiber orientation, and summary statistics, as well as images to check the output of DiameterJ. DiameterJ was validated with 130 in silico-derived, digital, synthetic images and 24 scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of steel wire samples with a known diameter distribution. Once validated, DiameterJ was used to analyze SEM images of electrospun polymeric nanofibers, including a comparison of different segmentation algorithms. In this article, all digital synthetic images, SEM images, and their segmentations are included. Additionally, DiameterJ's raw output files, and processed data is included for the reader. The data provided herein was used to generate the figures in DiameterJ: A Validated Open Source Nanofiber Diameter Measurement Tool[1], where more discussion can be found. PMID:26380840

  20. Computer vision-based analysis of foods: a non-destructive colour measurement tool to monitor quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-05-01

    Computer vision-based image analysis has been widely used in food industry to monitor food quality. It allows low-cost and non-contact measurements of colour to be performed. In this paper, two computer vision-based image analysis approaches are discussed to extract mean colour or featured colour information from the digital images of foods. These types of information may be of particular importance as colour indicates certain chemical changes or physical properties in foods. As exemplified here, the mean CIE a* value or browning ratio determined by means of computer vision-based image analysis algorithms can be correlated with acrylamide content of potato chips or cookies. Or, porosity index as an important physical property of breadcrumb can be calculated easily. In this respect, computer vision-based image analysis provides a useful tool for automatic inspection of food products in a manufacturing line, and it can be actively involved in the decision-making process where rapid quality/safety evaluation is needed. PMID:24288215

  1. Dataset for the validation and use of DiameterJ an open source nanofiber diameter measurement tool

    PubMed Central

    Hotaling, Nathan A.; Bharti, Kapil; Kriel, Haydn; Simon, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    DiameterJ is an open source image analysis plugin for ImageJ. DiameterJ produces ten files for every image that it analyzes. These files include the images that were analyzed, the data to create histograms of fiber radius, pore size, fiber orientation, and summary statistics, as well as images to check the output of DiameterJ. DiameterJ was validated with 130 in silico-derived, digital, synthetic images and 24 scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of steel wire samples with a known diameter distribution. Once validated, DiameterJ was used to analyze SEM images of electrospun polymeric nanofibers, including a comparison of different segmentation algorithms. In this article, all digital synthetic images, SEM images, and their segmentations are included. Additionally, DiameterJ’s raw output files, and processed data is included for the reader. The data provided herein was used to generate the figures in DiameterJ: A Validated Open Source Nanofiber Diameter Measurement Tool[1], where more discussion can be found. PMID:26380840

  2. Indispensability: The Holy Grail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachtman, Gilbert M.

    In this volatile era of economic retrenchment, corporate downsizing, and government budget crises, school psychologists' major defense must be short-term political action and grassroots support, but their long-term strategy must be to build a position of importance for school psychologists in the school. In the long run this will not be…

  3. [Phronesis: Medicine's indispensable virtue].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villares, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Facing those who defend that Medicine is not but an applied science, Pellegrino argues that the ultimate goal of Medicine is facing to a human being in his illness condition. Thus, it is not sufficient to have scientific knowledge but proximity to man kindness. Cure is not the only goal -achievable in only a few cases- but healing, caring with a person as an ill person and as a person. For this reason, professional competence is not enough; the physician needs to have the necessary dispositions to be a good person, a good professional. To get the goals of Medicine, the physician has to achieve those qualities who allow him to do the good he is intended to, that is, he needs to be virtuous. Prudence -phronesis- is the virtue that allows him to apply a general rule to a particular case and, furthermore, addresses his actions to be not only technically correct, but excellent. Prudence is, then, the link between intellectual virtues and moral virtues. Pellegrino's main objective has been to elaborate a Philosophy of Medicine, different from the Philosophy of Science, useful for clinical practice and used by clinical practitioners. By nurturing prudence, a small bit of the final goal is reached: the healing, the goodness for the sick. This should be possible if we are embedded in a moral community, and for Pellegrino, sharing knowledge and ethical values is the way of being part of a moral community. PMID:24836033

  4. Recess--It's Indispensable!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Olga; Waite-Stupiansky, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    The demise of recess in many elementary schools--and of outdoor play in general--is an issue of great concern to many members of the Play, Policy, and Practice Interest Forum. Most people remember recess as an important part of the school day. It was a time to be outdoors; to organize games; to play on the swings, slides, and other playground…

  5. A Prototype Tool to Enable Farmers to Measure and Improve the Welfare Performance of the Farm Animal Enterprise: The Unified Field Index

    PubMed Central

    Colditz, Ian G.; Ferguson, Drewe M.; Collins, Teresa; Matthews, Lindsay; Hemsworth, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Benchmarking is a tool widely used in agricultural industries that harnesses the experience of farmers to generate knowledge of practices that lead to better on-farm productivity and performance. We propose, by analogy with production performance, a method for measuring the animal welfare performance of an enterprise and describe a tool for farmers to monitor and improve the animal welfare performance of their business. A general framework is outlined for assessing and monitoring risks to animal welfare based on measures of animals, the environment they are kept in and how they are managed. The tool would enable farmers to continually improve animal welfare. Abstract Schemes for the assessment of farm animal welfare and assurance of welfare standards have proliferated in recent years. An acknowledged short-coming has been the lack of impact of these schemes on the welfare standards achieved on farm due in part to sociological factors concerning their implementation. Here we propose the concept of welfare performance based on a broad set of performance attributes of an enterprise and describe a tool based on risk assessment and benchmarking methods for measuring and managing welfare performance. The tool termed the Unified Field Index is presented in a general form comprising three modules addressing animal, resource, and management factors. Domains within these modules accommodate the principle conceptual perspectives for welfare assessment: biological functioning; emotional states; and naturalness. Pan-enterprise analysis in any livestock sector could be used to benchmark welfare performance of individual enterprises and also provide statistics of welfare performance for the livestock sector. An advantage of this concept of welfare performance is its use of continuous scales of measurement rather than traditional pass/fail measures. Through the feedback provided via benchmarking, the tool should help farmers better engage in on-going improvement of

  6. Analysis of the fluctuations of the total electron content (TEC) measured at Goose Bay using tools of nonlinear methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. Satheesh; Kumar, C. V. A.; George, Benny; Renuka, G.; Venugopal, C.

    2004-02-01

    In this paper we report the evidence of a low-dimensional chaos in a set of data observed outside laboratories. The dynamic behavior of the time series of the fluctuations of the total electron content (TEC) measured at Goose Bay, which is a high-latitude station, is analyzed in detail using the tools of nonlinear dynamics. The low-dimensional character of the dynamics is evident from the estimated value of the fraction of false neighbors for various dimensions and the correlation dimension. The deterministic nature of the dynamics is investigated using recurrence plots and spatiotemporal entropy. The chaotic nature of the underlying dynamics of the fluctuations of TEC is shown by the power spectrum indicating exponential decay and the calculated positive value of Lyapunov exponent. This is also supported by the results of the comparison of the chaotic characteristics of the time series of variations of TEC with the pseudochaotic characteristic of the colored noise time series. The results of the tests based on the prediction error and the time reversal asymmetry statistic reject the hypothesis that TEC belongs to the family of linear stochastic signals. The nonlinear non-Gaussian nature of the oscillations of variations of TEC is further investigated by the surrogate data test based on several geometrical and dynamical characteristics of the variations of TEC such as mutual information, the fraction of the false nearest neighbours, the local slopes of the correlation sums, the curves giving Lyapunov exponents, and finally, the value of Lyapunov exponents. The results of this analysis show that low-dimensional chaotic dynamics could be a possible and fruitful concept which can be utilized to study the disturbance in the ionosphere as in the case of magnetospheric dynamics. We feel that the dynamical invariants like Lyapunov exponents and correlation dimension can describe the disturbance in the variations of TEC and thus the disturbance in the ionosphere. Hence the

  7. A Novel Transcriptional Factor Nkapl Is a Germ Cell-Specific Suppressor of Notch Signaling and Is Indispensable for Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Hidenobu; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio; Miyata, Haruhiko; Okabe, Masaru; Ikawa, Masahito; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Goshima, Naoki; Wada, Morimasa; Tanaka, Hiromitsu

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is an elaborately regulated system dedicated to the continuous production of spermatozoa via the genesis of spermatogonia. In this process, a variety of genes are expressed that are relevant to the differentiation of germ cells at each stage. Although Notch signaling plays a critical role in germ cell development in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, its function and importance for spermatogenesis in mammals is controversial. We report that Nkapl is a novel germ cell-specific transcriptional suppressor in Notch signaling. It is also associated with several molecules of the Notch corepressor complex such as CIR, HDAC3, and CSL. It was expressed robustly in spermatogonia and early spermatocytes after the age of 3 weeks. Nkapl-deleted mice showed complete arrest at the level of pachytene spermatocytes. In addition, apoptosis was observed in this cell type. Overexpression of NKAPL in germline stem cells demonstrated that Nkapl induced changes in spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) markers and the reduction of differentiation factors through the Notch signaling pathway, whereas testes with Nkapl deleted showed inverse changes in those markers and factors. Therefore, Nkapl is indispensable because aberrantly elevated Notch signaling has negative effects on spermatogenesis, affecting SSC maintenance and differentiation factors. Notch signaling should be properly regulated through the transcriptional factor Nkapl. PMID:25875095

  8. Transcription factor COUP-TFII is indispensable for venous and lymphatic development in zebrafish and Xenopus laevis

    SciTech Connect

    Aranguren, Xabier L.; Beerens, Manu; Vandevelde, Wouter; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter; Luttun, Aernout

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} COUP-TFII deficiency in zebrafish affects arterio-venous EC specification. {yields} COUP-TFII is indispensable for lymphatic development in zebrafish. {yields} COUP-TFII knockdown in Xenopus disrupts lymphatic EC differentiation and migration. {yields} COUP-TFII's role in EC fate decisions is evolutionary conserved. -- Abstract: Transcription factors play a central role in cell fate determination. Gene targeting in mice revealed that Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter-Transcription Factor II (COUP-TFII, also known as Nuclear Receptor 2F2 or NR2F2) induces a venous phenotype in endothelial cells (ECs). More recently, NR2F2 was shown to be required for initiating the expression of Prox1, responsible for lymphatic commitment of venous ECs. Small animal models like zebrafish embryos and Xenopus laevis tadpoles have been very useful to elucidate mechanisms of (lymph) vascular development. Therefore, the role of NR2F2 in (lymph) vascular development was studied by eliminating its expression in these models. Like in mice, absence of NR2F2 in zebrafish resulted in distinct vascular defects including loss of venous marker expression, major trunk vessel fusion and vascular leakage. Both in zebrafish and Xenopus the development of the main lymphatic structures was severely hampered. NR2F2 knockdown significantly decreased prox1 expression in zebrafish ECs and the same manipulation affected lymphatic (L)EC commitment, migration and function in Xenopus tadpoles. Therefore, the role of NR2F2 in EC fate determination is evolutionary conserved.

  9. Mitochondrial Heat Shock Protein Machinery Hsp70/Hsp40 Is Indispensable for Proper Mitochondrial DNA Maintenance and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Týč, Jiří; Klingbeil, Michele M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Mitochondrial chaperones have multiple functions that are essential for proper functioning of mitochondria. In the human-pathogenic protist Trypanosoma brucei, we demonstrate a novel function of the highly conserved machinery composed of mitochondrial heat shock proteins 70 and 40 (mtHsp70/mtHsp40) and the ATP exchange factor Mge1. The mitochondrial DNA of T. brucei, also known as kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), is represented by a single catenated network composed of thousands of minicircles and dozens of maxicircles packed into an electron-dense kDNA disk. The chaperones mtHsp70 and mtHsp40 and their cofactor Mge1 are uniformly distributed throughout the single mitochondrial network and are all essential for the parasite. Following RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of each of these proteins, the kDNA network shrinks and eventually disappears. Ultrastructural analysis of cells depleted for mtHsp70 or mtHsp40 revealed that the otherwise compact kDNA network becomes severely compromised, a consequence of decreased maxicircle and minicircle copy numbers. Moreover, we show that the replication of minicircles is impaired, although the lack of these proteins has a bigger impact on the less abundant maxicircles. We provide additional evidence that these chaperones are indispensable for the maintenance and replication of kDNA, in addition to their already known functions in Fe-S cluster synthesis and protein import. PMID:25670781

  10. Development of a self-assessment tool for measuring competences of obstetric nurses in rooming-in wards in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ju; Ye, Wenqin; Fan, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To provide high-quality nursing care, a reliable and feasible competency assessment tool is critical. Although several questionnaire-based competency assessment tools have been reported, a tool specific for obstetric nurses in rooming-in wards is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to develop a competency assessment tool for obstetric rooming-in ward nurses. Methods: A literature review was conducted to create an individual intensive interview with 14 nurse managers, educators, and primary nurses in rooming-in wards. Expert reviews (n = 15) were conducted to identify emergent themes in a Delphi fashion. A competency assessment questionnaire was then developed and tested with 246 rooming-in ward nurses in local hospitals. Results: We constructed a three-factor linear model for obstetric rooming-in nurse competency assessment. Further refinement resulted in a self-assessment questionnaire containing three first-tier, 12 second-tier, and 43 third-tier items for easy implementation. The questionnaire was reliable, contained satisfactory content, and had construct validity. Discussion: Our competency assessment tool provides a systematic, easy, and operational subjective evaluation model for nursing managers and administrators to evaluate obstetric rooming-in ward primary nurses. The application of this tool will facilitate various human resources functions, such as nurse training/education effect evaluation, and will eventually promote high-quality nursing care delivery. PMID:26770468

  11. Amniotic Fluid Embolism Pathophysiology Suggests the New Diagnostic Armamentarium: β-Tryptase and Complement Fractions C3-C4 Are the Indispensable Working Tools

    PubMed Central

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Frati, Paola; Zaami, Simona; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an uncommon obstetric condition involving pregnant women during labor or in the initial stages after delivery. Its incidence is estimated to be around 5.5 cases per 100,000 deliveries. Therefore, this paper investigated the pathophysiological mechanism, which underlies AFE, in order to evaluate the role of immune response in the development of this still enigmatic clinical entity. The following databases (from 1956 to September 2014) Medline, Cochrane Central, Scopus, Web of Science and Science Direct were used, searching the following key words: AFE, pathophysiology, immune/inflammatory response, complement and anaphylaxis. The main key word “AFE” was searched singularly and associated individually to each of the other keywords. Of the 146 sources found, only 19 were considered appropriate for the purpose of this paper. The clinical course is characterized by a rapid onset of symptoms, which include: acute hypotension and/or cardiac arrest, acute hypoxia (with dyspnoea, cyanosis and/or respiratory arrest), coagulopathies (disseminated intravascular coagulation and/or severe hemorrhage), coma and seizures. The pathology still determines a significant morbidity and mortality and potential permanent neurological sequelae for surviving patients. At this moment, numerous aspects involving the pathophysiology and clinical development are still not understood and several hypotheses have been formulated, in particular the possible role of anaphylaxis and complement. Moreover, the detection of serum tryptase and complement components and the evaluation of fetal antigens can explain several aspects of immune response. PMID:25807263

  12. Amniotic fluid embolism pathophysiology suggests the new diagnostic armamentarium: β-tryptase and complement fractions C3-C4 are the indispensable working tools.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Frati, Paola; Zaami, Simona; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an uncommon obstetric condition involving pregnant women during labor or in the initial stages after delivery. Its incidence is estimated to be around 5.5 cases per 100,000 deliveries. Therefore, this paper investigated the pathophysiological mechanism, which underlies AFE, in order to evaluate the role of immune response in the development of this still enigmatic clinical entity. The following databases (from 1956 to September 2014) Medline, Cochrane Central, Scopus, Web of Science and Science Direct were used, searching the following key words: AFE, pathophysiology, immune/inflammatory response, complement and anaphylaxis. The main key word "AFE" was searched singularly and associated individually to each of the other keywords. Of the 146 sources found, only 19 were considered appropriate for the purpose of this paper. The clinical course is characterized by a rapid onset of symptoms, which include: acute hypotension and/or cardiac arrest, acute hypoxia (with dyspnoea, cyanosis and/or respiratory arrest), coagulopathies (disseminated intravascular coagulation and/or severe hemorrhage), coma and seizures. The pathology still determines a significant morbidity and mortality and potential permanent neurological sequelae for surviving patients. At this moment, numerous aspects involving the pathophysiology and clinical development are still not understood and several hypotheses have been formulated, in particular the possible role of anaphylaxis and complement. Moreover, the detection of serum tryptase and complement components and the evaluation of fetal antigens can explain several aspects of immune response. PMID:25807263

  13. The New I.S.A.M. (Institutional Self-Assessment Measure): A Planning and Program Improvement Tool for Competency-Based Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, John

    The Institutional Self-Assessment Measure (ISAM) is presented, which was designed to aid local agency program managers and staff members in planning and improving implementation of competency-based education (CBE) programs. It is a structured tool to be used with the support of a trained ISAM facilitator to enhance communication among staff…

  14. Development of a practical tool to measure the impact of publications on the society based on focus group discussions with scientists

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A 'societal impact factor' that complements the scientific impact factor would contribute to a more comprehensive evaluation of scientific research. In order to develop a practical tool for its assessment, it is important to learn about perceptions of scientists on how to measure a societal impact factor. Methods This qualitative study presents the development of a practical tool to measure the societal impact of publications based on 8 focus group discussions with 24 biomedical scientists at the Medical University Vienna between May 2008 and May 2009. Topics focused on (1) features of an ideal tool, (2) criteria that should be considered in the assessment, and (3) the identification of practical pitfalls. In an iterative exercise involving the repeated application of the drafted tool to scientific papers, criteria for the assessment were refined. A small-scale exercise to evaluate the tool in terms of its comprehensibility, relevance and practicability was conducted using questionnaires for 6 external experts in leading positions of public health, and yielded acceptable results. Results The tool developed consists of three quantitative dimensions, that is (1) the aim of a publication, (2) the efforts of the authors to translate their research results, and, if translation was accomplished, (3) (a) the size of the area where translation was accomplished (regional, national or international), (b) its status (preliminary versus permanent) and (c) the target group of the translation (individuals, subgroup of population, total population). Conclusions Focus group discussions with scientists suggested that the societal impact factor of a publication should consider the effect of the publication in a wide set of non-scientific areas, but also the motivation behind the publication, and efforts by the authors to translate their findings. The proposed tool provides some valuable insights for further research and practical applications in the topic area. PMID

  15. Measuring the quality and quantity of professional intrapartum support: testing a computerised systematic observation tool in the clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Continuous support in labour has a significant impact on a range of clinical outcomes, though whether the quality and quantity of support behaviours affects the strength of this impact has not yet been established. To identify the quality and quantity of support, a reliable means of measurement is needed. To this end, a new computerised systematic observation tool, the ‘SMILI’ (Supportive Midwifery in Labour Instrument) was developed. The aim of the study was to test the validity and usability of the ‘Supportive Midwifery in Labour Instrument’ (SMILI) and to test the feasibility and acceptability of the systematic observation approach in the clinical intrapartum setting. Methods Systematic observation was combined with a postnatal questionnaire and the collection of data about clinical processes and outcomes for each observed labour. The setting for the study was four National Health Service maternity units in Scotland, UK. Participants in this study were forty five midwives and forty four women. The SMILI was used by trained midwife observers to record labour care provided by midwives. Observations were undertaken for an average of two hours and seventeen minutes during the active first stage of labour and, in 18 cases, the observation included the second stage of labour. Content validity of the instrument was tested by the observers, noting the extent to which the SMILI facilitated the recording of all key aspects of labour care and interactions. Construct validity was tested through exploration of correlations between the data recorded and women’s feelings about the support they received. Feasibility and usability data were recorded following each observation by the observer. Internal reliability and construct validity were tested through statistical analysis of the data. Results One hundred and four hours of labour care were observed and recorded using the SMILI during forty nine labour episodes. Conclusion The SMILI was found to be a valid

  16. Assessment of Lightning Transients on a De-Iced Rotor Blade with Predictive Tools and Coaxial Return Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet, S.; Gosmain, A.; Ducoux, W.; Ponçon, M.; Fontaine, G.; Desseix, P.; Perraud, P.

    2012-05-01

    The increasing use of composite materials in aircrafts primary structures has led to different problematics in the field of safety of flight in lightning conditions. The consequences of this technological mutation, which occurs in a parallel context of extension of electrified critical functions, are addressed by aircraft manufacturers through the enhancement of their available assessment means of lightning transient. On the one hand, simulation tools, provided an accurate description of aircraft design, are today valuable assessment tools, in both predictive and operative terms. On the other hand, in-house test means allow confirmation and consolidation of design office hardening solutions. The combined use of predictive simulation tools and in- house test means offers an efficient and reliable support for all aircraft developments in their various life-time stages. The present paper provides PREFACE research project results that illustrate the above introduced strategy on the de-icing system of the NH90 composite main rotor blade.

  17. Does the Feldenkrais Method make a difference? An investigation into the use of outcome measurement tools for evaluating changes in clients.

    PubMed

    Connors, Karol Anne; Pile, Carolyn; Nichols, Margo Elaine

    2011-10-01

    Evidence-based practice confirms the need for outcome measures. Feldenkrais Method practitioners struggle to use such tools because of the broad range of applications of the Feldenkrais Method and the difficulty identifying suitable measurement tools. A pre/post-test design was used to investigate the use of three outcome measurement tools [Patient-specific Functional Scale (PSFS), Pain Outcome Profile (POP) and Short Form12v2 Health questionnaire (SF12v2)] for clients experiencing problems performing everyday functional tasks who attended Feldenkrais sessions. Eleven Feldenkrais practitioners submitted data on 48 clients. Changes were detected in the clients' ability to perform everyday tasks (PSFS improved 3.8 points, p < 0.001), levels of pain decreased (POP improved in current pain p = 0.001, physical index p < 0.001 and affective index p = 0.001) and quality of life improved significantly in six of the eight SF12v2 domains. These three tools have been found to be suitable for detecting changes in client function before and after a series of Feldenkrais sessions. PMID:21943618

  18. The Conoid Associated Motor MyoH Is Indispensable for Toxoplasma gondii Entry and Exit from Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Graindorge, Arnault; Frénal, Karine; Jacot, Damien; Salamun, Julien; Marq, Jean Baptiste; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Many members of the phylum of Apicomplexa have adopted an obligate intracellular life style and critically depend on active invasion and egress from the infected cells to complete their lytic cycle. Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa, and as such, the invasive tachyzoite contains an organelle termed the conoid at its extreme apex. This motile organelle consists of a unique polymer of tubulin fibres and protrudes in both gliding and invading parasites. The class XIV myosin A, which is conserved across the Apicomplexa phylum, is known to critically contribute to motility, invasion and egress from infected cells. The MyoA-glideosome is anchored to the inner membrane complex (IMC) and is assumed to translocate the components of the circular junction secreted by the micronemes and rhoptries, to the rear of the parasite. Here we comprehensively characterise the class XIV myosin H (MyoH) and its associated light chains. We show that the 3 alpha-tubulin suppressor domains, located in MyoH tail, are necessary to anchor this motor to the conoid. Despite the presence of an intact MyoA-glideosome, conditional disruption of TgMyoH severely compromises parasite motility, invasion and egress from infected cells. We demonstrate that MyoH is necessary for the translocation of the circular junction from the tip of the parasite, where secretory organelles exocytosis occurs, to the apical position where the IMC starts. This study attributes for the first time a direct function of the conoid in motility and invasion, and establishes the indispensable role of MyoH in initiating the first step of motility along this unique organelle, which is subsequently relayed by MyoA to enact effective gliding and invasion. PMID:26760042

  19. The Conoid Associated Motor MyoH Is Indispensable for Toxoplasma gondii Entry and Exit from Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Graindorge, Arnault; Salamun, Julien; Marq, Jean Baptiste; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Many members of the phylum of Apicomplexa have adopted an obligate intracellular life style and critically depend on active invasion and egress from the infected cells to complete their lytic cycle. Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa, and as such, the invasive tachyzoite contains an organelle termed the conoid at its extreme apex. This motile organelle consists of a unique polymer of tubulin fibres and protrudes in both gliding and invading parasites. The class XIV myosin A, which is conserved across the Apicomplexa phylum, is known to critically contribute to motility, invasion and egress from infected cells. The MyoA-glideosome is anchored to the inner membrane complex (IMC) and is assumed to translocate the components of the circular junction secreted by the micronemes and rhoptries, to the rear of the parasite. Here we comprehensively characterise the class XIV myosin H (MyoH) and its associated light chains. We show that the 3 alpha-tubulin suppressor domains, located in MyoH tail, are necessary to anchor this motor to the conoid. Despite the presence of an intact MyoA-glideosome, conditional disruption of TgMyoH severely compromises parasite motility, invasion and egress from infected cells. We demonstrate that MyoH is necessary for the translocation of the circular junction from the tip of the parasite, where secretory organelles exocytosis occurs, to the apical position where the IMC starts. This study attributes for the first time a direct function of the conoid in motility and invasion, and establishes the indispensable role of MyoH in initiating the first step of motility along this unique organelle, which is subsequently relayed by MyoA to enact effective gliding and invasion. PMID:26760042

  20. SocialMood: an information visualization tool to measure the mood of the people in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Guilherme; Franco, Roberto; Moraes, Rodolfo; Figueiredo, Bruno; Miranda, João.; Dobrões, José; Afonso, Ricardo; Meiguins, Bianchi

    2013-12-01

    Based on the arena of social networks, the tool developed in this study aims to identify trends mood among undergraduate students. Combining the methodology Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), which originated in the field of Psychology, the system filters the content provided on the Web and isolates certain words, establishing a range of values as perceived positive, negative or neutral. A Big Data summarizing the results, assisting in the construction and visualization of behavioral profiles generic, so we have a guideline for the development of information visualization tools for social networks.

  1. Web-Enabled and Improved Software Tools and Data Are Needed to Measure Nutrient Intakes and Physical Activity for Personalized Health Research123

    PubMed Central

    Stumbo, Phyllis J.; Weiss, Rick; Newman, John W.; Pennington, Jean A.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Klurfeld, David M.; Kaput, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Food intake, physical activity (PA), and genetic makeup each affect health and each factor influences the impact of the other 2 factors. Nutrigenomics describes interactions between genes and environment. Knowledge about the interplay between environment and genetics would be improved if experimental designs included measures of nutrient intake and PA. Lack of familiarity about how to analyze environmental variables and ease of access to tools and measurement instruments are 2 deterrents to these combined studies. This article describes the state of the art for measuring food intake and PA to encourage researchers to make their tools better known and more available to workers in other fields. Information presented was discussed during a workshop on this topic sponsored by the USDA, NIH, and FDA in the spring of 2009. PMID:20980656

  2. Performance indicators: A tool for continuous quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Nidhi M; Soni, Shital; Gajjar, Maitrey; Shah, Mamta; Shah, Sangita; Patel, Vaidehi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Performance monitoring is an important tool which can be used for setting priorities for process improvement. At our centre, we have been monitoring every step in the processes, right from inventory of consumables (both critical and routine) to number of donors reactive for TTI. We conducted a study to measure the impact of monitoring Performance Indicators and how it could be used as a tool for Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI). Materials and Methods: The present study was a retrospective study where the performance indicator (PI) data of blood bank was analyzed for over four years. For certain parameters, benchmarks or thresholds were set that represented warning limits or action limits. The yearly data were collated from monthly data. Shifts or Trends, if any, were identified and Corrective and Preventive Action (CAPA) taken accordingly. At the end, outcomes of the analysis were charted. Results: After the yearly data evaluation, outcomes obtained were used to plan, correct and amend processes and systems in the blood center. It was observed that the workload of the center showed an upward trend. This helped us to plan for the purchase of consumables and management of manpower. The monitoring of usage and discard of blood helped in the efficient management of blood stocks. The need for any new equipment could also be judged by the trends in workload. Conclusion: Performance indicators are indispensible tools which various stakeholders in the Blood Transfusion centres should implement to improve on quality performance. PMID:27011669

  3. Body Mass Index and Skinfold Thickness Measurements as Body Composition Screening Tools in Caucasian and African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Charity Leigh; Solmon, Melinda A.; Zanovec, Michael T.; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2011-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding childhood obesity and its impact on children's health, and many states and school districts have mandated that health assessments be conducted as part of physical education. Tools such as the FITNESSGRAM[R] can help teachers inform students and parents if students are above a healthy weight range. The FITNESSGRAM…

  4. Development and validation of a tool to measure self-confidence and anxiety in nursing students during clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    White, Krista A

    2014-01-01

    Clinical decision making (CDM) is a cornerstone skill for nurses. Self-confidence and anxiety affect the learning and adeptness of CDM. This study aimed to develop and test a quantitative tool to assess undergraduate nursing students' self-confidence and anxiety during CDM. The 27-item Nursing Anxiety and Self-Confidence with Clinical Decision Making (NASC-CDM) scale is a 6-point, Likert-type tool with two subscales. Two samples of prelicensure associate and baccalaureate nursing students participated in the pilot (n = 303) and main testing (n = 242) phases of the study. Construct validity assessment, using exploratory factor analysis, produced a stable three-dimensional scale. Convergent validity assessment produced positive, moderate, and statistically significant correlations of the tool sub-scales with two existing instruments. Internal consistency reliability was assessed for each subscale (self-confidence, α = .97; anxiety, α = .96). The NASC-CDM scale may be a useful assessment tool for nurse educators to help novice clinicians improve CDM skills. PMID:24256004

  5. Measuring Libraries' Use of YouTube as a Promotional Tool: An Exploratory Study and Proposed Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colburn, Selene; Haines, Laura

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of social networking and Web 2.0 applications, libraries have the means to reach users through interactive Web-based tools patrons already use in their personal lives, such as Facebook and YouTube. In this study the authors aim to understand the ways that libraries are using YouTube for outreach purposes. Using a methodology…

  6. Measuring Effectiveness of Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) Tools in Teaching School Children: A Case Study from Chattisgarh State, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, J. Durga Prasad; Singh, Raksha

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Information Communication and Technology tools viz DLP (Distance Learning Projector) and Computer/Laptop in comparison with selected instructional media for teaching primary and secondary school pupils. It examined the effect of grade on the performance of the pupils taught with four…

  7. Image Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.A.; Gardner, S.D.; Rogers, M.L.; Sanders, F.; Tunnell, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    ImageTool is a software package developed at Bechtel Nevada, Los Alamos Operations. This team has developed a set of analysis tools, in the form of image processing software used to evaluate camera calibration data. Performance measures are used to identify capabilities and limitations of a camera system, while establishing a means for comparing systems. The camera evaluations are designed to provide system performance, camera comparison and system modeling information. This program is used to evaluate digital camera images. ImageTool provides basic image restoration and analysis features along with a special set of camera evaluation tools which are used to standardize camera system characterizations. This process is started with the acquisition of a well-defined set of calibration images. Image processing algorithms provide a consistent means of evaluating the camera calibration data. Performance measures in the areas of sensitivity, noise, and resolution are used as a basis for comparing camera systems and evaluating experimental system performance. Camera systems begin with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and optical relay system and may incorporate image intensifiers, electro-static image tubes, or electron bombarded charge-coupled devices (EBCCDs). Electro-optical components provide fast shuttering and/or optical gain to camera systems. Camera types evaluated include gated intensified cameras and multi-frame cameras used in applications ranging from X-ray radiography to visible and infrared imaging. It is valuable to evaluate the performance of a camera system in order to determine if a particular system meets experimental requirements. In this paper we highlight the processing features of ImageTool.

  8. Validation of Three Early Ejaculation Diagnostic Tools: A Composite Measure Is Accurate and More Adequate for Diagnosis by Updated Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Jern, Patrick; Piha, Juhana; Santtila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To validate three early ejaculation diagnostic tools, and propose a new tool for diagnosis in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Significant changes to diagnostic criteria are expected in the near future. Available screening tools do not necessarily reflect proposed changes. Materials and Methods Data from 148 diagnosed early ejaculation patients (Mage = 42.8) and 892 controls (Mage = 33.1 years) from a population-based sample were used. Participants responded to three different questionnaires (Premature Ejaculation Profile; Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool; Multiple Indicators of Premature Ejaculation). Stopwatch measured ejaculation latency times were collected from a subsample of early ejaculation patients. We used two types of responses to the questionnaires depending on the treatment status of the patients 1) responses regarding the situation before starting pharmacological treatment and 2) responses regarding current situation. Logistic regressions and Receiver Operating Characteristics were used to assess ability of both the instruments and individual items to differentiate between patients and controls. Results All instruments had very good precision (Areas under the Curve ranging from .93-.98). A new five-item instrument (named CHecklist for Early Ejaculation Symptoms – CHEES) consisting of high-performance variables selected from the three instruments had validity (Nagelkerke R2 range .51-.79 for backwards/forwards logistic regression) equal to or slightly better than any individual instrument (i.e., had slightly higher validity statistics, but these differences did not achieve statistical significance). Importantly, however, this instrument was more in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Conclusions All three screening tools had good validity. A new 5-item diagnostic tool (CHEES) based on the three instruments had equal or somewhat more favorable validity statistics compared to the other three tools, but is

  9. A Study of Healthy Adults' Oro-lingual Effort During Swallowing Using OroPress, A New Portable Wireless Measurement Tool.

    PubMed

    Manning, Molly; Casey, Vincent; Conway, Richard; Saunders, Jean; Perry, Alison

    2016-06-01

    OroPress is a new, low profile, portable, wireless tool that enables stable measurement of tongue pressure during isometric ('pushing') tasks and, more importantly, during swallowing. Using this tool, a pressure-time product, the OroPress Absolute (OPA) parameter, has been developed as a representative measure of lingual effort during swallowing. In a sample of 57 adults aged 20-80+ years, of both sexes and without dysphagia, tongue-palate contact pressures generated while swallowing 5 ml, 10 ml of water and 5 ml custard, were recorded using OroPress. Data were examined for effects of gender, age and bolus condition (consistency, volume). OPA was tested for stability of measure and then correlated with the criterion standard, peak pressure recorded when swallowing (PMax(SW)). Swallowing pressures (PMax(SW), OPA) were positively correlated with bolus viscosity. No significant age and gender differences were found. Excellent stability of measure (test, re-test reliability) was demonstrated and OPA was positively correlated with PMax(SW). OroPress produces valid, reliable and reproducible measurements and improved accuracy of oro-lingual pressure measurement during swallowing. With such a tool, interventions/therapy can be proactive and principled as outcomes are better validated. To enhance specificity of intervention, measurement parameters need to reflect the pressure and temporal qualities of swallow function. OPA has the potential to describe differences in effort made, and ability to sustain pressures, in adults without dysphagia. The results of these studies will enable more accurate examination of the oral phase of swallowing as we establish this highly accurate sensor as a criterion standard for oro-lingual pressure measurement in clinical populations. PMID:26939582

  10. A New Accurate 3D Measurement Tool to Assess the Range of Motion of the Tongue in Oral Cancer Patients: A Standardized Model.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Simone; van Alphen, Maarten J A; Jacobi, Irene; Smeele, Ludwig E; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Balm, Alfons J M

    2016-02-01

    In oral cancer treatment, function loss such as speech and swallowing deterioration can be severe, mostly due to reduced lingual mobility. Until now, there is no standardized measurement tool for tongue mobility and pre-operative prediction of function loss is based on expert opinion instead of evidence based insight. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of a triple-camera setup for the measurement of tongue range of motion (ROM) in healthy adults and its feasibility in patients with partial glossectomy. A triple-camera setup was used, and 3D coordinates of the tongue in five standardized tongue positions were achieved in 15 healthy volunteers. Maximum distances between the tip of the tongue and the maxillary midline were calculated. Each participant was recorded twice, and each movie was analysed three times by two separate raters. Intrarater, interrater and test-retest reliability were the main outcome measures. Secondly, feasibility of the method was tested in ten patients treated for oral tongue carcinoma. Intrarater, interrater and test-retest reliability all showed high correlation coefficients of >0.9 in both study groups. All healthy subjects showed perfect symmetrical tongue ROM. In patients, significant differences in lateral tongue movements were found, due to restricted tongue mobility after surgery. This triple-camera setup is a reliable measurement tool to assess three-dimensional information of tongue ROM. It constitutes an accurate tool for objective grading of reduced tongue mobility after partial glossectomy. PMID:26516075

  11. Multidimensional Measurement Within Adult Protective Services: Design and Initial Testing of the Tool for Risk, Interventions, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeld, David H.; Henderson, Linda B.; Snider, Marcy A.; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the development, field utility, reliability, and validity of the multidimensional Tool for Risk, Interventions, and Outcomes (TRIO) for use in Adult Protective Services (APS). The TRIO is designed to facilitate consistent APS practice and collect data related to multiple dimensions of typical interactions with APS clients, including the investigation and assessment of risks, the provision of APS interventions, and associated health and safety outcomes. Initial tests of the TRIO indicated high field utility, social worker “relevance and buy-in,” and inter-rater reliability. TRIO concurrent validity was demonstrated via appropriate patterns of TRIO item differentiation based on the type of observed confirmed abuse or neglect; and predictive validity was demonstrated by prediction of the risk of actual APS recurrence. The TRIO is a promising new tool that can help meet the challenges of providing and documenting effective APS practices and identifying those at high risk for future APS recurrence. PMID:24848994

  12. Development of the Objective, Structured Communication Assessment of Residents (OSCAR) Tool for Measuring Communication Skills With Patients

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Aleece; Perzynski, Adam; Thomas, Charles; Saade, Jimmy Y.; McFarlane, Michael; Becker, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Background Although interpersonal and communication skills are essential to physician practice, there is a dearth of effective tools to meaningfully teach and assess communication skills. Objective The purpose of our study was to create a standardized tool for evaluation of communication skills for residents across specialties. Methods We designed an Objective, Structured Communication Assessment of Residents (OSCAR) tool, consisting of 4 clinical stations, to assess intern communication skills with relationship development, their establishment of case goals, and their organization and time management skills. Interns from 11 training programs completed the stations, with senior residents trained to function as standardized patients. The 4 stations' scenarios were a disruptive patient, handling a phone call for a narcotics refill, disclosing a medical mistake, and delivering bad news. Results Eighty-three interns completed OSCAR during orientation. The assessment took interns about 40 minutes to complete, and participants were given immediate feedback by the standardized patients. The total possible score for each station was 50. Resident performance was highest for disclosing a medical error (94%, 47 of 50), followed by handling a disruptive patient (90%, 45 of 50), disclosing bad news (86%, 43 of 50), and handling the phone call for the narcotics refill (62%, 31 of 50). Multivariate analysis of variance results indicated differences between residents from US and international medical schools, but there were no significant differences across specialties. Interrater reliability was excellent for each station (> 0.80). Conclusions OSCAR is a practical tool for assessing interns' communication skills to provide timely results to program directors. PMID:24455003

  13. Mechanics and hydraulics of unsaturated soils: what makes interfaces an indispensable part of a physically-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikooee, E.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The foundations of the current theories for hydraulics and mechanics of unsaturated soils have been mainly based on the empirically introduced equations. There are various characteristics of unsaturated soils for which lots of different empirical equations have been proposed such as hydraulic conductivity, water retention curve, and effective stress parameter. One of the remarkable challenges which all current models face is hysteresis, i.e., for a certain matric suction, values of saturation, hydraulic conductivity and effective stress parameter in drying state and wetting are different. Conventional models of hydraulic and mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils try to account for the hysteresis phenomenon by means of different empirical equations for each hydraulic path. Hassanizadeh and Gray (1993) claimed that the hysteresis in capillary pressure-saturation curves can be modelled through the inclusion of air-water interfaces as a new independent variable [1]. It has recently been stated that the same conjecture can be made for suction stress [2]. Therefore, it seems to better portray hydraulic and mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils, interfaces are required as an indispensable part of the framework [3, 4]. This presentation aims at introducing the drawbacks of current theories of hydraulics and mechanics of unsaturated soils. For this purpose, the role of interfaces in the mechanics and hydraulics of unsaturated soils is explained and different possibilities to account for the contribution of interfaces are discussed. Finally, current challenges and future research directions are set forth. References[1] Hassanizadeh, S.M. & Gray, W.G.: Thermodynamic basis of capillary pressure in porous media. Water Resour.Res. 29(1993), 3389-3405.[2] Nikooee, E., Habibagahi, G., Hassanizadeh, S.M. & Ghahramani, A.: Effective Stress in unsaturated Soils: a thermodynamic approach based on the interfacial energy and hydromechanical coupling. Transport porous Med. 96

  14. Introducing the individual Teamwork Observation and Feedback Tool (iTOFT): Development and description of a new interprofessional teamwork measure.

    PubMed

    Thistlethwaite, Jill; Dallest, Kathy; Moran, Monica; Dunston, Roger; Roberts, Chris; Eley, Diann; Bogossian, Fiona; Forman, Dawn; Bainbridge, Lesley; Drynan, Donna; Fyfe, Sue

    2016-07-01

    The individual Teamwork Observation and Feedback Tool (iTOFT) was devised by a consortium of seven universities in recognition of the need for a means of observing and giving feedback to individual learners undertaking an interprofessional teamwork task. It was developed through a literature review of the existing teamwork assessment tools, a discussion of accreditation standards for the health professions, Delphi consultation and field-testing with an emphasis on its feasibility and acceptability for formative assessment. There are two versions: the Basic tool is for use with students who have little clinical teamwork experience and lists 11 observable behaviours under two headings: 'shared decision making' and 'working in a team'. The Advanced version is for senior students and junior health professionals and has 10 observable behaviours under four headings: 'shared decision making', 'working in a team', 'leadership', and 'patient safety'. Both versions include a comprehensive scale and item descriptors. Further testing is required to focus on its validity and educational impact. PMID:27269996

  15. Development of the Distance from Privilege Measures: A Tool for Understanding the Persistence of Talented Women in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Barbara A.; Multon, Karen D.; Syme, Maggie L.; Fry, Nancy M.; Owens, Rhea; Hammond, Marie; Robinson-Kurpius, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the development and validation of the Distance from Privilege (DFP) measures. Items for the measures were developed on theoretical grounds. The primary sample consisted of 292 undergraduates with various majors from a Midwestern University and a Historically Black University in the south. One of the measures is the…

  16. A Prototype Tool to Enable Farmers to Measure and Improve the Welfare Performance of the Farm Animal Enterprise: The Unified Field Index.

    PubMed

    Colditz, Ian G; Ferguson, Drewe M; Collins, Teresa; Matthews, Lindsay; Hemsworth, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Schemes for the assessment of farm animal welfare and assurance of welfare standards have proliferated in recent years. An acknowledged short-coming has been the lack of impact of these schemes on the welfare standards achieved on farm due in part to sociological factors concerning their implementation. Here we propose the concept of welfare performance based on a broad set of performance attributes of an enterprise and describe a tool based on risk assessment and benchmarking methods for measuring and managing welfare performance. The tool termed the Unified Field Index is presented in a general form comprising three modules addressing animal, resource, and management factors. Domains within these modules accommodate the principle conceptual perspectives for welfare assessment: biological functioning; emotional states; and naturalness. Pan-enterprise analysis in any livestock sector could be used to benchmark welfare performance of individual enterprises and also provide statistics of welfare performance for the livestock sector. An advantage of this concept of welfare performance is its use of continuous scales of measurement rather than traditional pass/fail measures. Through the feedback provided via benchmarking, the tool should help farmers better engage in on-going improvement of farm practices that affect animal welfare. PMID:26480317

  17. Validation of a specific measure to assess health-related quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: the 'Tolerability and quality of life' (TOOL) questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Perception of quality of life may differ depending on the perspective. The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the 'TOlerability and quality Of Life' (TOOL) questionnaire, a specific self-rated instrument to evaluate the impact of side effects of antipsychotic drugs on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The questionnaire consists of eight items answered on a four-point Likert scale. Methods A psychometric study was conducted with clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder under antipsychotic treatment. The translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was performed according to international standards. Internal consistency using the Cronbach α coefficient and test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the reliability of the instrument. Patients completed generic and specific measures of quality of life and clinical severity. Results A total of 238 patients were analysed, with a mean age of 42 years (SD 10.9). The mean completion time was 4.9 min (SD 4.4). Internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficient were adequate (Cronbach α = 0.757 and ICC = 0.90). Factorial analysis showed a unidimensional structure (a single eigenvalue >1, accounting for 39.1% of variance). Significant Spearman's rank correlations between the TOOL and both generic and specific measures were found. The questionnaire was able to discriminate among the Clinical Global Impression - Severity scores (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.001). Conclusions The TOOL questionnaire shows appropriate feasibility, reliability, and discriminative performance as a patient-reported outcome. TOOL constitutes a valuable addition to measure the impact of adverse events of antipsychotic drugs from the patient perspective. PMID:21396102

  18. Tools of the Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langham, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Tangible tools needed by the instructor of orientation and mobility techniques for people with visual impairments include cane repair tools, a tape measure, a stopwatch, labeling materials, raised-line drawing equipment, a bicycle, compass and map, mace, and evaluation tools. (DB)

  19. DtaRefinery: a software tool for elimination of systematic errors from parent ion mass measurements in tandem mass spectra datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Mayampurath, Anoop M.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-12-16

    Hybrid two-stage mass spectrometers capable of both highly accurate mass measurement and MS/MS fragmentation have become widely available in recent years and have allowed for sig-nificantly better discrimination between true and false MS/MS pep-tide identifications by applying relatively narrow windows for maxi-mum allowable deviations for parent ion mass measurements. To fully gain the advantage of highly accurate parent ion mass meas-urements, it is important to limit systematic mass measurement errors. The DtaRefinery software tool can correct systematic errors in parent ion masses by reading a set of fragmentation spectra, searching for MS/MS peptide identifications, then fitting a model that can estimate systematic errors, and removing them. This results in a new fragmentation spectrum file with updated parent ion masses.

  20. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  1. Increasing Testing Efficiency through the Development of an IT-Based Adaptive Testing Tool for Competency Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Janne; Schumann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper investigates the potential of computerized adaptive testing for CMs to reduce test time. In the context of education and training, competency measurement (CM) is a central challenge in competency management. For complex CMs, a compromise must be addressed between the time available and the quality of the measurements.…

  2. The ACT College Outcome Measurement Project: A New Tool for Summative Evaluation of Nontraditional Postsecondary Education Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Eric F.; Pringle, Robert A.

    The American College Testing Program (ACT) developed tests as a result of the College Outcome Measures Project (COMP). These instruments were intended for evaluation of nontraditional and traditional postsecondary education programs. They measure skills rather than information. The study was designed to check on several aspects of use of the COMP…

  3. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS): efficient, standardized tools to measure self-reported health and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bevans, Margaret; Ross, Alyson; Cella, David

    2014-01-01

    All nurses are interested in the effects of diseases and treatments on individuals. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures are used to obtain self-reported information about symptoms, function, perceptions, and experiences. However, there are challenges to their use, including multiple measures of the same concept, widely varying quality, excessive length and complexity, and difficulty comparing findings across studies and conditions. To address these challenges, the National Institutes of Health funded the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS), a web-based repository of valid and reliable PRO measures of health concepts relevant to clinician and researchers. Through the PROMIS Assessment Center, clinicians and researchers can access PRO measures, administer computerized adaptive tests, collect self-report data, and report instant health assessments. The purpose of this article was to summarize the development and validation of the PROMIS measures and to describe its current functionality as it relates to nursing science. PMID:25015409

  4. Validation of ultrasound as a noninvasive tool to measure subcutaneous fat depth in leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Heather S.; Benson, Scott R.; James, Michael C.; Martin, Kelly J.; Stacy, Brian A.; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Rist, Paul M.; Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, George H.; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) undergo substantial cyclical changes in body condition between foraging and nesting. Ultrasonography has been used to measure subcutaneous fat as an indicator of body condition in many species but has not been applied in sea turtles. To validate this technique in leatherback turtles, ultrasound images were obtained from 36 live-captured and dead-stranded immature and adult turtles from foraging and nesting areas in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Ultrasound measurements were compared with direct measurements from surgical biopsy or necropsy. Tissue architecture was confirmed histologically in a subset of turtles. The dorsal shoulder region provided the best site for differentiation of tissues. Maximum fat depth values with the front flipper in a neutral (45–90°) position demonstrated good correlation with direct measurements. Ultrasound-derived fat measurements may be used in the future for quantitative assessment of body condition as an index of health in this critically endangered species.

  5. VALIDATION OF ULTRASOUND AS A NONINVASIVE TOOL TO MEASURE SUBCUTANEOUS FAT DEPTH IN LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLES (DERMOCHELYS CORIACEA).

    PubMed

    Harris, Heather S; Benson, Scott R; James, Michael C; Martin, Kelly J; Stacy, Brian A; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Rist, Paul M; Work, Thierry M; Balazs, George H; Seminoff, Jeffrey A

    2016-03-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) undergo substantial cyclical changes in body condition between foraging and nesting. Ultrasonography has been used to measure subcutaneous fat as an indicator of body condition in many species but has not been applied in sea turtles. To validate this technique in leatherback turtles, ultrasound images were obtained from 36 live-captured and dead-stranded immature and adult turtles from foraging and nesting areas in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Ultrasound measurements were compared with direct measurements from surgical biopsy or necropsy. Tissue architecture was confirmed histologically in a subset of turtles. The dorsal shoulder region provided the best site for differentiation of tissues. Maximum fat depth values with the front flipper in a neutral (45-90°) position demonstrated good correlation with direct measurements. Ultrasound-derived fat measurements may be used in the future for quantitative assessment of body condition as an index of health in this critically endangered species. PMID:27010287

  6. Conjoint Community Resiliency Assessment Measure-28/10 items (CCRAM28 and CCRAM10): A self-report tool for assessing community resilience.

    PubMed

    Leykin, Dmitry; Lahad, Mooli; Cohen, Odeya; Goldberg, Avishay; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2013-12-01

    Community resilience is used to describe a community's ability to deal with crises or disruptions. The Conjoint Community Resiliency Assessment Measure (CCRAM) was developed in order to attain an integrated, multidimensional instrument for the measurement of community resiliency. The tool was developed using an inductive, exploratory, sequential mixed methods design. The objective of the present study was to portray and evaluate the CCRAM's psychometric features. A large community sample (N = 1,052) were assessed by the CCRAM tool, and the data was subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. A Five factor model (21 items) was obtained, explaining 67.67 % of the variance. This scale was later reduced to 10-item brief instrument. Both scales showed good internal consistency coefficients (α = .92 and α = .85 respectively), and acceptable fit indices to the data. Seven additional items correspond to information requested by leaders, forming the CCRAM28. The CCRAM has been shown to be an acceptable practical tool for assessing community resilience. Both internal and external validity have been demonstrated, as all factors obtained in the factor analytical process, were tightly linked to previous literature on community resilience. The CCRAM facilitates the estimation of an overall community resiliency score but furthermore, it detects the strength of five important constructs of community function following disaster: Leadership, Collective Efficacy, Preparedness, Place Attachment and Social Trust. Consequently, the CCRAM can serve as an aid for community leaders to assess, monitor, and focus actions to enhance and restore community resilience for crisis situations. PMID:24091563

  7. Peptidase specificity from the substrate cleavage collection in the MEROPS database and a tool to measure cleavage site conservation

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    One peptidase can usually be distinguished from another biochemically by its action on proteins, peptides and synthetic substrates. Since 1996, the MEROPS database (http://merops.sanger.ac.uk) has accumulated a collection of cleavages in substrates that now amounts to 66,615 cleavages. The total number of peptidases for which at least one cleavage is known is 1700 out of a total of 2457 different peptidases. This paper describes how the cleavages are obtained from the scientific literature, how they are annotated and how cleavages in peptides and proteins are cross-referenced to entries in the UniProt protein sequence database. The specificity profiles of 556 peptidases are shown for which ten or more substrate cleavages are known. However, it has been proposed that at least 40 cleavages in disparate proteins are required for specificity analysis to be meaningful, and only 163 peptidases (6.6%) fulfil this criterion. Also described are the various displays shown on the website to aid with the understanding of peptidase specificity, which are derived from the substrate cleavage collection. These displays include a logo, distribution matrix, and tables to summarize which amino acids or groups of amino acids are acceptable (or not acceptable) in each substrate binding pocket. For each protein substrate, there is a display to show how it is processed and degraded. Also described are tools on the website to help with the assessment of the physiological relevance of cleavages in a substrate. These tools rely on the hypothesis that a cleavage site that is conserved in orthologues is likely to be physiologically relevant, and alignments of substrate protein sequences are made utilizing the UniRef50 database, in which in each entry sequences are 50% or more identical. Conservation in this case means substitutions are permitted only if the amino acid is known to occupy the same substrate binding pocket from at least one other substrate cleaved by the same peptidase. PMID

  8. Development of the Differentiation of Self and Role Inventory for Nurses (DSRI-RN): a tool to measure internal dimensions of workplace stress.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Ronald; Frisch, Noreen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the use of Bowen's theory of differentiation as a framework for understanding one aspect of vocational burnout. The theory suggests that persons with low levels of differentiation are at higher risk for emotional exhaustion than those at higher levels. The authors describe the development and pilot-testing of a tool, the Differentiation of Self and Role Inventory for Nurses (DSRI-RN) as a means to assess internal aspects of workplace stress by measuring factors suggested by the theory. Initial use of the DSRI-RN indicates that the tool is reliable and valid and that nurses with higher levels of differentiation expressed lower levels of burnout and greater enthusiasm for nursing. These findings suggest that the DSRI-RN may be used in further studies and opens the possibility of using Bowen's framework in developing interventions assisting nurses to understand and cope with the internal aspects of workplace stress. PMID:19789001

  9. Hard x-ray correlation analysis as a diagnostic tool for the measurement of magnetic turbulence in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, S. K.; Hui, A. K.; Chowdhury, S.; Raychaudhuri, Santwana; Banik, D.

    2010-12-15

    A diagnostic has been developed for the measurement and characterization of the magnetic turbulence occurring in the core region of a tokamak. A specially shielded detector looking in the tangential direction has been employed to measure the thin target bremsstrahlung from the core plasma. The thick target bremsstrahlung from the limiter is also recorded at the same time. Auto- and cross-correlation analyses have been shown to yield, respectively, the stochasticity of the magnetic fluctuations in the core region and the consequent diffusion coefficient of the nonthermal electrons. The measured stochasticity bears a relationship with the diffusion coefficient. Data obtained from internal magnetic probes corroborate the above trend but the hard x-ray measurement data are shown to be more reliable than those obtained from magnetic probes.

  10. Improving comfort and communication in the ICU: a practical new tool for palliative care performance measurement and feedback

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, J E; Mulkerin, C M; Adams, L L; Pronovost, P J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To develop a practical set of measures for routine monitoring, performance feedback, and improvement in the quality of palliative care in the intensive care unit (ICU). Design Use of an interdisciplinary iterative process to create a prototype “bundle” of indicators within previously established domains of ICU palliative care quality; operationalization of indicators as specified measures; and pilot implementation to evaluate feasibility and baseline ICU performance. Setting The national Transformation of the Intensive Care Unit program developed in the United States by VHA Inc. Patients Critically ill patients in ICUs for 1, >3, and >5 days. Measurements and main results Palliative care processes including identification of patient preferences and decision making surrogates, communication between clinicians and patients/families, social and spiritual support, and pain assessment and management, as documented in medical records. Application is triggered by specified lengths of ICU stay. Pilot testing in 19 ICUs (review of >100 patients' records) documented feasibility, while revealing opportunities for quality improvement in clinician‐patient/family communication and other key components of ICU palliative care. Conclusions The new bundle of measures is a prototype for routine measurement of the quality of palliative care in the ICU. Further investigation is needed to confirm associations between measured processes and outcomes of importance to patients and families, as well as other aspects of validity. PMID:16885251

  11. X-ray fluorescence: Issues surrounding the application of a new tool for measuring burden of lead

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, H.; Milder, F.L.; Burger, D.E. )

    1989-08-01

    Studies of lead toxicity would greatly benefit from a convenient, noninvasive measure of body lead burden. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) promises to provide such a measure by rapidly estimating lead content in bone, the repository of greater than 95% of an adult's lead stores (73% in children). Two separate XRF techniques exist, L-XRF and K-XRF. They differ in terms of calibration method and type of bone sampled. They also involve different radiation energies; however, radiation doses and concomitant risks are similarly low. Since interpretation of an XRF measurement depends to an extent on the distribution of lead in the skeleton, this topic is reviewed. Available data suggest that trabecular and cortical bone comprise two distinct compartments with regard to lead kinetics. Within each compartment, however, there also appears to be a significant degree of variability. Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that the subperiosteal surface layer of cortical bone has a pattern of lead absorption and release that is different from the rest of cortical bone. This may have implications for (1) the choice of XRF technique, since the L-XRF technique measures lead in surface bone, whereas the K-XRF technique derives an estimate of lead from the full thickness of bone, and (2) the selection of bone sites for taking XRF measurements. More research is necessary to fully optimize the applicability of the XRF instrument.

  12. DtaRefinery, a Software Tool for Elimination of Systematic Errors from Parent Ion Mass Measurements in Tandem Mass Spectra Data Sets*

    PubMed Central

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Mayampurath, Anoop M.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid two-stage mass spectrometers capable of both highly accurate mass measurement and high throughput MS/MS fragmentation have become widely available in recent years, allowing for significantly better discrimination between true and false MS/MS peptide identifications by the application of a relatively narrow window for maximum allowable deviations of measured parent ion masses. To fully gain the advantage of highly accurate parent ion mass measurements, it is important to limit systematic mass measurement errors. Based on our previous studies of systematic biases in mass measurement errors, here, we have designed an algorithm and software tool that eliminates the systematic errors from the peptide ion masses in MS/MS data. We demonstrate that the elimination of the systematic mass measurement errors allows for the use of tighter criteria on the deviation of measured mass from theoretical monoisotopic peptide mass, resulting in a reduction of both false discovery and false negative rates of peptide identification. A software implementation of this algorithm called DtaRefinery reads a set of fragmentation spectra, searches for MS/MS peptide identifications using a FASTA file containing expected protein sequences, fits a regression model that can estimate systematic errors, and then corrects the parent ion mass entries by removing the estimated systematic error components. The output is a new file with fragmentation spectra with updated parent ion masses. The software is freely available. PMID:20019053

  13. Ceramic problems/challenges in high temperature oxide superconductors - Hysteretic force measurements as a new analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P. E. D.; Ratto, J. J.; Housley, R. M.; Porter, J. R.; Marshall, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is presented for analyzing high-temperature oxide superconductors using hysteretic magnetic force/distance measurements. Emphasis is placed on developing low weight, highly robust superconducting materials for space applications. Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu superconductors are prepared and characterized by standard techniques. It is found that standard techniques such as XRD, SEM, and TEM are insufficient to completely characterize superconductors. The magnetic properties of the superconductors are studied with the new technique, based on measuring the force between a magnet and the superconductor as a function of their separation.

  14. The Cambridge Face Memory Test for Children (CFMT-C): a new tool for measuring face recognition skills in childhood.

    PubMed

    Croydon, Abigail; Pimperton, Hannah; Ewing, Louise; Duchaine, Brad C; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition ability follows a lengthy developmental course, not reaching maturity until well into adulthood. Valid and reliable assessments of face recognition memory ability are necessary to examine patterns of ability and disability in face processing, yet there is a dearth of such assessments for children. We modified a well-known test of face memory in adults, the Cambridge Face Memory Test (Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006, Neuropsychologia, 44, 576-585), to make it developmentally appropriate for children. To establish its utility, we administered either the upright or inverted versions of the computerised Cambridge Face Memory Test - Children (CFMT-C) to 401 children aged between 5 and 12 years. Our results show that the CFMT-C is sufficiently sensitive to demonstrate age-related gains in the recognition of unfamiliar upright and inverted faces, does not suffer from ceiling or floor effects, generates robust inversion effects, and is capable of detecting difficulties in face memory in children diagnosed with autism. Together, these findings indicate that the CFMT-C constitutes a new valid assessment tool for children's face recognition skills. PMID:25054837

  15. A behavioral view on chimpanzee personality: exploration tendency, persistence, boldness, and tool-orientation measured with group experiments.

    PubMed

    Massen, Jorg J M; Antonides, Alexandra; Arnold, Anne-Marie K; Bionda, Thomas; Koski, Sonja E

    2013-09-01

    Human and nonhuman animals show personality: temporal and contextual consistency in behavior patterns that vary among individuals. In contrast to most other species, personality of chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, has mainly been studied with non-behavioral methods. We examined boldness, exploration tendency, persistence and tool-orientation in 29 captive chimpanzees using repeated experiments conducted in an ecologically valid social setting. High temporal repeatability and contextual consistency in all these traits indicated they reflected personality. In addition, Principal Component Analysis revealed two independent syndromes, labeled exploration-persistence and boldness. We found no sex or rank differences in the trait scores, but the scores declined with age. Nonetheless, there was considerable inter-individual variation within age-classes, suggesting that behavior was not merely determined by age but also by dispositional effects. In conclusion, our study complements earlier rating studies and adds new traits to the chimpanzee personality, thereby supporting the existence of multiple personality traits among chimpanzees. We stress the importance of ecologically valid behavioral research to assess multiple personality traits and their association, as it allows inclusion of ape studies in the comparison of personality structures across species studied behaviorally, and furthers our attempts to unravel the causes and consequences of animal personality. PMID:23649750

  16. The Teacher-Pupil Observation Tool (T-POT): Development and Testing of a New Classroom Observation Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. A.; Daley, D.; Hutchings, J.; Jones, K.; Eames, C.; Whitaker, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    Teacher-pupil relationships do not solely impact children's academic development; they also influence emotional and behavioural development. Positive teacher-pupil relationships help reduce maladaptive behaviour while negative ones can lead to increased academic, social and behavioural difficulties. Identifying and measuring teacher-pupil…

  17. Assessing the impact of dietary habits on health-related quality of life requires contextual measurement tools.

    PubMed

    Ruano-Rodríguez, Cristina; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Dubois, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The increase of non-communicable diseases at all ages has fostered the general concern for sustaining population health worldwide. Unhealthy lifestyles and dietary habits impacting physical and psycho-social health are well known risk factors for developing life threatening diseases. Identifying the determinants of quality of life is an important task from a Public Health perspective. Consumer-Reported Outcome measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are becoming increasingly necessary and relevant in the field of nutrition. However, quality of life questionnaires are seldom used in the nutrition field. We conducted a scientific literature search to find out the questionnaires used to determine the association between dietary habits and quality of life. A total of 13 studies were eligible for inclusion. Across these studies the short form-36, a generic (non-disease specific) HRQoL measurement instrument was the most widely used. However, generic measures may have limited content validity in the context of dietary habits interventions. We recommend additional contextual diet-specific HRQoL measures are also needed for evaluating the impact of diet habits on daily life functioning and well-being. PMID:26005420

  18. BPS-ICF model, a tool to measure biopsychosocial functioning and disability within ICF concepts: theory and practice updated.

    PubMed

    Talo, Seija A; Rytökoski, Ulla M

    2016-03-01

    The transformation of International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps into International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) meant a lot for those needing to communicate in terms of functioning concept in their daily work. With ICF's commonly understood language, the decades' uncertainty on what concepts and terms describe functioning and disabilities seemed to be dispelled. Instead, operationalizing ICF to measure the level of functioning along with the new nomenclature has not been as unambiguous. Transforming linguistic terms into quantified functioning seems to need another type of theorizing. Irrespective of challenging tasks, numerous projects were formulated during the past decades to apply ICF for measurement purposes. This article updates one of them, the so-called biopsychosocial-ICF model, which uses all ICF categories but classifies them into more components than ICF for measurement purposes. The model suggests that both disabilities and functional resources should be described by collecting and organizing functional measurement data in a multidisciplinary, biopsychosocial data matrice. PMID:26756850

  19. Measuring Our Progress with Real Tools: Why Does Technology Work in Some Schools and Not in Others?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Bernajean

    This document is an outline of a presentation on measuring the impact of technology in schools. Highlights include: technology as a system lever; training and conducting audits in over 2,500 schools; Illinois NextSteps--organizing technology for student results; asking big questions of our technology investments; making instructional technology…

  20. Effects of Imagery Training on Cognitive Performance and Use of Physiological Measures as an Assessment Tool of Mental Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadelis, Christos; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Albani, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of motor imagery training on cognitive performance was examined and the physiological mechanisms involved in the contribution of mental practice to motor learning were considered. The subject's mental effort during motor imagery was assessed by using psychophysiological measures and particularly eye blink activity as an…

  1. Development and Validation of the Wesleyan Intercultural Competence Scale (WICS): A Tool for Measuring the Impact of Study Abroad Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemler, Steven E.; Imada, Toshie; Sorkin, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    As globalization becomes commonplace and the world becomes increasingly interconnected, institutions of higher education have begun to prioritize the development of intercultural competence in their students. In order to measures intercultural competence, the authors developed the "Wesleyan Intercultural Competence Scale" (WICS). The…

  2. A Better Way to Measure: New Survey Tool Gives Educators a Clear Picture of Professional Learning's Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Rolf K.

    2010-01-01

    Just when educators are learning more about what constitutes effective professional development, a collaborative team of education researchers and practitioners have developed, tested, and implemented a cost-effective method of measuring and reporting on the quality of teacher professional development. The teacher professional development analysis…

  3. Multilevel Assessment of Middle School Students' Interest in the Health Sciences: Development and Validation of a New Measurement Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, William L.; Miller, Michele E.; Knese, Shawn A.; Folk, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Using the context of a 2-wk instructional unit focused on eye and vision health, we developed and validated a multilevel measure of middle school students' interest in science and health careers. This survey contained three subscales positioned differently with respect to curricular content. Interest in Vision Care was most related, but less…

  4. Curriculum-Based Measurement Performance Indicators: A Tool for Undergraduate Calculus Students to Inform and Direct Their Learning Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Linda W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which providing students with individualized performance feedback informed and directed their learning behavior. Individualized performance feedback was delivered to students using curriculum-based measurement progress indicators, either as a visual representation of ongoing performance in the form of a…

  5. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy (AEs) research has enhanced our understanding of how anticipated alcohol effects confer risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, extant AE measures have limitations within 1 or more of the following areas: assessing a comprehensive range of effects, specifying the hypothetical number of drinks consumed,…

  6. My Class Inventory-Short Form as an Accountability Tool for Elementary School Counselors to Measure Classroom Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sink, Christopher A.; Spencer, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    A psychometric study with more than 2,800 upper-elementary-age students examined the reliability and factorial validity of the My Class Inventory-Short Form (MCI-SF). Factor analytic and structural equation modeling results suggested that the original measure is a less than satisfactory approach to appraise various dimensions of classroom climate.…

  7. Cellular impedance measurement as a new tool for poxvirus titration, antibody neutralization testing and evaluation of antiviral substances

    SciTech Connect

    Witkowski, Peter T.; Schuenadel, Livia; Wiethaus, Julia; Bourquain, Daniel R.; Kurth, Andreas; Nitsche, Andreas

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Real-time data acquisition by RT-CES requires low operative effort. {yields} Time to result is reduced by using RT-CES instead of conventional methods. {yields} RT-CES enables quantification of virus titers in unknown samples. {yields} RT-CES is a useful tool for high-throughput characterization of antiviral agents. {yields} An RT-CES-based virus neutralization test was established. -- Abstract: Impedance-based biosensing known as real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) belongs to an emerging technology for analyzing the status of cells in vitro. In the present study protocols were developed for an RT-CES-based system (xCELLigence{sup TM}, Roche Applied Science, ACEA Biosciences Inc.) to supplement conventional techniques in pox virology. First, proliferation of cells susceptible to orthopoxviruses was monitored. For virus titration cells were infected with vaccinia virus and cell status, represented by the dimensionless impedance-based cell index (CI), was monitored. A virus-dose dependent decrease in electrical impedance could be shown. Calculation of calibration curves at a suitable CI covering a dynamic range of 4 log enabled the quantification of virus titers in unknown samples. Similarly, antiviral effects could be determined as shown for anti-poxviral agents ST-246 and Cidofovir. Published values for the in vitro concentration that inhibited virus replication by 50% (IC{sub 50}) could be confirmed while cytotoxicity in effective concentrations was excluded in long-term incubation experiments. Finally, an RT-CES-based virus neutralization test was established. Various poxvirus-specific antibodies were examined for their neutralizing activity and a calculation mode for the neutralizing antibody titer was introduced. In summary, the presented RT-CES-based methods outmatch end-point assays by observing the cell population throughout the entire experiment while workload and time to result are reduced.

  8. Multilevel Assessment of Middle School Students' Interest in the Health Sciences: Development and Validation of a New Measurement Tool.

    PubMed

    Romine, William L; Miller, Michele E; Knese, Shawn A; Folk, William R

    2016-01-01

    Using the context of a 2-wk instructional unit focused on eye and vision health, we developed and validated a multilevel measure of middle school students' interest in science and health careers. This survey contained three subscales positioned differently with respect to curricular content. Interest in Vision Care was most related, but less transferrable to other contexts. Interest in Science was most general, and Interest in Healthcare was positioned between the two. We found that, with two exceptions, items fitted well with validity expectations and were stable across a 2-wk intervention. Further, measures of interest in science, health, and vision-care careers were shown to be reliable and valid. We found that ease of facilitating change across the intervention was generally greater in subscales closely related to the curricular context but that the average magnitude of change in Interest in Healthcare and Interest in Science was not significantly different. We discuss use of these measures in informing instructional efforts and advise that changes in students' perceptions of how science and healthcare relate should be considered in longitudinal analyses. PMID:27252297

  9. Multilevel Assessment of Middle School Students’ Interest in the Health Sciences: Development and Validation of a New Measurement Tool

    PubMed Central

    Romine, William L.; Miller, Michele E.; Knese, Shawn A.; Folk, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Using the context of a 2-wk instructional unit focused on eye and vision health, we developed and validated a multilevel measure of middle school students’ interest in science and health careers. This survey contained three subscales positioned differently with respect to curricular content. Interest in Vision Care was most related, but less transferrable to other contexts. Interest in Science was most general, and Interest in Healthcare was positioned between the two. We found that, with two exceptions, items fitted well with validity expectations and were stable across a 2-wk intervention. Further, measures of interest in science, health, and vision-care careers were shown to be reliable and valid. We found that ease of facilitating change across the intervention was generally greater in subscales closely related to the curricular context but that the average magnitude of change in Interest in Healthcare and Interest in Science was not significantly different. We discuss use of these measures in informing instructional efforts and advise that changes in students’ perceptions of how science and healthcare relate should be considered in longitudinal analyses. PMID:27252297

  10. A tool for the culturally competent assessment of suicide: the Cultural Assessment of Risk for Suicide (CARS) measure.

    PubMed

    Chu, Joyce; Floyd, Rebecca; Diep, Hy; Pardo, Seth; Goldblum, Peter; Bongar, Bruce

    2013-06-01

    Despite important differences in suicide presentation and risk among ethnic and sexual minority groups, cultural variations have typically been left out of systematic risk assessment paradigms. A new self-report instrument for the culturally competent assessment of suicide, the Cultural Assessment of Risk for Suicide (CARS) measure, was administered to a diverse sample of 950 adults from the general population. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a 39-item, 8-factor structure subsumed under and consistent with the Cultural Theory and Model of Suicide (Chu, Goldblum, Floyd, & Bongar, 2010), which characterizes the vast majority of cultural variation in suicide risk among ethnic and sexual minority groups. Psychometric properties showed that the CARS total and subscale scores demonstrated good internal consistency, convergent validity with scores on other suicide-related measures (the Suicide Ideation Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory suicide item, and the Beck Hopelessness Scale), and an ability to discriminate between participants with versus without history of suicide attempts. Regression analyses indicated that the CARS measure can be used with a general population, providing information predictive of suicidal behavior beyond that of minority status alone. Minorities, however, reported experiencing the CARS cultural risk factors to a greater extent than nonminorities, though effect sizes were small. Overall, results show that the CARS items are reliable, and the instrument identifies cultural suicide risk factors not previously attended to in suicide assessment. The CARS is the first to operationalize a systematic model that accounts for cultural competency across multiple cultural identities in suicide risk assessment efforts. PMID:23356681

  11. Evaluation of the first simulation tool to quantitatively interpret the measurements of the ExoMars mission's Wisdom GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorizon, Sophie; Ciarletti, Valérie

    2013-04-01

    The Water Ice Sub-surface Deposits Observation on Mars (WISDOM) (500MHz - 3GHz) GPR is one of the instruments that have been selected as part of the Pasteur payload of ESA's 2018 ExoMars Rover mission. One of the main scientific objectives of the mission is to characterize the nature of the shallow sub-surface on Mars and WISDOM has been designed to explore the first 3 meters of the sub-surface with a vertical resolution of a few centimetres. Laboratory and field tests using the prototype developed for the ExoMars mission by LATMOS (Laboratoire Atmosphère, Milieux, Observations Spatiales) in collaboration with the AOB (Bordeaux) and the university of Dresden (Germany) are regularly performed to assess and improve the radar performances. In order to quantitatively interpret the experimental data obtained, we developed a simulation tool based on ray-tracing. This code proves to be a fast practical way even if simplified to help radargrams interpretation. The WISDOM GPR, unlike most traditional GPRs, is operated approximately 30 centimetres above the surface. This configuration implies that the propagation between the antenna and the surface cannot be neglected especially because the instrument's aim is to characterise the very shallow subsurface. As a consequence, while we can draw advantage of this specific configuration by using the surface echo's amplitude to retrieve information about the top layer's roughness and permittivity value, precise location of buried reflector becomes more complicated. Indeed, the signature distinctive of individual reflectors buried in the sub-surface is not more an exact mathematical hyperbola. When the individual reflector is buried deep enough in the subsurface, the adjustment by an hyperbolic function still allows the retrieval of the reflector's location and the permittivity value of the surrounding medium. But in case of a reflector closer to the surface, the approximation is no longer valid. We propose a robust model adjustment

  12. Developing the Recoil Distance Doppler-Shift technique towards a versatile tool for lifetime measurements of excited nuclear states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewald, A.; Möller, O.; Petkov, P.

    2012-07-01

    In this article, the Recoil Distance Doppler-Shift (RDDS) method which is extensively used in nuclear structure physics to determine level lifetimes and absolute transition probabilities is reviewed. Especially, it is aimed to present new developments and variants of the technique which have evolved mainly in the past 25 years. After a short and comprehensive description of the basic elements of the plunger technique, the new variants are presented. This comprises the RDDS technique using γγ-coincidences, RDDS measurements in combination with particle detectors for selecting specific reaction channels, RDDS after Coulomb excitation, RDDS after fission and RDDS using a gas target. In addition, the concept of a differential plunger is discussed with respect to its specific features and typical experimental setups. Examples of differential plunger measurements with recoil tagging, recoil decay tagging and after deep inelastic reactions, Coulomb excitation in inverse reaction kinematics as well as after reactions with fast radioactive beams at energies of 50-100 MeV/u are given. The second focus of the review is dedicated to today’s plunger devices and related hardware. The concepts of specific plunger devices which accommodate the specific demands of the aforementioned RDDS applications including specific feedback systems for controlling target-stopper/degrader separations in-beam are presented. Also discussed are target and stopper/degrader foil related issues like foil preparation, mounting and stretching as well as specific features of the foil behavior in-beam (temperature, blistering, wrinkling and carbon build-up). The third focus is devoted to the data analysis. The concept of the Differential Decay Curve Method (DDCM) is presented as an alternative approach for the analysis of RDDS data measured as singles or as γγ-coincidences. For the latter, different gating possibilities are discussed, e.g. gating from above and gating from below the level of

  13. A Color-Coded Tape for Uterine Height Measurement: A Tool to Identify Preterm Pregnancies in Low Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Althabe, Fernando; Berrueta, Mabel; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer; Mazzoni, Agustina; Bonorino, Carolina Astoul; Gowdak, Andrea; Gibbons, Luz; Bellad, M. B.; Metgud, M. C.; Goudar, Shivaprasad; Kodkany, Bhalchandra S.; Derman, Richard J.; Saleem, Sarah; Iqbal, Samina; Ala, Syed Hasan; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Chomba, Elwyn; Manasyan, Albert; Chiwila, Melody; Imenda, Edna; Mbewe, Florence; Tshefu, Antoinette; Lokomba, Victor; Bose, Carl L.; Moore, Janet; Meleth, Sreelatha; McClure, Elizabeth M.; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neonatal mortality associated with preterm birth can be reduced with antenatal corticosteroids (ACS), yet <10% of eligible pregnant women in low-middle income countries. The inability to accurately determine gestational age (GA) leads to under-identification of high-risk women who could receive ACS or other interventions. To facilitate better identification in low-resource settings, we developed a color-coded tape for uterine height (UH) measurement and estimated its accuracy identifying preterm pregnancies. Methods We designed a series of colored-coded tapes with segments corresponding to UH measurements for 20–23.6 weeks, 24.0–35.6 weeks, and >36.0 weeks GA. In phase 1, UH measurements were collected prospectively in the Democratic Republic of Congo, India and Pakistan, using distinct tapes to address variation across regions and ethnicities. In phase 2, we tested accuracy in 250 pregnant women with known GA from early ultrasound enrolled at prenatal clinics in Argentina, India, Pakistan and Zambia. Providers masked to the ultrasound GA measured UH. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was conducted. Results 1,029 pregnant women were enrolled. In all countries the tapes were most effective identifying pregnancies between 20.0–35.6 weeks, compared to the other GAs. The ROC areas under the curves and 95% confidence intervals were: Argentina 0.69 (0.63, 0.74); Zambia 0.72 (0.66, 0.78), India 0.84 (0.80, 0.89), and Pakistan 0.83 (0.78, 0.87). The sensitivity and specificity (and 95% confidence intervals) for identifying pregnancies between 20.0–35.6 weeks, respectively, were: Argentina 87% (82%–92%) and 51% (42%–61%); Zambia 91% (86%–95%) and 50% (40%–60%); India 78% (71%–85%) and 89% (83%–94%); Pakistan 63% (55%–70%) and 94% (89%–99%). Conclusions We observed moderate-good accuracy identifying pregnancies ≤35.6 weeks gestation, with potential usefulness at the community level in low-middle income countries to

  14. Internal friction measurements of phase transformations during the process of deep cryogenic treatment of a tool steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaohong; Min, Na; Li, Junwan; Wu, Xiaochun

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports internal friction measurements in die steel with the aim of clarifying phase transformation mechanisms during deep cryogenic treatment (DCT). Internal friction peaks appeared in the quenched sample and the DCT treated material during the process of cooling down to -160 °C from room temperature (20 °C) and then heating up to room temperature for multiple cycles in high vacuum. However, internal friction peaks do not appear in annealed material. It is concluded that the internal friction peaks are attributed to stress-induced martensite formation based on thermal hysteresis phenomena. That is, retained austenite is mostly transformed into martensite during the DCT.

  15. Solar Tower Experiments for Radiometric Calibration and Validation of Infrared Imaging Assets and Analysis Tools for Entry Aero-Heating Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Splinter, Scott C.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Horvath, Thomas J.; Mercer, David C.; Ghanbari, Cheryl M.; Ross, Martin N.; Tietjen, Alan; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsored Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements assessment team has a task to perform radiometric calibration and validation of land-based and airborne infrared imaging assets and tools for remote thermographic imaging. The IR assets and tools will be used for thermographic imaging of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry aero-heating to provide flight boundary layer transition thermography data that could be utilized for calibration and validation of empirical and theoretical aero-heating tools. A series of tests at the Sandia National Laboratories National Solar Thermal Test Facility were designed for this task where reflected solar radiation from a field of heliostats was used to heat a 4 foot by 4 foot test panel consisting of LI 900 ceramic tiles located on top of the 200 foot tall Solar Tower. The test panel provided an Orbiter-like entry temperature for the purposes of radiometric calibration and validation. The Solar Tower provided an ideal test bed for this series of radiometric calibration and validation tests because it had the potential to rapidly heat the large test panel to spatially uniform and non-uniform elevated temperatures. Also, the unsheltered-open-air environment of the Solar Tower was conducive to obtaining unobstructed radiometric data by land-based and airborne IR imaging assets. Various thermocouples installed on the test panel and an infrared imager located in close proximity to the test panel were used to obtain surface temperature measurements for evaluation and calibration of the radiometric data from the infrared imaging assets. The overall test environment, test article, test approach, and typical test results are discussed.

  16. Different Dimensions of Cognitive Style in Typical and Atypical Cognition: New Evidence and a New Measurement Tool

    PubMed Central

    Mealor, Andy D.; Simner, Julia; Rothen, Nicolas; Carmichael, Duncan A.; Ward, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    We developed the Sussex Cognitive Styles Questionnaire (SCSQ) to investigate visual and verbal processing preferences and incorporate global/local processing orientations and systemising into a single, comprehensive measure. In Study 1 (N = 1542), factor analysis revealed six reliable subscales to the final 60 item questionnaire: Imagery Ability (relating to the use of visual mental imagery in everyday life); Technical/Spatial (relating to spatial mental imagery, and numerical and technical cognition); Language & Word Forms; Need for Organisation; Global Bias; and Systemising Tendency. Thus, we replicate previous findings that visual and verbal styles are separable, and that types of imagery can be subdivided. We extend previous research by showing that spatial imagery clusters with other abstract cognitive skills, and demonstrate that global/local bias can be separated from systemising. Study 2 validated the Technical/Spatial and Language & Word Forms factors by showing that they affect performance on memory tasks. In Study 3, we validated Imagery Ability, Technical/Spatial, Language & Word Forms, Global Bias, and Systemising Tendency by issuing the SCSQ to a sample of synaesthetes (N = 121) who report atypical cognitive profiles on these subscales. Thus, the SCSQ consolidates research from traditionally disparate areas of cognitive science into a comprehensive cognitive style measure, which can be used in the general population, and special populations. PMID:27191169

  17. Comparisons of activity measurements with radionuclide calibrators-A tool for quality assessment and improvement in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, P; Hernández, A T; Serra, R; Varela, C

    2005-10-01

    A national program of ongoing comparisons for assaying gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals for amount of radioactivity using radionuclide calibrators was begun in 2000. Nuclides of the most wide-spread use in Cuban nuclear medicine, 131I, 201Tl and (99m)Tc, as well as two measurement geometries, glass vials and plastic syringes, were employed. In this paper, the participants' performance is assessed by mean of a statistical analysis of the reported data. Performance tables have been obtained and a chi2 statistic is calculated from observed and expected frequencies, with the aim of testing the hypothesis about the independence of some characteristics of the comparison results, at a significance level alpha=0.05. The proportion of satisfactory results in the years 2002-2004 were found to be at the same level, but higher than in 2000. It reveals an improvement of the measurement quality since 2002. The causes of improvement were investigated using the statistical treatment of several data available as supplementary information. PMID:16039865

  18. Different Dimensions of Cognitive Style in Typical and Atypical Cognition: New Evidence and a New Measurement Tool.

    PubMed

    Mealor, Andy D; Simner, Julia; Rothen, Nicolas; Carmichael, Duncan A; Ward, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    We developed the Sussex Cognitive Styles Questionnaire (SCSQ) to investigate visual and verbal processing preferences and incorporate global/local processing orientations and systemising into a single, comprehensive measure. In Study 1 (N = 1542), factor analysis revealed six reliable subscales to the final 60 item questionnaire: Imagery Ability (relating to the use of visual mental imagery in everyday life); Technical/Spatial (relating to spatial mental imagery, and numerical and technical cognition); Language & Word Forms; Need for Organisation; Global Bias; and Systemising Tendency. Thus, we replicate previous findings that visual and verbal styles are separable, and that types of imagery can be subdivided. We extend previous research by showing that spatial imagery clusters with other abstract cognitive skills, and demonstrate that global/local bias can be separated from systemising. Study 2 validated the Technical/Spatial and Language & Word Forms factors by showing that they affect performance on memory tasks. In Study 3, we validated Imagery Ability, Technical/Spatial, Language & Word Forms, Global Bias, and Systemising Tendency by issuing the SCSQ to a sample of synaesthetes (N = 121) who report atypical cognitive profiles on these subscales. Thus, the SCSQ consolidates research from traditionally disparate areas of cognitive science into a comprehensive cognitive style measure, which can be used in the general population, and special populations. PMID:27191169

  19. Measurement-based noiseless linear amplification for quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, Helen M.; Walk, Nathan; Assad, Syed M.; Janousek, Jiri; Hosseini, Sara; Ralph, Timothy C.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy

    2014-04-01

    Entanglement distillation is an indispensable ingredient in extended quantum communication networks. Distillation protocols are necessarily non-deterministic and require advanced experimental techniques such as noiseless amplification. Recently, it was shown that the benefits of noiseless amplification could be extracted by performing a post-selective filtering of the measurement record to improve the performance of quantum key distribution. We apply this protocol to entanglement degraded by transmission loss of up to the equivalent of 100 km of optical fibre. We measure an effective entangled resource stronger than that achievable by even a maximally entangled resource passively transmitted through the same channel. We also provide a proof-of-principle demonstration of secret key extraction from an otherwise insecure regime. The measurement-based noiseless linear amplifier offers two advantages over its physical counterpart: ease of implementation and near-optimal probability of success. It should provide an effective and versatile tool for a broad class of entanglement-based quantum communication protocols.

  20. Holding on to the indispensable medication –A grounded theory on medication use from the perspective of persons with medication overuse headache

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a chronic headache disorder, caused by overuse of acute medication. To date, it remains unclear why some people overuse these medications. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how individuals with MOH use medications and other strategies to manage headaches in their daily lives, and their thoughts about their own use of acute medication. Our intention was to develop a theoretical model about the development of MOH, from the perspective of those with MOH. Methods Data collection and analysis were conducted according to grounded theory methodology. The participants were recruited via newspaper advertisements. Fourteen persons with MOH were interviewed in individual qualitative interviews. Results The basic process leading to medication overuse was holding on to the indispensable medication. The acute medication was indispensable to the participants because they perceived it as the only thing that could prevent headaches from ruining their lives. The participants perceived headaches as something that threatened to ruin their lives. As a result, they went to great lengths trying to find ways to manage it. They tried numerous strategies. However, the only strategy actually perceived as effective was the use of acute medication and they eventually became resigned to the idea that it was the only effective aid. The acute medication thus became indispensable. Their general intention was to use as little medication as possible but they found themselves compelled to medicate frequently to cope with their headaches. They did not like to think about their medication use and sometimes avoided keeping track of the amount used. Conclusions This qualitative study adds understanding to the process via which MOH develops from the perspective of those having MOH. Such knowledge may help bridge the gap between the perspectives of patients and health-care professionals. PMID:23697986

  1. Automated measurement of viscous decay of magnetic remanence: a tool for extending the grain-size interval for magnetic granulometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadima, Martin; Hrouda, Frantisek; Kadlec, Jaroslav

    2015-04-01

    In some geological and environmental processes, such as diagenesis, very low grade metamorphism, pedogenesis, anthropogenic pollution, new ultra-fine magnetic minerals may be formed. The variation in content of these minerals is routinely investigated by frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility. However, the size interval of magnetic particles detectable by this method is relatively narrow. Using the most common instruments, the MS2B susceptibility meter (Bartington Instruments) and the MFK1-FA Kappabridge (Agico), this interval in blocking volumes ranges from 1.7 × 10-24 m3 to 2.3 × 10-24 m3 in magnetite. Using lower operating frequency, for example 10 Hz in the 7130 AC susceptometer (Lake Shore Cryotronics), the upper limit of the blocking volume can be shifted to 3.1 × 10-24 m3. Using higher operating frequency, for example 500 kHz in the SM-105 susceptibility meter (ZH-Instruments), the respective lower limit can be shifted to 1.1 × 10-24 m3. Assuming a broad size distribution of the ultra-fine magnetic particles spanning across the SP/SSD boundary we suggest to assess their presence by quantification of their viscous magnetization decay. For that purpose we use a recently-developed LDA5-PAM1 pulse magnetizer coupled with a JR6 spinner magnetometer (both Agico). Instrument control software is interconnected in such a way that both instruments work in the same time frame, i.e. the exact moment of DC pulse termination is used as a zero time for evaluation of time-dependent viscous decay. Magnetic remanence is then measured repeatedly as a function of time. Exponential decay curves are fitted on the acquired data and the relative ratio of viscous and non-viscous particles is estimated. This method works with much longer relaxation times compared to those of susceptibility measurements, ranging from 20 to 300 s, with the corresponding blocking volumes being 3.9 to 4.4 × 10-24 m3. Our method is tested on the samples from three loess/paleosol sections located

  2. Quality Control Quantification (QCQ): A Tool to Measure the Value of Quality Control Checks in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Eric C.; Terezakis, Stephanie; Souranis, Annette; Harris, Kendra; Gay, Hiram; Mutic, Sasa

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To quantify the error-detection effectiveness of commonly used quality control (QC) measures. Methods: We analyzed incidents from 2007-2010 logged into a voluntary in-house, electronic incident learning systems at 2 academic radiation oncology clinics. None of the incidents resulted in patient harm. Each incident was graded for potential severity using the French Nuclear Safety Authority scoring scale; high potential severity incidents (score >3) were considered, along with a subset of 30 randomly chosen low severity incidents. Each report was evaluated to identify which of 15 common QC checks could have detected it. The effectiveness was calculated, defined as the percentage of incidents that each QC measure could detect, both for individual QC checks and for combinations of checks. Results: In total, 4407 incidents were reported, 292 of which had high-potential severity. High- and low-severity incidents were detectable by 4.0 {+-} 2.3 (mean {+-} SD) and 2.6 {+-} 1.4 QC checks, respectively (P<.001). All individual checks were less than 50% sensitive with the exception of pretreatment plan review by a physicist (63%). An effectiveness of 97% was achieved with 7 checks used in combination and was not further improved with more checks. The combination of checks with the highest effectiveness includes physics plan review, physician plan review, Electronic Portal Imaging Device-based in vivo portal dosimetry, radiation therapist timeout, weekly physics chart check, the use of checklists, port films, and source-to-skin distance checks. Some commonly used QC checks such as pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy QA do not substantially add to the ability to detect errors in these data. Conclusions: The effectiveness of QC measures in radiation oncology depends sensitively on which checks are used and in which combinations. A small percentage of errors cannot be detected by any of the standard formal QC checks currently in broad use, suggesting that

  3. A quality tool for health insurers. A new scale measures "quality orientation" from the customer's point of view.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, K W; Pedrick, D; Bush, V

    1996-01-01

    This study defines a company's quality orientation as "all process-related activities that can be discerned by customers." This even includes certain processes internal to the company that can be seen and evaluated by customers. One significant contribution this study provides is scale development centered on customer rather than employee perceptions. To generate scale items, input was gathered from experts involved in the study, senior managers employed with the target company, focus groups of employees working on the front line with customers, and users of the services. Because the sale measures customer perceptions of quality in comparison with the firm's closest competitor, it provides managers with information for benchmarking performance relative to others in the marketplace. PMID:10169077

  4. Radiotracer measurements as a sensitive tool for the detection of metal penetration in molecular-based organic electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Scharnberg, M.; Hu, J.; Kanzow, J.; Raetzke, K.; Adelung, R.; Faupel, F.; Pannemann, C.; Hilleringmann, U.; Meyer, S.; Pflaum, J.

    2005-01-10

    The metallization of organic thin films is a crucial point in the development of molecular electronics. However, there is no method established yet to detect trace amounts of metal atoms in those thin films. Radiotracer measurements can quantify even very small amounts of material penetrating into the bulk, in our case less than 0.01% of a monolayer. Here, the application of this technique on two different well-characterized organic thin film systems (diindenoperylene and pentacene) is demonstrated. The results show that Ag is mainly adsorbed on the surface, but indicate that already at moderate deposition temperatures Ag can penetrate into the organic thin films and agglomerate at the film/substrate interface.

  5. The brief accessibility, responsiveness, and engagement (BARE) scale: a tool for measuring attachment behavior in couple relationships.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Jonathan G; Busby, Dean M; Johnson, Susan M; Yoshida, Keitaro

    2012-12-01

    This article describes the purpose, reliability, validity, and potential clinical applications of the brief accessibility, responsiveness, and engagement (BARE) scale. In addition to focusing on the central attachment behaviors of accessibility and responsiveness, this instrument highlights the key role of engagement in couple bonding. The BARE is a short, systemic, self-report measure of attachment behaviors in couple relationships. Both classical testing theory and item response theory were used to test the psychometric properties of the instrument. The BARE demonstrated appropriate reliability and validity while maintaining its brevity and potential usefulness for clinicians and researchers. The BARE also accurately predicted the key relationship outcomes of stability and satisfaction. The data for this study were collected from the RELATE assessment (see www.relate-institute.org). PMID:23230982

  6. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements as a tool to detect fusion and drug exchange in liposomal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilfinker, Rolf; Willi, Annette; Isele, Ute; van Hoogevest, Peter

    1994-03-01

    Zinc-(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) is a drug that can potentially be used in photodynamic therapy. A promising formulation approach for the strongly hydrophobic ZnPc is to embed the molecule in liposomes. CGP 55847 is such a liposomal ZnPc formulation. From our data, we could conclude that approximately one quarter of the drug molecules were only loosely bound to the liposomes and exchanged between them with a relaxation time of about 15 min. Energy transfer measurements before and after the lyophilization process revealed that the liposomes were stable when suspended in a 10% lactose solution, i.e. no fusion of liposomes took place. In aqueous solution, however, lyophilization induced fusion of liposomes to a small extent with a concomitant increase in size.

  7. Measurement of systolic pressure variation during graded volume loss using simple tools on Datex Ohmeda S/5 monitor.

    PubMed

    Durga, Padmaja; Jonnavittula, Nirmala; Muthuchellappan, Radhakrishnan; Ramachandran, Gopinath

    2009-04-01

    Direct invasive arterial monitoring is performed routinely for all major neurosurgical procedures. Systolic pressure variation (SPV) used, independently or in combination with central venous pressure (CVP) allows optimal fluid management in hypovolemia and hemorrhage. This study aims to quantify SPV during graded hypovolemia using the simple technique described by Gouvea and Gouvea using Datex Ohmeda S/5, and to compare its reliability relative to other hemodynamic indicators of hypovolemia. Twenty anesthetized neurosurgical patients of ASA grade I and II patients were administered furosemide 0.5 mg/kg intravenously to obtain graded volume loss in the form of urine output. Invasive arterial pressure from radial artery and CVP were monitored using Datex OhmedaS/5 (Finland). Invasive arterial pressure label was changed to pulmonary artery label with the scale appropriate for arterial pressure. The trace was frozen in the wedge mode to reduce the sweep speed and the cursor was used to measure SPV and pulse pressure variation (PPV). Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, CVP at zero end-expiratory pressure, SPV and PPV are measured at baseline, and after a urine output of 200 and 500 mL. There was a significant correlation between volume loss and CVP, SPV, and PPV. The area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic analysis was >0.75 for CVP, SPV, and PPV. SPV of 7.5 mm Hg and a change of SPV by 4.5 mm Hg, a PPV of 4.5 and change in PPV by 2.5 mm Hg were the best cut-off values that corresponded to a volume change of 500 mL. This simple method enabled calculation of SPV without the computerized modules, and detected volume loss comparable to CVP. PMID:19295396

  8. Shifting tools

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, E.P.; Welch, W.R.

    1984-03-13

    An improved shifting tool connectable in a well tool string and useful to engage and position a slidable sleeve in a sliding sleeve device in a well flow conductor. The selectively profiled shifting tool keys provide better fit with and more contact area between keys and slidable sleeves. When the engaged slidable sleeve cannot be moved up and the shifting tool is not automatically disengaged, emergency disengagement means may be utilized by applying upward force to the shifting tool sufficient to shear pins and cause all keys to be cammed inwardly at both ends to completely disengage for removal of the shifting tool from the sliding sleeve device.

  9. Measuring exposure to the polyphenol metabolome in observational epidemiologic studies: current tools and applications and their limits123

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Touillaud, Marina; Rothwell, Joseph A; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2014-01-01

    Much experimental evidence supports a protective role of dietary polyphenols against chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. However, results from observational epidemiologic studies are still limited and are often inconsistent. This is largely explained by the difficulties encountered in the estimation of exposure to the polyphenol metabolome, which is composed of ∼500 polyphenols distributed across a wide variety of foods and characterized by diverse biological properties. Exposure to the polyphenol metabolome in epidemiologic studies can be assessed by the use of detailed dietary questionnaires or the measurement of biomarkers of polyphenol intake. The questionnaire approach has been greatly facilitated by the use of new databases on polyphenol composition but is limited by bias as a result of self-reporting. The use of polyphenol biomarkers holds much promise for objective estimation of polyphenol exposure in future metabolome-wide association studies. These approaches are reviewed and their advantages and limitations discussed by using examples of epidemiologic studies on polyphenols and cancer. The current improvement in these techniques, along with greater emphasis on the intake of individual polyphenols rather than polyphenols considered collectively, will help unravel the role of these major food bioactive constituents in disease prevention. PMID:24787490

  10. Characterisation of crude oils by carbon and sulphur isotope ratio measurements as a tool for pollution control.

    PubMed

    Becker, S; Hirner, A V

    1998-01-01

    The potential of carbon and sulphur isotope ratios to group crude oils with respect to their origin was investigated. Sample selection was based on the actual crude oil imports to Germany. Analysed crude oils from Algeria, the Community of Independent States (CIS), Middle East, Nigeria, the North Sea and Venezuela make up over 86% of the German crude oil imports. The oil as received was deasphalted and the maltene fraction was separated by MPLC into saturated, aromatic and polar fractions. Due to overlapping areas, it is not possible to group the crude oils by their delta 13C values alone. A complete grouping of the crude oils with respect to their origin can only be achieved by the combined use of delta 13C and delta 34S of crude oils, and isotope type-curves. In some cases isotope type-curves enable differentiation between different oil fields of the same geographical origin. In order to determine the post-spill changes of delta 13C values, an experimental spill of crude oil was studied over a period of seven weeks in an outdoor aquarium containing pond water. The delta 13C measurements of crude oil fractions showed changes up to 1.1/1000 during the oil spill simulation. The delta 13C values of the polar fraction exhibited the smallest change, with a variation of 0.3/1000, and are therefore especially useful for the characterisation of crude oil spills. PMID:9919680

  11. Underground Temperature Measurements as a Tool for Volcanic Activity Monitoring in the Island of Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eff-Darwich, A.; Coello, J.; Viñas, R.; Soler, V.; Martin-Luis, M. C.; Farrujia, I.; Quesada, M. L.; de La Nuez, J.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial distribution of groundwater temperatures in the volcanic island of Tenerife, Canary Islands, has been inferred through measurements of water temperatures collected in the vast network of wells and subhorizontal tunnels, locally called “galleries,” which constitutes the main water supply of the island. The spatial coverage of the network of galleries allows us to reach from depth almost any geological feature of the island. The complex spatial distribution of temperatures in the interior of Tenerife is the result of the complex geological evolution of the island. Groundwater temperatures are greatly affected by groundwater flow and are considerably warmer in those galleries located in areas where water circulation is reduced due to the low permeability of materials and/or to the low infiltration rate of cooling meteoric water. In this sense, groundwater temperature should be characterized in quiescent conditions (background level), in order to facilitate monitoring changes in heat flow, such as those induced by ascending gases expected with an increase in volcanic activity.

  12. Is the measurement of the isotopic composition of nitrate a good tool for tracing sources of nitrate in groundwater?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebilo, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    Isotopic biogeochemistry allows tracing of nitrogen sources in the environment. The dual approach i.e 15N and 18O approach has been used for decades to determine the origin of nitrate in surface and groundwater. The isotopic composition of fertilizers differs for example significantly from that of nitrate in atmospheric deposition and nitrate produced by nitrification. A long term study (30 years) based on the use of lysimeters and 15N labelled nitrate showed that nitrate which is not immediately taken up by plants is assimilated into the organic matter pool. This pool produces nitrate, with an isotopic signature of 'newly produced nitrate' and different from its origin (1). Based on this study, the natural stable isotopic composition of nitrate (δ18O-NO3-andδ15N-NO3-)was measured in water samples collected below the root zone or in aquifers from the Seine River basin. We compared these with the isotopic composition of nitrate from synthetic fertilizers and atmospheric deposition which represent the most significant sources of nitrogen in these systems. In addition, the δ15N of the organic matter pool in cultivated soils from this area was analyzed. The δ18O-NO3-results show clearly that nitrate issued from highly fertilized agricultural soils are freshly produced through nitrification of reduced nitrogen in the soil, instead of being directly transferred through the soil profile from applied fertilizers, indicating the major role of the soil organic matter pool. Our results thus bring new insights in the understanding of nitrogen contamination of surface and groundwater from agricultural watersheds, emphasizing the role of soil organic matter as a buffer. (1). Sebilo M., Nicolardot B., Mayer B., Pinay G. & Mariotti A. (2013). Long-term fate of nitrate fertilizer in agricultural soils. PNAS. 110 (45) : 18185-18189. doi/10.1073/pnas.1305372110.

  13. Radon as a tool to monitor transient permeability changes: on-line measurements in a tri-axial cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Frédéric; Schubnel, Alexandre; Pili, Éric

    2014-05-01

    Radon-222 is a radioactive gas of half-life of 3.8 days which is naturally produced in the Earth's crust. This informs generally about the transfers in the subsurface and is considered as a potential earthquake precursor. In this study, deformation experiments are performed in the laboratory on various granites, for which the radon source term is known (effective radium concentration). Radon concentration is continuously measured on-line under isotropic stress and deformation using a tri-axial cell, together with acoustic emissions, seismic velocity, deformation rates and geometry. Pore fluid pressure is fixed and maintains a flush of inert gas through the sample, which allows radon to be expelled from the porous network of the sample. This also leads to permeability determinations. Radon release shows a large sensitivity to various intrinsic and external parameters. While radon release is stable under constant isotropic conditions, it increases with confining pressure, because radon is more concentrated as the permeability decreases. However, above a given confining pressure threshold, radon release decreases while permeability continues to decrease, mainly due to the closure of cracks. Therefore, any change of permeability in the sample, even relatively small, is marked by a consecutive change of the radon release. At the macroscopic rupture of the sample, significant transient radon release is observed simultaneously to the rupture, or some time after. This transient radon peak results from isolated microporosity being newly connected to the permeable network rather than new crack surface creation per se. This hypothesis is sometimes proposed to account for radon anomalies observed before and after large earthquakes. As our transient radon signals are observed just after or near the time the rupture occurs, we might tentatively raise questions concerning some precursory observations. All these effects are now being quantified. This study and the developed

  14. Pimp your landscape: a tool for qualitative evaluation of the effects of regional planning measures on ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Christine; Volk, Martin; Pietzsch, Katrin; Makeschin, Franz

    2010-12-01

    The article presents the platform "Pimp your landscape" (PYL), which aims firstly at the support of planners by simulating alternative land-use scenarios and by an evaluation of benefits or risks for regionally important ecosystem services. Second, PYL supports an integration of information on environmental and landscape conditions into impact assessment. Third, PYL supports the integration of impacts of planning measures on ecosystem services. PYL is a modified 2-D cellular automaton with GIS features. The cells have the major attribute "land-use type" and can be supplemented with additional information, such as specifics regarding geology, topography and climate. The GIS features support the delineation of non-cellular infrastructural elements, such as roads or water bodies. An evaluation matrix represents the core element of the system. In this matrix, values in a relative scale from 0 (lowest value) to 100 (highest value) are assigned to the land-use types and infrastructural elements depending on their effect on ecosystem services. The option to configure rules for describing the impact of environmental attributes and proximity effects on cell values and land-use transition probabilities is of particular importance. User interface and usage of the platform are demonstrated by an application case. Constraints and limits of the recent version are discussed, including the need to consider in the evaluation, landscape-structure aspects such as patch size, fragmentation and spatial connectivity. Regarding the further development, it is planned to include the impact of land management practices to support climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies in regional planning. PMID:20924579

  15. Validation of a rapid, semiautomatic image analysis tool for measurement of gastric accommodation and emptying by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sreerup; Dixit, Sudeepa; Fox, Mark; Pal, Anupam

    2015-04-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advantages for the assessment of gastrointestinal structures and functions; however, processing MRI data is time consuming and this has limited uptake to a few specialist centers. This study introduces a semiautomatic image processing system for rapid analysis of gastrointestinal MRI. For assessment of simpler regions of interest (ROI) such as the stomach, the system generates virtual images along arbitrary planes that intersect the ROI edges in the original images. This generates seed points that are joined automatically to form contours on each adjacent two-dimensional image and reconstructed in three dimensions (3D). An alternative thresholding approach is available for rapid assessment of complex structures like the small intestine. For assessment of dynamic gastrointestinal function, such as gastric accommodation and emptying, the initial 3D reconstruction is used as reference to process adjacent image stacks automatically. This generates four-dimensional (4D) reconstructions of dynamic volume change over time. Compared with manual processing, this semiautomatic system reduced the user input required to analyze a MRI gastric emptying study (estimated 100 vs. 10,000 mouse clicks). This analysis was not subject to variation in volume measurements seen between three human observers. In conclusion, the image processing platform presented processed large volumes of MRI data, such as that produced by gastric accommodation and emptying studies, with minimal user input. 3D and 4D reconstructions of the stomach and, potentially, other gastrointestinal organs are produced faster and more accurately than manual methods. This system will facilitate the application of MRI in gastrointestinal research and clinical practice. PMID:25540229

  16. Validation of a rapid, semiautomatic image analysis tool for measurement of gastric accommodation and emptying by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sudeepa; Fox, Mark; Pal, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advantages for the assessment of gastrointestinal structures and functions; however, processing MRI data is time consuming and this has limited uptake to a few specialist centers. This study introduces a semiautomatic image processing system for rapid analysis of gastrointestinal MRI. For assessment of simpler regions of interest (ROI) such as the stomach, the system generates virtual images along arbitrary planes that intersect the ROI edges in the original images. This generates seed points that are joined automatically to form contours on each adjacent two-dimensional image and reconstructed in three dimensions (3D). An alternative thresholding approach is available for rapid assessment of complex structures like the small intestine. For assessment of dynamic gastrointestinal function, such as gastric accommodation and emptying, the initial 3D reconstruction is used as reference to process adjacent image stacks automatically. This generates four-dimensional (4D) reconstructions of dynamic volume change over time. Compared with manual processing, this semiautomatic system reduced the user input required to analyze a MRI gastric emptying study (estimated 100 vs. 10,000 mouse clicks). This analysis was not subject to variation in volume measurements seen between three human observers. In conclusion, the image processing platform presented processed large volumes of MRI data, such as that produced by gastric accommodation and emptying studies, with minimal user input. 3D and 4D reconstructions of the stomach and, potentially, other gastrointestinal organs are produced faster and more accurately than manual methods. This system will facilitate the application of MRI in gastrointestinal research and clinical practice. PMID:25540229

  17. Measuring fecal progestogens as a tool to monitor reproductive activity in captive female bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Biancani, B; Da Dalt, L; Lacave, G; Romagnoli, S; Gabai, G

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to develop and test radioimmunoassays (RIAs) to measure fecal progestogens (P) and estrogens (E) to monitor ovarian activity in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Fecal samples were collected at least once a week for 20 mo from three peripubertal female bottlenose dolphins. Blood samples were collected at least once a month to compare serum and fecal steroid concentrations. Moreover, random fecal samples from three pregnant females, one lactating female, and one sexually mature female receiving oral altrenogest treatment were also collected. Fecal samples were collected behaviorally with a probe to avoid water contamination and extracted with petroleum ether (for P analysis) or diethyl ether (for E analysis). When possible, vaginal cytology and ovarian ultrasonography were used to monitor the estrous cycle. The RIA for fecal P had good reproducibility and negligible matrix effect. In addition, when fecal samples (N=25) were extracted with ethanol, the results with the two methods of extraction were highly correlated (r=0.923). Therefore, extraction of fecal samples with petroleum ether represented a valid alternative to other, more time-consuming methods of determining fecal P concentrations. In the absence of luteal activity, fecal P concentrations were consistently < 10 pmol/g feces, although they never decreased below 10 pmol/g during pregnancy. Thus, the threshold to confirm the presence of an active corpus luteum was provisionally set at 10 pmol/g. Around the onset of puberty, luteal phases appeared shorter and irregular in the bottlenose dolphin, as in other mammalian species. Additional HPLC-MS studies should be performed to identify predominant P metabolites to be used as fecal indicators of luteal activity in this species. PMID:19783290

  18. EBT2 film as a depth-dose measurement tool for radiotherapy beams over a wide range of energies and modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandy, Bijan; Tailor, Ramesh; Zhao Li; Devic, Slobodan

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: One of the fundamental parameters used for dose calculation is percentage depth-dose, generally measured employing ionization chambers. There are situations where use of ion chambers for measuring depth-doses is difficult or problematic. In such cases, radiochromic film might be an alternative. The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film was investigated as a potential tool for depth-dose measurement in radiotherapy beams over a broad range of energies and modalities. Methods: Pieces of the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC EBT2 film were exposed to x-ray, electron, and proton beams used in radiotherapy. The beams employed for this study included kilovoltage x-rays (75 kVp), {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, megavoltage x-rays (18 MV), electrons (7 and 20 MeV), and pristine Bragg-peak proton beams (126 and 152 MeV). At each beam quality, film response was measured over the dose range of 0.4-8.0 Gy, which corresponds to optical densities ranging from 0.05 to 0.4 measured with a flat-bed document scanner. To assess precision in depth-dose measurements with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film, uncertainty in measured optical density was investigated with respect to variation in film-to-film and scanner-bed uniformity. Results: For most beams, percentage depth-doses measured with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film show an excellent agreement with those measured with ion chambers. Some discrepancies are observed in case of (i) kilovoltage x-rays at larger depths due to beam-hardening, and (ii) proton beams around Bragg-peak due to quenching effects. For these beams, an empirical polynomial correction produces better agreement with ion-chamber data. Conclusions: The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film is an excellent secondary dosimeter for measurement of percentage depth-doses for a broad range of beam qualities and modalities used in radiotherapy. It offers an easy and efficient way to measure beam depth-dose data with a high spatial resolution.

  19. Principal Evaluation: Standards, Rubrics, and Tools for Effective Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Xu, Xianxuan; Leeper, Lauri M.; Tonneson, Virginia C.

    2013-01-01

    Effective principals run effective schools--this much we know. Accurately measuring principal effectiveness, however, has long been an elusive goal for school administrators. In this indispensable book, author James H. Stronge details the steps and resources necessary for designing a comprehensive principal evaluation system that is based on sound…

  20. New sonographic measures of peripheral nerves: a tool for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve involvement in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Lugão, Helena Barbosa; Furini, Renata Bazan; Marques Júnior, Wilson; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate ultrasonographic (US) cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of peripheral nerves, indexes of the differences between CSAs at the same point (∆CSAs) and between tunnel (T) and pre-tunnel (PT) ulnar CSAs (∆TPTs) in leprosy patients (LPs) and healthy volunteers (HVs). Seventy-seven LPs and 49 HVs underwent bilateral US at PT and T ulnar points, as well as along the median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves, to calculate the CSAs, ∆CSAs and ∆TPTs. The CSA values in HVs were lower than those in LPs (p < 0.0001) at the PT (5.67/9.78 mm2) and T (6.50/10.94 mm2) points, as well as at the M (5.85/8.48 mm2) and CF (8.17/14.14 mm2) nerves. The optimum CSA- receiver operating characteristic (ROC) points and sensitivities/specificities were, respectively, 6.85 mm2 and 68-85% for the PT point, 7.35 mm2 and 71-78% for the T point, 6.75 mm2 and 62-75% for the M nerve and 9.55 mm2 and 81-72% for the CF nerve. The ∆CSAs of the LPs were greater than those of the HVs at the PT point (4.02/0.85; p = 0.007), T point (3.71/0.98; p = 0.0005) and CF nerve (2.93/1.14; p = 0.015), with no difference found for the M nerve (1.41/0.95; p = 0.17). The optimum ∆CSA-ROC points, sensitivities, specificities and p-values were, respectively, 1.35, 49%, 80% and 0.003 at the PT point, 1.55, 55-85% and 0.0006 at the T point, 0.70, 58-50% and 0.73 for the M nerve and 1.25, 54-67% and 0.022 for the CF nerve. The ∆TPT in the LPs was greater than that in the HVs (4.43/1.44; p <0.0001). The optimum ∆TPT-ROC point was 2.65 (90% sensitivity/41% specificity, p < 0.0001). The ROC analysis of CSAs showed the highest specificity and sensitivity at the PT point and CF nerve, respectively. The PT and T ∆CSAs had high specificities (> 80%) and ∆TPT had the highest specificity (> 90%). New sonographic peripheral nerve measurements (∆CSAs and ∆TPT) provide an important methodological improvement in the detection of leprosy neuropathy. PMID:23778664

  1. Mas5, a homologue of bacterial DnaJ, is indispensable for the host infection and environmental adaptation of a filamentous fungal insect pathogen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Hu, Yue; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-03-01

    Mas5, a yeast heat shock protein classified to the Hsp40 group, is homologous to bacterial archetype DnaJ but functionally unexplored in filamentous fungi. Here we identify a Mas5 homologue (46.86 kDa) in Beauveria bassiana and show its indispensability for host infection and environmental adaptation of the fungal insect pathogen. The deletion of mas5 caused severe defects in aerial conidiation, conidial germination and submerged blastospore production (mimic to host haemocoel). The deletion mutant lost 100% virulence to Galleria mellonella larvae through normal cuticular penetration (topical inoculation) and 50% through cuticle-bypassing infection (intrahaemocoel injection). It formed no blastospore in vivo after inoculation or only a very few after injection. Its extracellular (cuticle degrading) enzymes and virulence-relating Pr1 proteases were 62% and 32% less active respectively. It became more sensitive to high osmolarity, oxidation, cell-wall perturbation, heat shock and UV-B irradiation. These concurred with reduced contents of intracellular mannitol and trehalose, decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes, impaired cell walls and suppressed transcripts of stress-responsive and virulence-relating genes. All the changes were restored by targeted mas5 complementation. All together, Mas5 is indispensable for the in vitro and in vivo life cycle of B. bassiana by targeting many sets of enzymes/proteins at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:26714790

  2. Dissect Kif5b in nuclear positioning during myogenesis: The light chain binding domain and the autoinhibitory peptide are both indispensable

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zai; Xue, Wenqian; Li, Xiuling; Lin, Raozhou; Cui, Ju; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► Kif5b localizes at myonuclear membrane and is responsible for nuclear dispersion. ► Kif5b stalk/tail domain contains signal for nuclear membrane targeting. ► Kif5b stalk/tail domain directly binds to a nesprin 4 in vitro. ► KLC binding domain and autoinhibitory peptide are both functionally indispensable. -- Abstract: The microtubule motor kinesin-1 is responsible for the nuclear positioning during myogenesis. Here we show that the coiled-coil stalk/tail domain containing the kinesin light chain (KLC) binding sites targets to the perinuclear region like endogenous Kif5b, while the globular tail domain cannot. To investigate which fragments of kinesin heavy chain (Kif5b) is responsible for the myonuclear positioning, we transfect Kif5b expression constructs into Kif5b deficient myoblasts and test their ability to rescue the myonuclear phenotype. We find that the KLC binding domain and the autoinhibitory peptide in the globular tail region are both indispensable for the nuclear membrane localization of Kif5b and the kinesin-1-mediated myonuclear positioning. These results suggest that while the KLC binding domain may directly targets Kif5b to the myonuclear membrane, the autoinhibitory peptide may play an indirect role in regulating the kinesin-1-mediated myonuclear positioning.

  3. FORTRAN tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presser, L.

    1978-01-01

    An integrated set of FORTRAN tools that are commercially available is described. The basic purpose of various tools is summarized and their economic impact highlighted. The areas addressed by these tools include: code auditing, error detection, program portability, program instrumentation, documentation, clerical aids, and quality assurance.

  4. Percussion tool

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-11-28

    A percussion tool is described and which includes a housing mounting a tool bit; a reciprocally moveable hammer borne by the housing and which is operable to repeatedly strike the tool bit; and a reciprocally moveable piston enclosed within the hammer and which imparts reciprocal movement to the reciprocally moveable hammer.

  5. English Digital Dictionaries as Valuable Blended Learning Tools for Palestinian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwaik, Raghad A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Digital technology has become an indispensable aspect of foreign language learning around the globe especially in the case of college students who are often required to finish extensive reading assignments within a limited time period. Such pressure calls for the use of efficient tools such as digital dictionaries to help them achieve their…

  6. A Review and Analysis of Remote Sensing Capability for Air Quality Measurements as a Potential Decision Support Tool Conducted by the NASA DEVELOP Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, A.; Richards, A.; Keith, K.; Frew, C.; Boseck, J.; Sutton, S.; Watts, C.; Rickman, D.

    2007-01-01

    This project focused on a comprehensive utilization of air quality model products as decision support tools (DST) needed for public health applications. A review of past and future air quality measurement methods and their uncertainty, along with the relationship of air quality to national and global public health, is vital. This project described current and future NASA satellite remote sensing and ground sensing capabilities and the potential for using these sensors to enhance the prediction, prevention, and control of public health effects that result from poor air quality. The qualitative uncertainty of current satellite remotely sensed air quality, the ground-based remotely sensed air quality, the air quality/public health model, and the decision making process is evaluated in this study. Current peer-reviewed literature suggests that remotely sensed air quality parameters correlate well with ground-based sensor data. A satellite remote-sensed and ground-sensed data complement is needed to enhance the models/tools used by policy makers for the protection of national and global public health communities

  7. LensTools: Weak Lensing computing tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, A.

    2016-02-01

    LensTools implements a wide range of routines frequently used in Weak Gravitational Lensing, including tools for image analysis, statistical processing and numerical theory predictions. The package offers many useful features, including complete flexibility and easy customization of input/output formats; efficient measurements of power spectrum, PDF, Minkowski functionals and peak counts of convergence maps; survey masks; artificial noise generation engines; easy to compute parameter statistical inferences; ray tracing simulations; and many others. It requires standard numpy and scipy, and depending on tools used, may require Astropy (ascl:1304.002), emcee (ascl:1303.002), matplotlib, and mpi4py.

  8. Combining ICA and Granger causality: a novel tool for investigation of brain dynamics and brain oscillations using fNIRS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Identifying directional influences in neural circuits from functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) recordings presents one of the main challenges for understanding brain dynamics. In this study a new strategy that combines Granger causality mapping (GCM) and independent component analysis (ICA) is proposed to reveal complex neural network dynamics underlying cognitive processes with fNIRS measurements. The GCM-ICA algorithm implements the following two procedures: (i) extraction of the region of interests (ROIs) of cortical activations by ICA, and (ii) estimation of the direct causal influences in local brain networks using Granger causality among voxels of ROIs. Our results show the use of GCM in conjunction with ICA is able to effectively capture the brain network dynamics in time-frequency domain with significantly reduced computational cost. We thus suggest that the GCM-ICA technique is a potentially valuable tool that could be used for the investigation of directional causality influences of brain network dynamics in biophotonics fields.

  9. The Telemedicine benchmark--a general tool to measure and compare the performance of video conferencing equipment in the telemedicine area.

    PubMed

    Klutke, P J; Mattioli, P; Baruffaldi, F; Toni, A; Englmeier, K H

    1999-09-01

    In this paper, we describe the 'Telemedicine Benchmark' (TMB), which is a set of standard procedures, protocols and measurements to test reliability and levels of performance of data exchange in a telemedicine session. We have put special emphasis on medical imaging, i.e. digital image transfer, joint viewing and editing and 3D manipulation. With the TMB, we can compare the aptitude of different video conferencing software systems for telemedicine issues and the effect of different network technologies (ISDN, xDSL, ATM, Ethernet). The evaluation criteria used are length of delays and functionality. For the application of the TMB, a data set containing radiological images and medical reports was set up. Considering the Benchmark protocol, this data set has to be exchanged between the partners of the session. The Benchmark covers file transfer, whiteboard usage, application sharing and volume data analysis and compression. The TMB has proven to be a useful tool in several evaluation issues. PMID:10505968

  10. ATM protein is indispensable to repair complex-type DNA double strand breaks induced by high LET heavy ion irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Emiko; Yu, Dong; Fujimori, Akira; Anzai, Kazunori; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated) protein responsible for a rare genetic disease with hyperradiosensitivity, is the one of the earliest repair proteins sensing DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). ATM is known to phosphorylate DNA repair proteins such as MRN complex (Mre11, Rad50 and NBS1), 53BP1, Artemis, Brca1, gamma-H2AX, and MDC. We studied the interactions between ATM and DNA-PKcs, a crucial NHEJ repair protein, after cells exposure to high and low LET irradiation. Normal human (HFL III, MRC5VA) and AT homozygote (AT2KY, AT5BIVA, AT3BIVA) cells were irradiated with X-rays and high LET radiation (carbon ions: 290MeV/n initial energy at 70 keV/um, and iron ions: 500MeV/n initial energy at 200KeV/um), and several critical end points were examined. AT cells with high LET irradiation showed a significantly higher radiosensitivity when compared with normal cells. The behavior of DNA DSB repair was monitored by immuno-fluorescence techniques using DNA-PKcs (pThr2609, pSer2056) and ATM (pSer1981) antibodies. In normal cells, the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs was clearly detected after high LET irradiation, though the peak of phosphorylation was delayed when compared to X-irradiation. In contrast, almost no DNA-PKcs phosphorylation foci were detected in AT cells irradiated with high LET radiation. A similar result was also observed in normal cells treated with 10 uM ATM kinase specific inhibitor (KU55933) one hour before irradiation. These data suggest that the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs with low LET X-rays is mostly ATM-independent, and the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs with high LET radiation seems to require ATM probably due to its complex nature of DSB induced. Our study indicates that high LET heavy ion irradiation which we can observe in the space environment would provide a useful tool to study the fundamental mechanism associated with DNA DSB repair.

  11. Photogrammetric measurement and visualization of blood vessel branching casting: a tool for quantitative accuracy tests of MR, CT, and DS angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola

    2000-12-01

    Currently three different angiographic techniques are used to measure and visualize major blood vessels in the human body: magnetic resonance (MR), computer tomography (CT) and digital subtraction (DS) angiography. Although these imaging systems have been already qualitatively compared, a quantitative assessment is still missing. The goal of this work is to provide a tool enabling a quantitative comparison of the three imaging techniques to an unbiased reference. MR-, CT- and DS-angiographies are first performed on a corpse. Then, a casting of the abdominal aorta and its main branches is prepared, removed from the body and measured with photogrammetric methods. The elongated and thin cast is fixed in a 3D frame with 16 signalized small spheres used for calibration and orientation purposes. Three fixed CCD cameras acquire triplets of images of the casting, which is turned in 8 positions. In order to perform multi-image matching, an artificial random texture is projected onto the object. For each triplet of images, a semi-automated matching process based on least squares matching determines a dense set of corresponding points. Their 3D coordinates are then computed by forward intersection, with a mean standard deviation of about 0.2 mm. The result from the 8 positions are merged together into a 3D point cloud and an adequate filter is applied to remove the noise and the redundancy in the overlapping regions. The paper depicts the basic design of the system and the measurement methods. Furthermore some preliminary results are presented.

  12. Training traditional birth attendants on the use of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool to prevent postpartum haemorrhage: lessons learnt from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne; Passano, Paige; Bohl, Daniel D; Islam, Arshadul; Prata, Ndola

    2014-03-01

    A consensus emerged in the late 1990s among leaders in global maternal health that traditional birth attendants (TBAs) should no longer be trained in delivery skills and should instead be trained as promoters of facility-based care. Many TBAs continue to be trained in places where home deliveries are the norm and the potential impacts of this training are important to understand. The primary objective of this study was to gain a more nuanced understanding of the full impact of training TBAs to use misoprostol and a blood measurement tool (mat) for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at home deliveries through the perspective of those involved in the project. This qualitative study, conducted between July 2009 and July 2010 in Bangladesh, was nested within larger operations research, testing the feasibility and acceptability of scaling up community-based provision of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool for prevention of PPH. A total of 87 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with TBAs, community health workers (CHWs), managers, and government-employed family welfare visitors (FWVs) at three time points during the study. Computer-assisted thematic data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti (version 5.2). Four primary themes emerged during the data analysis, which all highlight changes that occurred following the training. The first theme describes the perceived direct changes linked to the two new interventions. The following three themes describe the indirect changes that interviewees perceived: strengthened linkages between TBAs and the formal healthcare system; strengthened linkages between TBAs and the communities they serve; and improved quality of services/service utilization. The data indicate that training TBAs and CHW supervisors resulted in perceived broader and more nuanced changes than simply improvements in TBAs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Acknowledgeing TBAs' important role in the community and in home deliveries and

  13. The Brain Metastases Symptom Checklist as a novel tool for symptom measurement in patients with brain metastases undergoing whole-brain radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rodin, D.; Banihashemi, B.; Wang, L.; Lau, A.; Harris, S.; Levin, W.; Dinniwell, R.; Millar, B.A.; Chung, C.; Laperriere, N.; Bezjak, A.; Wong, R.K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Brain Metastases Symptom Checklist (bmsc), a novel self-report measure of common symptoms experienced by patients with brain metastases. Methods Patients with first-presentation symptomatic brain metastases (n = 137) referred for whole-brain radiotherapy (wbrt) completed the bmsc at time points before and after treatment. Their caregivers (n = 48) provided proxy ratings twice on the day of consultation to assess reliability, and at week 4 after wbrt to assess responsiveness to change. Correlations with 4 other validated assessment tools were evaluated. Results The symptoms reported on the bmsc were largely mild to moderate, with tiredness (71%) and difficulties with balance (61%) reported most commonly at baseline. Test–retest reliability for individual symptoms had a median intraclass correlation of 0.59 (range: 0.23–0.85). Caregiver proxy and patient responses had a median intraclass correlation of 0.52. Correlation of absolute scores on the bmsc and other symptom assessment tools was low, but consistency in the direction of symptom change was observed. At week 4, change in symptoms was variable, with improvements in weight gain and sleep of 42% and 41% respectively, and worsening of tiredness and drowsiness of 62% and 59% respectively. Conclusions The bmsc captures a wide range of symptoms experienced by patients with brain metastases, and it is sensitive to change. It demonstrated adequate test–retest reliability and face validity in terms of its responsiveness to change. Future research is needed to determine whether modifications to the bmsc itself or correlation with more symptom-specific measures will enhance validity. PMID:27330360

  14. Training Traditional Birth Attendants on the Use of Misoprostol and a Blood Measurement Tool to Prevent Postpartum Haemorrhage: Lessons Learnt from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Passano, Paige; Bohl, Daniel D.; Islam, Arshadul; Prata, Ndola

    2014-01-01

    A consensus emerged in the late 1990s among leaders in global maternal health that traditional birth attendants (TBAs) should no longer be trained in delivery skills and should instead be trained as promoters of facility-based care. Many TBAs continue to be trained in places where home deliveries are the norm and the potential impacts of this training are important to understand. The primary objective of this study was to gain a more nuanced understanding of the full impact of training TBAs to use misoprostol and a blood measurement tool (mat) for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at home deliveries through the perspective of those involved in the project. This qualitative study, conducted between July 2009 and July 2010 in Bangladesh, was nested within larger operations research, testing the feasibility and acceptability of scaling up community-based provision of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool for prevention of PPH. A total of 87 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with TBAs, community health workers (CHWs), managers, and government-employed family welfare visitors (FWVs) at three time points during the study. Computer-assisted thematic data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti (version 5.2). Four primary themes emerged during the data analysis, which all highlight changes that occurred following the training. The first theme describes the perceived direct changes linked to the two new interventions. The following three themes describe the indirect changes that interviewees perceived: strengthened linkages between TBAs and the formal healthcare system; strengthened linkages between TBAs and the communities they serve; and improved quality of services/service utilization. The data indicate that training TBAs and CHW supervisors resulted in perceived broader and more nuanced changes than simply improvements in TBAs’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Acknowledgeing TBAs’ important role in the community and in home deliveries and

  15. ATAMM analysis tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert; Stoughton, John; Mielke, Roland

    1991-10-01

    Diagnostics software for analyzing Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) based concurrent processing systems is presented. ATAMM is capable of modeling the execution of large grain algorithms on distributed data flow architectures. The tool graphically displays algorithm activities and processor activities for evaluation of the behavior and performance of an ATAMM based system. The tool's measurement capabilities indicate computing speed, throughput, concurrency, resource utilization, and overhead. Evaluations are performed on a simulated system using the software tool. The tool is used to estimate theoretical lower bound performance. Analysis results are shown to be comparable to the predictions.

  16. ATAMM analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert; Stoughton, John; Mielke, Roland

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostics software for analyzing Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) based concurrent processing systems is presented. ATAMM is capable of modeling the execution of large grain algorithms on distributed data flow architectures. The tool graphically displays algorithm activities and processor activities for evaluation of the behavior and performance of an ATAMM based system. The tool's measurement capabilities indicate computing speed, throughput, concurrency, resource utilization, and overhead. Evaluations are performed on a simulated system using the software tool. The tool is used to estimate theoretical lower bound performance. Analysis results are shown to be comparable to the predictions.

  17. Toward robust deconvolution of pass-through paleomagnetic measurements: new tool to estimate magnetometer sensor response and laser interferometry of sample positioning accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Hirokuni; Xuan, Chuang; Yamamoto, Yuhji

    2016-07-01

    Pass-through superconducting rock magnetometers (SRM) offer rapid and high-precision remanence measurements for continuous samples that are essential for modern paleomagnetism studies. However, continuous SRM measurements are inevitably smoothed and distorted due to the convolution effect of SRM sensor response. Deconvolution is necessary to restore accurate magnetization from pass-through SRM data, and robust deconvolution requires reliable estimate of SRM sensor response as well as understanding of uncertainties associated with the SRM measurement system. In this paper, we use the SRM at Kochi Core Center (KCC), Japan, as an example to introduce new tool and procedure for accurate and efficient estimate of SRM sensor response. To quantify uncertainties associated with the SRM measurement due to track positioning errors and test their effects on deconvolution, we employed laser interferometry for precise monitoring of track positions both with and without placing a u-channel sample on the SRM tray. The acquired KCC SRM sensor response shows significant cross-term of Z-axis magnetization on the X-axis pick-up coil and full widths of ~46-54 mm at half-maximum response for the three pick-up coils, which are significantly narrower than those (~73-80 mm) for the liquid He-free SRM at Oregon State University. Laser interferometry measurements on the KCC SRM tracking system indicate positioning uncertainties of ~0.1-0.2 and ~0.5 mm for tracking with and without u-channel sample on the tray, respectively. Positioning errors appear to have reproducible components of up to ~0.5 mm possibly due to patterns or damages on tray surface or rope used for the tracking system. Deconvolution of 50,000 simulated measurement data with realistic error introduced based on the position uncertainties indicates that although the SRM tracking system has recognizable positioning uncertainties, they do not significantly debilitate the use of deconvolution to accurately restore high

  18. Tool Using

    PubMed Central

    Kahrs, Björn A.; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the development of tool use in children has often emphasized the cognitive bases of this achievement, focusing on the choice of an artifact, but has largely neglected its motor foundations. However, research across diverse fields, from evolutionary anthropology to cognitive neuroscience, converges on the idea that the actions that embody tool use are also critical for understanding its ontogenesis and phylogenesis. In this article, we highlight findings across these fields to show how a deeper examination of the act of tool using can inform developmental accounts and illuminate what makes human tool use unique. PMID:25400691

  19. GRIPPING TOOL

    DOEpatents

    Sandrock, R.J.

    1961-12-12

    A self-actuated gripping tool is described for transferring fuel elements and the like into reactors and other inaccessible locations. The tool will grasp or release the load only when properly positioned for this purpose. In addition, the load cannot be released except when unsupported by the tool, so that jarring or contact will not bring about accidental release of the load. The gripping members or jaws of the device are cam-actuated by an axially slidable shaft which has two lockable positions. A spring urges the shaft into one position and a solenoid is provided to overcome the spring and move it into the other position. The weight of the tool operates a sleeve to lock the shaft in its existing position. Only when the cable supporting the tool is slack is the device capable of being actuated either to grasp or release its load. (AEC)

  20. Omics Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Schaumberg, Andrew

    2012-12-21

    The Omics Tools package provides several small trivial tools for work in genomics. This single portable package, the “omics.jar” file, is a toolbox that works in any Java-based environment, including PCs, Macs, and supercomputers. The number of tools is expected to grow. One tool (called cmsearch.hadoop or cmsearch.local), calls the external cmsearch program to predict non-coding RNA in a genome. The cmsearch program is part of the third-party Infernal package. Omics Tools does not contain Infernal. Infernal may be installed separately. The cmsearch.hadoop subtool requires Apache Hadoop and runs on a supercomputer, though cmsearch.local does not and runs on a server. Omics Tools does not contain Hadoop. Hadoop mat be installed separartely The other tools (cmgbk, cmgff, fastats, pal, randgrp, randgrpr, randsub) do not interface with third-party tools. Omics Tools is written in Java and Scala programming languages. Invoking the “help” command shows currently available tools, as shown below: schaumbe@gpint06:~/proj/omics$ java -jar omics.jar help Known commands are: cmgbk : compare cmsearch and GenBank Infernal hits cmgff : compare hits among two GFF (version 3) files cmsearch.hadoop : find Infernal hits in a genome, on your supercomputer cmsearch.local : find Infernal hits in a genome, on your workstation fastats : FASTA stats, e.g. # bases, GC content pal : stem-loop motif detection by palindromic sequence search (code stub) randgrp : random subsample without replacement, of groups randgrpr : random subsample with replacement, of groups (fast) randsub : random subsample without replacement, of file lines For more help regarding a particular command, use: java -jar omics.jar command help Usage: java -jar omics.jar command args