Sample records for measuring blast phenomena

  1. Operation Plumbbob: Field test of a system for measuring blast phenomena by airborne gages. Preliminary report, May-September 1957

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hanlon; S. E. Cooper; J. S. Ives; G. S. Scholl

    1957-01-01

    Project 1.2 participated in Operation Plumbbob in order to proof test prototype air blast instrumentation for Operation Hardtack and to train personnel in handling this experiment under field conditions. The air blast systems consisted of (1) parachute-supported canisters containing self recording mechanical pressure gages that were deployed by means of rockets and (2) balloon supported pressure instrumentation. Four fully instrumented

  2. AIR-BLAST PHENOMENA IN THE HIGH-PRESSURE REGION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Swift; D. C. Sachs; A. R. Kriebel

    1960-01-01

    Surface level and aboveground static overpressures, near-surface ; differential pressures, and near-surface total pressures were measured on Burst ; Priscilla. Gages were placed at ground ranges from 450 ft to 4500 ft, with a ; concentration of measurements in the high-pressure region. Blast swttches, which ; measured arrival time only, were placed at several ranges, the closest at 100-ft ;

  3. Blast-wave density measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritzel, D. V.

    Applications of a densitometer to obtain time-resolved data on the total density in blast-wave flows are described. A beta-source (promethium-147) is separated by a gap from a scintillator and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). Attenuation of the radiation beam by the passing blast wave is due to the total density in the gap volume during the wave passage. Signal conditioning and filtering methods permit the system to output linearized data. Results are provided from use of the system to monitor blast waves emitted by detonation of a 10.7 m diameter fiberglass sphere containing 609 tons of ammonium nitrate/fuel oil at a 50.6 m height. Blast wave density data are provided for peak overpressure levels of 245, 172 and 70 kPa and distances of 183, 201 and 314 m from ground zero. Data resolution was of high enough quality to encourage efforts to discriminate dust and gasdynamic phenomena within passing blast waves.

  4. Operation Plumbbob. Project 1. 2. Field test of a system for measuring blast phenomena by airborne gages. Preliminary report May-Sep 57

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    Project 1.2 participated in Operation Plumbbob in order to proof test prototype air-blast instrumentation for Operation Hardtack and to train personnel in handling this experiment under field conditions. The air-blast systems consisted of (1) parachute-supported canisters containing self-recording mechanical pressure gages that were deployed by means of rockets and (2) balloon-supported pressure instrumentation. The pressure and recording equipment were used with both the balloon and rocket systems. Pressure-time records were obtained in all cases except one. In one of the rockets a pressure record was not obtained, due to a failure in the electrical system. There were several defects noted in the system, none of which are considered serious. The general performance of the system was satisfactory. It was concluded that the basic design was sound.

  5. Terrorism and blast phenomena: lessons learned from the attack on the USS Cole (DDG67).

    PubMed

    Langworthy, Michael J; Sabra, John; Gould, Mark

    2004-05-01

    Blast phenomena and injuries to the musculoskeletal system have been well documented for the past 50 years. The USS Cole was attacked in Aden Harbor in Yemen on October 12, 2000. Seventeen sailors were killed and 39 were wounded. The bombing of the USS Cole and an analysis of the pattern of injury are unique compared with previous terrorist bombing attacks in which the predominant injury pattern is from Type II and Type III blast phenomena. Because the ship superstructure did not collapse, there were no confounding variables in examining the pattern of injury as there would have been with shrapnel-generating devices or detonations with subsequent building collapse. The morbidity and mortality sustained by the victims was almost exclusively from Type I and Type III blast effects. The musculoskeletal system was a clear marker for mortality and morbidity. Fractures of the cranium, spine, pelvis, and long bones denoted increasing severity of injury to critical organ systems. Shipboard firefighting was successful in containing fires and there was very little morbidity from inhalational injuries or burns. Blast phenomena that affect ships or buildings that have been specifically built to absorb a blast attack likely will manifest a different mode and pattern of injury than those seen in traditional terrorist blast events. PMID:15187838

  6. Blast-wave density measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Ritzel

    1986-01-01

    Applications of a densitometer to obtain time-resolved data on the total density in blast-wave flows are described. A beta-source (promethium-147) is separated by a gap from a scintillator and a photomultiplier tube (PMT). Attenuation of the radiation beam by the passing blast wave is due to the total density in the gap volume during the wave passage. Signal conditioning and

  7. EVALUATION OF WIANCKO AND VIBROTRON GAGES AND DEVELOPMENT OF NEW CIRCUITRY FOR ATOMIC BLAST MEASUREMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Petes; C. C. Little; J. L. Dossey

    1955-01-01

    Experimental instrumentation was tested on Operation Upshot-Knothole in ; an endeavor to improve existing blast phenomena measuring equipment and ; techniques. Experimental designs tested include a field unit oscillatoramplifier ; using transistor circuit elements, a subminiature two-wire field unit, a ; commercially developed Vibrotron gage and amplifier unit, and a frequency ; deviation multiplier circuit for obtaining increased signal-tonoise ratios.

  8. Scientific director`s report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1.6. Blast measurements, Part I. Summary report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Hartmann; C. W. Lampson; C. J. Aronson

    1951-01-01

    Measurements of the blast pressures in Shots Dog, Easy, and George, together with earth-shock measurements on Shots Easy and George, gave new and important information concerning the magnitude and character of the blast wave near an atomic bomb. These experiments showed that secondary phenomena due presumably to thermal radiation and ion combination affect the pressure wave rather markedly near the

  9. Effects of scale on internal blast measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, R.; Sandusky, H.; Lee, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a comparative study between large and small-scale internal blast experiments with the goal of using the small-scale analog for energetic performance evaluation. In the small-scale experiment, highly confined explosive samples <0.5 g were subjected to the output from a PETN detonator while enclosed in a 3-liter chamber. Large-scale tests up to 23 kg were unconfined and released in a chamber with a factor of 60,000 increase in volume. The comparative metric in these experiments is peak quasi-static overpressure, with the explosive sample expressed as sample energy/chamber volume, which normalizes measured pressures across scale. Small-scale measured pressures were always lower than the large-scale measurements, because of heat-loss to the high confinement inherent in the small-scale apparatus. This heat-loss can be quantified and used to correct the small-scale pressure measurements. In some cases the heat-loss was large enough to quench reaction of lower energy samples. These results suggest that small-scale internal blast tests do correlate with their large-scale counterparts, provided that heat-loss to confinement can be measured, and that less reactive or lower energy samples are not quenched by heat-loss.

  10. Free-air atomic blast pressure and thermal measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Haskell; J. O. Vann; P. R. Gast

    1963-01-01

    Measurements of blast overpressure and thermal radiation flux were carried out at high altitudes during both Mike and King shots of Operation Ivy by means of parachute-borne telemetering canisters. For each shot six canisters were dropped from each of two B-29 aircraft. Telemetered data were recorded from 10 of the 12 canisters at Mike shot and from 8 of the

  11. MEASUREMENT OF FREE AIR ATOMIC BLAST PRESSURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Haskell; J. A. Fava; R. M. Brubaker

    1958-01-01

    BS>Peak free-air overpressure versus time measurements in the 10-to-2 ; psi range were obtained as a function of distance directly over a nuclear burst ; at a low scaled height. This information was to be used to establish the points ; in space at which the reflected and direct shock waves merge into a single shock ; wave and to

  12. Magnetic field measurements of the BLAST spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, Karen A.; Botto, Tancredi; Goodhue, Abigail; Hasell, Douglas; Loughnan, Dylan; Murphy, Kilian; Smith, Timothy Paul; Ziskin, Vitaliy

    2009-02-01

    The Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid has been built to study nuclear physics reactions using a stored, polarized electron beam and a variety of polarized targets internal to the storage ring. The spectrometer consists of eight coils surrounding the target cell. There is a requirement of nominally zero field along the centerline of the spectrometer for proper electron beam storage. In addition, the polarized internal targets require a low field gradient in the target region. Magnetic field measurements were made near the beam centerline to guide the alignment of the coils and satisfy the field magnitude and gradient requirements. After the coils were aligned, the magnetic field was measured in the detector regions to provide information for particle tracking.

  13. Absorption Phenomena and a Probable Blast Wave in the 13 July 2004 Eruptive Event

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Grechnev; A. M. Uralov; V. A. Slemzin; I. M. Chertok; I. V. Kuzmenko; K. Shibasaki

    2008-01-01

    We present a case study of the 13 July 2004 solar event, in which disturbances caused by eruption of a filament from an active\\u000a region embraced a quarter of the visible solar surface. Remarkable are the absorption phenomena observed in the SOHO\\/EIT 304 Å\\u000a channel, which were also visible in the EIT 195 Å channel, in the H? line, and even in

  14. Arc-wall interaction phenomena immediately after contact separation in magnet-blast interrupters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gauster; W. Rieder

    1995-01-01

    Arc-wall interaction phenomena without and with a baffle plate arranged next the switching contacts opposite to the direction of arc motion were investigated in a model interrupter. The criterion considered was the time of reduced arc motion immediately after contact separation. Arc current geometry of contacts and walls, contact material (Cu, Ag\\/C, Ag\\/SnO2, Ag\\/CdO) and the materials of lateral walls

  15. Arc-wall interaction phenomena immediately after contact separation in magnet-blast interrupters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gauster; W. F. Rieder

    1996-01-01

    Arc-wall interaction phenomena, with and without a baffle plate arranged next the switching contacts opposite to the direction of arc motion, were investigated in a model interrupter. The criterion considered was the time of reduced arc motion immediately after contact separation. Arc current, geometry of contacts and walls, contact materials (Cu, Ag\\/C, Ag\\/SnO2, Ag\\/CdO) and the materials of lateral walls

  16. Measurement of Blast Waves from Bursting Pressureized Frangible Spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esparza, E. D.; Baker, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    Small-scale experiments were conducted to obtain data on incident overpressure at various distances from bursting pressurized spheres. Complete time histories of blast overpressure generated by rupturing glass spheres under high internal pressure were obtained using eight side-on pressure transducers. A scaling law is presented, and its nondimensional parameters are used to compare peak overpressures, arrival times, impulses, and durations for different initial conditions and sizes of blast source. The nondimensional data are also compared, whenever possible, with results of theoretical calculations and compiled data for Pentolite high explosive. The scaled data are repeatable and show significant differences from blast waves generated by condensed high-explosives.

  17. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 4. 2. Measurement of surface-air movements associated with atomic blasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Rados; J. C. Bogert; T. O. Haig

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to record continuous measurements of the surface winds in the vicinity of an atomic blast immediately prior to the blast, during passage of the shock wave, and immediately after the blast with special regard to the blast-induced afterwind following local dissipation of the shock wave. From the data obtained, it was concluded that following

  18. Measurements of strong blast waves in gas targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Shigemori; T. Ditmire; T. Kuehl; B. A. Remington; A. M. Rubenchik; K. A. Keilty

    1998-01-01

    The propagation of blast waves is of fundamental importance in determining the structure of the interstellar medium. To develop a laboratory testbed for astrophysically relevant shock physics, we have started an experiment using a high intensity, short pulse laser and a gas jet target. Gas targets of Ar, Ne, Xe at ion densities of 10^19 cm-3 are irradiated with a

  19. High spatial resolution measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkey, J. B.; Burnham, E. A.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    High spatial resolution experimental tube wall pressure measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena are presented. The projectile resembles the centerbody of a ramjet and travels supersonically through a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture, with the tube acting as the outer cowling. Pressure data are recorded as the projectile passes by sensors mounted in the tube wall at various locations along the tube. Data obtained by using a special highly instrumented section of tube has allowed the recording of gas dynamic phenomena with a spatial resolution on the order of one tenth the projectile length. High spatial resolution tube wall pressure data from the three regimes of propulsion studied to date (subdetonative, transdetonative, and superdetonative) are presented and reveal the 3D character of the flowfield induced by projectile fins and the canting of the projectile body relative to the tube wall. Also presented for comparison to the experimental data are calculations made with an inviscid, 3D CFD code.

  20. On-line ultrasonic system for measuring thickness of the copper stave in the blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang-Woo; Kim, Dohoon

    2012-05-01

    The blast furnace is used make molten iron from sintered ore and the cokes in the steel industry. Recently, the copper stave cooling system placed on inner face of the blast furnace body to protect the steel shell from heat. In the high temperature environment, the wear between the stave and the material makes the cooling stave thinning by the downward movement of the materials in the blast furnace. It was impossible to access the copper stave with the ultrasonic sensor for measuring thickness because the copper stave is covered with the steel shell and there is backing refractory between the stave and the steel shell. The unique ultrasonic sensor which can approach the cooling stave through the cooling line was developed to measure thickness. The thickness can be measured with portable ultrasonic thickness sensor and can be monitored continuously with embedded sensors.

  1. PEAK AIR BLAST PRESSURES FROM SHOCK VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS ALONG THE GROUND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Eberhard; C. N. Kingery; W. F. Molesky

    1960-01-01

    The peak air pressure along the ground was determined by measurement of ; the air blast velocity for the surface (S) and underground (U) nuclear explosions ; at the Nevada Test. Preliminary HE tests were made to correlate use of scaling ; laws and to check instrumentation procedures. Velocities were calculated using ; pre-determined distances and the measurement of arrival

  2. Pressure transducer mounts for internal blast measurements on thin metal walls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Yiannakopoulos; Peter Kiernan

    1999-01-01

    Three mounts are described for installing pressure transducers on thin walls for internal blast measurements in which the walls undergo ductile rupture. Details of the mounts are presented and each mount is evaluated from several examples of pressure-time profiles obtained from thin steel walled cubes and ship compartment studies. Two designs proved effective, one having a flange and a sheath

  3. Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Iron-Slag Ratio at Taphole of Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, M.; Shinotake, A.; Nakashima, M.; Omoto, N.

    2014-07-01

    As the initial process in an integrated steel-making plant, molten iron is produced in a blast furnace. The molten iron has a temperature between 1700 K and 1900 K. The outflow stream discharged from a taphole comprises the molten iron and slag (which is a mixture of molten oxides). Monitoring of the stream temperature is important because it has information on the thermal condition inside the blast furnace. A newly developed simultaneous measurement technique for temperature and iron-slag ratio is reported. A monochromatic CCD camera with a short exposure time is used to obtain a thermal image of the rapidly moving stream. The thermal image has a marble-like pattern caused by the physical separation of the iron and slag and their different optical properties. Iron thermometry is realized by automatically detecting the peak of the iron gray-level distribution on a histogram. Meanwhile, the thermal radiance of the semitransparent slag varies as a function of the thickness. The slag temperature is calculated from the maximum gray level, presuming that the emissivity of the slag is constant at a thick slag part. The slag ratio is measured by counting the number of pixels on the histogram. A field test was carried out at an operating blast furnace. The iron temperature, slag temperature, and slag ratio were successfully measured. This multiple image measurement is expected to be the new information source for stable blast furnace operation.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF MECHANICAL PRESSURE-TIME AND PEAK PRESSURE RECORDERS FOR ATOMIC BLAST MEASUREMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Oliver; R. R. Caforek; H. R. Smith; W. E. Morris

    1955-01-01

    Two mechanical air blast gages are described. The successful ; modification, field use, and evaluation of an indenter gage for the measurement ; of peak pressure is described. This gage is fully damped and has a response time ; of from 3 to 5 msec in the pressure range from 1 to 250 psi. Under appropriate ; shock conditions reliable

  5. Verification of BLAST by comparison with direct gain test cell measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B.; Bauman, F.; Kammerud, R.

    1980-11-01

    Comparisons between temperatures measured in a direct solar gain test cell and temperatures predicted by the building energy analysis computer program BLAST are reported. The comparisons were performed for three distinct climate periods; the simulations were driven by weather data collected at the test cell site in Los Alamos, New Mexico. The test cell configurations and weather data manipulations are described; quantitative evaluations of the comparisons between measured and predicted interior temperatures are presented; limitations of the comparisons are discussed; and sensitivities of the simulation results to uncertainties in the measured parameters are examined.

  6. Evaluation of the performance of the blast analysis and measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, George A.

    2001-05-01

    In the years since the introduction of the C-weighted day-night average sound level (DNL) to assess the noise of military explosives, Army practice has evolved to incorporate linear peak sound-pressure level into the evaluation of military training noise. Although the DNL remains as the method of choice for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation and for land-use planning, peak level is used by firing range operators for day-to-day complaint management. Several different monitoring system designs are being used at Army installations to provide range operators with real-time feedback on blast noise levels in nearby residential areas. One of these, the Blast Analysis and Measurement (BLAM) system, is a modified version of a sonic boom monitor designed by the U.S. Air Force. Data collected from two BLAM units located near a 120-mm tank gunnery range were evaluated in terms of hit rate and false-alarm rate over a range of 94 to 140 decibels linear peak. Hit- and false-alarm rates are compared with hit- and false-alarm rates reported for other blast noise monitoring system designs.

  7. Simulation and Measurements of Small Arms Blast Wave Overpressure in the Process of Designing a Silencer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Nebojša; Kari, Aleksandar; Jerkovi?, Damir; Savi?, Slobodan; Sirovatka, Radoslav

    2015-02-01

    Simulation and measurements of muzzle blast overpressure and its physical manifestations are studied in this paper. The use of a silencer can have a great influence on the overpressure intensity. A silencer is regarded as an acoustic transducer and a waveguide. Wave equations for an acoustic dotted source of directed effect are used for physical interpretation of overpressure as an acoustic phenomenon. Decomposition approach has proven to be suitable to describe the formation of the output wave of the wave transducer. Electroacoustic analogies are used for simulations. A measurement chain was used to compare the simulation results with the experimental ones.

  8. Precise Measurement of Deuteron Tensor Analyzing Powers with BLAST

    E-print Network

    Kohl, M.

    We report a precision measurement of the deuteron tensor analyzing powers T[subscript 20] and T[subscript 21] at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center. Data were collected simultaneously over a momentum transfer range ...

  9. Computer modeling of thoracic response to blast.

    PubMed

    Stuhmiller, J H; Chuong, C J; Phillips, Y Y; Dodd, K T

    1988-01-01

    Primary blast injury affects the gas-containing structures of the body. Damage to the lungs with resultant respiratory insufficiency and arterial embolization of air from alveolar pulmonary venous fistulae is the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality following high-level blast exposure. In an effort to generate a widely applicable damage-risk criterion for thoracic injury from blast we are developing a complex computer finite element model (FEM) of the thorax. Taking an engineering approach, a horizontal cross-section of the thorax is divided into small discrete units (finite elements) of homogeneous structure. The necessary physical properties (density, bulk modulus, etc.) are then determined for each element. Specifying the material constants and geometry of the elements, the computer can load the surface of the structure with some force-time function (blast pressure-time history) and calculate the resultant physical events such as displacement, compression, stress, strain, etc. Computer predictions of pressure wave phenomena in the lung parenchyma are compared with trans-bronchially measured pressures in blast-exposed animals. The model should prove useful in assessing the risk of blast injury in diverse overpressure environments and may give insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms and strategies for protection. PMID:3339675

  10. THE MEASUREMENT OF FREE AIR ATOMIC BLAST PRESSURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Haskell; J. O. Vann

    1953-01-01

    Shock overpressure as a function of time was measured by utilizing an ; array of parachute-borne pressure gages spread over a wide range of distances and ; altitudes above two atomic detonations. The data were telemetered from the ; balloons and recorded at a ground station. Three multiple object tracking ; stations were used to locate the position of each

  11. THE MEASUREMENT OF FREE AIR ATOMIC BLAST PRESSURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Haskell; J. O. Vann

    1952-01-01

    Free air peak pressure was measured as a function of time and space. ; Eight instrumented parachute-borne canisters were positioned from 2000 to 29,000 ; ft vertically above ground zero. Each canister contained an altimeter ; transducer, two differential pressure transducers, a radio telemetry transmitter, ; and a radio tracking beacon. The operation was a preliminary test of equipment ;

  12. An Undergraduate Experiment for the Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air: Phenomena and Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hujiang; Zhao, Xiaohong; Wang, Xin; Xiao, Jinghua

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss some phenomena in an undergraduate experiment for the measurement of the speed of sound in air. A square wave distorts when connected to a piezoelectric transducer. Moreover, the amplitude of the receiving signal varies with the driving frequency. Comparing with the Gibbs phenomenon, these phenomena can be…

  13. Precise Measurement of Deuteron Tensor Analyzing Powers with BLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.; Akdogan, T.; Bertozzi, W.; Botto, T.; Clasie, B.; DeGrush, A.; Dow, K.; Farkhondeh, M.; Franklin, W.; Gilad, S.; Hasell, D.; Kolster, H.; Maschinot, A.; Matthews, J.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R.; Redwine, R.; Seely, J.; Shinozaki, A.; Tschalaer, C. [Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Bates Linear Accelerator Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2011-12-16

    We report a precision measurement of the deuteron tensor analyzing powers T{sub 20} and T{sub 21} at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center. Data were collected simultaneously over a momentum transfer range Q=2.15-4.50 fm{sup -1} with the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid using a highly polarized deuterium internal gas target. The data are in excellent agreement with calculations in a framework of effective field theory. The deuteron charge monopole and quadrupole form factors G{sub C} and G{sub Q} were separated with improved precision, and the location of the first node of G{sub C} was confirmed at Q=4.19{+-}0.05 fm{sup -1}. The new data provide a strong constraint on theoretical models in a momentum transfer range covering the minimum of T{sub 20} and the first node of G{sub C}.

  14. Blast wave radiation source measurement experiments on the Z Z-pinch facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.R.; Peterson, D.L.; Watt, R.G.; Idzorek, G.; Tierney, T.; Lopez, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The Dynamic Hohlraum (DH) radiation on the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories [R. B. Spielman, W. A. Stygar, J. F. Seamen et al., Proceeding of the 11th International Pulsed Power Conference, Baltimore, 1997, edited by G. Cooperstein and I. Vitkovitsky (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1997), Vol. 1, p. 709] is a bright source of radiant energy that has proven useful for high energy density physics experiments. But the radiation output from a DH on Z needs to be well known. In this paper, a new method is presented for measuring the radiation fluence deposited in an experiment, specifically, an experiment driven by a Z DH. This technique uses a blast wave produced in a SiO{sub 2} foam, which starts as supersonic but transitions to subsonic, producing a shock at the transition point that is observable via radiography. The position of this shock is a sensitive measure of the radiation drive energy from the Z DH. Computer simulations have been used to design and analyze a Z foam blast wave experiment.

  15. Pressure-Sensitive Paint Measurements of Transient Shock Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Mark Kenneth; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the global pressure field created by shock wave diffraction have been captured optically using a porous pressure-sensitive paint. The pressure field created by a diffracting shock wave shows large increases and decreases in pressure and can be reasonably accurately captured using CFD. The substrate, a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate, has been dipped in a luminophore solution. TLC plates are readily available and easy to prepare. Illumination comes from two high-intensity broadband Xenon arc light sources with short-pass filters. The sample is imaged at 100 kHz using a Vision Research Phantom V710 in conjunction with a pair of long and short pass filters, creating a band. The PSP results are compared with numerical simulations of the flow using the commercial CFD package Fluent as part of ANSYS 13 for two Mach numbers. PMID:23549365

  16. Modelling of blast loading on aboveground structures - I. General phenomenology and external blast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. B. A. Beshara

    1994-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the prediction of dynamic effects of unconfined explosions needed for the structural analysis of blast-loaded aboveground structures. The basic features of the explosion and blast wave phenomena are presented along with a discussion of TNT equivalency and blast scaling laws. The characteristics of incident overpressure loading due to atomic weapons, conventional high explosives and unconfined

  17. Ionospheric Signature of Surface Mine Blasts from Global Positioning System Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calais, Eric; Minster, J. Bernard; Hofton, Michelle A.; Hedlin, Michael A. H.

    1998-01-01

    Sources such as atmospheric or buried explosions and shallow earthquakes are known to produce infrasonic pressure waves in the atmosphere. Because of the coupling between neutral particles and electrons at ionospheric altitudes, these acoustic and gravity waves induce variations of the ionospheric electron density. The Global Positioning System (GPS) provides a way of directly measuring the total electron content in the ionosphere and, therefore, of detecting such perturbations in the upper atmosphere. In July and August 1996, three large surface mine blasts (1.5 Kt each) were detonated at the Black Thunder coal mine in eastern Wyoming. As part of a seismic and acoustic monitoring- experiment, we deployed five dual-frequency GPS receivers at distances ranging from 50 to 200 km from the mine and were able to detect the ionospheric perturbation caused by the blasts. The perturbation starts 10 to 15 min after the blast, lasts for about 30 min, and propagates with an apparent horizontal velocity of 1200 meters per second. Its amplitude reaches 3 x 10 (exp 14) el per square meters in the 7-3 min period band, a value close to the ionospheric perturbation caused by the M = 6.7 Northridge earthquake. The small signal-to-noise ratio of the perturbation can be improved by slant-stacking the electron content time-series recorded by the different GPS receivers taking into account the horizontal propagation of the perturbation. The energy of the perturbation is concentrated in the 200 to 300 second period band, a result consistent with previous observations and numerical model predictions. The 300 second band probably corresponds to gravity modes and shorter periods to acoustic modes, respectively. Using a 1-D stratified velocity model of the atmosphere we show that linear acoustic ray tracing fits arrival times at all GPS receivers. We interpret the perturbation as a direct acoustic wave caused by the explosion itself. This study shows that even relatively small subsurface events can produce ionospheric perturbations that are above the detection threshold of the GPS technique. By sensing derivative signals, which can be detected over a relatively broad region, it appears that GPS might be particularly useful for source characterization within the first acoustic quiet zone where infrasound would probably be ineffective. This suggests that dual-frequency GPS monitoring could contribute to Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty verification.

  18. RESEARCH PAPERS : Ionospheric signature of surface mine blasts from Global Positioning System measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calais, Eric; Bernard Minster, J.; Hofton, Michelle; Hedlin, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Sources such as atmospheric or buried explosions and shallow earthquakes are known to produce infrasonic pressure waves in the atmosphere Because of the coupling between neutral particles and electrons at ionospheric altitudes, these acoustic and gravity waves induce variations of the ionospheric electron density. The Global Positioning System (GPS) provides a way of directly measuring the total electron content in the ionosphere and, therefore, of detecting such perturbations in the upper atmosphere. In July and August 1996, three large surface mine blasts (1.5 Kt each) were detonated at the Black Thunder coal mine in eastern Wyoming. As part of a seismic and acoustic monitoring experiment, we deployed five dual-frequency GPS receivers at distances ranging from 50 to 200 km from the mine and were able to detect the ionospheric perturbation caused by the blasts. The perturbation starts 10 to 15 min after the blast, lasts for about 30 min, and propagates with an apparent horizontal velocity of 1200 m s- 1. Its amplitude reaches 3 × 1014 el m- 2 in the 7-3 min period band, a value close to the ionospheric perturbation caused by the M=6.7 Northridge earthquake (Calais & Minster 1995). The small signal-to-noise ratio of the perturbation can be improved by slant-stacking the electron content time-series recorded by the different GPS receivers taking into account the horizontal propagation of the perturbation. The energy of the perturbation is concentrated in the 200 to 300 s period band, a result consistent with previous observations and numerical model predictions. The 300 s band probably corresponds to gravity modes and shorter periods to acoustic modes, respectively. Using a 1-D stratified velocity model of the atmosphere we show that linear acoustic ray tracing fits arrival times at all GPS receivers. We interpret the perturbation as a direct acoustic wave caused by the explosion itself. This study shows that even relatively small subsurface events can produce ionospheric perturbations that are above the detection threshold of the GPS technique. By sensing derivative signals, which can be detected over a relatively broad region, it appears that GPS might be particularly useful for source characterization within the first acoustic quiet zone where infrasound would probably be ineffective. This suggests that dual-frequency GPS monitoring could contribute to Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty verification.

  19. Spectroscopic and interferometric measurements of laser-plasma produced blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, E. A.; Stamper, J. A.; Manka, C. K.; Griem, H. R.; Ali, A. W.; Ripin, B. H.

    1986-08-01

    A laser-produced plasma generates blast waves as it expands supersonically into a stationary photoionized background gas (N2) at a pressure of 1-5 Torr.1 Using a combination of spectroscopic and interferometric measurements, time- and space-resolved values of the temperature and density are obtained. This study was performed on targets in the NRL Pharos III laser facility with laser energies of 20-120 J and pulse durations of ˜5 ns. A 1-m spectrograph equipped with three photomultiplier channels, which are calibrated on an absolute scale, is used for the spectroscopic measurements. The interferometry is done with a folded-wavefront interferometer. It uses an optical probe pulse at 5270 Å that is split off of the main laser pulse, reduced in pulse duration (˜300 ps), and time delayed. Interferometric measurements can be made simultaneously with the spectroscopic measurements. Experimental data and the technique of analysis will be shown. This work was supported by the Defense Nuclear Agency.

  20. Mold Slag Property Measurements to Characterize CC Mold Shell Gap Phenomena , B.G. Thomas1

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Brian G.

    temperature ­ high viscosity region. Continuous-cooling transformation curves were extracted from XRD analysis similar analysis of melted mold powder samples that were atomized into droplets, quenched to form glass measurements have important implications for the prediction of interfacial gap phenomena, including mold heat

  1. Air blast parameters from summer and winter 20-ton TNT explosions, Operation Distant Plain, Events 3 and 5. Memorandum report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Reisler; L. Giglio-Tos; G. D. Teel; D. P. LeFevre

    1967-01-01

    Air blast was measured from the detonation of two 20-ton spherical TNT charges positioned with the center of gravity at the air-ground interface. The detonations occurred in an area having a silty-clay alluvium composition. One charge was fired in the summer and the other was fired in the winter when the ground was frozen. Differences in the air blast phenomena

  2. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6, blast measurements. Part 3. Pressure near ground level. Section 4. Blast asymmetry from aerial photographs. Section 5. Ball-crusher-gauge measurements of peak pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    Aerial motion pictures from manned aircraft were taken of the Dog, Easy, and George Shots and from a drone aircraft on Dog Shot to determine whether asymmetries in the blast waves could be detected and measured. Only one film, that taken of Dog Shot from a drone, was considered good enough to warrant detailed analysis, but this failed to yield any positive information on asymmetries. The analysis showed that failure to obtain good arrival-time data arose from a number of cases, but primarily from uncertainities in magnification and timing. Results could only be matched with reliable data from blast-velocity switches by use of large corrections. Asymnetries, if present, were judged to have been too small or to have occurred too early to be detected with the slow-frame speed used. Recommendations for better results include locating the aircraft directly overhead at the time of burst and using a camera having greater frame speed and provided with timing marks.

  3. Computer assisted blast design and assessment tools

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, A.R. [Golder Associates Ltd., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada); Kleine, T.H. [Golder Associates Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Forsyth, W.W. [Golder Associates Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    In general the software required by a blast designer includes tools that graphically present blast designs (surface and underground), can analyze a design or predict its result, and can assess blasting results. As computers develop and computer literacy continues to rise the development of and use of such tools will spread. An example of the tools that are becoming available includes: Automatic blast pattern generation and underground ring design; blast design evaluation in terms of explosive distribution and detonation simulation; fragmentation prediction; blast vibration prediction and minimization; blast monitoring for assessment of dynamic performance; vibration measurement, display and signal processing; evaluation of blast results in terms of fragmentation; and risk and reliability based blast assessment. The authors have identified a set of criteria that are essential in choosing appropriate software blasting tools.

  4. Flight test measurements and analysis of sonic boom phenomena near the shock wave extremity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, G. T.; Kane, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    A NASA flight test program conducted during the summer and fall of 1970 was devoted to investigating sonic boom phenomena near caustics formed by steady flight near the threshold Mach number, during accelerations, and at the lateral extremes of the ground carpet. The vertical extent of the shock waves attached to near-sonic airplanes was also studied. The flights were conducted over the 1500 ft instrumented BREN tower so that vertical surveys through the shock waves were measured. These data on caustic phenomena near the shock wave extremity were analyzed in detail and compared with theoretical results. Amplifications of shock wave strength varied from 2 to 5 during longitudinal accelerations, from 1 to 1.8 during steady threshold Mach number flight, and up to 3 for small inadvertent accelerations during flight near the threshold Mach number.

  5. Blast Testing Issues and TBI: Experimental Models That Lead to Wrong Conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Needham, Charles E.; Ritzel, David; Rule, Gregory T.; Wiri, Suthee; Young, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have noticed an increase in the number of blast injury studies published in peer-reviewed biomedical journals that have utilized improperly conceived experiments. Data from these studies will lead to false conclusions and more confusion than advancement in the understanding of blast injury, particularly blast neurotrauma. Computational methods to properly characterize the blast environment have been available for decades. These methods, combined with a basic understanding of blast wave phenomena, enable researchers to extract useful information from well-documented experiments. This basic understanding must include the differences and interrelationships of static pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, and total or stagnation pressure in transient shockwave flows, how they relate to loading of objects, and how they are properly measured. However, it is critical that the research community effectively overcomes the confusion that has been compounded by a misunderstanding of the differences between the loading produced by a free field explosive blast and loading produced by a conventional shock tube. The principles of blast scaling have been well established for decades and when properly applied will do much to repair these problems. This paper provides guidance regarding proper experimental methods and offers insights into the implications of improperly designed and executed tests. Through application of computational methods, useful data can be extracted from well-documented historical tests, and future work can be conducted in a way to maximize the effectiveness and use of valuable biological test data. PMID:25904891

  6. The development of a measuring system for the electromagnetic phenomena caused by volcanic activity of Mount Sakurajima

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyotaka Kamata; Kazutomo Yunokuchi; Takashi Yoshino; Keita Yamazaki; Kazuo Kato; Toshiyasu Nagao

    2001-01-01

    In order to examine the relationship between volcanic explosions and electromagnetic phenomena, we constructed the continuous extremely low frequency (ELF) band measuring system, which is composed of geoelectric potential differences (GPDs) and geomagnetic fields (GF's) at the foot of Mt. Sakurajima, Kyushu Island, Japan. The results of the measurements show that the measuring system is able to measure the natural

  7. Concepts of blast hole pressure applied to blast design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Cunningham

    2006-01-01

    Blast hole pressure is the starting point for many blast design calculations, but the way in which it is usually derived, from measured detonation velocity, indicates that more thought is needed as to its true meaning and implication. The general impression is given that the energy in the hole is defined by velocity of detonation (VoD), but this is rarely

  8. The Evolution of Structural Order as a Measure of Thermal History of Coke in the Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Maria; Khanna, Rita; Ökvist, Lena Sundqvist; Sahajwalla, Veena; Björkman, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Investigations were carried out on cokes heat treated in the laboratory and on cokes extracted from the experimental blast furnace (EBF) raceway and hearth. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to investigate changes in structural order ( L c), chemical transformations in coke ash along with comparative thermodynamic equilibrium studies and the influence of melt. Three data processing approaches were used to compute L c values as a function of temperature and time and linear correlations were established between L c and heat treatment temperatures during laboratory investigations. These were used to estimate temperatures experienced by coke in various regions of EBF and estimated raceway temperatures were seen to follow the profile of combustion peak. The MgAl2O4 spinel was observed in coke submerged in slag during laboratory studies and in cokes found further into the raceway. Coke in contact with hot metal showed XRD peaks corresponding to presence of Fe3Si. The intensity of SiO2 peak in coke ash was seen to decrease with increasing temperature and disappeared at around 1770 K (1500 °C) due to the formation of SiC. This study has shown that the evolution of structural order and chemical transformations in coke could be used to estimate its thermal history in blast furnaces.

  9. Determination of constant-volume balloon capabilities for aeronautical research. [specifically measurement of atmospheric phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatom, F. B.; King, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The proper application of constant-volume balloons (CVB) for measurement of atmospheric phenomena was determined. And with the proper interpretation of the resulting data. A literature survey covering 176 references is included. the governing equations describing the three-dimensional motion of a CVB immersed in a flow field are developed. The flowfield model is periodic, three-dimensional, and nonhomogeneous, with mean translational motion. The balloon motion and flow field equations are cast into dimensionless form for greater generality, and certain significant dimensionless groups are identified. An alternate treatment of the balloon motion, based on first-order perturbation analysis, is also presented. A description of the digital computer program, BALLOON, used for numerically integrating the governing equations is provided.

  10. Operation Sandstone. Nuclear explosions. 1948. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1948. Annex 5, Part 1. Blast measurements summary report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Aronson; G. K. Hartmann; C. W. Lampson; C. H. Wood

    1948-01-01

    This report summarizes all activities of the Blast Measurements Section of Task Group 7.1, Operation Sandstone. A brief discussion is included on the general reasons for the choice of instruments which was made at the beginning of the operation. There follows a description of the actual locations of instruments. The remainder of the report is devoted to various theoretical treatments

  11. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6. Blast measurements. Part 4. Pressure-time measurements in the Mach region. Sections 1 and 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Price; G. M. Sokol; S. N. Anastasion; R. L. Vader; E. R. Walthall

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the laboratory and field work described in this report was to make accurate measurements of air blast in the Mach region from two explosions of Operation Greenhouse. Measurements were made at constant height along a single radius on Test Dog and along two different radii for test Easy. In addition, diaphragm-type inductance gages were installed at five

  12. An Integrated Model of Coal/Coke Combustion in a Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y. S.; Guo, B. Y.; Yu, A. B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P.

    2010-03-01

    A three-dimensional integrated mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed to simulate the operation of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates two parts: pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed and the coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements in terms of coal burnout and gas composition, respectively. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena are simulated in the raceway and coke bed, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and coal burning characteristics. In addition, underlying mechanisms for the in-furnace phenomena are analyzed. The model provides a cost-effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in-furnace flow-thermo-chemical characteristics of the PCI process in full-scale blast furnaces.

  13. Is a Simple Measurement Task a Roadblock to Student Understanding of Wave Phenomena?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Heron, Paula R. L

    2012-01-01

    We present results from our ongoing investigation of student understanding of periodic waves and interference phenomena at the introductory physics level. We have found that many students experience significant difficulties when they attempt to express a distance of interest in terms of the wavelength of a periodic wave. We argue that for these…

  14. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Fournier, K B; Brown, C G; May, M J; Compton, S; Walton, O R; Shingleton, N; Kane, J O; Holtmeier, G; Loey, H; Mirkarimi, P B; Dunlop, W H; Guyton, R L; Huffman, E

    2014-09-01

    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes. PMID:25273784

  15. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; May, M. J.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Shingleton, N.; Kane, J. O.; Holtmeier, G.; Loey, H.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Dunlop, W. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-481, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Guyton, R. L.; Huffman, E. [National Securities Technologies, Vasco Rd., Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes.

  16. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, C. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); May, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Compton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walton, O. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shingleton, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, J. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Holtmeier, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Loey, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mirkarimi, P. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunlop, W. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Guyton, R. L. [National Security Technologies, Livermore, CA (United States); Huffman, E. [National Security Technologies, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes.

  17. Blast injury.

    PubMed

    de Candole, C A

    1967-01-28

    The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

  18. The BLAST experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hasell; T. Akdogan; R. Alarcon; W. Bertozzi; E. Booth; T. Botto; J. R. Calarco; B. Clasie; C. Crawford; A. Degrush; K. Dow; D. Dutta; M. Farkhondeh; R. Fatemi; O. Filoti; W. Franklin; H. Gao; E. Geis; S. Gilad; W. Hersman; M. Holtrop; E. Ihloff; P. Karpius; J. Kelsey; M. Kohl; H. Kolster; S. Krause; T. Lee; A. Maschinot; J. Matthews; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. Milner; J. Rapaport; R. Redwine; J. Seely; A. Sindile; S. Širca; T. Smith; S. Sobczynski; M. Tanguay; B. Tonguc; C. Tschalaer; E. Tsentalovich; W. Turchinetz; J. van der Laan; F. Wang; T. Wise; Y. Xiao; W. Xu; C. Zhang; Z. Zhou; V. Ziskin; T. Zwart

    2009-01-01

    The Bates large acceptance spectrometer toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The detector and experimental program were designed to study, in a systematic manner, the spin-dependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems. As such the data will provide improved measurements for neutron, proton, and deuteron form factors. The data will also allow

  19. Precision measurement of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio with BLAST

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Christopher Blair

    2005-01-01

    We have measured ... in the South Hall Ring of the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Facility. This experiment used a polarized electron beam, a pure hydrogen internal polarized target, and the symmetric Bates Large Acceptance ...

  20. Water temperature and concentration measurements within the expanding blast wave of a high explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, J. R.; Lightstone, J. M.; Piecuch, S.; Koch, J. D.

    2011-04-01

    We present an application of absorption spectroscopy to directly measure temperature and concentration histories of water vapor within the expansion of a high explosive detonation. While the approach of absorption spectroscopy is well established, the combination of a fast, near-infrared array, broadband light source, and rigid gauge allow the first application of time-resolved absorption measurements in an explosive environment. The instrument is demonstrated using pentaerythritol tetranitrate with a sampling rate of 20 kHz for 20 ms following detonation. Absorption by water vapor is measured between 1335 and 1380 nm. Water temperatures are determined by fitting experimental transmission spectra to a simulated database. Water mole fractions are deduced following the temperature assignment. The sources of uncertainty and their impact on the results are discussed. These measurements will aid the development of chemical-specific reaction models and the predictive capability in technical fields including combustion and detonation science.

  1. PROTECTIVE DESIGNS FOR BLAST AND IMPACT THREATS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Crawford

    This paper describes methods for designing and implementing protective technologies for improving the blast and impact resistance of buildings. A protection plan for buildings may include designing blast-resistant columns, walls, and windows; other elements of security may also play a major part, including physical security measures such as: anti-ram barriers and fencing to demarcate a protective perimeter; features such as

  2. Insulation Phenomena of Compressed Air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. McConnell

    1957-01-01

    Test data on impulse and 60-cycle voltage breakdown strength for compressed air with various electrode configurations are reported. The tests were made with rod-to-plane electrodes with spacings up to 8 inches and pressures to 250 psig (pounds per square inch gage). Breakdown phenomena of air insulation encountered in the development of an air insulated air-blast circuit breaker1 are reported. The

  3. RESEARCH PAPERS : Ionospheric signature of surface mine blasts from Global Positioning System measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Calais; J. Bernard Minster; Michelle Hofton; Michael Hedlin

    1998-01-01

    Sources such as atmospheric or buried explosions and shallow earthquakes are known to produce infrasonic pressure waves in the atmosphere Because of the coupling between neutral particles and electrons at ionospheric altitudes, these acoustic and gravity waves induce variations of the ionospheric electron density. The Global Positioning System (GPS) provides a way of directly measuring the total electron content in

  4. MICRO-METER MEASUREMENT OF CRACKS TO COMPARE BLAST AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS.

    E-print Network

    to development of a new approach to vibration monitoring called autonomous crack measurement (ACM Monitor Micrometer Crack Gage(s) Long-term and Vibration Displacement Neighbors/Owners/ Regulators Server systems in two stages of ACM operability. Vibration monitoring instrument OEM's are have either built

  5. Measurement of tensor analyzing powers in elastic electron deuteron scattering with BLAST

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Chi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    This work reports a precision measurement of deuteron tensor analyzing powers T20 and T21 at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center. Data were collected simultaneously over a momentum transfer range of 2:15 to 4:5 fm¡1 ...

  6. MOULD SLAG PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS TO CHARACTERIZE CC MOULD - SHELL GAP PHENOMENA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. MENG; B. G. THOMAS; A. A. POLYCARPOU; A. PRASAD; H. HENEIN

    Multi-faceted experiments were conducted to measure the properties of several mould slags needed for the fundamental characterization of heat transfer and friction in the interfacial gap between the shell and mould during the continuous casting (CC) of steel. A novel apparatus was used to measure the friction coefficient between solidified mould flux and copper at elevated temperatures. The measured softening

  7. The New BLAST Results Page

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    The New BLAST® Results Page Enhanced graphical presentation and added functionality http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2013 Contact: blast-help@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Scope NCBI has introduced an enhanced report for search BLAST result page Access to NCBI BLAST web services through its homepage (blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

  8. Use of a fast near-infrared spectrometer for absorption and emission measurements within the expanding blast wave of a high explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Jon; Piecuch, Scott; Lightstone, James; Carney, Joel

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate the use of a fast InGaAs array and spectrometer to measure properties related to near-infrared absorption and emission (750 nm-1500 nm) following a high explosive detonation. Using a broadband light source and a rigid absorption gauge, gas temperatures are measured at a rate of 20 kHz for a period of several milliseconds behind the blast wave from a 20 g PETN detonation. The temperature and concentration of water vapor is determined by fitting experimental transmission spectra to a simulated database. Strong emission signatures obtained during the breakout event (integrated over approximately the first 20 microseconds) indicate the presence of high energy nitrogen atoms with temperatures as high as 9700 K. Measurements from water absorption at a distance of 23 cm from the charge indicate temperatures decaying from 1600 K to 600 K during the first few milliseconds. These measurements are intended to aid the development of detonation and explosive simulations. Supported by DTRA

  9. Vacuum Arc Anode Phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Craig Miller

    1983-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews anode phenomena in vacuum arcs, specially experimental work. It discusses, in succession, arc modes at the anode, anode temperature measurements, anode ions, transitions of the arc into various modes (principally the anode spot mode), and theoretical explanations of anode phenomena. The two most common anode modes in a vacuum arc are a low current mode where

  10. Structural blast design

    E-print Network

    Kieval, Tamar S. (Tamar Shoshana), 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Blast design is a necessary part of design for more buildings in the United States. Blast design is no longer limited to underground shelters and sensitive military sites, buildings used by the general public daily must ...

  11. Lidar and radar measurements of the melting layer: observations of dark and bright band phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Cacciani, M.; Norton, E. G.; Peters, G.; Dufournet, Y.

    2012-05-01

    Multi-wavelength lidar measurements in the melting layer revealing the presence of dark and bright bands have been performed by the University of BASILicata Raman lidar system (BASIL) during a stratiform rain event. Simultaneously radar measurements have been also performed from the same site by the University of Hamburg cloud radar MIRA 36 (35.5 GHz), the University of Hamburg dual-polarization micro rain radar (24.15 GHz) and the University of Manchester UHF wind profiler (1.29 GHz). Measurements from BASIL and the radars are illustrated and discussed in this paper for a specific case study on 23 July 2007 during the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS). Simulations of the lidar dark and bright band based on the application of concentric/eccentric sphere Lorentz-Mie codes and a melting layer model are also provided. Lidar and radar measurements and model results are also compared with measurements from a disdrometer on ground and a two-dimensional cloud (2DC) probe on-board the ATR42 SAFIRE. Measurements and model results are found to confirm and support the conceptual microphysical/scattering model elaborated by Sassen et al. (2005).

  12. Nuclear techniques for the inspection of blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, J. S.; Lanza, R. C. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3046 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    1999-06-10

    Carbon hearth wall failures in blast furnaces create safety risks and require a large expense to repair. To avoid failures they are replaced early, incurring costs in wasted hearth wall use. Two non-invasive measurements provide realtime analysis of wall integrity. The two major failure modes are erosion of carbon thickness and iron-filled cracks in the bricks. Measurements of backscattered gamma-ray spectra and thermal neutron decay rate can identify both phenomena. Gamma-ray spectra from a compact Linac beam primarily respond to average carbon thickness. Neutron decay time, using a pulsed neutron source, is sensitive to iron in the carbon volume. Each measurement is sensitive to the other failure made, but the combination permits each phenomenon to be resolved. These techniques can detect a high atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section material behind one of low atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section.

  13. Nucleon and Deuteron Form Factors from BLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Hasell, D. K. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2009-12-17

    The BLAST experiment was designed to study in a systematic manner the spin-dependent, electromagnetic interaction on hydrogen and deuterium. Measuring only asymmetries in electron scattering with respect to the beam helicity, target spin, or both; the BLAST experiment was able to extract information on nucleon and deuteron form factors independent of beam intensity or target density. By further forming 'super-ratios' of asymmetries, measurements were possible independent of beam and target polarization thus reducing uncertainties due to these quantities as well. Some of the form factor results from BLAST will be briefly presented here. Also, in response to observed discrepancies between polarization measurements and those obtained using traditional Rosenbluth separation techniques a proposed experiment, OLYMPUS, which will use the BLAST detector to measure the two photon contribution to elastic electron scattering will also be presented.

  14. An accurate frequency measuring technique using paramagnetic resonance phenomena in the X-band region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Crandell

    1958-01-01

    This paper presents a method of measuring frequency in the microwave region by comparing it to a very stable low frequency standard. The technique described here was used to calibrate a cavity wavemeter for an experiment in microwave spectroscopy. The calibration procedure is based on the use of electron and nuclear resonances as they are observed in the presence of

  15. Porcine Head Response to Blast

    PubMed Central

    Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Panzer, Matthew B.; Capehart, Bruce P.; Nyein, Michelle K.; Radovitzky, Raul A.; Bass, Cameron R. ‘Dale’

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740?kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9?ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30?s and the remaining two recovered within 8?min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390?kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300–2830?kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2?=?0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for computer model validation. PMID:22586417

  16. Rotating Molten Metallic Drops and Related Phenomena: A New Approach to the Surface Tension Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Ishikawa, Takehiko

    2000-01-01

    Molten aluminum and tin drops were levitated in a high vacuum by controlled electric fields, and they were systematically rotated by applying by a rotating magnetic field. When the evolution of the drop shape was measured as a function of rotation frequency, it agreed quantitatively well with the Brown and Scriven's theoretical prediction. The normalized rotation frequencies at the bifurcation point agreed with the predicted value 0.559, within 2%. An anomalous phenomenon which totally deviated from the prediction was observed in rotating molten tin drops when they were kept in a high rotation rate for several hours. No anomaly was observed in aluminum drops when they underwent similar condition. It was speculated that under the strong centrifugal force in the drop the tin isotopes must be separating. Since Al-27 is essentially the only naturally abundant isotope in the aluminum drops, the same anomaly is not expected. Based on the shape deformation of a rotating drop, an alternate approach to the surface tension measurement was verified. This new surface tension measurement technique was applied to a glassforming alloy, Zr(41.2)Ti(13.8)Cu(12.5)Ni(10.0)Be(22.5) in its highly viscous states. Also demonstrated in the paper was a use of a molten aluminum drop to verify the Busse's prediction of the influence of the drop rotation on the drop oscillation frequency.

  17. In-situ measurements of nanoscale phenomena using diffraction phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Chris; McKeown, Steven J.; Hwang, Suk-Won; Froeter, Paul J.; Li, Xiuling; Rogers, John A.; Popescu, Gabriel; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we present recent results on several novel applications including optically monitoring the dissolution of biodegradable materials proposed for use in biological electronic implants, the self-assembly of microtubes during semiconductor etching, and the expansion and deformation of palladium structures for use in hydrogen sensing applications. The measurements are done using diffraction phase microscopy (DPM), a quantitative phase imaging (QPI) technique, which uses the phase of the imaging field to reconstruct a map of the sample's surface. It combines off-axis and common-path geometries allowing for single-shot, high-speed dynamics with sub-nanometer noise levels.

  18. Gun blast - Its propagation and determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, E. M.; Kahl, G. D.; Shear, D. D.

    1980-06-01

    Muzzle blast overpressure levels are limiting the operation of high performance gun systems. The pressures at crew stations are of particular concern and have not been well defined either experimentally or analytically. The present paper presents measurement and analysis of the blast fields about a range of weapons from small arms through artillery. The effects of near muzzle flow upon the blast wave are discussed and a scaling relationship is developed from experimental data which is extended to various weapons and shown to predict pressure acceptably.

  19. Direct measurement of water self-diffusion in hardening blast furnace slag cement pastes by means of nuclear magnetic resonance techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Nestle, N.; Galvosas, P.; Karger, J.

    2001-07-01

    Recently, we have reported the unusual nuclear spin relaxation behavior of water in hardening blast furnace slag mixtures and suggested an explanation for the observed changes in the spin relaxation times based on diffusion effects in inner magnetic field gradients in the paste. Meanwhile, we have succeeded in measuring the self-diffusion coefficient of water in the hardening pastes directly by means of a special pulsed field gradient technique in which the effects of internal magnetic field gradients in a sample can be compensated for. Compared to water self-diffusion in ordinary cement materials, we find a much stronger decrease of the self-diffusion coefficient in the slag based cements. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Long-pulsed Nd:YAG frequency-doubled laser for optical measurements of high-velocity phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, Masakazu; Yuan, Gang; Mashimo, Tsutomu

    1995-12-01

    A long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) frequency-doubled laser with no Q-switch was constructed for optical measurements of high-velocity phenomena. The laser consists of a doubled-elliptical pump cavity with a Nd:YAG rod and two xenon flash lamps, an intracavity potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, and a high-voltage electrical-pulse source. A narrow-band-stimulated emission at the frequency-doubled 532-nm wavelength was confirmed by a spectrometer. The delay time from a trigger signal and the effective pulse duration were approximately 40 and 65 ?s, respectively. The laser average output power was measured to be larger than 6 kW by a pyroelectric joulemeter. This laser may be used as a flash monowavelength light source, and also as a long-pulsed single-mode laser in the visible wavelength region using for example, an intracavity étalon and/or a brewster plate.

  1. Light flavor hadron spectra at low $p_{T}$ and search for collective phenomena in high multiplicity pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions measured with the ALICE experiment

    E-print Network

    C. Andrei; for the ALICE Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    Comprehensive results on transverse momentum distributions and their ratios for identified light flavor hadrons ($\\pi$, K, p) at low $p_{T}$ and mid-rapidity as a function of charged particle multiplicity are reported for pp collisions at 7 TeV. Particle mass dependent hardening of the spectral shapes in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV were attributed to hydrodynamical flow and quantitatively parameterized with Boltzmann-Gibbs Blast Wave fits. In this contribution, we investigate the existence of collective phenomena in small systems: pp, p-Pb and peripheral Pb-Pb where similar patterns are observed in multiplicity dependent studies.

  2. Use of a fast near-infrared spectrometer for absorption and emission measurements within the expanding blast wave of a high explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Jon D.; Carney, Joel; Lightstone, James; Piecuch, Scott

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate the use of a fast InGaAs array and spectrometer to measure properties related to near-infrared absorption and emission (750 nm -1500 nm) following a high explosive detonation. Using a broadband light source and a rigid absorption gauge, gas temperatures are measured at a rate of 20 kHz for a period of several milliseconds behind the blast wave from a PETN, PBXN-5, and PBXN-113 detonations. The temperature and concentration of water vapor is determined by fitting experimental transmission spectra to a simulated database. Strong emission signatures obtained during the PETN breakout event (integrated over approximately the first 20 microseconds) indicate the presence of high energy nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Measurements from water absorption at a distance of 23 cm from the PETN charge indicate temperatures decaying from 1600 K to 600 K during the first few milliseconds, and measurements of non-ideal explosives with optically thick postdetonation environments are also demonstrated. These measurements are intended to aid the development of detonation and explosive simulations.

  3. Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

    2010-10-01

    Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

  4. Blast furnace stove control

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

    1998-12-31

    This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

  5. The BLAST experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasell, D.; Akdogan, T.; Alarcon, R.; Bertozzi, W.; Booth, E.; Botto, T.; Calarco, J. R.; Clasie, B.; Crawford, C.; DeGrush, A.; Dow, K.; Dutta, D.; Farkhondeh, M.; Fatemi, R.; Filoti, O.; Franklin, W.; Gao, H.; Geis, E.; Gilad, S.; Hersman, W.; Holtrop, M.; Ihloff, E.; Karpius, P.; Kelsey, J.; Kohl, M.; Kolster, H.; Krause, S.; Lee, T.; Maschinot, A.; Matthews, J.; McIlhany, K.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R.; Rapaport, J.; Redwine, R.; Seely, J.; Shinozaki, A.; Sindile, A.; Širca, S.; Smith, T.; Sobczynski, S.; Tanguay, M.; Tonguc, B.; Tschalaer, C.; Tsentalovich, E.; Turchinetz, W.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van der Laan, J.; Wang, F.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Y.; Xu, W.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, Z.; Ziskin, V.; Zwart, T.

    2009-05-01

    The Bates large acceptance spectrometer toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The detector and experimental program were designed to study, in a systematic manner, the spin-dependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems. As such the data will provide improved measurements for neutron, proton, and deuteron form factors. The data will also allow details of the reaction mechanism, such as the role of final state interactions, pion production, and resonances to be studied. The experiment used: a longitudinally polarized electron beam stored in the South Hall Storage Ring; a highly polarized, isotopically pure, internal gas target of hydrogen or deuterium provided by an atomic beam source; and a symmetric, general purpose detector based on a toroidal spectrometer with tracking, time-of-flight, Cherenkov, and neutron detectors. Details of the experiment and operation are presented.

  6. On the Interaction and Coalescence if Spherical Blast Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    The scaling and similarity laws concerning the propagation of isolated spherical blast waves are briefly reviewed. Both point source explosions and high pressure gas explosions are considered. Test data on blast overpressure from the interaction and coalescence of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives in the form of shaped charges of different strength placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure. The results point out the possibility of detecting source explosions from far-field pressure measurements.

  7. Effect of Blast Design on Crack Response C.H. Dowding

    E-print Network

    the ground motion and air blast, velocity response of both the super structure as well as walls and a ceilingEffect of Blast Design on Crack Response C.H. Dowding Professor of Civil & Environmental to assess the effect of changes in blast design on the house response. Velocity response was measured

  8. Computer cast blast modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Chung; M. McGill; D. S. Preece

    1994-01-01

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than

  9. Lightweight blast shield

    DOEpatents

    Mixon, Larry C. (Madison, AL); Snyder, George W. (Huntsville, AL); Hill, Scott D. (Toney, AL); Johnson, Gregory L. (Decatur, AL); Wlodarski, J. Frank (Huntsville, AL); von Spakovsky, Alexis P. (Huntsville, AL); Emerson, John D. (Arab, AL); Cole, James M. (Huntsville, AL); Tipton, John P. (Huntsville, AL)

    1991-01-01

    A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

  10. ARL Explosive Blast Bar Gauge Response Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Gerrit; Boyle, Vincent; Benjamin, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Simulations allow us to optimize the design of a bar gauge. The incident blast wave imparts a wave that travels down the metal bar. Strain gauges positioned along the bar measure the strain produced by the bar wave, allowing determination of pressure and impulse at the bar face. The measured pressure history depends on the arrangement of the bar gauge. If a large metal plate surrounds the bar face, a reflected blast pressure is measured. If a metal fixture that forms a nozzle surrounds the bar face, the initial pressure will be the same as above. In time, release waves emanating from the nozzle edge will decrease the pressure at the bar face. The bar diameter and size of strain gauges control the time response or gauge bandwidth. CTH hydrocode simulations allow optimization of bar gauge features for various size explosive charges. The simulations predicted the response of the metal plate arrangement to a blast from a spherical composition C4 charge. The simulations predicted the proper metal plate diameter for a reflected pressure measurement. Other simulations compared the response of the bar gauge for both configurations (nozzle or plate surround) when subjected to the same blast loading. Pressure histories from simulations were compared to those from experiment and those predicted by the CONWEP blast code. The initial experimental and CONWEP pressures were in reasonable agreement.

  11. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ensar Oguz

    2004-01-01

    Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential

  12. Minerals and iron-making reactions in blast furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gupta; R. Sakurovs; M. Grigore; H. Sun; T. Cham; T. Hilding; M. Hallin; B. Lindblom; V. Sahajwalla

    2008-01-01

    Coke is central to blast furnace operation, but because it is the most expensive raw material used, there is continuing pressure to minimize its use. Consequently, it has become increasingly pertinent to measure and predict the factors affecting coke performance more accurately. Coke performance is affected both by its properties and blast furnace operation. Recently, the importance of the minerals

  13. Indoor human response to blast sounds that generate rattles.

    PubMed

    Schomer, P D; Averbuch, A

    1989-08-01

    The two major noise sources that cause environmental problems for the U. S. Army are helicopters and large weapons such as artillery, tanks, and demolition. These large weapons produce blast sounds that contain little energy above 200 Hz and that are particularly troublesome to deal with because they excite rattles in structures. The purpose of this study was to systematically test subjective response to the presence or absence of rattles in otherwise similar blast sound environments. A second purpose of the study was to test if there were structural changes that could reduce annoyance within the indoor blast sound environment. This study was done using a specially constructed test house and highly repeatable shake table to generate the blast sounds. The data clearly show that no commonly used environmental noise measure adequately describes the indoor environment when the blast excites rattles. Although the indoor blast ASEL changes by only about a decibel or so (and the indoor blast CSEL changes by even less), the subjective response changes by up to 13 dB. At low blast levels, the increase in human annoyance response is largest, and this annoyance response offset decreases to about 6 dB when the outside, flat-weighted peak sound-pressure level of the blast increases from 112 to 122 dB. PMID:2768676

  14. Evolution of blast wave profiles in simulated air blasts: experiment and computational modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, N.; Ganpule, S.; Kleinschmit, N. N.; Feng, R.; Holmberg, A. D.; Sundaramurthy, A.; Selvan, V.; Alai, A.

    2012-09-01

    Shock tubes have been extensively used in the study of blast traumatic brain injury due to increased incidence of blast-induced neurotrauma in Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. One of the important aspects in these studies is how to best replicate the field conditions in the laboratory which relies on reproducing blast wave profiles. Evolution of the blast wave profiles along the length of the compression-driven air shock tube is studied using experiments and numerical simulations with emphasis on the shape and magnitude of pressure time profiles. In order to measure dynamic pressures of the blast, a series of sensors are mounted on a cylindrical specimen normal to the flow direction. Our results indicate that the blast wave loading is significantly different for locations inside and outside of the shock tube. Pressure profiles inside the shock tube follow the Friedlander waveform fairly well. Upon approaching exit of the shock tube, an expansion wave released from the shock tube edges significantly degrades the pressure profiles. For tests outside the shock tube, peak pressure and total impulse reduce drastically as we move away from the exit and majority of loading is in the form of subsonic jet wind. In addition, the planarity of the blast wave degrades as blast wave evolves three dimensionally. Numerical results visually and quantitatively confirm the presence of vortices, jet wind and three-dimensional expansion of the planar blast wave near the exit. Pressure profiles at 90° orientation show flow separation. When cylinder is placed inside, this flow separation is not sustained, but when placed outside the shock tube this flow separation is sustained which causes tensile loading on the sides of the cylinder. Friedlander waves formed due to field explosives in the intermediate-to far-field ranges are replicated in a narrow test region located deep inside the shock tube.

  15. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6. Blast measurements. Part 2. Free-air peak-pressure measurements. Section 2. Telemetering from moored balloons

    SciTech Connect

    Frolich, A.J.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the free-air peak-pressure as a function of distance from an atomic explosion. In this report, free-air peak-pressure is defined as the pressure at the head of the blast wave in regions where it has not been reinforced by a reflected wave. Operation in the test area was more difficult than anticipated. Heavy winds made balloon handling very difficult. On the whole, the radio link performed satisfactorily on all occasions and appears to be a reliable method. For some unknown reason, blast switches closer than 1,500 feet failed to give satisfactory signals. Pressures were computed using the Rankine-Hugoniot relation, which is based on the shock wave being a definite discontinuity in pressure. Since the pressures measured on the ground showed relatively long times, there has been some speculation that a true shock wave may not exist in free air. If a true shock wave does not exist in the free-air region, pressures as computed are not correct, and the method of this experiment cannot be used.

  16. Early clearance of peripheral blasts measured by flow cytometry during the first week of AML induction therapy as a new independent prognostic factor: a GOELAMS study.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, F; Arnoulet, C; Maynadié, M; Lippert, E; Luquet, I; Pigneux, A; Vey, N; Casasnovas, O; Witz, F; Béné, M C

    2009-02-01

    An early appreciation of treatment efficacy could be very useful in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), and a prognostic value has been suggested for the morphological assessment of decrease in blasts during induction therapy. More sensitive, multiparametric flow cytometry (FCM) can detect far lower blast counts, allowing for a precise and reliable calculation of blast cell decrease rate (BDR). Such a multiparametric FCM four-colours/single-tube protocol, combining CD11b, CD45-ECD and CD16-PC5, was applied to peripheral blood samples from 130 AML patients, collected daily during induction chemotherapy. Normalized blast cell percentages were used to calculate the relevant decrease slopes. Slope thresholds (<-25, -25 to -15 and >-15), or the time required to reach 90% depletion of the peripheral blast load (<5, 5 or >5 days), was strongly associated with the achievement of complete remission (P<0.0001). Log-rank test and Cox model showed that they also carried high statistical significance (P<0.0001) for disease-free survival. The prognostic value of cytogenetic features, confirmed in this series, was refined by BDR, which allowed to discriminate between good- and poor-risk patients among those with intermediate or normal karyotypes. This simple FCM protocol allows for an accurate prognostic sequential approach adapted to the determination of decrease in peripheral blast cells during induction chemotherapy. PMID:18987664

  17. Integrated, Multi-Scale Characterization of Imbibition and Wettability Phenomena Using Magnetic Resonance and Wide-Band Dielectric Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mukul M. Sharma; Steven L. Bryant; Carlos Torres-Verdin; George Hirasaki

    2007-01-01

    The petrophysical properties of rocks, particularly their relative permeability and wettability, strongly influence the efficiency and the time-scale of all hydrocarbon recovery processes. However, the quantitative relationships needed to account for the influence of wettability and pore structure on multi-phase flow are not yet available, largely due to the complexity of the phenomena controlling wettability and the difficulty of characterizing

  18. New blast weapons.

    PubMed

    Dearden, P

    2001-02-01

    Over the last decade a large number of weapon systems have appeared that use blast as their primary damage mechanism. This is a notable trend; until recently very few warheads relied on blast as their primary output. Most warheads in service use explosives to drive metal such as fragments and shaped charge jets to engage targets. New technologies are now being integrated into warheads that claim to have enhanced blast performance. Blast weapons could have been designed to fill a gap in capability; they are generally used for the attack of 'soft' targets including personnel, both in the open and within protective structures. With the increased number and range of these weapons, it is likely that UK forces will have to face them in future conflicts. This paper briefly describes fuel-air explosive blast weapons and reviews a range of enhanced blast weapons that have been developed recently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the reasons why enhanced blast technologies may be proliferating and how this could affect the Defence Medical Services. PMID:11307681

  19. Shock (Blast) Mitigation by "Soft" Condensed Matter

    E-print Network

    Vitali F. Nesterenko

    2007-08-24

    It is a common point that "soft" condensed matter (like granular materials or foams) can reduce damage caused by impact or explosion. It is attributed to their ability to absorb significant energy. This is certainly the case for a quasistatic type of deformation at low velocity of impact where such materials are widely used for packing of fragile devices. At the same time a mitigation of blast phenomena must take into account shock wave properties of "soft" matter which very often exhibit highly nonlinear, highly heterogeneous and dissipative behavior. This paper considers applications of "soft" condensed matter for blast mitigation using simplified approach, presents analysis of some anomalous effects and suggestions for future research in this exciting area.

  20. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made by different manufacturers shall not be combined in the same blasting...

  1. Studies of laser-driven radiative blast waves

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M J; Hansen, J; Edens, A; Ditmire, T; Adams, R; Rambo, P; Ruggles, L; Smith, I; Porter, J

    2004-04-29

    We have performed two sets of experiments looking at laser-driven radiating blast waves. In one set of experiments the effect of a drive laser's passage through a background gas on the hydrodynamical evolution of blast waves was examined. It was found that the laser's passage heats a channel in the gas, creating a region where a portion of the blast wave front had an increased velocity, leading to the formation of a bump-like protrusion on the blast wave. The second set of experiments involved the use of regularly spaced wire arrays to induce perturbations on a blast wave surface. The decay of these perturbations as a function of time was measured for various wave number perturbations and found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  2. Physical phenomena disturbing LIBS analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sarzynski; W. Skrzeczanowski; J. Marczak

    2007-01-01

    An influence of some physical phenomena disturbing correct interpretation of LIBS spectra is described in the paper. The following phenomena were investigated: a way of laser beam focusing (power density), laser spark in air, spectral line broadening, apparatus efficiency and resolution, and an influence of those factors on LIBS spectra as well. They are particularly important for quantitative LIBS measurements.

  3. Significance of blast wave studies to propulsion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1971-01-01

    Brief survey of experimental methods currently used for the study of blast wave phenomena with emphasis on high rate exothermic processes. The experimental techniques have used such devices as divergent test sections in shock or detonation tubes, employment of proper test gases, as in marginal detonations, and a variety of explosion systems from finite source explosion apparatus to devices where virtually point explosions are obtained by local breakdown initiated by means of focused laser irradiation. Other methods used are detonation tubes where pressure waves are generated by accelerating flames or by exothermic reactions developed behind reflected shocks, as well as a variety of converging shock and implosion vessels.

  4. Monitoring the setting of concrete containing blast-furnace slag by measuring the ultrasonic p-wave velocity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Robeyst; Elke Gruyaert; Christian U. Grosse; Nele De Belie

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasonic transmission measurements allow the continuous monitoring of the setting of both mortar and concrete samples, which is important to determine for instance the formwork removal time. However, aspects such as the cause of the low initial velocity, the relation between the velocity and the setting times and the effect of cement type or cement replacing additives are still under

  5. Data Analysis Measurement: Having a Solar Blast! NASA Connect: Program 7 in the 2001-2002 Video Series. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    NASA Connect is an interdisciplinary, instructional distance learning program targeting students in grades 6-8. This videotape explains how engineers and researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) use data analysis and measurement to predict solar storms, anticipate how they will affect the Earth, and improve…

  6. Compound 49b protects against blast-induced retinal injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine whether Compound 49b, a novel beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, can prevent increased inflammation and apoptosis in mice after exposure to ocular blast. Methods Eyes of C57/BL6 mice were exposed to a blast of air from a paintball gun at 26 psi (?0.18 MPa). Eyes were collected 4 hours, 24 hours, and 72 hours after blast exposure. In a subset of mice, Compound 49b eyedrops (1 mM) were applied within 4 hours, 24 hours, or 72 hours of the blast. Three days after blast exposure, all mice were sacrificed. One eye was used to measure levels of retinal proteins (TNF?, IL-1?, Bax, BcL-xL, caspase 3, and cytochrome C). The other eye was used for TUNEL labeling of apoptotic cells, which were co-labeled with NeuN to stain for retinal ganglion cells. Results We found that ocular exposure to 26 psi air pressure led to a significant increase in levels of apoptotic and inflammatory mediators within 4 hours, which lasted throughout the period investigated. When Compound 49b was applied within 4 hours or 24 hours of blast injury, levels of apoptotic and inflammatory mediators were significantly reduced. Application of Compound 49b within 72 hours of blast injury reduced levels of inflammatory mediators, but not to untreated levels. Conclusions Ocular blast injury produces a significant increase in levels of key inflammatory and apoptotic markers in the retina as early as 4 hours after blast exposure. These levels are significantly reduced if a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist is applied within 24 hours of blast exposure. Data suggest that local application of beta-adrenergic receptor agonists may be beneficial to reduce inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:23899290

  7. Operation Ivy. Project 6. 2. Report to the Scientific Director. Blast-wave mass-motion measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seacord

    1985-01-01

    OPERATION IVY was instrumented for the mass-motion method of pressure measurement in a manner similar to that used on OPERATIONS BUSTER-JANGLE and TUMBLER-SNAPPER. Low-altitude pyrotechnic mortar bursts and high-altitude gun bursts (on Mike only) labeled the air for photographic recording. The methods of instrumentation are described, the method of data analysis is outlined and derived data on time of arrival,

  8. Physical phenomena disturbing LIBS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarzy?ski, A.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Marczak, J.

    2007-07-01

    An influence of some physical phenomena disturbing correct interpretation of LIBS spectra is described in the paper. The following phenomena were investigated: a way of laser beam focusing (power density), laser spark in air, spectral line broadening, apparatus efficiency and resolution, and an influence of those factors on LIBS spectra as well. They are particularly important for quantitative LIBS measurements. The presented measurement results clearly show that the correct elemental identification plays a significant role in artworks dating [5].

  9. Neural networks for the identification and control of blast furnace hot metal quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. R Radhakrishnan; A. R Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    The operation and control of blast furnaces poses a great challenge because of the difficult measurement and control problems associated with the unit. The measurement of hot metal composition with respect to silica and sulfur are critical to the economic operation of blast furnaces. The measurement of the compositions require spectrographic techniques which can be performed only off line. An

  10. White Matter Compromise in Veterans Exposed to Primary Blast Forces

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Katherine H.; Hurley, Robin A.; Haswell, Courtney C.; Rowland, Jared A.; Hurt, Susan D.; Lamar, Cory D.; Morey, Rajendra A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Use Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter alterations associated with blast exposure with or without acute symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants Forty-five veterans of the recent military conflicts included twenty-three exposed to primary blast without TBI symptoms, six having primary blast mild TBI, and sixteen unexposed to blast. Design Cross-sectional case control study. Main Measures Neuropsychological testing and DTI metrics that quantified the number of voxel clusters with altered fractional anisotropy (FA) radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD), regardless of their spatial location. Results Significantly lower FA and higher RD was observed in veterans exposed to primary blast with and without mild TBI relative to blast unexposed veterans. Voxel clusters of lower FA were spatially dispersed and heterogeneous across affected individuals. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of clear TBI symptoms following primary blast exposure may not accurately reflect the extent of brain injury. If confirmed, our findings would argue for supplementing the established approach of making diagnoses based purely on clinical history and observable acute symptoms with novel neuroimaging-based diagnostic criteria that “look below the surface” for pathology. PMID:24590156

  11. Review of the state-of-the-art of measurements for and the phenomena of anomalously low thermal conductivities of dielectric thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.A. Jr. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Over the past decade, researchers in the laser optics, semiconductor electronics, and solid-state physics fields have shown that thin films of dielectrics a few micrometers or less in thickness can have measured thermal conductivities values significantly lower than if in normal bulk form. The values can be lower by several orders of magnitude and often decrease with decreasing film thickness. These phenomena have been observed in thin films of various dielectrics deposited or grown by various methods on various substrates. Preliminary explanations for these observations have centered around atomic- or molecular-sized defects or distortions in conjunction with high thermal resistances at or near the interface between the thin film and the substrate. This work has also fostered the initial development and assessment of apparently viable techniques for making measurements of thermal conductivities of thin films in the direction normal to the interface. The state-of-the-art of this work is reviewed.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics study of pulverized coal combustion in blast furnace raceway

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.S.; Maldonado, D.; Guo, B.Y.; Yu, A.B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science & Engineering

    2009-12-15

    In this work, a numerical model is used to study the flow and coal combustion along the coal plume in a large-scale setting simulating the lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway region of a blast furnace. The model formulation is validated against the measurements in terms of burnout for both low and high volatile coals. The typical phenomena related to coal combustion along the coal plume are simulated and analyzed. The effects of some operational parameters on combustion behavior are also investigated. The results indicate that oxygen as a cooling gas gives a higher coal burnout than methane and air. The underlying mechanism of coal combustion is explored. It is shown that under the conditions examined, coal burnout strongly depends on the availability of oxygen and residence time. Moreover, the influences of two related issues, i.e. the treatment of volatile matter (VM) and geometric setting in modeling, are investigated. The results show that the predictions of final burnouts using three different VM treatments are just slightly different, but all comparable to the measurements. However, the influence of the geometric setting is not negligible when numerically examining the combustion of pulverized coal under blast furnace conditions.

  13. Determination of Explosive Blast Loading Equivalencies with AN Explosively Driven Shock Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Scott I.; Morris, John S.; Hill, Larry G.

    2009-12-01

    Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values were measured for C4, ANFO, and two perchlorate explosives. Explosive equivalencies from these values were found to agree with prior theory and experiment.

  14. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.912 Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster shall conduct all blasting operations, and no shot shall be fired without his approval. (b) Loading tubes and...

  15. Experimental magnesium depletion in adult rabbits caused by blast overpressure.

    PubMed

    Cernak, I; Radosevic, P; Malicevic, Z; Savic, J

    1995-09-01

    The complex pressure wave (blast) generated by some explosions causes pulmonary pathological changes which resemble the histological findings of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The development of indirect neurotrauma following experimental pulmonary blast injury has been shown previously. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lung and brainstem total tissue magnesium concentrations in adult rabbits following pulmonary blast injury. In order to assess the interrelationship between magnesium and other secondary injury factors, total calcium and high energy phosphate (phosphocreatine, PCr; adenosine triphosphate, ATP) contents were simultaneously measured. Twenty adult male rabbits were divided into two groups. Group C (n = 10) served as control, while group B (n = 10) was subjected to a focused blast wave, generated in laboratory conditions using an air-driven shock tube. Moderate pulmonary blast injury was verified by histological examination in group B. Total tissue magnesium and calcium contents were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the lungs and brainstem of adult rabbits 30 min following blast overpressure and in their uninjured controls. Simultaneously, PCr and ATP contents were measured by fluorimetric enzymatic analyses in same structures. Lung and brainstem water contents were determined by wet weight to dry weight ratio. Blast overpressure to the lungs induced significant magnesium depletion, increased calcium and decreased the Mg/Ca ratio in lung tissue of injured animals. Increases in water content and PCr/ATP ratio were also observed. Significant correlations between these Mg/Ca and PCr/ATP and between Mg and ATP parameters confirmed the functional relationship between magnesium depletion and impaired bioenergetic state in indirect neurotrauma in adult rabbits through blast overpressure. PMID:8845290

  16. Structure response and damage produced by ground vibration from surface mine blasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Siskind; M. S. Stagg; J. W. Kopp; C. H. Dowding

    1980-01-01

    Direct measurements were made of ground-vibration-produced structure responses and damage in 76 homes for 219 production blasts. These results were combined with damage data from nine other blasting studies, including the three analyzed previously for Bureau of Mines Bulletin 656. Safe levels of ground vibration from blasting range from 0.5 to 2.0 in\\/sec peak particle velocity for residential-type structures. The

  17. Environmental impacts of bench blasting at Hisarcik Boron open pit mine in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Kahriman; Umit Ozer; Mehmet Aksoy; Abdulkadir Karadogan; Gungor Tuncer

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of ground vibration measurements carried out in Hisarcik Boron open pit mine located on the west side of central Anatolia near Ktahya province in Turkey. Within the scope of this study to predict peak particle velocity (PPV) level for this site, ground vibration components were measured for 304 shots during bench blasting. In blasting operations,

  18. Determination of explosive blast loading equivalencies with an explosively driven shock tube

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and to other methods of equivalency determination.

  19. Determination of Explosive Blast Loading Equivalencies with an Explosively Driven Shock Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Scott; Hill, Larry; Morris, John

    2009-06-01

    Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and compared to other methods of equivalency determination.

  20. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  1. Quantifying Transient 3D Dynamical Phenomena of Single mRNA Particles in Live Yeast Cell Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Christopher P.; Thompson, Michael A.; Casolari, Jason M.; Paffenroth, Randy C.; Moerner, W. E.

    2013-01-01

    Single-particle tracking (SPT) has been extensively used to obtain information about diffusion and directed motion in a wide range of biological applications. Recently, new methods have appeared for obtaining precise (10s of nm) spatial information in three dimensions (3D) with high temporal resolution (measurements obtained every 4ms), which promise to more accurately sense the true dynamical behavior in the natural 3D cellular environment. Despite the quantitative 3D tracking information, the range of mathematical methods for extracting information about the underlying system has been limited mostly to mean-squared displacement analysis and other techniques not accounting for complex 3D kinetic interactions. There is a great need for new analysis tools aiming to more fully extract the biological information content from in vivo SPT measurements. High-resolution SPT experimental data has enormous potential to objectively scrutinize various proposed mechanistic schemes arising from theoretical biophysics and cell biology. At the same time, methods for rigorously checking the statistical consistency of both model assumptions and estimated parameters against observed experimental data (i.e. goodness-of-fit tests) have not received great attention. We demonstrate methods enabling (1) estimation of the parameters of 3D stochastic differential equation (SDE) models of the underlying dynamics given only one trajectory; and (2) construction of hypothesis tests checking the consistency of the fitted model with the observed trajectory so that extracted parameters are not over-interpreted (the tools are applicable to linear or nonlinear SDEs calibrated from non-stationary time series data). The approach is demonstrated on high-resolution 3D trajectories of single ARG3 mRNA particles in yeast cells in order to show the power of the methods in detecting signatures of transient directed transport. The methods presented are generally relevant to a wide variety of 2D and 3D SPT tracking applications. PMID:24015725

  2. Blast furnace on-line simulation model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Saxén

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical model of the ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is presented. The model describes the steady-state operation of\\u000a the furnace in one spatial dimension using real process data sampled at the steelworks. The measurement data are reconciled\\u000a by an interface routine which yields boundary conditions obeying the conservation laws of atoms and energy. The simulation\\u000a model, which provides a picture

  3. Identification of blast resistance genes for managing rice blast disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. In the present study, an international set of monogenic differentials carrying 24 major blast resistance (R) genes (Pia, Pib, Pii, Pik, Pik-h, Pik-m, Pik-p, Pik-s, Pish, Pit, Pita, Pita2,...

  4. Manual for the prediction of blast and fragment loadings on structures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide Architect-Engineer (AE) firms guidance for the prediction of air blast, ground shock and fragment loadings on structures as a result of accidental explosions in or near these structures. Information in this manual is the result of an extensive literature survey and data gathering effort, supplemented by some original analytical studies on various aspects of blast phenomena. Many prediction equations and graphs are presented, accompanied by numerous example problems illustrating their use. The manual is complementary to existing structural design manuals and is intended to reflect the current state-of-the-art in prediction of blast and fragment loads for accidental explosions of high explosives at the Pantex Plant. In some instances, particularly for explosions within blast-resistant structures of complex geometry, rational estimation of these loads is beyond the current state-of-the-art.

  5. Characterization of Viscoelastic Materials for Low-Magnitude Blast Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis

    2013-06-01

    Recent preliminary research indicates that exposure to low amplitude blast waves, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficiently protecting warfighters from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. The objective of this research is to evaluate the blast mitigating behavior of current helmet materials and new materials designed for blast mitigation using a test fixture recently developed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division for use with an existing gas gun. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 5 to 30 psi) in a test fixture mounted at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release helium gas from a breech which forms into a blast wave and impacts instrumented targets in the test fixture. Blast attenuation of selected materials is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. Materials evaluated in this research include 6061-T6 aluminum, polyurea 1000, Styrofoam, and Sorbothane (durometer 50, shore 00). The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

  6. Investigation of blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Ludwigsen, John S.; Ford, Corey C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many troops deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan have sustained blast-related, closed-head injuries from being within non-lethal distance of detonated explosive devices. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms associated with blast exposure that give rise to traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study attempts to identify the precise conditions of focused stress wave energy within the brain, resulting from blast exposure, which will correlate with a threshold for persistent brain injury. Methods This study developed and validated a set of modelling tools to simulate blast loading to the human head. Using these tools, the blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave motions that lead to focal brain damage were simulated. Results The simulations predict the deposition of three distinct wave energy components, two of which can be related to injury-inducing mechanisms, namely cavitation and shear. Furthermore, the results suggest that the spatial distributions of these damaging energy components are independent of blast direction. Conclusions The predictions reported herein will simplify efforts to correlate simulation predictions with clinical measures of TBI and aid in the development of protective headwear. PMID:24766453

  7. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  8. Dynamic properties of blast furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Naboka; G. A. Polyanskii; A. P. Fomenko; N. V. Krutas

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the dynamic properties of the blast-furnace process in terms of the two control signals (change in the ore load and change in the blast parameters), as well as random perturbing signals that change the composition of the furnace gas as a function of the ratio of direct and indirect ferrousoxide (FeO) reduction and the

  9. A systematic exposition of the conservation equations for blast waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.; Lundstrom, E. A.; Kuhl, A. L.; Kamel, M. M.

    1971-01-01

    In order to provide a rational background for the analysis of experimental observations of blast wave phenomena, the conservation equations governing their nonsteady flow field are formulated in a general manner, without the usual restrictions imposed by an equation of state, and with proper account taken, by means of source terms, of other effects which, besides the inertial terms that conventionally dominate these equations, can affect the flow. Taking advantage of the fact that a blast wave can be generally considered as a spatially one-dimensional flow field whose nonsteady behavior can be regarded, consequently, as a function of just two independent variables, two generalized blast wave coordinates are introduced, one associated with the front of the blast wave and the other with its flow field. The conservation equations are accordingly transformed into this coordinate system, acquiring thereby a comprehensive character, in that they refer then to any frame of reference, being applicable, in particular, to problems involving either space or time profiles of the gas-dynamic parameters in the Eulerian system, or time profiles in the Lagrangian system.

  10. Micro-meter Crack Response to Rock Blast Vibrations, Wind Gusts & Weather Effects

    E-print Network

    Micro-meter Crack Response to Rock Blast Vibrations, Wind Gusts & Weather Effects C. H. Dowding,1 to rock blasting- and wind gust- excitation are compared to those induced by long term climatological to measure crack expansion and contraction. Crack responses to 48 to 64 km/hr (30- 40 mph) wind gusts were

  11. Pressure sensing system for the study of blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Meng; D. K. Cullen; M. R. Tofighi; A. Rosen

    2011-01-01

    Due to extensive use of explosive weaponry, wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have led to a significant increase in blast-induced injuries, which manifest as complicated neural cellular damage. This research is serving two purposes: 1. verifying a methodology to measure the physical characteristics of the blast waves by using a MEMS capacitor pressure sensor and 2. performing In-Vivo study for

  12. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PROTECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING BLAST RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Crawford; Shengrui Lan

    This paper describes methods for designing and implementing protective technologies for improving the blast resistance of buildings. A protection plan for buildings may include designing blast-resistant columns, walls, and windows; other elements of security may also play a major part, including physical security measures such as: anti-ram barriers and fencing to demarcate a protective perimeter; features such as lighting, CCTVs,

  13. Adaptation of flux-corrected transport algorithms for modelling blast waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Boris; M. A. Fry; R. H. Guirguis; A. L. Kuhl

    1982-01-01

    Flux-corrected transport represents an accurate and flexible class of methods for solving nonsteady compressible flow problems. In models which treat all the physical effects required for blast wave simulation, truncation errors inherent in the underlying finite-difference scheme are exacerbated by nonlinear coupling between the fluid equations and by the greater complexity of the phenomena being simulated. In order to improve

  14. 6/2/12 NCBI Blast:sbe vs human 1/770www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast/Blast.cgi

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    6/2/12 NCBI Blast:sbe vs human 1/770www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast/Blast.cgi Database Name Description Blast:sbe vs human 2/770www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast/Blast.cgi Legend for links to other resources: Uni

  15. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

  16. Wave phenomena in phononic crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexey Sukhovich

    2007-01-01

    Novel wave phenomena in two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) phononic crystals were investigated experimentally using ultrasonic techniques. These ultrasonic techniques allow the full wave field to be imaged directly, which is a considerable advantage in fundamental studies of wave propagation in periodic media. Resonant tunnelling of ultrasonic waves was successfully observed for the first time by measuring the transmission

  17. An RES-Based Model for Risk Assessment and Prediction of Backbreak in Bench Blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzi, F.; Ebrahimi Farsangi, M. A.; Mansouri, H.

    2013-07-01

    Most blasting operations are associated with various forms of energy loss, emerging as environmental side effects of rock blasting, such as flyrock, vibration, airblast, and backbreak. Backbreak is an adverse phenomenon in rock blasting operations, which imposes risk and increases operation expenses because of safety reduction due to the instability of walls, poor fragmentation, and uneven burden in subsequent blasts. In this paper, based on the basic concepts of a rock engineering systems (RES) approach, a new model for the prediction of backbreak and the risk associated with a blast is presented. The newly suggested model involves 16 effective parameters on backbreak due to blasting, while retaining simplicity as well. The data for 30 blasts, carried out at Sungun copper mine, western Iran, were used to predict backbreak and the level of risk corresponding to each blast by the RES-based model. The results obtained were compared with the backbreak measured for each blast, which showed that the level of risk achieved is in consistence with the backbreak measured. The maximum level of risk [vulnerability index (VI) = 60] was associated with blast No. 2, for which the corresponding average backbreak was the highest achieved (9.25 m). Also, for blasts with levels of risk under 40, the minimum average backbreaks (<4 m) were observed. Furthermore, to evaluate the model performance for backbreak prediction, the coefficient of correlation ( R 2) and root mean square error (RMSE) of the model were calculated ( R 2 = 0.8; RMSE = 1.07), indicating the good performance of the model.

  18. Blast furnace slags as sorbents of phosphate from water solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Kostura; Hana Kulveitová; Juraj Leško

    2005-01-01

    The paper is focused on the sorption of phosphorus from aqueous solutions by crystalline and amorphous blast furnace slags. Slag sorption kinetics were measured, adsorption tests were carried out and the effect of acidification on the sorption properties of slags was studied. The kinetic measurements confirmed that the sorption of phosphorus on crystalline as well as amorphous slags can be

  19. Centrifugal shot blast system

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

  20. Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

  1. Spectroscopic diagnostics in a colliding-blast-wave experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elton, R. C.; Billings, D.-M.; Manka, C. K.; Griem, H. R.; Grun, J.; Ripin, B. H.; Resnick, J.

    1994-02-01

    Visible spectral lines from n=3, ?n=0 transitions in N+ and N2+ ions are used for measuring the plasma electron density and temperature in a region of two colliding blast waves, propagating through a 1.5-10-Torr nitrogen atmosphere. The blast waves originate at the tips of two aluminum rods irradiated with two beams of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Pharos-III 1.054-?m-wavelength Nd:glass laser operated at an energy of 200-430 J for each beam in 5-ns pulses. An electron density in the colliding-blast-wave region of Ne~=1018 cm-3 was deduced from Stark broadening of spectral lines from N+ ions. An electron temperature of Te~=4 eV was measured in this region from a spectral-line intensity ratio between N2+ and N+ ions. Near one target, an electron density of Ne~=8×1020 cm-3 was determined from series-limit x-ray spectral-line merging; a mean electron temperature of kTe~=225 eV was determined from x-ray line-intensity ratios. Some evidence was found for enhanced velocities for blast waves propagating through a plasma formed by a preceding blast wave.

  2. Crystallization phenomena in slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrling, Carl Folke

    2000-09-01

    The crystallization of the mold slag affects both the heat transfer and the lubrication between the mold and the strand in continuous casting of steel. In order for mold slag design to become an engineering science rather than an empirical exercise, a fundamental understanding of the melting and solidification behavior of a slag must be developed. Thus it is necessary to be able to quantify the phenomena that occur under the thermal conditions that are found in the mold of a continuous caster. The double hot thermocouple technique (DHTT) and the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope used in this study are two novel techniques for investigating melting and solidification phenomena of transparent slags. Results from these techniques are useful in defining the phenomena that occur when the slag film infiltrates between the mold and the shell of the casting. TTT diagrams were obtained for various slags and indicated that the onset of crystallization is a function of cooling rate and slag chemistry. Crystal morphology was found to be dependent upon the experimental temperature and four different morphologies were classified based upon the degree of melt undercooling. Continuous cooling experiments were carried out to develop CCT diagrams and it was found that the amount and appearance of the crystalline fraction greatly depends on the cooling conditions. The DHTT can also be used to mimic the cooling profile encountered by the slag in the mold of a continuous caster. In this differential cooling mode (DCT), it was found that the details of the cooling rate determine the actual response of the slag to a thermal gradient and small changes can lead to significantly different results. Crystal growth rates were measured and found to be in the range between 0.11 mum/s to 11.73 mum/s depending on temperature and slag chemistry. Alumina particles were found to be effective innoculants in oxide melts reducing the incubation time for the onset of crystallization and also extending the temperature range of observed crystallization. The effect of changing the gas atmosphere surrounding the sample has been studied. The presence of water vapor increased the nucleation rate and crystal growth rate significantly when compared to experiments carried out in a dry atmosphere. With an atmosphere of Argon and Argon-3% Hydrogen mixture, the incubation time for crystallization was increased with several minutes. The crystal growth rate in these atmospheres was also drastically reduced compared to an atmosphere of normal air. Significant numbers of bubbles were formed during the initial melting of mold slag samples and the melting rate of the slag was found to be related to the rate of bubble generation and to the rate of heat transport.

  3. Blasting casting to raise productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Pilshaw, S.R.

    1987-07-01

    Normally, surface mines employ draglines or truck and shovel systems to remove overburden. Blasting merely fragments and displaces the overburden enough to allow for easy digging. But during the past two decades, the effect of inflation and increased labor costs have encouraged unconventional methods of overburden removal. All of us are aware of the tremendous inflationary effects on costs of equipment, fuel, labor, interest, insurance, environmental compliance, etc. This has allowed the authors to take a new look at the use of explosives as an effective alternate method of overburden removal. This technique is known by several names, but basically blast casting or just casting best describes it. Other terms in vogue are explosive casting, controlled trajectory blasting, trajectory control blasting, and whatever terminology comes to mind.

  4. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler,; Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

    2010-10-26

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  5. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W. (Livermore, CA); Hollaway, Rocky (Modesto, CA); Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA); Deteresa, Steve (Livermore, CA); Grundler, Walter (Hayward, CA); Hagler, Lisle B. (Berkeley, CA); Kokko, Edwin (Dublin, CA); Switzer, Vernon A (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-22

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  6. Stochastic properties of partial-discharge phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Van Brunt

    1991-01-01

    The author presents a bibliography and survey of the literature concerned with theory and measurement of the stochastic behavior of pulsating partial-discharge (PD) phenomena that can occur when insulation is subjected to electrical stress. The types of PD phenomena considered include AC and DC generated electron avalanches, pulsating positive and negative corona in gases, and PD that occur in liquid

  7. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6. Blast measurements. Part 2. Free-air peak-pressure measurements. Section 2. Telemetering from moored balloons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frolich

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the free-air peak-pressure as a function of distance from an atomic explosion. In this report, free-air peak-pressure is defined as the pressure at the head of the blast wave in regions where it has not been reinforced by a reflected wave. Operation in the test area was more difficult than anticipated. Heavy

  8. Blast From the Past

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A recently recovered deep-sea core supports theories that an asteroid collided with the earth 65 million years ago, around the time of the extinction of the dinosaurs. The Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History's new site, Blast from the Past, contains details on this cataclysmic event. Colorful graphics provide conceptual illustrations of the asteroid impact and aftermath, accompanied by photographs of the deep-sea core. Text summaries, followed by bibliographic references, describe the asteroid hypothesis, the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary, and the utility of deep-sea cores. With links to other paleobiological sites and related museum exhibits, this site is a useful resource for those wanting to know more about fateful asteroid impacts.

  9. Cold blast furnace syndrome: a new source of toxic inhalation by nitrogen oxides

    PubMed Central

    Tague, I; Llewellin, P; Burton, K; Buchan, R; Yates, D

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Fourteen workers developed acute respiratory symptoms shortly after exposure to "air blast" from blast furnace tuyeres. These included chest tightness, dyspnoea, rigors, and diaphoresis. Chest radiographs showed pulmonary infiltrates, and lung function a restrictive abnormality. This report includes a description of clinical features of the affected workers and elucidation of the probable cause of the outbreak. Results: Clinical features and occupational hygiene measurements suggested the most likely cause was inhalation of nitrogen oxides at high pressure and temperature. While the task could not be eliminated, engineering controls were implemented to control the hazard. No further cases have occurred. Conclusions: "Cold blast furnace syndrome" represents a previously undescribed hazard of blast furnace work, probably due to inhalation of nitrogen oxides. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute toxic inhalational injuries in blast furnace workers. PMID:15090669

  10. An Analytic Model of Close-Range Blast Fragment Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottenkolber, Ernst; Arnold, Werner

    2006-07-01

    The effects of blast-fragmentation warheads need to be carefully characterized in a variety of applications like passive and active vehicle protection or hard target defeat and TBM defense. With these applications in mind, we have developed a collection of tools called FI-BLAST (Fast Interface for Blast-Fragment Load Analysis of Structures). In the present paper we describe the essential part of these tools, namely the close range blast-fragment model. The meaning of "close range" is here defined as the standoff to a charge at which blast effects can inflict serious damage on massive structures. In order to quantify our model's range of validity, examples of measured and calculated momentum of bare and confined charges are given in the present paper. Short (L/D = 0.5) and long (L/D = 5) cylindrical charges are included as well as spherical charges. The presented examples demonstrate that the model gives reasonable results in the intended domains of application.

  11. An Analytic Model of Close-Range Blast Fragment Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottenkolber, Ernst; Arnold, Werner

    2005-07-01

    The effects of blast-fragmentation warheads need to be carefully characterized in a variety of applications like passive and active vehicle protection or hard target defeat and TBM defense. With these applications in mind, we have developed a collection of tools called FI-BLAST (Fast Interface for Blast-Fragment Load Analysis of Structures). In the present paper we describe the essential part of these tools, namely the close range blast-fragment model. The meaning of ``close range'' is here defined as the standoff to a charge at which blast effects can inflict serious damage on massive structures. In order to quantify our model's range of validity, examples of measured and calculated momentum of bare and confined charges are given in the present paper. Short (L/D = 0.5) and long (L/D = 5) cylindrical charges are included as well as spherical charges. The presented examples demonstrate that the model gives reasonable results in the intended domains of application.

  12. Examining lethality risk for rodent studies of primary blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, William Brad; Hall, Christina; Siva Sai Suijith Sajja, Venkata; Lavik, Erink; VandeVord, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    While protective measures have been taken to mitigate injury to the thorax during a blast exposure, primary blast lung injury (PBLI) is still evident in mounted/in vehicle cases during military conflicts. Moreover, civilians, who are unprotected from blast exposure, can be severely harmed by terrorist attacks that use improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Since the lungs are the most susceptible organ due to their air-filled nature, PBLI is one of the most serious injuries seen in civilian blast cases. Determining lethality threshold for rodent studies is crucial to guide experimental designs centered on therapies for survival after PBLI or mechanistic understanding of the injury itself. Using an Advanced Blast Simulator, unprotected rats were exposed to a whole body blast to induce PBLI. The one-hour survival rate was assessed to determine operating conditions for a 50% lethality rate. Macroscopic and histological analysis of lung was conducted using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results demonstrated lethality risk trends based on static blast overpressure (BOP) for rodent models, which may help standardized animal studies and contribute to scaling to the human level. The need for a standardized method of producing PBLI is pressing and establishing standard curves, such as a lethality risk curve for lung blasts, is crucial for this condensing of BOP methods. PMID:25405409

  13. Model for small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Juan R.; Desai, Sachi V.

    2011-11-01

    Accurate modeling of small firearms muzzle blast wave propagation in the far field is critical to predict sound pressure levels, impulse durations and rise times, as functions of propagation distance. Such a task being relevant to a number of military applications including the determination of human response to blast noise, gunfire detection and localization, and gun suppressor design. Herein, a time domain model to predict small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation is introduced. The model implements a Friedlander wave with finite rise time which diverges spherically from the gun muzzle. Additionally, the effects in blast wave form of thermoviscous and molecular relaxational processes, which are associated with atmospheric absorption of sound were also incorporated in the model. Atmospheric absorption of blast waves is implemented using a time domain recursive formula obtained from numerical integration of corresponding differential equations using a Crank-Nicholson finite difference scheme. Theoretical predictions from our model were compared to previously recorded real world data of muzzle blast wave signatures obtained by shooting a set different sniper weapons of varying calibers. Recordings containing gunfire acoustical signatures were taken at distances between 100 and 600 meters from the gun muzzle. Results shows that predicted blast wave slope and exponential decay agrees well with measured data. Analysis also reveals the persistency of an oscillatory phenomenon after blast overpressure in the recorded wave forms.

  14. Modelling of blast loading on aboveground structures - II. Internal blast and ground shock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. B. A. Beshara

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies of the nature and structural effects of confined explosions, contact blast and explosion-induced ground shock are presented. High explosive blast is distinguished from that due to a gaseous deflagration. The effects of confinement and venting are considered in the evaluation of dynamic loads. Maxima for the initial internal blast pressure can be estimated from the scaled blast data

  15. Spectroscopic diagnostics in a colliding-blast-wave experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Elton, R.C.; Billings, D.; Manka, C.K.; Griem, H.R.; Grun, J.; Ripin, B.H. (Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States)); Resnick, J. (Research Support Instruments, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia 22314 (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Visible spectral lines from [ital n]=3, [Delta][ital n]=0 transitions in N[sup +] and N[sup 2+] ions are used for measuring the plasma electron density and temperature in a region of two colliding blast waves, propagating through a 1.5--10-Torr nitrogen atmosphere. The blast waves originate at the tips of two aluminum rods irradiated with two beams of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Pharos-III 1.054-[mu]m-wavelength Nd:glass laser operated at an energy of 200--430 J for each beam in 5-ns pulses. An electron density in the colliding-blast-wave region of [ital N][sub [ital e

  16. Blast noise impacts on sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykaza, Edward T.; Pater, Larry L.

    2005-04-01

    Firing large guns during the hours of darkness is essential to combat readiness for the military. At the same time most people are particularly sensitive to noise when sleeping or trying to fall asleep. Laboratory studies done by Griefahn [J. Sound and Vib. 128, 109-119 (1989)] and Luz [see Luz et al., ERDC/CERL, TR-04-26 (2004)] suggest that a time period at night may exist where people are more tolerant to large weapon impulse noise (blast noise) and therefore, are less likely to be awakened from noise events. In the fall of 2004, a field study was conducted around a military installation to determine if such a time period(s) exists. Noise monitors were set up inside and outside of residents homes to record noise levels from live military training activities and actimeters were worn by participants sleeping their natural environment to measure sleep disturbance and awakening. The method and results of this study will be presented. [Work supported by US Army Engineer Research and Development Center CERL.

  17. Analysis of microscopic magnitudes of radiative blast waves launched in xenon clusters with collisional-radiative steady-state simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, R.; Espinosa, G.; Gil, J. M.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J. G.; Mendoza, M. A.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.; Symes, D. R.; Hohenberger, M.; Smith, R. A.

    2013-08-01

    Radiative shock waves play a pivotal role in the transport energy into the stellar medium. This fact has led to many efforts to scale the astrophysical phenomena to accessible laboratory conditions and their study has been highlighted as an area requiring further experimental investigations. Low density material with high atomic mass is suitable to achieve radiative regime, and, therefore, low density xenon gas is commonly used for the medium in which the radiative shocks such as radiative blast waves propagate. In this work, by means of collisional-radiative steady-state calculations, a characterization and an analysis of microscopic magnitudes of laboratory blast waves launched in xenon clusters are made. Thus, for example, the average ionization, the charge state distribution, the cooling time or photon mean free paths are studied. Furthermore, for a particular experiment, the effects of the self-absorption and self-emission in the specific intensity emitted by the shock front and that is going through the radiative precursor are investigated. Finally, for that experiment, since the electron temperature is not measured experimentally, an estimation of this magnitude is made both for the shock shell and the radiative precursor.

  18. Full-Trajectory Diagnosis of Laser-Driven Radiative Blast Waves in Search of Thermal Plasma Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, A. S.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Lazarus, J.; Hohenberger, M.; Robinson, J. S.; Smith, R. A.; Plant, T. J. A.; Symes, D. R.; Dunne, M. [Plasma Physics Division, AWE Aldermaston, RG7 4PR. United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Laser Consortium, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ. United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Ministry of Defence, Foxhill, Bath BA1 5AB. United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX. United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-08

    Experimental investigations into the dynamics of cylindrical, laser-driven, high-Mach-number shocks are used to study the thermal cooling instability predicted to occur in astrophysical radiative blast waves. A streaked Schlieren technique measures the full blast-wave trajectory on a single-shot basis, which is key for observing shock velocity oscillations. Electron density profiles and deceleration parameters associated with radiative blast waves were recorded, enabling the calculation of important blast-wave parameters including the fraction of radiated energy, {epsilon}, as a function of time for comparison with radiation-hydrodynamics simulations.

  19. Longitudinal instabilities in an air-blasted liquid sheet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUILLERMO H AUKE; Maria de Luna

    2001-01-01

    An experimental and numerical study has been performed to improve the under- standing of the air\\/liquid interaction in an air-blasted breaking water sheet. This research is focused in the near eld close to the exit slit, because it is in this region where instabilities develop and grow, leading to the sheet breakup. In the experiments, several relevant parameters were measured

  20. Longitudinal instabilities in an air-blasted liquid sheet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Lozano; Félix Barreras; Guillermo Hauke; César Dopazo

    2001-01-01

    An experimental and numerical study has been performed to improve the understanding of the air\\/liquid interaction in an air-blasted breaking water sheet. This research is focused in the near field close to the exit slit, because it is in this region where instabilities develop and grow, leading to the sheet breakup. In the experiments, several relevant parameters were measured including

  1. Behind Armor Blast (BAB) caused by shaped charges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Arnold; Frank K. Schäfer

    1999-01-01

    Steel targets were shot by shaped charges. Instead of using conventional copper liners, in this test series liners made of aluminium and magnesium were used. The jet velocities ranged from 5 to 7 mm\\/?s. Behind the steel target a large Behind Armor Blast (BAB) - effect occurred. The measurement of this BAB was carried out by pressure and temperature probes

  2. Conserving Energy in Blast Freezers Using Variable Frequency Drives 

    E-print Network

    Kolbe, E.; Ling, Q.; Wheeler, G.

    2004-01-01

    A stationary blast freezer processing 22-lb cartons of sardines in 19,000 pound lots was modified to improve efficiency and to conserve energy. Baffles were first added to produce uniform air flow. Maximum measured freeze times of 12.6 hours fell...

  3. NCBI Handout Series | BLAST homepage & search pages | Last Update August 19, 2013 Contact: blast-help@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov BLAST Homepage and Selected Search Pages

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    NCBI Handout Series | BLAST homepage & search pages | Last Update August 19, 2013 Contact: blast-help@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/functions of selected search pages http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov National Center for Biotechnology Information present in a selected tar- get database. The NCBI BLAST homepage (http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) provides

  4. How to Measure Qualitative Understanding of DC-Circuit Phenomena--Taking a Closer Look at the External Representations of 9-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallunki, Veera

    2013-01-01

    Pupils' qualitative understanding of DC-circuit phenomena is reported to be weak. In numerous research reports lists of problems in understanding the functioning of simple DC-circuits have been presented. So-called mental model surveys have uncovered difficulties in different age groups, and in different phases of instruction. In this study, the…

  5. Fractal Geometry and Spatial Phenomena A Bibliography

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Fractal Geometry and Spatial Phenomena A Bibliography January 1991 Mark MacLennan, A. Stewart. MEASUREMENT ISSUES........................................................... 8 II.1 ESTIMATION OF FRACTAL DIMENSION - GENERAL ISSUES .......... 8 II.2 ESTIMATION OF FRACTAL DIMENSION FOR CURVES/PROFILES ... 9 II.3

  6. Science and Paranormal Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H. Pierre

    1999-06-03

    In order to ground my approach to the study of paranormal phenomena, I first explain my operational approach to physics, and to the ''historical'' sciences of cosmic, biological, human, social and political evolution. I then indicate why I believe that ''paranormal phenomena'' might-but need not- fit into this framework. I endorse the need for a new theoretical framework for the investigation of this field presented by Etter and Shoup at this meeting. I close with a short discussion of Ted Bastin's contention that paranormal phenomena should be defined as contradicting physics.

  7. Science and Paranormal Phenomena

    E-print Network

    Noyes, H P

    1999-01-01

    In order to ground my approach to the study of paranormal phenomena, I first explain my operational approach to physics, and to the ``historical'' sciences of cosmic, biological, human, social and political evolution. I then indicate why I believe that ``paranormal phenomena'' might --- but need not --- fit into this framework. I endorse the need for a new theoretical framework for the investigation of this field presented by Etter and Shoup at this meeting. I close with a short discussion of Ted Bastin's contention that paranormal phenomena should be {\\it defined} as contradicting physics.

  8. Science and Paranormal Phenomena

    E-print Network

    H. Pierre Noyes

    1999-06-03

    In order to ground my approach to the study of paranormal phenomena, I first explain my operational approach to physics, and to the ``historical'' sciences of cosmic, biological, human, social and political evolution. I then indicate why I believe that ``paranormal phenomena'' might --- but need not --- fit into this framework. I endorse the need for a new theoretical framework for the investigation of this field presented by Etter and Shoup at this meeting. I close with a short discussion of Ted Bastin's contention that paranormal phenomena should be {\\it defined} as contradicting physics.

  9. MOLECULAR CONTROL OF THE RICE BLAST DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea is a major constraint to rice production worldwide. The rice blast system is one of the best-characterized monocot model systems. The goal of this project is to understand molecular mechanisms of disease resistance using rice blast as a model system....

  10. Blast injury research: modeling injury effects of landmines, bullets, and bombs.

    PubMed

    Hayda, Roman; Harris, Robert M; Bass, Cameron Dale

    2004-05-01

    Terrorist blasts and landmine injuries have become more common in the past several decades generating thousands of casualties. Preventive and prognostic measures are limited by the lack of knowledge of these complex events. Previous blast research has focused on primary blast injuries that involve the lung, despite musculoskeletal injuries being the most common. Through the use of instrumented cadavers, Hybrid III test dummies, and other surrogates, unique models of these events have been created. The investigations studied the effectiveness of antimine footwear, forces and injury mechanisms in temporary shelters subjected to blast, modeling of blast-induced glass fragmentation, and helmet deformation and injury potential under ballistic load. Despite blasts being much higher rate events than those seen in automotive blunt trauma, we were able to measure forces and create injury models. We found that antimine footwear will require additional development to be effective. Guidelines for shelter placement have been altered, and tempered glass seems to offer no protection when compared with annealed glass. Although these models are in their nascent phase, the thorough understanding of the biomechanical nature of these blast injuries will assist in developing strategies to reduce injuries and in the creation of forecasting models. PMID:15187840

  11. Tyre-blast injuries.

    PubMed

    Murty, O P

    2009-05-01

    A teenager college student was fatally injured by burst tyre air pressure while waiting on a public bus stand to catch a bus to reach her college at Kuala Lumpur. She accidentally came near the wheel while boarding when tube and tyre got burst .The air pressure had blown the girl in the air and she subsequently fell on a rough surface. The iron-locking rim of the wheel acted as a missile and hit the girl. She died on her way to the hospital. A medico-legal autopsy was performed which showed extensive injuries in the cranial and chest cavity. Head had large scalp laceration with diffuse separation and gaping from in the vault region; skull bones were fractured. Chest cavity had extensive rib fractures, lacerated lungs and haemo-thorax while externally there was no obvious injury. It requires intensive care management and screening of the victims. Tyre-blast injuries are not so common. This case exposes the hazard due to burst tyre. PMID:19329081

  12. Blasting Rocks and Blasting Cars Applied Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    LBNL

    2008-07-02

    June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated ... June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated a program at Berkeley Lab funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, a collaboration between the federal government and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research. Nondestructive evaluation techniques to test a car's structural integrity are being developed for auto assembly lines.

  13. Blasting Rocks and Blasting Cars Applied Engineering

    ScienceCinema

    LBNL

    2009-09-01

    June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated ... June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated a program at Berkeley Lab funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, a collaboration between the federal government and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research. Nondestructive evaluation techniques to test a car's structural integrity are being developed for auto assembly lines.

  14. Biologic response to complex blast waves

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, D.R.; Yelverton, J.T.; Fletcher, E.R.; Phillips, Y.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Small, bare charges were detonated inside an M59 armored personnel carrier (APC) in an attempt to simulate the complex blast waves generated by the jets from shaped-charge warheads penetrating into armored vehicles. Anesthetized sheep were placed inside the APC at 92- and 122-cm ranges from 57- or 113-g pentolite charges. Pressure-time was measured by pressure transducers either mounted on the animals or free standing at comparable ranges on the opposite side of the vehicle. In general, the waveforms were characterized by an initial shock wave of less than 1-msec duration followed by repeated reflections of decreasing magnitude. No deaths nor lung hemorrhages were observed, but all the animals sustained severe ear injury. Animals subjected to peak overpressures of 1.2 to 2.3 bar from the 113-g explosions also received slight non-auditory blast injuries to the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts; those exposed to peak overpressures of just under 1 bar from the 57-g charges did not. The non-auditory blast injuries inside the APC were more severe than those sustained by sheep at comparable distances from 113-g charges in the open. The results suggested that the biological consequences of a complex wave of the type encountered in this study can be equated approximately to a Friedlander wave with a peak overpressure equal to that of the complex wave and with a total impulse equal to the impulse over the first 2 to 3 msec of the complex wave. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Blast-Driven Hydrodynamic Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc T.; Johnsen, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Accurate characterization of mixing from hydrodynamic instabilities, such as Richtmyer-Meshkov, Rayleigh-Taylor, and Kelvin-Helmholtz, is important to many multi-fluid applications, particularly, inertial confinement fusion, supernova collapse, and scramjet combustion. We investigate the dynamics of a perturbed interface between two fluids subjected to a planar blast wave. An initial point source explosion initiates a blast, which can be described as a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. The interface, therefore, experiences an instantaneous acceleration (a pressure increase) followed by a gradual, time-dependent deceleration (a pressure decrease). The resulting interaction gives rise to Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor growth, depending on the shock strength and blast profile. Using a high-order accurate numerical method that prevents pressure errors at interfaces when simulating variable specific heats ratios, we identify regimes in which one or the other instability dominates. Accurate characterization of mixing from hydrodynamic instabilities, such as Richtmyer-Meshkov, Rayleigh-Taylor, and Kelvin-Helmholtz, is important to many multi-fluid applications, particularly, inertial confinement fusion, supernova collapse, and scramjet combustion. We investigate the dynamics of a perturbed interface between two fluids subjected to a planar blast wave. An initial point source explosion initiates a blast, which can be described as a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. The interface, therefore, experiences an instantaneous acceleration (a pressure increase) followed by a gradual, time-dependent deceleration (a pressure decrease). The resulting interaction gives rise to Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor growth, depending on the shock strength and blast profile. Using a high-order accurate numerical method that prevents pressure errors at interfaces when simulating variable specific heats ratios, we identify regimes in which one or the other instability dominates. This research was supported by the DOE NNSA/ASC under the predictive Science Academic Alliance Program by Grant No. DEFC52-08NA28616.

  16. CO Observations of BLAST Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew; Eales, Steve; Isaak, Kate; Davies, Jonathan; Cortese, Luca; Auld, Robbie

    2009-10-01

    The origin of dust and its effect on the atomic and molecular phase in galaxies is still uncertain. This is important as dust plays a crucial role in providing opacity during the star formation process and is hypothesised to be a catalyst in the conversion of atomic to molecular hydrogen. We have selected two BLAST galaxies NGC 1097 and NGC 1512 as they are low inclination spiral galaxies with prominent gas and dust features, at a distance of 16.9 and 10.4 Mpc respectively[2]. A large set of complementary data has been collected for both targets including SPITZER infra-red, GALEX UV and VLA HI data. Measurements of the molecular gas spatial distribution combined with other datasets will allow us to investigate the relationship between the dust, gas and star formation in different galactic environments (from the bulge to the spiral arms). This project provides a unique opportunity to gain an insight into what Herschel will produce. We are requesting 70.8 hours of Mopra time in average weather to map molecular gas in two of the BLAST nearby galaxies by measuring the CO(1-0) emission line.

  17. Community response to blast noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykaza, Edward T.; Pater, Larry L.; Fidell, Sanford; Schomer, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Although community response to impulsive noise from military operations is usually discussed for NEPA-related purposes in terms of the prevalence of annoyance, it is managed on a local, daily basis in terms of numbers of recent complaints. Reconciling blast noise complaint rates with the annoyance predicted by dosage-effect analysis would be of considerable benefit to the Army, since it would provide insight into the dynamics of community reaction to this distinctive form of noise exposure, and put its assessment and management on a common footing. This paper describes a systematic approach to the challenges of quantifying community reaction to blast noise. [Work supported by ERDC-CERL.

  18. Nucleon Form Factors from BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Michael

    2009-08-01

    The BLAST (Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid) experiment has been carried out at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center to study spin-dependent electron scattering from protons and deuterons with small systematic uncertainties. The experiment used a longitudinally polarized, intense electron beam stored in the Bates South Hall Ring in combination with isotopically pure, highly-polarized internal targets of polarized hydrogen and vector- and tensor-polarized deuterium from an atomic beam source. The BLAST data have been used to extract precise results for the elastic form factor ratios GE/GM of the proton and the neutron at low momentum transfer.

  19. Nucleon Form Factors from BLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, Michael [Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668, USA and Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2009-08-04

    The BLAST (Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid) experiment has been carried out at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center to study spin-dependent electron scattering from protons and deuterons with small systematic uncertainties. The experiment used a longitudinally polarized, intense electron beam stored in the Bates South Hall Ring in combination with isotopically pure, highly-polarized internal targets of polarized hydrogen and vector- and tensor-polarized deuterium from an atomic beam source. The BLAST data have been used to extract precise results for the elastic form factor ratios G{sub E}/G{sub M} of the proton and the neutron at low momentum transfer.

  20. Effect of Grit Blasting on Substrate Roughness and Coating Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Dominic Varacalle; Donna Guillen; Doug Deason; William Rhodaberger; Elliott Sampson

    2006-09-01

    Statistically designed experiments were performed to compare the surface roughnesses produced by grit blasting A36/1020 steel with different abrasives. Grit blast media, blast pressure, and working distance were varied using a Box-type statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. The surface textures produced by four metal grits (HG16, HG18, HG25, and HG40) and three conventional grits (copper slag, coal slag, and chilled iron) were compared. Substrate roughness was measured using surface profilometry and correlated with operating parameters. The HG16 grit produced the highest surface roughness of all the grits tested. Aluminum and zinc-aluminum coatings were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates using a Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) process. Bond strength of the coatings was measured with a portable adhesion tester in accordance with ASTM standard D4541. The coatings on substrates roughened with steel grit exhibit superior bond strength to those on substrates prepared with conventional grit. For aluminum coatings sprayed onto surfaces prepared with the HG16 grit, the bond strength was most influenced by current, spray distance, and spray gun pressure (in that order). The highest bond strength for the zinc-aluminum coatings was attained on surfaces prepared using the metal grits.

  1. Nucleon form factors and the BLAST experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, R.

    2007-06-01

    Measurements of the charge and magnetic form factors of the nucleon present a sensitive test of nucleon models and QCD-inspired theories. A precise knowledge of the neutron form factors at low Q2 is also essential to reduce the systematic errors of parity-violation experiments. At the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, the nucleon form factors have been measured by means of scattering of polarized electrons from vector-polarized hydrogen and deuterium. The experiment used the longitudinally polarized stored electron beam of the MIT-Bates South Hall Ring along with an isotopically pure, highly vector-polarized internal atomic hydrogen and deuterium target provided by an atomic beam source. The measurements have been carried out with the symmetric Bates Large-Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) with enhanced neutron detection capability.

  2. Nucleon form factors and the BLAST experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, R.

    2007-03-01

    Measurements of the electric and magnetic form factors of the nucleon present a sensitive test of nucleon models and QCD-inspired theories. A precise knowledge of the neutron form factors at low Q2 is also essential to reduce the systematic errors of parity violation experiments. At the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, the nucleon form factors have been measured by means of scattering of polarized electrons from vector-polarized hydrogen and deuterium. The experiment used the longitudinally polarized stored electron beam of the MIT-Bates South Hall Ring along with an isotopically pure, highly vector-polarized internal atomic hydrogen and deuterium target provided by an atomic beam source. The measurements have been carried out with the symmetric Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) with enhanced neutron detection capability.

  3. Viscoelastic Materials Study for the Mitigation of Blast-Related Brain Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Recent preliminary research into the causes of blast-related brain injury indicates that exposure to blast pressures, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficient to protect the warfighter from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. Commercially available viscoelastic materials, designed to dampen vibration caused by shock waves, might be useful as helmet liners to dampen blast waves. The objective of this research is to develop an experimental technique to test these commercially available materials when subject to blast waves and evaluate their blast mitigating behavior. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is being used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 1 to 500 psi) in a test fixture at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release nitrogen gas from the breech to impact instrumented targets. The targets consist of aluminum/ viscoelastic polymer/ aluminum materials. Blast attenuation is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

  4. Rice blast disease in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is an important agricultural commodity in Texas, with an economic impact of more than $1 billion annually. Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases in rice. Texas Rice Belt provides a warm, humid climate favorable for the infection and reproduction of M....

  5. Community response to blast noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward T. Nykaza; Larry L. Pater; Sanford Fidell; Paul Schomer

    2005-01-01

    Although community response to impulsive noise from military operations is usually discussed for NEPA-related purposes in terms of the prevalence of annoyance, it is managed on a local, daily basis in terms of numbers of recent complaints. Reconciling blast noise complaint rates with the annoyance predicted by dosage-effect analysis would be of considerable benefit to the Army, since it would

  6. Stress pulse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    McGlaun, M.

    1993-08-01

    This paper is an introductory discussion of stress pulse phenomena in simple solids and fluids. Stress pulse phenomena is a very rich and complex field that has been studied by many scientists and engineers. This paper describes the behavior of stress pulses in idealized materials. Inviscid fluids and simple solids are realistic enough to illustrate the basic behavior of stress pulses. Sections 2 through 8 deal with the behavior of pressure pulses. Pressure is best thought of as the average stress at a point. Section 9 deals with shear stresses which are most important in studying solids.

  7. Surface assessment and modification of concrete using abrasive blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millman, Lauren R.

    Composite systems are applied to concrete substrates to strengthen and extend the service life. Successful restoration or rehabilitation requires surface preparation prior to the application of the overlay. Surface coatings, waterproofing systems, and other external surface applications also require surface preparation prior to application. Abrasive blast media is often used to clean and uniformly roughen the substrate. The appropriate surface roughness is necessary to facilitate a strong bond between the existing substrate and overlay. Thus, surface modification using abrasive blast media (sand and dry ice), their respective environmental effects, surface roughness characterization prior to and after blasting, and the adhesion between the substrate and overlay are the focus of this dissertation. This dissertation is comprised of an introduction, a literature review, and four chapters, the first of which addresses the environmental effects due to abrasive blasting using sand, water, and dry ice. The assessment considered four response variables: carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel and energy consumption, and project duration. The results indicated that for sand blasting and water jetting, the primary factor contributing to environmental detriment was CO22 emissions from vehicular traffic near the construction site. The second chapter is an analysis of the International Concrete Repair Institute's (ICRI) concrete surface profiles (CSPs) using 3-D optical profilometry. The primary objective was to evaluate the suitability of approximating the 3-D surface (areal) parameters with those extracted from 2-D (linear) profiles. Four profile directions were considered: two diagonals, and lines parallel and transverse to the longitudinal direction of the mold. For any CSP mold, the estimation of the 3-D surface roughness using a 2-D linear profile resulted in underestimation and overestimation errors exceeding 50%, demonstrating the inadequacy of 2-D linear profiles to approximate the 3-D concrete surface profiles. The errors were reduced when a weighted average of the four linear profiles approximated the corresponding 3-D parameter. The following chapter considers the parametric and sensitivity of concrete surface topography measurements. The weighted average of the four 2-D profiles consistently resulted in underestimation of the corresponding 3-D parameters: the dispersion of surface elevations (Sq) and the roughness (Sa). Results indicated the 3-D parameter, Sq, had the least sensitivity to data point reduction. The final chapter investigated surface modification using dry ice and sand blasting. The overall objective was to evaluate the change in the 3-D surface roughness (Sa) following blasting as functions of mix design and as induced by freeze-thaw cycling, and to compare the results obtained using dry ice with those obtained using sand as the blasting media. In general, sand blasting produced larger changes in Sa compared to dry ice blasting for the concrete mix designs considered. The primary mechanism responsible for altering the surface topography of the concrete was the scaling of the superficial cement paste layer on the exposed surface, which was due to freeze-thaw cycling. The largest relative change in roughness following blasting occurred in the control samples, which had not undergone freeze-thaw cycling.

  8. Discrimination of earthquakes and quarry blasts in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y?lmaz, ?eyda; Bayrak, Yusuf; Ç?nar, Hakan

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, a large number of quarry blasts have been detonated in the eastern Black Sea region. When these blasts are recorded by seismic stations, they contaminate the regional earthquake catalog. It is necessary to discriminate quarry blast records from the earthquake catalogs in order to determine the real seismicity of the region. Earthquakes and quarry blasts can be separated through different methods. These methods should be applied concurrently in order to safely distinguish these events. In this study, we discriminated quarry blasts from earthquakes in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. We used 186 seismic events recorded by the Karadeniz Technical University and Bogaziçi University Kandilli Observatory Earthquake Research Institute stations which are Trabzon, Espiye, Pazar, Borçka, Ayd?ntepe, and Gümü?hane between years of 2002 and 2010. For the discrimination of quarry blasts from earthquakes, we used both, statistical methods (calculation of the maximum ratio of S to P waves (S/P), complexity ( C)) and spectral methods (spectrogram calculation). These methods included measuring the maximum amplitude S/P, C, spectral ratio, and time-frequency analysis. We especially relied on two-dimensional time-frequency analysis methods to discriminate quarry blasts from earthquakes in Turkey. As a result of this study, 68 % of the examined seismic events were determined to be quarry blasts and 32 % to be earthquakes. The earthquakes occurring on land are related to small faults and the blasts are concentrated in large quarries. Nearly 40 % of the earthquakes occurred in the Black Sea, most of them are related to the Black Sea thrust belt, where the largest earthquake was observed in the time period studied. The areas with the largest earthquake potential in the eastern Black Sea region are in the sea.

  9. Voluntary Alcohol Intake following Blast Exposure in a Rat Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yi Wei; Meyer, Nathan P; Shah, Alok S; Budde, Matthew D; Stemper, Brian D; Olsen, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a frequent comorbidity following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), even in patients without a previous history of alcohol dependence. Despite this correlational relationship, the extent to which the neurological effects of mTBI contribute to the development of alcoholism is unknown. In this study, we used a rodent blast exposure model to investigate the relationship between mTBI and voluntary alcohol drinking in alcohol naïve rats. We have previously demonstrated in Sprague Dawley rats that blast exposure leads to microstructural abnormalities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain regions that progress from four to thirty days. The mPFC is a brain region implicated in alcoholism and drug addiction, although the impact of mTBI on drug reward and addiction using controlled models remains largely unexplored. Alcohol naïve Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a blast model of mTBI (or sham conditions) and then tested in several common measures of voluntary alcohol intake. In a seven-week intermittent two-bottle choice alcohol drinking test, sham and blast exposed rats had comparable levels of alcohol intake. In a short access test session at the conclusion of the two-bottle test, blast rats fell into a bimodal distribution, and among high intake rats, blast treated animals had significantly elevated intake compared to shams. We found no effect of blast when rats were tested for an alcohol deprivation effect or compulsive drinking in a quinine adulteration test. Throughout the experiment, alcohol drinking was modest in both groups, consistent with other studies using Sprague Dawley rats. In conclusion, blast exposure had a minimal impact on overall alcohol intake in Sprague Dawley rats, although intake was increased in a subpopulation of blast animals in a short access session following intermittent access exposure. PMID:25910266

  10. Numerical simulation of armored vehicles subjected to undercarriage landmine blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, A.; Kilic, S. A.; Kilic, N.; Bedir, S.

    2015-05-01

    Landmine threats play a crucial role in the design of armored personnel carriers. Therefore, a reliable blast simulation methodology is valuable to the vehicle design development process. The first part of this study presents a parametric approach for the quantification of the important factors such as the incident overpressure, the reflected overpressure, the incident impulse, and the reflected impulse for the blast simulations that employ the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation. The effects of mesh resolution, mesh topology, and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) parameters are discussed. The simulation results are compared with the calculations of the more established CONventional WEaPons (CONWEP ) approach based on the available experimental data. The initial findings show that the spherical topology provides advantages over the Cartesian mesh domains. Furthermore, the FSI parameters play an important role when coarse Lagrangian finite elements are coupled with fine Eulerian elements at the interface. The optimum mesh topology and the mesh resolution of the parametric study are then used in the landmine blast simulation. The second part of the study presents the experimental blast response of an armored vehicle subjected to a landmine explosion under the front left wheel in accordance with the NATO AEP-55 Standard. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  11. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310 Section...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310 Section...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310 Section...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310 Section...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310 Section...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only...

  16. Vacuum Arc Anode Phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Craig Miller

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs. It discusses in succession the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during, and after formation of an anode spot; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the

  17. Transport phenomena in nanofluidics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reto B. Schoch; Jongyoon Han; Philippe Renaud

    2008-01-01

    The transport of fluid in and around nanometer-sized objects with at least one characteristic dimension below 100nm enables the occurrence of phenomena that are impossible at bigger length scales. This research field was only recently termed nanofluidics, but it has deep roots in science and technology. Nanofluidics has experienced considerable growth in recent years, as is confirmed by significant scientific

  18. Quantum phenomena in gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A. D.; Voronin, A. Yu.; Voronin, V. V.

    2011-10-01

    The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold antihydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of antihydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eötvös-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology.

  19. Search for New Phenomena in Dijet Angular Distributions in Proton-Proton Collisions at sqrt[s]=8??TeV Measured with the ATLAS Detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Álvarez Piqueras, D; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Bacci, C; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanco, J E; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, K; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Brown, J; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, L; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burghgrave, B; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Butt, A I; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, R; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Caloba, L P; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camacho Toro, R; Camarda, S; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Caminada, L M; Caminal Armadans, R; Campana, S

    2015-06-01

    A search for new phenomena in LHC proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s]=8??TeV was performed with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 17.3??fb^{-1}. The angular distributions are studied in events with at least two jets; the highest dijet mass observed is 5.5 TeV. All angular distributions are consistent with the predictions of the standard model. In a benchmark model of quark contact interactions, a compositeness scale below 8.1 TeV in a destructive interference scenario and 12.0 TeV in a constructive interference scenario is excluded at 95% C.L.; median expected limits are 8.9 TeV for the destructive interference scenario and 14.1 TeV for the constructive interference scenario. PMID:26196615

  20. Search for New Phenomena in Dijet Angular Distributions in Proton-Proton Collisions at s = 8 TeV Measured with the ATLAS Detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    none,

    2015-06-01

    A search for new phenomena in LHC proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of ?s=8 TeV was performed with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 17.3 fb?¹. The angular distributions are studied in events with at least two jets; the highest dijet mass observed is 5.5 TeV. All angular distributions are consistent with the predictions of the standard model. In a benchmark model of quark contact interactions, a compositeness scale below 8.1 TeV in a destructive interference scenario and 12.0 TeV in a constructive interference scenario is excluded at 95% C.L.; median expected limits are 8.9 TeV formore »the destructive interference scenario and 14.1 TeV for the constructive interference scenario.« less

  1. Search for New Phenomena in Dijet Angular Distributions in Proton-Proton Collisions at ?{s }=8 TeV Measured with the ATLAS Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.

    2015-06-01

    A search for new phenomena in LHC proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of ?{s }=8 TeV was performed with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 17.3 fb-1 . The angular distributions are studied in events with at least two jets; the highest dijet mass observed is 5.5 TeV. All angular distributions are consistent with the predictions of the standard model. In a benchmark model of quark contact interactions, a compositeness scale below 8.1 TeV in a destructive interference scenario and 12.0 TeV in a constructive interference scenario is excluded at 95% C.L.; median expected limits are 8.9 TeV for the destructive interference scenario and 14.1 TeV for the constructive interference scenario.

  2. Photographs of Blast Effects on Structures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    This photograph collection shows a wood-frame house located 1,100 meters from ground zero, exposed to a nuclear blast at the Nevada Test Site. The test was Upshot-Knothole Annie, a 16 Kt tower shot, on March 17, 1953. Exposure to thermal radiation was 25 cal/cm2, about one-quarter of that experienced at ground zero in Hiroshima. The blast over pressure was 5 psi, and the blast wave created surface winds of 160 mph.

  3. Comparative Study on Calculation Methods of Blasting Vibration Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qingguo; An, Yafang; Zhao, Lei; Li, Dewu; Yan, Liping

    2011-01-01

    Due to the extreme complexities in rock blasting and difficulties in theoretical or numerical analysis, and the enormous consumption of explosives in mining and construction operations, empirical or semi-empirical formulae for blasting vibration velocity (BVV) were obtained from observations and measurements in field blast tests and are still widely used all over the world. This paper investigates the fitting degree and characteristics of several calculation methods for BVV based on 34 sets of data samples from 27 projects belonging to 4 types. The results indicate that both the cube-root scaling formula and the square-root scaling formula have relatively good fitting degree, while the multiple regression analysis can give the best fitting outcome if the sample space satisfies certain requirements. Whether the cube-root scaling formula or the square-root scaling formula is chosen to analyze the relationship between BVV and scaled distance depends on the average scaled distance under cubic-root scaling. If the average scaled distance is over 0.1, the cube-root scaling formula should be used; otherwise, the square-root scaling formula should be used. Bigger samples integrated from data samples of different projects but in the same type were then analyzed to get the empirical relations for different types of projects. The correlation coefficients of these relations are quite good, thus these relations can be used for reference in other similar projects. This paper then discusses the physical meanings of parameters in different formulae, sample selection and parameter choice for BVV. It suggests that the current calculation methods for explosive charge, blasting-to-monitoring distance and scaled distance need to be improved. It also concludes that the integrated BVV from velocity components in three-dimensions is more reasonable on a theoretical basis. It can yield good results in predicting the blasting vibration, and should be used as widely as possible.

  4. Radial gas flow in the upper shaft and its influence on blast furnace performance

    SciTech Connect

    Beppler, E.; Kowalski, W.; Langner, K.; Wachsmuth, H. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Knowledge of and control of gas flow in the upper shaft and over the blast furnace radius is an important factor for constant optimization of blast furnace performance in terms of fuel consumption and productivity. Radial gas flow in the blast furnace is generally controlled by the radial distribution of burden and coke. However, there are other influencing variables which determine radial gas flow, in particular central gas flow: (a) Increased sinter degradation displaces the cohesive zone downwards, constricting the gas flow between the dead man and the cohesive zone. This hinders central gas flow. (b) Lower coke strengths also lead to deterioration in gas flow between the dead man and the cohesive zone and hence to decline in central gas flow. (c) Decreasing coke layers in the blast furnace hinder central gas flow. (d) Increasing coal injection rates produce higher coke degradation in the blast furnace and hence also hinder central gas flow. (e) High coal rates and lower CSR values lead to shortening of combustion zone, which hinders the gas flow to the blast furnace center. (f) Finally, increasing hot metal-slag levels divert the gas to the outside. As the significance of the question of the central gas flow is growing,and because radial gas flow at Thyssen Stahl AG can only be measured sporadically with an in-burden probe, an inclined probe (inclination 35{degree}) just above the stock line was developed for simultaneous temperature measurement and gas sampling at 9 points along the radius.

  5. Membrane Transport Phenomena (MTP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1997-01-01

    The third semi-annual period of the MTP project has been involved with performing experiments using the Membrane Transport Apparatus (MTA), development of analysis techniques for the experiment results, analytical modeling of the osmotic transport phenomena, and completion of a DC-9 microgravity flight to test candidate fluid cell geometries. Preparations were also made for the MTP Science Concept Review (SCR), held on 13 June 1997 at Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver. These activities are detailed in the report.

  6. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  7. Laboratory blast wave driven instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranz, Carolyn

    2008-11-01

    This presentation discusses experiments involving the evolution of hydrodynamic instabilities in the laboratory under high-energy-density (HED) conditions. These instabilities are driven by blast waves, which occur following a sudden, finite release of energy, and consist of a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. When a blast wave crosses an interface with a decrease in density, hydrodynamic instabilities will develop. Instabilities evolving under HED conditions are relevant to astrophysics. These experiments include target materials scaled in density to the He/H layer in SN1987A. About 5 kJ of laser energy from the Omega Laser facility irradiates a 150 ?m plastic layer that is followed by a low-density foam layer. A blast wave structure similar to those in supernovae is created in the plastic layer. The blast wave crosses an interface having a 2D or 3D sinusoidal structure that serves as a seed perturbation for hydrodynamic instabilities. This produces unstable growth dominated by the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the nonlinear regime. We have detected the interface structure under these conditions using x-ray backlighting. Recent advances in our diagnostic techniques have greatly improved the resolution of our x-ray radiographic images. Under certain conditions, the improved images show some mass extending beyond the RT spike and penetrating further than previously observed or predicted by current simulations. The observed effect is potentially of great importance as a source of mass transport to places not anticipated by current theory and simulation. I will discuss the amount of mass in these spike extensions, the associated uncertainties, and hypotheses regarding their origin We also plan to show comparisons of experiments using single mode and multimode as well as 2D and 3D initial conditions. This work is sponsored by DOE/NNSA Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058 (Stewardship Sciences Academic Alliances) and DE-FG52-04NA00064 (National Laser User Facility).

  8. Nucleon Form Factors from BLAST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kohl

    2009-01-01

    The BLAST (Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid) experiment has been carried out at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center to study spin-dependent electron scattering from protons and deuterons with small systematic uncertainties. The experiment used a longitudinally polarized, intense electron beam stored in the Bates South Hall Ring in combination with isotopically pure, highly-polarized internal targets of polarized hydrogen and vector-

  9. Air-blast atomization of non-Newtonian liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel Mansour; Norman Chigier

    1995-01-01

    Air-blast atomization of viscous non-Newtonian liquids was carried out using a co-axial twin-fluid atomizer. Both Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids were investigated with particular emphasis on the non-Newtonian rheological characteristics. Shear thinning, extension thinning and extension thickening fluids were investigated. Non-Newtonian shear viscosities were measured over five decades of shear rates ? for 12 solutions of polymeric materials. By using the

  10. Symmetry assessment of a gas turbine air-blast atomizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. McDonell; C. D. Cameron; G. S. Samuelsen

    1987-01-01

    The symmetry of three gas-turbine air-blast atomizers of identical design is assessed in an isothermal chamber using conventional and modern diagnostics. It is concluded that point spatially-resolved measurements of droplet size, droplet velocity, droplet SMD and size distribution, droplet number density and mass flux, and dilute phase velocity are required to assess the spray field symmetry of an atomizer. It

  11. Concussive brain injury from explosive blast

    PubMed Central

    de Lanerolle, Nihal C; Hamid, Hamada; Kulas, Joseph; Pan, Jullie W; Czlapinski, Rebecca; Rinaldi, Anthony; Ling, Geoffrey; Bandak, Faris A; Hetherington, Hoby P

    2014-01-01

    Objective Explosive blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is associated with a variety of symptoms including memory impairment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Explosive shock waves can cause hippocampal injury in a large animal model. We recently reported a method for detecting brain injury in soldiers with explosive blast mTBI using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). This method is applied in the study of veterans exposed to blast. Methods The hippocampus of 25 veterans with explosive blast mTBI, 20 controls, and 12 subjects with PTSD but without exposure to explosive blast were studied using MRSI at 7 Tesla. Psychiatric and cognitive assessments were administered to characterize the neuropsychiatric deficits and compare with findings from MRSI. Results Significant reductions in the ratio of N-acetyl aspartate to choline (NAA/Ch) and N-acetyl aspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) (P < 0.05) were found in the anterior portions of the hippocampus with explosive blast mTBI in comparison to control subjects and were more pronounced in the right hippocampus, which was 15% smaller in volume (P < 0.05). Decreased NAA/Ch and NAA/Cr were not influenced by comorbidities – PTSD, depression, or anxiety. Subjects with PTSD without blast had lesser injury, which tended to be in the posterior hippocampus. Explosive blast mTBI subjects had a reduction in visual memory compared to PTSD without blast. Interpretation The region of the hippocampus injured differentiates explosive blast mTBI from PTSD. MRSI is quite sensitive in detecting and localizing regions of neuronal injury from explosive blast associated with memory impairment. PMID:25493283

  12. Reactive Blast Waves from Composite Charges

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-10-16

    Investigated here is the performance of composite explosives - measured in terms of the blast wave they drive into the surrounding environment. The composite charge configuration studied here was a spherical booster (1/3 charge mass), surrounded by aluminum (Al) powder (2/3 charge mass) at an initial density of {rho}{sub 0} = 0.604 g/cc. The Al powder acts as a fuel but does not detonate - thereby providing an extreme example of a 'non-ideal' explosive (where 2/3 of the charge does not detonate). Detonation of the booster charge creates a blast wave that disperses the Al powder and ignites the ensuing Al-air mixture - thereby forming a two-phase combustion cloud embedded in the explosion. Afterburning of the booster detonation products with air also enhances and promotes the Al-air combustion process. Pressure waves from such reactive blast waves have been measured in bomb calorimeter experiments. Here we describe numerical simulations of those experiments. A Heterogeneous Continuum Model was used to model the dispersion and combustion of the Al particle cloud. It combines the gasdynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a dilute continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models of Khasainov. It incorporates a combustion model based on mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) was used to capture the energy-bearing scales of the turbulent flow on the computational grid, and to track/resolve reaction zones. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g and 10-kg composite charges were performed. Computed pressure histories (red curve) are compared with measured waveforms (black curves) in Fig. 1. Comparison of these results with a waveform for a non-combustion case in nitrogen (blue curve) demonstrates that a reactive blast wave was formed. Cross-sectional views of the temperature field at various times are presented in Fig. 2, which shows that the flow is turbulent. Initially, combustion occurs at the fuel-air interface, and the energy release rate is controlled by the rate of turbulent mixing. Eventually, oxidizer becomes distributed throughout the cloud via ballistic mixing of the particles with air; energy release then occurs in a distributed combustion mode, and Al particle kinetics controls the energy release rate. Details of the Heterogeneous Continuum Model and results of the numerical simulations of composite charge explosions will be described in the paper.

  13. Mine blast injuries: ocular and social aspects

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, W.; Khan, M. D.; Akbar, M; Khan, M. D.; Malik, A. M.; Durrani, O.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Landmines have long been used in conventional warfare. These are antipersonnel mines which continue to injure people long after a ceasefire without differentiating between friend or foe, soldier or civilian, women or children. This study focuses on Afghan non-combatants engaged in mine clearing operations in Afghanistan in the aftermath of the Russo-Afghan war. The patterns and types of injuries seen are described and experiences in their management, ways, and means to prevent them, and recommendations for the rehabilitation of the affected individuals are given.?METHODS—It is a retrospective and analytical study of 84 patients aged 19-56 years who sustained mine blast injuries during mine clearing operations in Afghanistan from November 1992 to January 1996. The study was carried out at a military hospital with tertiary care facilities. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their injuries. Group 1 required only general surgical attention, group 2 sustained only ocular injuries, while group 3 had combined ocular and general injuries. Patients in groups 2 and 3 were treated in two phases. The first phase aimed at immediate restoration of the anatomy, while restoration of function wherever possible was done in subsequent surgical procedures in the second phase.?RESULTS—It was observed that 51 out of 84 patients (60.7%) had sustained ocular trauma of a variable degree as a result of the blasts. The mean age of the victims was 29 years and they were all male. A total of 91 eyes of 51 patients (89.2%) had been damaged. Bilaterality of damage was seen in 40 (78.4%) patients. Most, 34 (37.3%), eyes became totally blind (NPL). Only a few escaped with injury mild enough not to impair vision. Foreign bodies, small and multiple, were found in the majority of eyes; most, however, were found in the anterior segment, and posterior segment injuries were proportionally less.?CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of blindness caused by mine blast injuries is quite high. The resulting psychosocial trauma to the patients and their families is tremendous and has not been adequately highlighted. These injuries are a great drain on the country's resources. Enforcement of preventive measures and the use of protective gear and sophisticated equipment by the mine clearing personnel would prove to be far more economical in terms of human life as well as medical and economic resources. There is also need for greater attention towards the establishment of support groups and rehabilitation programmes for these individuals.?? PMID:10837390

  14. Fluid dynamic aspects of jet noise generation. [noise measurement of jet blast effects from supersonic jet flow in convergent-divergent nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barra, V.; Panunzio, S.

    1976-01-01

    Jet engine noise generation and noise propagation was investigated by studying supersonic nozzle flow of various nozzle configurations in an experimental test facility. The experimental facility was constructed to provide a coaxial axisymmetric jet flow of unheated air. In the test setup, an inner primary flow exhausted from a 7 in. exit diameter convergent--divergent nozzle at Mach 2, while a secondary flow had a 10 in. outside diameter and was sonic at the exit. The large dimensions of the jets permitted probes to be placed inside the jet core without significantly disturbing the flow. Static pressure fluctuations were measured for the flows. The nozzles were designed for shock free (balanced) flow at Mach 2. Data processing techniques and experimental procedures were developed in order to study induced disturbances at the edge of the supersonic flows, and the propagation of those disturbances throughout the flows. Equipment used (specifications are given) to record acoustic levels (far field noise) is described. Results and conclusions are presented and discussed. Diagrams of the jet flow fields are included along with photographs of the test stand.

  15. Bayesian detection of acoustic muzzle blasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth D. Morton Jr.; Leslie Collins

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic detection of gunshots has many security and military applications. Most gunfire produces both an acoustic muzzle-blast signal as well as a high-frequency shockwave. However some guns do not propel bullets with the speed required to cause shockwaves, and the use of a silencer can significantly reduce the energy of muzzle blasts; thus, although most existing commercial and military gunshot

  16. Gasification of phosphorus in the blast furnace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Polulyakh; A. L. Petelin; V. Ya. Dashevskii; A. Ya. Travyanov; Yu. S. Yusfin

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of phosphorus in blast-furnace smelting requires further study, in order to determine its distribution among the products. It is conventional to assume that practically all the phosphorus supplied to the blast furnace with the batch enters the hot metal [1]. However, in recent balance calculations, estimates have been obtained for the ratio of the quantity of phosphorus supplied

  17. Zinc recovery from blast furnace flue dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Asadi Zeydabadi; D. Mowla; M. H. Shariat; J. Fathi Kalajahi

    1997-01-01

    Blast furnace flue dusts are a mixture of oxides expelled from the top of the blast furnace, whose major components are iron oxides. They also contain zinc, silicon, magnesium and other minor element oxides in lesser amounts. The direct recycling of flue dust is not usually possible since it contains some undesirable elements (zinc and alkaline metals) that can cause

  18. Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions

    SciTech Connect

    I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol'shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy

    2009-07-15

    Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

  19. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gao, Huizhen (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-12-14

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  20. Color changing photonic crystals detect blast exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, D. Kacy; Xu, Yongan; Reneer, Dexter V.; Browne, Kevin D.; Geddes, James W.; Yang, Shu; Smith, Douglas H.

    2010-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is the “signature wound” of the current wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, with no objective information of relative blast exposure, warfighters with bTBI may not receive appropriate medical care and are at risk of being returned to the battlefield. Accordingly, we have created a colorimetric blast injury dosimeter (BID) that exploits material failure of photonic crystals to detect blast exposure. Appearing like a colored sticker, the BID is fabricated in photosensitive polymers via multi-beam interference lithography. Although very stable in the presence of heat, cold or physical impact, sculpted micro- and nano-structures of the BID are physically altered in a precise manner by blast exposure, resulting in color changes that correspond with blast intensity. This approach offers a lightweight, power-free sensor that can be readily interpreted by the naked eye. Importantly, with future refinement this technology may be deployed to identify soldiers exposed to blast at levels suggested to be supra-threshold for non-impact blast-induced mild TBI. PMID:21040795

  1. Blast wave reflection from lightly destructible wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Golub; T. V. Bazhenova; O. A. Mirova; Y. L. Sharov; V. V. Volodin

    The paper presents the results of experimental study of the action of blast waves on the obstacle made of different materials.\\u000a The pressure in the front of reflected blast wave is compared in the cases of its interaction with a rigid metal wall and\\u000a the destructible wall made of weakly cemented sand.

  2. Building BLAST for Coprocessor Accelerators Using Macah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Weintraub

    Abstract The problem of detecting similarities between different genetic sequences is fun- damental to many,research pursuits in biology and genetics. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment and Search Tool) is the most commonly,used tool for identi- fying and assessing the significance of such similarities. With the quantity of available genetic sequence data rapidly increasing, improving the performance of the BLAST algorithm is

  3. Paint removal using wheat starch blast media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Foster; John Oestreich

    1993-01-01

    A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of

  4. What a gas: Blasting under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.

    1996-12-31

    This project consisted of blasting for expansion of a major interstate natural gas transmission pipeline pump station. The pump station handled 400--500 million cubic feet (11--14 million cubic meters) of gas per day. Site work blasting for the new 4,000 horsepower 200 ton (3,000 kW 180 tonnes) compressor engine and pump took place to within 24 feet (7.5 meters) of the existing operating unit. All trenching operations were within 20 feet (6 meters) of existing apparatus and lines, some of which were 30 inches (0,75 meter) diameter and carried 700 psi (4,800 kPa) pressure. This was the first time the owner had allowed blasting in such close proximity to large pressurized lines while the compressor station pump-engine continued operating. Two off-site incidents occurred between the time the blasting option was accepted and the start of operations that heightened valid owner and regulatory agency concerns. The first was a line break and resultant 10 acre (4 hectare) fire approximately 400 mile s(65 km) from the project site. The second was the bombing of the federal building in Oklahoma City. As a result, the owner and the local Fire Marshal`s office required an extensive, revised blasting safety and transportation plan. Blasting began furthest from the highest hazard. Vibration data and blast results were continually analyzed as blasting progressed, with necessary changes made prior to moving into the next zone.

  5. High resolution imaging of colliding blast waves in cluster media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Roland A.; Lazarus, James; Hohenberger, Matthias; Marocchino, Alberto; Robinson, Joseph S.; Chittenden, Jeremy P.; Moore, Alastair S.; Gumbrell, Edward T.; Dunne, Mike

    2007-12-01

    Strong shocks and blast wave collisions are commonly observed features in astrophysical objects such as nebulae and supernova remnants. Numerical simulations often underpin our understanding of these complex systems, however modelling of such extreme phenomena remains challenging, particularly so for the case of radiative or colliding shocks. This highlights the need for well-characterized laboratory experiments both to guide physical insight and to provide robust data for code benchmarking. Creating a sufficiently high-energy-density gas medium for conducting scaled laboratory astrophysics experiments has historically been problematic, but the unique ability of atomic cluster gases to efficiently couple to intense pulses of laser light now enables table top scale (1 J input energy) studies to be conducted at gas densities of >1019 particles cm-3 with an initial energy density >5 × 109 J g-1. By laser heating atomic cluster gas media we can launch strong (up to Mach 55) shocks in a range of geometries, with and without radiative precursors. These systems have been probed with a range of optical and interferometric diagnostics in order to retrieve electron density profiles and blast wave trajectories. Colliding cylindrical shock systems have also been studied, however the strongly asymmetric density profiles and radial and longitudinal mass flow that result demand a more complex diagnostic technique based on tomographic phase reconstruction. We have used the 3D magnetoresistive hydrocode GORGON to model these systems and to highlight interesting features such as the formation of a Mach stem for further study.

  6. Layered sacrificial claddings under blast loading Part II — experimental studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Guruprasad; Abhijit Mukherjee

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of sacrificial layer under blast loading. A number of blast experiments have been carried out on sacrificial layered claddings. The blast overpressures were recorded by two crystal-type blast pressure gauges. The deformations of the layers of the claddings were also recorded. The layers collapsed successively in the same manner as predicted in the analytical studies.

  7. Characterization of novel blast resistant genes for US rice breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blast resistance genes, such as Pi-ta, conveying resistance up to 8 common US races of the blast pathogen (Magnaporthe oryzae), have been used for 20 years in the US rice (Oryza sativa) industry. However, Pi-ta is susceptible to two known US races of blast. Race IE-1K has caused blast outbreaks in A...

  8. Predicting the effectiveness of blast wall barriers using neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex M. Remennikov; Timothy A. Rose

    2007-01-01

    Blast damage assessment of buildings and structural elements requires an accurate prediction of the blast loads in terms of the peak pressures and impulses. Blast loadings on structures have typically been evaluated using empirical relationships. These relationships assume that there are no obstacles between the explosive device and the target. If a blast barrier is used to protect personnel or

  9. Behavior of Silicone Sealants in Bomb Blast Mitigating Window Designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Yarosh; Gerald Braeuer; Sigurd Sitte

    2002-01-01

    The threat of terrorist attack impacts our lives every day. Because this threat is very real, we have seen the use of bomb blast mitigating window designs grow significantly in recent years. Effective bomb blast mitigating window designs allow the window system to withstand a moderate bomb blast without causing significant injury to building occupants from the blast itself or

  10. Numerical simulation of laser-target interaction and blast wave formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, John L., Jr.; Mulbrandon, Margaret; Hyman, Ellis

    1989-07-01

    A numerical hydrodynamics chemistry model to simulate the laser-target interaction experiment at the Naval Research Laboratory's PHAROS [Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena (Plenum, New York, 1986), Vol. 7, p. 857] is presented. Both laser-target and debris-background interactions are modeled, solving mass continuity, total momentum, and separate ion and electron internal energy equations. The model is appropriate for background densities?1 Torr. To accurately treat both the early-time planar ablation and the later spherical expansion of the blast wave, as well as the rear-side shock front, an oblate spheroidal coordinate system was adopted. The aluminum target ablates into and interacts with an ambient nitrogen gas, filling the facility chamber. The simulation models the target continuously from the solid state to the state of a highly ionized nonequilibrium plasma, including all charge states of aluminum and all charge states of the nitrogen background. The laser beam has a wavelength of 1 ?, a ˜5 nsec full width at half-maximum (FWHM), an intensity at the target surface ˜1013 W/cm2, and total energy varying from 20-100 J. The model accurately reproduces the measured time-of-flight profile and the mass of ablated aluminum. Expansion of the blast wave in the model follows the ideal Sedov relation until radiation losses force a deviation due to a failure in the constant energy assumption. In the shock wave region the simulations show electron density of a few times 1018 cm-3, temperatures ranging from 10-20 eV, and dominant nitrogen species of N+3 and N+4, all in agreement with experimental measurement. A calculated profile of electron density both in the shock and in the cavity region agree closely with experiment and imply an average aluminum charge state of 11 times ionized in the cavity out to late times, as predicted by the simulation described in this paper. The simulation suggests, also, that observed rear-side structuring is a result of a deceleration Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The model is capable of providing detailed predictions, which are presented, as to profiles of charge states, densities, and temperatures as a function of time; these predictions are not yet tested by experimental measurement.

  11. Aspects of blast resistant masonry design

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Blast resistant design should be examined for building code incorporation, due to the potential of explosions occurring in an industrial society. Specifically, public and commercial structures of concrete masonry construction need additional building code criteria, since these buildings have high density populations to protect. Presently, blast resistant design is accomplished by using government published manuals, but these do not address industry standard construction. A design air blast load of 4.54 kg (10 lbs) of TNT, located 0.91 m (3 ft) above ground surface and 30.48 m (100 ft) from a structure should be considered standard criteria. This loading would be sufficient to protect against blast, resist progressive failure, and yet not be an economic impediment. Design details and adequate inspection must be observed to ensure blast resistant integrity. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Fluid dynamics of the 1997 Boxing Day volcanic blast on Montserrat, West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposti Ongaro, T.; Clarke, A. B.; Neri, A.; Voight, B.; Widiwijayanti, C.

    2008-03-01

    Directed volcanic blasts are powerful explosions with a significant laterally directed component, which can generate devastating, high-energy pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Such blasts are an important class of eruptive phenomena, but quantified understanding of their dynamics and effects is still incomplete. Here we use 2-D and 3-D multiparticle thermofluid dynamic flow codes to examine a powerful volcanic blast that occurred on Montserrat in December 1997. On the basis of the simulations, we divide the blast into three phases: an initial burst phase that lasts roughly 5 s and involves rapid expansion of the gas-pyroclast mixture, a gravitational collapse phase that occurs when the erupted material fails to mix with sufficient air to form a buoyant column and thus collapses asymmetrically, and a PDC phase that is dominated by motion parallel to the ground surface and is influenced by topography. We vary key input parameters such as total gas energy and total solid mass to understand their influence on simulations, and we compare the simulations with independent field observations of damage and deposits, demonstrating that the models generally capture important large-scale features of the natural phenomenon. We also examine the 2-D and 3-D model results to estimate the flow Mach number and conclude that the range of damage sustained at villages on Montserrat can be reasonably explained by the spatial and temporal distribution of the dynamic pressure associated with subsonic PDCs.

  13. MULTISCALE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    A. BISHOP

    2000-09-01

    This project developed and supported a technology base in nonequilibrium phenomena underpinning fundamental issues in condensed matter and materials science, and applied this technology to selected problems. In this way the increasingly sophisticated synthesis and characterization available for classes of complex electronic and structural materials provided a testbed for nonlinear science, while nonlinear and nonequilibrium techniques helped advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of material microstructure, their evolution, fundamental to macroscopic functionalities. The project focused on overlapping areas of emerging thrusts and programs in the Los Alamos materials community for which nonlinear and nonequilibrium approaches will have decisive roles and where productive teamwork among elements of modeling, simulations, synthesis, characterization and applications could be anticipated--particularly multiscale and nonequilibrium phenomena, and complex matter in and between fields of soft, hard and biomimetic materials. Principal topics were: (i) Complex organic and inorganic electronic materials, including hard, soft and biomimetic materials, self-assembly processes and photophysics; (ii) Microstructure and evolution in multiscale and hierarchical materials, including dynamic fracture and friction, dislocation and large-scale deformation, metastability, and inhomogeneity; and (iii) Equilibrium and nonequilibrium phases and phase transformations, emphasizing competing interactions, frustration, landscapes, glassy and stochastic dynamics, and energy focusing.

  14. On the Propagation and Interaction of Spherical Blast Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics and the scaling laws of isolated spherical blast waves have been briefly reviewed. Both self-similar solutions and numerical solutions of isolated blast waves are discussed. Blast profiles in the near-field (strong shock region) and the far-field (weak shock region) are examined. Particular attention is directed at the blast overpressure and shock propagating speed. Consideration is also given to the interaction of spherical blast waves. Test data for the propagation and interaction of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure.

  15. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

  16. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Lee E.; Fisher, Andrew M.; Tagge, Chad A.; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A.; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W.; Goletiani, Cezar J.; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M.; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A.; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D.; Budson, Andrew E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F.; Moss, William C.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Stanton, Patric K.; McKee, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein–linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

  17. [Study on quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag].

    PubMed

    Yan, Ding-Liu; Guo, Pei-Min; Qi, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Chun-Xia; Wang, Hai-Feng; Dai, Xiao-Tian

    2008-02-01

    Quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline and crystalline contents in blast furnace slag was studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The process of quantificational analysis method includes standard samples preparation, samples preparation, X-ray diffraction measurement and data treatment. The data treatment includes integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks in certain diffraction angle range, linear fitting and quantificational coefficient determination. The preparation methods of standard samples for X-ray diffraction of blast furnace slag were proposed, including 100% crystalline sample and 100% non-crystalline sample. The 100% crystalline sample can be obtained by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1 000-1 200 degrees C, and the 100% non-crystalline sample can be obtained by quenching the molten slag with enough water. The X-ray diffraction method of quantificational analysis of non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag was proposed with the 100% non-crystalline and 100% crystalline standard samples, and the quantificational coefficient can be obtained by linear regression on the integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks of X-ray diffraction in the 2-theta range 20 degrees-40 degrees. This method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 80%. The non-crystalline and crystalline contents of original blast furnace slag are obtained by combining the X-ray diffraction results and mathematical treatment, and this method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 90%, whose process includes preparing the 100% crystalline standard sample by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1000-1200 degrees C, samples preparation with the 0.02 interval in the 0-0.1 mass ratio range of 100% crystalline to original slag, X-ray diffraction measurement of the samples prepared and data treatment using iterative linear regression. The quantificational analysis method for blast furnace slag can be applied to various kinds of blast furnace slag from different steel plants. PMID:18479048

  18. Prognostic value of day 14 blast percentage and the absolute blast index in bone marrow of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Visser, J H; Wessels, G; Hesseling, P B; Louw, I; Oberholster, E; Mansvelt, E P

    2001-01-01

    The product of the percentage blasts on the bone marrow aspirate (BMA) and the biopsy cellularity has been termed the "absolute blast index aspirate" (ABI-aspirate) and is used to measure disease response on day 7 of induction therapy. The authors compared the event-free survival (EFS) in high-risk and standard-risk patients as identified by the ABI-aspirate and the BMA percentage blasts on day 14 of induction therapy. Both indices identified high-risk cases. EFS of patients categorized as high-risk by these 2 methods and the high-risk criteria used by the authors' service (WCC of > 20 x 10(9)/L, age < 2 and > 8 years and a peripheral blood blast count of > 1.0 x 10(9)/L on day 8 of induction) did not differ. There was concordance between patients identified as high risk by all 3 methods. The results confirmed the prognostic value of the ABI-aspirate and the BMA percentage blasts on day 14 of induction therapy, but these methods were not superior to the high-risk criteria currently in use. PMID:11293286

  19. A Parametric Approach to Shape Field-Relevant Blast Wave Profiles in Compressed-Gas-Driven Shock Tube

    PubMed Central

    Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Chandra, Namas

    2014-01-01

    Detonation of a high-explosive produces shock-blast wave, shrapnel, and gaseous products. While direct exposure to blast is a concern near the epicenter, shock-blast can affect subjects, even at farther distances. When a pure shock-blast wave encounters the subject, in the absence of shrapnels, fall, or gaseous products the loading is termed as primary blast loading and is the subject of this paper. The wave profile is characterized by blast overpressure, positive time duration, and impulse and called herein as shock-blast wave parameters (SWPs). These parameters in turn are uniquely determined by the strength of high explosive and the distance of the human subjects from the epicenter. The shape and magnitude of the profile determine the severity of injury to the subjects. As shown in some of our recent works (1–3), the profile not only determines the survival of the subjects (e.g., animals) but also the acute and chronic biomechanical injuries along with the following bio-chemical sequelae. It is extremely important to carefully design and operate the shock tube to produce field-relevant SWPs. Furthermore, it is vital to identify and eliminate the artifacts that are inadvertently introduced in the shock-blast profile that may affect the results. In this work, we examine the relationship between shock tube adjustable parameters (SAPs) and SWPs that can be used to control the blast profile; the results can be easily applied to many of the laboratory shock tubes. Further, replication of shock profile (magnitude and shape) can be related to field explosions and can be a standard in comparing results across different laboratories. Forty experiments are carried out by judiciously varying SAPs such as membrane thickness, breech length (66.68–1209.68?mm), measurement location, and type of driver gas (nitrogen, helium). The effects SAPs have on the resulting shock-blast profiles are shown. Also, the shock-blast profiles of a TNT explosion from ConWep software is compared with the profiles obtained from the shock tube. To conclude, our experimental results demonstrate that a compressed-gas shock tube when designed and operated carefully can replicate the blast time profiles of field explosions accurately. Such a faithful replication is an essential first step when studying the effects of blast induced neurotrauma using animal models. PMID:25520701

  20. Attoheat transport phenomena

    E-print Network

    J. Marciak-Kozlowska; M. Pelc; M. A. Kozlowski

    2009-06-09

    Fascinating developments in optical pulse engineering over the last 20 years lead to the generation of laser pulses as short as few femtosecond, providing a unique tool for high resolution time domain spectroscopy. However, a number of the processes in nature evolve with characteristic times of the order of 1 fs or even shorter. Time domain studies of such processes require at first place sub-fs resolution, offered by pulse depicting attosecond localization. The generation, characterization and proof of principle applications of such pulses is the target of the attoscience. In the paper the thermal processes on the attosecond scale are described. The Klein-Gordon and Proca equations are developed. The relativistic effects in the heat transport on nanoscale are discussed. It is shown that the standard Fourier equation can not be valid for the transport phenomena induced by attosecond laser pulses. The heat transport in nanoparticles and nanotubules is investigated.

  1. Weld pool phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Zacharia, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); DebRoy, T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    During welding, the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure are affected by the interaction of the heat source with the metal. The interaction affects the fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer in the weld pool, and the solidification behavior of the weld metal. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of the weld pool transport processes and the solid state transformation reactions in determining the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure. The relation between the weld pool transport processes and the composition and structure is reviewed. Recent applications of various solidification theories to welding are examined to understand the special problems of weld metal solidification. The discussion is focussed on the important problems and issues related to weld pool transport phenomena and solidification. Resolution of these problems would be an important step towards a science based control of composition, structure and properties of the weld metal.

  2. Lidar and Triple-Wavelength Doppler Radar Measurements of the Melting Layer: A Revised Model for Dark-and Brightband Phenomena

    E-print Network

    Shupe, Matthew

    Lidar and Triple-Wavelength Doppler Radar Measurements of the Melting Layer: A Revised Model water-coated snowflakes that are high in the melting layer. The lidar dark band exclusively involves mixed-phase particles and is centered where the shrinking snowflakes collapse into raindrops--the point

  3. Fluid/Structure Interaction Computational Investigation of Blast-Wave Mitigation Efficacy of the Advanced Combat Helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Bell, W. C.; Pandurangan, B.; Glomski, P. S.

    2011-08-01

    To combat the problem of traumatic brain injury (TBI), a signature injury of the current military conflicts, there is an urgent need to design head protection systems with superior blast/ballistic impact mitigation capabilities. Toward that end, the blast impact mitigation performance of an advanced combat helmet (ACH) head protection system equipped with polyurea suspension pads and subjected to two different blast peak pressure loadings has been investigated computationally. A fairly detailed (Lagrangian) finite-element model of a helmet/skull/brain assembly is first constructed and placed into an Eulerian air domain through which a single planar blast wave propagates. A combined Eulerian/Lagrangian transient nonlinear dynamics computational fluid/solid interaction analysis is next conducted in order to assess the extent of reduction in intra-cranial shock-wave ingress (responsible for TBI). This was done by comparing temporal evolutions of intra-cranial normal and shear stresses for the cases of an unprotected head and the helmet-protected head and by correlating these quantities with the three most common types of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), i.e., axonal damage, contusion, and subdural hemorrhage. The results obtained show that the ACH provides some level of protection against all investigated types of mTBI and that the level of protection increases somewhat with an increase in blast peak pressure. In order to rationalize the aforementioned findings, a shockwave propagation/reflection analysis is carried out for the unprotected head and helmet-protected head cases. The analysis qualitatively corroborated the results pertaining to the blast-mitigation efficacy of an ACH, but also suggested that there are additional shockwave energy dissipation phenomena which play an important role in the mechanical response of the unprotected/protected head to blast impact.

  4. FREE-AIR ATOMIC BLAST PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Haskell; R. M. Brubaker

    1954-01-01

    Studies were made to determine the free-air peak overpressure vs. ; distance curve for air bursts at overpressure below those covered by existing ; data, the path of the triple point at high altitudes, and the relative strengths ; of the free-air and reflected shocks above the triple point and of tbe Mach shock ; below the triple point. The

  5. Installation of Standalone BLAST on Windows PC A suite of programs for performing BLAST sequence alignment locally against custom datasets

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    and their intended platforms. BLAST+ Packages Intended operating system ncbi-blast-#.#.#+-3.i686.rpm 32-bit linux rpm package ncbi-blast-#.#.#+-3.x86_64.rpm 64-bit linux rpm package ncbi-blast-#.#.#+-ia32-linux.tar.gz 32-bit Linux platform ncbi-blast-#.#.#+-ia32-win32.tar.gz 32-bit Windows, equivalent to win32.exe ncbi

  6. ScalaBLAST 2.0: rapid and robust BLAST calculations on multiprocessor systems

    PubMed Central

    Oehmen, Christopher S.; Baxter, Douglas J.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: BLAST remains one of the most widely used tools in computational biology. The rate at which new sequence data is available continues to grow exponentially, driving the emergence of new fields of biological research. At the same time, multicore systems and conventional clusters are more accessible. ScalaBLAST has been designed to run on conventional multiprocessor systems with an eye to extreme parallelism, enabling parallel BLAST calculations using >16 000 processing cores with a portable, robust, fault-resilient design that introduces little to no overhead with respect to serial BLAST. Availability: ScalaBLAST 2.0 source code can be freely downloaded from http://omics.pnl.gov/software/ScalaBLAST.php. Contact: christopher.oehmen@pnl.gov PMID:23361326

  7. Acceleration of Ungapped Extension in Mercury BLAST

    PubMed Central

    Buhler, Jeremy; Chamberlain, Roger D.

    2007-01-01

    The amount of biosequence data being produced each year is growing exponentially. Extracting useful information from this massive amount of data efficiently is becoming an increasingly difficult task. There are many available software tools that molecular biologists use for comparing genomic data. This paper focuses on accelerating the most widely used such tool, BLAST. Mercury BLAST takes a streaming approach to the BLAST computation by off loading the performance-critical sections to specialized hardware. This hardware is then used in combination with the processor of the host system to deliver BLAST results in a fraction of the time of the general-purpose processor alone. This paper presents the design of the ungapped extension stage of Mercury BLAST. The architecture of the ungapped extension stage is described along with the context of this stage within the Mercury BLAST system. The design is compact and runs at 100 MHz on available FPGAs, making it an effective and powerful component for accelerating biosequence comparisons. The performance of this stage is 25× that of the standard software distribution, yielding close to 50× performance improvement on the complete BLAST application. The sensitivity is essentially equivalent to that of the standard distribution. PMID:20160873

  8. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  9. Lidar and radar measurements of the melting layer in the frame of the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study: observations of dark and bright band phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Bhawar, R.; di Iorio, T.; Norton, E. G.; Peters, G.; Dufournet, Y.

    2011-11-01

    During the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS), lidar dark and bright bands were observed by the University of BASILicata Raman lidar system (BASIL) during several intensive (IOPs) and special (SOPs) observation periods (among others, 23 July, 15 August, and 17 August 2007). Lidar data were supported by measurements from the University of Hamburg cloud radar MIRA 36 (36 GHz), the University of Hamburg dual-polarization micro rain radars (24.1 GHz) and the University of Manchester UHF wind profiler (1.29 GHz). Results from BASIL and the radars for 23 July 2007 are illustrated and discussed to support the comprehension of the microphysical and scattering processes responsible for the appearance of the lidar and radar dark and bright bands. Simulations of the lidar dark and bright band based on the application of concentric/eccentric sphere Lorentz-Mie codes and a melting layer model are also provided. Lidar and radar measurements and model results are also compared with measurements from a disdrometer on ground and a two-dimensional cloud (2DC) probe on-board the ATR42 SAFIRE.

  10. METHODS FOR MONITORING HEAT FLOW INTENSITY IN THE BLAST FURNACE WALL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Terpák; L. Pivka

    In this paper we present the main features of an online system for real-time monitoring of the bottom part of the blast furnace. Firstly, monitoring concerns the furnace walls and furnace bottom temperatures measure- ment and their visualization. Secondly, monitored are the heat flows of the furnace walls and furnace bottom. In the case of two measured temperatures, the heat

  11. Blast characteristics and TNT equivalence values for some commercial explosives detonated at ground level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Formby; R. K. Wharton

    1996-01-01

    We report measurement of the pressure-time profiles produced by the initiation at ground level of four common commercial sector explosives with different detonation velocities. The results indicate that there are no significant differences in the blast waveshapes from the explosives when measured at distances of 25 and 50 m from the initiation point. Analysis of both peak overpressure and positive

  12. Dry media blasting with wheat starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    The brand name TECHNOSTRIP covers several types of installations and facilities. These were developed mainly to meet the requirements of customers in the aeronautic field. The range of products includes: complete self-supporting and semi-automated system for aircraft stripping; large-size blasting booth for semi-automatic stripping; manual blasting booth; and sealed and portable manual stripping head. Wheat starch media was developed for particle blasting stripping and is used in TECHNOSTRIP. This paper reviews its origins and use as well as use of automated facilities, reliability, effects on materials, effects on environment, and utilization examples.

  13. CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Initial tests with CO{sub 2} pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO{sub 2} blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report.

  14. Operation Sun Beam, Shots Little Feller II and Small Boy. Project Officer's report - Project 7. 16. Airborne E-field radiation measurements of electromagnetic-pulse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, K.L.

    1985-09-01

    Airborne measurements of the absolute vertical electric field (E-field) of the radiated electromagnetic pulse were attempted for Shots Little Feller II and Small Boy. Instrumentation included calibrated vertical whip antennas, wideband magnetic tape recorders, and photographs of oscilloscope traces. One instrumented aircraft participated in Little Feller II (C-131F); two aircraft participated in Small Boy (a C-131F and an A-3A). No detectable signals were recorded for either event. It is concluded that the vertical E-field intensities encountered were below the calibrated levels of the instrumentation or the method of instrumentation and calibration was inadequate for nonrepetitive pulse signals.

  15. Blast-Induced Tinnitus and Hearing Loss in Rats: Behavioral and Imaging Assays

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Johnny C.; Pace, Edward; Pierozynski, Paige; Kou, Zhifeng; Shen, Yimin; VandeVord, Pamela; Haacke, E. Mark; Zhang, Xueguo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The current study used a rat model to investigate the underlying mechanisms of blast-induced tinnitus, hearing loss, and associated traumatic brain injury (TBI). Seven rats were used to evaluate behavioral evidence of tinnitus and hearing loss, and TBI using magnetic resonance imaging following a single 10-msec blast at 14?psi or 194 dB sound pressure level (SPL). The results demonstrated that the blast exposure induced early onset of tinnitus and central hearing impairment at a broad frequency range. The induced tinnitus and central hearing impairment tended to shift towards high frequencies over time. Hearing threshold measured with auditory brainstem responses also showed an immediate elevation followed by recovery on day 14, coinciding with behaviorally-measured results. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging results demonstrated significant damage and compensatory plastic changes to certain auditory brain regions, with the majority of changes occurring in the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body. No significant microstructural changes found in the corpus callosum indicates that the currently adopted blast exposure mainly exerts effects through the auditory pathways rather than through direct impact onto the brain parenchyma. The results showed that this animal model is appropriate for investigation of the mechanisms underlying blast-induced tinnitus, hearing loss, and related TBI. Continued investigation along these lines will help identify pathology with injury/recovery patterns, aiding development of effective treatment strategies. PMID:21933015

  16. Ground Deformation Analysis of Blast-Induced Liquefaction at a Simulated Airport Infrastructure Using High Resolution 3D Laser Scanning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Minasian; R. Kayen; S. Ashford; Y. Kawamata; T. Sugano

    2008-01-01

    In October 2007, the Port and Airport Research Institute (PARI) of the Japan Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation conducted a large-scale blast-induced liquefaction experiment in Ishikari, Hokkaido, Japan. Approximately 24,000 m2 of ground was liquefied using controlled blasting techniques to investigate the performance of airport infrastructure. The USGS and Oregon State University participated in the study and measured topographic

  17. Numerical simulations of near-field blast effects using kinetic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuscamman, S. J.; Manner, V. W.; Brown, G. W.; Glascoe, L. G.

    2014-05-01

    Numerical simulations using two hydrocodes were compared to near-field measurements of blast impulse associated with ideal and non-ideal explosives to gain insight into testing results and predict untested configurations. The recently developed kinetic plate test was designed to measure blast impulse in the near-field by firing spherical charges in close range from steel plates and probing plate acceleration using laser velocimetry. Plate velocities for ideal, non-ideal and aluminized explosives tests were modeled using a three dimensional hydrocode. The effects of inert additives in the explosive formulation were modeled using a 1-D hydrocode with multiphase flow capability using Lagrangian particles. The relative effect of particle impact on the plate compared to the blast wave impulse is determined and modeling is compared to free field pressure results.

  18. The Role of Family Phenomena in Posttraumatic Stress in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Deatrick, Janet A.

    2010-01-01

    Topic Youth face trauma that can cause posttraumatic stress (PTS). Purpose 1). To identify the family phenomena used in youth PTS research; and 2). Critically examine the research findings regarding the relationship between family phenomena and youth PTS. Sources Systematic literature review in PsycInfo, PILOTS, CINAHL, and MEDLINE. Twenty-six empirical articles met inclusion criteria. Conclusion Measurement of family phenomena included family functioning, support, environment, expressiveness, relationships, cohesion, communication, satisfaction, life events related to family, parental style of influence, and parental bonding. Few studies gave clear conceptualization of family or family phenomena. Empirical findings from the 26 studies indicate inconsistent empirical relationships between family phenomena and youth PTS, though a majority of the prospective studies support a relationship between family phenomena and youth PTS. Future directions for leadership by psychiatric nurses in this area of research and practice are recommended. PMID:21344778

  19. Superlattice Phenomena in Nanohelices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downing, Charles; Robinson, Matthew; Portnoi, Mikhail; University of Exeter Team

    2015-03-01

    Recently artificially-created nanohelices have been demonstrated in various semiconductor systems. We argue that subjecting a nanohelix to an electric field normal to its axis turns it into a superlattice with easily-tunable electronic properties. We investigate such a system, also subjected to a longitudinal electric field along the nanotube axis, and find Bloch oscillations and negative differential conductivity. Taking into account Zener tunneling across the band gap, we find the characteristic N-type dependence of electron drift velocity on the longitudinal field which is commonly used in high-frequency electronics. The merits of using a nanohelix for novel tunable device applications are assessed. We also study dipole transitions across the energy gap, which can be tuned to the THz range by experimentally attainable external fields. There is a drastic change in selection rules for a helix in a transverse field compared to the case of purely chiral structures. For the excitation propagating along the nanohelix axis our results are somewhat similar to those found for a quantum ring pierced by a magnetic flux, with the momentum of a quasiparticle in a helix playing the same role as a flux through a ring. We also discuss possible devices which could utilize these phenomena.

  20. ON DETECTING TRANSIENT PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, G., E-mail: gbelanger@sciops.esa.int [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESA/ESAC), Science Operations Department, Villanueva de la Canada (Madrid) (Spain)

    2013-08-10

    Transient phenomena are interesting and potentially highly revealing of details about the processes under observation and study that could otherwise go unnoticed. It is therefore important to maximize the sensitivity of the method used to identify such events. In this article, we present a general procedure based on the use of the likelihood function for identifying transients which is particularly suited for real-time applications because it requires no grouping or pre-processing of the data. The method makes use of all the information that is available in the data throughout the statistical decision-making process, and is suitable for a wide range of applications. Here we consider those most common in astrophysics, which involve searching for transient sources, events or features in images, time series, energy spectra, and power spectra, and demonstrate the use of the method in the case of a weak X-ray flare in a time series and a short-lived quasi-periodic oscillation in a power spectrum. We derive a fit statistic that is ideal for fitting arbitrarily shaped models to a power density distribution, which is of general interest in all applications involving periodogram analysis.

  1. Arcjet cathode phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  2. Arcjet Cathode Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  3. Discrimination between magmatic and hydrothermal nature of the sources responsible for the unrest phenomena at Yellowstone caldera via integrated model of InSAR time series, leveling and gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizzani, Pietro; Battaglia, Maurizio; Castaldo, Raffaele; Pepe, Antonio; Zeni, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    We studied the Yellowstone caldera geological unrest between 1977 and 2010 by investigating temporal changes in differential InSAR, precise spirit leveling and gravity measurements. In particular, we start by investigating the InSAR results obtained through the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) differential InSAR technique, applied to a data set of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT SAR images spanning 18 years, from 1992 to 2010. Moreover, we analyze the leveling data, which cover an additional time period of about 19 years from 1976 to 1995, and the gravity measurements that span the interval from 1977 to 1993. Inverting InSAR, leveling and gravity measurements infer parameters of the caldera best-fitting deformation sources by using the dMODELS software package. Compared to previous work on Yellowstone caldera, (i) we present long-term deformation time series derived from InSAR and their comparison to GPS results, (ii) we identify and remove the tectonic signal from the retrieved time-series, (iii) we jointly exploit InSAR, leveling and gravity measurements to investigate the deformation sources geometric characteristics and their densities; to do this we search for the best fit deformation source identified by inverting more than one source geometry and we use statistical analysis to discriminate among different geometries. Our study indicates the existence of different distinct deformation sources within the caldera and we show that the detected sources have been intermittently active for the past three decades. We interpret the results of our inversions in view of the seismic tomography studies. This allows us to discriminate between the magmatic and the hydrothermal nature of the sources responsible for the unrest phenomena that affected the Sour Creek (SC) and Mallard (ML) Dome resurgent caldera domes during the last three decades. Our study indicates the existence of different distinct deformation sources within the caldera and we show that the detected sources have been intermittently active for the past three decades. We interpret the results of our inversions in view of the seismic tomography studies. This allows us to discriminate between the magmatic and the hydrothermal nature of the sources responsible for the unrest phenomena that affected the SC and ML resurgent caldera domes during the last three decades.

  4. Economical solutions to blast mitigation on bridges

    E-print Network

    DeRogatis, Austin (Austin Patrick)

    2008-01-01

    Mitigating the energy created from a blast has been a topic of utmost importance in the terrorism-feared world of today. Main targets of concern are passageways that are significant to a specific area, such as bridges. ...

  5. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...with the miner outside the device. (b) Underground areas of underground mines. Silica sand or other materials containing more than 1 percent free silica shall not be used as an abrasive substance in abrasive blasting. [59 FR 8327,...

  6. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...with the miner outside the device. (b) Underground areas of underground mines. Silica sand or other materials containing more than 1 percent free silica shall not be used as an abrasive substance in abrasive blasting. [59 FR 8327,...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (b) Loading tubes and casings of dissimilar metals shall not be used because of possible electric transient currents from galvanic action of the metals and water. (c) Only water-resistant blasting caps and detonating cords shall...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (b) Loading tubes and casings of dissimilar metals shall not be used because of possible electric transient currents from galvanic action of the metals and water. (c) Only water-resistant blasting caps and detonating cords shall...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (b) Loading tubes and casings of dissimilar metals shall not be used because of possible electric transient currents from galvanic action of the metals and water. (c) Only water-resistant blasting caps and detonating cords shall...

  10. Cell adhesion and related phenomena on the surface-modified Au-deposited nerve microelectrode examined by total impedance measurement and cell detachment tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Cheng-Hung; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Ju, Ming-Shaung; Lin, Chou-Ching K.

    2006-05-01

    This study investigated alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of varied chain lengths adsorbed upon novel Au-coated microelectrodes, of which the surface properties were quantitatively evaluated by surface characterization and 3T3 fibroblast cell adhesion, total impedance and cell detachment tests. Thin-film SAMs adsorbed upon Au/PI/Si provided a hydrophobic or passive surface with increased water contact angle and initial total impedance. From cell adhesion tests, we can observe that the film formed as a dense-packed spacer resulted in incomplete cell sealing of 3T3 cells upon the surface-modified microelectrode. Thus the decrease in cell coverage rate and in the slope in association with total impedance as a function of cell-surface reaction time can be found. To study the adhesion force of a comparable single cell attached upon varied modified surfaces, a cell detachment test using a triangular probe tip of a well defined cantilever was carried out in medium containing fibroblast cells. Overall, both the peak force and the work required to detach a comparable single cell from the anchoring domain corresponded well to the increased length of alkyl chains adsorbed upon Au/PI/Si. Both measurements on the SAM modified surfaces demonstrated much smaller values than those on the pristine Au/PI/Si surface. These results concluded that a cell-repulsive characteristic was clearly formed on the SAM modified microelectrode surface. The non-adhering properties of surface-modified microelectrodes should provide better sensitivity for neuromuscular stimulation as well as for the recording of infinitesimal neural signals in future applications of neural prostheses.

  11. Baryon Loaded Relativistic Blast Waves in Supernovae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sayan Chakraborti; Alak Ray

    2011-01-01

    We provide a new analytic blast wave solution which generalizes the Blandford-McKee solution to arbitrary ejecta masses and Lorentz factors. Until recently relativistic supernovae have been discovered only through their association with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The blast waves of such explosions are well described by the Blandford-McKee (in the ultra-relativistic regime) and Sedov-Taylor (in the non-relativistic regime) solutions during

  12. Rice Blast Genomics: K12 Outreach

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This outreach component of the Rice Blast Project provides online genomics activities for high-school students. A lab manual is also offered free of charge to teachers of high-school biology in North Carolina, Texas, Kentucky, Arizona, Virginia, and Indiana. The Rice Blast Project is a collaboration of scientists from North Carolina State University, Texas A&M University, University of Kentucky, University of Arizona, Purdue University, Ohio State University, and Virginia Bioinformatics Institute.

  13. Lightweight Energy Absorbers for Blast Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balles, Donald L.; Ingram, Thomas M.; Novak, Howard L.; Schricker, Albert F.

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic-energy-absorbing liners made of aluminum foam have been developed to replace solid lead liners in blast containers on the aft skirt of the solid rocket booster of the space shuttle. The blast containers are used to safely trap the debris from small explosions that are initiated at liftoff to sever frangible nuts on hold-down studs that secure the spacecraft to a mobile launch platform until liftoff.

  14. Blast injuries: mechanics and wounding patterns.

    PubMed

    Covey, Dana C; Born, Christopher T

    2010-01-01

    Blast and fragment injuries are the most frequently encountered wounds in modern warfare. Explosive devices have become the preferred weapon of domestic and foreign terrorists because they are relatively inexpensive to manufacture and can cause substantial casualties. Although blast injuries have traditionally been associated with the battlefield, this type of trauma is being seen more commonly today among noncombatants due to increasing worldwide terrorism. PMID:20371000

  15. Space shuttle holddown post blast shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larracas, F. B.

    1991-01-01

    The original and subsequent designs of the Solid Rocket Booster/Holddown Post blast shield assemblies and their associated hardware are described. It presents the major problems encountered during their early use in the Space Shuttle Program, during the Return-to-Flight Modification Phase, and during their fabrication and validation testing phases. The actions taken to correct the problems are discussed, along with the various concepts now being considered to increase the useful life of the blast shield.

  16. Detecting Residues On Grit-Blasted Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, H. L.; Zook, L. M.

    1989-01-01

    Addition of fluorescent or iridescent material to plastic grit particles proposed for detection of grit residues after grit-blast cleaning. Residual films visible by observing grit-blasted surfaces under infrared or ultraviolet light. Plastic grit contains fluorescent or iridescent additive in core and coating. Wherever grit material becomes embedded, additive makes it visible under infrared or ultraviolet light. Applicable to other grit materials, for example fluorescent or iridescent materials added to particles of glass, silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, or zirconium silicate.

  17. BLAST: a machine architecture for high-speed list processing using associative tables

    SciTech Connect

    Sohi, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of nonnumeric processing languages such as LISP, there has been an increasing demand for machine architectures that are ideally suited to run such languages. Access to the main data structure used in LISP systems, i.e., list structures, is not conducive to a pipelined machine organization. In this thesis, the BLAST machine architecture is presented for the efficient execution of LISP and other list processing languages similar to LISP. The main feature of the BLAST architecture is the way in which lists are represented. First, representation of lists in a logical space and their mapping onto Exception Tables (ETs) are discussed. This ET representation for lists has the potential to achieve a substantial reduction in the memory space required to represent the list structure over conventional representations. Second, the actual BLAST machine architecture and some major traversal algorithms are presented. Next, the author discusses some of the major tasks carried out in a list processing environment and shows how they could be executed efficiently on BLAST. Last, he carries an evaluation of the BLAST architecture and discusses the various tradeoffs based on measurements of LISP program behavior carried out by previous researchers. The most important parameter influencing the performance of the architecture, the frequency of forwarding pointers, is discussed.

  18. Visualization of explosion phenomena using a high-speed video camera with an uncoupled objective lens by fiber-optic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuoka, Nobuyuki; Miyoshi, Hitoshi; Kusano, Hideaki; Hata, Hidehiro; Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhito; Yasushi, Kondo

    2008-11-01

    Visualization of explosion phenomena is very important and essential to evaluate the performance of explosive effects. The phenomena, however, generate blast waves and fragments from cases. We must protect our visualizing equipment from any form of impact. In the tests described here, the front lens was separated from the camera head by means of a fiber-optic cable in order to be able to use the camera, a Shimadzu Hypervision HPV-1, for tests in severe blast environment, including the filming of explosions. It was possible to obtain clear images of the explosion that were not inferior to the images taken by the camera with the lens directly coupled to the camera head. It could be confirmed that this system is very useful for the visualization of dangerous events, e.g., at an explosion site, and for visualizations at angles that would be unachievable under normal circumstances.

  19. Highly effective thin-walled hexagonal checker parts for blast furnace hot-blast stoves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Primachenko; R. S. Shulyak; V. L. Bulakh; V. V. Martynenko; N. M. Anzheurov; V. D. Troyan; V. Ya. Sakulin; M. Z. Noginskii

    1987-01-01

    Conclusions Experimental lots of thin-walled hexagonal checker parts with a specific heating surface of 48 m2\\/m3 for high-temperature blast furnace hot blast-stoves were produced under production conditions, chamotte ones at Borovichi Refractory Combine, mullite-corundum ones at Zaporozhe and Semiluki Refractory Plants, and dinas at Pervouralsk Dinas Plant.

  20. Blast Resistance and Damage Modelling of Fibre Metal Laminates to Blast Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Galal F. A.; Soutis, Costas; Hodzic, Alma

    2012-06-01

    A robust and efficient computational model has been developed which is capable of modelling the dynamic non-linear behaviour of GLARE panels subjected to blast loadings. Numerical model validation have been performed considering case studies of GLARE panels subjected to a blast-type pressure pulse for which experimental data on the back-face deflection and post-damage observations were available. Excellent agreement of mid-point deflections and evidence of severe yield line deformation were shown and discussed against the performed blast tests. A further parametric study identified GLARE as a potential blast attenuating structure, exhibiting superior blast potential against monolithic aluminium plates. It was concluded that further work needed to be carried out to take into account the influence of geometry (cylindrical structures), pre-pressurisation effects and boundary conditions

  1. Air blast reflecting on a rigid cylinder: simulation and reduced scale experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlet, A.; Souli, M.; Aquelet, N.; Pennetier, O.; Girault, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Multi-Material ALE formulation is applied to simulate the propagation of an air blast through the atmosphere, and its reflection on an assumed rigid cylindrical obstacle. The mathematical and numerical implementations of this formulation are presented. In order to validate the formulation and prove its ability to capture the propagation and reflection of high pressure waves, comparisons of the simulations with the experimental blast pressure measured on an assumed rigid cylinder are performed. The simulation conducted via the presented models and methods gives good predictions for pressure time histories recorded on the rigid cylinder.

  2. Histologic and biomechanical evaluation of 2 resorbable-blasting media implant surfaces at early implantation times.

    PubMed

    Marin, Charles; Bonfante, Estevam A; Jeong, Ryan; Granato, Rodrigo; Giro, Gabriela; Suzuki, Marcelo; Heitz, Claiton; Coelho, Paulo G

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated 3 implant surfaces in a dog model: (1) resorbable-blasting media + acid-etched (RBMa), alumina-blasting + acid-etching (AB/AE), and AB/AE + RBMa (hybrid). All of the surfaces were minimally rough, and Ca and P were present for the RBMa and hybrid surfaces. Following 2 weeks in vivo, no significant differences were observed for torque, bone-to-implant contact, and bone-area fraction occupied measurements. Newly formed woven bone was observed in proximity with all surfaces. PMID:23964778

  3. Chemical changes of lakes within the Mount St. Helens blast zone

    SciTech Connect

    Wissmar, R.C.; Devol, A.H.; Nevissi, A.E.; Sedell, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Differences in the dissolved chemistry of lakes devastated by the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens are attributable to location relative to the lateral blast trajectory of the eruption and to the emplacement of mineral deposits. Elemental enrichment ratios of pre- and posteruption measurements for Spirit Lake and comparisons of the chemical concentrations and elemental ratios for lakes inside and outside the blast zone reflect the influences of the dissolution of magmatic and lithic deposits. The pH changes were minor because of buffering by carbonic acid and reactions involving mineral alteration, dissolved organics, and biological processes.

  4. Chemical changes of lakes within the mount st. Helens blast zone.

    PubMed

    Wissmar, R C; Devol, A H; Nevissi, A E; Sedell, J R

    1982-04-01

    Differences in the dissolved chemistry of lakes devastated by the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens are attributable to location relative to the lateral blast trajectory of the eruption and to the emplacement of mineral deposits. Elemental enrichment ratios of pre- and posteruption measurements for Spirit Lake and comparisons of the chemical concentrations and elemental ratios for lakes inside and outside the blast zone reflect the influences of the dissolution of magmatic and lithic deposits. The pH changes were minor because of buffering by carbonic acid and reactions involving mineral alteration, dissolved organics, and biological processes. PMID:17736248

  5. Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Mary R; Durgerian, Sally; Mourany, Lyla; Scheibel, Randall S; Lowe, Mark J; Beall, Erik B; Koenig, Katherine A; Parsons, Michael; Troyanskaya, Maya; Reece, Christine; Wilde, Elisabeth; Fischer, Barbara L; Jones, Stephen E; Agarwal, Rajan; Levin, Harvey S; Rao, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes). Little is also known about the effects of blast TBI on neural networks, particularly over the long term. Because impairment in working memory has been linked to blunt-force TBI, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study sought to investigate whether brain activation in response to a working memory task would discriminate blunt-force from blast TBI. Twenty-five veterans (mean age = 29.8 years, standard deviation = 6.01 years, 1 female) who incurred TBI due to blast an average of 4.2 years prior to enrollment and 25 civilians (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 6.68 years, 4 females) with TBI due to blunt-force trauma performed the Sternberg Item Recognition Task while undergoing fMRI. The task involved encoding 1, 3, or 5 items in working memory. A group of 25 veterans (mean age = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 5.53 years, 0 females) and a group of 25 civilians (mean age = 27.3 years, standard deviation = 5.81 years, 0 females) without history of TBI underwent identical imaging procedures and served as controls. Results indicated that the civilian TBI group and both control groups demonstrated a monotonic relationship between working memory set size and activation in the right caudate during encoding, whereas the blast TBI group did not (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons using False Discovery Rate). Blast TBI was also associated with worse performance on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task relative to the other groups, although no other group differences were found on neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, inhibition, and general processing speed. These results could not be attributed to caudate atrophy or the presence of PTSD symptoms. Our results point to a specific vulnerability of the caudate to blast injury. Changes in activation during the Sternberg Item Recognition Task, and potentially other tasks that recruit the caudate, may serve as biomarkers for blast TBI. PMID:26110112

  6. Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Mary R.; Durgerian, Sally; Mourany, Lyla; Scheibel, Randall S.; Lowe, Mark J.; Beall, Erik B.; Koenig, Katherine A.; Parsons, Michael; Troyanskaya, Maya; Reece, Christine; Wilde, Elisabeth; Fischer, Barbara L.; Jones, Stephen E.; Agarwal, Rajan; Levin, Harvey S.; Rao, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes). Little is also known about the effects of blast TBI on neural networks, particularly over the long term. Because impairment in working memory has been linked to blunt-force TBI, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study sought to investigate whether brain activation in response to a working memory task would discriminate blunt-force from blast TBI. Twenty-five veterans (mean age = 29.8 years, standard deviation = 6.01 years, 1 female) who incurred TBI due to blast an average of 4.2 years prior to enrollment and 25 civilians (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 6.68 years, 4 females) with TBI due to blunt-force trauma performed the Sternberg Item Recognition Task while undergoing fMRI. The task involved encoding 1, 3, or 5 items in working memory. A group of 25 veterans (mean age = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 5.53 years, 0 females) and a group of 25 civilians (mean age = 27.3 years, standard deviation = 5.81 years, 0 females) without history of TBI underwent identical imaging procedures and served as controls. Results indicated that the civilian TBI group and both control groups demonstrated a monotonic relationship between working memory set size and activation in the right caudate during encoding, whereas the blast TBI group did not (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons using False Discovery Rate). Blast TBI was also associated with worse performance on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task relative to the other groups, although no other group differences were found on neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, inhibition, and general processing speed. These results could not be attributed to caudate atrophy or the presence of PTSD symptoms. Our results point to a specific vulnerability of the caudate to blast injury. Changes in activation during the Sternberg Item Recognition Task, and potentially other tasks that recruit the caudate, may serve as biomarkers for blast TBI.

  7. NCBI Handout Series | Primer-BLAST | Last Update August 19, 2013 Contact: info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov NCBI Primer-BLAST

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    NCBI Handout Series | Primer-BLAST | Last Update August 19, 2013 Contact: info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/tools/primer-blast/ National Center for Biotechnology Information-based application accessible through the "Specialized BLAST" section of the BLAST homepage (blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

  8. Smooth blasting with the electronic delay detonator

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masaaki [Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ichijo, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Yoshiharu

    1995-12-31

    The authors utilized electronic detonators (EDs) to investigate the effect of high detonator delay accuracy on overbreak, remaining rock damage, and surface smoothness, in comparison with that of long-period delay detonators (0.25 sec interval) PDs. The experiments were conducted in a deep mine, in a test site region composed of very hard granodiorite with a seismic wave velocity of about 6.0 km/sec and a uniaxial compressive strength, uniaxial tensile strength, and Young`s modulus of 300 MPa, 12 MPa, and 73 GPa, respectively. The blasting design was for a test tunnel excavation of 8 m{sup 2} in cross section, with an advance per round of 2.5 m. Five rounds were performed, each with a large-hole cut and perimeter holes in a 0.4-m spacing charged with 20-mm-diameter water gel explosive to obtain low charge concentration. EDs were used in the holes on the perimeter of the right half, and PDs were used in all other holes. Following each shot, the cross section was measured by laser to determine amount of overbreak and surface smoothness. In situ seismic prospecting was used to estimate the depth of damage in the remaining rock, and the damage was further investigated by boring into both side walls.

  9. Magnetic gauge for free surface velocities due to rock blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashuach, Yecheskel; Gissis, Itai; Avinadav, Chen

    2013-06-01

    We developed a simple magnetic gauge for measuring free surface velocities of rock materials in the range of 0.1-20 m/s. The gauge consists of two elements: a NdFeB magnet and a pick-up coil. The coil is attached to the free surface at the point of interest. The magnet is placed a few centimeters away from the coil on its central axis, intact from the rock. Rock surface movement due to blast loading induces current in the coil due to change of the magnetic flux. The coil velocity is deduced from the measured current using a computational code. The gauge was tested and validated in a set of free-falling experiments. We present velocity measurements from various blast experiments in limestone and reinforced concrete, using both the magnetic gauge and a Doppler interferometer. The results obtained from the two measurement techniques were in good agreement during a few milliseconds. The magnetic gauge is cheap and very simple to operate, and therefore favorable for mapping the velocity distribution at multiple points of interest on the surface.

  10. New results from BLAST on the nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Haiyan [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2006-11-17

    Recently, a new experiment was carried out in the South Hall Ring at the MIT-Bates Accelerator Laboratory. This experiment utilized a polarized electron beam, a pure hydrogen (deuterium) internal polarized gas target, and the symmetric Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio (G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p}) at Q2= 0.15 - 0.65 (GeV/c)2 has been determined from the experiment by measuring the spin-dependent ep elastic scattering asymmetry in both sectors simultaneously. This is the first experiment to measure (G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p}) using a polarized proton target, which is complementary to recoil polarimetry experiments. The neutron magnetic form factor G{sub M}{sup n} has been extracted from the measurement of the spin-dependent asymmetry from the inclusive d(vector sign)(e(vector sign),e) process in a similar Q2 with a vector polarized deuterium target, and the neutron electric form factor G{sub E}{sup n} has been extracted by measuring the spin-dependent asymmetry from the coincidence d(vector sign)(e(vector sign),e'n) process simultaneously. Preliminary results on the nucleon form factors from the BLAST experiment are presented.

  11. 6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace from J.L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy, Ginn & Co. New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Blast Furnace Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

  12. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...with regard to ground vibration and airblast, the...operations. (b) Monitoring system. Each application...sensitivity of any blast-monitoring equipment and proposed procedures and locations of monitoring. (c) Blasting...

  13. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...with regard to ground vibration and airblast, the...operations. (b) Monitoring system. Each application...sensitivity of any blast-monitoring equipment and proposed procedures and locations of monitoring. (c) Blasting...

  14. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...with regard to ground vibration and airblast, the...operations. (b) Monitoring system. Each application...sensitivity of any blast-monitoring equipment and proposed procedures and locations of monitoring. (c) Blasting...

  15. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...with regard to ground vibration and airblast, the...operations. (b) Monitoring system. Each application...sensitivity of any blast-monitoring equipment and proposed procedures and locations of monitoring. (c) Blasting...

  16. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...with regard to ground vibration and airblast, the...operations. (b) Monitoring system. Each application...sensitivity of any blast-monitoring equipment and proposed procedures and locations of monitoring. (c) Blasting...

  17. INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  18. DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  19. 30 CFR 75.1316 - Preparation before blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...using a blasting multimeter or other instrument specifically designed for such use. (3) The blasting cable or detonator circuitry shall not come in contact with energized electric equipment, including cables. (b) Before loading boreholes with...

  20. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead...tracks, and shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any...

  1. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting...tracks, and shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead...tracks, and shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any...

  3. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting...tracks, and shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead...tracks, and shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any...

  5. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting...tracks, and shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead...tracks, and shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any...

  7. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead...tracks, and shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting...tracks, and shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting...tracks, and shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any...

  10. Use of probabilistic methods in evaluating blast performance of structures

    E-print Network

    Gillis, Andrew Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The social and political climate of the modern world has lead to increased concern over the ability of engineered structures to resist blast events which may be incurred during terrorist attacks. While blast resistance ...

  11. 70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE STOCKHOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. INTERIOR OF CAST HOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT LOOKING NORTH. DOROTHY SIX IS THE CLOSEST FURNACE IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  15. 58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED No. 3 IN FOREGROUND ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX WITH LADLE HOUSE AND IRON DESULPHERIZATION BUILDING ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. Novel model to investigate blast injury in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Connell, Sean; Gao, Jian; Chen, Jun; Shi, Riyi

    2011-07-01

    Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a common injury modality associated with the current war efforts and increasing levels of terrorist activity. Exposure to the primary blast wave generated by explosive devices causes significant neurological deficits and is responsible for many of the war-related pathologies. Despite research efforts, the mechanism of injury is still poorly understood. To this end, we have established a novel ex vivo model for the direct observation and quantification of BINT at the tissue level. The model provides a quantifiable and reproducible method to illustrate the mechanism of BINT. Isolated sections of guinea pig spinal cord white matter were exposed to a supersonic shockwave using a blast generator with small-scaled explosives. The blast wave impact with isolated tissue was observed using focused shadowgraphy with a high-speed camera recording at 90,000 fps. Concurrently, functional deficits were measured by monitoring the production of compound action potentials using a double sucrose gap-recording chamber. Additionally, anatomical deficits were measured after blast exposure with a dye exclusion assay to visualize axonal membrane permeability. Our findings demonstrate that direct exposure to the blast wave compressed nervous tissue at a rate of 60 m/sec and led to significant functional deficits. Damage to the isolated spinal cord was marked by increased axonal permeability, suggesting rapid compression from the shockwave-generated high strain rates that resulted in membrane disruption. The model provides new insight into the mechanism of BINT and permits direct observation that may contribute to the development of appropriate treatment regimens. PMID:21529318

  19. Membrane Transport Phenomena (MTP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1997-01-01

    The activities during the fourth semi-annual period of the MTP project have involved the completion of the Science Concept Review (SCR) presentation and peer review, continuation of analyses for the mass transfer coefficients measured from MTA experiment data, and development of the second generation (MTP-II) instrument. The SCR panel members were generated several recommendations for the MTP project recommendations are : Table 1 Summary of Primary SCR Panel Recommendations (1) Continue and refine development of mass transfer coefficient analyses (2) Refine and upgrade analytical modeling associated with the MTP experiment. (3) Increase resolution of measurements in proximity of the membrane interface. (4) Shift emphasis to measurement of coupled transport effects (i.e., development of MTP phase II experiment concept).

  20. Performance of ground blast furnace slag and ground basaltic pumice concrete against seawater attack

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanifi Binici; Orhan Aksogan; Ela Bahsude Görür; Hasan Kaplan; Mehmet Nuri Bodur

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research work is to investigate the seawater resistance of the concrete incorporating ground blast furnace slag (GBS) and ground basaltic pumice (GBP) each separately or both together. The variable investigated in this study is the level of fine aggregate replacement by GBS and GBP. Compressive strength measured on 150mm cubes was used to assess the changes

  1. Chemical changes of lakes within the Mount St. Helens blast zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Wissmar; A. H. Devol; A. E. Nevissi; J. R. Sedell

    1982-01-01

    Differences in the dissolved chemistry of lakes devastated by the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens are attributable to location relative to the lateral blast trajectory of the eruption and to the emplacement of mineral deposits. Elemental enrichment ratios of pre- and posteruption measurements for Spirit Lake and comparisons of the chemical concentrations and elemental ratios for lakes

  2. A three dimensional model of muckpile formation and grade boundary movement in open pit blasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Yang; A. Kavetsky

    1990-01-01

    Formulation and case studies of a three dimensional kinematic model are presented. Thein situ overburden geometry can be simulated accurately and various initiation patterns of blasts can be modelled. The overburden geometry, hole patterns and explosive distribution are all explicit model inputs. Because the effect of explosive properties, rock mass condition and inter-row delay are very difficult to measure in

  3. Numerical simulation of blast wave interaction with structure columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanchao Shi; Hong Hao; Zhong-Xian Li

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimation of blast loads on structures is essential for reliable predictions of structural response and damage.\\u000a Current practice in blast effect analysis and design estimates blast loads primarily based on empirical formulae obtained\\u000a from field blast tests. Due to the limited availability of test data, those empirical formulae are usually applicable to the\\u000a case that the reflection surface of

  4. Vacuum arc recovery phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Rich; G. A. Farrall

    1964-01-01

    The present experimental and theoretical study has been designed to uncover the mechanism underlying the rapid recovery of electrical strength of a short vacuum gap after arcing. In the experiment the contacts were of gas-free silver and the contact area and gap length were varied. Recovery strength was measured following the forced extinction of a 250 amp arc in 0.5

  5. Basic airblast phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Bryant; J. H. Keefer

    1962-01-01

    Surface level overpressures and dynamic pressures were measured during 14 shots of Operation Plumbbob. The objectives were met in that useful information was obtained on (1) overpressure and dynamic pressure as a function of time and distance, (2) formation and history of precursor waveforms, (3) applicability for scaling laws for determining surface and near-surface pressure from high-altitude bursts, and (4)

  6. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6. Blast measurements. Part 5. Measurement of density, temperature, and material velocity in an air shock produced by a nuclear explosion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. B. Porzel; J. E. Whitener

    1985-01-01

    The results from laboratory tests and test firing were quite encouraging. It was concluded that: (1) the beta densitometer is a feasible device for the measurement of density as a function of time in the shock wave from a nuclear explosion. It is limited to pressure levels of 6 or 8 psi for bombs in the range of 50 kt,

  7. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

  8. Functional Status after Blast-Plus-Impact Complex Concussive Traumatic Brain Injury in Evacuated United States Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Christine L.; Johnson, Ann M.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Werner, Nicole J.; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fundamental questions remain unanswered about the longitudinal impact of blast-plus-impact complex traumatic brain injuries (TBI) from wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prospective, observational study investigated measures of clinical outcome in US military personnel evacuated to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) in Germany after such “blast-plus” concussive TBIs. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended assessments completed 6–12 months after injury indicated a moderate overall disability in 41/47 (87%) blast-plus TBI subjects and a substantial but smaller number (11/18, 61%, p=0.018) of demographically similar US military controls without TBI evacuated for other medical reasons. Cognitive function assessed with a neuropsychological test battery was not different between blast-plus TBI subjects and controls; performance of both groups was generally in the normal range. No subject was found to have focal neurological deficits. However, 29/47 (57%) of blast-plus subjects with TBI met all criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus 5/18 (28%) of controls (p=0.014). PTSD was highly associated with overall disability; 31/34 patients with PTSD versus 19/31 patients who did not meet full PTSD criteria had moderate to severe disability (p=0.0003). Symptoms of depression were also more severe in the TBI group (p=0.05), and highly correlated with PTSD severity (r=0.86, p<0.0001). Thus, in summary, high rates of PTSD and depression but not cognitive impairment or focal neurological deficits were observed 6–12 months after concussive blast-plus-impact complex TBI. Overall disability was substantially greater than typically reported in civilian non-blast concussive (“mild”) patients with TBI, even with polytrauma. The relationship between these clinical outcomes and specific blast-related aspects of brain injuries versus other combat-related factors remains unknown. PMID:24367929

  9. Integrating Gene Ontology and Blast to predict gene functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WANG Cheng-gang; MO Zhi-hong

    2007-01-01

    A GoBlast system was built to predict gene function by integrating Blast search and Gene Ontology (GO) annotations together. The operation system was based on Debian Linux 3.1, with Apache as the web server and Mysql database as the data storage system. FASTA files with GO annotations were taken as the sequence source for blast alignment, which were formatted by

  10. BLAST FURNACE CAST HOUSE EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study describes the state-of-the-art of controlling fumes escaping from blast furnace cast houses. Background information is based on: a study of existing literature; visits to blast furnaces in the U.S., Japan, and Europe; meetings with an ad hoc group of experienced blast f...

  11. Gram-range explosive blast scaling and associated materials response

    E-print Network

    Settles, Gary S.

    Gram-range explosive blast scaling and associated materials response M. J. Hargather1 , G. S. Laboratory-scale gram-range explosive blast testing of materials is shown to be feasible. Blast loading from different explosive compounds is coupled to a witness plate through the air by way of a shock wave of known

  12. Blast-furnace smelting with improved coke at OAO Zaporozhkoks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Fomenko; V. I. Naboka; N. V. Krutas; M. E. Sharapov; V. N. Rubchevskii; Yu. A. Chernyshov; A. I. Kompaniets; A. V. Podlubnyi; E. T. Kovalev; I. V. Shul’ga; Yu. S. Kaftan

    2009-01-01

    As an experiment, coke from batteries 5 and 6 at OAO Zaporozhkoks is used in blast furnace 5 at Zaporozhstal, in order to\\u000a determine the influence of coke quality on blast-furnace operation. This research is associated with the prospects for coal-dust\\u000a injection into the blast furnace at OAO Zaporozhstal.

  13. Approach to Blast Wall Structure Computing in Ocean Engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qu Haifu; Li Xueguang

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid development of ocean engineering industry, researches on blast wall indicated that it is important and a key design for effective ocean engineering industry security production. However, existing theories of blast wall do not adequately address how and which approach is suitable for real production of ocean engineering. This paper presents a formal framework for blast wall in

  14. Blast wave transmission along rough-walled tunnels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Smith; P. Vismeg; L. C. Teo; L. Tingey

    1998-01-01

    There is a sizeable body of published work relating to the transmission of blast waves along smooth tunnels of both simple and complex geometry though relatively little has been presented on the propagation of blast waves along tunnels with roughened walls. This paper presents the results of experimental studies carried out at small scale into the propagation of blast waves

  15. Electrohydraulic rock blasting for mining in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Magno Muniz e Silva; Edson Guedes da Costa; Wildor Theodoro Hennies

    2001-01-01

    Conventional rock blasting promotes many negative environmental impacts including ground vibration, flying rock, air blast, and the emission of noise, dust and gases. An unconventional alternative process is the application of electrohydraulic principles. Electrohydraulic blasting is able to create a state of fracturing and rupture in the rock, almost instantly. A high current impulse generator produces the energy, without the

  16. Quarry blasts assessment and their environmental impacts on the nearby oil pipelines, southeast of Helwan City, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Adel M. E.; Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.

    2013-06-01

    Ground vibrations induced by blasting in the cement quarries are one of the fundamental problems in the quarrying industry and may cause severe damage to the nearby utilities and pipelines. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in quarries. The current paper presents the influence of the quarry blasts at the National Cement Company (NCC) on the two oil pipelines of SUMED Company southeast of Helwan City, by measuring the ground vibrations in terms of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV). The seismic refraction for compressional waves deduced from the shallow seismic survey and the shear wave velocity obtained from the Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique are used to evaluate the closest site of the two pipelines to the quarry blasts. The results demonstrate that, the closest site of the two pipelines is of class B, according to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) classification and the safe distance to avoid any environmental effects is 650 m, following the deduced Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) and scaled distance (SD) relationship (PPV = 700.08 × SD-1.225) in mm/s and the Air over Pressure (air blast) formula (air blast = 170.23 × SD-0.071) in dB. In the light of prediction analysis, the maximum allowable charge weight per delay was found to be 591 kg with damage criterion of 12.5 mm/s at the closest site of the SUMED pipelines.

  17. Safer blasting agents and procedures for blasting in gassy non-coal mines. [Quarterly] technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, E.S.

    1993-11-01

    The US Bureau of Mines` research program is focused on developing procedures and guidelines for acceptable underground oil shale blasting that fulfill the operational requirements for efficiency while maintaining a high level of safety when operating under gassy mine conditions. This work is aimed at providing new information, alternate methods, and innovation in underground blasting procedures. The results from this research will have direct impact on regulatory standards for blasting under gassy mine conditions. Based on the low incendivity data from the Cannon Gallery and several months of recent testing in their mine, Kennecott`s Greens Creek base metal mine in Alaska had decided to exclusively use a low incendive bulk emulsion product in place of the low incendive water gel prod ct for all blasting operations. As was the case with the low incendive water gel product, the use of this bulk product resulted in: no dust ignitions and related injuries and/or production/equipment losses; the elimination if preblasting measures of using stemming and water sprays, and the improvement of roadways due to the reduction of water.

  18. Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B. [BlueScope Steel Research Laboratories, Port Kembla, NSW (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Bayesian detection of acoustic muzzle blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Kenneth D., Jr.; Collins, Leslie

    2009-05-01

    Acoustic detection of gunshots has many security and military applications. Most gunfire produces both an acoustic muzzle-blast signal as well as a high-frequency shockwave. However some guns do not propel bullets with the speed required to cause shockwaves, and the use of a silencer can significantly reduce the energy of muzzle blasts; thus, although most existing commercial and military gunshot detection systems are based on shockwave detection, reliable detection across a wide range of applications requires the development of techniques which incorporate both muzzle-blast and shockwave phenomenologies. The detection of muzzle blasts is often difficult due to the presence of non-stationary background signals. Previous approaches to muzzle blast detection have applied pattern recognition techniques without specifically considering the non-stationary nature of the background signals and thus these techniques may perform poorly under realistic operating conditions. This research focuses on time domain modeling of the non-stationary background using Bayesian auto-regressive models. Bayesian parameter estimation can provide a principled approach to non-stationary modeling while also eliminating the stability concerns associated with standard adaptive procedures. Our proposed approach is tested on a synthetic dataset derived from recordings of actual background signals and a database of isolated gunfire. Detection results are compared to a standard adaptive approach, the least-mean squares (LMS) algorithm, across several signal to background ratios in both indoor and outdoor conditions.

  20. Modelling human eye under blast loading.

    PubMed

    Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues. PMID:23521031

  1. Computational modeling of human head under blast in confined and open spaces: primary blast injury.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, A; Salimi Jazi, M; Karami, G

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a computational modeling for biomechanical analysis of primary blast injuries is presented. The responses of the brain in terms of mechanical parameters under different blast spaces including open, semi-confined, and confined environments are studied. In the study, the effect of direct and indirect blast waves from the neighboring walls in the confined environments will be taken into consideration. A 50th percentile finite element head model is exposed to blast waves of different intensities. In the open space, the head experiences a sudden intracranial pressure (ICP) change, which vanishes in a matter of a few milliseconds. The situation is similar in semi-confined space, but in the confined space, the reflections from the walls will create a number of subsequent peaks in ICP with a longer duration. The analysis procedure is based on a simultaneous interaction simulation of the deformable head and its components with the blast wave propagations. It is concluded that compared with the open and semi-confined space settings, the walls in the confined space scenario enhance the risk of primary blast injuries considerably because of indirect blast waves transferring a larger amount of damaging energy to the head. PMID:23996897

  2. Blast exposure in rats with body shielding is characterized primarily by diffuse axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Garman, Robert H; Jenkins, Larry W; Switzer, Robert C; Bauman, Richard A; Tong, Lawrence C; Swauger, Peter V; Parks, Steven A; Ritzel, David V; Dixon, C Edward; Clark, Robert S B; Bayir, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian; Jackson, Edwin K; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2011-06-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the signature insult in combat casualty care. Survival with neurological damage from otherwise lethal blast exposures has become possible with body armor use. We characterized the neuropathologic alterations produced by a single blast exposure in rats using a helium-driven shock tube to generate a nominal exposure of 35 pounds per square inch (PSI) (positive phase duration ? 4 msec). Using an IACUC-approved protocol, isoflurane-anesthetized rats were placed in a steel wedge (to shield the body) 7 feet inside the end of the tube. The left side faced the blast wave (with head-only exposure); the wedge apex focused a Mach stem onto the rat's head. The insult produced ? 25% mortality (due to impact apnea). Surviving and sham rats were perfusion-fixed at 24 h, 72 h, or 2 weeks post-blast. Neuropathologic evaluations were performed utilizing hematoxylin and eosin, amino cupric silver, and a variety of immunohistochemical stains for amyloid precursor protein (APP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), ED1, and rat IgG. Multifocal axonal degeneration, as evidenced by staining with amino cupric silver, was present in all blast-exposed rats at all time points. Deep cerebellar and brainstem white matter tracts were most heavily stained with amino cupric silver, with the morphologic staining patterns suggesting a process of diffuse axonal injury. Silver-stained sections revealed mild multifocal neuronal death at 24 h and 72 h. GFAP, ED1, and Iba1 staining were not prominently increased, although small numbers of reactive microglia were seen within areas of neuronal death. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability (as measured by IgG staining) was seen at 24 h and primarily affected the contralateral cortex. Axonal injury was the most prominent feature during the initial 2 weeks following blast exposure, although degeneration of other neuronal processes was also present. Strikingly, silver staining revealed otherwise undetected abnormalities, and therefore represents a recommended outcome measure in future studies of blast TBI. PMID:21449683

  3. A mouse model of ocular blast injury that induces closed globe anterior and posterior pole damage.

    PubMed

    Hines-Beard, Jessica; Marchetta, Jeffrey; Gordon, Sarah; Chaum, Edward; Geisert, Eldon E; Rex, Tonia S

    2012-06-01

    We developed and characterized a mouse model of primary ocular blast injury. The device consists of: a pressurized air tank attached to a regulated paintball gun with a machined barrel; a chamber that protects the mouse from direct injury and recoil, while exposing the eye; and a secure platform that enables fine, controlled movement of the chamber in relation to the barrel. Expected pressures were calculated and the optimal pressure transducer, based on the predicted pressures, was positioned to measure output pressures at the location where the mouse eye would be placed. Mice were exposed to one of three blast pressures (23.6, 26.4, or 30.4 psi). Gross pathology, intraocular pressure, optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity were assessed 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after exposure. Contralateral eyes and non-blast exposed mice were used as controls. We detected increased damage with increased pressures and a shift in the damage profile over time. Gross pathology included corneal edema, corneal abrasions, and optic nerve avulsion. Retinal damage was detected by optical coherence tomography and a deficit in visual acuity was detected by optokinetics. Our findings are comparable to those identified in Veterans of the recent wars with closed eye injuries as a result of blast exposure. In summary, this is a relatively simple system that creates injuries with features similar to those seen in patients with ocular blast trauma. This is an important new model for testing the short-term and long-term spectrum of closed globe blast injuries and potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:22504073

  4. Observations of cometary plasma wave phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.; Coroniti, F. V.; Kennel, C. F.; Gurnett, D. A.; Ip, W.-H.; Smith, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    The ICE plasma wave investigation utilized very long electric antennas (100 m tip-to-tip) and a very high sensitivity magnetic search coil to obtain significant local information on plasma physics phenomena occurring in the distant pickup regions of Comet Giacobini-Zinner and Comet Halley; and information on the processes that developed in the coma and tail of Giacobini-Zinner. The ICE plasma wave measurements associated with both comet encounters are summarized, and high sensitivity ICE observations are related to corresponding measurements from the other Halley spacecraft.

  5. Computation of blast wave-obstacle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champney, J. M.; Chaussee, D. S.; Kutler, P.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the interaction of a planar blast wave with various obstacles are presented. These obstacles are either ground structures or vehicles flying in the atmosphere. For a structure on the ground, the blast wave encounter is side-on, while for the flying vehicles the encounter is either head-on or oblique. Second-order accurate, finite-difference, and shock-capturing procedures are employed to solve the two-dimensional, axisymmetric, and three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations. Results are presented for the flow field consisting of blast wave striking obstacles that are at rest, moving subsonically and moving supersonically. Comparison of the numerical results with experimental data for a configuration at rest substantiates the validity of this approach and its potential as a flow analysis tool.

  6. Single Pass Streaming BLAST on FPGAs*†

    PubMed Central

    Herbordt, Martin C.; Model, Josh; Sukhwani, Bharat; Gu, Yongfeng; VanCourt, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Approximate string matching is fundamental to bioinformatics and has been the subject of numerous FPGA acceleration studies. We address issues with respect to FPGA implementations of both BLAST- and dynamic-programming- (DP) based methods. Our primary contribution is a new algorithm for emulating the seeding and extension phases of BLAST. This operates in a single pass through a database at streaming rate, and with no preprocessing other than loading the query string. Moreover, it emulates parameters turned to maximum possible sensitivity with no slowdown. While current DP-based methods also operate at streaming rate, generating results can be cumbersome. We address this with a new structure for data extraction. We present results from several implementations showing order of magnitude acceleration over serial reference code. A simple extension assures compatibility with NCBI BLAST. PMID:19081828

  7. Paint removal using wheat starch blast media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry; Oestreich, John

    1993-03-01

    A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of cracks confirms better crack visibility with wheat starch media versus Type V or Type II plastic media. Testing of wheat starch media in several composite test programs, including fiberglass, Kevlar, and graphite-epoxy composites, showed no fiber damage. Process developments and production experience at the first U.S. aircraft stripping facility are also reviewed. Corporate and regional aircraft are being stripped in this three nozzle dry blast hanger.

  8. The blast wave mitigation effects of a magnetogasdynamic decelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, Roy S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lundgren, Ronald G [APPLIED RESEARCH ASSOCIATES; Tucker, Don H [UNIV OF UTAH

    2009-01-01

    This work computes shock wave jump functions for viscous blast waves propagating in a magnetogasdynamic decelerator. The decelerator is assumed to be a one-dimensional channel with sides that are perfect conductors. An electric field applied on the walls of the channel produces a magnetogasdynamic pump, which decelerates the flow field induced by a blast wave. The blast wave jump functions computed here are compared to magnetogasdynamic results for steady supersonic channel flow to quantify potential blast mitigation effects. Theoretical shock wave jump functions are also presented for inviscid blast waves propagating in a one-dimensional channel with an electromagnetic field.

  9. BLAST: a more efficient report with usability improvements.

    PubMed

    Boratyn, Grzegorz M; Camacho, Christiam; Cooper, Peter S; Coulouris, George; Fong, Amelia; Ma, Ning; Madden, Thomas L; Matten, Wayne T; McGinnis, Scott D; Merezhuk, Yuri; Raytselis, Yan; Sayers, Eric W; Tao, Tao; Ye, Jian; Zaretskaya, Irena

    2013-07-01

    The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) website at the National Center for Biotechnology (NCBI) is an important resource for searching and aligning sequences. A new BLAST report allows faster loading of alignments, adds navigation aids, allows easy downloading of subject sequences and reports and has improved usability. Here, we describe these improvements to the BLAST report, discuss design decisions, describe other improvements to the search page and database documentation and outline plans for future development. The NCBI BLAST URL is http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:23609542

  10. Critical velocity phenomena and the LTP. [Lunar Transient Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srnka, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    When the relative velocity between magnetized plasma and neutral gas exceeds a critical value, the gas-plasma interaction is dominated by collective phenomena which rapidly excite and ionize the neutrals. The interaction of the solar wind with a large cloud (between 10 to the 24th and 10 to the 28th power neutrals) vented from the moon should be of this type. Line radiation from such an interaction can yield an apparent lunar surface brightness rivaling reflected sunlight levels over small areas, if the kinetic-energy flow density of the gas is sufficiently high. The aberrated solar-wind flow past the moon would enhance the visibility of such interactions near the lunar sunrise terminator, supporting the statistical studies which indicate that the 'Lunar Transient Phenomena' (anomalous optical phenomena on the moon) are significantly correlated with the position of the terminator on the lunar surface.

  11. Performance of some coupling methods for blast vibration monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segarra, P.; Sanchidrián, J. A.; Castedo, R.; López, L. M.; del Castillo, I.

    2015-01-01

    Field guidelines and recommendations for blasting vibration monitoring on a hard surface, suggest that the geophone mount should be coupled to the ground in a way that depends on the anticipated vibration level. However, the quantitative performance of the coupling method is basically unknown. In order to investigate this, the ground-to-mount coupling transmissibility (i.e. ratio of the response of the geophones mount to the rock motion, as a function of frequency) was measured between 16 and 200 Hz in 43 tests using a vibration exciter. The geophone mounts were freely placed, hold with a sandbag and anchored on granite. Free placed mounts applied outside the suggested range of vibrations (i.e. frequencies above 50-70 Hz at 5 mm/s) lead to the largest expected errors (up to 7.5 dB). Distortion is still significant (1.02 dB), though to a minor degree, at lower levels where this method is recommended. Sandbagging limits the maximum expected error to 1.6 dB, but it is ranked as the worst method irrespective of the vibration level and the sandbag planting at frequencies below 40 Hz. Anchoring appears as the only analyzed method that achieves a stiff rock-to-mount coupling, ensuring consistent measurements for the frequencies commonly found in blasting independently of the vibration level and the mount characteristics.

  12. Review of methods to attenuate shock/blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igra, O.; Falcovitz, J.; Houas, L.; Jourdan, G.

    2013-04-01

    Quick and reliable shock wave attenuation is the goal of every protection facility and therefore it is not surprising that achieving this has drawn much attention during the past hundred years. Different options have been suggested; their usefulness varying from a reasonable protection to the opposite, a shock enhancement. An example for a suggestion for shock mitigation that turned out to be an enhancement of the impinging shock wave was the idea to cover a protected object with a foam layer. While the pressure behind the reflected shock wave from the foam frontal surface was smaller than that recorded in a similar reflection from a rigid wall [25], the pressure on the “protected” surface, attached to the foam's rear-surface, was significantly higher than that recorded in a similar reflection from a bare, rigid wall [11]. In protecting humans and installations from destructive shock and/or blast waves the prime goal is to reduce the wave amplitude and the rate of pressure increase across the wave front. Both measures result in reducing the wave harmful effects. During the past six decades several approaches for achieving the desired protection have been offered in the open literature. We point out in this review that while some of the suggestions offered are practical, others are impractical. In our discussion we focus on recent schemes for shock/blast wave attenuation, characterized by the availability of reliable measurements (notably pressure and optical diagnostics) as well as high-resolution numerical simulations.

  13. Advances in imaging explosive blast mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, H; Bandak, A; Ling, G; Bandak, F A

    2015-01-01

    In the past, direct physical evidence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) from explosive blast has been difficult to obtain through conventional imaging modalities such as T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). Here, we review current progress in detecting evidence of brain injury from explosive blast using advanced imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI), and the metabolic imaging methods such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), where each targets different aspects of the pathology involved in mTBI. DTI provides a highly sensitive measure to detect primary changes in the microstructure of white matter tracts. fMRI enables the measurement of changes in brain activity in response to different stimuli or tasks. Remarkably, all three of these paradigms have found significant success in conventional mTBI where conventional clinical imaging frequently fails to provide definitive differences. Additionally, although used less frequently for conventional mTBI, PET has the potential to characterize a variety of neurotransmitter systems using target agents and will undoubtedly play a larger role, once the basic mechanisms of injury are better understood and techniques to identify the injury are more common. Finally, our MRSI imaging studies, although acquired at much lower spatial resolution, have demonstrated selectivity to different metabolic and physiologic processes, uncovering some of the most profound differences on an individual by individual basis, suggesting the potential for utility in the management of individual patients. PMID:25702225

  14. Topographic control on pyroclastic density currents: the example of Mount St. Helens 1980 blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposti Ongaro, T.; Clarke, A. B.; Voight, B.; Neri, A.; Widiwijayanti, C.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanic lateral blasts are among the most spectacular and devastating of natural phenomena, characterized by the violent release of a relatively low mass of magma producing a remarkably broad area of significant damage. The most known volcanic blast at Mount Saint Helens, on 18 May 1980, devastated an area of 600 squared km in about five minutes, being able to override topographic obstacles of several hundreds of metres. By means of 3D multiphase numerical simulations we demonstrate that Mount St. Helens blast was generated by the rapid expansion (burst) of a pressurized polydisperse mixture of gas and particles and its subsequent gravitational collapse and that the observed front propagation, final runout and damage can be explained by the emplacement of an unsteady, stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC), controlled by gravity and terrain morphology. Numerical results are able to describe the non-equilibrium sedimentation dynamics of volcanic particles during PDC propagation across the rugged topography characterizing the area devastated by the blast. In valleys and topographic lows, pyroclasts accumulate progressively at the base of the flow, after the passage of the flow head, forming a dense basal flow depleted in fines. Blocking and channelling of such basal flow by topographic ridges provides the mechanism for progressive current unloading. On ridges, sedimentation occurs from the upper, dilute wake region, which follows the current head. Although the model formulation and the vertical numerical resolution do not yet allow the direct simulation of the deposit consolidation, present results provide a consistent, quantitative model able to interpret the observed stratigraphic sequence.

  15. Considerations for animal models of blast-related traumatic brain injury and chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Lee E; McKee, Ann C; Stanton, Patric K

    2014-01-01

    The association of military blast exposure and brain injury was first appreciated in World War I as commotio cerebri, and later as shell shock. Similar injuries sustained in modern military conflicts are now classified as mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent research has yielded new insights into the mechanisms by which blast exposure leads to acute brain injury and chronic sequelae, including postconcussive syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, post-traumatic headache, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a tau protein neurodegenerative disease. Impediments to delivery of effective medical care for individuals affected by blast-related TBI include: poor insight into the heterogeneity of neurological insults induced by blast exposure; limited understanding of the mechanisms by which blast exposure injures the brain and triggers sequelae; failure to appreciate interactive injuries that affect frontal lobe function, pituitary regulation, and neurovegetative homeostasis; unknown influence of genetic risk factors, prior trauma, and comorbidities; absence of validated diagnostic criteria and clinical nosology that differentiate clinical endophenotypes; and lack of empirical evidence to guide medical management and therapeutic intervention. While clinicopathological analysis can provide evidence of correlative association, experimental use of animal models remains the primary tool for establishing causal mechanisms of disease. However, the TBI field is confronted by a welter of animal models with varying clinical relevance, thereby impeding scientific coherence and hindering translational progress. Animal models of blast TBI will be far more translationally useful if experimental emphasis focuses on accurate reproduction of clinically relevant endpoints (output) rather than scaled replication of idealized blast shockwaves (input). The utility of an animal model is dependent on the degree to which the model recapitulates pathophysiological mechanisms, neuropathological features, and neurological sequelae observed in the corresponding human disorder. Understanding the purpose of an animal model and the criteria by which experimental results derived from the model are validated are critical components for useful animal modeling. Animal models that reliably demonstrate clinically relevant endpoints will expedite development of new treatments, diagnostics, preventive measures, and rehabilitative strategies for individuals affected by blast TBI and its aftermath. PMID:25478023

  16. Considerations for animal models of blast-related traumatic brain injury and chronic traumatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The association of military blast exposure and brain injury was first appreciated in World War I as commotio cerebri, and later as shell shock. Similar injuries sustained in modern military conflicts are now classified as mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent research has yielded new insights into the mechanisms by which blast exposure leads to acute brain injury and chronic sequelae, including postconcussive syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, post-traumatic headache, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a tau protein neurodegenerative disease. Impediments to delivery of effective medical care for individuals affected by blast-related TBI include: poor insight into the heterogeneity of neurological insults induced by blast exposure; limited understanding of the mechanisms by which blast exposure injures the brain and triggers sequelae; failure to appreciate interactive injuries that affect frontal lobe function, pituitary regulation, and neurovegetative homeostasis; unknown influence of genetic risk factors, prior trauma, and comorbidities; absence of validated diagnostic criteria and clinical nosology that differentiate clinical endophenotypes; and lack of empirical evidence to guide medical management and therapeutic intervention. While clinicopathological analysis can provide evidence of correlative association, experimental use of animal models remains the primary tool for establishing causal mechanisms of disease. However, the TBI field is confronted by a welter of animal models with varying clinical relevance, thereby impeding scientific coherence and hindering translational progress. Animal models of blast TBI will be far more translationally useful if experimental emphasis focuses on accurate reproduction of clinically relevant endpoints (output) rather than scaled replication of idealized blast shockwaves (input). The utility of an animal model is dependent on the degree to which the model recapitulates pathophysiological mechanisms, neuropathological features, and neurological sequelae observed in the corresponding human disorder. Understanding the purpose of an animal model and the criteria by which experimental results derived from the model are validated are critical components for useful animal modeling. Animal models that reliably demonstrate clinically relevant endpoints will expedite development of new treatments, diagnostics, preventive measures, and rehabilitative strategies for individuals affected by blast TBI and its aftermath. PMID:25478023

  17. The design, implementation, and evaluation of mpiBLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, A. E. (Aaron E.); Carey, L. (Lucas); Feng, W. C. (Wu-Chun)

    2003-01-01

    mpiBLAST is an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speed-up by segmenting a BLAST database and then having each node in a computational cluster search a unique portion of the database. Database segmentation permits each node to search a smaller portion of the database, eliminating disk I/O and vastly improving BLAST performance. Because database segmentation does not create heavy communication demands, BLAST users can take advantage of low-cost and efficient Linux cluster architectures such as the bladed Beowulf. In addition to presenting the software architecture of mpiBLAST we present a detailed performance analysis of mpiBLAST to demonstrate its scalability.

  18. LTC American`s, Inc. vacuum blasting machine: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise.

  19. Novel QCD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    I discuss a number of novel topics in QCD, including the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence between Anti-de Sitter space and conformal gauge theories to obtain an analytically tractable approximation to QCD in the regime where the QCD coupling is large and constant. In particular, there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimension coordinate z of AdS space and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of exclusive scattering amplitudes. I also discuss a number of novel phenomenological features of QCD. Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, and nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss tests of hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency, and anomalous heavy quark effects. The presence of direct higher-twist processes where a proton is produced in the hard subprocess can explain the large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions.

  20. Blast-induced biomechanical loading of the rat: an experimental and anatomically accurate computational blast injury model.

    PubMed

    Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Alai, Aaron; Ganpule, Shailesh; Holmberg, Aaron; Plougonven, Erwan; Chandra, Namas

    2012-09-01

    Blast waves generated by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) cause traumatic brain injury (TBI) in soldiers and civilians. In vivo animal models that use shock tubes are extensively used in laboratories to simulate field conditions, to identify mechanisms of injury, and to develop injury thresholds. In this article, we place rats in different locations along the length of the shock tube (i.e., inside, outside, and near the exit), to examine the role of animal placement location (APL) in the biomechanical load experienced by the animal. We found that the biomechanical load on the brain and internal organs in the thoracic cavity (lungs and heart) varied significantly depending on the APL. When the specimen is positioned outside, organs in the thoracic cavity experience a higher pressure for a longer duration, in contrast to APL inside the shock tube. This in turn will possibly alter the injury type, severity, and lethality. We found that the optimal APL is where the Friedlander waveform is first formed inside the shock tube. Once the optimal APL was determined, the effect of the incident blast intensity on the surface and intracranial pressure was measured and analyzed. Noticeably, surface and intracranial pressure increases linearly with the incident peak overpressures, though surface pressures are significantly higher than the other two. Further, we developed and validated an anatomically accurate finite element model of the rat head. With this model, we determined that the main pathway of pressure transmission to the brain was through the skull and not through the snout; however, the snout plays a secondary role in diffracting the incoming blast wave towards the skull. PMID:22620716

  1. Characterizing explosives and blasting emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.B. [Army Dugway Proving Ground, UT (United States); Bacon, D.P. [ECO, L.C., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-12-31

    With the advance of science, rise of public interest in environmental matters, and continuing erosion of air quality, Federal and state regulators are demanding an increasing complex array of data concerning emissions produced by burning and detonating energetic materials. The US Department of Defense, one of the world`s largest consumers of energetic materials, now must characterize combustion products resulting from open burning/open detonation disposal operations. The catch-all phrase ``below detection limits`` no longer satisfies the regulators who now want testing to delve into the ppt level for volatile organic compounds and ppt level for semivolatile organic compounds. Regulators are also expanding their scope of interest and may soon be asking for emissions data on training operations such as artillery firing. Providing this type of information is no longer an impossibility. The Army, as the single manager of conventional munitions for the three military services, anticipated the tightening of data requirements and in the mid-1980s funded a study into technologies to characterize emissions produced by open-air destruction of propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics. This study, conducted in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency, has resulted in a unique testing system which gathers data from small detonations and burns and can accurately scale the data to allow characterizing combustion products of field open-burning/open-detonation disposal operations. The system and its technologies apply to other operations involving energetic materials. This paper describes the system (known as the BangBox Testing System), its component technologies, emerging results, and potential applications in the explosives and blasting industries.

  2. Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Sindo

    1996-10-01

    An extremely useful guide to the theory and applications of transport phenomena in materials processing This book defines the unique role that transport phenomena play in materials processing and offers a graphic, comprehensive treatment unlike any other book on the subject. The two parts of the text are, in fact, two useful books. Part I is a very readable introduction to fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer for materials engineers and anyone not yet thoroughly familiar with the subject. It includes governing equations and boundary conditions particularly useful for studying materials processing. For mechanical and chemical engineers, and anyone already familiar with transport phenomena, Part II covers the many specific applications to materials processing, including a brief description of various materials processing technologies. Readable and unencumbered by mathematical manipulations (most of which are allocated to the appendixes), this book is also a useful text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses in materials, mechanical, and chemical engineering. It includes hundreds of photographs of materials processing in action, single and composite figures of computer simulation, handy charts for problem solving, and more. Transport Phenomena and Materials Processing: * Describes eight key materials processing technologies, including crystal growth, casting, welding, powder and fiber processing, bulk and surface heat treating, and semiconductor device fabrication * Covers the latest advances in the field, including recent results of computer simulation and flow visualization * Presents special boundary conditions for transport phenomena in materials processing * Includes charts that summarize commonly encountered boundary conditions and step-by-step procedures for problem solving * Offers a unique derivation of governing equations that leads to both overall and differential balance equations * Provides a list of publicly available computer programs and publications relevant to transport phenomena in materials processing

  3. Wave phenomena in phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhovich, Alexey

    Novel wave phenomena in two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) phononic crystals were investigated experimentally using ultrasonic techniques. These ultrasonic techniques allow the full wave field to be imaged directly, which is a considerable advantage in fundamental studies of wave propagation in periodic media. Resonant tunnelling of ultrasonic waves was successfully observed for the first time by measuring the transmission of ultrasound pulses through a double barrier consisting of two 3D phononic crystals separated by a cavity. This effect is the classical analogue of resonant tunnelling of a quantum mechanical particle through a double potential barrier, in which transmission reaches unity at resonant frequencies. For phononic crystals, the tunnelling peak was found to be less than unity, an effect that was explained by absorption. Absorption introduces a small propagating component inside the crystals in addition to the dominant evanescent mode at band gap frequencies, and causes leakage of the pulse from the cavity. The dynamics of resonant tunnelling was explored by measuring the group velocities of the ultrasonic pulses. Very slow and very fast velocities were found at frequencies close to and at the resonance, respectively. These extreme values are less than the speed of sound in air and greater than the speed of sound in any of the crystal's constituent materials. Negative refraction and focusing effects in 2D phononic crystals were also observed. Negative refraction of ultrasound was demonstrated unambiguously in a prism-shaped 2D crystal at frequencies in the 2nd pass band, where the equifrequency contours are circular so that the wave vector and group velocity are antiparallel. The Multiple Scattering Theory and Snell's law allowed theoretical predictions of the refraction angles. Excellent agreement was found between theory and experiment. The negative refraction experiments revealed a mechanism that can be used to focus ultrasound using a flat phononic crystal, and experiments to demonstrate the focusing of ultrasound emitted by several point sources were successfully carried out. The importance of using phononic crystals with circular equi frequency contours, as well as matching the size of the contours inside and outside the crystal, was established. Both conditions were satisfied by a flat phononic crystal of steel rods, in which the liquid inside the crystal (methanol) was different from the outside medium (water). The possibility of achieving subwavelength resolution using this phononic crystal was investigated with a subwavelength line source (a miniature strip-shaped transducer, approximately lambda/5 wide). A resolution of 0.55lambda was found, which is just above the diffraction limit lambda/2.

  4. Breakdown phenomena in high power klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Vlieks, A.E.; Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Hoyt, E.W.; Lebacqz, J.V.; Lee, T.G.

    1988-03-01

    In the course of developing new high peak power klystrons at SLAC, high electric fields in several regions of these devices have become an important source of vacuum breakdown phenomena. In addition, a renewed interest in breakdown phenomena for nanosecond pulse, multi-megavolt per centimeter fields has been sparked by recent R and D work in the area of gigawatt RF sources. The most important regions of electrical breakdown are in the output cavity gap area, the RF ceramic windows, and the gun ceramic insulator. The details of the observed breakdown in these regions, experiments performed to understand the phenomena and solutions found to alleviate the problems will be discussed. Recently experiments have been performed on a new prototype R and D klystron. Peak electric fields across the output cavity gaps of this klystron exceed 2 MV/cm. The effect of peak field duration (i.e. pulse width) on the onset of breakdown have been measured. The pulse widths varied from tens of nanoseconds to microseconds. Results from these experiments will be presented. The failure of ceramic RF windows due to multipactor and puncturing was an important problem to overcome in order that our high power klystrons would have a useful life expectancy. Consequently many studies and tests were made to understand and alleviate window breakdown phenomena. Some of the results in this area, especially the effects of surface coatings, window materials and processing techniques and their effects on breakdown will be discussed. Another important source of klystron failure in the recent past at SLAC has been the puncturing of the high voltage ceramic insulator in the gun region. A way of alleviating this problem has been found although the actual cause of the puncturing is not yet clear. The ''practical'' solution to this breakdown process will be described and a possible mechanism for the puncturing will be presented. 9 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Biomechanical analysis of blast induced traumatic brain injury---A finite element modeling and validation study of blast effects on human brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumit Sharma

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 19.5% of all U.S. troops deployed to Iraq\\/Afghanistan have symptoms related to blast-induced Traumatic Brain Injury (bTBI). Up to now causal mechanisms of bTBI are unknown. Previously an anatomically detailed human head finite element model (WSUHIM) was successfully utilized to predict brain injuries from blunt impact. The measurements of wave propagation patterns within an in vivo brain continue

  6. Biomechanical analysis of blast induced traumatic brain injury- a finite element modeling and validation study of blast effects on human brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumit Sharma

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 19.5% of all U.S. troops deployed to Iraq\\/Afghanistan have symptoms related to blast-induced Traumatic Brain Injury (bTBI). Up to now causal mechanisms of bTBI are unknown. Previously an anatomically detailed human head finite element model (WSUHIM) was successfully utilized to predict brain injuries from blunt impact. The measurements of wave propagation patterns within an in vivo brain continue

  7. Advances in High Performance Micro Abrasive Blasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Achtsnick; A. M. Hoogstrate; B. Karpuschewski

    2005-01-01

    Micro abrasive blasting (MAB) has been successfully improved by the introduction of a rectangular Laval nozzle concept. In this paper the earlier presented set of models has been extended to predict the performance of such nozzles. The results of the sub-model for the jet show that its energy intensity is more evenly distributed and at a substantial higher level compared

  8. Pipeline response to blasting in rock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esparza

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-one highway construction blasts were used to record pipeline data from production shots that consisted of small explosive arrays with delays among the explosive holes. A 30-in pipe section and a 12-in. pipeline in the vicinity of the highway construction work were instrumented with strain gages. The data provided an opportunity to determine if the estimating equations and techniques developed

  9. Rice blast evaluation of newly introduced germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic resistance to the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia grisea oryzae) was identified in newly introduced rice germplasm through quarantine when tested in artificially inoculated greenhouse and field nursery tests during the 2007 growing season. Of 229 accessions, 31 we...

  10. Global efforts in managing rice blast disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a major destructive disease threatening global food security. Resistance (R) genes to M. oryzae are effective in preventing infections by strains of M. oryzae carry the corresponding avirulence (AVR) genes. Effectiveness of genetic resist...

  11. Air blast effects on concrete walls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Kot; P. Turula

    1976-01-01

    The effects of airblast due to explosive detonation in close proximity of a concrete wall are investigated analytically. Estimates are obtained both for the spalling of the back-face of the concrete wall and for the overall wall response produced by the total impulsive load of the air blast. Assuming elastic wave propagation in the concrete wall, it is found that

  12. Dangers of Toxic Fumes from Blasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Mainiero; Marcia L. Harris

    This paper reviews the potential hazards posed by the toxic fumes produced by detonating explosives in surface m ining and construction operations. Blasting operations produce both toxic and nontoxic gaseous products; the toxic being mainly carbon monoxide (CO) and the oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The quantity of toxic gases produced by an explosive is affected by formulation, confinement, age of

  13. Heat transfer analysis of blast furnace stave

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijun Wu; Xun Xu; Weiguo Zhou; Yunlong Su; Xiaojing Li

    2008-01-01

    The three-dimensional mathematical model of temperature and thermal stress field of the blast furnace stave is built. The radiation heat transmitted from solid materials (coke and ore) to inner surface of the stave, which has been neglected by other studies, is taken into account. The cast steel stave is studied and the finite element method is used to perform the

  14. Lessons learned from the analysis of soldier collected blast data.

    PubMed

    Fain, W Bradley; Phelps, Shean; Medda, Alessio

    2015-03-01

    In recent U.S. military experience, widespread exposure to improvised explosive devices has been implicated in noticeable changes in the incidence of brain injuries inversely related to reduced mortality--thought to be the unintended consequence of increase in exposure to blast wave effects--secondary to improved vital organ protection, improved personal protective equipment. Subsequently, there is a growing need for the development and fielding of fully integrated sensor systems capable of both capturing dynamic effects (i.e., "blast") on the battlefield--providing critical information for researchers, while providing value to the medical community and leaders--for development of pre-emptive measures and policies. Obtaining accurate and useful data remains a significant challenge with a need for sensors which feed systems that provide accurate interpretation of dynamic events and lend to an enhanced understanding of their significance to the individual. This article describes lessons learned from a data analysis perspective of a collaborative effort led by a team formed at Georgia Tech Research Institute to develop a "sensor agnostic" system that demonstrates full integration across variant platforms/systems. The system is designed to allow digital and analog time/frequency data synchronization and analysis, which facilitated the development of complex multimodal modeling/algorithms. PMID:25747654

  15. BLAST: the far-infrared/radio correlation in distant galaxies

    E-print Network

    Ivison, R J; Biggs, Andy D; Brandt, W N; Chapin, Edward L; Coppin, Kristen E K; Devlin, Mark J; Dickinson, Mark; Dunlop, James; Dye, Simon; Eales, Stephen A; Frayer, David T; Halpern, Mark; Hughes, David H; Ibar, Edo; Kovács, A; Marsden, Gaelen; Moncelsi, L; Netterfield, Calvin B; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rafferty, D A; Rex, Marie; Schinnerer, Eva; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, C; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A M; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P; Walter, Fabian; Weiss, Axel; Wiebe, Donald V; Xue, Y Q

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the correlation between FIR and radio luminosities in distant galaxies, a lynchpin of modern astronomy. We use data from BLAST, Spitzer, LABOCA, the VLA and the GMRT in the ECDFS. For a catalogue of BLAST 250um-selected galaxies, we re-measure the 70-870um flux densities at the positions of their most likely 24um counterparts, which have a median [interquartile] redshift of 0.74 [0.25, 1.57]. From these, we determine the monochromatic flux density ratio, q_250 (= log_10 [S_250um/S_1,400MHz]), and the bolometric equivalent, q_IR. At z~0.6, where our 250um filter probes rest-frame 160um emission, we find no evolution relative to q_160 for local galaxies. We also stack the FIR and submm images at the positions of 24um- and radio-selected galaxies. The difference between q_IR seen for 250um- and radio-selected galaxies suggests star formation provides most of the IR luminosity in <~100uJy radio galaxies, but rather less for those in the mJy regime. For the 24um sample, the radio spectral index i...

  16. Graphene tests of Klein phenomena

    E-print Network

    Stefano De Leo; Pietro Rotelli

    2012-02-07

    Graphene is characterized by chiral electronic excitations. As such it provides a perfect testing ground for the production of Klein pairs (electron/holes). If confirmed, the standard results for barrier phenomena must be reconsidered with, as a byproduct, the accumulation within the barrier of holes.

  17. Quantum Phenomena Observed Using Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Tonomura, Akira [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0412 (Japan); Advanced Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama, 350-0395 (Japan); Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-05-06

    Electron phase microscopy based on the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect principle has been used to illuminate fundamental phenomena concerning magnetism and superconductivity by visualizing quantitative magnetic lines of force. This paper deals with confirmation experiments on the AB effect, the magnetization process of tiny magnetic heads for perpendicular recording, and vortex behaviors in high-Tc superconductors.

  18. Quantum imitations of physical phenomena.

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, G. (Gerardo)

    2001-01-01

    Quantum imitation is an attempt to exploit quantum laws to advantage, and thus accomplish efficient simulation of physical phenomena. We discuss the fundamental concepts behind this new paradigm of information processing, such as the connection between models of computation and physical systems, along with the first imitation of a toy quantum many-body problem.

  19. Usefulness of Simulating Social Phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Lucas

    This paper discusses 1 the current usefulness and implications of developing research on agent-based Simulation Models of Social Phenomena (SMSP) beyond purely academic, hobbyist or educational purposes. Design, development and testing phases are discussed along with issues evidence-driven modellers often face whilst collecting, analysing and translating quantitative and qualitative empirical data into social simulation models. Methodological recommendations are discussed in

  20. Spike morphology in blast-wave-driven instability experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Fryxell, B.; Budde, A.; Hansen, J. F.; Miles, A. R.; Plewa, T.; Hearn, N.; Knauer, J.

    2010-05-01

    The laboratory experiments described in the present paper observe the blast-wave-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability with three-dimensional (3D) initial conditions. About 5 kJ of energy from the Omega laser creates conditions similar to those of the He-H interface during the explosion phase of a supernova. The experimental target is a 150 ?m thick plastic disk followed by a low-density foam. The plastic piece has an embedded, 3D perturbation. The basic structure of the pattern is two orthogonal sine waves where each sine wave has an amplitude of 2.5 ?m and a wavelength of 71 ?m. In some experiments, an additional wavelength is added to explore the interaction of modes. In experiments with 3D initial conditions the spike morphology differs from what has been observed in other Rayleigh-Taylor experiments and simulations. Under certain conditions, experimental radiographs show some mass extending from the interface to the shock front. Current simulations show neither the spike morphology nor the spike penetration observed in the experiments. The amount of mass reaching the shock front is analyzed and potential causes for the spike morphology and the spikes reaching the shock are discussed. One such hypothesis is that these phenomena may be caused by magnetic pressure, generated by an azimuthal magnetic field produced by the plasma dynamics.

  1. Droplet Breakup Mechanisms in Air-blast Atomizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, Amir Abbas; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Lim, Kelly

    2011-11-01

    Atomization processes are encountered in many natural and man-made phenomena. Examples are pollen release by plants, human cough or sneeze, engine fuel injectors, spray paint and many more. The physics governing the atomization of liquids is important in understanding and utilizing atomization processes in both natural and industrial processes. We have observed the governing physics of droplet breakup in an air-blast water atomizer using a high magnification, high speed, and high resolution LASER imaging technique. The droplet breakup mechanisms are investigated in three major categories. First, the liquid drops are flattened to form an oblate ellipsoid (lenticular deformation). Subsequent deformation depends on the magnitude of the internal forces relative to external forces. The ellipsoid is converted into a torus that becomes stretched and disintegrates into smaller drops. Second, the drops become elongated to form a long cylindrical thread or ligament that break up into smaller drops (Cigar-shaped deformation). Third, local deformation on the drop surface creates bulges and protuberances that eventually detach themselves from the parent drop to form smaller drops.

  2. Spike morphology in blast-wave-driven instability experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Fryxell, B.; Budde, A. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science, Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hansen, J. F.; Miles, A. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Plewa, T. [Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, 400 Dirac Science Library, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Hearn, N. [Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Knauer, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The laboratory experiments described in the present paper observe the blast-wave-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability with three-dimensional (3D) initial conditions. About 5 kJ of energy from the Omega laser creates conditions similar to those of the He-H interface during the explosion phase of a supernova. The experimental target is a 150 {mu}m thick plastic disk followed by a low-density foam. The plastic piece has an embedded, 3D perturbation. The basic structure of the pattern is two orthogonal sine waves where each sine wave has an amplitude of 2.5 {mu}m and a wavelength of 71 {mu}m. In some experiments, an additional wavelength is added to explore the interaction of modes. In experiments with 3D initial conditions the spike morphology differs from what has been observed in other Rayleigh-Taylor experiments and simulations. Under certain conditions, experimental radiographs show some mass extending from the interface to the shock front. Current simulations show neither the spike morphology nor the spike penetration observed in the experiments. The amount of mass reaching the shock front is analyzed and potential causes for the spike morphology and the spikes reaching the shock are discussed. One such hypothesis is that these phenomena may be caused by magnetic pressure, generated by an azimuthal magnetic field produced by the plasma dynamics.

  3. Blast waves and how they interact with structures.

    PubMed

    Cullis, I G

    2001-02-01

    The paper defines and describes blast waves, their interaction with a structure and its subsequent response. Explosions generate blast waves, which need not be due to explosives. A blast wave consists of two parts: a shock wave and a blast wind. The paper explains how shock waves are formed and their basic properties. The physics of blast waves is non-linear and therefore non-intuitive. To understand how an explosion generates a blast wave a numerical modelling computer code, called a hydrocode has to be employed. This is briefly explained and the cAst Eulerian hydrocode is used to illustrate the formation and propagation of the blast wave generated by a 1 kg sphere of TNT explosive detonated 1 m above the ground. The paper concludes with a discussion of the response of a structure to a blast wave and shows that this response is governed by the structures natural frequency of vibration compared to the duration of the blast wave. The basic concepts introduced are illustrated in a second simulation that introduces two structures into the blast field of the TNT charge. PMID:11307674

  4. Physics of IED Blast Shock Tube Simulations for mTBI Research

    PubMed Central

    Mediavilla Varas, Jesus; Philippens, M.; Meijer, S. R.; van den Berg, A. C.; Sibma, P. C.; van Bree, J. L. M. J.; de Vries, D. V. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    Shock tube experiments and simulations are conducted with a spherical gelatin filled skull–brain surrogate, in order to study the mechanisms leading to blast induced mild traumatic brain injury. A shock tube including sensor system is optimized to simulate realistic improvised explosive device blast profiles obtained from full scale field tests. The response of the skull–brain surrogate is monitored using pressure and strain measurements. Fluid–structure interaction is modeled using a combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the air blast, and a finite element model for the structural response. The results help to understand the physics of wave propagation, from air blast into the skull–brain. The presence of openings on the skull and its orientation does have a strong effect on the internal pressure. A parameter study reveals that when there is an opening in the skull, the skull gives little protection and the internal pressure is fairly independent on the skull stiffness; the gelatin shear stiffness has little effect on the internal pressure. Simulations show that the presence of pressure sensors in the gelatin hardly disturbs the pressure field. PMID:21960984

  5. A model for estimating the viscosity of blast furnace slags with optical basicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao-jun; Ren, Zhong-shan; Zhang, Guo-hua; Wang, Li-jun; Chou, Kuo-chih

    2012-12-01

    Viscosity is an important physical property of blast furnace slags and has a great influence on blast furnace operations. Because of time consumption and difficulties encountered during high temperature experimental measurement, viscosity data are also limited, so a reasonable and accurate estimation model is required to provide the data for controlling and optimizing the blast furnace process. In the present study a viscosity model was proposed for blast furnace slags. In the model the activation energy was calculated by the optical basicity corrected for cations required for the charge compensation of AlO{4/5-}, and the temperature dependence was described by the Weymann-Frenkel equation. The estimated viscosity values of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO, and CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-TiO2 systems fit well with experiment data, with the mean deviation less than 25%.

  6. Shock Tube Design for High Intensity Blast Waves for Laboratory Testing of Armor and Combat Materiel

    E-print Network

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shock tubes create simulated blast waves which can be directed and measured to study blast wave effects under laboratory conditions. It is desirable to increase available peak pressure from ~1 MPa to ~5 MPa to simulate closer blast sources and facilitate development and testing of personal and vehicle armors. Three methods were investigated to increase peak simulated blast pressure produced by an oxy-acetylene driven shock tube while maintaining suitability for laboratory studies. The first method is the addition of a Shchelkin spiral priming section which works by increasing the turbulent flow of the deflagration wave, thus increasing its speed and pressure. This approach increased the average peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 5.33 MPa while maintaining a relevant pressure-time curve (Friedlander waveform). The second method is a bottleneck between the driving and driven sections. Coupling a 79 mm diameter driving section to a 53 mm driven section increased the peak pressure from 1.17 MPa to 2.25 MPa. Using a 1...

  7. Layered phenomena in the mesopause region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, J. M. C.; Bailey, S. M.; Baumgarten, G.; Rapp, M.

    2015-05-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics comprises a collection of papers which were mostly presented at the 11th Layered Phenomena in the Mesopause Region (LPMR) Workshop, held at the University of Leeds between 29th July 2013 and 1st August 2013. The topics covered at the workshop included atmospheric dynamics, mesospheric ice clouds, meteoric metal layers, meteoric smoke particles, and airglow layers. There was also a session on the potential of planned sub-orbital spacecraft for making measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT).

  8. Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

  9. 22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps. 121.11 Section 121...Articles § 121.11 Military demolition blocks and blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in...

  10. 22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps. 121.11 Section 121...Articles § 121.11 Military demolition blocks and blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in...

  11. Blast furnace slags as sorbents of phosphate from water solutions.

    PubMed

    Kostura, Bruno; Kulveitová, Hana; Lesko, Juraj

    2005-05-01

    The paper is focused on the sorption of phosphorus from aqueous solutions by crystalline and amorphous blast furnace slags. Slag sorption kinetics were measured, adsorption tests were carried out and the effect of acidification on the sorption properties of slags was studied. The kinetic measurements confirmed that the sorption of phosphorus on crystalline as well as amorphous slags can be described by a model involving pseudo-second-order reactions. For all slag types, phosphorus sorption follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The acid neutralizing capacities of crystalline and amorphous slags were determined. In the case of the crystalline slags, buffering intervals were found to exist during which the slag minerals dissolve in the sequence bredigite-gehlenite-diaspor. There is a high correlation (R2=0.9989) between ANC3.8 and the saturation capacities of crystalline and amorphous slags. PMID:15899277

  12. Recent Results from the BLAST Experiment (Nucleon Form Factors)

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, Wilbur A. [MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, 21 Manning Rd., Middleton, MA 01949 (United States)

    2007-06-13

    Recent precise polarization measurements have considerably improved constraints on nucleon electromagnetic form factors. The BLAST experiment, carried out at MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, was designed to study these quantities systematically using the intense polarized stored electron beam of the South Hall Ring, highly polarized internal gas jet targets, and a symmetric toroidal spectrometer. Simultaneous measurements of multiple reaction channels with different combinations of beam and target polarizations were carried out to extract the nucleon form factors with high precision at Q2< 1 GeV2/c2. Results for the nucleon form factors G{sub E}{sup p}, G{sub M}{sup p}, G{sub E}{sup n}, and G{sub M}{sup n} are presented and discussed.

  13. The Blast Experiment:. Polarized Electron Scattering from Hydrogen and Deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcon, R.

    At the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, the nucleon form factors have been measured by scattering polarized electrons from vector-polarized hydrogen and deuterium. The experiment used the longitudinally polarized electron beam stored in the MIT-Bates South Hall Ring along with an isotopically pure, highly vector-polarized internal atomic hydrogen and deuterium target provided by an atomic beam source. The measurements were carried out with the symmetric Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST). Results are presented for the proton form factor ratio, ? p GEp/G_M^p, and for the charge form factor of the neutron, GEn. Both results are more precise than previous data in the corresponding Q2 ranges.

  14. Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-l1 as a serum neurotrauma biomarker for exposure to occupational low-level blast.

    PubMed

    Carr, Walter; Yarnell, Angela M; Ong, Ricardo; Walilko, Timothy; Kamimori, Gary H; da Silva, Uade; McCarron, Richard M; LoPresti, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    Repeated exposure to low-level blast is a characteristic of a few select occupations and there is concern that such occupational exposures present risk for traumatic brain injury. These occupations include specialized military and law enforcement units that employ controlled detonation of explosive charges for the purpose of tactical entry into secured structures. The concern for negative effects from blast exposure is based on rates of operator self-reported headache, sleep disturbance, working memory impairment, and other concussion-like symptoms. A challenge in research on this topic has been the need for improved assessment tools to empirically evaluate the risk associated with repeated exposure to blast overpressure levels commonly considered to be too low in magnitude to cause acute injury. Evaluation of serum-based neurotrauma biomarkers provides an objective measure that is logistically feasible for use in field training environments. Among candidate biomarkers, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has some empirical support and was evaluated in this study. We used daily blood draws to examine acute change in UCH-L1 among 108 healthy military personnel who were exposed to repeated low-level blast across a 2-week period. These research volunteers also wore pressure sensors to record blast exposures, wrist actigraphs to monitor sleep patterns, and completed daily behavioral assessments of symptomology, postural stability, and neurocognitive function. UCH-L1 levels were elevated as a function of participating in the 2-week training with explosives, but the correlation of UCH-L1 elevation and blast magnitude was weak and inconsistent. Also, UCH-L1 elevations did not correlate with deficits in behavioral measures. These results provide some support for including UCH-L1 as a measure of central nervous system effects from exposure to low-level blast. However, the weak relation observed suggests that additional indicators of blast effect are needed. PMID:25852633

  15. Ubiquitin Carboxy-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 as a Serum Neurotrauma Biomarker for Exposure to Occupational Low-Level Blast

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Walter; Yarnell, Angela M.; Ong, Ricardo; Walilko, Timothy; Kamimori, Gary H.; da Silva, Uade; McCarron, Richard M.; LoPresti, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated exposure to low-level blast is a characteristic of a few select occupations and there is concern that such occupational exposures present risk for traumatic brain injury. These occupations include specialized military and law enforcement units that employ controlled detonation of explosive charges for the purpose of tactical entry into secured structures. The concern for negative effects from blast exposure is based on rates of operator self-reported headache, sleep disturbance, working memory impairment, and other concussion-like symptoms. A challenge in research on this topic has been the need for improved assessment tools to empirically evaluate the risk associated with repeated exposure to blast overpressure levels commonly considered to be too low in magnitude to cause acute injury. Evaluation of serum-based neurotrauma biomarkers provides an objective measure that is logistically feasible for use in field training environments. Among candidate biomarkers, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) has some empirical support and was evaluated in this study. We used daily blood draws to examine acute change in UCH-L1 among 108 healthy military personnel who were exposed to repeated low-level blast across a 2-week period. These research volunteers also wore pressure sensors to record blast exposures, wrist actigraphs to monitor sleep patterns, and completed daily behavioral assessments of symptomology, postural stability, and neurocognitive function. UCH-L1 levels were elevated as a function of participating in the 2-week training with explosives, but the correlation of UCH-L1 elevation and blast magnitude was weak and inconsistent. Also, UCH-L1 elevations did not correlate with deficits in behavioral measures. These results provide some support for including UCH-L1 as a measure of central nervous system effects from exposure to low-level blast. However, the weak relation observed suggests that additional indicators of blast effect are needed. PMID:25852633

  16. Estimation of Yield and Height-of-Burst for Near-Surface Explosions from Joint Inversion of Air-Blast and Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, A.; Xu, H.; Templeton, D. C.; Ramirez, A. L.; Chipman, V.; Ford, S. R.; Chambers, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Near-surface explosions generate air-blast overpressure and seismic ground motions. It is well known that air-blast and seismic amplitudes depend on explosive yield and range. However for explosions near the ground surface the excitation of air-blast overpressure in the atmosphere and seismic motions depends strongly on the height-of-burst (HOB) for above ground or depth-of-burial (DOB, negative HOB) for buried explosions. We report an algorithm for estimating yield and HOB from near-surface explosions by joint inversion of air-blast overpressure and seismic ground motion amplitudes. The HUMBLE REDWOOD series of chemical explosions conducted at Kirtland AFB were explicitly designed to investigate the effect of HOB on air-blast and seismic motions. Analysis of these data indicates that scaled-range and HOB effects separate and provide calibration data for signal behavior with yield, range and HOB. Variation of air-blast measurements with scaled range for above ground explosions is reasonably well fit by reported models. Dependence with scaled HOB is determined with residuals from above ground air-blast models fit to a parameterized curve. Resampling of the data allows estimates of model errors for both scaled range and scaled HOB and is also used to propagate model errors in the inversion. Similar analysis is performed for the dependence of seismic amplitudes with scaled range and scaled HOB. The inversion of air-blast and seismic amplitudes for yield and HOB uses either a grid search or Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The algorithm runs very quickly in either case because the forward calculations are algebraic and very efficient for this two-dimensional model space. We show that inversion results obtained with only one data type (air-blast or seismic) are strongly non-unique and often have large bias. However, joint inversion of air-blast and seismic data breaks the trade-offs between yield and HOB and leads to more accurate estimates. We find that uncertainty in the signal model for seismic amplitude variation with range is the strongest contributor to bias in inversion results. The transportability of the method to different geologic emplacement conditions remains to be determined. We have performed hydrodynamic simulations for a range of HOB in different materials (including non-linear behavior) and can report that seismic ground motions are strongly sensitive to material while air-blast amplitudes are relatively insensitive to the material for explosions near the surface. Simulations can predict air-blast time-series very well if atmospheric conditions are known, however seismic ground motions are more difficult to predict due to uncertainties in geologic material models and three-dimensional structure.

  17. Device for Underwater Laboratory Simulation of Unconfined Blast Waves

    E-print Network

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shock tubes simulate blast waves to study their effects in air under laboratory conditions; however, few experimental models exist for simulating underwater blast waves that are needed for facilitating experiments in underwater blast transmission, determining injury thresholds in marine animals, validating numerical models, and exploring mitigation strategies for explosive well removals. This method incorporates an oxy-acetylene driven underwater blast simulator which creates peak blast pressures of about 1860 kPa. Shot-to-shot consistency was fair, with an average standard deviation near 150 kPa. Results suggest peak blast pressures from 460 kPa to 1860 kPa are available by adjusting the distance from the source.

  18. Note: Device for underwater laboratory simulation of unconfined blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Shock tubes simulate blast waves to study their effects in air under laboratory conditions; however, few experimental models exist for simulating underwater blast waves that are needed for facilitating experiments in underwater blast transmission, determining injury thresholds in marine animals, validating numerical models, and exploring mitigation strategies for explosive well removals. This method incorporates an oxy-acetylene driven underwater blast simulator which creates peak blast pressures of about 1860 kPa. Shot-to-shot consistency was fair, with an average standard deviation near 150 kPa. Results suggest that peak blast pressures from 460 kPa to 1860 kPa are available by adjusting the distance from the source.

  19. Emergent Phenomena via Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapaport, D. C.

    Emergent phenomena are unusual because they are not obvious consequences of the design of the systems in which they appear, a feature no less relevant when they are being simulated. Several systems that exhibit surprisingly rich emergent behavior, each studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, are described: (i) Modeling self-assembly processes associated with virus growth reveals the ability to achieve error-free assembly, where paradoxically, near-maximum yields are due to reversible bond formation. (ii) In fluids studied at the atomistic level, complex hydrodynamic phenomena in rotating and convecting fluids - the Taylor- Couette and Rayleigh-Bénard instabilities - can be reproduced, despite the limited length and time scales accessible by MD. (iii) Segregation studies of granular mixtures in a rotating drum reproduce the expected, but counterintuitive, axial and radial segregation, while for the case of a vertically vibrated layer a novel form of horizontal segregation is revealed.

  20. Undergraduates Understanding of Cardiovascular Phenomena

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Joel A. Michael (Rush Medical College Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology)

    2002-06-01

    Undergraduates students in 12 courses at 8 different institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of 13 different misconceptions (conceptual difficulties) about cardiovascular function. The prevalence of these misconceptions ranged from 20 to 81% and, for each misconception, was consistent across the different student populations. We also obtained explanations for the studentsÂ? answers either as free responses or with follow-up multiple-choice questions. These results suggest that students have a number of underlying conceptual difficulties about cardiovascular phenomena. One possible source of some misconceptions is the studentsÂ? inability to apply simple general models to specific cardiovascular phenomena. Some implications of these results for teachers of physiology are discussed.

  1. Statistical phenomena in particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, J.J.

    1984-09-01

    Particle beams are subject to a variety of apparently distinct statistical phenomena such as intrabeam scattering, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, coherent instabilities, and radiofrequency noise diffusion. In fact, both the physics and mathematical description of these mechanisms are quite similar, with the notion of correlation as a powerful unifying principle. In this presentation we will attempt to provide both a physical and a mathematical basis for understanding the wide range of statistical phenomena that have been discussed. In the course of this study the tools of the trade will be introduced, e.g., the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, noise theory, correlation functions, and beam transfer functions. Although a major concern will be to provide equations for analyzing machine design, the primary goal is to introduce a basic set of physical concepts having a very broad range of applicability.

  2. Preparation of Aluminum Coatings by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying and Dry-Ice Blasting and Their Corrosion Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shu-Juan; Song, Bo; Zhou, Gen-Shu; Li, Chang-Jiu; Hansz, Bernard; Liao, Han-Lin; Coddet, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Aluminum coating, as an example of spray coating material with low hardness, was deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying while dry-ice blasting was applied during the deposition process. The deposited coatings were characterized in terms of microstructure, porosity, phase composition, and the valence states. The results show that the APS aluminum coatings with dry-ice blasting present a porosity of 0.35 ± 0.02%, which is comparable to the bulk material formed by the mechanical compaction. In addition, no evident oxide has been detected, except for the very thin and impervious oxide layer at the outermost layer. Compared to plasma-sprayed Al coatings without dry-ice blasting, the adhesion increased by 52% for Al substrate using dry-ice blasting, while 25% for steel substrate. Corrosion behavior of coated samples was evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous using electrochemistry measurements. The electrochemical results indicated that APS Al coating with dry-ice blasting was more resistant to pitting corrosion than the conventional plasma-sprayed Al coating.

  3. An Analytic Model of Close-Range Blast Fragment Loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernst Rottenkolber; Werner Arnold

    2005-01-01

    The effects of blast-fragmentation warheads need to be carefully characterized in a variety of applications like passive and active vehicle protection or hard target defeat and TBM defense. With these applications in mind, we have developed a collection of tools called FI-BLAST (Fast Interface for Blast-Fragment Load Analysis of Structures). In the present paper we describe the essential part of

  4. An Analytic Model of Close-Range Blast Fragment Loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernst Rottenkolber; Werner Arnold

    2006-01-01

    The effects of blast-fragmentation warheads need to be carefully characterized in a variety of applications like passive and active vehicle protection or hard target defeat and TBM defense. With these applications in mind, we have developed a collection of tools called FI-BLAST (Fast Interface for Blast-Fragment Load Analysis of Structures). In the present paper we describe the essential part of

  5. Mitigation of blast effects on aluminum foam protected masonry walls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Su; Chengqing Wu; Mike Griffith

    2008-01-01

    Terrorist attacks using improvised explosive devices (IED) can result in unreinforced masonry (URM) wall collapse. Protecting\\u000a URM wall from IED attack is very complicated. An effective solution to mitigate blast effects on URM wall is to retrofit URM\\u000a walls with metallic foam sheets to absorb blast energy. However, mitigation of blast effects on metallic foam protected URM\\u000a walls is currently

  6. New phenomena searches at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Soha, Aron; /UC, Davis

    2006-04-01

    The authors report on recent results from the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment, which is accumulating data from proton-antiproton collisions with {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. The new phenomena being explored include Higgs, Supersymmetry, and large extra dimensions. They also present the latest results of searches for heavy objects, which would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model.

  7. Neural Correlates of Insight Phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Luo; Gunther Knoblich; Chongde Lin

    2009-01-01

    Difficult problems are sometimes solved in a sudden flash of illumination, a phenomenon referred to as “insight.” Recent neuroimaging\\u000a studies have begun to reveal the neural correlates of the cognitive processes underlying such insight phenomena (Luo and Niki\\u000a 2003; Jung-Beeman et al. 2004; Luo et al. 2004a, 2006; Mai et al. 2004; Lang et al. 2006). However, researchers have encountered

  8. REVIEW ARTICLE: Valence fluctuation phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Lawrence; P. S. Riseborough; R. D. Parks

    1981-01-01

    Valence fluctuation phenomena occur in rare-earth compounds in which the proximity of the 4f level to the Fermi energy leads to instabilities of the charge configuration (valence) and\\/or of the magnetic moment. The authors review the experimental results observed in the subset of such systems for which the 4f ions form a lattice with identical valence on each site. The

  9. A computational study on brain tissue under blast: primary and tertiary blast injuries.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, A; Salimi Jazi, M; Karami, G; Ziejewski, M

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a biomechanical study of a human head model exposed to blast shock waves followed by a blunt impact with the surface of the enclosing walls of a confined space is carried out. Under blast, the head may experience primary blast injury (PBI) due to exposure to the shockwaves and tertiary blast injury (TeBI) due to a possible blunt impact. We examine the brain response data in a deformable finite element head model in terms of the inflicted stress/pressure, velocity, and acceleration on the brain for several blast scenarios with different intensities. The data will be compared for open space and confined spaces. Following the initial impact of the shock front in the confined space, one can see the fluctuations in biomechanical data due to wave reflections. Although the severity of the PBI and TeBI is dependent on the situation, for the cases studied here, PBI is considerably more pronounced than TeBI in confined spaces. PMID:24515869

  10. Using vibration prediction to reduce blasting costs and complaints

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, P.R. Jr. [GeoSonics Inc., Warrendale, PA (United States); Leonard, T. [Bardon Trimount, Inc., Peabody, MA (United States). Aggregates Div.; Papillon, B.E. [Austin Powder Co., Northampton, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Bardon Trimount Inc., a large producer of aggregate, crushed stone, and concrete, was experiencing significant public opposition to its five quarries in the Boston area. It was believed by the authors that this opposition could be significantly lessened if the total number of blasts per week were reduced. Although the blasting company at these quarries, Austin Powder Company, contended that this could easily and safely be accomplished by increasing the size of the blasts, regulations precluded this alternative by limiting the total amount of explosives that could be used per blast. In an attempt to resolve this impasse, Iso-Seismic Studies were performed. The results of these studies clearly illustrated how the surface geology surrounding these quarries affected ground vibrations as they emanated from a blast site. The results of these studies were presented to the public which resulted in greater confidence that larger blasts could be safely controlled. Moreover, local regulators were similarly impressed with the results and were persuaded to waive their limits on blast size. The aftermath of these studies has been a dramatic decrease in drilling and blasting costs, a sharp drop in blasting complaints, and a much improved relationship between Bardon Trimount and the surrounding communities.

  11. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  12. Mechanisms of Hearing Loss after Blast Injury to the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Il; Gao, Simon S.; Xia, Anping; Wang, Rosalie; Salles, Felipe T.; Raphael, Patrick D.; Abaya, Homer; Wachtel, Jacqueline; Baek, Jongmin; Jacobs, David; Rasband, Matthew N.; Oghalai, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body’s most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction. PMID:23840874

  13. 13. BUILDING NO. 621, INTERIOR, TOP OF BLASTING TUB UNDERNEATH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING NO. 621, INTERIOR, TOP OF BLASTING TUB UNDERNEATH SAWDUST HOPPER. BLASTING TUB HAS DOUBLE WALLS OF 3/4' THICK STEEL ARMOR PLATE. CHARGE TO BE TESTED IS BURIED IN SAWDUST WITH FLAME RESISTANT CHEMICALS. ELEVATOR BEHIND TUB CARRIES SAWDUST BACK TO TOP OF SAWDUST HOPPER AFTER TEST IS COMPLETED AND SAWDUST IN BLASTING TUB HAS BEEN SIFTED FOR SHELL FRAGMENTS. LOUVERS IN WALLS ARE HINGED FREELY SO THEY OPEN TO RELIEVE BLAST PRESSURE DURING A TEST. - Picatinny Arsenal, 600 Area, Test Areas District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  14. Brain injury from explosive blast: description and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Ling, G; Ecklund, J M; Bandak, F A

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating clinical experience is indicating that explosive blast brain injury is becoming recognized as a disease distinct from the penetrating form of blast injury as well as the classic closed head injury (CHI). In recent US conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, over 60% of combat casualties were from explosive blast with the hallmark explosive weapon being the improvised explosive device (IED). Explosive blast TBI is a condition afflicting many combat injured warfighters potentially constituting another category of TBI. Clinically, it shares many features with conventional TBI but possesses some unique aspects. In its mild form, it also shares many clinical features with PTSD but here again has distinct aspects. Although military medical providers depend on civilian standard of care guidelines when managing explosive blast mTBI, they are continually adapting their medical practice in order to optimize the treatment of this disease, particularly in a theater of war. It is clear that further rigorous scientific study of explosive blast mTBI at both the basic science and clinical levels is needed. This research must include improved understanding of the causes and mechanisms of explosive blast TBI as well as comprehensive epidemiologic studies to determine the prevalence of this disease and its risk factors. A widely accepted unambiguous clinical description of explosive blast mTBI with diagnostic criteria would greatly improve diagnosis. It is hoped that through appropriate research meaningful prevention, mitigation, and treatment strategies for explosive blast mTBI can be speedily realized. PMID:25702216

  15. Computational Hydrocode Study of Target Damage due to Fragment-Blast Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch-Aguilar, T; Najjar, F; Szymanski, E

    2011-03-24

    A target's terminal ballistic effects involving explosively generated fragments, along with the original blast, are of critical importance for many different security and safety related applications. Personnel safety and protective building design are but a few of the practical disciplines that can gain from improved understanding combined loading effects. Traditionally, any engineering level analysis or design effort involving explosions would divide the target damage analysis into two correspondingly critical areas: blast wave and fragment related impact effects. The hypothesis of this paper lies in the supposition that a linear combination of a blast-fragment loading, coupled with an accurate target response description, can lead to a non-linear target damage effect. This non-linear target response could then stand as the basis of defining what a synergistic or combined frag-blast loading might actually look like. The table below, taken from Walters, et. al. categorizes some of the critical parameters driving any combined target damage effect and drives the evaluation of results. Based on table 1 it becomes clear that any combined frag-blast analysis would need to account for the target response matching similar ranges for the mechanics described above. Of interest are the critical times upon which a blast event or fragment impact loading occurs relative to the target's modal response. A blast, for the purposes of this paper is defined as the sudden release of chemical energy from a given material (henceforth referred to as an energetic material) onto its surrounding medium. During the coupling mechanism a discrete or discontinuous shockwave is generated. This shockwave travels outward from the source transferring energy and momentum to any surrounding objects including personnel and engineering structures. From an engineering perspective blast effects are typically characterized by way of physical characteristics such as Peak Pressure (PP), Time of Arrival (TOA), Pressure-Impulse (PI) and Time of Duration (TD). Other peculiarities include the radial decrease in pressure from the source, any fireball size measurement, and subsequent increase in temperature from the passing of the shockwave through the surrounding medium. In light of all of these metrics, the loading any object receives from a blast event becomes intricately connected to the distance between itself and the source. Because of this, a clear distinction is made between close-in effects and those from a source far away from the object of interest. Explosively generated fragments on the other hand are characterized by means of their localized damage potential. Metrics such as whether the fragment penetrates or perforates a given object is quantified as well as other variables including fragment's residual velocity, % kinetic energy decrease, residual fragment mass and other exit criteria. A fragment launched under such violent conditions could easily be traveling at speeds in excess of 2500 ft/s. Given these speeds it is conceivable to imagine how any given fragment could deliver a concentrated load to a target and penetrates through walls, vehicles or even the protection systems of nearby personnel. This study will focus on the individual fragment-target impact event with the hopes of expanding it to eventually include statistical procedures. Since this is a modeling excursion into the combined frag-blast target damage effects the numerical methods used to frame this problem become important in-so-far as the simulations are done in a consistent manner. For this study a Finite-Element based Hydrocode solution called ALE3D (ALE=Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) was utilized. ALE3D is developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA), and as this paper will show, successfully implemented a converged ALE formulation including as many of the different aspects needed to query the synergistic damage on a given target. Further information on the modeling setup is included.

  16. Cylindrical blast wave propagation in an enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagabir, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    A numerical study of propagation and interaction of cylindrical blast waves in an enclosure at different blast intensities is presented. The interest to study such flows stems from the need to bring in an updated description of the flow field and to predict the pressure loads on the structure. An implicit-unfactored high-resolution hybrid Riemann solver for the two-dimensional Euler equations is used. The characteristic values at the cell faces are evaluated by a modified MUSCL scheme. Numerical schlieren-type images are used for understanding the flows qualitatively. The investigation indicated that the resulting flow field is dominated by complex interacting shock systems due to the complex series of shock focusing events, shock-structure and shock-shock interactions. The pressure-load distribution and maximum overpressure are estimated.

  17. Blast waves generated by planar detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, P. A.; Penrose, J. D.; Shepherd, J. E.; Benedick, W. B.; Ritzel, D. V.

    This paper presents experimental and theoretical studies of blast waves generated by gaseous and HE detonations in long cylindrical tubes. The experimental studies were performed using the 1.8 m diameter shock tube facilities at the Defence Research Establishment Suffield and at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute. Two gaseous explosives, acetylene-oxygen and hydrogen-air, and one solid explosive, 120g nitroguanidine, were used in order to verify the validity of energy scaling in the far-field. The above experimental work is supported by one- and two-dimensional numerical computations which are based on the Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) algorithm. The experimental results are also analyzed in terms of a simple analytical blast model.

  18. WIPFRAG -- A new tool for blast evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Palangio, T.C. [ETI Explosives, North Bay, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Traditionally, mines and quarries have lacked a practical method of describing blast results. Adjectives such as good, fair, or poor do little to define performance, and sieving and/or counting particles was too costly and time consuming to be considered a viable alternative. Recent advances in imaging technology along with ongoing research and development by Franklin Geotechnical Ltd., ETI Explosives, INCO and the University of Waterloo have created a digital analysis system that generates a fragmentation size distribution curve from muckpile images. These images are acquired on a videotape or still photo format and can be automatically processed by grabbing the image, scaling it and defining the block edges through a series of routines to quantify blast fragmentation. This technique is ideal for evaluating oversize reduction programs, pattern optimization efforts, prevention of overblasting and fines generation or just benchmarking. This paper will describe the WIPFRAG System and illustrate by means of actual case studies, the usefulness of this tool.

  19. Metal sorption on blast-furnace slag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Dimitrova

    1996-01-01

    The removal of Cu, Ni and Zn-ions from water solution by ungranulated blast-furnace slag has been studied depending on contact time, initial ion concentration, pH and solution temperature. The polymineral composition and the slag specific properties determine its high sorption activity in metal salts solutions. In the range of the concentrations studied (10?4–10?3 M), the sorption data for Cu2+, Ni2+

  20. Developments in vapour cloud explosion blast modeling.

    PubMed

    Mercx, W P; van den Berg, A C; Hayhurst, C J; Robertson, N J; Moran, K C

    2000-01-01

    TNT Equivalency methods are widely used for vapour cloud explosion blast modeling. Presently, however, other types of models are available which do not have the fundamental objections TNT Equivalency models have. TNO Multi-Energy method is increasingly accepted as a more reasonable alternative to be used as a simple and practical method. Computer codes based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) like AutoReaGas, developed by TNO and Century Dynamics, could be used also in case a more rigorous analysis is required. Application of the Multi-Energy method requires knowledge of two parameters describing the explosion: a charge size and a charge strength. During the last years, research has led to an improved determination of the charge strength (i.e., the class number or source overpressure) to be chosen to apply the blast charts. A correlation has been derived relating the charge strength to a set of parameters describing the boundary conditions of the flammable cloud and the fuel in the cloud. A simple approach may not be satisfactory in all situations. The overpressure distribution inside a vapour cloud explosion is generally not homogeneous and the presence of obstructions causes directional blast propagation in the near field. A CFD approach, in which the actual situation is modeled, supplies case-specific results. An overview of the key aspects relevant to the application of the Multi-Energy method and CFD modeling is provided. Then the application of the two methods is demonstrated for an example problem involving the calculation of the explosion blast load on a structure at some distance from the explosion in an offshore platform complex. PMID:10677667

  1. Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer.

  2. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L. [U.S. Steel, Clairton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  3. Vehicle overturning vulnerability from air blast loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, R. R.; Napadensky, H.; Longinow, A.

    1984-08-01

    The overturning response of an armored personnel carrier to air blast loads derived from a nuclear blast environment is presented. The orientation of the vehicle is side-on to the air blast shock front. It is assumed there is no translation at the downwind wheels, i.e., the roll over point. In addition, the vehicle is assumed to behave as a rigid body. That is, the suspension system are taken as rigid, so that the wheels and axles rotate in unison with the body. It can be shown that this assumption slightly overestimates the overturning resistance of vehicles with suspension systems. For a stiff suspension system, such as that of the APC, the rigid body behavior assumption is justified. The only motion possible for this analysis is rotation about the rollover point. The effect of overturning restraint systems has been included in the analysis by incorporating a perfectly plastic vehicle to ground connection on the upwind side of the vehicle. The results give the threshold nuclear environment that just causes overturning. The threshold environment is given in terms of a peak overpressure corresponding to a weapon yield. Results are presented for a range of weapon yields from 1KT to 1MT.

  4. X-ray technique for the estimation of residual stresses after shot-blasting metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betsofen, S. Ya.; Plikhunov, V. V.; Ashmarin, A. A.

    2008-04-01

    A technique is developed for the correction of the depth distribution of residual stresses measured by an X-ray method with allowance for their relaxation upon the removal of surface layers. This technique is applied to the study of a D16 aluminum alloy strip subjected to shot-blasting metal forming. This technique can be used to estimate the distribution of residual stresses across massive parts after various types of treatment.

  5. Multifractality of drop breakup in the air-blast nozzle atomization process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Xing Zhou; Zun-Hong Yu

    2001-01-01

    The multifractal nature of drop breakup in the air-blast nozzle atomization process has been studied. We apply the multiplier method to extract the negative and the positive parts of the f(alpha) curve with the data of drop-size distribution measured using dual particle dynamic analyzer. A random multifractal model with the multiplier triangularly distributed is proposed to characterize the breakup of

  6. Experimental study of a two phase flow in the near field of an air blast atomizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Boretti

    1989-01-01

    A detailed study of the two-phase flow produced by an air-blast atomizer is performed. Two component phase Doppler interferometry is utilized to characterize the two-phase spray produced by the atomizer. Simultaneous size and velocity measurements are obtained. The radial distributions of size and velocity are presented at different axial locations. The results allow a complete characterization of the spray and

  7. Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon

    E-print Network

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    Chapter 1 Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon nanotubes To appear in "Chemistry of Carbon@acclab.helsinki.fi 1 #12;2CHAPTER 1. IRRADIATION-INDUCED PHENOMENA IN CARBON NANOTUBES #12;Contents 1 Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon nanotubes 1 1.1 Introduction

  8. Groundwater phenomena and the theory of mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Wineman, A.S. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics)

    1991-01-01

    The phenomena of groundwater motion and the recent developments in the Theory of Mixtures are reviewed. Comparisons of these results with those from classical theory are presented. Phenomena of interest that are not well explained are discussed and the potential of the Theory of Mixtures in addressing these phenomena is presented. 16 refs.

  9. Multifractal phenomena in physics and chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Eugene Stanley; Paul Meakin

    1988-01-01

    A brief introduction to multifractal phenomena, different regions of an object that have different fractal properties, is given. The application of the concept of multifractal phenomena to complex surfaces and interfaces and to fluid flow in porous media is discussed. Analogies of multifractals with thermodynamics and multifractal scaling are pointed out. The association of multifractal phenomena with systems where the

  10. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  11. Magnetism as the emergent phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokura, Yoshinori

    2014-03-01

    Versatile emergent phenomena have been observed in strongly correlated electron systems as a consequence of mutual strong coupling among the spin, orbital, and charge degrees of freedom. Here, we would overview the outcomes of topological spin textures in transport, dielectric, and optical properties of correlated systems; these include sciences of colossal magnetoresistance, multiferroics, skyrmions, and topological/quantum-anomalous Hall effects. Impacts of the emergent electric and magnetic fields acting on the electrons in a solid are discussed as well as their possible applications to future devices.

  12. Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

    2011-07-01

    Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid. PMID:21797593

  13. Studies of Novel Quantum Phenomena in Ruthenates

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Zhiqiang

    2011-04-08

    Strongly correlated oxides have been the subject of intense study in contemporary condensed matter physics, and perovskite ruthenates (Sr,Ca)n+1RunO3n+1 have become a new focus in this field. One of important characteristics of ruthenates is that both lattice and orbital degrees of freedom are active and are strongly coupled to charge and spin degrees of freedom. Such a complex interplay of multiple degrees of freedom causes the properties of ruthenates to exhibit a gigantic response to external stimuli under certain circumstances. Magnetic field, pressure, and chemical composition all have been demonstrated to be effective in inducing electronic/magnetic phase transitions in ruthenates. Therefore, ruthenates are ideal candidates for searching for novel quantum phenomena through controlling external parameters. The objective of this project is to search for novel quantum phenomena in ruthenate materials using high-quality single crystals grown by the floating-zone technique, and investigate the underlying physics. The following summarizes our accomplishments. We have focused on trilayered Sr4Ru3O10 and bilayered (Ca1-xSrx)3Ru2O7. We have succeeded in growing high-quality single crystals of these materials using the floating-zone technique and performed systematic studies on their electronic and magnetic properties through a variety of measurements, including resistivity, Hall coefficient, angle-resolved magnetoresistivity, Hall probe microscopy, and specific heat. We have also studied microscopic magnetic properties for some of these materials using neutron scattering in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have observed a number of unusual exotic quantum phenomena through these studies, such as an orbital selective metamagnetic transition, bulk spin valve effect, and a heavy-mass nearly ferromagnetic state with a surprisingly large Wilson ratio. Our work has also revealed underlying physics of these exotic phenomena. Exotic phenomena of correlated electron has been among central topics of contempary condensed matter physics. Ultrfast phase transitions accompanied by switching of conductivity or magnetization in stronly correlated materials are believed to be promising in developing next generation of transistors. Our work on layered ruthenates has remarkably advanced our understanding of how the exotic phenomena of correlated electrons is governed by the complex interplay between charge, spin, lattice and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition to studies on ruthenates, we have also expanded our research to the emerging field of Fe-based superconductors, focusing on the iron chalcogenide Fe1+y(Te1-xSex) superconductor system. We first studied the superconductivity of this alloy system following the discovery of superconductivity in FeSe using polycrystalline samples. Later, we successfuly grew high-quality single crystals of these materials. Using these single crystals, we have determined the magnetic structure of the parent compound Fe1+yTe, observed spin resonance of superconducting state in optimally doped samples, and established a phase diagram. Our work has produced an important impact in this burgeoning field. The PI presented an invited talk on this topic at APS March meeting in 2010. We have published 19 papers in these two areas (one in Nature materials, five in Physical Review Letters, and nine in Physical Review B) and submitted two (see the list of publications attached below).

  14. Induction Phenomena in Laser-Sustained Scramjets

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkawa, Yoko; Tamada, Kazunobu; Horisawa, Hideyuki [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Tokai University, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, 259-1292 (Japan); Kimura, Itsuro [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8856 (Japan)

    2005-04-27

    A preliminary study on induction phenomena in a laser-sustained scramjet was conducted. The induction processes include absorption process of a laser pulse by a reactive mixture, plasma formation, diffusion of active species, shock formation, thermalization process of ambient mixture, induction of local turbulence, etc. For observation of the initial phenomena, an experimental study on effects of a focused laser pulse (Nd:YAG, 335mJ/pulse, pulse width 5nsec) into a hydrogen-air mixture was conducted. Temporal evolutions of typical line spectrum of a laser-induced plasma of the mixture were measured with the photodiode or the photo-multiplier-tube through specific band-pass filters for each spectrum for OH, O+, N+, H, and O. It was shown that the emission from O abruptly increased at 2 nsec, peaked at about 5 nsec, followed by an abrupt drop at 6 nsec. The emission from H atoms secondly increased. Other emissions of N+, O+, and OH peaked at about 17 nsec and continued for about 1 msec.

  15. Blast mines: physics, injury mechanisms and vehicle protection.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, A; Hill, A M; Hepper, A E; Bull, A M J; Clasper, J C

    2009-12-01

    Since World War II, more vehicles have been lost to land mines than all other threats combined. Anti-vehicular (AV) mines are capable of disabling a heavy vehicle, or completely destroying a lighter vehicle. The most common form of AV mine is the blast mine, which uses a large amount of explosive to directly damage the target. In a conventional military setting, landmines are used as a defensive force-multiplier and to restrict the movements of the opposing force. They are relatively cheap to purchase and easy to acquire, hence landmines are also potent weapons in the insurgents' armamentarium. The stand-offnature of its design has allowed insurgents to cause significant injuries to security forces in current conflicts with little personal risk. As a result, AV mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have become the most common cause of death and injury to Coalition and local security forces operating in Iraq and Afghanistan. Detonation of an AV mine causes an explosive, exothermic reaction which results in the formation of a shockwave followed by a rapid expansion of gases. The shockwave is mainly reflected by the soillair interface and fractures the soil cap overthe mine. The detonation products then vent through the voids in the soil, resulting in a hollow inverse cone which consists of the detonation gases surrounded by the soil ejecta. It is the combination of the detonation products and soil ejecta that interact with the target vehicle and cause injury to the vehicle occupants. A number of different strategies are required to mitigate the blast effects of an explosion. Primary blast effects can be reduced by increasing the standoff distance between the seat of the explosion and the crew compartment. Enhancement of armour on the base of the vehicle, as well as improvements in personal protection can prevent penetration of fragments. Mitigating tertiary effects can be achieved by altering the vehicle geometry and structure, increasing vehicle mass, as well as developing new strategies to reduce the transfer of the impulse through the vehicle to the occupants. Protection from thermal injury can be provided by incorporating fire resistant materials into the vehicle and in personal clothing. The challenge for the vehicle designer is the incorporation of these protective measures within an operationally effective platform. PMID:20397600

  16. Uranium Pyrophoricity Phenomena and Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    2000-04-20

    We have compiled a topical reference on the phenomena, experiences, experiments, and prediction of uranium pyrophoricity for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) with specific applications to SNFP process and situations. The purpose of the compilation is to create a reference to integrate and preserve this knowledge. Decades ago, uranium and zirconium fires were commonplace at Atomic Energy Commission facilities, and good documentation of experiences is surprisingly sparse. Today, these phenomena are important to site remediation and analysis of packaging, transportation, and processing of unirradiated metal scrap and spent nuclear fuel. Our document, bearing the same title as this paper, will soon be available in the Hanford document system [Plys, et al., 2000]. This paper explains general content of our topical reference and provides examples useful throughout the DOE complex. Moreover, the methods described here can be applied to analysis of potentially pyrophoric plutonium, metal, or metal hydride compounds provided that kinetic data are available. A key feature of this paper is a set of straightforward equations and values that are immediately applicable to safety analysis.

  17. Identification of rice blast resistance genes using international monogenic differentials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases of rice that severely affects crop production in Jilin Province, Northeast China, where temperate japonica rice is primarily grown. In the present study, 44 representative local blast isolat...

  18. Preliminary assessment of sandwich plates subject to blast loads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenyu Xue; John W. Hutchinson

    2003-01-01

    The question motivating the present study is whether metal sandwich plates with sufficiently strong cores are able to sustain substantially larger blast loads than monolithic solid plates of the same material and total mass. Circular plates clamped at their edges are considered under blast loads large enough to produce substantial deflections. The material is elastic–perfectly plastic. Material strain-rate dependence and

  19. Investigation of Ultrafast Laser-Driven Radiative Blast Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Edwards; A. J. MacKinnon; J. Zweiback; K. Shigemori; D. Ryutov; A. M. Rubenchik; K. A. Keilty; E. Liang; B. A. Remington; T. Ditmire

    2001-01-01

    We have examined the evolution of cylindrically symmetric blast waves produced by the deposition of femtosecond laser pulses in gas jets. In high- Z gases radiative effects become important. We observe the production of an ionization precursor ahead of the shock front and deceleration parameters below the adiabatic value of 1\\/2 (for a cylinder), an effect expected when the blast

  20. Blast response comparison of multiple steel frame connections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Girum S. Urgessa; Tomasz Arciszewski

    2011-01-01

    When a structural steel frame is subjected to blast, the beam-to-column connections, which are responsible for load transfer between different members within the frame, play a major role in structural response. This paper presents results of a comparative finite element analysis of a steel frame subjected to a blast loading from a vehicular threat. The study compared three connection systems

  1. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  2. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SEED ON THE LEFT, THE #1 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SHED ON THE RIGHT, AND THE STOVES, BOILERS, AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT IN THE CENTER. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Identification of major blast resistance genes in the southern US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance (R) genes in rice play important roles in preventing infections of rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. In order to identify more R genes for different rice growing areas in the Southern US, an extensive field survey of the blast fungus was performed from 2012 to 2013. A total of 500 is...

  4. Current advances on genetic resistance to rice blast disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most threatening fungal diseases resulting in significant annual crop losses worldwide. Blast disease has been effectively managed by a combination of resistant (R) gene deployment, application of fungicides, and suita...

  5. A scientific view of the productivity of abrasive blasting nozzles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Settles; S. Garg

    1996-01-01

    flow. So does a blasting nozzle, although the diamonds are seldom visible to the naked eye. Micrometer-sized alumina particles are accelerated through the nozzles of the shuttle's solid rocket boosters (Ref 1), just as abrasive particles are accelerated through a blasting nozzle. (Actually, it is easier to analyze the shuttle booster problem because the particles are so small.) This article

  6. Mechanical etching of micro pockets by powder blasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Park; T. I. Seo; M. W. Cho

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to develop a mechanical etching technique to produce micro mould dies having micro pockets of hundreds of µm. A powder blasting technique is applied to stainless steel plates based on predefined process conditions. This paper describes the performance of a powder blasting technique and the effect of the number of nozzle scanning times

  7. Blast venting through blanket material in the HYLIFE ICF reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Liu; P. F. Peterson; V. E. Schrock

    1992-01-01

    This work presents a numerical study of blast venting through various blanket configurations in the HYLIFE ICF reactor design. The study uses TSUNAMI -- a multi-dimensional, high-resolution, shock capturing code -- to predict the momentum exchange and gas dynamics for blast venting in complex geometries. In addition, the study presents conservative predictions of wall loading by gas shock and impulse

  8. Blast-furnace performance with coal-dust injection

    SciTech Connect

    G.G. Vasyura [OAO Alchevskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat, Alchevsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    For the blast furnace shop at OAO Alchevskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (AMK) the injection of pulverized fuel is promising. Preliminary steps toward its introduction are underway, including analytical research. In this context, blast furnace performance when using pulverized coal is calculated in this study.

  9. Air blast atomization using large air flow rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Andrews

    1989-01-01

    The 'jet mix' type interacting shear layer mixing flame stabilizer has been experimentally tested to ascertain combined air blast atomization and fuel\\/air mixing characteristics at gas turbine primary zone design conditions. Air blast atomization performance improves with increasing proportion of combustion airflow use for this purpose. Low Sauter mean diameter (SMD) values were achieved, but the atomization distribution deteriorated with

  10. Experimental Studies of Mitigation Materials for Blast Induced Tbi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, M. D.; Son, S. F.; Christou, G.; Goel, R.; Young, L.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to compare the effects of various materials obstructing the flow of a blast wave and the ability of the material to reduce the damage caused by the blast. Several methods of energy transfer in blast wave flows are expected including: material interfaces with impedance mismatches, density changes in a given material, internal shearing, and particle fracture. Our hypothesis is that the greatest energy transfer within the obstructing material will yield the greatest mitigation effects to the blast. Sample configurations of foam were varied to introduce material interfaces and filler materials with varying densities and impedances (liquids and powders). The samples were dynamically loaded using a small scale blast produced by an explosive driven shock tube housing gram-scale explosive charges. The transmitted blast profiles were analyzed for variations in impulse characteristics and frequency components as compared to standard free field profiles. The results showed a rounding effect of the transmitted blast profile for all samples with the effects of the high density fillers surpassing all others tested. These results lead to a conclusion that low porosity, high density materials offer superior attenuation by reducing air blast features and spatially distributing the transmitted wave.

  11. Elastic–plastic response spectra for exponential blast loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charis J. Gantes; Nikos G. Pnevmatikos

    2004-01-01

    The design of structures subjected to loads due to explosions is often treated by means of elastic–plastic response spectra. Such spectra that are currently available in the literature were computed on the basis of triangular shape of blast pressure with respect to time. In the present paper, response spectra based on an exponential distribution of blast pressure, which is in

  12. The spectrum of pediatric injuries after a bomb blast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doris A Quintana; Fred B Jordan; David W Tuggle; P. Cameron Mantor; William P Tunell

    1997-01-01

    The spectrum of pediatric injuries seen after a bomb blast is poorly documented. The pathophysiology of blast injuries differ significantly from other forms of trauma and typically result in large numbers of distinctly patterned injuries. On April 19, 1995, a truck bomb was detonated directly adjacent to the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. A total of

  13. Blast-induced moderate neurotrauma (BINT) elicits early complement activation and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) release in a rat brain.

    PubMed

    Dalle Lucca, Jurandir J; Chavko, Mikulas; Dubick, Michael A; Adeeb, Saleena; Falabella, Michael J; Slack, Jessica L; McCarron, Richard; Li, Yansong

    2012-07-15

    Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a major medical concern yet its etiology is largely undefined. Complement activation may play a role in the development of secondary injury following traumatic brain injury; however, its role in BINT is still undefined. The present study was designed to characterize the complement system and adaptive immune-inflammatory responses in a rat model of moderate BINT. Anesthetized rats were exposed to a moderate blast (120 kPa) using an air-driven shock tube. Brain tissue injury, systemic and local complement, cerebral edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production were measured at 0.5, 3, 48, 72, 120, and 168 h. Injury to brain tissue was evaluated by histological evaluation. Systemic complement was measured via ELSIA. The remaining measurements were determined by immunohistoflourescent staining. Moderate blast triggers moderate brain injuries, elevated levels of local brain C3/C5b-9 and systemic C5b-9, increased leukocyte infiltration, unregulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?), and aquaporin-4 in rat brain cortex at 3- and 48-hour post blast. Early immune-inflammatory response to BINT involves complement and TNF?, which correlates with hippocampus and cerebral cortex damage. Complement and TNF? activation may be a novel therapeutic target for reducing the damaging effects of BINT inflammation. PMID:22537900

  14. Magmatic model for the Mount St. Helens blast of May 18, 1980

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Eichelberger; D. B. Hayes

    1982-01-01

    Analytical and numerical solutions to the hydrodynamic equations of motion, constrained by physical properties of juvenile ejecta in the Mount St. Helens blast deposit, were used to investigate magmatic conditions required to produce the initial devastating blast phase of the eruption of May 18, 1980. Evidence that the blast was magmatic includes equivalence in volume of juvenile blast ejecta to

  15. A Thoracic Mechanism of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Blast Pressure Waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Courtney; Michael Courtney

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which blast pressure waves cause mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are an open question. Possibilities include acceleration of the head, direct passage of the blast wave via the cranium, and propagation of the blast wave to the brain via a thoracic mechanism. The hypothesis that the blast pressure wave reaches the brain via a thoracic

  16. Latest Evolution in Blast Furnace Hearth thermo-Mechanical Stress Modelling Jrme BRULIN, Frdric ROULET (1)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Latest Evolution in Blast Furnace Hearth thermo-Mechanical Stress Modelling Jérôme BRULIN.blond@univ-orleans.fr; alain.gasser@univ-orleans.fr Keywords: blast-furnace, modeling, hearth, ceramic cup Abstract Saint-Gobain has a long experience in the design and supply of blast furnace hearth linings. The Blast Furnace

  17. BLAST: at the core of a powerful and diverse set of sequence analysis tools

    E-print Network

    Narasimhan, Giri

    (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BLAST/). All the algorithm­database combinations can be executed- page (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/BLAST/) lists the vari- eties of BLAST searches by type: Nucleotide version of this table (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast/link_params.html), each cell of the top row

  18. High Prevalence of Chronic Pituitary and Target-Organ Hormone Abnormalities after Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Charles W.; Pagulayan, Kathleen F.; Petrie, Eric C.; Mayer, Cynthia L.; Colasurdo, Elizabeth A.; Shofer, Jane B.; Hart, Kim L.; Hoff, David; Tarabochia, Matthew A.; Peskind, Elaine R.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least 1?year after injury, in 25–50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI), an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least 1?year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and rehabilitation. PMID:22347210

  19. High prevalence of chronic pituitary and target-organ hormone abnormalities after blast-related mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Charles W; Pagulayan, Kathleen F; Petrie, Eric C; Mayer, Cynthia L; Colasurdo, Elizabeth A; Shofer, Jane B; Hart, Kim L; Hoff, David; Tarabochia, Matthew A; Peskind, Elaine R

    2012-01-01

    Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least 1?year after injury, in 25-50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI), an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least 1?year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and rehabilitation. PMID:22347210

  20. Study of blasting vibrations in sarcheshmeh copper mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najm, K.; Javaherian, A.; Amnieh, H. B.

    2002-11-01

    Ground vibration is one of the side effects of blasting, in which way considerable amount of explosive energy is exhausted, and causes decrease in production and even decline in mine development workings. In this study, 57 recorded 3-C seismograms from 11 blasts in Sarcheshmeh copper mine, Kerman, Iran, are processed and analyzed. These data were recorded by digital seismograph PDAS-100 and analyzed by DADISP software. Finally, blasting parameters, such as explosive weight and type, distance between the structures and blasting site, blasting delays, affecting ground vibration are reviewed and their influence on peak particle velocity (PPV) are studied. Based on this study, suitable detonation delays and explosive type is determined. Considering these data, a graph of PPV versus scaled distance for Sarcheshmeh copper mine is prepared, by the help of which, safe distance for structures and accordingly explosive quantity could be determined.

  1. Kinematics of ICMEs/Shocks: Blast Wave Reconstruction Using Type-II Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona-Romero, P.; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; De-la-Luz, V.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.

    2015-05-01

    We present a physical methodology for reconstructing the trajectory of interplanetary shocks using Type-II radio emission data. This technique calculates the shock trajectory assuming that the disturbance propagates as a blast wave in the interplanetary medium. We applied this blast-wave reconstruction (BWR) technique to analyze eight fast Earth-directed ICMEs/shocks associated with Type-II emissions. The technique deduces a shock trajectory that reproduces the Type-II frequency drifts and calculates shock onset speed, shock travel time, and shock speed at 1 AU. The BWR results agreed well with the Type-II spectra, with data from coronagraph images, in-situ measurements, and interplanetary scintillation observations. Perturbations in the Type-II data affect the accuracy of the BWR technique. This methodology could be applied to track interplanetary shocks causing Type-II emissions in real-time and to predict the shock arrival time and shock speed at 1 AU.

  2. Thermal-destruction products of coal in the blast-furnace gas-purification system

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Amdur; M.V. Shibanova; E.V. Ental'tsev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Russia Institute of Metallurgy

    2008-10-15

    The lean, poorly clinkering coal and anthracite used to replace coke in blast furnaces has a considerable content of volatile components (low-molecular thermaldestruction products), which enter the water and sludge of the blast-furnace gas-purification system as petroleum products. Therefore, it is important to study the influence of coal on the petroleum-product content in the water and sludge within this system. The liberation of primary thermal-destruction products is investigated for anthracite with around 4 wt % volatiles, using a STA 449C Jupiter thermoanalyzer equipped with a QMC 230 mass spectrometer. The thermoanalyzer determines small changes in mass and thermal effects with high accuracy (weighing accuracy 10{sup -8} g; error in measuring thermal effects 1 mV). This permits experiments with single layers of coal particles, eliminating secondary reactions of its thermal-destruction products.

  3. Kinematics of ICMEs/shocks: blast wave reconstruction using type II emissions

    E-print Network

    Corona-Romero, P; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E; de-la-Luz, V; Mejia-Ambriz, J C

    2015-01-01

    We present a physical methodology to reconstruct the trajectory of interplanetary shocks using type II radio emission data. This technique calculates the shock trajectory assuming that the disturbance propagates as a blast wave in the interplanetary medium. We applied this Blast Wave Reconstruction (BWR) technique to analyze eight fast Earth-directed ICMEs/shocks associated with type II emissions. The technique deduces a shock trajectory that reproduces the type II frequency drifts, and calculates shock onset speed, shock transit time and shock speed at 1~AU. There were good agreements comparing the BWR results with the type II spectra, with data from coronagraph images, {\\it in situ} measurements, and interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations. Perturbations on the type II data affect the accuracy of the BWR technique. This methodology could be applied to track interplanetary shocks causing TII emissions in real-time, to predict the shock arrival time and shock speed at 1~AU.

  4. A Review of Anode Phenomena in Vacuum Arcs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Craig Miller

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses arc modes at the anode, anode temperature measurments, anode ions, transitions of the arc into various modes (principally the anode-spot mode), and theoretical explanations of anode phenomena. A vacuum arc can exhibit five anode discharge modes: 1) a low-current mode in which the anode is basically passive, acting only as a collector of particles emitted from the

  5. Roughness-Induced Critical Phenomena in a Turbulent Flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel Goldenfeld

    2006-01-01

    I present empirical evidence that turbulent flows are closely analogous to critical phenomena, from a reanalysis of friction factor measurements in rough pipes. The data collapse found here corresponds to Widom scaling near critical points, and implies that a full understanding of turbulence requires explicit accounting for boundary roughness.

  6. Roughness-induced critical phenomena in a turbulent flow

    E-print Network

    Nigel Goldenfeld

    2005-11-15

    I present empirical evidence that turbulent flows are closely analogous to critical phenomena, from a reanalysis of friction factor measurements in rough pipes. The data collapse found here corresponds to Widom scaling near critical points, and implies that a full understanding of turbulence requires explicit accounting for boundary roughness.

  7. SYMBOL STATISTICS: A NEW TOOL FOR UNDERSTANDING MULTIPHASE FLOW PHENOMENA

    E-print Network

    Tennessee, University of

    . In the language of nonlinear dynamics, we use symbol statistics to identify characteristic un- stableSYMBOL STATISTICS: A NEW TOOL FOR UNDERSTANDING MULTIPHASE FLOW PHENOMENA C.S. Daw Oak Ridge symbolization as a tool for identifying tempo- ral patterns in complex measurement signals. We describe

  8. Study of radiative blast waves generated on the Z-beamlet laser.

    SciTech Connect

    Edens, Aaron D.; Schwarz, Jens

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the original goals of the project to study the Vishniac Overstability on blast waves produced using the Z-Beamlet laser facility as well as the actual results. The proposed work was to build on earlier work on the facility and result in the best characterized set of data for such phenomena in the laboratory. To accomplish the goals it was necessary to modify the existing probe laser at the facility so that it could take multiple images over the course of 1-2 microseconds. Troubles with modifying the probe laser are detailed as well as the work that went into said modifications. The probe laser modification ended up taking the entire length of the project and were the major accomplishment of the research.

  9. Application of blast wave theory to explosive propulsion. [system performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis was carried out by using blast wave theory to delineate the important aspects of detonating explosives in nozzles, such as flow and wave phenomena, characteristic length and time scales, and the parameters on which the specific impulse is dependent. The propulsive system utilizes the momentum of the ambient gas set into motion in the nozzle by the explosion. A somewhat simplified model was considered for the situation where the mass of ambient gas in the nozzle is much greater than the mass of gas produced in the explosion, a condition of interest for dense atmospheres, e.g., near the surface of Venus. Instantaneous detonation and energy release was presumed to occur at the apex of a conical nozzle, and the shock wave generated by the explosion was taken to propagate as a spherical wave, thereby setting the ambient gas in the nozzle into one-dimensional radially outward motion.

  10. Blast-induced electromagnetic fields in the brain from bone piezoelectricity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ka Yan Karen; Nyein, Michelle K; Moore, David F; Joannopoulos, J D; Socrate, Simona; Imholt, Timothy; Radovitzky, Raul; Johnson, Steven G

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we show that bone piezoelectricity-a phenomenon in which bone polarizes electrically in response to an applied mechanical stress and produces a short-range electric field-may be a source of intense blast-induced electric fields in the brain, with magnitudes and timescales comparable to fields with known neurological effects. We compute the induced charge density in the skull from stress data on the skull from a finite-element full-head model simulation of a typical IED-scale blast wave incident on an unhelmeted human head as well as a human head protected by a kevlar helmet, and estimate the resulting electric fields in the brain in both cases to be on the order of 10 V/m in millisecond pulses. These fields are more than 10 times stronger than the IEEE safety guidelines for controlled environments (IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 28, 2002) and comparable in strength and timescale to fields from repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) that are designed to induce neurological effects (Wagner et al., 2006a). They can be easily measured by RF antennas, and may provide the means to design a diagnostic tool that records a quantitative measure of the head's exposure to blast insult. PMID:20547228

  11. Prediction of Backbreak in Open-Pit Blasting Operations Using the Machine Learning Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Manoj; Monjezi, M.

    2013-03-01

    Backbreak is an undesirable phenomenon in blasting operations. It can cause instability of mine walls, falling down of machinery, improper fragmentation, reduced efficiency of drilling, etc. The existence of various effective parameters and their unknown relationships are the main reasons for inaccuracy of the empirical models. Presently, the application of new approaches such as artificial intelligence is highly recommended. In this paper, an attempt has been made to predict backbreak in blasting operations of Soungun iron mine, Iran, incorporating rock properties and blast design parameters using the support vector machine (SVM) method. To investigate the suitability of this approach, the predictions by SVM have been compared with multivariate regression analysis (MVRA). The coefficient of determination (CoD) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were taken as performance measures. It was found that the CoD between measured and predicted backbreak was 0.987 and 0.89 by SVM and MVRA, respectively, whereas the MAE was 0.29 and 1.07 by SVM and MVRA, respectively.

  12. Bow Shock and Upstream Phenomena at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazelle, C.; Winterhalter, D.; Sauer, K.; Trotignon, J. G.; Acuña, M. H.; Baumgärtel, K.; Bertucci, C.; Brain, D. A.; Brecht, S. H.; Delva, M.; Dubinin, E.; Øieroset, M.; Slavin, J.

    2004-03-01

    Mars Global Surveyor is the sixth spacecraft to return measurements of the Martian bow shock. The earlier missions were Mariner 4 (1964), Mars 2 and 3 (1972), Mars 5 (1975) and Phobos 2 (1989) (see reviews by Gringauz, 1981; Slavin and Holzer, 1982; Russell, 1985; Vaisberg, 1992a,b; Zakharov, 1992). Previous investigations of planetary bow shocks have established that their position, shape and jump conditions are functions of the upstream flow parameters and the nature of the solar wind — planet interaction (Spreiter and Stahara, 1980; Slavin et al., 1983; Russell, 1985). At Mars, however, the exact nature of the solar wind interaction was elusive due to the lack of low altitude plasma and magnetic field measurements (e.g., Axford, 1991). In fact our knowledge of the nature of the interaction of Mars with the solar wind was incomplete until the arrival of MGS and the acquisition of close-in magnetic field data (Acuña et al., 1998). As detailed by a series of review papers in this monograph, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission has now shown that the Mars environment is very complex with strong, highly structured crustal magnetic remnants in the southern hemisphere, while the northern hemisphere experiences the direct impingement of solar wind plasma. This review paper first presents a survey of the observations on the Martian bow shock and the upstream phenomena in the light of results from all the missions to date. It also discusses the kinetic properties of the Martian bow shock compared to the predictions of simulations studies. Then it examines the current status of understanding of these phenomena, including the possible sources of upstream low-frequency waves and the interpretations of localized disturbances in the upstream solar wind around Mars. Finally, it briefly discusses the open issues and questions that require further study.

  13. The BLAST 250 ?m-selected galaxy population in GOODS-South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, J. S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Cirasuolo, M.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Devlin, M. J.; Griffin, M.; Greve, T. R.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Ivison, R. J.; Klein, J.; Kovacs, A.; Marsden, G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Smail, I.; Targett, T. A.; Thomas, N.; Truch, M. D. P.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Walter, F.; Wardlow, J. L.; Weiss, A.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2010-11-01

    We identify and investigate the nature of the 20 brightest 250?m sources detected by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimetre Telescope (BLAST) within the central 150arcmin2 of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS)-South field. Aided by the available deep VLA 1.4GHz radio imaging, reaching S1.4 ~= 40?Jy (4?), we have identified radio counterparts for 17/20 of the 250?m sources. The resulting enhanced positional accuracy of ~=1arcsec has then allowed us to exploit the deep optical (Hubble Space Telescope), near-infrared (VLT) and mid-infrared (Spitzer) imaging of GOODS-South to establish secure galaxy counterparts for the 17 radio-identified sources, and plausible galaxy candidates for the three radio-unidentified sources. Confusion is a serious issue for this deep BLAST 250?m survey, due to the large size of the beam. Nevertheless, we argue that our chosen counterparts are significant, and often dominant contributors to the measured BLAST flux densities. For all of these 20 galaxies we have been able to determine spectroscopic (eight) or photometric (12) redshifts. The result is the first near-complete redshift distribution for a deep 250?m-selected galaxy sample. This reveals that 250?m surveys reaching detection limits of ~=40mJy have a median redshift z ~= 1, and contain not only low-redshift spirals/LIRGs, but also the extreme z ~= 2 dust-enshrouded starburst galaxies previously discovered at sub-millimetre wavelengths. Inspection of the LABOCA 870?m imaging of GOODS-South yields detections of ~=1/3 of the proposed BLAST sources (all at z > 1.5), and reveals 250/870?m flux-density ratios consistent with a standard 40K modified blackbody fit with a dust emissivity index ? = 1.5. Based on their Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) colours, we find that virtually all of the BLAST galaxy identifications appear better described as analogues of the M82 starburst galaxy, or Sc star-forming discs rather than highly obscured ULIRGs. This is perhaps as expected at low redshift, where the 250?m BLAST selection function is biased towards spectral energy distributions which peak longward of ?rest = 100?m. However, it also appears largely true at z ~= 2.

  14. The physical properties of the blast wave produced by a stoichiometric propane/oxygen explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, M. C.; Dewey, J. M.

    2014-07-01

    The trajectory of the primary shock produced by the explosion of a nominal 18.14 t (20 tn) hemispherical propane/oxygen charge was analysed previously to provide the physical properties immediately behind the shock, but gave no information about the time-resolved properties throughout the blast wave. The present study maps all the physical properties of the wave throughout and beyond the positive durations for a range of distances from about 1.6-18 m scaled to a 1 kg charge at NTP. The physical properties were calculated using a hydro-code to simulate the flow field produced by a spherical piston moving with a specific trajectory. This technique has been used extensively to determine the physical properties of blast waves from a variety of sources for which the piston path was determined by high-speed photography of smoke tracers established close to the charges immediately before detonation. In the case of the propane/oxygen explosion, smoke tracer data were not available to determine the trajectory of the spherical piston. An arbitrary piston path was used and its trajectory iteratively adjusted until it produced a blast wave with a primary shock whose trajectory exactly matched the measured trajectory from the propane/oxygen explosion. Throughout the studied flow field the time histories of hydrostatic pressure, density and particle velocity are well described by fits to the modified Friedlander equation. The properties are presented as functions of scaled radius and are compared with the properties of the blast wave from a 1 kg TNT surface burst explosion, and with other measurements of the same explosion.

  15. 48 Optical Illusions & Visual Phenomena

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Have you ever wondered how different optical illusions work? This fun, informative, and very cool website developed by ophthalmologist Dr. Michael Bach of the University of Freiburg's Medical School introduces 48 interactive visual illusions and phenomena. The illusions are animated and accompanied by explanations that help visitors make sense of their perceptual responses. Major illusion categories include: Motion & Time, Luminance & Contrast, Colour, Cognitive, and more. The site is still in progress, and Dr. Bach encourages both general feedback, and additional scientific information for improving the illusion explanations. The second site, also from Professor Bach, presents site users with an interactive, online Visual Acuity Test. Note: The Contrast component of the Test has yet to be implemented.

  16. Simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen; Ford, Corey C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-01

    U.S. soldiers are surviving blast and impacts due to effective body armor, trauma evacuation and care. Blast injuries are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in military personnel returning from combat. Understanding of Primary Blast Injury may be needed to develop better means of blast mitigation strategies. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of blast direction and strength on the resulting mechanical stress and wave energy distributions generated in the brain.

  17. Impact and Blast Resistance of Sandwich Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, George J.; Bahei-El-Din, Yehia A.; Suvorov, Alexander P.

    Response of conventional and modified sandwich plate designs is examined under static load, impact by a rigid cylindrical or flat indenter, and during and after an exponential pressure impulse lasting for 0.05 ms, at peak pressure of 100 MPa, simulating a nearby explosion. The conventional sandwich design consists of thin outer (loaded side) and inner facesheets made of carbon/epoxy fibrous laminates, separated by a thick layer of structural foam core. In the three modified designs, one or two thin ductile interlayers are inserted between the outer facesheet and the foam core. Materials selected for the interlayers are a hyperelas-tic rate-independent polyurethane;a compression strain and strain rate dependent, elastic-plastic polyurea;and an elastomeric foam. ABAQUS and LS-Dyna software were used in various response simulations. Performance comparisons between the enhanced and conventional designs show that the modified designs provide much better protection against different damage modes under both load regimes. After impact, local facesheet deflection, core compression, and energy release rate of delamination cracks, which may extend on hidden interfaces between facesheet and core, are all reduced. Under blast or impulse loads, reductions have been observed in the extent of core crushing, facesheet delaminations and vibration amplitudes, and in overall deflections. Similar reductions were found in the kinetic energy and in the stored and dissipated strain energy. Although strain rates as high as 10-4/s1 are produced by the blast pressure, peak strains in the interlayers were too low to raise the flow stress in the polyurea to that in the polyurethane, where a possible rate-dependent response was neglected. Therefore, stiff polyurethane or hard rubber interlayers materials should be used for protection of sandwich plate foam cores against both impact and blast-induced damage.

  18. Oklahoma blast forces unsettling design questions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The bomb that brought down a government building in Oklahoma City killed hundreds of people after it was detonated near the building`s key supports. The blast has reopened a long-simmering debate on safety by design. Structurally, it`s not practical to designing bomb-proof buildings. But it is possible to engineer a structure to deform rather than go through immediate progressive collapse. Delaying collapse gives occupants extra time to evacuate. And that could mean the difference between life and death. The construction material of choice really {open_quotes}depends on the height of the building and the lateral load resisting system,{close_quotes} says Charles H. Thornton of Thornton-Tomasetti/Engineers, New York City. But whether in steel or reinforced concrete, moment-resisting frames, which are inherently redundant, give horizontal components the ability to take reversals of stress common in explosions, he says. Simple frames do not. {open_quotes}They go down like a house of cards,{close_quotes} says Thornton. In reinforced concrete moment frames, beam reinforcing steel is continuous. In simple reinforced concrete frames, beam rebar only penetrates the column for a determined number of inches based on the length of the span. And it is absent from the mid-span of the beam. In a blast from below, the beam, its top usually in compression and bottom in tension, deflects up, throwing the beam top into tension. With no rebar, it loses structural integrity, and falls apart. With rebar, it has a chance of surviving. If a building is not designed for blasts, a steel frame might be better under a reasonably small bomb because steel has equal capacity in tension and compression, and concrete has capacity only in compression, says Thornton.

  19. [Update: blast and explosion trauma].

    PubMed

    van de Weyer, P S; Praetorius, M; Tisch, M

    2011-08-01

    In recent decades, acoustic shock and explosion traumas have increased in frequency in the general population. Beside the use of fireworks and firearms, airbag ignitions and explosions caused by terror or suicidal acts are also relevant. Depending on duration and strength of the sound pressure affecting the human ear, isolated inner ear damage or additional ear drum perforation and interruption of the middle ear ossicle chain can result. By means of otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, measurement of otoacoustic emissions, and other neurootological examinations, the severity of the trauma can be determined. With prompt and adequate therapy, permanent hearing loss can be minimized. In particular, the measurement of otoacoustic emissions allows conclusions to be made on the functionality of the outer hair cells which are damaged first in most cases. Histological investigations on noise-exposed cochleas show extensive damage to the outer hair cells in the frequency range between 1.0 and 4.0 kHz, which correlates well with audiometric measurements. PMID:21769579

  20. Numerical analysis of blasting effect on concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, T.-B.; Ning, J.-G.; Wang, C.

    2008-02-01

    In this study, the blasting effect on concrete is numerically simulated by the 2-D multi-material Eulerian method. Through operator splitting of the governing equations into Lagrangian and Eulerian steps, the Eulerian method is discussed in detail. For the material interface and transport of the mixed Eulerian cells, a modified Young's interface reconstruction algorithm is proposed. The simulation results agree with the experimental data, indicating that the model and algorithm presented in this paper are valid and the numerical method can be used for engineering design.

  1. Blast energy mitigation in porous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essink, Brittany C.

    Geo-materials are commonly used and sought after for blast mitigation applications due to their wide availability and low cost compared to industry trademarked materials. Characterization of these natural geo-materials such as volcanic rocks is of paramount importance in determining their blast mitigation capabilities. While there is a large amount of information available for materials such as concrete or sand blasts, information on the properties of volcanic rocks is far more scarce. This lack of data is due to the wide range of existing natural volcanic rocks and the variation in the minerals and pore structures of the rocks. In this thesis, silicate volcanic rock samples are characterized both through static and dynamic experimental methods. Initial X-ray powder diffraction scans have been conducted and analyzed to obtain the mineral composition information of the rock samples. Additional tomographic scans under quasi-static loading have been recorded to better understand the internal composition of the material pore structure and the material fracture. For this study, standard compression experiments were conducted at two separate strain rates for ten samples each on a UTM test frame to characterize the behavior of the rock under quasi-static conditions. High strain rate uniaxial compression tests were conducted for three strain rates using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar with pulse shaping to determine the dynamic response of the material. The stress-strain data from the experiments was used to determine the modulus of toughness of the material. Due to the high porosity and heterogeneity of the material, 25 samples were used for dynamic experimentation to attempt to capture and minimize the effects of scatter in the natural material. High speed photography was used to capture the sample deformation during two separate strain rates and to visualize crack propagation and strain rate in the samples. It was found that after an initial yielding, the material is able to withstand a sustained loading which is desirable for materials used in blast loading applications. Another desirable trait that was observed in this material is that higher strain rates provide a higher sustained stress value. Further dynamic experiments on the rock with larger strains are necessary to completely compare the energy absorption capabilities of the material at high strain rates.

  2. LTC vacuum blasting maching (concrete): Baseline report: Greenbook (Chapter)

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjuction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  3. Experimental Studies of Mitigation Materials for Blast Induced TBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, Matthew; Son, Steven

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to compare the effects of various materials obstructing the flow of a blast wave and the ability of the given material to reduce the damage caused by the blast. Several methods of energy transfer in blast wave flows are known or expected including: material interfaces with impedance mismatches, density changes in a given material, internal shearing, and particle fracture. The theory applied to this research is that the greatest energy transfer within the obstructing material will yield the greatest mitigation effects to the blast. Sample configurations of foam were varied to introduce material interfaces and filler materials with varying densities and impedances (liquids and powders). The samples were loaded according to a small scale blast produced by an explosive driven shock tube housing gram-range charges. The transmitted blast profiles were analyzed for variations in impulse characteristics and frequency components as compared to standard free field profiles. The results showed a rounding effect of the transmitted blast profile for all samples with the effects of the low density fillers surpassing all others tested.

  4. Identifying and Characterizing Blasts from recordings at USArray stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astiz, L.; Vernon, F.; Martynov, V. G.; Tytell, J.; Cox, T. A.; Reyes, J. C.; Eakins, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    As the traverse of EarthScope USArray stations draws to an end, the Array Network Facility (ANF) has located nearly 60,000 seismic events in the continental U.S. since April 2004. The ANF seismic bulletin is complete to MR ~ 2.1 but does not distinguish between earthquakes and blasts. In contrast to regional seismic catalogs in the U.S. that mostly report naturally occurring seismicity with varying magnitude thresholds. Then, it is not surprising that only half of the events reported by ANF are associated with those reported by regional networks. By considering the local time of occurrence of events in the ANF bulletin, we conclude that mining blasts may comprise up to a third of the events reported. So in order to use the ANF bulletin to study naturally occurring seismicity in the continental U.S., it is important to identify blasts as such in the bulletin. Ideally, mine blasts can be identify as such in the ANF bulletin by getting ground truth information from mining operation, or by associating event origins with origins in the U.S.G.S. mining catalog. However, only a small portion of events can be identified in this manner. So by consider local time of occurrence, together with the cross correlation value of events occurring within 10 km of active mines as well as waveform characteristics from recordings at USArray stations located within 300 km to these events, we may be able to identify many more events, specially ones with lower magnitudes, as having been generated by mine blasting for a particular region. Once events have been identified as blasts, or probable blasts, we will analyze if waveform characteristics from blasts from surface or underground mines by analyzing the frequency content of waveforms at stations at similar ranges. In addition, we explore if mining blasts can provide a good data set to characterize wave propagation on different tectonic regimes in the continental U.S.

  5. Compressive strength after blast of sandwich composite materials.

    PubMed

    Arora, H; Kelly, M; Worley, A; Del Linz, P; Fergusson, A; Hooper, P A; Dear, J P

    2014-05-13

    Composite sandwich materials have yet to be widely adopted in the construction of naval vessels despite their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and low radar return. One barrier to their wider use is our limited understanding of their performance when subjected to air blast. This paper focuses on this problem and specifically the strength remaining after damage caused during an explosion. Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite skins on a styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) polymer closed-cell foam core are the primary composite system evaluated. Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite skins were also included for comparison in a comparable sandwich configuration. Full-scale blast experiments were conducted, where 1.6×1.3?m sized panels were subjected to blast of a Hopkinson-Cranz scaled distance of 3.02?m?kg(-1/3), 100?kg TNT equivalent at a stand-off distance of 14?m. This explosive blast represents a surface blast threat, where the shockwave propagates in air towards the naval vessel. Hopkinson was the first to investigate the characteristics of this explosive air-blast pulse (Hopkinson 1948 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 89, 411-413 (doi:10.1098/rspa.1914.0008)). Further analysis is provided on the performance of the CFRP sandwich panel relative to the GFRP sandwich panel when subjected to blast loading through use of high-speed speckle strain mapping. After the blast events, the residual compressive load-bearing capacity is investigated experimentally, using appropriate loading conditions that an in-service vessel may have to sustain. Residual strength testing is well established for post-impact ballistic assessment, but there has been less research performed on the residual strength of sandwich composites after blast. PMID:24711494

  6. Compressive strength after blast of sandwich composite materials

    PubMed Central

    Arora, H.; Kelly, M.; Worley, A.; Del Linz, P.; Fergusson, A.; Hooper, P. A.; Dear, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Composite sandwich materials have yet to be widely adopted in the construction of naval vessels despite their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and low radar return. One barrier to their wider use is our limited understanding of their performance when subjected to air blast. This paper focuses on this problem and specifically the strength remaining after damage caused during an explosion. Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite skins on a styrene–acrylonitrile (SAN) polymer closed-cell foam core are the primary composite system evaluated. Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite skins were also included for comparison in a comparable sandwich configuration. Full-scale blast experiments were conducted, where 1.6×1.3?m sized panels were subjected to blast of a Hopkinson–Cranz scaled distance of 3.02?m?kg?1/3, 100?kg TNT equivalent at a stand-off distance of 14?m. This explosive blast represents a surface blast threat, where the shockwave propagates in air towards the naval vessel. Hopkinson was the first to investigate the characteristics of this explosive air-blast pulse (Hopkinson 1948 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 89, 411–413 (doi:10.1098/rspa.1914.0008)). Further analysis is provided on the performance of the CFRP sandwich panel relative to the GFRP sandwich panel when subjected to blast loading through use of high-speed speckle strain mapping. After the blast events, the residual compressive load-bearing capacity is investigated experimentally, using appropriate loading conditions that an in-service vessel may have to sustain. Residual strength testing is well established for post-impact ballistic assessment, but there has been less research performed on the residual strength of sandwich composites after blast. PMID:24711494

  7. Circulating endothelial cells are increased in chronic myeloid leukemia blast crisis

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, C.R.T.; Levy, D.; Giampaoli, V.; Chamone, D.A.F.; Bydlowski, S.P.; Pereira, J.

    2015-01-01

    We measured circulating endothelial precursor cells (EPCs), activated circulating endothelial cells (aCECs), and mature circulating endothelial cells (mCECs) using four-color multiparametric flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 84 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients and 65 healthy controls; and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by quantitative real-time PCR in 50 CML patients and 32 healthy controls. Because of an increase in mCECs, the median percentage of CECs in CML blast crisis (0.0146%) was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (0.0059%, P<0.01) and in the accelerated phase (0.0059%, P=0.01). There were no significant differences in the percentages of CECs in chronic- or active-phase patients and healthy subjects (P>0.05). In addition, VEGF gene expression was significantly higher in all phases of CML: 0.245 in blast crisis, 0.320 in the active phase, and 0.330 in chronic phase patients than it was in healthy subjects (0.145). In conclusion, CML in blast crisis had increased levels of CECs and VEGF gene expression, which may serve as markers of disease progression and may become targets for the management of CML. PMID:25831205

  8. Flow of supersonic jets across flat plates: Implications for ground-level flow from volcanic blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orescanin, Mara M.; Prisco, David; Austin, Joanna M.; Kieffer, Susan W.

    2014-04-01

    We report on laboratory experiments examining the interaction of a jet from an overpressurized reservoir with a canonical ground surface to simulate lateral blasts at volcanoes such as the 1980 blast at Mount St. Helens. These benchmark experiments test the application of supersonic jet models to simulate the flow of volcanic jets over a lateral topography. The internal shock structure of the free jet is modified such that the Mach disk shock is elevated above the surface. In elevation view, the width of the shock is reduced in comparison with a free jet, while in map view the dimensions are comparable. The distance of the Mach disk shock from the vent is in good agreement with free jet data and can be predicted with existing theory. The internal shock structures can interact with and penetrate the boundary layer. In the shock-boundary layer interaction, an oblique shock foot is present in the schlieren images and a distinctive ground signature is evident in surface measurements. The location of the oblique shock foot and the surface demarcation are closely correlated with the Mach disk shock location during reservoir depletion, and therefore, estimates of a ground signature in a zone devastated by a blast can be based on the calculated shock location from free jet theory. These experiments, combined with scaling arguments, suggest that the imprint of the Mach disk shock on the ground should be within the range of 4-9 km at Mount St. Helens depending on assumed reservoir pressure and vent dimensions.

  9. Air blast characteristics of laminated al and NI-AL casings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Ripley, Robert; Wilson, William

    2012-03-01

    Air blast characteristics of Al and Ni-Al laminated materials were experimentally investigated in a 23 m3 closed chamber. Ni and Al foils, 50 to 100 micrometers in thickness, were rolled and compacted to form a cylindrical casing with a density of 95% TMD through an explosive formation technique. Charges were prepared using 2 kg C4 explosive packed in the laminated casing to a metal-explosive mass ratio of 1.75. The blast pressure history measured on the chamber wall showed a double-shock front structure with a precursor shock followed by the primary blast. The front peak pressure for the Ni-Al cased charge reaches 1.5-2 times that of the Al cased, consistent with the larger fireball recorded for the Ni-Al cased. The long time quasi-static explosion pressure (QSP) from the Ni- Al cased charge is 0.8 of that of the Al cased, due to half of Al mass in the Ni-Al.

  10. Air Blast Characteristics for Laminate Al and Al-Ni Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan

    2011-06-01

    Air blast characteristics of laminate Al and Al-Ni composites were investigated in a 23 m3 closed chamber. 50 to 100 ?m thick Al-Ni or Al foils were rolled to form a cylindrical shell, which was then compacted to a density larger than 99% TMD through an explosive formation technique. Charges were prepared using 2 kg C4 explosive packed in the laminate metal shell to a metal-explosive mass ratio of 1.75. Pressure and temperature were measured through transducers on the chamber wall and pyrometry sensors facing the charge center. The pressure history showed a double-shock front structure with an accelerating precursor shock of high amplitude followed by the primary blast, suggesting considerable early-time reaction of small laminate fragments. Significant enhanced explosion pressure (QSP) was observed as compared with baseline charges in solid shell. Recovered residue showed fragments in flakes with a considerable fraction in the molten. The pressure and temperature results are further analyzed to distinguish the reaction properties between the Al-Ni (gasless reaction for them alone) and Al laminates as well as their effect on air blast. The results are also compared with previous investigations using various shell materials and compositing techniques.

  11. Influence of ambient air pressure on the energy conversion of laser-breakdown induced blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2013-09-01

    Influence of ambient pressure on energy conversion efficiency from a Nd?:?glass laser pulse (? = 1.053 µm) to a laser-induced blast wave was investigated at reduced pressure. Temporal incident and transmission power histories were measured using sets of energy meters and photodetectors. A half-shadowgraph half-self-emission method was applied to visualize laser absorption waves. Results show that the blast energy conversion efficiency ?bw decreased monotonically with the decrease in ambient pressure. The decrease was small, from 40% to 38%, for the pressure change from 101 kPa to 50 kPa, but the decrease was considerable, to 24%, when the pressure was reduced to 30 kPa. Compared with a TEA-CO2-laser-induced blast wave (? = 10.6 µm), higher fraction absorption in the laser supported detonation regime ?LSD of 90% was observed, which is influenced slightly by the reduction of ambient pressure. The conversion fraction ?bw/?LSD?90% was achieved at pressure >50 kPa, which is significantly higher than that in a CO2 laser case.

  12. CORRELATIONS IN THE (SUB)MILLIMETER BACKGROUND FROM ACT Multiplication-Sign BLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Hajian, Amir; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Viero, Marco P.; Bock, James J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Addison, Graeme [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Aguirre, Paula [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Appel, John William; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hincks, Adam D. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Das, Sudeep; Dunkley, Joanna [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hasselfield, Matthew [Laboratoire APC, Universite Paris Diderot, 75205 Paris (France); Hilton, Matt [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); and others

    2012-01-01

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency correlation power spectra of the cosmic (sub)millimeter background at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations made with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST); and at 1380 and 2030 {mu}m (218 and 148 GHz) from observations made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The overlapping observations cover 8.6 deg{sup 2} in an area relatively free of Galactic dust near the south ecliptic pole. The ACT bands are sensitive to radiation from the cosmic microwave background, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from galaxy clusters, and to emission by radio and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), while the dominant contribution to the BLAST bands is from DSFGs. We confirm and extend the BLAST analysis of clustering with an independent pipeline and also detect correlations between the ACT and BLAST maps at over 25{sigma} significance, which we interpret as a detection of the DSFGs in the ACT maps. In addition to a Poisson component in the cross-frequency power spectra, we detect a clustered signal at 4{sigma}, and using a model for the DSFG evolution and number counts, we successfully fit all of our spectra with a linear clustering model and a bias that depends only on redshift and not on scale. Finally, the data are compared to, and generally agree with, phenomenological models for the DSFG population. This study demonstrates the constraining power of the cross-frequency correlation technique to constrain models for the DSFGs. Similar analyses with more data will impose tight constraints on future models.

  13. Percolation of Blast Waves though Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proud, William

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has concentrated on the physical processes occurring when samples of sand, of varying moisture content, were shock compressed. In this study quartz sand samples are subjected to blast waves over a range of pressure and duration. Aspects of particle movement are discussed; the global movement of a bed hundreds of particles thick is a fraction of particle width. The main diagnostics used are pressure sensors and high-speed photography. Results are presented for a range of particle sizes, aspect ratio, density and moisture content. While the velocity of the percolation through the bed is primarily controlled by density and porosity the effect of moisture reveals a more complex dependence. Previous research has concentrated on the physical processes occurring when samples of sand, of varying moisture content, were shock compressed. In this study quartz sand samples are subjected to blast waves over a range of pressure and duration. Aspects of particle movement are discussed; the global movement of a bed hundreds of particles thick is a fraction of particle width. The main diagnostics used are pressure sensors and high-speed photography. Results are presented for a range of particle sizes, aspect ratio, density and moisture content. While the velocity of the percolation through the bed is primarily controlled by density and porosity the effect of moisture reveals a more complex dependence. The ISP acknowledges the support of the Atomic Weapons Establishment and Imperial College London.

  14. Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Recurrence Phenomena in Nonlinear Transmission Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiro Fukushima; Miki Wadati; Takeyasu Kotera; Katsuro Sawada; Yoshimasa Narahara

    1980-01-01

    The recurrence phenomena in nonlinear transmission line are studied quantitatively. For various frequencies and amplitudes of the input sinusoidal wave, the recurrence length is measured. The experimental results are explained by a simple theory which assumes the velocity differences of solitons cause the recurrence phenomena.

  15. Evaluation of copper slag blast media for railcar maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagers, N. W.; Finlayson, Mack H.

    1989-01-01

    Copper slag was tested as a blasting substitute for zirconium silicate which is used to remove paint from railroad cars. The copper slag tested is less costly, strips paint faster, is produced near the point of need, provides a good bonding surface for paint, and permits the operator to work in a more comfortable position, i.e., standing nearly erect instead of having to crouch. Outdoor blasting with the tested Blackhawk (20 to 40 mesh) copper slag is also environmentally acceptable to the State of Utah. Results of tests for the surface erosion rate with copper slag blasting are included.

  16. Blast injury: impact on brain and internal organs.

    PubMed

    Lesperance, Richard N; Nunez, Timothy C

    2015-06-01

    Blast trauma can kill or injure by multiple different mechanisms, not all of which may be obvious on initial presentation. Patients injured by blast effects should be treated as having multisystem trauma and managed according to Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines. For the most severely injured patients, damage control resuscitation should be practiced until definitive hemorrhage control has been achieved. Patients with blast injuries may present in mass-casualty episodes that can overwhelm local resources. This article reviews some specific injuries, as well as the importance of mild traumatic brain injury. The importance of rehabilitation is discussed. PMID:25981729

  17. Hybrid S2/Carbon Epoxy Composite Armours Under Blast Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolce, F.; Meo, Michele; Wright, A.; French, M.; Bernabei, M.

    2012-06-01

    Civil and military structures, such as helicopters, aircrafts, naval ships, tanks or buildings are susceptible to blast loads as terroristic attacks increases, therefore there is the need to design blast resistant structures. During an explosion the peak pressure produced by shock wave is much greater than the static collapse pressure. Metallic structures usually undergo large plastic deformations absorbing blast energy before reaching equilibrium. Due to their high specific properties, fibre-reinforced polymers are being considered for energy absorption applications in blast resistant armours. A deep insight into the relationship between explosion loads, composite architecture and deformation/fracture behaviour will offer the possibility to design structures with significantly enhanced energy absorption and blast resistance performance. This study presents the results of a numerical investigation aimed at understanding the performance of a hybrid composite (glass/carbon fibre) plate subjected to blast loads using commercial LS-DYNA software. In particular, the paper deals with numerical 3D simulations of damages caused by air blast waves generated by C4 charges on two fully clamped rectangular plates made of steel and hybrid (S2/Carbon) composite, respectively. A Multi Materials Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (MMALE) formulation was used to simulate the shock phenomenon. For the steel plates, the Johnson-Cook material model was employed. For the composite plates both in-plane and out-of-plane failure criteria were employed. In particular, a contact tiebreak formulation with a mixed mode failure criteria was employed to simulate delamination failure. As for the steel plates the results showed that excellent correlation with the experimental data for the two blast load conditions in terms of dynamic and residual deflection for two different C4 charges. For the composite plates the numerical results showed that, as expected, a wider delamination damage was observed for the higher blast loads case. Widespread tensile matrix damage was experienced for both blast load cases, while only for 875 g blast load fiber failure damage was observed. This agrees well with the experimental data showing that the composite panel was not able to resist to the 875 g blast load.

  18. Low Level Primary Blast Injury in Rodent Brain

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela B. L.; Kan, Enci Mary; Salim, Agus; Li, Zhaohui; Ng, Kian Chye; Moochhala, Shabbir M.; Ling, Eng-Ang; Tan, Mui Hong; Lu, Jia

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of blast attacks and resulting traumatic brain injuries has been on the rise in recent years. Primary blast is one of the mechanisms in which the blast wave can cause injury to the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a single sub-lethal blast over pressure (BOP) exposure of either 48.9?kPa (7.1?psi) or 77.3?kPa (11.3?psi) to rodents in an open-field setting. Brain tissue from these rats was harvested for microarray and histopathological analyses. Gross histopathology of the brains showed that cortical neurons were “darkened” and shrunken with narrowed vasculature in the cerebral cortex day 1 after blast with signs of recovery at day 4 and day 7 after blast. TUNEL-positive cells were predominant in the white matter of the brain at day 1 after blast and double-labeling of brain tissue showed that these DNA-damaged cells were both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes but were mainly not apoptotic due to the low caspase-3 immunopositivity. There was also an increase in amyloid precursor protein immunoreactive cells in the white matter which suggests acute axonal damage. In contrast, Iba-1 staining for macrophages or microglia was not different from control post-blast. Blast exposure altered the expression of over 5786 genes in the brain which occurred mostly at day 1 and day 4 post-blast. These genes were narrowed down to 10 overlapping genes after time-course evaluation and functional analyses. These genes pointed toward signs of repair at day 4 and day 7 post-blast. Our findings suggest that the BOP levels in the study resulted in mild cellular injury to the brain as evidenced by acute neuronal, cerebrovascular, and white matter perturbations that showed signs of resolution. It is unclear whether these perturbations exist at a milder level or normalize completely and will need more investigation. Specific changes in gene expression may be further evaluated to understand the mechanism of blast-induced neurotrauma. PMID:21541261

  19. Hot blast stove process model and model-based controller

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Howse, J.W.; Hansen, G.A.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Computational Science Methods Group; Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed and verified using plant data. This model is used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The model is also used to predict maximum and minimum temperature constraint violations within the stove so that the controller can take corrective actions while still achieving the required stove performance.

  20. Nucleation phenomena in polymeric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, K.

    1995-02-01

    Materials formed from long flexible macromolecules differ from their small-molecule analogs, because corresponding collective length scales are distinctly larger and many dynamical phenomena are very much slower; in addition, the variation of chain length N yields a control parameter that leaves intermolecular forces invariant, but allows a stringent test of theories. These concepts are exemplified in a discussion of nucleation barriers for symmetrical polymer ( A, B)-mixtures (chain lengths NA = NB = N) near the critical temperature Tc, and for symmetrical block copolymers near the (fluctuation-induced) first order transition between the disordered melt and the lamellar mesophase. While in the latter case for N ? ? the transition becomes second-order and the order of magnitude of the nucleation barrier vanishes as N - {1}/{3}, for the polymer mixtures it increases as N {1}/{2} in the mean-field critical regime. Experiments and simulations, however, both show that very long chains are needed to fully reach this mean-field critical regime. For asymmetrical block copolymers {f= {N A}/{(N A+ N) }? {1}/{2}} the nucleation barrier scales as N {1}/{2}|f- {1}/{2}| 5.