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Sample records for measuring blast phenomena

  1. High-speed photography of microscale blast wave phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, John M.; Kleine, Harald

    2005-03-01

    High-speed photography has been a primary tool for the study of blast wave phenomena, dating from the work of Toepler, even before the invention of the camera! High-speed photography was used extensively for the study of blast waves produced by nuclear explosions for which, because of the large scale, cameras running at a few hundred frames per second were adequate to obtain sharp images of the supersonic shock fronts. For the study of the blast waves produced by smaller explosive sources, ever-increasing framing rates were required. As a rough guide, for every three orders of magnitude decrease in charge size a ten-fold increase of framing rate was needed. This severely limited the use of photography for the study of blast waves from laboratory-scale charges. There are many techniques for taking single photographs of explosive phenomena, but the strongly time-dependent development of a blast wave, requires the ability to record a high-speed sequence of photographs of a single event. At ICHSPP25, Kondo et al of Shimadzu Corporation demonstrated a 1 M fps video camera that provides a sequence of up to 100 high-resolution frames. This was subsequently used at the Shock Wave Research Center of Tohoku University to record the blast waves generated by an extensive series of silver azide charges ranging in size from 10 to 0.5mg. The resulting images were measured to provide radius-time histories of the primary and secondary shocks. These were analyzed with techniques similar to those used for the study of explosions from charges with masses ranging from 500 kg to 5 kt. The analyses showed the cube-root scaling laws to be valid for the very small charges, and provided a detailed record of the peak hydrostatic pressure as a function of radius for a unit charge of silver azide, over a wide range of scaled distances. The pressure-radius variation was compared to that from a unit charge of TNT and this permitted a detailed determination of the TNT equivalence of silver azide as a function of peak pressure and radius. The availability of the Shimadzu high-speed framing camera has made it possible to perform experiments at the laboratory scale that previously could be done only on large-scale field trials. At the laboratory scale, many experiments can be performed on the same day, as compared to the months or even years required for the preparation of large-scale field experiments. The economic savings are even greater.

  2. Developments in blast fragmentation measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, J.A.; Maerz, N.H.; Santamarina, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The digital image analysis program WipFrag has been developed under contract to INCO for use in quality control of underground blasting operations. This paper outlines the relevance of fragmentation to underground mining, the hardware and photography requirements, and key features and operating principles of the software. The science of granulometry offers a wide choice of statistics relating to the size and shape of fragments and the fabric and geometry of the rockpile. From these the authors have chosen to represent size distribution by the mass median diameter and the Rosin-Rammler coefficients. Fragment shape is measured by practical sphericity, a useful index to the slabbiness of the rock, which is often a factor in increased costs for loading, transportation and crushing. Concepts of resolution and accuracy are reviewed as they apply to digital image analysis systems. A method of calibration is described, using sieved crushed rock standards that simulate a range of rockpile uniformity conditions. Alternative zoom-merge procedures that combine images at various scales of magnification are expected to replace the empirical methods. Further research into blast optimization will require quantification of the triangular relationship between rock quality, blast parameters, and fragmentation statistics. Any one of these can be predicted knowing the other two, thus suggesting a new approach to measurement of rock mass quality. Routine fragmentation measurements might therefore give early warning of the need for modifications in stope spans, pit wall angles, and ground reinforcement and stabilization systems. Applications to measurement of rockfalls and rockbursts are also proposed.

  3. Effects of scale on internal blast measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, R.; Sandusky, H.; Lee, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a comparative study between large and small-scale internal blast experiments with the goal of using the small-scale analog for energetic performance evaluation. In the small-scale experiment, highly confined explosive samples <0.5 g were subjected to the output from a PETN detonator while enclosed in a 3-liter chamber. Large-scale tests up to 23 kg were unconfined and released in a chamber with a factor of 60,000 increase in volume. The comparative metric in these experiments is peak quasi-static overpressure, with the explosive sample expressed as sample energy/chamber volume, which normalizes measured pressures across scale. Small-scale measured pressures were always lower than the large-scale measurements, because of heat-loss to the high confinement inherent in the small-scale apparatus. This heat-loss can be quantified and used to correct the small-scale pressure measurements. In some cases the heat-loss was large enough to quench reaction of lower energy samples. These results suggest that small-scale internal blast tests do correlate with their large-scale counterparts, provided that heat-loss to confinement can be measured, and that less reactive or lower energy samples are not quenched by heat-loss.

  4. Measurement of transmitted blast force-time histories

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Benjamin Langhorst; Corey Cook; James Schondel; Dr. Henry S. Chu

    2010-03-01

    A simple, reliable, and cost effective method is presented for the measurement of transmitted force behind a panel subjected to blast loads. Sensors were designed for a specific blast environment and successfully used to measure transmitted blast force behind solid polyethylene plates of thickness 0.125 and 0.25 inches. Experimental data was collected and examined to reveal consistent differences in the response of different thicknesses of otherwise identical panels. Finally, recommendations are made for future design, construction and use of similar sensors.

  5. Rapid miniature fiber optic pressure sensors for blast wave measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie; Wang, Xingwei

    2013-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious potential threat to soldiers who are exposed to explosions. Since the pathophysiology of TBI associated with a blast wave is not clearly defined, it is crucial to have a sensing system to accurately quantify the blast wave dynamics. This paper presents an ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor based on Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometric principle that is capable of measuring the rapid pressure changes in a blast event. The blast event in the experiment was generated by a starter pistol blank firing at close range, which produced a more realistic wave profile compared to using compressed air driven shock tubes. To the authors' knowledge, it is also the first study to utilize fiber optic pressure sensors to measure the ballistics shock wave of a pistol firing. The results illustrated that the fiber optic pressure sensor has a rise time of 200 ns which demonstrated that the sensor has ability to capture the dynamic pressure transient during a blast event. Moreover, the resonant frequency of the sensor was determined to be 4.11 MHz, which agrees well with the specific designed value.

  6. Airblast instrumentaion and measurement techniques for surface mine blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Stachura, V.J.; Siskind, D.E.; Engler, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Results include equivalencies between broadband research instrumentation and commercially available impulse precision sound level meters measuring: root-mean-square, peak, fast, slow, impulse, A and C weighting, C-weighted sound exposure level (CSEL), and ''linear'' (flat) response. These values were obtained from field measurements and broadband FM tape recordings of production blasts at area and contour coal mines, limestones quarries, and iron mines. Frequency response was determined for 14 commercial systems. 40 refs.

  7. High-frequency measurements of blast wave propagation.

    PubMed

    Loubeau, Alexandra; Sparrow, Victor W; Pater, Larry L; Wright, Wayne M

    2006-09-01

    Blast wave propagation measurements were conducted to investigate nonlinear propagation effects on blast waveform evolution with distance. Measurements were made with a wide-bandwidth capacitor microphone for comparison with conventional 3.175-mm (1/8-in.) microphones with and without baffles. It was found that the 3.175-mm microphone did not have sufficient high-frequency response to capture the actual rise times in some regions. For a source of 0.57 kg (1.25 lb) of C-4 plastic explosive, the trend observed is that nonlinear effects steepened the waveform, thereby decreasing the shock rise time, up to a range of 50 m. At 100 m, the rise times had increased slightly. PMID:17004495

  8. Pressure measurements in laboratory-scale blast wave flow fields.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S; Timofeev, E; Kleine, H

    2007-12-01

    The present study examines the effects that temporal and spatial averagings due to finite size and finite response time of pressure transducers have on the pressure measurements in blast wave flow fields generated by milligram charges of silver azide. In such applications, the characteristic time and length scales of the physical process are of the same order of magnitude as the temporal and spatial characteristics of the transducer. The measured pressure values will then be spatially and temporally averaged, and important parameters for the assessment of blast effects may not be properly represented in the measured trace. In this study, face-on and side-on pressure transducer setups are considered. In the experiments, face-on and side-on readings at the same distance from the charge as well as time-resolved optical visualization of the whole flow field are obtained simultaneously for the same explosive event. The procedure of data extraction from the experimental pressure traces is revisited and discussed in detail. In the numerical modeling part of the study, numerical blast flow fields are generated using an Euler flow solver. A numerical pressure transducer model is developed to qualitatively simulate the averaging effects. The experimental and numerical data show that the results of pressure measurements in experiments with small charges must be used with great caution. The effective averaging of the pressure signal may lead to a significant underestimation of blast wave intensities. The side-on setup is especially prone to this effect. The face-on setup provides results close to those obtained from optical records only if the pressure transducer is sufficiently remote from the charge. PMID:18163748

  9. Blast-pressure measurement with a high-bandwidth fibre optic pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, W. N.; Gander, M. J.; Barton, J. S.; Jones, J. D. C.; Owen, C. L.; Watson, A. J.; Allen, R. M.

    2000-02-01

    A sensor to measure rapidly changing pressures in an explosive air blast requires high bandwidth and high spatial resolution. For such an application a low-cost, electrically isolated sensor is particularly attractive. We describe an optical fibre-based pressure sensor that meets these requirements. The sensor is subjected to an experimental explosive-blast measurement test and the results are discussed with respect to the sensor performance and compared with a simple blast-wave model and conventional pressure transducers.

  10. High spatial resolution measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkey, J. B.; Burnham, E. A.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    High spatial resolution experimental tube wall pressure measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena are presented. The projectile resembles the centerbody of a ramjet and travels supersonically through a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture, with the tube acting as the outer cowling. Pressure data are recorded as the projectile passes by sensors mounted in the tube wall at various locations along the tube. Data obtained by using a special highly instrumented section of tube has allowed the recording of gas dynamic phenomena with a spatial resolution on the order of one tenth the projectile length. High spatial resolution tube wall pressure data from the three regimes of propulsion studied to date (subdetonative, transdetonative, and superdetonative) are presented and reveal the 3D character of the flowfield induced by projectile fins and the canting of the projectile body relative to the tube wall. Also presented for comparison to the experimental data are calculations made with an inviscid, 3D CFD code.

  11. Measurement of Blast Waves from Bursting Pressureized Frangible Spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esparza, E. D.; Baker, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    Small-scale experiments were conducted to obtain data on incident overpressure at various distances from bursting pressurized spheres. Complete time histories of blast overpressure generated by rupturing glass spheres under high internal pressure were obtained using eight side-on pressure transducers. A scaling law is presented, and its nondimensional parameters are used to compare peak overpressures, arrival times, impulses, and durations for different initial conditions and sizes of blast source. The nondimensional data are also compared, whenever possible, with results of theoretical calculations and compiled data for Pentolite high explosive. The scaled data are repeatable and show significant differences from blast waves generated by condensed high-explosives.

  12. Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a VHTR Lower Plenum Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2007-06-01

    Mean velocity and turbulence data that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor are presented as a follow-up to summaries presented at the 2006 Annual Meeting and the 2006 Winter Meeting. The experiments were designed to develop benchmark databases to support the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum to validate the heat transfer and fluid flow software that will be used to study the behavior of the VHTR system.

  13. Comments on the measurements of multiple muon phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Higashi, S.

    1985-01-01

    The extensive air showers in the energy around 10 to the 15th power eV include those initiated by astrophysical primary gamma-rays. The observations need a precise measurement on the directions of primary particles. It is one of the methods to measure the directions of high-energy muons in air showers. The accuracy in measuring the direction, by calculating the cosmic-ray phenomena in the atmosphere at very high energy was investgated. The results calculated by Monte Carlo method suggest that one may determine the direction of primary cosmic-rays within errors of 10/3 rad in observing muons of above 100 GeV at sea level.

  14. An ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor for blast event measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nan; Zou, Xiaotian; Tian, Ye; Fitek, John; Maffeo, Michael; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie; Wang, Xingwei

    2012-05-01

    Soldiers who are exposed to explosions are at risk of suffering traumatic brain injury (TBI). Since the causal relationship between a blast and TBI is poorly understood, it is critical to have sensors that can accurately quantify the blast dynamics and resulting wave propagation through a helmet and skull that are imparted onto and inside the brain. To help quantify the cause of TBI, it is important to record transient pressure data during a blast event. However, very few sensors feature the capabilities of tracking the dynamic pressure transients due to the rapid change of the pressure during blast events, while not interfering with the physical material layers or wave propagation. In order to measure the pressure transients efficiently, a pressure sensor should have a high resonant frequency and a high spatial resolution. This paper describes an ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor based on the Fabry-Perot principle for the application of measuring the rapid pressure changes in a blast event. A shock tube experiment performed in US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center has demonstrated that the resonant frequency of the sensor is 4.12 MHz, which is relatively close to the designed theoretical value of 4.113 MHz. Moreover, the experiment illustrated that the sensor has a rise time of 120 ns, which demonstrates that the sensor is capable of observing the dynamics of the pressure transient during a blast event.

  15. On-line ultrasonic system for measuring thickness of the copper stave in the blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang-Woo; Kim, Dohoon

    2012-05-01

    The blast furnace is used make molten iron from sintered ore and the cokes in the steel industry. Recently, the copper stave cooling system placed on inner face of the blast furnace body to protect the steel shell from heat. In the high temperature environment, the wear between the stave and the material makes the cooling stave thinning by the downward movement of the materials in the blast furnace. It was impossible to access the copper stave with the ultrasonic sensor for measuring thickness because the copper stave is covered with the steel shell and there is backing refractory between the stave and the steel shell. The unique ultrasonic sensor which can approach the cooling stave through the cooling line was developed to measure thickness. The thickness can be measured with portable ultrasonic thickness sensor and can be monitored continuously with embedded sensors.

  16. Simultaneous Measurements of Temperature and Iron-Slag Ratio at Taphole of Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, M.; Shinotake, A.; Nakashima, M.; Omoto, N.

    2014-07-01

    As the initial process in an integrated steel-making plant, molten iron is produced in a blast furnace. The molten iron has a temperature between 1700 K and 1900 K. The outflow stream discharged from a taphole comprises the molten iron and slag (which is a mixture of molten oxides). Monitoring of the stream temperature is important because it has information on the thermal condition inside the blast furnace. A newly developed simultaneous measurement technique for temperature and iron-slag ratio is reported. A monochromatic CCD camera with a short exposure time is used to obtain a thermal image of the rapidly moving stream. The thermal image has a marble-like pattern caused by the physical separation of the iron and slag and their different optical properties. Iron thermometry is realized by automatically detecting the peak of the iron gray-level distribution on a histogram. Meanwhile, the thermal radiance of the semitransparent slag varies as a function of the thickness. The slag temperature is calculated from the maximum gray level, presuming that the emissivity of the slag is constant at a thick slag part. The slag ratio is measured by counting the number of pixels on the histogram. A field test was carried out at an operating blast furnace. The iron temperature, slag temperature, and slag ratio were successfully measured. This multiple image measurement is expected to be the new information source for stable blast furnace operation.

  17. Blast assessment and optimization for high quarry face-blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Sames, F.; O`Meara, R.

    1996-12-01

    Where applicable, high production benches can improve efficiency in quarrying. Quality control, geological, cost or other considerations might result in the development of quarry benches higher than 30 m and sometimes up to 60 m. Production blasts on high quarry faces require a confident blast design with respect to safety, cost efficiency and minimized environmental effects. Careful pre-blast assessment of the design parameters, blast monitoring of the product performance and the environmental effects and post-blast assessment of the overall blast performance are essential for the successful implementation of the blast design. The blast geometry for high quarry faces and a blast design that often includes multiple explosive charges in a blasthole, make a reliable assessment of the blast parameters difficult. Assessment techniques, their applications and limitations are described and discussed. This will include such methods as blast surveying using laser profiling and borehole deviation measurements, blast monitoring using continuous velocity of detonation measurement systems, high speed photography and seismographs for blast performance and environmental effects. Observations of low frequency airblast and high standard deviations in ground vibration measurements are described and discussed against a background of timing assessment and frequency spectra analysis. Approaches where an optimized design was implemented based on the blast parameter assessment and modeling are presented. An improvement in blast efficiency lies in the combination of blast assessment and blast modeling, whilst adequate documentation supports the process of designing and implementing successful blasts.

  18. An Undergraduate Experiment for the Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air: Phenomena and Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hujiang; Zhao, Xiaohong; Wang, Xin; Xiao, Jinghua

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss some phenomena in an undergraduate experiment for the measurement of the speed of sound in air. A square wave distorts when connected to a piezoelectric transducer. Moreover, the amplitude of the receiving signal varies with the driving frequency. Comparing with the Gibbs phenomenon, these phenomena can be

  19. An Undergraduate Experiment for the Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air: Phenomena and Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hujiang; Zhao, Xiaohong; Wang, Xin; Xiao, Jinghua

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss some phenomena in an undergraduate experiment for the measurement of the speed of sound in air. A square wave distorts when connected to a piezoelectric transducer. Moreover, the amplitude of the receiving signal varies with the driving frequency. Comparing with the Gibbs phenomenon, these phenomena can be…

  20. Measuring transient high temperature thermal phenomena in hostile environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brenden, B.B.; Hartman, J.S.; Reich, F.R.

    1980-01-01

    The design of equipment for measuring temperature and strain in a rapidly heated and pressurized cylinder of stainless steel is discussed. Simultaneous cinematography of the full circumference of the cylinder without interference with temperature and strain measurements is also illustrated. The integrated system uses a reflective chamber for the sample and requires careful consideration of the spectral energy distribution utilized by each instrument.

  1. Optoelectronic measurement in deformation of blast shock with Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lei; Liu, Hongli; Jiang, Chengzhi

    2009-11-01

    This paper attempts to explore the feasibility of a system based on laser Doppler technique which has been established to realize remote dynamic measurement of high velocity deformation parameters of explosion vessel. It aims at developing a stable and reliable non-contact instrument with high precision for the measuring of explosion on site. Doppler signal's SNR is very low in remote measurement of explosion vessel, a moving solid object with high velocity. To enhance signal intensity, restrain noise and extract weak Doppler signal is the key to realizing remote measurement with high precision. Both optical structure optimizing and digital signal processing used to solve the arduous problem above will be discussed in this paper. The test results prove that the relative error of the instrument is less than 1% in measuring displacement.

  2. Verification of BLAST by comparison with direct gain test cell measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B.; Bauman, F.; Kammerud, R.

    1980-11-01

    Comparisons between temperatures measured in a direct solar gain test cell and temperatures predicted by the building energy analysis computer program BLAST are reported. The comparisons were performed for three distinct climate periods; the simulations were driven by weather data collected at the test cell site in Los Alamos, New Mexico. The test cell configurations and weather data manipulations are described; quantitative evaluations of the comparisons between measured and predicted interior temperatures are presented; limitations of the comparisons are discussed; and sensitivities of the simulation results to uncertainties in the measured parameters are examined.

  3. Electrokinetic transport phenomena: Mobility measurement and electrokinetic instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddy, Michael Huson

    Miniaturization and integration of traditional bioassay procedures into microfabricated on-chip assay systems, commonly referred to as "Micro Total Analysis" (muTAS) systems, may have a significant impact on the fields of genomics, proteomics, and clinical analysis. These bioanalytical microsystems leverage electroosmosis and electrophoresis for sample transport, mixing, manipulation, and separation. This dissertation addresses the following three topics relevant to such systems: a new diagnostic for measuring the electrophoretic mobility of sub-micron, fluorescently-labeled particles and the electroosmotic mobility of a microchannel; a novel method and device for rapidly stirring micro- and nanoliter volume solutions for microfluidic bioanalytical applications; and a multiple-species electrokinetic instability model. Accurate measurement of the electrophoretic particle mobility and the electroosmotic mobility of microchannel surfaces is crucial to understanding the stability of colloidal suspensions, obtaining particle tracking-based velocimetry measurements of electroosmotic flow fields, and the quantification of electrokinetic bioanalytical device performance. A method for determining these mobilities from alternating and direct current electrokinetic particle tracking measurements is presented. The ability to rapidly mix fluids at low Reynolds numbers is important to the functionality of many bioanalytical, microfluidic devices. We present an electrokinetic process for rapidly stirring microflow streams by initiating an electrokinetic flow instability. The design, fabrication and performance analysis of two micromixing devices capable of rapidly stirring two low Reynolds number fluid streams are presented. Electroosmotic and electrophoretic transport in the presence of conductivity mismatches between reagent streams and the background electrolytes, can lead to an unstable flow field generating significant sample dispersion. In the multiple-species electrokinetic instability model, we consider a high aspect ratio microchannel geometry, a conductivity gradient orthogonal to the applied electric field, and a four-species chemistry model. A linear stability analysis of the depth-averaged governing equations shows unstable eigenmodes for conductivity ratios as close to unity as 1.01. Experiments and full nonlinear simulations of the governing equations were conducted for a conductivity ratio of 1.05. Images of the disturbance dye field from the nonlinear simulations show good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiment. Species electromigration is shown to a have significant influence on the development of the conductivity field and instability dynamics in multi-ion configurations.

  4. Pressure-Sensitive Paint Measurements of Transient Shock Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Mark Kenneth; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the global pressure field created by shock wave diffraction have been captured optically using a porous pressure-sensitive paint. The pressure field created by a diffracting shock wave shows large increases and decreases in pressure and can be reasonably accurately captured using CFD. The substrate, a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plate, has been dipped in a luminophore solution. TLC plates are readily available and easy to prepare. Illumination comes from two high-intensity broadband Xenon arc light sources with short-pass filters. The sample is imaged at 100 kHz using a Vision Research Phantom V710 in conjunction with a pair of long and short pass filters, creating a band. The PSP results are compared with numerical simulations of the flow using the commercial CFD package Fluent as part of ANSYS 13 for two Mach numbers. PMID:23549365

  5. Simulation and Measurements of Small Arms Blast Wave Overpressure in the Process of Designing a Silencer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Nebojša; Kari, Aleksandar; Jerković, Damir; Savić, Slobodan; Sirovatka, Radoslav

    2015-02-01

    Simulation and measurements of muzzle blast overpressure and its physical manifestations are studied in this paper. The use of a silencer can have a great influence on the overpressure intensity. A silencer is regarded as an acoustic transducer and a waveguide. Wave equations for an acoustic dotted source of directed effect are used for physical interpretation of overpressure as an acoustic phenomenon. Decomposition approach has proven to be suitable to describe the formation of the output wave of the wave transducer. Electroacoustic analogies are used for simulations. A measurement chain was used to compare the simulation results with the experimental ones.

  6. Precise Measurement of Deuteron Tensor Analyzing Powers with BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Kohl, M.; Akdogan, T.; Alarcon, R.; Bertozzi, W.; Booth, E.; Botto, T.; Calarco, J. R.; Clasie, B.; Crawford, C.; Degrush, A.; Dow, K.; Farkhondeh, M.; Fatemi, R.; Filoti, O.; Franklin, W.; Gao, H.; Geis, E.; Gilad, S.; Hasell, D.; Karpius, P.; Kolster, H.; Lee, T.; Maschinot, A.; Matthews, J.; McIlhany, K.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R.; Rapaport, J.; Redwine, R.; Seely, J.; Shinozaki, A.; Sindile, A.; irca, S.; Six, E.; Smith, T.; Tonguc, B.; Tschalr, C.; Tsentalovich, E.; Turchinetz, W.; Xiao, Y.; Xu, W.; Zhou, Z.-L.; Ziskin, V.; Zwart, T.

    2011-12-01

    We report a precision measurement of the deuteron tensor analyzing powers T20 and T21 at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center. Data were collected simultaneously over a momentum transfer range Q=2.15-4.50fm-1 with the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid using a highly polarized deuterium internal gas target. The data are in excellent agreement with calculations in a framework of effective field theory. The deuteron charge monopole and quadrupole form factors GC and GQ were separated with improved precision, and the location of the first node of GC was confirmed at Q=4.190.05fm-1. The new data provide a strong constraint on theoretical models in a momentum transfer range covering the minimum of T20 and the first node of GC.

  7. BLAST: A FAR-INFRARED MEASUREMENT OF THE HISTORY OF STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pascale, Enzo; Ade, Peter A. R.; Dye, Simon; Eales, Steve A.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Ngo, Henry; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume

    2009-12-20

    We directly measure redshift evolution in the mean physical properties (far-infrared luminosity, temperature, and mass) of the galaxies that produce the cosmic infrared background (CIB), using measurements from the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST), and Spitzer which constrain the CIB emission peak. This sample is known to produce a surface brightness in the BLAST bands consistent with the full CIB, and photometric redshifts are identified for all of the objects. We find that most of the 70 mum background is generated at z approx< 1 and the 500 mum background generated at z approx> 1. A significant growth is observed in the mean luminosity from approx10{sup 9}-10{sup 12} L{sub sun}, and in the mean temperature by 10 K, from redshifts 0 < z < 3. However, there is only weak positive evolution in the comoving dust mass in these galaxies across the same redshift range. We also measure the evolution of the far-infrared luminosity density, and the star formation rate history for these objects, finding good agreement with other infrared studies up to z approx 1, exceeding the contribution attributed to optically selected galaxies.

  8. BLAST: A Far-Infrared Measurement of the History of Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascale, Enzo; Ade, Peter A. R.; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dye, Simon; Eales, Steve A.; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C.; Hughes, David H.; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Ngo, Henry; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S.; Viero, Marco P.; Wiebe, Donald V.

    2009-12-01

    We directly measure redshift evolution in the mean physical properties (far-infrared luminosity, temperature, and mass) of the galaxies that produce the cosmic infrared background (CIB), using measurements from the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST), and Spitzer which constrain the CIB emission peak. This sample is known to produce a surface brightness in the BLAST bands consistent with the full CIB, and photometric redshifts are identified for all of the objects. We find that most of the 70 ?m background is generated at z lsim 1 and the 500 ?m background generated at z gsim 1. A significant growth is observed in the mean luminosity from ~109-1012 L sun, and in the mean temperature by 10 K, from redshifts 0 < z < 3. However, there is only weak positive evolution in the comoving dust mass in these galaxies across the same redshift range. We also measure the evolution of the far-infrared luminosity density, and the star formation rate history for these objects, finding good agreement with other infrared studies up to z ~ 1, exceeding the contribution attributed to optically selected galaxies.

  9. Studies on two biological phenomena in in vitro cell cultures: the reversibility of leukemic blast cells and the immunologic enhancement of tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Berceanu, S; Mo?oiu, I; Gociu, M

    1983-01-01

    The nature of the leukemic process is discussed with respect to the possible in vitro transformation of the leukemic blast cells into myeloid differentiated cells. During the period 1968-1970 we noticed this process in bone marrow cultures in fluid medium. The differentiation was established on morphologic and cytochemical criteria; the proportion of mature cells or those undergoing maturation with peroxidase positive reaction increased over 50% reaching even 70-80%. Our recent observations can be discussed from several points of view but leukemic blast cell reversibility is now a phenomenon with therapeutical applications. The phenomenon of malignant cells growth enhancement has been considered as an antibody mediated immune process. In a previous paper we have demonstrated in AKR mice the possibility of achieving the growth enhancement of lymphoblastic cells in mixed cultures with normal autologous or isologous splenic cells. Other investigations have been carried out by means of mixed cultures in human leukemias and malignant lymphomas. The intensity of blast-cell proliferation was followed up by comparing the number of colonies and TH3 incorporation in simple cultures with those in mixed cultures. The observations made in the 20 culture systems followed-up over 3-5 and 8-10 days proved the "malignant cell growth enhancement" by the immune mononuclear cells (lymphocytes and macrophages). PMID:6342111

  10. Contamination of current-clamp measurement of neuron capacitance by voltage-dependent phenomena

    PubMed Central

    White, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Measuring neuron capacitance is important for morphological description, conductance characterization, and neuron modeling. One method to estimate capacitance is to inject current pulses into a neuron and fit the resulting changes in membrane potential with multiple exponentials; if the neuron is purely passive, the amplitude and time constant of the slowest exponential give neuron capacitance (Major G, Evans JD, Jack JJ. Biophys J 65: 423449, 1993). Golowasch et al. (Golowasch J, Thomas G, Taylor AL, Patel A, Pineda A, Khalil C, Nadim F. J Neurophysiol 102: 21612175, 2009) have shown that this is the best method for measuring the capacitance of nonisopotential (i.e., most) neurons. However, prior work has not tested for, or examined how much error would be introduced by, slow voltage-dependent phenomena possibly present at the membrane potentials typically used in such work. We investigated this issue in lobster (Panulirus interruptus) stomatogastric neurons by performing current clamp-based capacitance measurements at multiple membrane potentials. A slow, voltage-dependent phenomenon consistent with residual voltage-dependent conductances was present at all tested membrane potentials (?95 to ?35 mV). This phenomenon was the slowest component of the neuron's voltage response, and failure to recognize and exclude it would lead to capacitance overestimates of several hundredfold. Most methods of estimating capacitance depend on the absence of voltage-dependent phenomena. Our demonstration that such phenomena make nonnegligible contributions to neuron responses even at well-hyperpolarized membrane potentials highlights the critical importance of checking for such phenomena in all work measuring neuron capacitance. We show here how to identify such phenomena and minimize their contaminating influence. PMID:23576698

  11. Noncontact temperature measurements in the microgravity fluids and transport phenomena discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salzman, Jack

    1988-01-01

    The program of activities within the Microgravity Fluids and Transport Phenomena Discipline has been structured to enable the systematic pursuit of an increased understanding of low gravity fluid behavior/phenomena in a way which ensures that the results are appropriate to the widest range of applications. This structure is discussed and an overview of some of the activities which are underway is given. Of significance is the fact that in the majority of the current and planned activities, the measurement and, or control of the fluid temperature is a key experiment requirement. In addition, many of the experiments require that the temperature measurement be nonintrusive. A description of these requirements together with the current techniques which are being employed or under study to make these measurements is also discussed.

  12. Two-point concrete resistivity measurements: interfacial phenomena at the electrode-concrete contact zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarter, W. J.; Taha, H. M.; Suryanto, B.; Starrs, G.

    2015-08-01

    Ac impedance spectroscopy measurements are used to critically examine the end-to-end (two-point) testing technique employed in evaluating the bulk electrical resistivity of concrete. In particular, this paper focusses on the interfacial contact region between the electrode and specimen and the influence of contacting medium and measurement frequency on the impedance response. Two-point and four-point electrode configurations were compared and modelling of the impedance response was undertaken to identify and quantify the contribution of the electrode-specimen contact region on the measured impedance. Measurements are presented in both Bode and Nyquist formats to aid interpretation. Concretes mixes conforming to BSEN206-1 and BS8500-1 were investigated which included concretes containing the supplementary cementitious materials fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag. A measurement protocol is presented for the end-to-end technique in terms of test frequency and electrode-specimen contacting medium in order to minimize electrode-specimen interfacial effect and ensure correct measurement of bulk resistivity.

  13. Ionospheric Signature of Surface Mine Blasts from Global Positioning System Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calais, Eric; Minster, J. Bernard; Hofton, Michelle A.; Hedlin, Michael A. H.

    1998-01-01

    Sources such as atmospheric or buried explosions and shallow earthquakes are known to produce infrasonic pressure waves in the atmosphere. Because of the coupling between neutral particles and electrons at ionospheric altitudes, these acoustic and gravity waves induce variations of the ionospheric electron density. The Global Positioning System (GPS) provides a way of directly measuring the total electron content in the ionosphere and, therefore, of detecting such perturbations in the upper atmosphere. In July and August 1996, three large surface mine blasts (1.5 Kt each) were detonated at the Black Thunder coal mine in eastern Wyoming. As part of a seismic and acoustic monitoring- experiment, we deployed five dual-frequency GPS receivers at distances ranging from 50 to 200 km from the mine and were able to detect the ionospheric perturbation caused by the blasts. The perturbation starts 10 to 15 min after the blast, lasts for about 30 min, and propagates with an apparent horizontal velocity of 1200 meters per second. Its amplitude reaches 3 x 10 (exp 14) el per square meters in the 7-3 min period band, a value close to the ionospheric perturbation caused by the M = 6.7 Northridge earthquake. The small signal-to-noise ratio of the perturbation can be improved by slant-stacking the electron content time-series recorded by the different GPS receivers taking into account the horizontal propagation of the perturbation. The energy of the perturbation is concentrated in the 200 to 300 second period band, a result consistent with previous observations and numerical model predictions. The 300 second band probably corresponds to gravity modes and shorter periods to acoustic modes, respectively. Using a 1-D stratified velocity model of the atmosphere we show that linear acoustic ray tracing fits arrival times at all GPS receivers. We interpret the perturbation as a direct acoustic wave caused by the explosion itself. This study shows that even relatively small subsurface events can produce ionospheric perturbations that are above the detection threshold of the GPS technique. By sensing derivative signals, which can be detected over a relatively broad region, it appears that GPS might be particularly useful for source characterization within the first acoustic quiet zone where infrasound would probably be ineffective. This suggests that dual-frequency GPS monitoring could contribute to Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty verification.

  14. RESEARCH PAPERS : Ionospheric signature of surface mine blasts from Global Positioning System measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calais, Eric; Bernard Minster, J.; Hofton, Michelle; Hedlin, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Sources such as atmospheric or buried explosions and shallow earthquakes are known to produce infrasonic pressure waves in the atmosphere Because of the coupling between neutral particles and electrons at ionospheric altitudes, these acoustic and gravity waves induce variations of the ionospheric electron density. The Global Positioning System (GPS) provides a way of directly measuring the total electron content in the ionosphere and, therefore, of detecting such perturbations in the upper atmosphere. In July and August 1996, three large surface mine blasts (1.5 Kt each) were detonated at the Black Thunder coal mine in eastern Wyoming. As part of a seismic and acoustic monitoring experiment, we deployed five dual-frequency GPS receivers at distances ranging from 50 to 200 km from the mine and were able to detect the ionospheric perturbation caused by the blasts. The perturbation starts 10 to 15 min after the blast, lasts for about 30 min, and propagates with an apparent horizontal velocity of 1200 m s- 1. Its amplitude reaches 3 1014 el m- 2 in the 7-3 min period band, a value close to the ionospheric perturbation caused by the M=6.7 Northridge earthquake (Calais & Minster 1995). The small signal-to-noise ratio of the perturbation can be improved by slant-stacking the electron content time-series recorded by the different GPS receivers taking into account the horizontal propagation of the perturbation. The energy of the perturbation is concentrated in the 200 to 300 s period band, a result consistent with previous observations and numerical model predictions. The 300 s band probably corresponds to gravity modes and shorter periods to acoustic modes, respectively. Using a 1-D stratified velocity model of the atmosphere we show that linear acoustic ray tracing fits arrival times at all GPS receivers. We interpret the perturbation as a direct acoustic wave caused by the explosion itself. This study shows that even relatively small subsurface events can produce ionospheric perturbations that are above the detection threshold of the GPS technique. By sensing derivative signals, which can be detected over a relatively broad region, it appears that GPS might be particularly useful for source characterization within the first acoustic quiet zone where infrasound would probably be ineffective. This suggests that dual-frequency GPS monitoring could contribute to Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty verification.

  15. Laboratory Blast Testing Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, C.; Rule, G.

    Blast-induced injuries remain a critical problem facing US Forces during combat operations. As the nature of modern warfare has evolved, it is likely that the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) will remain a common battlefield threat for the foreseeable future. Thus, research devoted to improving protection, and characterizing the physiological response of people and equipment to blast exposure is and will remain a major thrust area for the DOD. Unfortunately, exact reproduction or simulation of the blast environment is technically challenging, while measuring and characterizing blast exposures is even more complex.

  16. Measurement of colloidal phenomena during flow through refractive index matched porous media.

    PubMed

    Roth, Eric J; Mont-Eton, Michael E; Gilbert, Benjamin; Lei, Tim C; Mays, David C

    2015-11-01

    Colloidal phenomena in porous media, natural or engineered, are important in a breadth of science and technology applications, but fundamental understanding is hampered by the difficulty in measuring colloid deposit morphology in situ. To partially address this need, this paper describes a static light scattering apparatus using a flow cell filled with refractive index matched (RIM) porous media, allowing real-time measurement of colloidal phenomena as a function of depth within the flow cell. A laser interacts with the colloids in the pore space and their structures, but not with the RIM media. The intensity of scattered light is measured as a function of scattering angle, which allows characterization of colloid deposit morphology as a fractal dimension and a radius of gyration. In parallel, fluid discharge rate and pressure drop are recorded to determine permeability, a key parameter for any application involving flow through porous media. This apparatus should prove useful in any application requiring characterization of colloidal phenomena within porous media. Additionally, this paper describes how to use granular Nafion as RIM porous media. PMID:26628117

  17. Measurement of colloidal phenomena during flow through refractive index matched porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Eric J.; Mont-Eton, Michael E.; Gilbert, Benjamin; Lei, Tim C.; Mays, David C.

    2015-11-01

    Colloidal phenomena in porous media, natural or engineered, are important in a breadth of science and technology applications, but fundamental understanding is hampered by the difficulty in measuring colloid deposit morphology in situ. To partially address this need, this paper describes a static light scattering apparatus using a flow cell filled with refractive index matched (RIM) porous media, allowing real-time measurement of colloidal phenomena as a function of depth within the flow cell. A laser interacts with the colloids in the pore space and their structures, but not with the RIM media. The intensity of scattered light is measured as a function of scattering angle, which allows characterization of colloid deposit morphology as a fractal dimension and a radius of gyration. In parallel, fluid discharge rate and pressure drop are recorded to determine permeability, a key parameter for any application involving flow through porous media. This apparatus should prove useful in any application requiring characterization of colloidal phenomena within porous media. Additionally, this paper describes how to use granular Nafion as RIM porous media.

  18. Flight test measurements and analysis of sonic boom phenomena near the shock wave extremity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, G. T.; Kane, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    A NASA flight test program conducted during the summer and fall of 1970 was devoted to investigating sonic boom phenomena near caustics formed by steady flight near the threshold Mach number, during accelerations, and at the lateral extremes of the ground carpet. The vertical extent of the shock waves attached to near-sonic airplanes was also studied. The flights were conducted over the 1500 ft instrumented BREN tower so that vertical surveys through the shock waves were measured. These data on caustic phenomena near the shock wave extremity were analyzed in detail and compared with theoretical results. Amplifications of shock wave strength varied from 2 to 5 during longitudinal accelerations, from 1 to 1.8 during steady threshold Mach number flight, and up to 3 for small inadvertent accelerations during flight near the threshold Mach number.

  19. Report of National Institute for Resources and Environment. No. 8: Research on blasting sound related to it's measurement, propagation prediction, control and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isei, Takehiro; Kunimatsu, Sunao; Imaizumi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Makoto; Kinoshita, Michiaki; Ogata, Yuji; Shiota, Masazumi; Uchida, Hidenobu; Obara, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Yoshio

    1993-06-01

    Measuring methods, propagation prediction, evaluation and control method of blasting sound are investigated from both theoretical and experimental aspects. Special features of blasting sound are compared with the properties of audible noise and low frequency sound. Problems on the measuring method and the frequency analysis of blasting sound are discussed. Relation between the properties of conventional sound level meter and its output signals are also investigated in relation to the measurement of blasting sound. Limitation on the time resolution and frequency resolution of digital filter and Fourier transform technique is also indicated. Analyzed results by wavelet transform show better time and frequency resolution and better understanding than Wigner-Ville analysis from the comparison of those results. Two methods to predict the time-sound pressures at a receiver are investigated. A control method of blasting sound is discussed theoretically. Possibilities of control of the sound pressure level and the frequency component at a receiver are discussed. Discussion on the evaluation of blasting sound is conducted from two aspects of human perception and response of building fittings. In case of blasting noise, quite high correlation is found between the sound exposure level (SLOW) and the pressure level measured by the 'SLOW' time weighting.

  20. Design Considerations for Remote High-Speed Pressure Measurements of Dynamic Combustion Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Rohrssen, Robert; Perez, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    As gas turbine combustion systems evolve to achieve ultra-low emission targets, monitoring and controlling dynamic combustion processes becomes increasingly important. These dynamic processes may include flame extinction, combustion-driven instabilities, or other dynamic combustion phenomena. Pressure sensors can be incorporated into the combustor liner design, but this approach is complicated by the harsh operating environment. One practical solution involves locating the sensor in a more remote location, such as outside the pressure casing. The sensor can be connected to the measurement point by small diameter tubing. Although this is a practical approach, the dynamics of the tubing can introduce significant errors into the pressure measurement. This paper addresses measurement errors associated with semi-infinite coil remote sensing setups and proposes an approach to improve the accuracy of these types of measurements.

  1. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6, blast measurements. Part 3. Pressure near ground level. Section 4. Blast asymmetry from aerial photographs. Section 5. Ball-crusher-gauge measurements of peak pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    Aerial motion pictures from manned aircraft were taken of the Dog, Easy, and George Shots and from a drone aircraft on Dog Shot to determine whether asymmetries in the blast waves could be detected and measured. Only one film, that taken of Dog Shot from a drone, was considered good enough to warrant detailed analysis, but this failed to yield any positive information on asymmetries. The analysis showed that failure to obtain good arrival-time data arose from a number of cases, but primarily from uncertainities in magnification and timing. Results could only be matched with reliable data from blast-velocity switches by use of large corrections. Asymnetries, if present, were judged to have been too small or to have occurred too early to be detected with the slow-frame speed used. Recommendations for better results include locating the aircraft directly overhead at the time of burst and using a camera having greater frame speed and provided with timing marks.

  2. Localization of small arms fire using acoustic measurements of muzzle blast and/or ballistic shock wave arrivals.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kam W; Ferguson, Brian G

    2012-11-01

    The accurate localization of small arms fire using fixed acoustic sensors is considered. First, the conventional wavefront-curvature passive ranging method, which requires only differential time-of-arrival (DTOA) measurements of the muzzle blast wave to estimate the source position, is modified to account for sensor positions that are not strictly collinear (bowed array). Second, an existing single-sensor-node ballistic model-based localization method, which requires both DTOA and differential angle-of-arrival (DAOA) measurements of the muzzle blast wave and ballistic shock wave, is improved by replacing the basic external ballistics model (which describes the bullet's deceleration along its trajectory) with a more rigorous model and replacing the look-up table ranging procedure with a nonlinear (or polynomial) equation-based ranging procedure. Third, a new multiple-sensor-node ballistic model-based localization method, which requires only DTOA measurements of the ballistic shock wave to localize the point of fire, is formulated. The first method is applicable to situations when only the muzzle blast wave is received, whereas the third method applies when only the ballistic shock wave is received. The effectiveness of each of these methods is verified using an extensive set of real data recorded during a 7 day field experiment. PMID:23145587

  3. Impact of T-ACASI on Survey Measurements of Subjective Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Thomas; Turner, Charles F.; Rogers, Susan M.; Eggleston, Elizabeth; Roman, Anthony M.; Villarroel, Maria A.; Chromy, James R.; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana; Li, Sheping

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (audio-CASI) and telephone audio-CASI (T-ACASI) technologies yield increased reporting of sensitive and stigmatized objective phenomena such as sexual and drug use behaviors. Little attention has been given, however, to the impact of these technologies on the measurement of subjective phenomena (attitudes, opinions, feelings, etc.). This article reports results for the seven subjective measurements included in the National STD and Behavior Measurement Experiment (NSBME). NSBME drew probability samples of USA and Baltimore adults (Ns = 1,543 and 744, respectively) and randomized these respondents to be interviewed by T-ACASI or telephone interviewer-administered questioning (T-IAQ). Response distributions for all subjective measurements obtained by T-ACASI diverge from those obtained by human telephone interviewers. For six of our seven ordinal-scaled measurements, this divergence involved shifting responses directionally along the ordinal scale, as opposed to a nondirectional redistribution among response categories. When interviewed by T-ACASI, respondents were more supportive of traditional gender roles and corporal punishment, less supportive of integrated neighborhoods and same-gender sex, and more likely to agree that occasional marijuana use is harmless and to describe themselves as attractive. The majority of these results suggest that telephone survey respondents may provide more tolerant and socially liberal responses to human interviewers than to a T-ACASI computer. Similarly, although the evidence is not entirely consistent, the impact of T-ACASI appears to increase with the social vulnerability of the population surveyed. PMID:22476560

  4. Modelling of transient state phenomena of composite superconducting conductors during pulse Ic(B) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krosny, S.; Wo?niak, M.; Hopkins, S. C.; St?pie?, M. A.; Grzesik, B.; Glowacki, B. A.

    2010-06-01

    Computational modelling of pulsed current characterisation in composite superconducting conductors has been performed as the first step towards understanding the electromagnetic processes occurring during pulse Ic(B) measurements in the Cryo-BI-Pulse System. A simplified 2D model was created using the Finite Element Method (FEM) software ANSYS to investigate the current transfer process in a multifilamentary conductor, resulting in time dependent 2D distributions of electrical potential and current density along the wire axis. Experimental measurements were performed for two dissimilar NbTi wires and MgB2 tape: excellent agreement between pulse and DC results were found for one NbTi wire and the MgB2 tape, but the critical current for the other NbTi wire (Luvata OK3900) was significantly lower in pulsed current than DC characterisation. This behaviour has been interpreted in relation to current transfer phenomena using results from the FEM modelling.

  5. Computer assisted blast design and assessment tools

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, A.R.; Kleine, T.H.; Forsyth, W.W.

    1995-12-31

    In general the software required by a blast designer includes tools that graphically present blast designs (surface and underground), can analyze a design or predict its result, and can assess blasting results. As computers develop and computer literacy continues to rise the development of and use of such tools will spread. An example of the tools that are becoming available includes: Automatic blast pattern generation and underground ring design; blast design evaluation in terms of explosive distribution and detonation simulation; fragmentation prediction; blast vibration prediction and minimization; blast monitoring for assessment of dynamic performance; vibration measurement, display and signal processing; evaluation of blast results in terms of fragmentation; and risk and reliability based blast assessment. The authors have identified a set of criteria that are essential in choosing appropriate software blasting tools.

  6. Determination of constant-volume balloon capabilities for aeronautical research. [specifically measurement of atmospheric phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatom, F. B.; King, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The proper application of constant-volume balloons (CVB) for measurement of atmospheric phenomena was determined. And with the proper interpretation of the resulting data. A literature survey covering 176 references is included. the governing equations describing the three-dimensional motion of a CVB immersed in a flow field are developed. The flowfield model is periodic, three-dimensional, and nonhomogeneous, with mean translational motion. The balloon motion and flow field equations are cast into dimensionless form for greater generality, and certain significant dimensionless groups are identified. An alternate treatment of the balloon motion, based on first-order perturbation analysis, is also presented. A description of the digital computer program, BALLOON, used for numerically integrating the governing equations is provided.

  7. Fuzzy detection and classification of dangerous weather phenomena using dual-polarimetric radar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tho Dang, Van; Yanovsky, F. J.

    2009-06-01

    A fuzzy detector and classifier of dangerous weather phenomena based on polarimetric radar measurements are described in this paper. Five polarimetric radar measurands, namely, horizontal reflectivity factor, differential reflectivity factor, linear depolarization ratio, specific differential phase, cross-correlation coefficient and altitude of resolution volume serve as inputs of the fuzzy detector and classifier. The output of the fuzzy detector and classifier is one of 8 possible classes: 0) No dangerous weather phenomenon is detected; 1) Lightning; 2) Aircraft icing; 3) Hail; 4) Hail+rain; 5) Heavy rain; 6) Wet snow; 7) Dense snow. A neural network backpropagation algorithm is also considered for training the fuzzy detector and classifier in case of having verified data.

  8. Ultrafast Fabry-Perot fiber-optic pressure sensors for multimedia blast event measurements.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yang; Fitek, John; Maffeo, Michael; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie; Wang, Xingwei

    2013-02-20

    A shock wave (SW) is characterized as a large pressure fluctuation that typically lasts only a few milliseconds. On the battlefield, SWs pose a serious threat to soldiers who are exposed to explosions, which may lead to blast-induced traumatic brain injuries. SWs can also be used beneficially and have been applied to a variety of medical treatments due to their unique interaction with tissues and cells. Consequently, it is important to have sensors that can quantify SW dynamics in order to better understand the physical interaction between body tissue and the incident acoustic wave. In this paper, the ultrafast fiber-optic sensor based on the Fabry-Perot interferometric principle was designed and four such sensors were fabricated to quantify a blast event within different media, simultaneously. The compact design of the fiber-optic sensor allows for a high degree of spatial resolution when capturing the wavefront of the traveling SW. Several blast event experiments were conducted within different media (e.g., air, rubber membrane, and water) to evaluate the sensor's performance. This research revealed valuable knowledge for further study of SW behavior and SW-related applications. PMID:23434996

  9. PIV Experiments to Measure Flow Phenomena in a Scaled Model of a VHTR Lower Plenum

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Richard R. Schultz; Daniel Christensen; Robert J. Pink; Ryan C. Johnson

    2006-09-01

    A report of experimental data collected at the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Laboratory in support of contract DE-AC07-05ID14517 and the INL Standard Problem on measurements of flow phenomena occurring in a lower plenum of a typical prismatic VHTR concept reactor to assess CFD code is presented. Background on the experimental setup and procedures is provided along with several samples of data obtained from the 3-D PIV system and an assessment of experimental uncertainty is provided. Data collected in this study include 3-dimensional velocity-field descriptions of the flow in all four inlet jets and the entire lower plenum with inlet jet Reynolds numbers (ReJet) of approximately 4300 and 12,400. These investigations have generated over 2 terabytes of data that has been processed to describe the various velocity components in formats suitable for external release and archived on removable hard disks. The processed data from both experimental studies are available in multi-column text format.

  10. Blast Testing Issues and TBI: Experimental Models That Lead to Wrong Conclusions.

    PubMed

    Needham, Charles E; Ritzel, David; Rule, Gregory T; Wiri, Suthee; Young, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have noticed an increase in the number of blast injury studies published in peer-reviewed biomedical journals that have utilized improperly conceived experiments. Data from these studies will lead to false conclusions and more confusion than advancement in the understanding of blast injury, particularly blast neurotrauma. Computational methods to properly characterize the blast environment have been available for decades. These methods, combined with a basic understanding of blast wave phenomena, enable researchers to extract useful information from well-documented experiments. This basic understanding must include the differences and interrelationships of static pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, and total or stagnation pressure in transient shockwave flows, how they relate to loading of objects, and how they are properly measured. However, it is critical that the research community effectively overcomes the confusion that has been compounded by a misunderstanding of the differences between the loading produced by a free field explosive blast and loading produced by a conventional shock tube. The principles of blast scaling have been well established for decades and when properly applied will do much to repair these problems. This paper provides guidance regarding proper experimental methods and offers insights into the implications of improperly designed and executed tests. Through application of computational methods, useful data can be extracted from well-documented historical tests, and future work can be conducted in a way to maximize the effectiveness and use of valuable biological test data. PMID:25904891

  11. Blast Testing Issues and TBI: Experimental Models That Lead to Wrong Conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Needham, Charles E.; Ritzel, David; Rule, Gregory T.; Wiri, Suthee; Young, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have noticed an increase in the number of blast injury studies published in peer-reviewed biomedical journals that have utilized improperly conceived experiments. Data from these studies will lead to false conclusions and more confusion than advancement in the understanding of blast injury, particularly blast neurotrauma. Computational methods to properly characterize the blast environment have been available for decades. These methods, combined with a basic understanding of blast wave phenomena, enable researchers to extract useful information from well-documented experiments. This basic understanding must include the differences and interrelationships of static pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, and total or stagnation pressure in transient shockwave flows, how they relate to loading of objects, and how they are properly measured. However, it is critical that the research community effectively overcomes the confusion that has been compounded by a misunderstanding of the differences between the loading produced by a free field explosive blast and loading produced by a conventional shock tube. The principles of blast scaling have been well established for decades and when properly applied will do much to repair these problems. This paper provides guidance regarding proper experimental methods and offers insights into the implications of improperly designed and executed tests. Through application of computational methods, useful data can be extracted from well-documented historical tests, and future work can be conducted in a way to maximize the effectiveness and use of valuable biological test data. PMID:25904891

  12. Measurements of blast waves from bursting frangible spheres pressurized with flash-evaporation vapor or liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esparaza, E. D.; Baker, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    Incident overpressure data from frangible spheres pressurized with a flash-evaporating fluid in liquid and vapor form were obtained in laboratory experiments. Glass spheres under higher than ambient internal pressure of Freon-12 were purposely burst to obtain time histories of overpressure. Nondimensional peak pressures, arrival and duration times, and impulses are presented, and whenever possible plotted and compared with compiled data for Pentolite high-explosive. The data are generally quite repeatable and show differences from blast data produced by condensed high-explosives.

  13. Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a Lower Plenum Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Doanld M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2010-02-01

    Mean-velocity-field and turbulence data are presented that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. The data were obtained in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and are offered for assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate geometry scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages in and around objects to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that will disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. A three-dimensional (3-D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to collect the data. Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean bulk velocity) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. Uncertainty analyses and a discussion of the standard problem are included. The measurements reveal developing, non-uniform, turbulent flow in the inlet jets and complicated flow patterns in the model lower plenum. Data include three-dimensional vector plots, data displays along the coordinate planes (slices) and presentations that describe the component flows at specific regions in the model. Information on inlet conditions is also presented.

  14. Measurement of Turbulent Flow Phenomena for the Lower Plenum of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2010-02-01

    Mean velocity field and turbulence data are presented that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics design (Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor). The datawere obtained in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and are offered as a benchmark for assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. The primary objective of this paper is to document the experiment and present a sample of the data set that has been established for this standard problem. Present results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flowin the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined crossflowwith obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. Posts, side walls and end walls are fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive index of the mineral oil working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages and around objects to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that will disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. A three-dimensional (3D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to collect the data. Inlet-jet Reynolds numbers (based on the hydraulic diameter of the jet and the timemean average flow rate) are approximately 4300 and 12,400. Uncertainty analysis and a discussion of the standard problem are included. The measurements reveal complicated flow patterns that include several large recirculation zones, reverse flow near the simulated reflector wall, recirculation zones in the upper portion of the plenum and complex flow patterns around the support posts. Data include three-dimensional PIV images of flow planes, data displays along the coordinate planes (slices) and presentations that describe the component flows at specific regions in the model.

  15. Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a Lower Plenum Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2008-05-01

    Mean-velocity-field and turbulence data are presented that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. The data were obtained in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and are offered for assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. This paper reviews the experimental apparatus and procedures, presents a sample of the data set, and reviews the INL Standard Problem. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the mineral oil working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages in and around objects to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that will disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. A three-dimensional (3-D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to collect the data. Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. Uncertainty analysis and a discussion of the standard problem are included. The measurements reveal undeveloped, non-uniform, turbulent flow in the inlet jets and complicated flow patterns in the model lower plenum. Data include three-dimensional vector plots, data displays along the coordinate planes (slices) and presentations that describe the component flows at specific regions in the model. Information on inlet conditions are also presented.

  16. The Evolution of Structural Order as a Measure of Thermal History of Coke in the Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Maria; Khanna, Rita; Ökvist, Lena Sundqvist; Sahajwalla, Veena; Björkman, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Investigations were carried out on cokes heat treated in the laboratory and on cokes extracted from the experimental blast furnace (EBF) raceway and hearth. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to investigate changes in structural order ( L c), chemical transformations in coke ash along with comparative thermodynamic equilibrium studies and the influence of melt. Three data processing approaches were used to compute L c values as a function of temperature and time and linear correlations were established between L c and heat treatment temperatures during laboratory investigations. These were used to estimate temperatures experienced by coke in various regions of EBF and estimated raceway temperatures were seen to follow the profile of combustion peak. The MgAl2O4 spinel was observed in coke submerged in slag during laboratory studies and in cokes found further into the raceway. Coke in contact with hot metal showed XRD peaks corresponding to presence of Fe3Si. The intensity of SiO2 peak in coke ash was seen to decrease with increasing temperature and disappeared at around 1770 K (1500 °C) due to the formation of SiC. This study has shown that the evolution of structural order and chemical transformations in coke could be used to estimate its thermal history in blast furnaces.

  17. Measurement of Turbulent Flow Phenomena for the Lower Plenum of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink; Keith G. Condie; Glenn E. McCreery

    2007-09-01

    Mean velocity field and turbulence data are presented for flow phenomena in a lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR), such as in a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concept. In preparation for design, safety analyses and licensing, research has begun on readying the computational tools that will be needed to predict the thermal-hydraulics behavior of the reactor design. Fluid dynamics experiments have been designed and built to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and their turbulence models for a typical VHTR plenum geometry in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. This experiment has been proposed as a Standard Problem for assessing advanced reactor (CFD) analysis tools. Present results concentrate on the region of the plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered as multiple jets into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. A model of the lower plenum has been fabricated and scaled to the geometric dimensions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Point Design. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to induce flow features somewhat comparable to those expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. Posts, side walls and end walls are fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The experiments were conducted in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine complex flow characteristics in passages and around objects to be obtained without locating a disturbing transducer in the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. The innovative advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to others. Light mineral oil is used as the working fluid. For the data reported a 3-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system is used. The measurements reveal complicated flow patterns that include several large recirculation areas, reverse flow near the simulated reflector wall, recirculation areas in the upper portion of the plenum and complex flow patterns around the support posts. Data that will be presented include three-dimensional PIV images of flow planes, data displays along the three coordinate planes (slices) and presentations that describe the component flows at specific regions in the model.

  18. Is a Simple Measurement Task a Roadblock to Student Understanding of Wave Phenomena?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Heron, Paula R. L

    2012-01-01

    We present results from our ongoing investigation of student understanding of periodic waves and interference phenomena at the introductory physics level. We have found that many students experience significant difficulties when they attempt to express a distance of interest in terms of the wavelength of a periodic wave. We argue that for these

  19. Is a Simple Measurement Task a Roadblock to Student Understanding of Wave Phenomena?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Heron, Paula R. L

    2012-01-01

    We present results from our ongoing investigation of student understanding of periodic waves and interference phenomena at the introductory physics level. We have found that many students experience significant difficulties when they attempt to express a distance of interest in terms of the wavelength of a periodic wave. We argue that for these…

  20. Development of a three-dimensional PIV measurement technique for the experimental study of air bubble collapse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.H.; Hassan, Y.A.; Schmidl, W.D.

    1995-12-31

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative flow measurement technique. The objective of this study is to develop a new three-dimensional PIV technique for the experimental study of air bubble collapse phenomena. A three-dimensional measurement technique is necessary since bubble collapse is a three-dimensional phenomenon. The investigation of the velocity flow field around a collapsing air bubble can provide detailed three-dimensional quantitative information to help improve the understanding of the related heat transfer processes.

  1. Blast injuries.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Stephen J; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Bonnett, Carl J; Pons, Peter T; Cantrill, Stephen V

    2009-08-01

    Health-care providers are increasingly faced with the possibility of needing to care for people injured in explosions, but can often, however, feel undertrained for the unique aspects of the patient's presentation and management. Although most blast-related injuries (eg, fragmentation injuries from improvised explosive devices and standard military explosives) can be managed in a similar manner to typical penetrating or blunt traumatic injuries, injuries caused by the blast pressure wave itself cannot. The blast pressure wave exerts forces mainly at air-tissue interfaces within the body, and the pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and auditory systems are at greatest risk. Arterial air emboli arising from severe pulmonary injury can cause ischaemic complications-especially in the brain, heart, and intestinal tract. Attributable, in part, to the scene chaos that undoubtedly exists, poor triage and missed diagnosis of blast injuries are substantial concerns because injuries can be subtle or their presentation can be delayed. Management of these injuries can be a challenge, compounded by potentially conflicting treatment goals. This Seminar aims to provide a thorough overview of these unique primary blast injuries and their management. PMID:19631372

  2. Paranormal phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    1996-08-01

    Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.

  3. Near-Sun solar wind consequences of solar structure and dynamic phenomena observed by radio scintillation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Since radio propagation measurements using either natural or spacecraft radio signals are used for probing the solar wind in the vicinity of the sun, they represent a key tool for studying the interplanetary consequences of solar structure and dynamic phenomena. New information on the near sun consequences was obtained from radio scintillation observations of coherent spacecraft signals. The results covering density fluctuations, fractional density fluctuations, coronal streamers, heliospheric current sheets, coronal mass ejections and interplanetary shocks are reviewed. A joint ICE S-band (13 cm wavelength) Doppler scintillation measurement with the SOHO white-light coronograph (LASCO) is described.

  4. No Significant Acute and Subacute Differences between Blast and Blunt Concussions across Multiple Neurocognitive Measures and Symptoms in Deployed Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Dretsch, Michael N; Kelly, Mark P; Coldren, Rodney L; Parish, Robert V; Russell, Michael L

    2015-08-15

    Seventy-one deployed U.S. Army soldiers who presented for concussion care due to either blast or blunt mechanisms within 72?h of injury were assessed using the Military Acute Concussion Evaluation, the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM), traditional neuropsychological tests, and health status questionnaires. Follow-up ANAM testing was performed 10?d after initial testing (5?d). Twenty-one soldiers were excluded: two for poor effort and 19 who had combined blast/blunt injuries. Of the remaining 50 male participants, 34 had blast injuries and 16 had blunt injuries. There were no statistically significant differences between blast injury and blunt injury participants in demographic, physical, or psychological health factors, concussive symptoms, or automated and traditional neurocognitive testing scores within 72?h post-injury. In addition, follow-up ANAM scores up to 15?d post-injury were not significantly different (available on 21 blast-injured and 13 blunt-injured subjects). Pre-injury baseline ANAM scores were compared where available, and revealed no statistically significant differences between 22 blast injury and eight blunt injury participants. These findings suggest there are no significant differences between mechanisms of injury during both the acute and subacute periods in neurobehavioral concussion sequelae while deployed in a combat environment. The current study supports the use of sports/mechanical concussion models for early concussion management in the deployed setting and exploration of variability in potential long-term outcomes. PMID:25367048

  5. Is there conscious choice in directed mutation, phenocopies, and related phenomena? An answer based on quantum measurement theory.

    PubMed

    Goswami, A; Todd, D

    1997-01-01

    In a previous article (Goswami, 1997), it was suggested that an application of quantum measurement theory under the auspices of a monistic idealist ontology (that consciousness is the ground of being) can solve many difficult problems of neo-Darwinism, e.g., alternating rapid creativity and homeostasis observed in evolution and the directionality, origin, and nature of life. In this article, we propose an epigenetic quantum mechanism to explain the connection of developmental processes and evolution, as has been evidenced in such controversial phenomena as directed mutation and phenocopies. PMID:9229240

  6. BLAST: The Redshift Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eales, Stephen; Chapin, Edward L.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dye, Simon; Halpern, Mark; Hughes, David H.; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Raymond, Gwenifer; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Siana, Brian; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Viero, Marco P.

    2009-12-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed sime8.7 deg2 centered on Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South at 250, 350, and 500 ?m. In Dye et al., we presented the catalog of sources detected at 5? in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 82 of these counterparts. The spectra show that the BLAST counterparts are mostly star-forming galaxies but not extreme ones when compared to those found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Roughly one quarter of the BLAST counterparts contain an active nucleus. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies, showing that the standard methods work well even when a galaxy contains a large amount of dust. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST bands. We find strong evolution out to z = 1, in the sense that there is a large increase in the space density of the most luminous galaxies. We have also investigated the evolution of the dust-mass function, finding similar strong evolution in the space density of the galaxies with the largest dust masses, showing that the luminosity evolution seen in many wavebands is associated with an increase in the reservoir of interstellar matter in galaxies.

  7. BLAST: THE REDSHIFT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Eales, Stephen; Dye, Simon; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Raymond, Gwenifer; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Rex, Marie; Semisch, Christopher; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Viero, Marco P.; Patanchon, Guillaume; Siana, Brian

    2009-12-20

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed approx =8.7 deg{sup 2} centered on Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South at 250, 350, and 500 mum. In Dye et al., we presented the catalog of sources detected at 5sigma in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 82 of these counterparts. The spectra show that the BLAST counterparts are mostly star-forming galaxies but not extreme ones when compared to those found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Roughly one quarter of the BLAST counterparts contain an active nucleus. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies, showing that the standard methods work well even when a galaxy contains a large amount of dust. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST bands. We find strong evolution out to z = 1, in the sense that there is a large increase in the space density of the most luminous galaxies. We have also investigated the evolution of the dust-mass function, finding similar strong evolution in the space density of the galaxies with the largest dust masses, showing that the luminosity evolution seen in many wavebands is associated with an increase in the reservoir of interstellar matter in galaxies.

  8. Blast Injury

    PubMed Central

    de Candole, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

  9. Non-invasive optoelectronic system for measurement of electrostatic discharge (ESD) induced phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Greason, W.D.; Kucerovsky, Z.; Bulach, S.; Flatley, M.W.

    1995-12-31

    The design of a high speed optoelectronic system consisting of an electrically floating detector/transmitter module, coupled to a receiver by a fiber optic link, is described. Typical applications of this optical decoupled system, involving electrostatic discharge (ESD), are described. These include: the optical signature characterization of discharges, and the measurement of conducted and radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) due to ESD. Results of experiments conducted to demonstrate the qualitative performance characteristics of the measurement system are presented.

  10. Lidar and radar measurements of the melting layer: observations of dark and bright band phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Cacciani, M.; Norton, E. G.; Peters, G.; Dufournet, Y.

    2012-05-01

    Multi-wavelength lidar measurements in the melting layer revealing the presence of dark and bright bands have been performed by the University of BASILicata Raman lidar system (BASIL) during a stratiform rain event. Simultaneously radar measurements have been also performed from the same site by the University of Hamburg cloud radar MIRA 36 (35.5 GHz), the University of Hamburg dual-polarization micro rain radar (24.15 GHz) and the University of Manchester UHF wind profiler (1.29 GHz). Measurements from BASIL and the radars are illustrated and discussed in this paper for a specific case study on 23 July 2007 during the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS). Simulations of the lidar dark and bright band based on the application of concentric/eccentric sphere Lorentz-Mie codes and a melting layer model are also provided. Lidar and radar measurements and model results are also compared with measurements from a disdrometer on ground and a two-dimensional cloud (2DC) probe on-board the ATR42 SAFIRE. Measurements and model results are found to confirm and support the conceptual microphysical/scattering model elaborated by Sassen et al. (2005).

  11. An Integrated Model of Coal/Coke Combustion in a Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y. S.; Guo, B. Y.; Yu, A. B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P.

    2010-03-01

    A three-dimensional integrated mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed to simulate the operation of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates two parts: pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed and the coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements in terms of coal burnout and gas composition, respectively. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena are simulated in the raceway and coke bed, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and coal burning characteristics. In addition, underlying mechanisms for the in-furnace phenomena are analyzed. The model provides a cost-effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in-furnace flow-thermo-chemical characteristics of the PCI process in full-scale blast furnaces.

  12. Rotating Molten Metallic Drops and Related Phenomena: A New Approach to the Surface Tension Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Ishikawa, Takehiko

    2000-01-01

    Molten aluminum and tin drops were levitated in a high vacuum by controlled electric fields, and they were systematically rotated by applying by a rotating magnetic field. When the evolution of the drop shape was measured as a function of rotation frequency, it agreed quantitatively well with the Brown and Scriven's theoretical prediction. The normalized rotation frequencies at the bifurcation point agreed with the predicted value 0.559, within 2%. An anomalous phenomenon which totally deviated from the prediction was observed in rotating molten tin drops when they were kept in a high rotation rate for several hours. No anomaly was observed in aluminum drops when they underwent similar condition. It was speculated that under the strong centrifugal force in the drop the tin isotopes must be separating. Since Al-27 is essentially the only naturally abundant isotope in the aluminum drops, the same anomaly is not expected. Based on the shape deformation of a rotating drop, an alternate approach to the surface tension measurement was verified. This new surface tension measurement technique was applied to a glassforming alloy, Zr(41.2)Ti(13.8)Cu(12.5)Ni(10.0)Be(22.5) in its highly viscous states. Also demonstrated in the paper was a use of a molten aluminum drop to verify the Busse's prediction of the influence of the drop rotation on the drop oscillation frequency.

  13. Colloidal Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russel, William B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at Princeton University in colloidal phenomena stressing the physical and dynamical side of colloid science. The course outline, reading list, and requirements are presented. (BT)

  14. A method for measuring picosecond phenomena in photolabile species: the emission lifetime of bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, M D; Marcus, M A; Lewis, A; Mahr, H; Frigo, N

    1976-01-01

    We have measured the emission lifetime of bacteriorhodopsin at physiological temperatures to be 15 +/- 3 ps using a technique which employs a mode-locked dye laser, a sum frequency light gate, and a continuous flow system. We observe no concentration dependence of the lifetime over the range of 1.1 X 10(-4) M to 1.0 X 10(-5) M. We conclude that the emission which we observe comes from bacteriorhodopsin and not one of its photochemically produced intermediates, and that the emission cannot originate from the state into which light is absorbed. PMID:990393

  15. In-situ measurements of nanoscale phenomena using diffraction phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Chris; McKeown, Steven J.; Hwang, Suk-Won; Froeter, Paul J.; Li, Xiuling; Rogers, John A.; Popescu, Gabriel; Goddard, Lynford L.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we present recent results on several novel applications including optically monitoring the dissolution of biodegradable materials proposed for use in biological electronic implants, the self-assembly of microtubes during semiconductor etching, and the expansion and deformation of palladium structures for use in hydrogen sensing applications. The measurements are done using diffraction phase microscopy (DPM), a quantitative phase imaging (QPI) technique, which uses the phase of the imaging field to reconstruct a map of the sample's surface. It combines off-axis and common-path geometries allowing for single-shot, high-speed dynamics with sub-nanometer noise levels.

  16. Gravitomagnetic Phenomena due to Spin, Lense-Thirring Effect and its 1995-2000 Measurements with Earth Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciufolini, I.

    2001-07-01

    First, we briefly describe some of the general relativistic, gravitomagnetic, phenomena arising in the vicinities of a spinning body, due to its rotation, and some of the historical attempts to detect and measure gravitomagnetism and Lense-Thirring effect, including the LARES experiment, a phase-A space mission to measure "frame-dragging" with accuracy of less than 3% and to provide other basic tests of general relativity and gravitation. We then describe the method to measure the Lense-Thirring effect by analyzing the orbits of the two laser-ranged satellites LAGEOS and LAGEOS II; this method has provided the direct measurement of Earth's gravitomagnetism. We report on these 1995-2000 experimental evidences of the Lense-Thirring effect obtained by analyzing the nodes of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II and the perigee of LAGEOS II with the orbital programs GEODYN-SOLVE, using the Earth's Gravitational Models JGM-3 and EGM-96, and this new method. The first detection was obtained in 1995, the most accurate measurements were obtained in 1998-2000 using EGM-96, with accuracy of the order of 20%. Finally, we present our new, preliminary, result obtained by analyzing 5 years of data of the LAGEOS satellites.

  17. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; May, M. J.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Shingleton, N.; Kane, J. O.; Holtmeier, G.; Loey, H.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Dunlop, W. H.; Guyton, R. L.; Huffman, E.

    2014-09-01

    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes.

  18. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Fournier, K B; Brown, C G; May, M J; Compton, S; Walton, O R; Shingleton, N; Kane, J O; Holtmeier, G; Loey, H; Mirkarimi, P B; Dunlop, W H; Guyton, R L; Huffman, E

    2014-09-01

    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes. PMID:25273784

  19. A geophysical shock and air blast simulator at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K. B.; Brown, C. G.; May, M. J.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Shingleton, N.; Kane, J. O.; Holtmeier, G.; Loey, H.; Mirkarimi, P. B.; Dunlop, W. H.; Guyton, R. L.; Huffman, E.

    2014-09-15

    The energy partitioning energy coupling experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have been designed to measure simultaneously the coupling of energy from a laser-driven target into both ground shock and air blast overpressure to nearby media. The source target for the experiment is positioned at a known height above the ground-surface simulant and is heated by four beams from the NIF. The resulting target energy density and specific energy are equal to those of a low-yield nuclear device. The ground-shock stress waves and atmospheric overpressure waveforms that result in our test system are hydrodynamically scaled analogs of full-scale seismic and air blast phenomena. This report summarizes the development of the platform, the simulations, and calculations that underpin the physics measurements that are being made, and finally the data that were measured. Agreement between the data and simulation of the order of a factor of two to three is seen for air blast quantities such as peak overpressure. Historical underground test data for seismic phenomena measured sensor displacements; we measure the stresses generated in our ground-surrogate medium. We find factors-of-a-few agreement between our measured peak stresses and predictions with modern geophysical computer codes.

  20. Characterization of Side Load Phenomena Using Measurement of Fluid/Structure Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Andrew M.; Ruf, Joseph; Reed, Darren; DAgostino, Mark; Keanini, Russell; McConnaughey, Paul K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During ground-tests of most production rocket engines over the last 30 years, large asymmetric transient side loads coming from the nozzle and related steady-state vibrational loads within the nozzle have been measured. The widely varying magnitude of these loads has been large enough to fail interfacing components as well as nozzles in these engines. This paper will discuss a comprehensive test and analysis program that has been undertaken to develop a methodology to accurately predict the character and magnitude of this loading. The project to-date has incorporated analytical modeling of both the fluid flow and the nozzle structure and testing of both full-scale and sub-scale rocket nodes. Examination of the test data indicates that one of the two-nodal diameter structural modes may be interacting with flow separation from the nozzle inside-wall in a self-excited or aeroelastic vibration phenomenon. If verified, this observation will be used to develop a methodology for design and analysis. A fuller understanding of the characteristics of this vibration will provide an increase in the accuracy and confidence of side load predictions, which will be critical for the successful construction of the next generation of low-cost, reliable rocket engines.

  1. Automated Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Isaiah R.; Yulfo, Alyce R.

    1992-01-01

    Automatic grit-blasting machine removes melted-layer residue from electrical-discharge-machined surfaces of turbine blades. Automatic control system of machine provides steady flow of grit and maintains blast nozzles at proper distance and in correct orientation perpendicular to surface being blasted, regardless of contour. Eliminates localized excessive blasting and consequent excessive removal of underlying material, blasting of adjacent surfaces, and missed areas.

  2. Transport Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCready, Mark J.; Leighton, David T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems created in graduate chemical engineering programs when students enter with a wide diversity of understandings of transport phenomena. Describes a two-semester graduate transport course sequence at the University of Notre Dame which focuses on fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. (TW)

  3. Brain injuries from blast.

    PubMed

    Bass, Cameron R; Panzer, Matthew B; Rafaels, Karen A; Wood, Garrett; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) from blast produces a number of conundrums. This review focuses on five fundamental questions including: (1) What are the physical correlates for blast TBI in humans? (2) Why is there limited evidence of traditional pulmonary injury from blast in current military field epidemiology? (3) What are the primary blast brain injury mechanisms in humans? (4) If TBI can present with clinical symptoms similar to those of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), how do we clinically differentiate blast TBI from PTSD and other psychiatric conditions? (5) How do we scale experimental animal models to human response? The preponderance of the evidence from a combination of clinical practice and experimental models suggests that blast TBI from direct blast exposure occurs on the modern battlefield. Progress has been made in establishing injury risk functions in terms of blast overpressure time histories, and there is strong experimental evidence in animal models that mild brain injuries occur at blast intensities that are similar to the pulmonary injury threshold. Enhanced thoracic protection from ballistic protective body armor likely plays a role in the occurrence of blast TBI by preventing lung injuries at blast intensities that could cause TBI. Principal areas of uncertainty include the need for a more comprehensive injury assessment for mild blast injuries in humans, an improved understanding of blast TBI pathophysiology of blast TBI in animal models and humans, the relationship between clinical manifestations of PTSD and mild TBI from blunt or blast trauma including possible synergistic effects, and scaling between animals models and human exposure to blasts in wartime and terrorist attacks. Experimental methodologies, including location of the animal model relative to the shock or blast source, should be carefully designed to provide a realistic blast experiment with conditions comparable to blasts on humans. If traditional blast scaling is appropriate between species, many reported rodent blast TBI experiments using air shock tubes have blast overpressure conditions that are similar to human long-duration nuclear blasts, not high explosive blasts. PMID:22012085

  4. Blast investigation by fast multispectral radiometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devir, A. D.; Bushlin, Y.; Mendelewicz, I.; Lessin, A. B.; Engel, M.

    2011-06-01

    Knowledge regarding the processes involved in blasts and detonations is required in various applications, e.g. missile interception, blasts of high-explosive materials, final ballistics and IED identification. Blasts release large amount of energy in short time duration. Some part of this energy is released as intense radiation in the optical spectral bands. This paper proposes to measure the blast radiation by a fast multispectral radiometer. The measurement is made, simultaneously, in appropriately chosen spectral bands. These spectral bands provide extensive information on the physical and chemical processes that govern the blast through the time-dependence of the molecular and aerosol contributions to the detonation products. Multi-spectral blast measurements are performed in the visible, SWIR and MWIR spectral bands. Analysis of the cross-correlation between the measured multi-spectral signals gives the time dependence of the temperature, aerosol and gas composition of the blast. Farther analysis of the development of these quantities in time may indicate on the order of the detonation and amount and type of explosive materials. Examples of analysis of measured explosions are presented to demonstrate the power of the suggested fast multispectral radiometric analysis approach.

  5. Joint geophysical measurements to investigate the Rossano of Vaglio archaeological site affected by landslide phenomena (Basilicata region, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, A.; Chianese, D.; Lapenna, V.; Lorenzo, P.; Piscitelli, S.; Rizzo, E.; Sdao, F.

    2003-04-01

    In the frame of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of Research: "Geomorphological study and landslides control in some areas of the Basilicata region characterized by historical-cultural heritage", the I.M.A.A. of the CNR (Tito Scalo, Potenza) and the Di.S.G.G. of the Basilicata University, developed a research activity focussed on the realization of combined geophysical measurements for the study of archaeological areas affected by landslide phenomena in Basilicata region (Southern Italy). Since IV century b.C., the birth and the evolution of many religious places is observed in the Basilicata region. Location and construction of these sanctuaries were influenced by the geological and geomorphological setting: many of them were built near important springs; others on morphological terraces, representing the main effect of the large and ancient landslides, often reactivated during the years. In this work we report the results regarding the application of 2D electrical resistivity tomographies, electromagnetic and magnetic measurements carried out in the Rossano of Vaglio (Potenza, Italy), where in the late IV century b.C. raised a sanctuary devoted to the Mephitis goddess (Adamasteanu and Dilthey, 1992; Masseria and D'Anisi, 2001). The sacred area was affected by a multiple and retrogressive rototranslational slide, historically and actually subject to reactivation. The geophysical results, obtained combining advanced technologies for data acquisition and new methods for data inversion (Loke and Barker, 1996; Ciminale and Loddo, 2001; Nuzzo et al, 2002), allowed us to define the geometrical characteristics of the landslide body, to outline the sliding surfaces and to individuate the buried structures of the sanctuary.

  6. Integrated, Multi-Scale Characterization of Imbibition and Wettability Phenomena Using Magnetic Resonance and Wide-Band Dielectric Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mukul M. Sharma; Steven L. Bryant; Carlos Torres-Verdin; George Hirasaki

    2007-09-30

    The petrophysical properties of rocks, particularly their relative permeability and wettability, strongly influence the efficiency and the time-scale of all hydrocarbon recovery processes. However, the quantitative relationships needed to account for the influence of wettability and pore structure on multi-phase flow are not yet available, largely due to the complexity of the phenomena controlling wettability and the difficulty of characterizing rock properties at the relevant length scales. This project brings together several advanced technologies to characterize pore structure and wettability. Grain-scale models are developed that help to better interpret the electric and dielectric response of rocks. These studies allow the computation of realistic configurations of two immiscible fluids as a function of wettability and geologic characteristics. These fluid configurations form a basis for predicting and explaining macroscopic behavior, including the relationship between relative permeability, wettability and laboratory and wireline log measurements of NMR and dielectric response. Dielectric and NMR measurements have been made show that the response of the rocks depends on the wetting and flow properties of the rock. The theoretical models can be used for a better interpretation and inversion of standard well logs to obtain accurate and reliable estimates of fluid saturation and of their producibility. The ultimate benefit of this combined theoretical/empirical approach for reservoir characterization is that rather than reproducing the behavior of any particular sample or set of samples, it can explain and predict trends in behavior that can be applied at a range of length scales, including correlation with wireline logs, seismic, and geologic units and strata. This approach can substantially enhance wireline log interpretation for reservoir characterization and provide better descriptions, at several scales, of crucial reservoir flow properties that govern oil recovery.

  7. Neuropsychological outcome from blast versus non-blast: mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. military service members.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Pancholi, Sonal; Brickell, Tracey A; Sakura, Sara; Bhagwat, Aditya; Merritt, Victoria; French, Louis M

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the neuropsychological outcome from blast-related versus non-blast related mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Participants were 56 U.S. military service members who sustained an MTBI, divided into two groups based on mechanism of injury: (a) non-blast related (Non-blast; n = 21), and (b) blast plus secondary blunt trauma (Blast Plus; n = 35). All participants had sustained their injury in theatre whilst deployed during Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom. Patients had been seen for neuropsychological evaluation at Walter Reed Army Medical Center on average 4.4 months (SD = 4.1) post-injury. Measures included 14 clinical scales from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and 12 common neurocognitive measures. For the PAI, there were no significant differences between groups on all scales (p > .05). However, medium effect sizes were found for the Depression (d = .49) and Stress (d = .47) scales (i.e., Blast Plus > Non-blast). On the neurocognitive measures, after controlling for the influence of psychological distress (i.e., Depression, Stress), there were no differences between the Non-blast and Blast Plus groups on all measures. These findings provide little evidence to suggest that blast exposure plus secondary blunt trauma results in worse cognitive or psychological recovery than blunt trauma alone. (JINS, 2012, 18, 595-605). PMID:22459022

  8. Noise and blast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. C.; Garinther, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Noise and blast environments are described, providing a definition of units and techniques of noise measurement and giving representative booster-launch and spacecraft noise data. The effects of noise on hearing sensitivity and performance are reviewed, and community response to noise exposure is discussed. Physiological, or nonauditory, effects of noise exposure are also treated, as are design criteria and methods for minimizing the noise effects of hearing sensitivity and communications. The low level sound detection and speech reception are included, along with subjective and behavioral responses to noise.

  9. Development Of An Experiment For Measuring Flow Phenomena Occurring In A Lower Plenum For VHTR CFD Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. McEligot; K.G. Condie; G. E. Mc Creery; H. M. Mc Ilroy

    2005-09-01

    The objective of the present report is to document the design of our first experiment to measure generic flow phenomena expected to occur in the lower plenum of a typical prismatic VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) concept. In the process, fabrication sketches are provided for the use of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) analysts wishing to employ the data for assessment of their proposed codes. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. One aspect of the complex flow in a prismatic VHTR is being addressed: flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue). Current prismatic VHTR concepts were examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses were applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentum-dominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other.

  10. Porcine head response to blast.

    PubMed

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for computer model validation. PMID:22586417

  11. Porcine Head Response to Blast

    PubMed Central

    Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Panzer, Matthew B.; Capehart, Bruce P.; Nyein, Michelle K.; Radovitzky, Raul A.; Bass, Cameron R. Dale

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740?kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9?ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30?s and the remaining two recovered within 8?min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390?kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 3002830?kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 Gs and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2?=?0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for computer model validation. PMID:22586417

  12. Modern BLAST Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian; Zhang, Louxin

    The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is arguably the most widely used program in bioinformatics. By sacrificing sensitivity for speed, it makes sequence comparison practical on huge sequence databases currently available. The original version of BLAST was developed in 1990. Since then it has spawned a variant of specialized programs. This chapter surveys the development of BLAST and BLAST-like programs for homology search, discusses alignment statistics that are used in assessment of reported matches in BLAST, and provides the reader with guidance to select appropriate programs and set proper parameters to match research requirements.

  13. Nucleon and Deuteron Form Factors from BLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Hasell, D. K.

    2009-12-17

    The BLAST experiment was designed to study in a systematic manner the spin-dependent, electromagnetic interaction on hydrogen and deuterium. Measuring only asymmetries in electron scattering with respect to the beam helicity, target spin, or both; the BLAST experiment was able to extract information on nucleon and deuteron form factors independent of beam intensity or target density. By further forming 'super-ratios' of asymmetries, measurements were possible independent of beam and target polarization thus reducing uncertainties due to these quantities as well. Some of the form factor results from BLAST will be briefly presented here. Also, in response to observed discrepancies between polarization measurements and those obtained using traditional Rosenbluth separation techniques a proposed experiment, OLYMPUS, which will use the BLAST detector to measure the two photon contribution to elastic electron scattering will also be presented.

  14. Blast noise classification with common sound level meter metrics.

    PubMed

    Cvengros, Robert M; Valente, Dan; Nykaza, Edward T; Vipperman, Jeffrey S

    2012-08-01

    A common set of signal features measurable by a basic sound level meter are analyzed, and the quality of information carried in subsets of these features are examined for their ability to discriminate military blast and non-blast sounds. The analysis is based on over 120 000 human classified signals compiled from seven different datasets. The study implements linear and Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) support vector machines (SVM) to classify blast sounds. Using the orthogonal centroid dimension reduction technique, intuition is developed about the distribution of blast and non-blast feature vectors in high dimensional space. Recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) is then used to eliminate features containing redundant information and rank features according to their ability to separate blasts from non-blasts. Finally, the accuracy of the linear and RBF SVM classifiers is listed for each of the experiments in the dataset, and the weights are given for the linear SVM classifier. PMID:22894205

  15. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    VIGIL,MANUEL G.

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels.

  16. Search for New Phenomena Using W/Z + (b)-Jets Measurements Performed with the ATLAS Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues

    2015-06-30

    The Project proposed to use data of the ATLAS experiment, obtained during the 2011 and 2012 data-taking campaigns, to pursue studies of the strong interaction (QCD) and to examine promising signatures for new physics. The Project also contains a service component dedicated to a detector development initiative. The objective of the strong interaction studies is to determine how various predictions from the main theory (QCD) compare to the data. Results of a set of measurements developed by the Tufts team indicate that the dominant factor of discrepancy between data and QCD predictions come from the mis-modeling of the low energy gluon radiation as described by algorithms called parton showers. The discrepancies introduced by parton showers on LHC predictions could even be larger than the effect due to completely new phenomena (dark matter, supersymmetry, etc.) and could thus block further discoveries at the LHC. Some of the results obtained in the course of this Project also specify how QCD predictions must be improved in order to open the possibility for the discovery of something completely new at the LHC during Run-II. This has been integrated in the Run-II ATLAS physics program. Another objective of Tufts studies of the strong interaction was to determine how the hypothesis about an intrinsic heavy-quark component of the proton (strange, charm or bottom quarks) could be tested at the LHC. This hypothesis has been proposed by theorists 30 years ago and is still controversial. The Tufts team demonstrated that intrinsic charms can be observed, or severely constrained, at the LHC, and determine how the measurement should be performed in order to maximize its sensitivity to such an intrinsic heavy-quark component of the proton. Tufts also embarked on performing the measurement that is in progress, but final results are not yet available. They should shade a light of understanding on the fundamental structure of the proton. Determining the nature of dark matter particles, composing about 25% of all the matter in the universe, is one of the most exciting research goals at the LHC. Within this Project, the Tufts team proposed a way to improve over the standard approach used to look for dark matter at the LHC in events involving jets and a large amount of unbalanced energy in the detector (jets+ETmiss). The Tufts team has developed a measurement to test these improvements on data available (ATLAS 2012 dataset), in order to be ready to apply them on the new Run-II data that will be available at the end of 2015. Preliminary results on the proposed measurement indicate that a very high precision can be obtained on results free of detector effects. That will allow for better constrains of dark matter theories and will spare the needs for huge computing resources in order to compare dark matter theories to data. Finally, the Tufts team played a leading role in the development and the organization of the 6Et trigger, the detector component needed to collect the data used in dark matter searches and in many other analyses. The team compared the performance of the various algorithms capable of reconstructing the value of the ETmiss on each LHC collision event, and developed a strategy to commission these algorithms online. Tufts also contributed in the development of the ETmiss trigger monitoring software. Finally, the PI of this Project acted as the co-coordinator of the group of researchers at CERN taking care of the development and the operation of this detector component. The ETmiss trigger is now taking data, opening the possibility for the discovery of otherwise undetectable particles at the LHC.

  17. Blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal with enriched air or pure oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Ponghis, N.; Dufresne, P.; Vidal, R.; Poos, A. )

    1993-01-01

    An extensive study of the phenomena associated with the blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal is described. Trials with conventional lances or oxy-coal injectors and hot blast at different oxygen contents - up to 40% - or with cold pure oxygen were realized at coal to oxygen ratios corresponding to a range of 150 to 440 kg. Pilot scale rigs, empty or filled with coke, as well as industrial blast furnaces were utilized.

  18. Comparison of Some Blast Vibration Predictors for Blasting in Underground Drifts and Some Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, Vaibhab Pramod; Dey, Kaushik

    2015-08-01

    Drilling and blasting are the most economical excavation techniques in underground drifts driven through hard rock formation. Burn cut is the most popular drill pattern, used in this case, to achieve longer advance per blast round. The ground vibration generated due to the propagation of blast waves on the detonation of explosive during blasting is the principal cause for structural and rock damage. Thus, ground vibration is a point of concern for the blasting engineers. The ground vibration from a blast is measured using a seismograph placed at the blast monitoring station. The measured vibrations, in terms of peak particle velocity, are related to the maximum charge detonated at one instant and the distance of seismograph from the blast point. The ground vibrations from a number of blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances are monitored. A number of scaling factors of these dependencies (viz. Distance and maximum charge/delay) have been proposed by different researchers, namely, square root, cube root, CMRI, Langefors and Kihlstrom, Ghosh-Daemon, Indian standard etc. Scaling factors of desired type are computed for all the measured blast rounds. Regression analysis is carried out between the scaling factors and peak particle velocities to establish the coefficients of the vibration predictor equation. Then, the developed predictor equation is used for designing the blast henceforth. Director General of Mine Safety, India, specified that ground vibrations from eight to ten blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances should be monitored to develop a predictor equation; however, there is no guideline about the type of scaling factor to be used. Further to this, from the statistical point of view, a regression analysis on a small sample population cannot be accepted without the testing of hypothesis. To show the importance of the above, in this paper, seven scaling factors are considered for blast data set of a hard-rock underground drift using burn-cut blast design. The possible step by step approach to establish a vibration predictor equation is also proposed.

  19. Dry ice blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

    1992-04-01

    As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

  20. Use of a fast near-infrared spectrometer for absorption and emission measurements within the expanding blast wave of a high explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Jon D.; Carney, Joel; Lightstone, James; Piecuch, Scott

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate the use of a fast InGaAs array and spectrometer to measure properties related to near-infrared absorption and emission (750 nm -1500 nm) following a high explosive detonation. Using a broadband light source and a rigid absorption gauge, gas temperatures are measured at a rate of 20 kHz for a period of several milliseconds behind the blast wave from a PETN, PBXN-5, and PBXN-113 detonations. The temperature and concentration of water vapor is determined by fitting experimental transmission spectra to a simulated database. Strong emission signatures obtained during the PETN breakout event (integrated over approximately the first 20 microseconds) indicate the presence of high energy nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Measurements from water absorption at a distance of 23 cm from the PETN charge indicate temperatures decaying from 1600 K to 600 K during the first few milliseconds, and measurements of non-ideal explosives with optically thick postdetonation environments are also demonstrated. These measurements are intended to aid the development of detonation and explosive simulations.

  1. Blast injury research models

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, E.; Watts, S.; Cooper, G.

    2011-01-01

    Blast injuries are an increasing problem in both military and civilian practice. Primary blast injury to the lungs (blast lung) is found in a clinically significant proportion of casualties from explosions even in an open environment, and in a high proportion of severely injured casualties following explosions in confined spaces. Blast casualties also commonly suffer secondary and tertiary blast injuries resulting in significant blood loss. The presence of hypoxaemia owing to blast lung complicates the process of fluid resuscitation. Consequently, prolonged hypotensive resuscitation was found to be incompatible with survival after combined blast lung and haemorrhage. This article describes studies addressing new forward resuscitation strategies involving a hybrid blood pressure profile (initially hypotensive followed later by normotensive resuscitation) and the use of supplemental oxygen to increase survival and reduce physiological deterioration during prolonged resuscitation. Surprisingly, hypertonic saline dextran was found to be inferior to normal saline after combined blast injury and haemorrhage. New strategies have therefore been developed to address the needs of blast-injured casualties and are likely to be particularly useful under circumstances of enforced delayed evacuation to surgical care. PMID:21149352

  2. Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

    2010-10-01

    Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

  3. Pressure measurements and high speed visualizations of the cavitation phenomena at deep part load condition in a Francis turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Mller, A.; Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Avellan, F.

    2014-03-01

    In a hydraulic power plant, it is essential to provide a reliable, sustainable and flexible energy supply. In recent years, in order to cover the variations of the renewable electricity production, hydraulic power plants are demanded to operate with more extended operating range. Under these off-design conditions, a hydraulic turbine is subject to cavitating swirl flow at the runner outlet. It is well-known that the helically/symmetrically shaped cavitation develops at the runner outlet in part load/full load condition, and it gives severe damage to the hydraulic systems under certain conditions. Although there have been many studies about partial and full load conditions, contributions reporting the deep part load condition are limited, and the cavitation behaviour at this condition is not yet understood. This study aims to unveil the cavitation phenomena at deep part load condition by high speed visualizations focusing on the draft tube cone as well as the runner blade channel, and pressure fluctuations associated with the phenomena were also investigated.

  4. Quantitative analysis of brain microstructure following mild blunt and blast trauma.

    PubMed

    Begonia, M T; Prabhu, R; Liao, J; Whittington, W R; Claude, A; Willeford, B; Wardlaw, J; Wu, R; Zhang, S; Williams, L N

    2014-11-28

    We induced mild blunt and blast injuries in rats using a custom-built device and utilized in-house diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) software to reconstruct 3-D fiber tracts in brains before and after injury (1, 4, and 7 days). DTI measures such as fiber count, fiber length, and fractional anisotropy (FA) were selected to characterize axonal integrity. In-house image analysis software also showed changes in parameters including the area fraction (AF) and nearest neighbor distance (NND), which corresponded to variations in the microstructure of Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) brain sections. Both blunt and blast injuries produced lower fiber counts, but neither injury case significantly changed the fiber length. Compared to controls, blunt injury produced a lower FA, which may correspond to an early onset of diffuse axonal injury (DAI). However, blast injury generated a higher FA compared to controls. This increase in FA has been linked previously to various phenomena including edema, neuroplasticity, and even recovery. Subsequent image analysis revealed that both blunt and blast injuries produced a significantly higher AF and significantly lower NND, which correlated to voids formed by the reduced fluid retention within injured axons. In conclusion, DTI can detect subtle pathophysiological changes in axonal fiber structure after mild blunt and blast trauma. Our injury model and DTI method provide a practical basis for studying mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in a controllable manner and for tracking injury progression. Knowledge gained from our approach could lead to enhanced mTBI diagnoses, biofidelic constitutive brain models, and specialized pharmaceutical treatments. PMID:25446270

  5. General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" (built in 1907) to the left; in the foreground is the turbo-blower and blast furnace gas-powered electric generating station (built in 1919), looking northwest - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  6. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  7. Lightweight blast shield

    DOEpatents

    Mixon, Larry C. (Madison, AL); Snyder, George W. (Huntsville, AL); Hill, Scott D. (Toney, AL); Johnson, Gregory L. (Decatur, AL); Wlodarski, J. Frank (Huntsville, AL); von Spakovsky, Alexis P. (Huntsville, AL); Emerson, John D. (Arab, AL); Cole, James M. (Huntsville, AL); Tipton, John P. (Huntsville, AL)

    1991-01-01

    A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

  8. On the Interaction and Coalescence if Spherical Blast Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    The scaling and similarity laws concerning the propagation of isolated spherical blast waves are briefly reviewed. Both point source explosions and high pressure gas explosions are considered. Test data on blast overpressure from the interaction and coalescence of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives in the form of shaped charges of different strength placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure. The results point out the possibility of detecting source explosions from far-field pressure measurements.

  9. Effects of mine blasting on residential structures

    SciTech Connect

    Gad, E.F.; Wilson, J.L.; Moore, A.J.; Richards, A.B.

    2005-08-01

    Blasting is common in the coal industry to remove rock overburden so that the exposed coal can be mechanically excavated. The ground vibrations and air blast produced by blasting are often felt by residents surrounding the mines. There has been a trend for regulatory authorities, especially those concerned with the environment, to impose low limits on blast vibration levels in response to community pressure, based on human perception and response to vibration. This paper reports the findings of an extensive study on a house which was located adjacent to a coal mine. The house was monitored for over 1 year and was subjected to ground peak particle velocity (PPV) ranging from 1.5 to 222 mm/s. The house was instrumented with accelerometers to measure its dynamic response due to blasting and it was also monitored for cracks before and after each blast. Based on this study, ground motion amplifications along the height of the structure have been established. A simplified methodology presented in this paper has been used to estimate the ground PPV at which cracking is likely.

  10. ARL Explosive Blast Bar Gauge Response Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Gerrit; Boyle, Vincent; Benjamin, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Simulations allow us to optimize the design of a bar gauge. The incident blast wave imparts a wave that travels down the metal bar. Strain gauges positioned along the bar measure the strain produced by the bar wave, allowing determination of pressure and impulse at the bar face. The measured pressure history depends on the arrangement of the bar gauge. If a large metal plate surrounds the bar face, a reflected blast pressure is measured. If a metal fixture that forms a nozzle surrounds the bar face, the initial pressure will be the same as above. In time, release waves emanating from the nozzle edge will decrease the pressure at the bar face. The bar diameter and size of strain gauges control the time response or gauge bandwidth. CTH hydrocode simulations allow optimization of bar gauge features for various size explosive charges. The simulations predicted the response of the metal plate arrangement to a blast from a spherical composition C4 charge. The simulations predicted the proper metal plate diameter for a reflected pressure measurement. Other simulations compared the response of the bar gauge for both configurations (nozzle or plate surround) when subjected to the same blast loading. Pressure histories from simulations were compared to those from experiment and those predicted by the CONWEP blast code. The initial experimental and CONWEP pressures were in reasonable agreement.

  11. Blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Sasser, Scott M; Sattin, Richard W; Hunt, Richard C; Krohmer, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Current trends in global terrorism mandate that emergency medical services, emergency medicine and other acute care clinicians have a basic understanding of the physics of explosions, the types of injuries that can result from an explosion, and current management for patients injured by explosions. High-order explosive detonations result in near instantaneous transformation of the explosive material into a highly pressurized gas, releasing energy at supersonic speeds. This results in the formation of a blast wave that travels out from the epicenter of the blast. Primary blast injuries are characterized by anatomical and physiological changes from the force generated by the blast wave impacting the body's surface, and affect primarily gas-containing structures (lungs, gastrointestinal tract, ears). "Blast lung" is a clinical diagnosis and is characterized as respiratory difficulty and hypoxia without obvious external injury to the chest. It may be complicated by pneumothoraces and air emboli and may be associated with multiple other injuries. Patients may present with a variety of symptoms, including dyspnea, chest pain, cough, and hemoptysis. Physical examination may reveal tachypnea, hypoxia, cyanosis, and decreased breath sounds. Chest radiography, computerized tomography, and arterial blood gases may assist with diagnosis and management; however, they should not delay diagnosis and emergency interventions in the patient exposed to a blast. High flow oxygen, airway management, tube thoracostomy in the setting of pneumothoraces, mechanical ventilation (when required) with permissive hypercapnia, and judicious fluid administration are essential components in the management of blast lung injury. PMID:16531371

  12. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  13. Evolution of blast wave profiles in simulated air blasts: experiment and computational modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, N.; Ganpule, S.; Kleinschmit, N. N.; Feng, R.; Holmberg, A. D.; Sundaramurthy, A.; Selvan, V.; Alai, A.

    2012-09-01

    Shock tubes have been extensively used in the study of blast traumatic brain injury due to increased incidence of blast-induced neurotrauma in Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. One of the important aspects in these studies is how to best replicate the field conditions in the laboratory which relies on reproducing blast wave profiles. Evolution of the blast wave profiles along the length of the compression-driven air shock tube is studied using experiments and numerical simulations with emphasis on the shape and magnitude of pressure time profiles. In order to measure dynamic pressures of the blast, a series of sensors are mounted on a cylindrical specimen normal to the flow direction. Our results indicate that the blast wave loading is significantly different for locations inside and outside of the shock tube. Pressure profiles inside the shock tube follow the Friedlander waveform fairly well. Upon approaching exit of the shock tube, an expansion wave released from the shock tube edges significantly degrades the pressure profiles. For tests outside the shock tube, peak pressure and total impulse reduce drastically as we move away from the exit and majority of loading is in the form of subsonic jet wind. In addition, the planarity of the blast wave degrades as blast wave evolves three dimensionally. Numerical results visually and quantitatively confirm the presence of vortices, jet wind and three-dimensional expansion of the planar blast wave near the exit. Pressure profiles at 90 orientation show flow separation. When cylinder is placed inside, this flow separation is not sustained, but when placed outside the shock tube this flow separation is sustained which causes tensile loading on the sides of the cylinder. Friedlander waves formed due to field explosives in the intermediate-to far-field ranges are replicated in a narrow test region located deep inside the shock tube.

  14. Laser-plasma simulations of astrophysical phenomena and novel applications to semiconductor annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, J.; Laming, M.; Manka, C.; Donnelly, D. W.; Covington, B. C.; Fischer, R. P.; Velikovich, A.; Khokhlov, A.

    2003-10-01

    At the frontier of plasma physics and technology are applications of laser-generated plasmas to laboratory simulations of astrophysical phenomena and to industrial processing. This article presents work at the Naval Research Laboratory in both of these areas. We show how laser plasmas are used to measure a blast wave corrugation overstability important in astrophysics. Detailed atomic physics calculations of radiative cooling within the blast front are used to develop a criterion of the existence of the overstability and are used to explain the experimental results. The criterion depends on quantities such as element abundances, densities, temperatures, and blast wave velocities—quantities which can be measured spectroscopically—and therefore used to infer whether astrophysical blast wave nonuniformities are the result of this instability. In other experiments, high-velocity jets are formed in the laboratory using miniature hollow cones. Jets produced by these cones are used to study the physics of jets occurring in supernovae and in star-forming accretion disks. In industrial semiconductor processing, annealing, that is, removing crystal damage and electrically activating the semiconductor, is a critical step. Industrial annealing techniques most often utilize heat generated by an oven, flash lamps, or a low-power laser. During such heating dopants within the semiconductor lattice diffuse and spread. This degrades the performance of circuits in which the individual circuit elements are very close to each other. We are developing an annealing technique in which shock or sound waves generated by a laser plasma are used to anneal the semiconductor. We have demonstrated that the method works over small areas and that it does not lead to significant dopant diffusion.

  15. ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    E.F. fitch

    1995-03-13

    The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

  16. The past and present of blast injury research in hina.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing incidence of blast injury, the research on its mechanisms and protective measures draws more and more attention. Blast injury has many characteristics different from general war injuries or trauma. For example, soldiers often have various degrees of visceral injury without significant surface damage, combined injuries and arterial air embolism. Researchers in China began to investigate blast injury later than the United States and Sweden, but the development is so fast that lots of achievements have been gained, including the development of biological shock tube, the mechanisms and characteristics of blast injury in various organs, as well as protective measures under special environments. This article reviews the past and current situation of blast injury research in China. PMID:26764539

  17. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    PubMed

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading experienced by the unprotected eye after 0.2 ms of impact of blast wave, for lower as well as higher charge mass. The present model provides fundamental insights of flow and pressure fields in the ocular region, which helps to explain the effectiveness of the eye armor. Since the measurements of these fields are not trivial, the computational model aids in better understanding of development of PBI. PMID:25828209

  18. Copper staves in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Helenbrook, R.G.; Kowalski, W.; Grosspietsch, K.H.; Hille, H.

    1996-08-01

    Operational data for stave cooling systems for two German blast furnaces show good correlation with predicted thermal results. Copper staves have been installed in blast furnaces in the zones exposed to the highest thermal loads. The good operational results achieved confirm the choice of copper staves in the areas of maximum heat load. Both temperature measurements and predictions establish that the MAN GHH copper staves do not experience large temperature fluctuations and that the hot face temperatures will be below 250 F. This suggests that the copper staves maintain a more stable accretion layer than the cast iron staves. Contrary to initial expectations, heat flux to the copper staves is 50% lower than that to cast iron staves. The more stable accretion layer acts as an excellent insulator for the stave and greatly reduces the number of times the hot face of the stave is exposed to the blast furnace process and should result in a more stable furnace operation. In the future, it may be unnecessary to use high quality, expensive refractories in front of copper staves because of the highly stable accretion layer that appears to rapidly form due to the lower operating temperature of the staves. There is a balance of application regions for cast iron and copper staves that minimizes the capital cost of a blast furnace reline and provides an integrated cooling system with multiple campaign life potential. Cast iron staves are proven cooling elements that are capable of multiple campaign life in areas of the blast furnace which do not experience extreme heat loads. Copper staves are proving to be an effective and reliable blast furnace cooling element that are subject to virtually no wear and are projected to have a longer campaign service life in the areas of highest thermal load in the blast furnace.

  19. Data Analysis Measurement: Having a Solar Blast! NASA Connect: Program 7 in the 2001-2002 Video Series. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    NASA Connect is an interdisciplinary, instructional distance learning program targeting students in grades 6-8. This videotape explains how engineers and researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) use data analysis and measurement to predict solar storms, anticipate how they will affect the Earth, and improve

  20. Data Analysis Measurement: Having a Solar Blast! NASA Connect: Program 7 in the 2001-2002 Video Series. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    NASA Connect is an interdisciplinary, instructional distance learning program targeting students in grades 6-8. This videotape explains how engineers and researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) use data analysis and measurement to predict solar storms, anticipate how they will affect the Earth, and improve…

  1. Spurious phenomena occurring during current measurement on ultra-thin dielectric layers: From electro-thermal effects to surface damage

    SciTech Connect

    Grandfond, A.; Gautier, B.; Militaru, L.; Albertini, D.; Descamps-Mandine, A.

    2014-04-07

    In this paper, the conduction properties of dielectric ultra-thin layers are studied using atomic force microscopy. Especially, the conductive-atomic force microscope allows to measure the leakage current at the nanoscale and to study the degradation mechanisms locally. Nonetheless, the dielectric layer seems to be damaged by a technique's specific phenomenon: hillocks appear when a positive tip bias is applied on different dielectrics. In this paper, the formation of these hillocks is studied. Contrary to what is observed during the dielectric breakdown, the conductivity is reduced after hillocks formation which occurs after the dielectric breakdown. Moreover, we have observed the formation of cavities in the silicon substrate linked to the formation of hillocks, which is not compatible with a swelling process (as dielectric breakdown induced epitaxy). We propose that these results may be explained by an electro-thermal effect due to the large dissipated energy, maybe combined with the oxidation of the substrate. Finally, the interdependence of measurements is demonstrated during serial acquisition.

  2. Curved characteristics behind blast waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laporte, O.; Chang, T. S.

    1972-01-01

    The behavior of nonisentropic flow behind a propagating blast wave is theoretically studied. Exact solutions, expressed in closed form in terms of elementary functions, are presented for three sets of curved characteristicseind a self-similar, strong blast wave.

  3. Studies of laser-driven radiative blast waves

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M J; Hansen, J; Edens, A; Ditmire, T; Adams, R; Rambo, P; Ruggles, L; Smith, I; Porter, J

    2004-04-29

    We have performed two sets of experiments looking at laser-driven radiating blast waves. In one set of experiments the effect of a drive laser's passage through a background gas on the hydrodynamical evolution of blast waves was examined. It was found that the laser's passage heats a channel in the gas, creating a region where a portion of the blast wave front had an increased velocity, leading to the formation of a bump-like protrusion on the blast wave. The second set of experiments involved the use of regularly spaced wire arrays to induce perturbations on a blast wave surface. The decay of these perturbations as a function of time was measured for various wave number perturbations and found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  4. Experimental modeling of explosive blast-related traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Alley, Matthew D; Schimizze, Benjamin R; Son, Steven F

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the interaction of explosive blast waves through simulated anatomical systems. We have developed physical models and a systematic approach for testing traumatic brain injury (TBI) mechanisms and occurrences. A simplified series of models consisting of spherical poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) shells housing synthetic gelatins as brain simulants have been utilized. A series of experiments was conducted to compare the sensitivity of the system response to mechanical properties of the simulants under high strain-rate explosive blasts. Small explosive charges were directed at the models to produce a realistic blast wave in a scaled laboratory setting. Blast profiles were measured and analyzed to compare system response severity. High-speed shadowgraph imaging captured blast wave interaction with the head model while particle tracking captured internal response for displacement and strain correlation. The results suggest amplification of shock waves inside the head near material interfaces due to impedance mismatches. In addition, significant relative displacement was observed between the interacting materials suggesting large strain values of nearly 5%. Further quantitative results were obtained through shadowgraph imaging of the blasts confirming a separation of time scales between blast interaction and bulk movement. These results lead to a conclusion that primary blast effects may potentially contribute significantly to the occurrence of military associated TBI. PMID:20580931

  5. Blast Loading Experiments of Surrogate Models for Tbi Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, M. D.; Son, S. F.

    2009-12-01

    This study aims to characterize the interaction of explosive blast waves through simulated anatomical models. We have developed physical models and a systematic approach for testing traumatic brain injury (TBI) mechanisms and occurrences. A simplified series of models consisting of spherical PMMA shells housing synthetic gelatins as brain simulants have been utilized. A series of experiments was conducted to compare the sensitivity of the system response to mechanical properties of the simulants under high strain-rate explosive blasts. Small explosive charges were directed at the models to produce a realistic blast wave in a scaled laboratory test cell setting. Blast profiles were measured and analyzed to compare system response severity. High-speed shadowgraph imaging captured blast wave interaction with the head model while particle tracking captured internal response for displacement and strain correlation. The results suggest amplification of shock waves inside the head near material interfaces due to impedance mismatches. In addition, significant relative displacement was observed between the interacting materials suggesting large strain values of nearly 5%. Further quantitative results were obtained through shadowgraph imaging of the blasts confirming a separation of time scales between blast interaction and bulk movement. These results lead to the conclusion that primary blast effects could cause TBI occurrences.

  6. Isothermal blast wave model of supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solinger, A.; Buff, J.; Rappaport, S.

    1975-01-01

    The validity of the 'adiabatic' assumption in supernova-remnant calculations is examined, and the alternative extreme of an isothermal blast wave is explored. It is concluded that, because of thermal conductivity, the large temperature gradients predicted by the adiabatic model probably are not maintained in nature. Self-similar solutions to the hydrodynamic equations for an isothermal blast wave have been found and studied. These solutions are then used to determine the relationship between X-ray observations and inferred parameters of supernova remnants. A comparison of the present results with those for the adiabatic model indicates differences which are less than present observational uncertainties. It is concluded that most parameters of supernova remnants inferred from X-ray measurements are relatively insensitive to the specifics of the blast-wave model.

  7. A blasting plan for loading hot holes

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, J.R.; Marcum, W.

    1996-12-31

    Apogee Coal Company, DBA Arch of West Virginia, faced the challenge of drilling and blasting over one million cubic yards of high temperature overburden at its Ruffner surface operation near Logan, West Virginia. The overburden was removed above the Upper Five Block seam that was previously deep mined, abandoned, and later engulfed by fire. Borehole temperatures were measured above 700 F. This paper presents the development, adaptation, and execution of a working blast plan. The plan specifies products, temperature and exposure time limits, and hole loading procedures. Previous blasting guidelines are reviewed along with test data on selected products. Problems that were encountered are discussed and a pictorial history of the project is presented.

  8. Cygnus Loop Supernova Blast Wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This is an image of a small portion of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, which marks the edge of a bubble-like, expanding blast wave from a colossal stellar explosion, occurring about 15,000 years ago. The HST image shows the structure behind the shock waves, allowing astronomers for the first time to directly compare the actual structure of the shock with theoretical model calculations. Besides supernova remnants, these shock models are important in understanding a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, from winds in newly-formed stars to cataclysmic stellar outbursts. The supernova blast is slamming into tenuous clouds of insterstellar gas. This collision heats and compresses the gas, causing it to glow. The shock thus acts as a searchlight revealing the structure of the interstellar medium. The detailed HST image shows the blast wave overrunning dense clumps of gas, which despite HST's high resolution, cannot be resolved. This means that the clumps of gas must be small enough to fit inside our solar system, making them relatively small structures by interstellar standards. A bluish ribbon of light stretching left to right across the picture might be a knot of gas ejected by the supernova; this interstellar 'bullet' traveling over three million miles per hour (5 million kilometres) is just catching up with the shock front, which has slowed down by ploughing into interstellar material. The Cygnus Loop appears as a faint ring of glowing gases about three degrees across (six times the diameter of the full Moon), located in the northern constellation, Cygnus the Swan. The supernova remnant is within the plane of our Milky Way galaxy and is 2,600 light-years away. The photo is a combination of separate images taken in three colors, oxygen atoms (blue) emit light at temperatures of 30,000 to 60,000 degrees Celsius (50,000 to 100,000 degrees Farenheit). Hydrogen atoms (green) arise throughout the region of shocked gas. Sulfur atoms (red) form when the gas cools to around 10,000 degrees Celsius (18,000 degrees Farenheit).

  9. Compound 49b protects against blast-induced retinal injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine whether Compound 49b, a novel beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, can prevent increased inflammation and apoptosis in mice after exposure to ocular blast. Methods Eyes of C57/BL6 mice were exposed to a blast of air from a paintball gun at 26 psi (?0.18 MPa). Eyes were collected 4 hours, 24 hours, and 72 hours after blast exposure. In a subset of mice, Compound 49b eyedrops (1 mM) were applied within 4 hours, 24 hours, or 72 hours of the blast. Three days after blast exposure, all mice were sacrificed. One eye was used to measure levels of retinal proteins (TNF?, IL-1?, Bax, BcL-xL, caspase 3, and cytochrome C). The other eye was used for TUNEL labeling of apoptotic cells, which were co-labeled with NeuN to stain for retinal ganglion cells. Results We found that ocular exposure to 26 psi air pressure led to a significant increase in levels of apoptotic and inflammatory mediators within 4 hours, which lasted throughout the period investigated. When Compound 49b was applied within 4 hours or 24 hours of blast injury, levels of apoptotic and inflammatory mediators were significantly reduced. Application of Compound 49b within 72 hours of blast injury reduced levels of inflammatory mediators, but not to untreated levels. Conclusions Ocular blast injury produces a significant increase in levels of key inflammatory and apoptotic markers in the retina as early as 4 hours after blast exposure. These levels are significantly reduced if a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist is applied within 24 hours of blast exposure. Data suggest that local application of beta-adrenergic receptor agonists may be beneficial to reduce inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:23899290

  10. An automatic MEG low-frequency source imaging approach for detecting injuries in mild and moderate TBI patients with blast and non-blast causes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Drake, Angela; Holland, Martin; Asmussen, Sarah; D'Andrea, John; Chun, Won; Levy, Michael; Cui, Li; Song, Tao; Baker, Dewleen G; Hammer, Paul; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Coimbra, Raul; Diwakar, Mithun; Boyd, Cynthia; Neff, John; Liu, Thomas T; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer; Farinpour, Roxanna; Cheung, Catherine; Harrington, Deborah L; Heister, David; Lee, Roland R

    2012-07-16

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild (and some moderate) TBI can be difficult to diagnose because the injuries are often not detectable on conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in TBI patients generate abnormal low-frequency magnetic activity (ALFMA, peaked at 1-4 Hz) that can be measured and localized by magnetoencephalography (MEG). We developed a new automated MEG low-frequency source imaging method and applied this method in 45 mild TBI (23 from combat-related blasts, and 22 from non-blast causes) and 10 moderate TBI patients (non-blast causes). Seventeen of the patients with mild TBI from blasts had tertiary injuries resulting from the blast. The results show our method detected abnormalities at the rates of 87% for the mild TBI group (blast-induced plus non-blast causes) and 100% for the moderate group. Among the mild TBI patients, the rates of abnormalities were 96% and 77% for the blast and non-blast TBI groups, respectively. The spatial characteristics of abnormal slow-wave generation measured by Z scores in the mild blast TBI group significantly correlated with those in non-blast mild TBI group. Among 96 cortical regions, the likelihood of abnormal slow-wave generation was less in the mild TBI patients with blast than in the mild non-blast TBI patients, suggesting possible protective effects due to the military helmet and armor. Finally, the number of cortical regions that generated abnormal slow-waves correlated significantly with the total post-concussive symptom scores in TBI patients. This study provides a foundation for using MEG low-frequency source imaging to support the clinical diagnosis of TBI. PMID:22542638

  11. Influence of Process Parameter on Grit Blasting as a Pretreatment Process for Thermal Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Linke, T. F.; Sommer, J.; Liao, X.

    2016-01-01

    In thermal spraying, uncoated substrates usually require roughening. As the most common roughening method, grit blasting increases the surface area and produces undercuts in almost all cases, which facilitate mechanical interlocking and thus promote the bonding between the substrate and coating. The effects of grit blasting parameters, i.e., the particle size, the blasting angle, the stand-off distance, and the pressure, on the resulting surface topography are investigated. Furthermore, the efficiency and wear behavior of the blasting media are analyzed. Influences of three different blasting media, corundum, alumina zirconia, and steel shot, on the surface roughening, are compared. By varying adjusted blasting parameters, different initial conditions (surface topography) are created. Subsequently, the substrate is coated, and the coating bond strength is measured. One of the main results of this publication is that alumina zirconia and steel grit show a longer lifetime than pure alumina as a blasting media. Moreover, it has been shown that the blasting parameters such as grain size, working pressure, and history (wear status) of the abrasive particles have a significant effect on the resulting surface topography. Additionally, systematical analysis in this study shows that the blasting parameters such as stand-off distance and blasting angle have a small influence on the results of the blasting process. Another important conclusion of this study is that the conventional surface parameters that have been analyzed in this study did not turn out to be suitable for describing the relationship between the surface topography of the substrate and resulting bond strength.

  12. Influence of Process Parameter on Grit Blasting as a Pretreatment Process for Thermal Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; te, M.; Linke, T. F.; Sommer, J.; Liao, X.

    2015-09-01

    In thermal spraying, uncoated substrates usually require roughening. As the most common roughening method, grit blasting increases the surface area and produces undercuts in almost all cases, which facilitate mechanical interlocking and thus promote the bonding between the substrate and coating. The effects of grit blasting parameters, i.e., the particle size, the blasting angle, the stand-off distance, and the pressure, on the resulting surface topography are investigated. Furthermore, the efficiency and wear behavior of the blasting media are analyzed. Influences of three different blasting media, corundum, alumina zirconia, and steel shot, on the surface roughening, are compared. By varying adjusted blasting parameters, different initial conditions (surface topography) are created. Subsequently, the substrate is coated, and the coating bond strength is measured. One of the main results of this publication is that alumina zirconia and steel grit show a longer lifetime than pure alumina as a blasting media. Moreover, it has been shown that the blasting parameters such as grain size, working pressure, and history (wear status) of the abrasive particles have a significant effect on the resulting surface topography. Additionally, systematical analysis in this study shows that the blasting parameters such as stand-off distance and blasting angle have a small influence on the results of the blasting process. Another important conclusion of this study is that the conventional surface parameters that have been analyzed in this study did not turn out to be suitable for describing the relationship between the surface topography of the substrate and resulting bond strength.

  13. Molecular Changes and Vision Loss in a Mouse Model of Closed-Globe Blast Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bricker-Anthony, Courtney; Hines-Beard, Jessica; Rex, Tonia S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize retinal changes and assess vision after an eye-directed air blast. Methods. Adult C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to a blast directed at one eye. Optical coherence tomography and histology were performed to assess retina and optic nerve integrity. Cell death, oxidative stress, and glial reactivity were examined by immunohistochemistry. Visual changes were measured by ERG recordings and the optokinetic reflex. Results. In the outer retina, eye blast caused retinal pigment epithelium vacuoles and rare retinal detachments followed by regional cell death. Labeling for nitrotyrosine and markers of pyroptosis (caspase-1) and necroptosis (receptor-interacting protein kinases-1, -3) increased, primarily in the inner retina, after blast. Caspase-1 labeling was restricted primarily to the starburst amacrine cells. A few degenerating axons were detected at 28 days post blast. Despite a lack of substantial cell death or decreased ERG, there was a deficit in visual acuity after blast. Conclusions. Oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and cell death became increasingly prevalent, over time post blast suggestive of an ongoing neurodegenerative response. Outer retinal changes either resolved or remained focal. In contrast, inner retinal changes were more robust and spread from focal regions to the entire retina over time post blast. Our model of eye blast trauma causes molecular changes and a decrease in visual acuity within the first month post blast despite a lack of overt eye injury. This subtle response matches the delayed presentation of visual deficits in some blast-exposed Veterans. PMID:24994864

  14. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure. PMID:1482718

  15. Thermal Wave Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This map from the MGS Horizon Sensor Assembly (HORSE) shows middle atmospheric temperatures near the 1 mbar level of Mars between Ls 170 to 175 (approx. July 14 - 23, 1999). Local Mars times between 1:30 and 4:30 AM are included. Infrared radiation measured by the Mars Horizon Sensor Assembly was used to make the map. That device continuously views the 'limb' of Mars in four directions, to help orient the spacecraft instruments to the nadir: straight down.

    The map shows thermal wave phenomena that are caused by the large topographic variety of Mars' surface, as well the latitudinally symmetric behavior expected at this time of year near the equinox.

  16. Pediatric blast lung injury from a fireworks-related explosion.

    PubMed

    Ratto, Jessica; Johnson, Bernadette K; Condra, Cole S; Knapp, Jane F

    2012-06-01

    Blast injuries related to explosions have been described in the literature but are uncommon in children. We describe a multisystem blast injury in a child resulting from a commercial firework-related explosion in her home. She presented with respiratory failure, shock, altered level of consciousness, and multiple orthopedic injuries. The patient required immediate stabilization and resuscitation in the emergency department and a prolonged hospitalization. This report reviews the spectrum of injuries that are seen in blast-related trauma and the emergency measures needed for rapid stabilization of these critical patients. PMID:22668665

  17. Micro-blast waves using detonation transmission tubing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelraj, I. Obed; Jagadeesh, G.; Kontis, K.

    2013-07-01

    Micro-blast waves emerging from the open end of a detonation transmission tube were experimentally visualized in this study. A commercially available detonation transmission tube was used (Nonel tube, M/s Dyno Nobel, Sweden), which is a small diameter tube coated with a thin layer of explosive mixture (HMX + traces of Al) on its inner side. The typical explosive loading for this tube is of the order of 18 mg/m of tube length. The blast wave was visualized using a high speed digital camera (frame rate 1 MHz) to acquire time-resolved schlieren images of the resulting flow field. The visualization studies were complemented by computational fluid dynamic simulations. An analysis of the schlieren images showed that although the blast wave appears to be spherical, it propagates faster along the tube axis than along a direction perpendicular to the tube axis. Additionally, CFD analysis revealed the presence of a barrel shock and Mach disc, showing structures that are typical of an underexpanded jet. A theory in use for centered large-scale explosions of intermediate strength (10 < Δ {p}/{p}_0 ≲ 0.02) gave good agreement with the blast trajectory along the tube axis. The energy of these micro-blast waves was found to be 1.25 ± 0.94 J and the average TNT equivalent was found to be 0.3. The repeatability in generating these micro-blast waves using the Nonel tube was very good (± 2 %) and this opens up the possibility of using this device for studying some of the phenomena associated with muzzle blasts in the near future.

  18. Simplified modeling of blast waves from metalized heterogeneous explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarei, Z.; Frost, D. L.

    2011-09-01

    The detonation of a metalized explosive generates a complex multiphase flow field. Modeling the subsequent propagation of the blast front requires a detailed knowledge of the metal particle dynamics and reaction rate. Given the uncertainties in modeling these phenomena, a much simpler, 1D compressible flow model is used to illustrate the general effects of secondary energy release due to particle reaction on the blast front properties. If the total energy release is held constant, the blast pressure and impulse are primarily dependent on the following parameters: the proportion of secondary energy released due to afterburning, the rate of energy release, the location the secondary energy release begins, and the range over which it occurs. Releasing the total energy over a longer time period in general reduces the peak blast overpressure at a given distance. However, secondary energy release reduces the rate of decay of the shock pressure, increases the local gas temperature and hence increases the velocity of the secondary shock front. As a result, for certain values of the above parameters, the peak blast impulse may be increased by a factor of about two in a region near the charge. The largest augmentation to the near-field peak impulse results when the secondary energy is released immediately behind the shock front rather than uniformly within the combustion products.

  19. Temporally resolved planar measurements of transient phenomena in a partially pre-mixed swirl flame in a gas turbine model combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Boxx, I.; Stoehr, M.; Meier, W.; Carter, C.

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents observations and analysis of the time-dependent behavior of a 10 kW partially pre-mixed, swirl-stabilized methane-air flame exhibiting self-excited thermo-acoustic oscillations. This analysis is based on a series of measurements wherein particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of the OH radical were performed simultaneously at 5 kHz repetition rate over durations of 0.8 s. Chemiluminescence imaging of the OH{sup *} radical was performed separately, also at 5 kHz over 0.8 s acquisition runs. These measurements were of sufficient sampling frequency and duration to extract usable spatial and temporal frequency information on the medium to large-scale flow-field and heat-release characteristics of the flame. This analysis is used to more fully characterize the interaction between the self-excited thermo-acoustic oscillations and the dominant flow-field structure of this flame, a precessing vortex core (PVC) present in the inner recirculation zone. Interpretation of individual measurement sequences yielded insight into various physical phenomena and the underlying mechanisms driving flame dynamics. It is observed for this flame that location of the reaction zone tracks large-scale fluctuations in axial velocity and also conforms to the passage of large-scale vortical structures through the flow-field. Local extinction of the reaction zone in regions of persistently high principal compressive strain is observed. Such extinctions, however, are seen to be self healing and thus do not induce blowout. Indications of auto-ignition in regions of unburned gas near the exit are also observed. Probable auto-ignition events are frequently observed coincident with the centers of large-scale vortical structures, suggesting the phenomenon is linked to the enhanced mixing and longer residence times associated with fluid at the core of the PVC as it moves through the flame. (author)

  20. Simulations of Porcine Eye Exposure to Primary Blast Insult

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Richard; Gray, Walt; Sponsel, William E.; Lund, Brian J.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Groth, Sylvia L.; Reilly, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A computational model of the porcine eye was developed to simulate primary blast exposure. This model facilitates understanding of blast-induced injury mechanisms. Methods A computational model of the porcine eye was used to simulate the effects of primary blast loading for comparison with experimental findings from shock tube experiments. The eye model was exposed to overpressure-time histories measured during physical experiments. Deformations and mechanical stresses within various ocular tissues were then examined for correlation with pathological findings in the experiments. Results Stresses and strains experienced in the eye during a primary blast event increase as the severity of the blast exposure increases. Peak stresses in the model occurred in locations in which damage was most often observed in the physical experiments. Conclusions Blast injuries to the anterior chamber may be due to inertial displacement of the lens and ciliary body while posterior damage may arise due to contrecoup interactions of the vitreous and retina. Correlation of modeling predictions with physical experiments lends confidence that the model accurately represents the conditions found in the physical experiments. Translational Relevance This computational model offers insights into the mechanisms of ocular injuries arising due to primary blast and may be used to simulate the effects of new protective eyewear designs. PMID:26336633

  1. White Matter Compromise in Veterans Exposed to Primary Blast Forces

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Katherine H.; Hurley, Robin A.; Haswell, Courtney C.; Rowland, Jared A.; Hurt, Susan D.; Lamar, Cory D.; Morey, Rajendra A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Use Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter alterations associated with blast exposure with or without acute symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants Forty-five veterans of the recent military conflicts included twenty-three exposed to primary blast without TBI symptoms, six having primary blast mild TBI, and sixteen unexposed to blast. Design Cross-sectional case control study. Main Measures Neuropsychological testing and DTI metrics that quantified the number of voxel clusters with altered fractional anisotropy (FA) radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD), regardless of their spatial location. Results Significantly lower FA and higher RD was observed in veterans exposed to primary blast with and without mild TBI relative to blast unexposed veterans. Voxel clusters of lower FA were spatially dispersed and heterogeneous across affected individuals. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of clear TBI symptoms following primary blast exposure may not accurately reflect the extent of brain injury. If confirmed, our findings would argue for supplementing the established approach of making diagnoses based purely on clinical history and observable acute symptoms with novel neuroimaging-based diagnostic criteria that look below the surface for pathology. PMID:24590156

  2. Numerical Study of the Reduction Process in an Oxygen Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zongliang; Meng, Jiale; Guo, Lei; Guo, Zhancheng

    2015-10-01

    Based on computational fluid dynamics, chemical reaction kinetics, principles of transfer in metallurgy, and other principles, a multi-fluid model for a traditional blast furnace was established. The furnace conditions were simulated with this multi-fluid mathematical model, and the model was verified with the comparison of calculation and measurement. Then a multi-fluid model for an oxygen blast furnace in the gasifier-full oxygen blast furnace process was established based on this traditional blast furnace model. With the established multi-fluid model for an oxygen blast furnace, the basic characteristics of iron ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace were summarized, including the changing process of the iron ore reduction degree and the compositions of the burden, etc. The study found that compared to the traditional blast furnace, the magnetite reserve zone in the furnace shaft under oxygen blast furnace condition was significantly reduced, which is conducive to the efficient operation of blast furnace. In order to optimize the oxygen blast furnace design and operating parameters, the iron ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace was researched under different shaft tuyere positions, different recycling gas temperatures, and different allocation ratios of recycling gas between the hearth tuyere and the shaft tuyere. The results indicate that these three factors all have a substantial impact on the ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace. Moderate shaft tuyere position, high recycling gas temperature, and high recycling gas allocation ratio between hearth and shaft could significantly promote the reduction of iron ore, reduce the scope of the magnetite reserve zone, and improve the performance of oxygen blast furnace. Based on the above findings, the recommendations for improvement of the oxygen blast furnace design and operation were proposed.

  3. Numerical Study of the Reduction Process in an Oxygen Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zongliang; Meng, Jiale; Guo, Lei; Guo, Zhancheng

    2016-02-01

    Based on computational fluid dynamics, chemical reaction kinetics, principles of transfer in metallurgy, and other principles, a multi-fluid model for a traditional blast furnace was established. The furnace conditions were simulated with this multi-fluid mathematical model, and the model was verified with the comparison of calculation and measurement. Then a multi-fluid model for an oxygen blast furnace in the gasifier-full oxygen blast furnace process was established based on this traditional blast furnace model. With the established multi-fluid model for an oxygen blast furnace, the basic characteristics of iron ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace were summarized, including the changing process of the iron ore reduction degree and the compositions of the burden, etc. The study found that compared to the traditional blast furnace, the magnetite reserve zone in the furnace shaft under oxygen blast furnace condition was significantly reduced, which is conducive to the efficient operation of blast furnace. In order to optimize the oxygen blast furnace design and operating parameters, the iron ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace was researched under different shaft tuyere positions, different recycling gas temperatures, and different allocation ratios of recycling gas between the hearth tuyere and the shaft tuyere. The results indicate that these three factors all have a substantial impact on the ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace. Moderate shaft tuyere position, high recycling gas temperature, and high recycling gas allocation ratio between hearth and shaft could significantly promote the reduction of iron ore, reduce the scope of the magnetite reserve zone, and improve the performance of oxygen blast furnace. Based on the above findings, the recommendations for improvement of the oxygen blast furnace design and operation were proposed.

  4. How to Measure Qualitative Understanding of DC-Circuit Phenomena - Taking a Closer Look at the External Representations of 9-Year-Olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallunki, Veera

    2013-04-01

    Pupils' qualitative understanding of DC-circuit phenomena is reported to be weak. In numerous research reports lists of problems in understanding the functioning of simple DC-circuits have been presented. So-called mental model surveys have uncovered difficulties in different age groups, and in different phases of instruction. In this study, the concept of qualitative understanding, and the content or position of reported mental models of DC-circuit phenomena are discussed. On the grounds of this review, new tools for investigating qualitative understanding and analysing external representations of DC-circuit phenomena are presented. According to this approach, the external representations of DC-circuit phenomena that describe pupils' expressed conceptions of the topic should include both empirical-based models and theoretical explanations. In the empirical part of this study , third-graders (9-year-olds) learning DC-circuit phenomena in a comprehensive school in a small group were scrutinised. The focus of the study is the external representations manifested in the talk of the small group. The study challenges earlier studies, which claim that children exhibit a wide range of qualitative difficulties when learning DC-circuit phenomena. In this study it will be shown that even in the case of abstract subject matter like DC-circuit phenomena, small groups that highlight empirical-based modelling and activate talk can be a fruitful learning environment, where pupils' qualitative understanding really develops. Thus, the study proposes taking a closer look at pupils' external representations concerning DC-circuit phenomena.

  5. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeo Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software Tracker. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snells laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  6. Computational fluid dynamics study of pulverized coal combustion in blast furnace raceway

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.S.; Maldonado, D.; Guo, B.Y.; Yu, A.B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P.

    2009-12-15

    In this work, a numerical model is used to study the flow and coal combustion along the coal plume in a large-scale setting simulating the lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway region of a blast furnace. The model formulation is validated against the measurements in terms of burnout for both low and high volatile coals. The typical phenomena related to coal combustion along the coal plume are simulated and analyzed. The effects of some operational parameters on combustion behavior are also investigated. The results indicate that oxygen as a cooling gas gives a higher coal burnout than methane and air. The underlying mechanism of coal combustion is explored. It is shown that under the conditions examined, coal burnout strongly depends on the availability of oxygen and residence time. Moreover, the influences of two related issues, i.e. the treatment of volatile matter (VM) and geometric setting in modeling, are investigated. The results show that the predictions of final burnouts using three different VM treatments are just slightly different, but all comparable to the measurements. However, the influence of the geometric setting is not negligible when numerically examining the combustion of pulverized coal under blast furnace conditions.

  7. Positron impact ionization phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtagh, Daniel James

    In the present work, a beam of positrons, obtained from a radioactive source (MNa) in conjunction with a W moderator and guided by a magnetic field, has been used to investigate low energy positron-impact ionization phenomena from atomic and molecular targets. For He below threshold, the investigation discovered vacuum contaminants in creased with gas load and hence concluded that the high 7-ray/ion signal observed by Szluinska and Laricchia (2004a) in Ne could not be safely attributed to annihila tion. A detailed measurement of the total ionization cross-section for He has been performed from below threshold for Ps formation to high energy. Combined with previously measured data and previously measured direct ionization cross-sections (Moxom et al 1996, Ashley et al 1996), a new determination of the positronium formation cross-section has been achieved and compared to other available experi mental measurements and theoretical calculations. Measurements of the excited state (n > 1) positronium formation cross-section for He and Ar have been performed and compared to available theoretical calcu lations. This work has been motivated both for a direct comparison with theory and to test the hypothesis that structure observed in the total (all n) positron ium formation cross-sections for the heavier noble gases, is due to excited state positronium formation (Laricchia et al 2002). The present study is unable to verify fully this hypothesis due to the experimental methods insensitivity to positronium formation in to the 2S or n > 2 states. However, the present results are close to the most sophisticated theoretical calculation of positronium formation into the 2P state (Campbell et al 1998).

  8. Coupled Phenomena in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsubara, Akira; Nomura, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Various phenomena in chemistry and biology can be understood through Gibbs energy utilization. Some common phenomena in chemistry are explained including neutralization, hydrolysis, oxidation and reaction, simultaneous dissociation equilibrium of two weak acids, and common ion effect on solubility. (Author/SA)

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Experimental Program to Measure the Flow Phenomena in a Scaled Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor Lower Plenum for Validation of CFD Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2008-09-01

    The experimental program that is being conducted at the Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to obtain benchmark data on measurements of flow phenomena in a scaled model of a prismatic gas-cooled reactor lower plenum using 3-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is presented. A description of the scaling analysis, experimental facility, 3-D PIV system, measurement uncertainties and analysis, experimental procedures and samples of the data sets that have been obtained are included. Samples of the data set that will be presented include mean-velocity-field and turbulence data in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the mineral oil working fluid. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits high-quality measurements to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL MIR system is its large size which allows improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. The measurements reveal developing, non-uniform flow in the inlet jets and complicated flow patterns in the model lower plenum. Data include three-dimensional vector plots, data displays along the coordinate planes (slices) and charts that describe the component flows at specific regions in the model. Information on inlet velocity profiles is also presented.

  10. Performance of blasting caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

  11. Pool chemical blast injury.

    PubMed

    Shippert, Brian W

    2010-04-01

    Swimming pools are one of the most popular forms of recreation in the United States. Pool-related injuries may produce significant morbidity and mortality, and those related to pool chemicals are of particular importance. The majority of injuries associated with pool chemicals are respiratory, with the remainder composed mainly of dermal exposures. There are few case reports about injuries from pool chemicals, and the potential for significant injury from blast force is presented here. PMID:19853968

  12. Military blast exposure, ageing and white matter integrity.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Benjamin B; Robinson, Meghan E; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

    2015-08-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, is associated with a range of neural changes including altered white matter structure. There is emerging evidence that blast exposure-one of the most pervasive causes of casualties in the recent overseas conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan-is accompanied by a range of neurobiological events that may result in pathological changes to brain structure and function that occur independently of overt concussion symptoms. The potential effects of brain injury due to blast exposure are of great concern as a history of mild traumatic brain injury has been identified as a risk factor for age-associated neurodegenerative disease. The present study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether military-associated blast exposure influences the association between age and white matter tissue structure integrity in a large sample of veterans of the recent conflicts (n = 190 blast-exposed; 59 without exposure) between the ages of 19 and 62 years. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed a significant blast exposure age interaction on diffusion parameters with blast-exposed individuals exhibiting a more rapid cross-sectional age trajectory towards reduced tissue integrity. Both distinct and overlapping voxel clusters demonstrating the interaction were observed among the examined diffusion contrast measures (e.g. fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity). The regions showing the effect on fractional anisotropy included voxels both within and beyond the boundaries of the regions exhibiting a significant negative association between fractional anisotropy and age in the entire cohort. The regional effect was sensitive to the degree of blast exposure, suggesting a 'dose-response' relationship between the number of blast exposures and white matter integrity. Additionally, there was an age-independent negative association between fractional anisotropy and years since most severe blast exposure in a subset of the blast-exposed group, suggesting a specific influence of time since exposure on tissue structure, and this effect was also independent of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Overall, these data suggest that blast exposure may negatively affect brain-ageing trajectories at the microstructural tissue level. Additional work examining longitudinal changes in brain tissue integrity in individuals exposed to military blast forces will be an important future direction to the initial findings presented here. PMID:26033970

  13. Fragmentation, Cost and Environmental Effects of Plaster Stemming Method for Blasting at A Basalt Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cevizci, Halim

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the plaster stemming application for blasting at a basalt quarry is studied. Drill cuttings are generally used in open pits and quarries as the most common stemming material since these are most readily available at blast sites. However, dry drill cuttings eject very easily from blastholes without offering much resistance to blast energy. The plaster stemming method has been found to be better than the drill cuttings stemming method due to increased confinement inside the hole and better utilization of blast explosive energy in the rock. The main advantage of the new stemming method is the reduction in the cost of blasting. At a basalt quarry, blasting costs per unit volume of rock were reduced to 15% by increasing burden and spacing distances. In addition, better fragmentation was obtained by using the plaster stemming method. Blast trials showed that plaster stemming produced finer material. In the same blast tests, +30 cm size fragments were reduced to 47.3% of the total, compared to 32.6% in the conventional method of drill cuttings stemming. With this method of stemming, vibration and air shock values increased slightly due to more blast energy being available for rock breakage but generally these increased values were small and stayed under the permitted limit for blast damage criteria unless measuring distance is too close.

  14. Characterising the acceleration phase of blast wave formation

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T. E. Pasley, J.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H.

    2014-10-15

    Intensely heated, localised regions in uniform fluids will rapidly expand and generate an outwardly propagating blast wave. The Sedov-Taylor self-similar solution for such blast waves has long been studied and applied to a variety of scenarios. A characteristic time for their formation has also long been identified using dimensional analysis, which by its very nature, can offer several interpretations. We propose that, rather than simply being a characteristic time, it may be interpreted as the definitive time taken for a blast wave resulting from an intense explosion in a uniform media to contain its maximum kinetic energy. A scaling relation for this measure of the acceleration phase, preceding the establishment of the blast wave, is presented and confirmed using a 1D planar hydrodynamic model.

  15. Identification of blast resistance genes for managing rice blast disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. In the present study, an international set of monogenic differentials carrying 24 major blast resistance (R) genes (Pia, Pib, Pii, Pik, Pik-h, Pik-m, Pik-p, Pik-s, Pish, Pit, Pita, Pita2,...

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  17. Science and Paranormal Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H. Pierre

    1999-06-03

    In order to ground my approach to the study of paranormal phenomena, I first explain my operational approach to physics, and to the ''historical'' sciences of cosmic, biological, human, social and political evolution. I then indicate why I believe that ''paranormal phenomena'' might-but need not- fit into this framework. I endorse the need for a new theoretical framework for the investigation of this field presented by Etter and Shoup at this meeting. I close with a short discussion of Ted Bastin's contention that paranormal phenomena should be defined as contradicting physics.

  18. Continuum modeling of neuronal cell under blast loading

    PubMed Central

    Jérusalem, Antoine; Dao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries have recently been put under the spotlight as one of the most important causes of accidental brain dysfunctions. Significant experimental and modeling efforts are thus ongoing to study the associated biological, mechanical and physical mechanisms. In the field of cell mechanics, progresses are also being made at the experimental and modeling levels to better characterize many of the cell functions such as differentiation, growth, migration and death, among others. The work presented here aims at bridging both efforts by proposing a continuum model of neuronal cell submitted to blast loading. In this approach, cytoplasm, nucleus and membrane (plus cortex) are differentiated in a representative cell geometry, and different material constitutive models are adequately chosen for each one. The material parameters are calibrated against published experimental work of cell nanoindentation at multiple rates. The final cell model is ultimately subjected to blast loading within a complete fluid-structure interaction computational framework. The results are compared to the nanoindentation simulation and the specific effects of the blast wave on the pressure and shear levels at the interfaces are identified. As a conclusion, the presented model successfully captures some of the intrinsic intracellular phenomena occurring during its deformation under blast loading and potentially leading to cell damage. It suggests more particularly the localization of damage at the nucleus membrane similarly to what has already been observed at the overall cell membrane. This degree of damage is additionally predicted to be worsened by a longer blast positive phase duration. As a conclusion, the proposed model ultimately provides a new three dimensional computational tool to evaluate intracellular damage during blast loading. PMID:22562014

  19. Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  20. Saugus Iron Works Blast Furnace

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A view of the Saugus Iron Works blast furnace, which smelted the iron from limonite, an iron ore. The limonite formed in nearby bogs, and was heated in the blast furnace until the iron melted and ran out the bottom of the furnace....

  1. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  2. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  3. Determination of explosive blast loading equivalencies with an explosively driven shock tube

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I; Hill, Larry G; Morris, John S

    2009-01-01

    Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and to other methods of equivalency determination.

  4. Numerical analysis for the multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection inside blast furnace tuyere

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.

    2005-09-01

    The pulverized coal injection (PCI) system was modified from single lance injection into double lance injection at No. 3 Blast Furnace of CSC. It is beneficial to reduce the cost of coke. However, the injected coal was found very close to the inner wall of the tuyere during the operation, such as to cause the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. In this study a three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed based on a computational fluid dynamics software PHOENICS to simulate the fluid flow phenomena inside blast furnace tuyere. The model was capable of handling steady-state, three-dimensional multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection. The model was applied to simulate the flow patterns of the injection coal inside the tuyere with two kinds of lance design for the PCI system. The distribution of injection coal was simulated such as to estimate the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. The calculated results agreed with the operating experience of CSC plant and the optimum design of double lance was suggested. The model was also applied to simulate the oxygen concentration distribution with these different oxygen enrichments for the coal/oxygen lance system. The calculated results agreed with the experimental measurement. These test results demonstrate that the model is both reasonably reliable and efficient.

  5. Blast from explosive evaporation of carbon dioxide: experiment, modeling and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Voort, M. M.; van den Berg, A. C.; Roekaerts, D. J. E. M.; Xie, M.; de Bruijn, P. C. J.

    2012-03-01

    Explosive evaporation of a superheated liquid is a relevant hazard in the process industry. A vessel rupture during storage, transport or handling may lead to devastating blast effects. In order to assess the risk associated with this hazard or to design protective measures, an accurate prediction model for the blast generated after vessel rupture is needed. For this reason a fundamental understanding of the effects of a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) is essential. In this paper, we report on a number of well-defined BLEVE experiments with 40-l liquid CO2 bottles. The existing inertia-limited BLEVE model has been validated by its application to these experiments. Good qualitative agreement between model and experiment was found, while quantitatively the results provide a safe estimate. Possible model improvements taking into account the finite rate of evaporation are described. These comprise phenomena such as bubble nucleation and growth rate, and the two-phase flow regime. Suggestions for improved experiments are given as well.

  6. Electromagnetic Phenomena in Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Teruo

    Electromagnetic phenomena in superconductors are reviewed. In superconductor in a transverse magnetic field, the electromagnetic phenomena are described by the critical state model assuming a balance between the Lorentz force and pinning force. In this case the Josephson equation for the induced electric field, E = B v, holds for the motion of flux lines with velocity v. On the other hand, the electromagnetic phenomena in a longitudinal magnetic field of current-carrying superconductor are quite different from those in the transverse magnetic field. For example, the Josephson relation does not hold and even a negative potential drop is locally observed in the resistive state above the critical current. In this review it is shown that these peculiar phenomena are explainable using the flux motion driven by a force-free torque, a restoring torque against rotationally shearing deformation of flux lines due to the force-free current parallel to flux lines.

  7. How to Measure Qualitative Understanding of DC-Circuit Phenomena--Taking a Closer Look at the External Representations of 9-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallunki, Veera

    2013-01-01

    Pupils' qualitative understanding of DC-circuit phenomena is reported to be weak. In numerous research reports lists of problems in understanding the functioning of simple DC-circuits have been presented. So-called mental model surveys have uncovered difficulties in different age groups, and in different phases of instruction. In this study, the

  8. How to Measure Qualitative Understanding of DC-Circuit Phenomena--Taking a Closer Look at the External Representations of 9-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallunki, Veera

    2013-01-01

    Pupils' qualitative understanding of DC-circuit phenomena is reported to be weak. In numerous research reports lists of problems in understanding the functioning of simple DC-circuits have been presented. So-called mental model surveys have uncovered difficulties in different age groups, and in different phases of instruction. In this study, the…

  9. Manual for the prediction of blast and fragment loadings on structures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide Architect-Engineer (AE) firms guidance for the prediction of air blast, ground shock and fragment loadings on structures as a result of accidental explosions in or near these structures. Information in this manual is the result of an extensive literature survey and data gathering effort, supplemented by some original analytical studies on various aspects of blast phenomena. Many prediction equations and graphs are presented, accompanied by numerous example problems illustrating their use. The manual is complementary to existing structural design manuals and is intended to reflect the current state-of-the-art in prediction of blast and fragment loads for accidental explosions of high explosives at the Pantex Plant. In some instances, particularly for explosions within blast-resistant structures of complex geometry, rational estimation of these loads is beyond the current state-of-the-art.

  10. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way... within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired. (e) No blast shall be fired while any... in progress, signals and arrangements shall be agreed upon to assure that no blast shall be...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way... within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired. (e) No blast shall be fired while any... in progress, signals and arrangements shall be agreed upon to assure that no blast shall be...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way... within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired. (e) No blast shall be fired while any... in progress, signals and arrangements shall be agreed upon to assure that no blast shall be...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way... within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired. (e) No blast shall be fired while any... in progress, signals and arrangements shall be agreed upon to assure that no blast shall be...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way... within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired. (e) No blast shall be fired while any... in progress, signals and arrangements shall be agreed upon to assure that no blast shall be...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blasting lines. 56.6803 Section 56.6803 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be...

  19. 30 CFR 57.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blasting lines. 57.6803 Section 57.6803 Mineral... and Underground 57.6803 Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be insulated and kept in good repair. General RequirementsSurface and Underground...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting lines. 57.6803 Section 57.6803 Mineral... and Underground 57.6803 Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be insulated and kept in good repair. General RequirementsSurface and Underground...

  1. 30 CFR 56.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting lines. 56.6803 Section 56.6803 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected...

  4. Close-in Blast Waves from Spherical Charges*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, William; Kuhl, Allen

    2011-06-01

    We study the close-in blast waves created by the detonation of spherical high explosives (HE) charges, via numerical simulations with our Arbitrary-Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE3D) code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (200 ?m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in air, and the reflection of the blast wave from an ideal surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and air were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. The results were analyzed to evaluate the: (i) free air pressure-range curves: ?ps (R) , (ii) free air impulse curves, (iii) reflected pressure-range curves, and (iv) reflected impulse-range curves. A variety of explosives were studied. Conclusions are: (i) close-in (R < 10 cm /g 1 / 3) , each explosive had its own (unique) blast wave (e.g., ?ps (R , HE) ~ a /Rn , where n is different for each explosive); (ii) these close-in blast waves do not scale with the ``Heat of Detonation'' of the explosive (because close-in, there is not enough time to fully couple the chemical energy to the air via piston work); (iii) instead they are related to the detonation conditions inside the charge. Scaling laws will be proposed for such close-in blast waves.

  5. Characterization of Viscoelastic Materials for Low-Magnitude Blast Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis

    2013-06-01

    Recent preliminary research indicates that exposure to low amplitude blast waves, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficiently protecting warfighters from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. The objective of this research is to evaluate the blast mitigating behavior of current helmet materials and new materials designed for blast mitigation using a test fixture recently developed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division for use with an existing gas gun. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 5 to 30 psi) in a test fixture mounted at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release helium gas from a breech which forms into a blast wave and impacts instrumented targets in the test fixture. Blast attenuation of selected materials is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. Materials evaluated in this research include 6061-T6 aluminum, polyurea 1000, Styrofoam, and Sorbothane (durometer 50, shore 00). The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

  6. Characterization of viscoelastic materials for low-magnitude blast mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartyczak, S.; Mock, W.

    2014-05-01

    Recent research indicates that exposure to low amplitude blast waves, such as IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficiently protecting warfighters from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the blast mitigating behavior of current helmet materials and new materials designed for blast mitigation using a test fixture recently developed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division for use with an existing gas gun. The 40-mm-bore gas gun was used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 0.5 to 2 bar) in the test fixture mounted on the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve was used to release helium gas from the breech which formed into a blast wave and impacted instrumented targets in the test fixture. Blast attenuation of selected materials was determined through the measurement of stress data in front of and behind the target. Materials evaluated in this research include polyurethane foam from currently fielded US Army and Marine Corps helmets, polyurea 1000, and three hardnesses of Sorbothane (48, 58, and 70 durometer, Shore 00). Polyurea 1000 and 6061-T6 aluminum were used to calibrate the stress gauges.

  7. Investigation of blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Ludwigsen, John S.; Ford, Corey C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many troops deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan have sustained blast-related, closed-head injuries from being within non-lethal distance of detonated explosive devices. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms associated with blast exposure that give rise to traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study attempts to identify the precise conditions of focused stress wave energy within the brain, resulting from blast exposure, which will correlate with a threshold for persistent brain injury. Methods This study developed and validated a set of modelling tools to simulate blast loading to the human head. Using these tools, the blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave motions that lead to focal brain damage were simulated. Results The simulations predict the deposition of three distinct wave energy components, two of which can be related to injury-inducing mechanisms, namely cavitation and shear. Furthermore, the results suggest that the spatial distributions of these damaging energy components are independent of blast direction. Conclusions The predictions reported herein will simplify efforts to correlate simulation predictions with clinical measures of TBI and aid in the development of protective headwear. PMID:24766453

  8. Numerical Study of the Gas Distribution in an Oxygen Blast Furnace. Part 1: Model Building and Basic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zongliang; Meng, Jiale; Guo, Lei; Guo, Zhancheng

    2015-09-01

    Based on multifluid theory, transport phenomena theory, metallurgical reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, and computational fluid dynamics, a multifluid model for an oxygen blast furnace was established to evaluate the gas distribution in a furnace. The uneven distribution of recycling gas in oxygen blast furnaces was found to be a severe problem. This uneven distribution resulted from injecting a large amount of recycling gas into the furnace shaft. Gas distribution substantially affects the energy and heat utilization of an oxygen blast furnace. Therefore, the basic characteristics of the gas distribution in an oxygen blast furnace are illustrated. The results show that in the top of the oxygen blast furnace, the concentration differences of the CO and CO2 between the center and edge reach 7.8% and 11.7%, respectively. The recycling gas from the shaft tuyere only penetrates to two thirds the length of the radius.

  9. A systematic exposition of the conservation equations for blast waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.; Lundstrom, E. A.; Kuhl, A. L.; Kamel, M. M.

    1971-01-01

    In order to provide a rational background for the analysis of experimental observations of blast wave phenomena, the conservation equations governing their nonsteady flow field are formulated in a general manner, without the usual restrictions imposed by an equation of state, and with proper account taken, by means of source terms, of other effects which, besides the inertial terms that conventionally dominate these equations, can affect the flow. Taking advantage of the fact that a blast wave can be generally considered as a spatially one-dimensional flow field whose nonsteady behavior can be regarded, consequently, as a function of just two independent variables, two generalized blast wave coordinates are introduced, one associated with the front of the blast wave and the other with its flow field. The conservation equations are accordingly transformed into this coordinate system, acquiring thereby a comprehensive character, in that they refer then to any frame of reference, being applicable, in particular, to problems involving either space or time profiles of the gas-dynamic parameters in the Eulerian system, or time profiles in the Lagrangian system.

  10. Blast design optimization to minimize effect of air blast

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    As well as destruction and moving rock, the blast energy sets up a seismic wave in the ground and a shock wave in the air, which can present danger to buildings and disturbance to human occupants. This shock air wave potentially can cause to destruction of a window glass, the window and door frames and partitions of buildings. In modern buildings, distinguished with high flexibility, the shock air wave can cause to the intensive wall vibration, dangerous for these buildings. Results of experimental researches of a shock air wave and building vibrations at the execution of a production blast have allowed the author to make a computer program to account for the shock air wave intensity. This program performs following main tasks. (1) Account of parameters of a shock air wave after blasting the first charge are calculated. Intensity, duration and the wave form are calculated with a small time interval for various distances from the blasting charge. Received significances make the information on a dynamic field of redundant pressure after blasting. (2) Parameters of the wave are consistently calculated for each charge blasting. The blast parameters (charge weight, hole and stemming length, number of the blast holes, inter hole and inter row delays, hole coordinate on a block, etc.) are taken into account. Also taken into account, is that waves are distributed in the environment with increased density, pressure and temperature. The described circuit provides high convergence of the settlement parameters and is used in blast designing for granite quarries of the St. Petersburg region and a coal cut in Cangalassky (Yakutia).

  11. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

  12. Shock tubes and blast injury modeling.

    PubMed

    Ning, Ya-Lei; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2015-08-01

    Explosive blast injury has become the most prevalent injury in recent military confiicts and terrorist attacks. The magnitude of this kind of polytrauma is complex due to the basic physics of blast and the surrounding environments. Therefore, development of stable, reproducible and controllable animal model using an ideal blast simulation device is the key of blast injury research. The present review addresses the modeling of blast injury and applications of shock tubes. PMID:26764538

  13. Centrifugal shot blast system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

  14. Neurological Effects of Blast Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Ramona R.; Fertig, Stephanie J.; Desrocher, Rebecca E.; Koroshetz, Walter J.; Pancrazio, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, thousands of soldiers and an even greater number of civilians have suffered traumatic injuries due to blast exposure, largely attributed to improvised explosive devices in terrorist and insurgent activities. The use of body armor is allowing soldiers to survive blasts that would otherwise be fatal due to systemic damage. Emerging evidence suggests that exposure to a blast can produce neurological consequences in the brain, but much remains unknown. To elucidate the current scientific basis for understanding blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), the NIH convened a workshop in April, 2008. A multidisciplinary group of neuroscientists, engineers, and clinicians were invited to share insights on bTBI, specifically pertaining to: physics of blast explosions, acute clinical observations and treatments, preclinical and computational models, and lessons from the international community on civilian exposures. This report provides an overview of the state of scientific knowledge of bTBI, drawing from the published literature, as well as presentations, discussions, and recommendations from the workshop. One of the major recommendations from the workshop was the need to characterize the effects of blast exposure on clinical neuropathology. Clearer understanding of the human neuropathology would enable validation of preclinical and computational models, which are attempting to simulate blast wave interactions with the central nervous system. Furthermore, the civilian experience with bTBI suggests that polytrauma models incorporating both brain and lung injuries may be more relevant to the study of civilian countermeasures than considering models with a neurological focus alone. PMID:20453776

  15. Neurological effects of blast injury.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Ramona R; Fertig, Stephanie J; Desrocher, Rebecca E; Koroshetz, Walter J; Pancrazio, Joseph J

    2010-05-01

    Over the last few years, thousands of soldiers and an even greater number of civilians have suffered traumatic injuries due to blast exposure, largely attributed to improvised explosive devices in terrorist and insurgent activities. The use of body armor is allowing soldiers to survive blasts that would otherwise be fatal due to systemic damage. Emerging evidence suggests that exposure to a blast can produce neurologic consequences in the brain but much remains unknown. To elucidate the current scientific basis for understanding blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), the NIH convened a workshop in April 2008. A multidisciplinary group of neuroscientists, engineers, and clinicians were invited to share insights on bTBI, specifically pertaining to: physics of blast explosions, acute clinical observations and treatments, preclinical and computational models, and lessons from the international community on civilian exposures. This report provides an overview of the state of scientific knowledge of bTBI, drawing from the published literature, as well as presentations, discussions, and recommendations from the workshop. One of the major recommendations from the workshop was the need to characterize the effects of blast exposure on clinical neuropathology. Clearer understanding of the human neuropathology would enable validation of preclinical and computational models, which are attempting to simulate blast wave interactions with the central nervous system. Furthermore, the civilian experience with bTBI suggests that polytrauma models incorporating both brain and lung injuries may be more relevant to the study of civilian countermeasures than considering models with a neurologic focus alone. PMID:20453776

  16. Air blast fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Shekleton, J.R.; Sledd, M.W.

    1994-01-11

    In order to enhance fuel injection efficiency, and particularly to atomize low fuel flows at high velocity with low fuel pressure, a fuel injection system for a combustor of a turbine engine has an air blast tube and a fuel supply tube. The air blast tube is mounted at an acute angle relative to a wall of the combustor and has a first end in communication with the combustor and a second, enlarged end disposed at an acute angle to an axis of the air blast tube in communication with a source of compressed air externally of the wall of the combustor. The air blast tube is operable to deliver compressed air from the source into the combustor. The fuel supply tube delivers fuel through a fuel supply orifice to a point at or near the first end of the air blast tube and has a first end in communication with the combustor through the fuel supply orifice and a second end in communication with a source of fuel externally of the wall of the combustor. With this arrangement, the fuel supply tube extends to a point communicating internally with the air blast tube but adjacent a discharge opening of the air blast tube to produce an enhanced atomized fuel/air mixture thereby. 11 figs.

  17. [Hidden electric phenomena].

    PubMed

    Brembilla-Perrot, B

    1995-01-01

    Concealed electrical phenomena are activations which penetrate the specialised tissue incompletely, which do not have a direct electrical effect but which usually affect the conduction of the following normal impulse. The phenomena are extremely common. They arise physiologically in the node of Aschoff Tawara and express the relationship between flutter waves and their propagation to the ventricle. Any extrasystole or ectopic rhythm may give rise to these phenomena and modify conduction in the anterograde or retrograde direction if the ectopic rhythm is ventricular, by slowing the rate but also, in some cases, by paradoxically improving it. In addition, some reciprocating nodal tachycardias are due to a concealed bundle of Kent invisible in sinus rhythm, the presence of which may be suspected by the ECG appearances of the reciprocating tachycardia (negative P wave in lead 1, phenomenon of delaying bundle branch block or simply the auriculogram after the ventriculogram. PMID:7786141

  18. Ion exchange phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  19. Stress pulse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    McGlaun, M.

    1993-08-01

    This paper is an introductory discussion of stress pulse phenomena in simple solids and fluids. Stress pulse phenomena is a very rich and complex field that has been studied by many scientists and engineers. This paper describes the behavior of stress pulses in idealized materials. Inviscid fluids and simple solids are realistic enough to illustrate the basic behavior of stress pulses. Sections 2 through 8 deal with the behavior of pressure pulses. Pressure is best thought of as the average stress at a point. Section 9 deals with shear stresses which are most important in studying solids.

  20. Imaging of snapping phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Guillin, R; Marchand, A J; Roux, A; Niederberger, E; Duvauferrier, R

    2012-01-01

    Snapping phenomena result from the sudden impingement between anatomical and/or heterotopical structures with subsequent abrupt movement and noise. Snaps are variously perceived by patients, from mild discomfort to significant pain requiring surgical management. Identifying the precise cause of snaps may be challenging when no abnormality is encountered on routinely performed static examinations. In this regard, dynamic imaging techniques have been developed over time, with various degrees of success. This review encompasses the main features of each imaging technique and proposes an overview of the main snapping phenomena in the musculoskeletal system. PMID:22744321

  1. Understanding the Physics of changing mass phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellermeijer, A. L.

    2008-05-01

    Changing mass phenomena, like a falling chain or a bungee jumper, might give surprising results, even for experienced physicists. They have resulted in hot discussions in journals, in which for instance Physics professors claim the impossibility of an acceleration larger then g in case of a bungee jumper. These phenomena are also interesting as topics for challenging student projects, and used as such by Dutch high school students. I will take these phenomena as the context in which I like to demonstrate the possibilities of ICT in the learning process of physics. Especially dynamical modeling enables us to describe these phenomena in an elegant way and with knowledge of high school mathematics. Furthermore tools for video-analysis and data from measurements with sensors allow us to study the phenomena in experiments. This example demonstrates the level of implementation of ICT in Physics Education in The Netherlands [1].

  2. Modelling the combustion of charcoal in a model blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yansong; Shiozawa, Tomo; Yu, Aibing; Austin, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The pulverized charcoal (PCH) combustion in ironmaking blast furnaces is abstracting remarkable attention due to various benefits such as lowering CO2 emission. In this study, a three-dimensional CFD model is used to simulate the flow and thermo-chemical behaviours in this process. The model is validated against the experimental results from a pilot-scale combustion test rig for a range of conditions. The typical flow and thermo-chemical phenomena is simulated. The effect of charcoal type, i.e. VM content is examined, showing that the burnout increases with VM content in a linear relationship. This model provides an effective way for designing and optimizing PCH operation in blast furnace practice.

  3. Examining the relationship between blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress-related traits.

    PubMed

    Tschiffely, A E; Ahlers, S T; Norris, J N

    2015-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) resulting from blast exposure may contribute to the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related affective sequelae, such as anxiety and depression. Many studies have used survey techniques to describe blast exposure leading to comorbid mTBI and related persistent postconcussive symptoms (PPCS) with PTSD in military populations. Despite this, there is a lack of literature that examines possible biological mechanisms by which blast exposure contributes to the development of PTSD sequelae. This Mini-Review addresses the current literature on potential neurophysiological changes that may contribute to PTSD-like traits as a result of a single or multiple exposures to blast events. Evidence from clinical blast-induced mTBI populations and animal models of blast-induced mTBI was evaluated with an emphasis on behavioral and physiological symptoms similar to those seen in PTSD populations and models. From the analysis, we propose potential mechanisms that merit further investigation for better understanding of how blast exposures may produce a higher rate of comorbid PPCS, PTSD, and affective phenomena. An improved understanding of PTSD-like outcomes resulting from blast exposure will ultimately help facilitate the development of future treatments and contribute to a better understanding of PTSD sequelae that develop from physical trauma. PMID:26346303

  4. Quantum phenomena in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.

    1987-08-01

    This paper contains remarks by the author on aspects of macroscopic quantum phenomena in superconductors. Some topics discussed are: Superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUGS), charge imbalance, cylindrical dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUIDS), Geophysics, noise theory, magnetic resonance with SQUIDS, and macroscopic quantum tunneling. 23 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

  5. Neutron Star Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, Malvin

    1998-01-01

    Various phenomena involving neutron stars are addressed. Electron-positron production in the near magnetosphere of gamma-ray pulsars is discussed along with magnetic field evolution in spun-up and spinning-down pulsars. Glitches and gamma-ray central engines are also discussed.

  6. An RES-Based Model for Risk Assessment and Prediction of Backbreak in Bench Blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzi, F.; Ebrahimi Farsangi, M. A.; Mansouri, H.

    2013-07-01

    Most blasting operations are associated with various forms of energy loss, emerging as environmental side effects of rock blasting, such as flyrock, vibration, airblast, and backbreak. Backbreak is an adverse phenomenon in rock blasting operations, which imposes risk and increases operation expenses because of safety reduction due to the instability of walls, poor fragmentation, and uneven burden in subsequent blasts. In this paper, based on the basic concepts of a rock engineering systems (RES) approach, a new model for the prediction of backbreak and the risk associated with a blast is presented. The newly suggested model involves 16 effective parameters on backbreak due to blasting, while retaining simplicity as well. The data for 30 blasts, carried out at Sungun copper mine, western Iran, were used to predict backbreak and the level of risk corresponding to each blast by the RES-based model. The results obtained were compared with the backbreak measured for each blast, which showed that the level of risk achieved is in consistence with the backbreak measured. The maximum level of risk [vulnerability index (VI) = 60] was associated with blast No. 2, for which the corresponding average backbreak was the highest achieved (9.25 m). Also, for blasts with levels of risk under 40, the minimum average backbreaks (<4 m) were observed. Furthermore, to evaluate the model performance for backbreak prediction, the coefficient of correlation ( R 2) and root mean square error (RMSE) of the model were calculated ( R 2 = 0.8; RMSE = 1.07), indicating the good performance of the model.

  7. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler, Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A

    2007-05-22

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  8. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler, Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A.

    2011-03-15

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

  9. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler,; Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A

    2010-10-26

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  10. Blast trauma in a child.

    PubMed

    Knapp, J F; Sharp, R J; Beatty, R; Medina, F

    1990-06-01

    In 1986, we cared for a four-year-old boy who was injured in the explosion of an illegal firecracker equivalent to one-third of a stick of dynamite. Although little has been reported on the injuries children sustain in an explosion, we found that this child's injuries were similar to those encountered in adults. This case is presented as illustrative of blast trauma in childhood, and as a review of blast injury. PMID:2371149

  11. Water blasting paint removal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    Water blasting is a paint removal technique that has been used for cleaning and paint removal for many years. The major disadvantages until recently were the slow rate of paint removal and the possibility of damage to the substrate from the high pressures used. With the improvement in nozzle design that allows for higher operating pressures and the use of environmentally compliant paint softeners or strippers, water blasting is becoming a recognized technique for paint removal in the aircraft industry.

  12. Toxicology of blast overpressure.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, N M

    1997-07-25

    Blast overpressure (BOP) or high energy impulse noise, is the sharp instantaneous rise in ambient atmospheric pressure resulting from explosive detonation or firing of weapons. Blasts that were once confined to military and to a lesser extent, occupational settings, are becoming more universal as the civilian population is now increasingly at risk of exposure to BOP from terrorist bombings that are occurring worldwide with greater frequency. Exposure to incident BOP waves can cause auditory and non-auditory damage. The primary targets for BOP damage are the hollow organs, ear, lung and gastrointestinal tract. In addition, solid organs such as heart, spleen and brain can also be injured upon exposure. However, the lung is more sensitive to damage and its injury can lead to death. The pathophysiological responses, and mortality have been extensively studied, but little attention, was given to the biochemical manifestations, and molecular mechanism(s) of injury. The injury from BOP has been, generally, attributed to its external physical impact on the body causing internal mechanical damage. However, a new hypothesis has been proposed based on experiments conducted in the Department of Respiratory Research, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and later in the Department of Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh. This hypothesis suggests that subtle biochemical changes namely, free radical-mediated oxidative stress occur and contribute to BOP-induced injury. Understanding the etiology of these changes may shed new light on the molecular mechanism(s) of injury, and can potentially offer new strategies for treatment. In this symposium. BOP research involving auditory, non-auditory, physiological, pathological, behavioral, and biochemical manifestations as well as predictive modeling and current treatment modalities of BOP-induced injury are discussed. PMID:9217311

  13. BLAST: The Balloon-Borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devlin, Mark; Ade, Peter; Bock, Jamie; Dicker, Simon; Griffin, Matt; Gunderson, Josh; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter; Hughes, David; Klein, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    BLAST is the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Sub-millimeter Telescope. It will fly from a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) platform from Antarctica. The telescope design incorporates a 2 m primary mirror with large-format bolometer arrays operating at 250, 350 and 500 microns. By providing the first sensitive large-area (10 sq. deg.) sub-mm surveys at these wavelengths, BLAST will address some of the most important galactic and cosmological questions regarding the formation and evolution of stars, galaxies and clusters. Galactic and extragalactic BLAST surveys will: (1) identify large numbers of high-redshift galaxies; (2) measure photometric redshifts, rest-frame FIR luminosities and star formation rates thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the galaxies that produce the FIR and sub-mm background; (3) measure cold pre-stellar sources associated with the earliest stages of star and planet formation; (4) make high-resolution maps of diffuse galactic emission over a wide range of galactic latitudes. In addition to achieving the above scientific goals, the exciting legacy of the BLAST LDB experiment will be a catalogue of 3000-5000 extragalactic sub-mm sources and a 100 sq. deg. sub-mm galactic plane survey. Multi-frequency follow-up observations from SIRTF, ASTRO-F, and Herschel, together with spectroscopic observations and sub-arcsecond imaging from ALMA are essential to understand the physical nature of the BLAST sources.

  14. Some atmospheric optical phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malherbe, Jean-Marie

    1988-10-01

    Atmospheric optical effects resulting from the interaction between extended light sources (the sun and moon) or point sources (planets and bright stars) and the heterogeneous atmosphere are discussed. It is noted that refraction is responsible for such phenomena as the oblateness of the sun and moon when rising or setting, mirages (the curving of light rays near the ground), nocturnal scintillation, rainbows, and halos. The diffusion of light by particles in the atmosphere is responsible for the blue color of the sky during the day and the red color of the sky at sunrise and sunset. Diffractive phenomena discussed include the colored ring surrounding the sun or moon when viewed through fog and the iridescent Bishop's ring.

  15. Membrane Transport Phenomena (MTP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1997-01-01

    The third semi-annual period of the MTP project has been involved with performing experiments using the Membrane Transport Apparatus (MTA), development of analysis techniques for the experiment results, analytical modeling of the osmotic transport phenomena, and completion of a DC-9 microgravity flight to test candidate fluid cell geometries. Preparations were also made for the MTP Science Concept Review (SCR), held on 13 June 1997 at Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver. These activities are detailed in the report.

  16. Search for New Phenomena in Dijet Angular Distributions in Proton-Proton Collisions at s = 8 TeV Measured with the ATLAS Detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; et al

    2015-06-04

    A search for new phenomena in LHC proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √s=8 TeV was performed with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 17.3 fb⁻¹. The angular distributions are studied in events with at least two jets; the highest dijet mass observed is 5.5 TeV. All angular distributions are consistent with the predictions of the standard model. In a benchmark model of quark contact interactions, a compositeness scale below 8.1 TeV in a destructive interference scenario and 12.0 TeV in a constructive interference scenario is excluded at 95% C.L.; median expected limits are 8.9 TeV formore » the destructive interference scenario and 14.1 TeV for the constructive interference scenario.« less

  17. Search for New Phenomena in Dijet Angular Distributions in Proton-Proton Collisions at ?{s }=8 TeV Measured with the ATLAS Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; kesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; lvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; sman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimares da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.

    2015-06-01

    A search for new phenomena in LHC proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of ?{s }=8 TeV was performed with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 17.3 fb-1 . The angular distributions are studied in events with at least two jets; the highest dijet mass observed is 5.5 TeV. All angular distributions are consistent with the predictions of the standard model. In a benchmark model of quark contact interactions, a compositeness scale below 8.1 TeV in a destructive interference scenario and 12.0 TeV in a constructive interference scenario is excluded at 95% C.L.; median expected limits are 8.9 TeV for the destructive interference scenario and 14.1 TeV for the constructive interference scenario.

  18. Bending and turbulent enhancement phenomena of neutral gas flow containing an atmospheric pressure plasma by applying external electric fields measured by schlieren optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Sakakita, Hajime; Tsunoda, Syuichiro; Kasahara, Jiro; Fujiwara, Masanori; Kato, Susumu; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of turbulent enhancement phenomena of a neutral gas flow containing plasma ejected from the nozzle of plasma equipment, the schlieren optical method was performed to visualize the neutral gas behavior. It was confirmed that the turbulent starting point became closer to the nozzle exit, as the amplitude of discharge voltage (electric field) increased. To study the effect of electric field on turbulent enhancement, two sets of external electrodes were arranged in parallel, and the gas from the nozzle was allowed to flow between the upper and lower electrodes. It was found that the neutral gas flow was bent, and the bending angle increased as the amplitude of the external electric field increased. The results obtained using a simple model analysis roughly coincide with experimental data. These results indicate that momentum transport from drifted ions induced by the electric field to neutral particles is an important factor that enhances turbulence.

  19. Search for New Phenomena in Dijet Angular Distributions in Proton-Proton Collisions at sqrt[s]=8 TeV Measured with the ATLAS Detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Álvarez Piqueras, D; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Bacci, C; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Bassalat, A; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanco, J E; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, K; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; 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Wasicki, C; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; Wharton, A M; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wildauer, A; Wilkens, H G; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, A; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wu, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yakabe, R; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, Y; Yao, L; Yao, W-M; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zurzolo, G; Zwalinski, L

    2015-06-01

    A search for new phenomena in LHC proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s]=8 TeV was performed with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 17.3 fb^{-1}. The angular distributions are studied in events with at least two jets; the highest dijet mass observed is 5.5 TeV. All angular distributions are consistent with the predictions of the standard model. In a benchmark model of quark contact interactions, a compositeness scale below 8.1 TeV in a destructive interference scenario and 12.0 TeV in a constructive interference scenario is excluded at 95% C.L.; median expected limits are 8.9 TeV for the destructive interference scenario and 14.1 TeV for the constructive interference scenario. PMID:26196615

  20. Paramutation phenomena in plants.

    PubMed

    Pilu, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Paramutation is a particular epigenetic phenomenon discovered in Zea mays by Alexander Brink in the 1950s, and then also found in other plants and animals. Brink coined the term paramutation (from the Greek syllable "para" meaning beside, near, beyond, aside) in 1958, with the aim to differentiate paramutation from mutation. The peculiarity of paramutation with respect to other gene silencing phenomena consists in the ability of the silenced allele (named paramutagenic) to silence the other allele (paramutable) present in trans. The newly silenced (paramutated) allele remains stable in the next generations even after segregation from the paramutagenic allele and acquires paramutagenic ability itself. The inheritance behaviour of these epialleles permits a fast diffusion of a particular gene expression level/phenotype in a population even in the absence of other evolutionary influences, thus breaking the Hardy-Weinberg law. As with other gene silencing phenomena such as quelling in the fungus Neurospora crassa, transvection in Drosophila, co-suppression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) described in transgenic plants and RNA interference (RNAi) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, paramutation occurs without changes in the DNA sequence. So far the molecular basis of paramutation remains not fully understood, although many studies point to the involvement of RNA causing changes in DNA methylation and chromatin structure of the silenced genes. In this review I summarize all paramutation phenomena described in plants, focusing on the similarities and differences between them. PMID:26335267

  1. Blast noise impacts on sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykaza, Edward T.; Pater, Larry L.

    2005-04-01

    Firing large guns during the hours of darkness is essential to combat readiness for the military. At the same time most people are particularly sensitive to noise when sleeping or trying to fall asleep. Laboratory studies done by Griefahn [J. Sound and Vib. 128, 109-119 (1989)] and Luz [see Luz et al., ERDC/CERL, TR-04-26 (2004)] suggest that a time period at night may exist where people are more tolerant to large weapon impulse noise (blast noise) and therefore, are less likely to be awakened from noise events. In the fall of 2004, a field study was conducted around a military installation to determine if such a time period(s) exists. Noise monitors were set up inside and outside of residents homes to record noise levels from live military training activities and actimeters were worn by participants sleeping their natural environment to measure sleep disturbance and awakening. The method and results of this study will be presented. [Work supported by US Army Engineer Research and Development Center CERL.

  2. A General Viscosity Model for Molten Blast Furnace Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Lei; Lai, Chaobin

    2014-06-01

    Blast furnace slag is the most abundant slag in the steel industry. Its metallurgical properties are determined to a great extent by its viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reliable viscosity model for blast furnace slag. In the current work, a simple, accurate, and physically meaningful viscosity model for a wide composition range of blast furnace slags is developed based on the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation: log ? = A + B/( T - C). The model is calibrated by a database containing 365 compositions and 1233 measurements of synthetic and industrial slags. The parameter A has a value of -3.10. The parameters B and C are related to the mass fraction ratio of (CaO + MgO) to (SiO2 + Al2O3) and liquidus temperature of the slag, respectively. Present viscosity model accurately predicts the viscosity of blast furnace slag with relative average error (?) of 0.211 (0.180) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.239 Pas. A slight modification of this model can also predict the glass transition temperature of blast furnace slag satisfactorily.

  3. Blasting vibrations control: The shortcomings of traditional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vuillaume, P.M.; Kiszlo, M.; Bernard, T.

    1996-12-31

    In the context of its studies for the French ministry of the environment and for the French national coal board, INERIS (the French institute for the industrial environment and hazards, formerly CERCHAR) has made a complete critical survey of the methods generally used to reduce the levels of blasting vibrations. It is generally acknowledged that the main parameter to control vibrations is the so-called instantaneous charge, or charge per delay. This should be reduced as much as possible in order to diminish vibration levels. On account of this, the use of a new generation of blasting devices, such as non-electric detonators or electronic sequential timers has been developed since the seventies. INERIS has collected data from about 900 blasts in 2 quarries and 3 open pit mines. These data include input parameters such as borehole diameter, burden, spacing, charge per hole, charge per delay, total fired charge, etc ... They also include output measurements, such as vibration peak particle velocities, and main frequencies. These data have been analyzed with the help of multi variable statistical tools. Blasting tests were undertaken to evaluate new methods of vibrations control, such as the superposition of vibration signals. These methods appear to be accurate in many critical cases, but certainly would be highly improved with a better accuracy of firing delays. The development of electronic detonators seems to be the way of the future for a better blasting control.

  4. Predictions of experimentally observed stochastic ground vibrations induced by blasting.

    PubMed

    Kosti?, Sr?an; Perc, Matja; Vasovi?, Neboja; Trajkovi?, Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we investigate the blast induced ground motion recorded at the limestone quarry "Suva Vrela" near Kosjeri?, which is located in the western part of Serbia. We examine the recorded signals by means of surrogate data methods and a determinism test, in order to determine whether the recorded ground velocity is stochastic or deterministic in nature. Longitudinal, transversal and the vertical ground motion component are analyzed at three monitoring points that are located at different distances from the blasting source. The analysis reveals that the recordings belong to a class of stationary linear stochastic processes with Gaussian inputs, which could be distorted by a monotonic, instantaneous, time-independent nonlinear function. Low determinism factors obtained with the determinism test further confirm the stochastic nature of the recordings. Guided by the outcome of time series analysis, we propose an improved prediction model for the peak particle velocity based on a neural network. We show that, while conventional predictors fail to provide acceptable prediction accuracy, the neural network model with four main blast parameters as input, namely total charge, maximum charge per delay, distance from the blasting source to the measuring point, and hole depth, delivers significantly more accurate predictions that may be applicable on site. We also perform a sensitivity analysis, which reveals that the distance from the blasting source has the strongest influence on the final value of the peak particle velocity. This is in full agreement with previous observations and theory, thus additionally validating our methodology and main conclusions. PMID:24358140

  5. Cold blast furnace syndrome: a new source of toxic inhalation by nitrogen oxides

    PubMed Central

    Tague, I; Llewellin, P; Burton, K; Buchan, R; Yates, D

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Fourteen workers developed acute respiratory symptoms shortly after exposure to "air blast" from blast furnace tuyeres. These included chest tightness, dyspnoea, rigors, and diaphoresis. Chest radiographs showed pulmonary infiltrates, and lung function a restrictive abnormality. This report includes a description of clinical features of the affected workers and elucidation of the probable cause of the outbreak. Results: Clinical features and occupational hygiene measurements suggested the most likely cause was inhalation of nitrogen oxides at high pressure and temperature. While the task could not be eliminated, engineering controls were implemented to control the hazard. No further cases have occurred. Conclusions: "Cold blast furnace syndrome" represents a previously undescribed hazard of blast furnace work, probably due to inhalation of nitrogen oxides. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute toxic inhalational injuries in blast furnace workers. PMID:15090669

  6. Ex vivo Characterization of Blast Wave Impact and Spinal Cord Tissue Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Gao, Jian; Connell, Sean; Shi, Riyi

    2010-11-01

    Primary blast injury on central nervous system is responsible for many of the war related casualties and mortalities. An ex vivo model system is developed to introduce a blast wave, generated from a shock tube, directly to spinal cord tissue sample. A high-speed shadowgraph system is utilized to visualize the development of the blast wave and its interaction with tissue sample. Surface deformation of the tissue sample is also measured for the analysis of internal stress and possible injury occurred within the tissue sample. Understanding the temporal development of the blast-tissue interaction provides valuable input for modeling blast-induced neurotrauma. Tracking the sample surface deformation as a function of time provides realistic boundary conditions for numerical simulation of injury process.

  7. EXAMINING LETHALITY RISK FOR RODENT STUDIES OF PRIMARY BLAST LUNG INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, William Brad; Hall, Christina; Sajja, Venkata Siva Sai Sujith; Lavik, Erin; VandeVord, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    While protective measures have been taken to mitigate injury to the thorax during a blast exposure, primary blast lung injury (PBLI) is still evident in mounted/in vehicle cases during military conflicts. Moreover, civilians, who are unprotected from blast exposure, can be severely harmed by terrorist attacks that use improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Since the lungs are the most susceptible organ due to their air-filled nature, PBLI is one of the most serious injuries seen in civilian blast cases. Determining lethality threshold for rodent studies is crucial to guide experimental designs centered on therapies for survival after PBLI or mechanistic understanding of the injury itself. Using an Advanced Blast Simulator, unprotected rats were exposed to a whole body blast to induce PBLI. The one-hour survival rate was assessed to determine operating conditions for a 50% lethality rate. Macroscopic and histological analysis of lung was conducted using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results demonstrated lethality risk trends based on static blast overpressure (BOP) for rodent models, which may help standardized animal studies and contribute to scaling to the human level. The need for a standardized method of producing PBLI is pressing and establishing standard curves, such as a lethality risk curve for lung blasts, is crucial for this condensing of BOP methods. PMID:25405409

  8. Examining lethality risk for rodent studies of primary blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, William Brad; Hall, Christina; Siva Sai Suijith Sajja, Venkata; Lavik, Erink; VandeVord, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    While protective measures have been taken to mitigate injury to the thorax during a blast exposure, primary blast lung injury (PBLI) is still evident in mounted/in vehicle cases during military conflicts. Moreover, civilians, who are unprotected from blast exposure, can be severely harmed by terrorist attacks that use improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Since the lungs are the most susceptible organ due to their air-filled nature, PBLI is one of the most serious injuries seen in civilian blast cases. Determining lethality threshold for rodent studies is crucial to guide experimental designs centered on therapies for survival after PBLI or mechanistic understanding of the injury itself. Using an Advanced Blast Simulator, unprotected rats were exposed to a whole body blast to induce PBLI. The one-hour survival rate was assessed to determine operating conditions for a 50% lethality rate. Macroscopic and histological analysis of lung was conducted using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results demonstrated lethality risk trends based on static blast overpressure (BOP) for rodent models, which may help standardized animal studies and contribute to scaling to the human level. The need for a standardized method of producing PBLI is pressing and establishing standard curves, such as a lethality risk curve for lung blasts, is crucial for this condensing of BOP methods. PMID:25405409

  9. Weak values as interference phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Weak values arise experimentally as conditioned averages of weak (noisy) observable measurements that minimally disturb an initial quantum state, and also as dynamical variables for reduced quantum state evolution even in the absence of measurement. These averages can exceed the eigenvalue range of the observable ostensibly being estimated, which has prompted considerable debate regarding their interpretation. Classical conditioned averages of noisy signals only show such anomalies if the quantity being measured is also disturbed prior to conditioning. This fact has recently been rediscovered, along with the question whether anomalous weak values are merely classical disturbance effects. Here we carefully review the role of the weak value as both a conditioned observable estimation and a dynamical variable, and clarify why classical disturbance models will be insufficient to explain the weak value unless they can also simulate other quantum interference phenomena.

  10. Fine tuning the roughness of powder blasted surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wensink, Henk; Schlautmann, Stefan; Goedbloed, Martijn H.; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

    2002-09-01

    Powder blasting (abrasive jet machining) has recently been introduced as a bulk-micromachining technique for brittle materials. The surface roughness that is created with this technique is much higher (with a value of Ra between 1-2.5 ?m) compared to general micromachining techniques. In this paper we study the roughness of powder blasted glass surfaces, and show how it depends on the process parameters. The roughness can also be changed after blasting by HF etching or by using a high-temperature anneal step. Roughness measurements and scanning electron microscopy images show the quantitative and qualitative changes in roughness. These post-processes will allow us to investigate the influence of surface roughness on the microsystem performance in future research.

  11. Environmental effects of blast induced immissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schillinger, R.R.

    1996-12-01

    The subject of the paper is blasting vibrations as sources of environmental molestations including acceptance level, complaint level and damage level, as well. In addition, the paper shows a comparison of international regulations and their problematical aspects. In consideration of blast induced immissions the subject shows that human annoyance has become an important place in blasting works. It provides a solution proposal how to minimize environmental effects of blasting works.

  12. Simulation of Blast Waves with Headwind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Lawrence, Scott W.; Klopfer, Goetz H.; Mathias, Dovan; Onufer, Jeff T.

    2005-01-01

    The blast wave resulting from an explosion was simulated to provide guidance for models estimating risks for human spacecraft flight. Simulations included effects of headwind on blast propagation, Blasts were modelled as an initial value problem with a uniform high energy sphere expanding into an ambient field. Both still air and cases with headwind were calculated.

  13. MOLECULAR CONTROL OF THE RICE BLAST DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea is a major constraint to rice production worldwide. The rice blast system is one of the best-characterized monocot model systems. The goal of this project is to understand molecular mechanisms of disease resistance using rice blast as a model system....

  14. Wolf-Rayet phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of stars showing Wolf-Rayet phenomena are outlined along with the direction of future work. Emphasis is placed on the characteristics of W-R spectra. Specifically the following topics are covered: the absolute visual magnitudes; the heterogeneity of WN spectra; the existence of transition type spectra and compositions the mass loss rates; and the existence of very luminous and possibly very massive W-R stars. Also, a brief overview of current understanding of the theoretical aspects of stellar evolution and stellar winds and the various scenarios that have been proposed to understand W-R spectra are included.

  15. Blasting Rocks and Blasting Cars Applied Engineering

    ScienceCinema

    LBNL

    2009-09-01

    June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated ... June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated a program at Berkeley Lab funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, a collaboration between the federal government and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research. Nondestructive evaluation techniques to test a car's structural integrity are being developed for auto assembly lines.

  16. Blasting Rocks and Blasting Cars Applied Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    LBNL

    2008-07-02

    June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated ... June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated a program at Berkeley Lab funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, a collaboration between the federal government and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research. Nondestructive evaluation techniques to test a car's structural integrity are being developed for auto assembly lines.

  17. Full-Trajectory Diagnosis of Laser-Driven Radiative Blast Waves in Search of Thermal Plasma Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, A. S.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Lazarus, J.; Hohenberger, M.; Robinson, J. S.; Smith, R. A.; Plant, T. J. A.; Symes, D. R.; Dunne, M.

    2008-02-08

    Experimental investigations into the dynamics of cylindrical, laser-driven, high-Mach-number shocks are used to study the thermal cooling instability predicted to occur in astrophysical radiative blast waves. A streaked Schlieren technique measures the full blast-wave trajectory on a single-shot basis, which is key for observing shock velocity oscillations. Electron density profiles and deceleration parameters associated with radiative blast waves were recorded, enabling the calculation of important blast-wave parameters including the fraction of radiated energy, {epsilon}, as a function of time for comparison with radiation-hydrodynamics simulations.

  18. MULTISCALE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    A. BISHOP

    2000-09-01

    This project developed and supported a technology base in nonequilibrium phenomena underpinning fundamental issues in condensed matter and materials science, and applied this technology to selected problems. In this way the increasingly sophisticated synthesis and characterization available for classes of complex electronic and structural materials provided a testbed for nonlinear science, while nonlinear and nonequilibrium techniques helped advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of material microstructure, their evolution, fundamental to macroscopic functionalities. The project focused on overlapping areas of emerging thrusts and programs in the Los Alamos materials community for which nonlinear and nonequilibrium approaches will have decisive roles and where productive teamwork among elements of modeling, simulations, synthesis, characterization and applications could be anticipated--particularly multiscale and nonequilibrium phenomena, and complex matter in and between fields of soft, hard and biomimetic materials. Principal topics were: (i) Complex organic and inorganic electronic materials, including hard, soft and biomimetic materials, self-assembly processes and photophysics; (ii) Microstructure and evolution in multiscale and hierarchical materials, including dynamic fracture and friction, dislocation and large-scale deformation, metastability, and inhomogeneity; and (iii) Equilibrium and nonequilibrium phases and phase transformations, emphasizing competing interactions, frustration, landscapes, glassy and stochastic dynamics, and energy focusing.

  19. Multiphase-flow numerical modeling of the 18 May 1980 lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ongaro, T.E.; Widiwijayanti, C.; Clarke, A.B.; Voight, B.; Neri, A.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic lateral blasts are among the most spectacular and devastating of natural phenomena, but their dynamics are still poorly understood. Here we investigate the best documented and most controversial blast at Mount St. Helens (Washington State, United States), on 18 May 1980. By means of three-dimensional multiphase numerical simulations we demonstrate that the blast front propagation, fi nal runout, and damage can be explained by the emplacement of an unsteady, stratifi ed pyroclastic density current, controlled by gravity and terrain morphology. Such an interpretation is quantitatively supported by large-scale observations at Mount St. Helens and will infl uence the defi nition and predictive mapping of hazards on blast-dangerous volcanoes worldwide. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  20. Alumina grit blasting parameters for surface preparation in the plasma spraying operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellali, M.; Grimaud, A.; Leger, A. C.; Fauchais, P.; Lu, J.

    1997-06-01

    This paper examines how the grit blasting process influences the surface roughness of different sub-strates, the grit residue, and the grit erosion. The influence of grit blasting conditions on induced sub-strate residual stresses is also discussed. Aluminum alloy, cast iron, and hard steel were blasted with white alumina grits of 0.5,1, and 1.4 mm mean diameters. Grit blasting was performed using either a suction-type or a pressure-type machine equipped with straight nozzles made of B4C. The influence of the follow-ing parameters was studied: grit blasting distance (56 to 200 mm), blasting time (3 to 30 s), angle between nozzle and blasted surface (30, 60, 90), and blasting pressure (0.2 to 0.7 MPa). The roughness of the substrate was characterized either by using a perthometer or by image analysis. The grit residue remain-ing at the blasted surface was evaluated after cleaning by image analysis. The residual stresses induced by grit blasting were determined by using the incremental hole drilling method and by measuring the de-flection of grit-blasted beams. Grit size was determined to be the most important influence on roughness. The average values of Ra and Rt and the percentage of grit residue increased with grit size as well as the depth of the plastic zone under the substrate. An increase of the pressure slightly increased the values of a and Rt but also promoted grit breakdown and grit residue. A blasting time of 3 to 6 s was sufficient to obtain the highest roughness and limit the grit breakdown. The residual stresses generated under the blasted surface were compressive, and the depth of the affected zone depended on the grit diameter, the blasting pressure, and the Youngs modulus of the substrate. More-over, the maximum residual stress was reached at the limit of the plastic zone (i.e., several tenths of a mil-limeter below the substrate surface).

  1. Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.

  2. Blast vulnerability detected in novel blast-resistant germplasm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research in artificially inoculated greenhouse tests and field nurseries identified new rice germplasm accession as being resistant to the common blast (Pyricularia grisea) races found in Arkansas (IB-1, IB-49, IC-17, IE-1, IE-1k, IG-1, and IH-1) and eliminated those accessions with major b...

  3. Weld pool phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Zacharia, T.; DebRoy, T.

    1994-09-01

    During welding, the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure are affected by the interaction of the heat source with the metal. The interaction affects the fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer in the weld pool, and the solidification behavior of the weld metal. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of the weld pool transport processes and the solid state transformation reactions in determining the composition, structure and properties of the welded structure. The relation between the weld pool transport processes and the composition and structure is reviewed. Recent applications of various solidification theories to welding are examined to understand the special problems of weld metal solidification. The discussion is focussed on the important problems and issues related to weld pool transport phenomena and solidification. Resolution of these problems would be an important step towards a science based control of composition, structure and properties of the weld metal.

  4. Prediction of blast-induced air overpressure: a hybrid AI-based predictive model.

    PubMed

    Jahed Armaghani, Danial; Hajihassani, Mohsen; Marto, Aminaton; Shirani Faradonbeh, Roohollah; Mohamad, Edy Tonnizam

    2015-11-01

    Blast operations in the vicinity of residential areas usually produce significant environmental problems which may cause severe damage to the nearby areas. Blast-induced air overpressure (AOp) is one of the most important environmental impacts of blast operations which needs to be predicted to minimize the potential risk of damage. This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) optimized by the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) for the prediction of AOp induced by quarry blasting. For this purpose, 95 blasting operations were precisely monitored in a granite quarry site in Malaysia and AOp values were recorded in each operation. Furthermore, the most influential parameters on AOp, including the maximum charge per delay and the distance between the blast-face and monitoring point, were measured and used to train the ICA-ANN model. Based on the generalized predictor equation and considering the measured data from the granite quarry site, a new empirical equation was developed to predict AOp. For comparison purposes, conventional ANN models were developed and compared with the ICA-ANN results. The results demonstrated that the proposed ICA-ANN model is able to predict blast-induced AOp more accurately than other presented techniques. PMID:26433903

  5. Blast injury research: modeling injury effects of landmines, bullets, and bombs.

    PubMed

    Hayda, Roman; Harris, Robert M; Bass, Cameron Dale

    2004-05-01

    Terrorist blasts and landmine injuries have become more common in the past several decades generating thousands of casualties. Preventive and prognostic measures are limited by the lack of knowledge of these complex events. Previous blast research has focused on primary blast injuries that involve the lung, despite musculoskeletal injuries being the most common. Through the use of instrumented cadavers, Hybrid III test dummies, and other surrogates, unique models of these events have been created. The investigations studied the effectiveness of antimine footwear, forces and injury mechanisms in temporary shelters subjected to blast, modeling of blast-induced glass fragmentation, and helmet deformation and injury potential under ballistic load. Despite blasts being much higher rate events than those seen in automotive blunt trauma, we were able to measure forces and create injury models. We found that antimine footwear will require additional development to be effective. Guidelines for shelter placement have been altered, and tempered glass seems to offer no protection when compared with annealed glass. Although these models are in their nascent phase, the thorough understanding of the biomechanical nature of these blast injuries will assist in developing strategies to reduce injuries and in the creation of forecasting models. PMID:15187840

  6. Rice blast disease in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is an important agricultural commodity in Texas, with an economic impact of more than $1 billion annually. Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases in rice. Texas Rice Belt provides a warm, humid climate favorable for the infection and reproduction of M....

  7. The Next Generation BLAST Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galitzki, Nicholas; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angil, Francesco E.; Ashton, Peter; Beall, James A.; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J.; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E.; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C.; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeffrey; van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P.; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G.; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P.; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Tucker, Carole; Ullom, Joel N.; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5-m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and 3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 ?m. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn-coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid helium cooled cryostat will have a 28-day hold time and will utilize a closed-cycle 3He refrigerator to cool the detector arrays to 270 mK. This will enable a detailed mapping of more targets with higher polarization resolution than any other submillimeter experiment to date. BLAST-TNG will also be the first balloon-borne telescope to offer shared risk observing time to the community. This paper outlines the motivation for the project and the instrumental design.

  8. A miniature pressure sensor for blast event evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Nan; Wang, Wenhui; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

    2011-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a great potential threat to people who deal with explosive devices. Protection from TBI has attracted more and more interest. Great efforts have been taken to the studies on the understanding of the propagation of the blast events and its effect on TBI. However, one of the biggest challenges is that the current available pressure sensors are not fast enough to capture the blast wave especially the transient period. This paper reports an ultrafast pressure sensor that could be very useful for analysis of the fast changing blast signal. The sensor is based on Fabry-Perot (FP) principle. It uses a 45 angle polished fiber sitting in a V-groove on a silicon chip. The endface of the angle polished fiber and the diaphragm which is lifted off on the side wall of the V-groove form the FP cavity. The sensor is very small and can be mounted on different locations of a helmet to measure blast pressure simultaneously. The tests were conducted at Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center (NSRDEC) in Natick, MA. The sensors were mounted in a shock tube, side by side with the reference sensors, to measure a rapidly increased pressure. The results demonstrated that our sensors' responses agreed well with those from the electrical reference sensors and their response time is comparable.

  9. Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary.

  10. Laboratory blast wave driven instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranz, Carolyn

    2008-04-01

    This presentation discusses experiments well-scaled to the blast wave driven instabilities during the explosion phase of SN1987A. Blast waves occur following a sudden, finite release of energy, and consist of a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. When a blast wave crosses an interface with a decrease in density, hydrodynamic instabilities will develop. These experiments include target materials scaled in density to the He/H layer in SN1987A. About 5 kJ of laser energy from the Omega Laser facility irradiates a 150 ?m plastic layer that is followed by a low density foam layer. A blast wave structure similar to those in supernovae, is created in the plastic layer. The blast wave crosses a perturbed interface, which produces nonlinear, unstable growth dominated by the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability. Recent experiments have been performed using complex initial conditions featuring a three-dimensional interface structure with a wavelength of 71 ?m in two orthogonal directions, at times supplemented by an additional sinusoidal mode of 212 ?m or 424 ?m. We have detected the interface structure under these conditions, using dual orthogonal radiographs on some shots, and will show some of the resulting data. Recent advancements in our x-ray backlighting techniques have greatly improved the resolution of our x-ray radiographic images. Under certain conditions, the improved images show some mass extending beyond the RT spike and penetrating further than previously observed. Current simulations do not show this phenomenon. This presentation will discuss the amount of mass in these spike extensions as well as the error analysis of this calculation. Future experiments will also be discussed. They will be focusing on realistic initial conditions based on 3D stellar evolution models. This research was sponsored by the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program through DOE Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058, DE-FG52-04NA00064, and other grants and contracts.

  11. Anomalous Light Phenomena vs. Bioelectric Brain Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.

    We present a research proposal concerning the instrumented investigation of anomalous light phenomena that are apparently correlated with particular mind states, such as prayer, meditation or psi. Previous research by these authors demonstrate that such light phenomena can be monitored and measured quite efficiently in areas of the world where they are reported in a recurrent way. Instruments such as optical equipment for photography and spectroscopy, VLF spectrometers, magnetometers, radar and IR viewers were deployed and used massively in several areas of the world. Results allowed us to develop physical models concerning the structural and time-variable behaviour of light phenomena, and their kinematics. Recent insights and witnesses have suggested to us that a sort of "synchronous connection" seems to exist between plasma-like phenomena and particular mind states of experiencers who seem to trigger a light manifestation which is very similar to the one previously investigated. The main goal of these authors is now aimed at the search for a concrete "entanglement-like effect" between the experiencer's mind and the light phenomena, in such a way that both aspects are intended to be monitored and measured simultaneously using appropriate instrumentation. The goal of this research project is twofold: a) to verify quantitatively the existence of one very particular kind of mind-matter interaction and to study in real time its physical and biophysical manifestations; b) to repeat the same kind of experiment using the same test-subject in different locations and under various conditions of geomagnetic activity.

  12. Examination of humidity effects on measured thickness and interfacial phenomena of exfoliated graphene on silicon dioxide via amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinkins, K.; Camacho, J.; Farina, L.; Wu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The properties of Few-Layer Graphene (FLG) change with the number of layers and Amplitude Modulation (AM) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is commonly used to determine the thickness of FLG. However, AFM measurements have been shown to be sensitive to environmental conditions such as relative humidity (RH). In the present study, AM-AFM is used to measure the thickness and loss tangent of exfoliated graphene on silicon dioxide (SiO2) as RH is increased from 10% to 80%. We show that the measured thickness of graphene is dependent on RH. The loss tangent values of the graphene and oxide regions are both affected by humidity, with generally higher loss tangent for graphene than SiO2. As RH increases, we observe the loss tangent of both materials approaches the same value. We hypothesize that there is a layer of water trapped between the graphene and SiO2 substrate to explain this observation. Using this interpretation, the loss tangent images also indicate movement and change in this trapped water layer as RH increases, which impacts the measured thickness of graphene using AM-AFM.

  13. Examination of Humidity Effects on Measured Thickness and Interfacial Phenomena of Exfoliated Graphene on SiO2 via AC-AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinkins, Katherine; Camacho, Jorge; Farina, Lee; Wu, Yan

    2015-03-01

    Tapping (AC) mode Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is commonly used to determine the thickness of graphene samples. However, AFM measurements have been shown to be sensitive to environmental conditions such as adsorbed water, in turn dependent on relative humidity (RH). In the present study, AC-AFM is used to measure the thickness and loss tangent of exfoliated graphene on silicon dioxide (SiO2) as RH is increased from 10% to 80%. We show that the measured thickness of graphene is dependent on RH. Loss tangent is an AFM imaging technique that interprets the phase information as a relationship between the stored and dissipated energy in the tip-sample interaction. This study demonstrates the loss tangent of the graphene and oxide regions are both affected by humidity, with generally higher loss tangent for graphene than SiO2. As RH increases, we observe the loss tangent of both materials approaches the same value. We hypothesize that there is a layer of water trapped between the graphene and SiO2 substrate to explain this observation. Using this interpretation, the loss tangent images also indicate movement and change in this trapped water layer as RH increases, which impacts the measured thickness of graphene using AC-AFM.

  14. Pathology of blast-related brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Jeffery D; Tessler, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Blasts are responsible for about two-thirds of the combat injuries in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, which include at least 1,200 traumatic brain injuries. Blasts inflict damage to the brain directly and by causing injuries to other organs, resulting in air emboli, hypoxia, and shock. Direct injuries to the brain result from rapid shifts in air pressure (primary blast injury), from impacts with munitions fragments and other objects propelled by the explosion (secondary blast injury), and from collisions with objects and rapid acceleration of individuals propelled by the explosion (tertiary blast injury). Tertiary injury can occur from a building or other structure collapsing and from an individual being thrown by the blast wind. The pathological consequences of secondary and tertiary blast injuries are very likely to be similar to those of other types of mechanical trauma seen in civilian life. The damage attributable to the specific effects of a blast, however, has received little study, although it has been assumed to include the focal and diffuse lesions characteristic of closed head injuries. Available clinical studies of blast injuries show focal damage similar to that found in other types of closed head injuries but have not determined whether diffuse axonal injury also occurs. In this article, we will try to reach a better understanding of the specific pathology of blast-related brain injury by reviewing the available experimental studies and the autopsy reports of victims of terrorist attacks and military casualties dating back to World War I. PMID:20104396

  15. ON DETECTING TRANSIENT PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, G.

    2013-08-10

    Transient phenomena are interesting and potentially highly revealing of details about the processes under observation and study that could otherwise go unnoticed. It is therefore important to maximize the sensitivity of the method used to identify such events. In this article, we present a general procedure based on the use of the likelihood function for identifying transients which is particularly suited for real-time applications because it requires no grouping or pre-processing of the data. The method makes use of all the information that is available in the data throughout the statistical decision-making process, and is suitable for a wide range of applications. Here we consider those most common in astrophysics, which involve searching for transient sources, events or features in images, time series, energy spectra, and power spectra, and demonstrate the use of the method in the case of a weak X-ray flare in a time series and a short-lived quasi-periodic oscillation in a power spectrum. We derive a fit statistic that is ideal for fitting arbitrarily shaped models to a power density distribution, which is of general interest in all applications involving periodogram analysis.

  16. Arcjet Cathode Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  17. Arcjet cathode phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  18. Behavioral Outcomes Differ between Rotational Acceleration and Blast Mechanisms of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Stemper, Brian D.; Shah, Alok S.; Budde, Matthew D.; Olsen, Christopher M.; Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra; Kurpad, Shekar N.; McCrea, Michael; Pintar, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can result from a number of mechanisms, including blunt impact, head rotational acceleration, exposure to blast, and penetration of projectiles. Mechanism is likely to influence the type, severity, and chronicity of outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine differences in the severity and time course of behavioral outcomes following blast and rotational mTBI. The Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) Rotational Injury model and a shock tube model of primary blast injury were used to induce mTBI in rats and behavioral assessments were conducted within the first week, as well as 30 and 60 days following injury. Acute recovery time demonstrated similar increases over protocol-matched shams, indicating acute injury severity equivalence between the two mechanisms. Post-injury behavior in the elevated plus maze demonstrated differing trends, with rotationally injured rats acutely demonstrating greater activity, whereas blast-injured rats had decreased activity that developed at chronic time points. Similarly, blast-injured rats demonstrated trends associated with cognitive deficits that were not apparent following rotational injuries. These findings demonstrate that rotational and blast injury result in behavioral changes with different qualitative and temporal manifestations. Whereas rotational injury was characterized by a rapidly emerging phenotype consistent with behavioral disinhibition, blast injury was associated with emotional and cognitive differences that were not evident acutely, but developed later, with an anxiety-like phenotype still present in injured animals at our most chronic measurements. PMID:27014184

  19. Viscoelastic Materials Study for the Mitigation of Blast-Related Brain Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Recent preliminary research into the causes of blast-related brain injury indicates that exposure to blast pressures, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficient to protect the warfighter from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. Commercially available viscoelastic materials, designed to dampen vibration caused by shock waves, might be useful as helmet liners to dampen blast waves. The objective of this research is to develop an experimental technique to test these commercially available materials when subject to blast waves and evaluate their blast mitigating behavior. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is being used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 1 to 500 psi) in a test fixture at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release nitrogen gas from the breech to impact instrumented targets. The targets consist of aluminum/ viscoelastic polymer/ aluminum materials. Blast attenuation is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

  20. Characteristics of an explosive blast-induced brain injury in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    de Lanerolle, Nihal C; Bandak, Faris; Kang, Dewey; Li, Alexander Y; Du, Fu; Swauger, Peter; Parks, Steven; Ling, Geoffrey; Kim, Jung H

    2011-11-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury resulting from exposure to an explosive blast is associated with significant neurobehavioral outcomes in soldiers. Little is known about the neuropathologic consequences of such an insult to the human brain. This study is an attempt to understand the effects of an explosive blast in a large animal gyrencephalic brain blast injury model. Anesthetized Yorkshire swine were exposed to measured explosive blast levels in 3 operationally relevant scenarios: simulated free field (blast tube), high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle surrogate, and building (4-walled structure). Histologic changes in exposed animals up to 2 weeks after blast were compared to a group of naive and sham controls. The overall pathologic changes in all 3 blast scenarios were limited, with very little neuronal injury, fiber tract demyelination, or intracranial hemorrhage observed. However, there were 2 distinct neuropathologic changes observed: increased astrocyte activation and proliferation and periventricular axonal injury detected with ?-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemistry. We postulate that the increased astrogliosis observed may have a longer-term potential for the exacerbation of brain injury and that the pattern of periventricular axonal injury may be related to a potential for cognitive and mood disorders. PMID:22002430

  1. Lidar and radar measurements of the melting layer in the frame of the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study: observations of dark and bright band phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Bhawar, R.; di Iorio, T.; Norton, E. G.; Peters, G.; Dufournet, Y.

    2011-11-01

    During the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS), lidar dark and bright bands were observed by the University of BASILicata Raman lidar system (BASIL) during several intensive (IOPs) and special (SOPs) observation periods (among others, 23 July, 15 August, and 17 August 2007). Lidar data were supported by measurements from the University of Hamburg cloud radar MIRA 36 (36 GHz), the University of Hamburg dual-polarization micro rain radars (24.1 GHz) and the University of Manchester UHF wind profiler (1.29 GHz). Results from BASIL and the radars for 23 July 2007 are illustrated and discussed to support the comprehension of the microphysical and scattering processes responsible for the appearance of the lidar and radar dark and bright bands. Simulations of the lidar dark and bright band based on the application of concentric/eccentric sphere Lorentz-Mie codes and a melting layer model are also provided. Lidar and radar measurements and model results are also compared with measurements from a disdrometer on ground and a two-dimensional cloud (2DC) probe on-board the ATR42 SAFIRE.

  2. Surface assessment and modification of concrete using abrasive blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millman, Lauren R.

    Composite systems are applied to concrete substrates to strengthen and extend the service life. Successful restoration or rehabilitation requires surface preparation prior to the application of the overlay. Surface coatings, waterproofing systems, and other external surface applications also require surface preparation prior to application. Abrasive blast media is often used to clean and uniformly roughen the substrate. The appropriate surface roughness is necessary to facilitate a strong bond between the existing substrate and overlay. Thus, surface modification using abrasive blast media (sand and dry ice), their respective environmental effects, surface roughness characterization prior to and after blasting, and the adhesion between the substrate and overlay are the focus of this dissertation. This dissertation is comprised of an introduction, a literature review, and four chapters, the first of which addresses the environmental effects due to abrasive blasting using sand, water, and dry ice. The assessment considered four response variables: carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel and energy consumption, and project duration. The results indicated that for sand blasting and water jetting, the primary factor contributing to environmental detriment was CO22 emissions from vehicular traffic near the construction site. The second chapter is an analysis of the International Concrete Repair Institute's (ICRI) concrete surface profiles (CSPs) using 3-D optical profilometry. The primary objective was to evaluate the suitability of approximating the 3-D surface (areal) parameters with those extracted from 2-D (linear) profiles. Four profile directions were considered: two diagonals, and lines parallel and transverse to the longitudinal direction of the mold. For any CSP mold, the estimation of the 3-D surface roughness using a 2-D linear profile resulted in underestimation and overestimation errors exceeding 50%, demonstrating the inadequacy of 2-D linear profiles to approximate the 3-D concrete surface profiles. The errors were reduced when a weighted average of the four linear profiles approximated the corresponding 3-D parameter. The following chapter considers the parametric and sensitivity of concrete surface topography measurements. The weighted average of the four 2-D profiles consistently resulted in underestimation of the corresponding 3-D parameters: the dispersion of surface elevations (Sq) and the roughness (Sa). Results indicated the 3-D parameter, Sq, had the least sensitivity to data point reduction. The final chapter investigated surface modification using dry ice and sand blasting. The overall objective was to evaluate the change in the 3-D surface roughness (Sa) following blasting as functions of mix design and as induced by freeze-thaw cycling, and to compare the results obtained using dry ice with those obtained using sand as the blasting media. In general, sand blasting produced larger changes in Sa compared to dry ice blasting for the concrete mix designs considered. The primary mechanism responsible for altering the surface topography of the concrete was the scaling of the superficial cement paste layer on the exposed surface, which was due to freeze-thaw cycling. The largest relative change in roughness following blasting occurred in the control samples, which had not undergone freeze-thaw cycling.

  3. Operation Sun Beam, Shots Little Feller II and Small Boy. Project Officer's report - Project 7. 16. Airborne E-field radiation measurements of electromagnetic-pulse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, K.L.

    1985-09-01

    Airborne measurements of the absolute vertical electric field (E-field) of the radiated electromagnetic pulse were attempted for Shots Little Feller II and Small Boy. Instrumentation included calibrated vertical whip antennas, wideband magnetic tape recorders, and photographs of oscilloscope traces. One instrumented aircraft participated in Little Feller II (C-131F); two aircraft participated in Small Boy (a C-131F and an A-3A). No detectable signals were recorded for either event. It is concluded that the vertical E-field intensities encountered were below the calibrated levels of the instrumentation or the method of instrumentation and calibration was inadequate for nonrepetitive pulse signals.

  4. Simple Phenomena, Slow Motion, Surprising Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koupil, Jan; Vicha, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a few simple experiments that are worthwhile for slow motion recording and analysis either because of interesting phenomena that can be seen only when slowed down significantly or because of the ability to do precise time measurements. The experiments described in this article are quite commonly done in Czech schools. All

  5. GENERAL VIEW OF TURBOBLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF TURBO-BLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND HOT BLAST STOVES (RIGHT). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Haselton Blast Furnaces, West of Center Street Viaduct, along Mahoning River, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  6. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  7. Looking east at blast furnace no. 5 between the hot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east at blast furnace no. 5 between the hot blast stoves (left) and the dustcatcher (right). - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  9. Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 9. LOOKING NORTH AT TRESTLE, HOIST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING NORTH AT TRESTLE, HOIST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE No. 1, AND HOT BLAST STOVES. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  16. Numerical simulation of armored vehicles subjected to undercarriage landmine blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, A.; Kilic, S. A.; Kilic, N.; Bedir, S.

    2015-05-01

    Landmine threats play a crucial role in the design of armored personnel carriers. Therefore, a reliable blast simulation methodology is valuable to the vehicle design development process. The first part of this study presents a parametric approach for the quantification of the important factors such as the incident overpressure, the reflected overpressure, the incident impulse, and the reflected impulse for the blast simulations that employ the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation. The effects of mesh resolution, mesh topology, and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) parameters are discussed. The simulation results are compared with the calculations of the more established CONventional WEaPons (CONWEP ) approach based on the available experimental data. The initial findings show that the spherical topology provides advantages over the Cartesian mesh domains. Furthermore, the FSI parameters play an important role when coarse Lagrangian finite elements are coupled with fine Eulerian elements at the interface. The optimum mesh topology and the mesh resolution of the parametric study are then used in the landmine blast simulation. The second part of the study presents the experimental blast response of an armored vehicle subjected to a landmine explosion under the front left wheel in accordance with the NATO AEP-55 Standard. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  17. Blast furnace coal injection at Scunthorpe Works, British Steel plc

    SciTech Connect

    Matheau-Raven, D.

    1996-12-31

    Granulator coal injection has been practiced since 1982 at Scunthorpe Works, British Steel plc. The Works is world famous for its four Queens of Ironmaking, named Victoria, Anne, Bess and Mary. These four blast furnaces are capable of producing 4.1 million tonnes of hot metal per annum. The coal injection system was a joint development venture between British Steel and a local based company call Clyde Pneumatic Conveyors. After 14 years of operation and regulator use, Scunthorpe`s coal injection rates have risen to become among the highest in the world. Total coal injected stands at around 4 million tonnes and coal injection rates of greater than 200 kg/thm have been achieved. The furnace operation has remained smooth throughout and there have been no measurable detrimental effects upon the blast furnace performance. In fact quite the opposite with several benefits. This paper briefly describes the furnaces and the coal injection equipment. Operating results for a full twelve months are given and discussed as are aspects of the blast furnace operating practice enabling these injection rates to be achieved. In financial terms savings totaling around 14 million pounds sterling per annum have been realized through the use of blast furnace coal injection.

  18. Implications of blast exposure for central auditory function: a review.

    PubMed

    Gallun, Frederick J; Lewis, M Samantha; Folmer, Robert L; Diedesch, Anna C; Kubli, Lina R; McDermott, Daniel J; Walden, Therese C; Fausti, Stephen A; Lew, Henry L; Leek, Marjorie R

    2012-01-01

    Auditory system functions, from peripheral sensitivity to central processing capacities, are all at risk from a blast event. Accurate encoding of auditory patterns in time, frequency, and space are required for a clear understanding of speech and accurate localization of sound sources in environments with background noise, multiple sound sources, and/or reverberation. Further work is needed to refine the battery of clinical tests sensitive to the sorts of central auditory dysfunction observed in individuals with blast exposure. Treatment options include low-gain hearing aids, remote-microphone technology, and auditory-training regimens, but clinical evidence does not yet exist for recommending one or more of these options. As this population ages, the natural aging process and other potential brain injuries (such as stroke and blunt trauma) may combine with blast-related brain changes to produce a population for which the current clinical diagnostic and treatment tools may prove inadequate. It is important to maintain an updated understanding of the scope of the issues present in this population and to continue to identify those solutions that can provide measurable improvements in the lives of Veterans who have been exposed to high-intensity blasts during the course of their military service. PMID:23341279

  19. Panicle blast and canopy moisture in rice cultivar mixtures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, You-Yong; Fang, Hui; Wang, Yun-Yue; Fan, Jin Xiang; Yang, Shi-Sheng; Mew, Twng Wah; Mundt, Christopher C

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT Glutinous rice cultivars were sown after every fourth row of a nonglutinous, hybrid cultivar in an additive design. The glutinous cultivars were 35 to 40 cm taller and substantially more susceptible to blast than was the nonglutinous cultivar. Interplanting of glutinous and nonglutinous rice reduced the incidence and severity of panicle blast on the glutinous cultivars by >90%, and on the nonglutinous cultivar by 30 to 40%. Mixing increased the per unit area yield of glutinous rice by 80 to 90% relative to pure stand, whereas yield of the nonglutinous cultivar was essentially unaffected by mixing. To determine whether the different plant heights and canopy structures may contribute to a microclimate that is less favorable to blast infection, we monitored the moisture status of the glutinous cultivars in pure stand and mixture at 0800 h by measuring relative humidity at the height of the glutinous panicles using a swing psychrometer and by visually estimating the percentage of leaf area covered by dew. Averaged over the two seasons, the number of days of 100% humidity at 0800 h was 20.0 and 2.2 for pure stands and mixtures, respectively. The mean percentage of glutinous leaf area covered by dewwas 84 and 36% for the pure stands and mixtures, respectively. Although other mechanisms also were operative, reduced leaf wetness was likely a substantial contributor to panicle blast control in the mixtures. PMID:18943047

  20. Nondestructive thermoelectric evaluation of the grit blasting induced effects in metallic biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreon, H.; Ruiz, A.; Barriuso, S.; Gonzlez-Carrasco, J. L.; Caballero, F. G.; Lieblich, M.

    2013-01-01

    Grit blasting is a surface treatment process widely used to enhance mechanical fixation of the implants through increasing their roughness. Test samples of two metallic biomaterial alloys such 316LVM and Ti6Al4V were blasted by projecting Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles which yield a coarse and a fine rough surface. Then, the blasted samples were thermally treated before and after partial stress relaxation and measured by non-destructive thermoelectric techniques (NDTT), the non-contacting and contacting thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements respectively. It has been found that the TEP measurements are associated directly with the subtle material variations such as cold work and compressive residual stresses due to plastic deformation produced by grit blasting. The TEP measurements clearly demonstrate that the non-contact NDTT technique is very sensitive to the reverse transformation of the ?'-martensite (blasted 316LVM) and the expected relaxation of compressive residual stresses with increasing the severity of the thermal treatment (blasted 316LVM and Ti-6Al-4V), while the contact NDTT results are closely related to grain size refinement and work hardening.

  1. Hypervelocity impact phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.

    1995-07-01

    There is a need to determine the equations of state of materials in regimes of extreme high pressures, temperatures and strain rates that are not attainable on current two-stage light-gas guns. Understanding high-pressure material behavior is crucial to address the physical processes associated with a variety of hypervelocity impact events related to space sciences-orbital-debris impact, debris-shield designs, high-speed plasma propagation, and impact lethality applications. At very high impact velocities material properties will be dominated by phase-changes, such as melting or vaporization, which cannot be achieved at lower impact velocities. Development of well-controlled and repeatable hypervelocity launch capabilities is the first step necessary to improve our understanding of material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not currently available using conventional two-stage light-gas gun techniques. In this paper, techniques that have been used to extend both the launch capabilities of a two-stage light gas gun to 16 km/s, and their use to determine the material properties at pressures and temperature states higher than those ever obtained in the laboratory are summarized. The newly developed hypervelocity launcher (HVL) can launch intact (macroscopic dimensions) plates to 16 km/s. Time-resolved interferometric techniques have been used to determine shock-loading/release characteristics of materials impacted by such fliers as well as shock-induced vaporization phenomena in fully vaporized states. High-speed photography or radiography has been used to evaluate the debris propagation characteristics resulting from disc impact of thin bumper sheets at hypervelocities in excess of 10 km/s using the HVL. Examples of these experiments are provided in this paper.

  2. Voluntary Alcohol Intake following Blast Exposure in a Rat Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yi Wei; Meyer, Nathan P; Shah, Alok S; Budde, Matthew D; Stemper, Brian D; Olsen, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a frequent comorbidity following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), even in patients without a previous history of alcohol dependence. Despite this correlational relationship, the extent to which the neurological effects of mTBI contribute to the development of alcoholism is unknown. In this study, we used a rodent blast exposure model to investigate the relationship between mTBI and voluntary alcohol drinking in alcohol nave rats. We have previously demonstrated in Sprague Dawley rats that blast exposure leads to microstructural abnormalities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain regions that progress from four to thirty days. The mPFC is a brain region implicated in alcoholism and drug addiction, although the impact of mTBI on drug reward and addiction using controlled models remains largely unexplored. Alcohol nave Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a blast model of mTBI (or sham conditions) and then tested in several common measures of voluntary alcohol intake. In a seven-week intermittent two-bottle choice alcohol drinking test, sham and blast exposed rats had comparable levels of alcohol intake. In a short access test session at the conclusion of the two-bottle test, blast rats fell into a bimodal distribution, and among high intake rats, blast treated animals had significantly elevated intake compared to shams. We found no effect of blast when rats were tested for an alcohol deprivation effect or compulsive drinking in a quinine adulteration test. Throughout the experiment, alcohol drinking was modest in both groups, consistent with other studies using Sprague Dawley rats. In conclusion, blast exposure had a minimal impact on overall alcohol intake in Sprague Dawley rats, although intake was increased in a subpopulation of blast animals in a short access session following intermittent access exposure. PMID:25910266

  3. Mechanisms and pathophysiology of the low-level blast brain injury in animal models.

    PubMed

    Slj, Annette; Mayorga, Maria; Bolouri, Hayde; Svensson, Berndt; Hamberger, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The symptoms of primary blast-induced mTBI, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression overlap. Evidence of an organic basis for these entities has been scarce and controversial. We present a review of animal studies demonstrating that low-level blast causes pathophysiological and functional changes in the brain. We monitor a time period from minutes to approximately 1 week after blast exposure from multiple modes (air, underwater, localized and whole body). The most salient findings observed were (1) the peak pressures (P(max)) in the brain, elicited from the blast from the firing of military weapons (P(max) 23-45 kPa), have a similar magnitude as that registered in air close to the head. Corresponding measurements during the detonation pulse from explosives under water show a P(max) in the brain, which is only 10% of that in water outside the head. (2) The rise time of the pressure curve is 10 times longer in the brain as compared with the blast in air outside the head during firing of military weapons. (3) The lower frequencies in the blast wave appear to be transmitted more readily to the brain than the higher frequencies. (4) When animals are exposed to low levels of blast, the blast wave appears mostly transmitted directly to the brain during air exposure, not via the thorax or abdomen. (5) Low levels of blast cause brain edema, as indicated by increased bioelectrical impedance, an increase in the intracranial pressure, small brain hemorrhages and impaired cognitive function. PMID:20580846

  4. Low-level blasts raise intracranial pressure and impair cognitive function in rats.

    PubMed

    Slj, Annette; Svensson, Berndt; Mayorga, Maria; Hamberger, Anders; Bolouri, Hayde

    2009-08-01

    Brain injury after high-level blast has been established both clinically and experimentally. Less is known about the effects on the brain of exposure to low to moderate blast levels, such as those encountered by military personnel during the firing of weapons. This study investigates if exposure to occupational levels of low-level blasts affect intracranial pressure and cognitive performance. Rats were exposed to blast overpressure in a shock tube at peak levels of 10, 30, and 60 kPa. Intracranial pressure (ICP) was measured after 0.5, 3, 6, and 10 h and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days. We found two features of the response: a dose-dependent rise in ICP in rats exposed to blast, and an increasing time delay in elevation with decreasing intensity of exposure. The ICP increased in a dose-dependent fashion, up to 15.7 mm Hg after exposure to a 60-kPa blast from a control level of 6 mm Hg. While the initial elevation took place within 30 min after exposure to 60 kPa, it did not appear until after 2 and 6 h for 30 and 10 kPa, respectively. In all cases, the ICP returned to control levels after 7 days. The cognitive function of the blast-exposed rats was assessed with the Morris water maze. After exposure to 10 or 30 kPa and re-testing 2 days later, the latency was increased by over 100%. The results show that exposure of rats to blast levels as low as 10 kPa affects both ICP and cognitive function. Though species differences do not allow direct extrapolation to humans, these findings do pose the question as to whether the thresholds for brain injury might be lower than those of other organs used to set training standards for blast exposure. PMID:19317610

  5. Voluntary Alcohol Intake following Blast Exposure in a Rat Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yi Wei; Meyer, Nathan P.; Shah, Alok S.; Budde, Matthew D.; Stemper, Brian D.; Olsen, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is a frequent comorbidity following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), even in patients without a previous history of alcohol dependence. Despite this correlational relationship, the extent to which the neurological effects of mTBI contribute to the development of alcoholism is unknown. In this study, we used a rodent blast exposure model to investigate the relationship between mTBI and voluntary alcohol drinking in alcohol naïve rats. We have previously demonstrated in Sprague Dawley rats that blast exposure leads to microstructural abnormalities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain regions that progress from four to thirty days. The mPFC is a brain region implicated in alcoholism and drug addiction, although the impact of mTBI on drug reward and addiction using controlled models remains largely unexplored. Alcohol naïve Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a blast model of mTBI (or sham conditions) and then tested in several common measures of voluntary alcohol intake. In a seven-week intermittent two-bottle choice alcohol drinking test, sham and blast exposed rats had comparable levels of alcohol intake. In a short access test session at the conclusion of the two-bottle test, blast rats fell into a bimodal distribution, and among high intake rats, blast treated animals had significantly elevated intake compared to shams. We found no effect of blast when rats were tested for an alcohol deprivation effect or compulsive drinking in a quinine adulteration test. Throughout the experiment, alcohol drinking was modest in both groups, consistent with other studies using Sprague Dawley rats. In conclusion, blast exposure had a minimal impact on overall alcohol intake in Sprague Dawley rats, although intake was increased in a subpopulation of blast animals in a short access session following intermittent access exposure. PMID:25910266

  6. Primary and secondary skeletal blast trauma.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Smith, Victoria A; Ramos, Vanessa; Shegogue, Candie; Whitworth, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study examines primary (resulting from blast wave) and secondary (resulting from disintegrated, penetrating fragments) blast trauma to the skeleton. Eleven pigs were exposed to semi-controlled blast events of varying explosive type, charge size, and distance, including some cases with shrapnel. Skeletal trauma was found to be extensive, presenting as complex, comminuted fractures with numerous small, displaced bone splinters and fragments. Traumatic amputation of the limbs and cranium was also observed. Fractures were concentrated in areas nearer the blast, but there was generally no identifiable point of impact. Fractures were more random in appearance and widespread than those typically associated with gunshot or blunt force injury events. These patterns appear to be uniquely associated with blast trauma and may therefore assist forensic anthropologists and other forensic examiners in the interpretation of skeletal trauma by enabling them to differentiate between blast trauma and trauma resulting from some other cause. PMID:21981586

  7. Using BLAST for performing sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    Healy, Matthew D

    2007-01-01

    BLAST is a widely used genetic sequence comparison program developed at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). In this unit, three Basic Protocols and one Support Protocol are provided for general-purpose BLAST searches on the NCBI and ENSEMBL Web-accessible BLAST servers. Key parameters affecting how the search algorithm works are reviewed, with advice on modifying search parameters for specific situations. Many other public and private Web sites offer BLAST interfaces which may differ from those described in this unit, but the general principles will be similar. The Support Protocol describes how to obtain sequences in various formats from NCBI for use in BLAST searches. It is emphasized that no algorithm can be a substitute for biological understanding; performing a BLAST search takes only a few minutes but understanding the implications of the results takes much longer. PMID:18428415

  8. Modeling Coal Seam Damage in Cast Blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.H.; Preece, D.S.

    1998-11-23

    A discrete element computer program named DMC_BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece & Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions. DMC_BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Coal seam chilling refers to the shattering of a significant portion of the coal leaving unusable fines. It is also refereed to as coal damage. Chilling is caused during a blast by a combination of explosive shock energy and movement of the adjacent rock. Chilling can be minimized by leaving a buffer zone between the bottom of the blastholes and the coal seam or by changing the blast design to decrease the powder factor or by a combination of both. Blast design in coal mine cast blasting is usually a compromise between coal damage and rock fragmentation and movement (heave). In this paper the damage to coal seams from rock movement is examined using the discrete element computer code DMC_BLAST. A rock material strength option has been incorporated into DMC_BLAST by placing bonds/links between the spherical particles used to model the rock. These bonds tie the particles together but can be broken when the tensile, compressive or shear stress in the bond exceeds the defined strength. This capability has been applied to predict coal seam damage, particularly at the toe of a cast blast where drag forces exerted by movement of the overlying rock can adversely effect the top of the coal at the bench face. A simulation of coal mine cast blasting has been performed with special attention being paid to the strength of the coal and its behavior at t he bench face during movement of the overlying material.

  9. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts.

    PubMed

    Lance, Rachel M; Capehart, Bruce; Kadro, Omar; Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Underwater blasts propagate further and injure more readily than equivalent air blasts. Development of effective personal protection and countermeasures, however, requires knowledge of the currently unknown human tolerance to underwater blast. Current guidelines for prevention of underwater blast injury are not based on any organized injury risk assessment, human data or experimental data. The goal of this study was to derive injury risk assessments for underwater blast using well-characterized human underwater blast exposures in the open literature. The human injury dataset was compiled using 34 case reports on underwater blast exposure to 475 personnel, dating as early as 1916. Using severity ratings, computational reconstructions of the blasts, and survival information from a final set of 262 human exposures, injury risk models were developed for both injury severity and risk of fatality as functions of blast impulse and blast peak overpressure. Based on these human data, we found that the 50% risk of fatality from underwater blast occurred at 302±16 kPa-ms impulse. Conservatively, there is a 20% risk of pulmonary injury at a kilometer from a 20 kg charge. From a clinical point of view, this new injury risk model emphasizes the large distances possible for potential pulmonary and gut injuries in water compared with air. This risk value is the first impulse-based fatality risk calculated from human data. The large-scale inconsistency between the blast exposures in the case reports and the guidelines available in the literature prior to this study further underscored the need for this new guideline derived from the unique dataset of actual injuries in this study. PMID:26606655

  10. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts

    PubMed Central

    Lance, Rachel M.; Capehart, Bruce; Kadro, Omar; Bass, Cameron R.

    2015-01-01

    Underwater blasts propagate further and injure more readily than equivalent air blasts. Development of effective personal protection and countermeasures, however, requires knowledge of the currently unknown human tolerance to underwater blast. Current guidelines for prevention of underwater blast injury are not based on any organized injury risk assessment, human data or experimental data. The goal of this study was to derive injury risk assessments for underwater blast using well-characterized human underwater blast exposures in the open literature. The human injury dataset was compiled using 34 case reports on underwater blast exposure to 475 personnel, dating as early as 1916. Using severity ratings, computational reconstructions of the blasts, and survival information from a final set of 262 human exposures, injury risk models were developed for both injury severity and risk of fatality as functions of blast impulse and blast peak overpressure. Based on these human data, we found that the 50% risk of fatality from underwater blast occurred at 302±16 kPa-ms impulse. Conservatively, there is a 20% risk of pulmonary injury at a kilometer from a 20 kg charge. From a clinical point of view, this new injury risk model emphasizes the large distances possible for potential pulmonary and gut injuries in water compared with air. This risk value is the first impulse-based fatality risk calculated from human data. The large-scale inconsistency between the blast exposures in the case reports and the guidelines available in the literature prior to this study further underscored the need for this new guideline derived from the unique dataset of actual injuries in this study. PMID:26606655

  11. Quarter-scale close-in blast-loading experiments in support of the planned contained firing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, J.W.; Baker, C.F.; Simmons, L.F.

    1994-07-27

    In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is proposing to construct a 60-kg firing chamber to provide blast-effects containment for most of its open-air, high-explosive, firing operations. Even though the Laboratory`s operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the generated hazardous waste. One of the main design considerations is the extremely close-in (Z = 0.66 ft/lb{sup l/3}) blast loading on the reinforced concrete ff the chamber. Historically, floor damage due to close-in loading has been a common problem for other blast chambers within the US Department of Energy and Department of Defense (DOE/DoD). Blast-effects testing and computer analysis were conducted on a replica quarter-scale model of the preliminary floor design. Nineteen blast tests ranging from scaled distances of 1.14 ft/lb{sup l/3} (25%) to 0.57ft/lb{sup 1/3} (200%) were performed on the strain-gaged floor model. In response to predicted and measured failures at the 25% level, various state-of-the-art blast attenuation systems were quickly developed and tested. The most effective blast-attenuation system provided a significant improvement by reducing the measured floor stresses to acceptable levels while minimizing, by its reusability, the impact on the environment.

  12. Simulation of the Reflected Blast Wave froma C-4 Charge

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, W M; Kuhl, A L; Tringe, J W

    2011-08-01

    The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 {micro}m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 8 ranges (GR = 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 inches) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 2 inches), which were dominated by jetting effects.

  13. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  14. Rebuilding of Rautaruukki blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kallo, S.; Pisilae, E.; Ojala, K.

    1997-12-31

    Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel rebuilt its blast furnaces in 1995 (BF1) and 1996 (BF2) after 10 year campaigns and production of 9,747 THM/m{sup 3} (303 NTHM/ft{sup 3}) and 9,535 THM/m{sup 3} (297 NTHM/ft{sup 3}), respectively. At the end of the campaigns, damaged cooling system and shell cracks were increasingly disturbing the availability of furnaces. The goal for rebuilding was to improve the cooling systems and refractory quality in order to attain a 15 year campaign. The furnaces were slightly enlarged to meet the future production demand. The blast furnace control rooms and operations were centralized and the automation and instrumentation level was considerably improved in order to improve the operation efficiency and to reduce manpower requirements. Investments in direct slag granulation and improved casthouse dedusting improved environmental protection. The paper describes the rebuilding.

  15. Background to plastic media blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    Chemical strippers based on active phenolic components in a chlorinated solvent have been the traditional method for removing of paints and coatings from aircraft. With the recent recognition of the environmental and health concerns of chlorinated solvents and the problem disposing of phenols there have been some major developments in paint removal technology. One of the first techniques developed to replace chemical strippers and now one of the most widely used techniques for paint removal from aircraft was plastic media blasting (PMB). The PMB technique is similar to traditional grit blasting (slag, sand alumina or carborundum) techniques used on steel and other metals (based on grits) but using polymer based media that are softer and less aggressive. Plastic media are ranked by hardness and density as well as chemical composition.

  16. Study of blast event propagation in different media using a novel ultrafast miniature optical pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Hongtao; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

    2011-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI, also called intracranial injury) is a high potential threat to our soldiers. A helmet structural health monitoring system can be effectively used to study the effects of ballistic/blast events on the helmet and human skull to prevent soldiers from TBI. However, one of the biggest challenges lies in that the pressure sensor installed inside the helmet system must be fast enough to capture the blast wave during the transient period. In this paper, an ultrafast optical fiber sensor is presented to measure the blast signal. The sensor is based on a Fabry-Prot (FP) interferometeric principle. An FP cavity is built between the endface of an etched optical fiber tip and the silica thin diaphragm attached on the end of a multimode optical fiber. The sensor is small enough to be installed in different locations of a helmet to measure blast pressure simultaneously. Several groups of tests regarding multi-layer blast events were conducted to evaluate the sensors' performance. The sensors were mounted in different segments of a shock tube side by side with the reference sensors, to measure a rapidly increasing pressure. The segments of the shock tube were filled with different media. The results demonstrated that our sensors' responses agreed well with those from the electrical reference sensors. In addition, the home-made shock tube could provide a good resource to study the propagation of blast event in different media.

  17. Teaching Optical Phenomena with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, M.; Carvalho, P. Simeo

    2014-01-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a

  18. Teaching Optical Phenomena with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, M.; Carvalho, P. Simeão

    2014-01-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a…

  19. Laboratory blast wave driven instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranz, Carolyn

    2008-11-01

    This presentation discusses experiments involving the evolution of hydrodynamic instabilities in the laboratory under high-energy-density (HED) conditions. These instabilities are driven by blast waves, which occur following a sudden, finite release of energy, and consist of a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. When a blast wave crosses an interface with a decrease in density, hydrodynamic instabilities will develop. Instabilities evolving under HED conditions are relevant to astrophysics. These experiments include target materials scaled in density to the He/H layer in SN1987A. About 5 kJ of laser energy from the Omega Laser facility irradiates a 150 ?m plastic layer that is followed by a low-density foam layer. A blast wave structure similar to those in supernovae is created in the plastic layer. The blast wave crosses an interface having a 2D or 3D sinusoidal structure that serves as a seed perturbation for hydrodynamic instabilities. This produces unstable growth dominated by the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the nonlinear regime. We have detected the interface structure under these conditions using x-ray backlighting. Recent advances in our diagnostic techniques have greatly improved the resolution of our x-ray radiographic images. Under certain conditions, the improved images show some mass extending beyond the RT spike and penetrating further than previously observed or predicted by current simulations. The observed effect is potentially of great importance as a source of mass transport to places not anticipated by current theory and simulation. I will discuss the amount of mass in these spike extensions, the associated uncertainties, and hypotheses regarding their origin We also plan to show comparisons of experiments using single mode and multimode as well as 2D and 3D initial conditions. This work is sponsored by DOE/NNSA Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058 (Stewardship Sciences Academic Alliances) and DE-FG52-04NA00064 (National Laser User Facility).

  20. Blast dynamics at Mount St Helens on 18 May 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, S.W.

    1981-01-01

    At 8.32 a.m. on 18 May 1980, failure of the upper part of the north slope of Mount St Helens triggered a lateral eruption ('the blast') that devastated the conifer forests in a sector covering ???500 km2 north of the volcano. I present here a steady flow model for the blast dynamics and propose that through much of the devastated area the blast was a supersonic flow of a complex multiphase (solid, liquid, vapour) mixture. The shape of the blast zone; pressure, temperature, velocity (Mach number) and density distributions within the flow; positions of weak and strong internal shocks; and mass flux, energy flux, and total energy are calculated. The shape of blast zone was determined by the initial areal expansion from the reservoir, by internal expansion and compression waves (including shocks), and by the density of the expanding mixture. The pressure within the flow dropped rapidly away from the source of the blast until, at a distance of ???11 km, the flow became underpressured relative to the surrounding atmosphere. Weak shocks within the flow subparallel to the east and west margins coalesced at about this distance into a strong Mach disk shock, across which the flow velocities would have dropped from supersonic to subsonic as the pressure rose back towards ambient. The positions of the shocks may be reflected in differences in the patterns of felled trees. At the limits of the devastated area, the temperature had dropped only 20% from the reservoir temperature because the entrained solids thermally buffered the flow (the dynamic and thermodynamic effects of the admixture of the surrounding atmosphere and the uprooted forest and soils into the flow are not considered). The density of the flow decreased with distance until, at the limits of the blast zone, 20-25 km from the volcano, the density became comparable with that of the surrounding (dirty) atmosphere and the flow became buoyant and ramped up into the atmosphere. According to the model, the mass flux per unit area at the source was 0.6 ?? 104 g s-1 cm-2 and the energy flux per unit area was 2.5 MW cm-2. From the measured total ejected mass, 0.25 ?? 1015 g, the total energy released during the eruption was 1024 erg or 24 megatons. The model, triggering of the eruption and the transition from unsteady to steady flow, and applications to eyewitness observations and atmospheric effects are discussed in ref. 1. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

  1. Blast-Driven Hydrodynamic Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc T.; Johnsen, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Accurate characterization of mixing from hydrodynamic instabilities, such as Richtmyer-Meshkov, Rayleigh-Taylor, and Kelvin-Helmholtz, is important to many multi-fluid applications, particularly, inertial confinement fusion, supernova collapse, and scramjet combustion. We investigate the dynamics of a perturbed interface between two fluids subjected to a planar blast wave. An initial point source explosion initiates a blast, which can be described as a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. The interface, therefore, experiences an instantaneous acceleration (a pressure increase) followed by a gradual, time-dependent deceleration (a pressure decrease). The resulting interaction gives rise to Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor growth, depending on the shock strength and blast profile. Using a high-order accurate numerical method that prevents pressure errors at interfaces when simulating variable specific heats ratios, we identify regimes in which one or the other instability dominates. This research was supported by the DOE NNSA/ASC under the predictive Science Academic Alliance Program by Grant No. DEFC52-08NA28616.

  2. BLAST Observations of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicholas Evan; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Truch, M. D. P.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-born Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a 1.8 m mirror that uses focal plane arrays of bolometer detectors at 250, 350 and 500 microns to study the evolutionary history and processes associated with star formation. The most recent long duration balloon flight from Antarctica collected 250 hours of data during a circumpolar flight in December 2006. A large number of observations were conducted including deep and wide surveys to characterize submillimeter galaxies, a galactic plane survey in the Vela region, and a number of pointed observations toward nearby galaxies NGC1097, NGC1291, NGC1365, NGC1512, NGC1566, and NGC1808. In this talk we will focus on these galaxies and combine the BLAST data with Spitzer-MIPS data to uniquely determine dust properties such as temperature and emissivity. The BLAST collaboration acknowledges the support of NASA through grants NAG5 12785, NAG5-13301, and NNGO-6GI11G, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Ontario Innovation Trust, the Puerto Rico Space Grant Consortium, the Fondo Institucional para la Investigacion of the University of Puerto Rico, and the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs.

  3. Predictions of Experimentally Observed Stochastic Ground Vibrations Induced by Blasting

    PubMed Central

    Kostić, Srđan; Perc, Matjaž; Vasović, Nebojša; Trajković, Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we investigate the blast induced ground motion recorded at the limestone quarry “Suva Vrela” near Kosjerić, which is located in the western part of Serbia. We examine the recorded signals by means of surrogate data methods and a determinism test, in order to determine whether the recorded ground velocity is stochastic or deterministic in nature. Longitudinal, transversal and the vertical ground motion component are analyzed at three monitoring points that are located at different distances from the blasting source. The analysis reveals that the recordings belong to a class of stationary linear stochastic processes with Gaussian inputs, which could be distorted by a monotonic, instantaneous, time-independent nonlinear function. Low determinism factors obtained with the determinism test further confirm the stochastic nature of the recordings. Guided by the outcome of time series analysis, we propose an improved prediction model for the peak particle velocity based on a neural network. We show that, while conventional predictors fail to provide acceptable prediction accuracy, the neural network model with four main blast parameters as input, namely total charge, maximum charge per delay, distance from the blasting source to the measuring point, and hole depth, delivers significantly more accurate predictions that may be applicable on site. We also perform a sensitivity analysis, which reveals that the distance from the blasting source has the strongest influence on the final value of the peak particle velocity. This is in full agreement with previous observations and theory, thus additionally validating our methodology and main conclusions. PMID:24358140

  4. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Chung, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; MacTavish, C. J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Martin, T. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N. E.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a suborbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between three arrays, observes simultaneously in broadband (30%) spectral windows at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The optical design is based on a 2 m diameter telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 microns. The gondola pointing system enables raster mapping of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of 30"; postflight pointing reconstruction to <5" rms is achieved. The onboard telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a preselected set of maps, with the option of manual override. On this poster, we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. BLAST performed a test flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100 hour flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in 2005 June; and a 250 hour, circumpolar flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 2006 December. The BLAST collaboration acknowledges the support of NASA through grants NAG5-12785, NAG5-13301, and NNGO-6GI11G, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Ontario Innovation Trust, the Puerto Rico Space Grant Consortium, the Fondo Institucional para la Investigacion of the University of Puerto Rico, and the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs.

  5. Fluid dynamic aspects of jet noise generation. [noise measurement of jet blast effects from supersonic jet flow in convergent-divergent nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barra, V.; Panunzio, S.

    1976-01-01

    Jet engine noise generation and noise propagation was investigated by studying supersonic nozzle flow of various nozzle configurations in an experimental test facility. The experimental facility was constructed to provide a coaxial axisymmetric jet flow of unheated air. In the test setup, an inner primary flow exhausted from a 7 in. exit diameter convergent--divergent nozzle at Mach 2, while a secondary flow had a 10 in. outside diameter and was sonic at the exit. The large dimensions of the jets permitted probes to be placed inside the jet core without significantly disturbing the flow. Static pressure fluctuations were measured for the flows. The nozzles were designed for shock free (balanced) flow at Mach 2. Data processing techniques and experimental procedures were developed in order to study induced disturbances at the edge of the supersonic flows, and the propagation of those disturbances throughout the flows. Equipment used (specifications are given) to record acoustic levels (far field noise) is described. Results and conclusions are presented and discussed. Diagrams of the jet flow fields are included along with photographs of the test stand.

  6. Serum-Based Protein Biomarkers in Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Agoston, Denes V.; Elsayed, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The biological consequences of exposure to explosive blast are extremely complex. Serum protein biomarkers in blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) can aid in determining injury severity, monitoring progress, and predicting outcome. Exposure to blast results in varying degrees of physical injury. Explosive blast can also induce psychological stress that can contribute to or amplify the extent of physical damage. Given the complexity, scale of injury, and variety of symptoms, bTBI may be best described as a spectrum disorder. In this focused review, we summarize the status of serum protein biomarkers in bTBI in the context of the classification and pathological changes of other forms of TBI. Finally, we recommend specific and easily implementable measures to accelerate serum protein biomarker discovery and validation in bTBI. PMID:22783223

  7. ScalaBLAST 2.0: Rapid and robust BLAST calculations on multiprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oehmen, Christopher S.; Baxter, Douglas J.

    2013-03-15

    BLAST remains one of the most widely used tools in computational biology. The rate at which new sequence data is available continues to grow exponentially, driving the emergence of new fields of biological research. At the same time multicore systems and conventional clusters are more accessible. ScalaBLAST has been designed to run on conventional multiprocessor systems with an eye to extreme parallelism, enabling parallel BLAST calculations using over 16,000 processing cores with a portable, robust, fault-resilient design. ScalaBLAST 2.0 source code can be freely downloaded from http://omics.pnl.gov/software/ScalaBLAST.php.

  8. BLAST QuickStart: example-driven web-based BLAST tutorial.

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David; Bhagwat, Medha

    2007-01-01

    The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) finds regions of local similarity between protein or nucleotide sequences. The program compares nucleotide or protein sequences to sequence in a database and calculates the statistical significance of the matches. This chapter first provides an introduction to BLAST and then describes the practical application of different BLAST programs based on the BLAST Quick Start mini-course (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Class/minicourses). In each example, emphasis is placed on practical step-by-step procedures, although relevant theory is also given where it affects the choice of BLAST program, parameters, and database. PMID:17993672

  9. Membrane Transport Phenomena (MTP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1997-01-01

    The activities during the fourth semi-annual period of the MTP project have involved the completion of the Science Concept Review (SCR) presentation and peer review, continuation of analyses for the mass transfer coefficients measured from MTA experiment data, and development of the second generation (MTP-II) instrument. The SCR panel members were generated several recommendations for the MTP project recommendations are : Table 1 Summary of Primary SCR Panel Recommendations (1) Continue and refine development of mass transfer coefficient analyses (2) Refine and upgrade analytical modeling associated with the MTP experiment. (3) Increase resolution of measurements in proximity of the membrane interface. (4) Shift emphasis to measurement of coupled transport effects (i.e., development of MTP phase II experiment concept).

  10. Rodent model of direct cranial blast injury.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Reed; Simard, Philippe F; Driscoll, Ian; Keledjian, Kaspar; Ivanova, Svetlana; Tosun, Cigdem; Williams, Alicia; Bochicchio, Grant; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury resulting from an explosive blast is one of the most serious wounds suffered by warfighters, yet the effects of explosive blast overpressure directly impacting the head are poorly understood. We developed a rodent model of direct cranial blast injury (dcBI), in which a blast overpressure could be delivered exclusively to the head, precluding indirect brain injury via thoracic transmission of the blast wave. We constructed and validated a Cranium Only Blast Injury Apparatus (COBIA) to deliver blast overpressures generated by detonating .22 caliber cartridges of smokeless powder. Blast waveforms generated by COBIA replicated those recorded within armored vehicles penetrated by munitions. Lethal dcBI (LD(50) ∼ 515 kPa) was associated with: (1) apparent brainstem failure, characterized by immediate opisthotonus and apnea leading to cardiac arrest that could not be overcome by cardiopulmonary resuscitation; (2) widespread subarachnoid hemorrhages without cortical contusions or intracerebral or intraventricular hemorrhages; and (3) no pulmonary abnormalities. Sub-lethal dcBI was associated with: (1) apnea lasting up to 15 sec, with transient abnormalities in oxygen saturation; (2) very few delayed deaths; (3) subarachnoid hemorrhages, especially in the path of the blast wave; (4) abnormal immunolabeling for IgG, cleaved caspase-3, and β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP), and staining for Fluoro-Jade C, all in deep brain regions away from the subarachnoid hemorrhages, but in the path of the blast wave; and (5) abnormalities on the accelerating Rotarod that persisted for the 1 week period of observation. We conclude that exposure of the head alone to severe explosive blast predisposes to significant neurological dysfunction. PMID:21639724

  11. Concussive brain injury from explosive blast

    PubMed Central

    de Lanerolle, Nihal C; Hamid, Hamada; Kulas, Joseph; Pan, Jullie W; Czlapinski, Rebecca; Rinaldi, Anthony; Ling, Geoffrey; Bandak, Faris A; Hetherington, Hoby P

    2014-01-01

    Objective Explosive blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is associated with a variety of symptoms including memory impairment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Explosive shock waves can cause hippocampal injury in a large animal model. We recently reported a method for detecting brain injury in soldiers with explosive blast mTBI using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). This method is applied in the study of veterans exposed to blast. Methods The hippocampus of 25 veterans with explosive blast mTBI, 20 controls, and 12 subjects with PTSD but without exposure to explosive blast were studied using MRSI at 7 Tesla. Psychiatric and cognitive assessments were administered to characterize the neuropsychiatric deficits and compare with findings from MRSI. Results Significant reductions in the ratio of N-acetyl aspartate to choline (NAA/Ch) and N-acetyl aspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) (P < 0.05) were found in the anterior portions of the hippocampus with explosive blast mTBI in comparison to control subjects and were more pronounced in the right hippocampus, which was 15% smaller in volume (P < 0.05). Decreased NAA/Ch and NAA/Cr were not influenced by comorbidities PTSD, depression, or anxiety. Subjects with PTSD without blast had lesser injury, which tended to be in the posterior hippocampus. Explosive blast mTBI subjects had a reduction in visual memory compared to PTSD without blast. Interpretation The region of the hippocampus injured differentiates explosive blast mTBI from PTSD. MRSI is quite sensitive in detecting and localizing regions of neuronal injury from explosive blast associated with memory impairment. PMID:25493283

  12. Discrimination between magmatic and hydrothermal nature of the sources responsible for the unrest phenomena at Yellowstone caldera via integrated model of InSAR time series, leveling and gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizzani, Pietro; Battaglia, Maurizio; Castaldo, Raffaele; Pepe, Antonio; Zeni, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    We studied the Yellowstone caldera geological unrest between 1977 and 2010 by investigating temporal changes in differential InSAR, precise spirit leveling and gravity measurements. In particular, we start by investigating the InSAR results obtained through the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) differential InSAR technique, applied to a data set of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT SAR images spanning 18 years, from 1992 to 2010. Moreover, we analyze the leveling data, which cover an additional time period of about 19 years from 1976 to 1995, and the gravity measurements that span the interval from 1977 to 1993. Inverting InSAR, leveling and gravity measurements infer parameters of the caldera best-fitting deformation sources by using the dMODELS software package. Compared to previous work on Yellowstone caldera, (i) we present long-term deformation time series derived from InSAR and their comparison to GPS results, (ii) we identify and remove the tectonic signal from the retrieved time-series, (iii) we jointly exploit InSAR, leveling and gravity measurements to investigate the deformation sources geometric characteristics and their densities; to do this we search for the best fit deformation source identified by inverting more than one source geometry and we use statistical analysis to discriminate among different geometries. Our study indicates the existence of different distinct deformation sources within the caldera and we show that the detected sources have been intermittently active for the past three decades. We interpret the results of our inversions in view of the seismic tomography studies. This allows us to discriminate between the magmatic and the hydrothermal nature of the sources responsible for the unrest phenomena that affected the Sour Creek (SC) and Mallard (ML) Dome resurgent caldera domes during the last three decades. Our study indicates the existence of different distinct deformation sources within the caldera and we show that the detected sources have been intermittently active for the past three decades. We interpret the results of our inversions in view of the seismic tomography studies. This allows us to discriminate between the magmatic and the hydrothermal nature of the sources responsible for the unrest phenomena that affected the SC and ML resurgent caldera domes during the last three decades.

  13. Detection of rice panicle blast with multispectral radiometer and the potential of using airborne multispectral scanners.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Kanda, E; Kitada, K; Ishiguro, K; Torigoe, Y

    2001-03-01

    ABSTRACT Rice reflectance was measured to determine the spectral regions most sensitive to panicle blast infection. Reflectance increased in the 430- to 530-, 580- to 680-, and 1,480- to 2,000-nm regions at the dough stage both in the laboratory and the field as the percentage of diseased spikelets increased. The wavebands of the greatest sensitivity were in the visible region, located near 485 and 675 nm. After the yellow-ripe growth stage, near-infrared rather than visible reflectance responded to panicle blast infections. Ratios of rice reflectance were evaluated as indicators of panicle blast. R470/R570 (reflectance at 470 nm divided by reflectance at 570 nm), R520/R675, and R570/R675 decreased significantly as the incidence of panicle blast increased at the dough stage. At the yellow-ripe stage, R550/R970 and R725/R900 were used to estimate panicle blast severity as measured in terms of the percentage of diseased spikelets. According to the simulation that uses ground-based sensor data, airborne multispectral scanners may be effective in detecting the occurrence of panicle blast using a band combination of 530- to 570- and 650- to 700-nm regions at the dough stage. PMID:18943352

  14. Reactive Blast Waves from Composite Charges

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-10-16

    Investigated here is the performance of composite explosives - measured in terms of the blast wave they drive into the surrounding environment. The composite charge configuration studied here was a spherical booster (1/3 charge mass), surrounded by aluminum (Al) powder (2/3 charge mass) at an initial density of {rho}{sub 0} = 0.604 g/cc. The Al powder acts as a fuel but does not detonate - thereby providing an extreme example of a 'non-ideal' explosive (where 2/3 of the charge does not detonate). Detonation of the booster charge creates a blast wave that disperses the Al powder and ignites the ensuing Al-air mixture - thereby forming a two-phase combustion cloud embedded in the explosion. Afterburning of the booster detonation products with air also enhances and promotes the Al-air combustion process. Pressure waves from such reactive blast waves have been measured in bomb calorimeter experiments. Here we describe numerical simulations of those experiments. A Heterogeneous Continuum Model was used to model the dispersion and combustion of the Al particle cloud. It combines the gasdynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a dilute continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models of Khasainov. It incorporates a combustion model based on mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) was used to capture the energy-bearing scales of the turbulent flow on the computational grid, and to track/resolve reaction zones. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g and 10-kg composite charges were performed. Computed pressure histories (red curve) are compared with measured waveforms (black curves) in Fig. 1. Comparison of these results with a waveform for a non-combustion case in nitrogen (blue curve) demonstrates that a reactive blast wave was formed. Cross-sectional views of the temperature field at various times are presented in Fig. 2, which shows that the flow is turbulent. Initially, combustion occurs at the fuel-air interface, and the energy release rate is controlled by the rate of turbulent mixing. Eventually, oxidizer becomes distributed throughout the cloud via ballistic mixing of the particles with air; energy release then occurs in a distributed combustion mode, and Al particle kinetics controls the energy release rate. Details of the Heterogeneous Continuum Model and results of the numerical simulations of composite charge explosions will be described in the paper.

  15. The polar bear phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Maw, P.K. ); Lane, M.T.

    1990-02-01

    Results from measuring the thermal profile of polar bear pelts, reflectiveness of the pelts, and total thermal conversion data lead to the conclusion that the pelts from an ultra-efficient thermal diode for solar-thermal conversion. The transfer of the thermal energy from the surface of the fur to the skin where it is absorbed cannot be thermal, and therefore must be radiative. This process must have an efficiency of better than 90:0090 percent to account for measured values. The radiative transfer process is not known at present. To understand it, a detailed knowledge of the microscopic parameters of the pelts must be obtained. This is the current thrust of the polar solar research. If the process can be understood and synthesized,it will provide a major breakthrough in the area of solar-thermal energy conversion.

  16. Conductance phenomena in microcrystalline cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, M.

    2006-02-01

    We have investigated the conduction phenomena in compacted tablets of cellulose with varying relative humidity (RH) with techniques such as Low Frequency Dielectric Spectroscopy (LFDS) and Transient Current (TC) at room temperature. Two exponential decaying regions in the transient current measurements indicate two ionic species contributing to the conduction mechanism. A high power-law exponent of 9 for the conductance with moisture content has been found. The mobility initially decreases with RH up to monolayer coverage, and further water vapor increases the mobility, indicating a blocking of available positions for the charge carrier ions. When the amount of water molecules present in the tablet increases one order of magnitude, the number of charge carriers increases 5-6 orders of magnitude, suggesting a transition from a power-law increase to a linear effective medium theory for the conduction. The charge carrier dependence on RH suggests that a percolating network of water molecules adsorbed to 6-OH units on the cellulose chain span through the sample. The conductivity mechanisms in cellulose are still not clear.

  17. Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions

    SciTech Connect

    I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol'shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk

    2009-07-15

    Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

  18. Color changing photonic crystals detect blast exposure

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, D. Kacy; Xu, Yongan; Reneer, Dexter V.; Browne, Kevin D.; Geddes, James W.; Yang, Shu; Smith, Douglas H.

    2010-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is the “signature wound” of the current wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, with no objective information of relative blast exposure, warfighters with bTBI may not receive appropriate medical care and are at risk of being returned to the battlefield. Accordingly, we have created a colorimetric blast injury dosimeter (BID) that exploits material failure of photonic crystals to detect blast exposure. Appearing like a colored sticker, the BID is fabricated in photosensitive polymers via multi-beam interference lithography. Although very stable in the presence of heat, cold or physical impact, sculpted micro- and nano-structures of the BID are physically altered in a precise manner by blast exposure, resulting in color changes that correspond with blast intensity. This approach offers a lightweight, power-free sensor that can be readily interpreted by the naked eye. Importantly, with future refinement this technology may be deployed to identify soldiers exposed to blast at levels suggested to be supra-threshold for non-impact blast-induced mild TBI. PMID:21040795

  19. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Abrasive blasting. 58.610 Section 58.610 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous 58.610 Abrasive blasting. (a) Surface and underground mines. When...

  20. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Abrasive blasting. 58.610 Section 58.610 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous 58.610 Abrasive blasting. (a) Surface and underground mines. When...

  1. Blast-related traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; McFarlane, Alexander C; Bragge, Peter; Armonda, Rocco A; Grimes, Jamie B; Ling, Geoffrey S

    2013-09-01

    A bomb blast may cause the full severity range of traumatic brain injury (TBI), from mild concussion to severe, penetrating injury. The pathophysiology of blast-related TBI is distinctive, with injury magnitude dependent on several factors, including blast energy and distance from the blast epicentre. The prevalence of blast-related mild TBI in modern war zones has varied widely, but detection is optimised by battlefield assessment of concussion and follow-up screening of all personnel with potential concussive events. There is substantial overlap between post-concussive syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder, and blast-related mild TBI seems to increase the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-concussive syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, and chronic pain are a clinical triad in this patient group. Persistent impairment after blast-related mild TBI might be largely attributable to psychological factors, although a causative link between repeated mild TBIs caused by blasts and chronic traumatic encephalopathy has not been established. The application of advanced neuroimaging and the identification of specific molecular biomarkers in serum for diagnosis and prognosis are rapidly advancing, and might help to further categorise these injuries. PMID:23884075

  2. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Gao, Huizhen

    2010-12-14

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  3. 7 CFR 3201.78 - Blast media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... purchasing programs. The designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.17. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Blast media. 3201.78 Section 3201.78 Agriculture... Items 3201.78 Blast media. (a) Definition. Abrasive particles sprayed forcefully to clean,...

  4. 7 CFR 3201.78 - Blast media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... purchasing programs. The designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.17. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blast media. 3201.78 Section 3201.78 Agriculture... Items 3201.78 Blast media. (a) Definition. Abrasive particles sprayed forcefully to clean,...

  5. The Saugus Iron Works Blast Furnace

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A view of the Saugus Iron Works blast furnace, which smelted the iron from limonite, an iron ore. The limonite formed in nearby bogs, and was heated in the blast furnace until the iron melted and ran out the bottom of the furnace. ...

  6. Electromechanical phenomena in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Willatzen, M.

    2011-02-01

    Electromechanical phenomena in semiconductors are still poorly studied from a fundamental and an applied science perspective, even though significant strides have been made in the last decade or so. Indeed, most current electromechanical devices are based on ferroelectric oxides. Yet, the importance of the effect in certain semiconductors is being increasingly recognized. For instance, the magnitude of the electric field in an AlN/GaN nanostructure can reach 1-10 MV/cm. In fact, the basic functioning of an (0001) AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor is due to the two-dimensional electron gas formed at the material interface by the polarization fields. The goal of this review is to inform the reader of some of the recent developments in the field for nanostructures and to point out still open questions. Examples of recent work that involves the piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects in semiconductors include: the study of the optoelectronic properties of III-nitrides quantum wells and dots, the current controversy regarding the importance of the nonlinear piezoelectric effect, energy harvesting using ZnO nanowires as a piezoelectric nanogenerator, the use of piezoelectric materials in surface acoustic wave devices, and the appropriateness of various models for analyzing electromechanical effects. Piezoelectric materials such as GaN and ZnO are gaining more and more importance for energy-related applications; examples include high-brightness light-emitting diodes for white lighting, high-electron mobility transistors, and nanogenerators. Indeed, it remains to be demonstrated whether these materials could be the ideal multifunctional materials. The solutions to these and other related problems will not only lead to a better understanding of the basic physics of these materials, but will validate new characterization tools, and advance the development of new and better devices. We will restrict ourselves to nanostructures in the current article even though the measurements and calculations of the bulk electromechanical coefficients remain challenging. Much of the literature has focused on InGaN/GaN, AlGaN/GaN, ZnMgO/ZnO, and ZnCdO/ZnO quantum wells, and InAs/GaAs and AlGaN/AlN quantum dots for their optoelectronic properties; and work on the bending of nanowires have been mostly for GaN and ZnO nanowires. We hope the present review article will stimulate further research into the field of electromechanical phenomena and help in the development of applications.

  7. IED blast postconcussive syncope and autonomic dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Sams, Richard; LaBrie, D Walter; Norris, Jacob; Schauer, Judy; Frantz, Earl

    2012-01-01

    Concussions are the most frequent battle injury sustained in Afghanistan. The Concussion Restoration Care Center provides multidisciplinary care to concussed service members in theater. The Concussion Restoration Care Center has managed over 500 concussions, the majority being from improvised explosive device (IED) blasts. Syncope following a concussion without a loss of consciousness is rarely reported in the literature. The pathophysiology of concussion from a blast injury may be distinct from a concussion secondary to blunt trauma. Two cases of syncope following concussions with an alteration of consciousness are presented, and a mechanism of action is proposed. Post-IED blast concussive symptom frequency at initial presentation on a cohort of patients is reported, with 1.3% of patients experiencing postconcussive syncope. Syncope following an IED blast may be related to centrally mediated autonomic dysregulation at the brain stem level. Syncope should be added to the list of possible symptoms that occur following concussions, in particular concussions following a blast injury. PMID:22338979

  8. Back yard blasting on the quiet

    SciTech Connect

    Chironis, N.P.

    1983-06-01

    When R and F Coal Company of Ohio ''sweeps out the corners'' of many of its old sites, it often blasts ''literally in some family's back yard.'' Sequential blasting patterns allow for such work without unduly disturbing the residents. Four basic delay patterns are detailed in this article. Sequential timers, EB caps, HDP blast boosts, and bulk ANFO are used in the sequences. Electric blasting caps can be tested by means of a galvanometer for continuity and resistance whenever possible. The flexibility of programming firing times, in the four patterns, allows operators to fine tune the blasting techniques. End or back break are reduced, fragmentation is optimized, and vibration is held to a minimum.

  9. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Firing the blast. 1926.909 Section 1926.909 Labor... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations. (b) Before a blast is...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Firing the blast. 1926.909 Section 1926.909 Labor... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations. (b) Before a blast is...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Firing the blast. 1926.909 Section 1926.909 Labor... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations. (b) Before a blast is...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Firing the blast. 1926.909 Section 1926.909 Labor... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations. (b) Before a blast is...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firing the blast. 1926.909 Section 1926.909 Labor... Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations. (b) Before a blast is...

  14. Characterization of novel blast resistant genes for US rice breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blast resistance genes, such as Pi-ta, conveying resistance up to 8 common US races of the blast pathogen (Magnaporthe oryzae), have been used for 20 years in the US rice (Oryza sativa) industry. However, Pi-ta is susceptible to two known US races of blast. Race IE-1K has caused blast outbreaks in A...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  20. Enduring deficits in memory and neuronal pathology after blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Sajja, Venkata Siva Sai Sujith; Hubbard, W. Brad; Hall, Christina S.; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Galloway, Matthew P.; VandeVord, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Few preclinical studies have assessed the long-term neuropathology and behavioral deficits after sustaining blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT). Previous studies have shown extensive astrogliosis and cell death at acute stages (<7 days) but the temporal response at a chronic stage has yet to be ascertained. Here, we used behavioral assays, immmunohistochemistry and neurochemistry in limbic areas such as the amygdala (Amy), Hippocampus (Hipp), nucleus accumbens (Nac), and prefrontal cortex (PFC), to determine the long-term effects of a single blast exposure. Behavioral results identified elevated avoidance behavior and decreased short-term memory at either one or three months after a single blast event. At three months after BINT, markers for neurodegeneration (FJB) and microglia activation (Iba-1) increased while index of mature neurons (NeuN) significantly decreased in all brain regions examined. Gliosis (GFAP) increased in all regions except the Nac but only PFC was positive for apoptosis (caspase-3). At three months, tau was selectively elevated in the PFC and Hipp whereas α-synuclein transiently increased in the Hipp at one month after blast exposure. The composite neurochemical measure, myo-inositol+glycine/creatine, was consistently increased in each brain region three months following blast. Overall, a single blast event resulted in enduring long-term effects on behavior and neuropathological sequelae. PMID:26537106

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of coagulation in swine subjected to isolated primary blast injury.

    PubMed

    Prat, Nicolas J; Montgomery, Robbie; Cap, Andrew P; Dubick, Michael A; Sarron, Jean-Claude; Destombe, Casimir; May, Philippe; Magnan, Pascal

    2015-06-01

    Blast is one of the major causes of injury and death in recent armed conflicts. With increased use of improvised explosive devices in Iraq and Afghanistan, more than 71% of combat casualties are caused by explosions. Blast injuries can range from primary (caused by shock wave) to quaternary injuries (e.g., burns), and such injuries can result in an acute coagulopathy denoted by a hypocoagulable state. It is not clear if this coagulopathy observed in victims of explosion is caused by local or general effect of the primary blast injury itself. In this study, 13 pigs were subjected to severe isolated open-field blast injury and we measured indices of coagulation impairment during the first hour after injury: ROTEM, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, coagulation factors, thrombin generation potential, platelet count, platelet activation, platelet function, and procoagulant microparticle formation. After 1 h, the mortality was 33%. No coagulation dysfunction was observed in the survivors in this period. This study presented a highly reproducible and consistent isolated blast injury in large mammals with comprehensive coagulation testing. The data suggest that isolated primary blast injury is not responsible for acute coagulopathy of trauma in victims of explosion but seems to lead to an early hypercoagulable state. PMID:25643012

  2. Distribution of blood-brain barrier disruption in primary blast injury.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Stewart; Bell, E David; Monson, Kenneth L

    2013-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from explosive-related blast overpressure is a topic at the forefront of neurotrauma research. Compromise of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and other cerebral blood vessel dysfunction is commonly reported in both experimental and clinical studies on blast injury. This study used a rifle primer-driven shock tube to investigate cerebrovascular injury in rats exposed to low-impulse, pure primary blast at three levels of overpressure (145, 232, and 323kPa) and with three survival times (acute, 24, and 48h). BBB disruption was quantified immunohistochemically by measuring immunoglobulin G (IgG) extravasation with image analysis techniques. Pure primary blast generated small lesions scattered throughout the brain. The number and size of lesions increased with peak overpressure level, but no significant difference was seen between survival times. Despite laterally directed blast exposure, equal numbers of lesions were found in each hemisphere of the brain. These observations suggest that cerebrovascular injury due to primary blast is distinct from that associated with conventional TBI. PMID:23568152

  3. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and microhardness testing respectively.

  4. Effects of blast overpressure on neurons and glial cells in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Anna P; Shah, Alok S; Aperi, Brandy V; Budde, Matthew D; Pintar, Frank A; Tarima, Sergey; Kurpad, Shekar N; Stemper, Brian D; Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Due to recent involvement in military conflicts, and an increase in the use of explosives, there has been an escalation in the incidence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) among US military personnel. Having a better understanding of the cellular and molecular cascade of events in bTBI is prerequisite for the development of an effective therapy that currently is unavailable. The present study utilized organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs) exposed to blast overpressures of 150?kPa (low) and 280?kPa (high) as an in vitro bTBI model. Using this model, we further characterized the cellular effects of the blast injury. Blast-evoked cell death was visualized by a propidium iodide (PI) uptake assay as early as 2?h post-injury. Quantification of PI staining in the cornu Ammonis 1 and 3 (CA1 and CA3) and the dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus at 2, 24, 48, and 72?h following blast exposure revealed significant time dependent effects. OHCs exposed to 150?kPa demonstrated a slow increase in cell death plateauing between 24 and 48?h, while OHCs from the high-blast group exhibited a rapid increase in cell death already at 2?h, peaking at ~24?h post-injury. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase release into the culture medium also revealed a significant increase in cell lysis in both low- and high-blast groups compared to sham controls. OHCs were fixed at 72?h post-injury and immunostained for markers against neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. Labeling OHCs with PI, neuronal, and glial markers revealed that the blast-evoked extensive neuronal death and to a lesser extent loss of glial cells. Furthermore, our data demonstrated activation of astrocytes and microglial cells in low- and high-blasted OHCs, which reached a statistically significant difference in the high-blast group. These data confirmed that our in vitro bTBI model is a useful tool for studying cellular and molecular changes after blast exposure. PMID:25729377

  5. Effects of Blast Overpressure on Neurons and Glial Cells in Rat Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Anna P.; Shah, Alok S.; Aperi, Brandy V.; Budde, Matthew D.; Pintar, Frank A.; Tarima, Sergey; Kurpad, Shekar N.; Stemper, Brian D.; Glavaski-Joksimovic, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Due to recent involvement in military conflicts, and an increase in the use of explosives, there has been an escalation in the incidence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) among US military personnel. Having a better understanding of the cellular and molecular cascade of events in bTBI is prerequisite for the development of an effective therapy that currently is unavailable. The present study utilized organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs) exposed to blast overpressures of 150 kPa (low) and 280 kPa (high) as an in vitro bTBI model. Using this model, we further characterized the cellular effects of the blast injury. Blast-evoked cell death was visualized by a propidium iodide (PI) uptake assay as early as 2 h post-injury. Quantification of PI staining in the cornu Ammonis 1 and 3 (CA1 and CA3) and the dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus at 2, 24, 48, and 72 h following blast exposure revealed significant time dependent effects. OHCs exposed to 150 kPa demonstrated a slow increase in cell death plateauing between 24 and 48 h, while OHCs from the high-blast group exhibited a rapid increase in cell death already at 2 h, peaking at ~24 h post-injury. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase release into the culture medium also revealed a significant increase in cell lysis in both low- and high-blast groups compared to sham controls. OHCs were fixed at 72 h post-injury and immunostained for markers against neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. Labeling OHCs with PI, neuronal, and glial markers revealed that the blast-evoked extensive neuronal death and to a lesser extent loss of glial cells. Furthermore, our data demonstrated activation of astrocytes and microglial cells in low- and high-blasted OHCs, which reached a statistically significant difference in the high-blast group. These data confirmed that our in vitro bTBI model is a useful tool for studying cellular and molecular changes after blast exposure. PMID:25729377

  6. On the Propagation and Interaction of Spherical Blast Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics and the scaling laws of isolated spherical blast waves have been briefly reviewed. Both self-similar solutions and numerical solutions of isolated blast waves are discussed. Blast profiles in the near-field (strong shock region) and the far-field (weak shock region) are examined. Particular attention is directed at the blast overpressure and shock propagating speed. Consideration is also given to the interaction of spherical blast waves. Test data for the propagation and interaction of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure.

  7. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Lee E.; Fisher, Andrew M.; Tagge, Chad A.; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A.; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W.; Goletiani, Cezar J.; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M.; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A.; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D.; Budson, Andrew E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F.; Moss, William C.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Stanton, Patric K.; McKee, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau proteinlinked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

  8. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Lee E; Fisher, Andrew M; Tagge, Chad A; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W; Goletiani, Cezar J; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A; Cantu, Robert C; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K; Wolozin, Benjamin L; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D; Budson, Andrew E; Kowall, Neil W; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F; Moss, William C; Cleveland, Robin O; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Stanton, Patric K; McKee, Ann C

    2012-05-16

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein-linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

  9. Nonlinear propagation of high-frequency energy from blast waves as it pertains to bat hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loubeau, Alexandra

    Close exposure to blast noise from military weapons training can adversely affect the hearing of both humans and wildlife. One concern is the effect of high-frequency noise from Army weapons training on the hearing of endangered bats. Blast wave propagation measurements were conducted to investigate nonlinear effects on the development of blast waveforms as they propagate from the source. Measurements were made at ranges of 25, 50, and 100 m from the blast. Particular emphasis was placed on observation of rise time variation with distance. Resolving the fine shock structure of blast waves requires robust transducers with high-frequency capability beyond 100 kHz, hence the limitations of traditional microphones and the effect of microphone orientation were investigated. Measurements were made with a wide-bandwidth capacitor microphone for comparison with conventional 3.175-mm (?-in.) microphones with and without baffles. The 3.175-mm microphone oriented at 90 to the propagation direction did not have sufficient high-frequency response to capture the actual rise times at a range of 50 m. Microphone baffles eliminate diffraction artifacts on the rise portion of the measured waveform and therefore allow for a more accurate measurement of the blast rise time. The wide-band microphone has an extended high-frequency response and can resolve shorter rise times than conventional microphones. For a source of 0.57 kg (1.25 lb) of C-4 plastic explosive, it was observed that nonlinear effects steepened the waveform, thereby decreasing the shock rise time, from 25 to 50 m. At 100m, the rise times had increased slightly. For comparison to the measured blast waveforms, several models of nonlinear propagation are applied to the problem of finite-amplitude blast wave propagation. Shock front models, such as the Johnson and Hammerton model, and full-waveform marching algorithms, such as the Anderson model, are investigated and compared to experimental results. The models successfully predict blast wave rise times at medium distances in a homogeneous atmosphere, although rise time predictions are shorter than what was measured in an inhomogeneous atmosphere. Atmospheric turbulence, absent in the models, may be the primary cause of this difference in rise times at longer distances. Results from the measurements and models indicate that bats located within approximately 200 m of the detonation of 0.57kg of C-4 will be exposed to audible levels of high-frequency energy, but whether those levels could be damaging to bat hearing cannot be established at this time.

  10. Novel QCD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    I discuss a number of novel topics in QCD, including the use of the AdS/CFT correspondence between Anti-de Sitter space and conformal gauge theories to obtain an analytically tractable approximation to QCD in the regime where the QCD coupling is large and constant. In particular, there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimension coordinate z of AdS space and a specific impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of mesons and baryons, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of exclusive scattering amplitudes. I also discuss a number of novel phenomenological features of QCD. Initial- and final-state interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, and nuclear shadowing and non-universal antishadowing--leading-twist physics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. I also discuss tests of hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency, and anomalous heavy quark effects. The presence of direct higher-twist processes where a proton is produced in the hard subprocess can explain the large proton-to-pion ratio seen in high centrality heavy ion collisions.

  11. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Department of Transportation (49 CFR part 173). (5) Earth or sand dikes, or enclosures filled with the... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of...

  12. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Department of Transportation (49 CFR part 173). (5) Earth or sand dikes, or enclosures filled with the... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of...

  13. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Department of Transportation (49 CFR part 173). (5) Earth or sand dikes, or enclosures filled with the... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of...

  14. Autonomous gauge for blast impulse determination close to explosive charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisters, T.; Kuder, J.; Nau, S.

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports on a new gauge for blast impulse determination close to explosive charges. The gauge is based on the autonomous data recorder g-rec developed at the Ernst-Mach-Institute for data acquisition in harsh environments. Combined with an acceleration sensor these data recorders allow for the direct determination of the momentum transferred to an object by a blast wave even in the immediate vicinity of the explosive charge. From this the blast impulse can be determined. Using autonomous electronics distinct advantages are gained compared to classical passive momentum traps. The paper summarizes the properties of the g-rec recorder and describes the setup of the autonomous momentum trap in detail. Numerical simulations are presented which illustrate the gauge performance and its limitations. Tests with 1 kg charges demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Good agreement was found between simulations and tests. The application range of the gauges is determined by the measurement range of the built-in acceleration sensor and its overall dimensions and weight. The present configuration is designed for distances between 0.3 and 1 m from charges between several 100 g and several kilograms. Data were successfully collected down to reduced distances of 0.25 m/kg^{1/3} . Minor changes in gauge dimensions, weight, or measurement range enable the gauges to be deployed at even closer distances.

  15. Critical velocity phenomena and the LTP. [Lunar Transient Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srnka, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    When the relative velocity between magnetized plasma and neutral gas exceeds a critical value, the gas-plasma interaction is dominated by collective phenomena which rapidly excite and ionize the neutrals. The interaction of the solar wind with a large cloud (between 10 to the 24th and 10 to the 28th power neutrals) vented from the moon should be of this type. Line radiation from such an interaction can yield an apparent lunar surface brightness rivaling reflected sunlight levels over small areas, if the kinetic-energy flow density of the gas is sufficiently high. The aberrated solar-wind flow past the moon would enhance the visibility of such interactions near the lunar sunrise terminator, supporting the statistical studies which indicate that the 'Lunar Transient Phenomena' (anomalous optical phenomena on the moon) are significantly correlated with the position of the terminator on the lunar surface.

  16. EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loss, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation of quantum cellular automata, a new paradigm for computing as reported by Craig S Lent and colleagues (Lent C S, Tougaw P D, Porod W and Bernstein G H 1993 Nanotechnology 4 49-57). The increasingly sophisticated manipulation of spin has been an enduring theme of research throughout this decade, providing a number of interesting developments such as spin pumping (Cota E, Aguado R, Creffield C E and Platero G 2003 Nanotechnology 14 152-6). The idea of spin qubits, proposed by D Loss and D P DiVincenzo (1998 Phys. Rev. A 57 120), developed into an established option for advancing research in quantum computing and continues to drive fruitful avenues of research, such as the integrated superconductive magnetic nanosensor recently devised by researchers in Italy (Granata C, Esposito E, Vettoliere A, Petti L and Russo M 2008 Nanotechnology 19 275501). The device has a spin sensitivity in units of the Bohr magneton of 100 spin Hz-1/2 and has large potential for applications in the measurement of nanoscale magnetization and quantum computing. The advance of science and technology at the nanoscale is inextricably enmeshed with advances in our understanding of quantum effects. As Nanotechnology celebrates its 20th volume, research into fundamental quantum phenomena continues to be an active field of research, providing fertile pasture for developing nanotechnologies.

  17. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  18. Toward Understanding Astrophysical Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Jing

    I hope to resume working on fast radio bursts (FRBs) in the near future. But after we completed our FRB paper, I decided to pause this project because of the lack of observational constraints. The pulsar triple system, J0733+1715, has its orbital parameters fitted to high accuracy owing to the precise timing of the central ms pulsar. The two orbits are highly hierarchical, namely Porb,1 " Porb,2, where 1 and 2 label the inner and outer white dwarf (WD) companions respectively. Moreover, their orbital planes almost coincide, providing a unique opportunity to study secular interaction associated purely with eccentricity beyond the solar system. Secular interaction only involves effect averaged over many orbits. Thus each companion can be represented by an elliptical wire with its mass distributed inversely proportional to its local orbital speed. Generally there exists a mutual torque, which vanishes only when their apsidal lines are parallel or anti-parallel. To maintain either mode, the eccentricity ratio, e1/ e2, must be of the proper value, so that both apsidal lines precess together. For J0733+1715, e1 " e2 for the parallel mode, while e 1 " e2 for the anti-parallel one. We show that the former precesses ˜10 times slower than the latter. Currently the system is dominated by the parallel mode. Although only a little anti-parallel mode survives, both eccentricities especially e1 oscillate on ˜103yr timescale. Detectable changes would occur within ˜1y. We demonstrate that the anti-parallel mode gets damped ˜10 4 times faster than its parallel brother by any dissipative process diminishing e1. If it is the tidal damping in the inner WD, we proceed to estimate its tidal quantity parameter (Q) to be ˜106, which was poorly constrained by observations. However, tidal damping may also happen during the preceding low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) phase or hydrogen thermal nuclear flashes. But, in both cases, the inner companion fills its Roche lobe and probably suffers mass/angular momentum loss, which might cause e1 to grow rather than decay. Several pairs of solar system satellites occupy mean motion resonances (MMRs). We divide these into two groups according to their proximity to exact resonance. Proximity is measured by the existence of a separatrix in phase space. MMRs between Io-Europa, Europa-Ganymede and Enceladus-Dione are too distant from exact resonance for a separatrix to appear. A separatrix is present only in the phase spaces of the Mimas-Tethys and Titan-Hyperion MMRs and their resonant arguments are the only ones to exhibit substantial librations. When a separatrix is present, tidal damping of eccentricity or inclination excites overstable librations that can lead to passage through resonance on the damping timescale. However, after investigation, we conclude that the librations in the Mimas-Tethys and Titan-Hyperion MMRs are fossils and do not result from overstability. Rubble piles are common in the solar system. Monolithic elements touch their neighbors in small localized areas. Voids occupy a significant fraction of the volume. In a fluid-free environment, heat cannot conduct through voids; only radiation can transfer energy across them. We model the effective thermal conductivity of a rubble pile and show that it is proportional the square root of the pressure, P, for P ≤ epsilon 3Ymu where epsilonY is the material's yield strain and mu its shear modulus. Our model provides an excellent fit to the depth dependence of the thermal conductivity in the top 140cm of the lunar regolith. It also offers an explanation for the low thermal inertias of rocky asteroids and icy satellites. Lastly, we discuss how rubble piles slow down the cooling of small bodies such as asteroids. In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient time-domain algorithm capable of detecting gravitational waves (GWs) from coalescing binaries of compact objects with nearly zero time delay. In case when the signal is strong enough, our algorithm also has the flexibility to trigger electromagnetic (EM) observation before the merger. The key to the efficiency of our algorithm arises from the use of chains of so-called Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filters, which filter time-series data recursively. Computational cost is further reduced by a template interpolation technique that requires filtering to be done only for a much coarser template bank than otherwise required to sufficiently recover optimal signal-to-noise ratio. Towards future detectors with sensitivity extending to lower frequencies, our algorithm's computational cost is shown to increase rather insignificantly compared to the conventional time-domain correlation method. Moreover, at latencies of less than hundreds to thousands of seconds, this method is expected to be computationally more efficient than the straightforward frequency-domain method. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  19. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

  20. [Study on quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag].

    PubMed

    Yan, Ding-Liu; Guo, Pei-Min; Qi, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Chun-Xia; Wang, Hai-Feng; Dai, Xiao-Tian

    2008-02-01

    Quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline and crystalline contents in blast furnace slag was studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The process of quantificational analysis method includes standard samples preparation, samples preparation, X-ray diffraction measurement and data treatment. The data treatment includes integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks in certain diffraction angle range, linear fitting and quantificational coefficient determination. The preparation methods of standard samples for X-ray diffraction of blast furnace slag were proposed, including 100% crystalline sample and 100% non-crystalline sample. The 100% crystalline sample can be obtained by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1 000-1 200 degrees C, and the 100% non-crystalline sample can be obtained by quenching the molten slag with enough water. The X-ray diffraction method of quantificational analysis of non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag was proposed with the 100% non-crystalline and 100% crystalline standard samples, and the quantificational coefficient can be obtained by linear regression on the integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks of X-ray diffraction in the 2-theta range 20 degrees-40 degrees. This method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 80%. The non-crystalline and crystalline contents of original blast furnace slag are obtained by combining the X-ray diffraction results and mathematical treatment, and this method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 90%, whose process includes preparing the 100% crystalline standard sample by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1000-1200 degrees C, samples preparation with the 0.02 interval in the 0-0.1 mass ratio range of 100% crystalline to original slag, X-ray diffraction measurement of the samples prepared and data treatment using iterative linear regression. The quantificational analysis method for blast furnace slag can be applied to various kinds of blast furnace slag from different steel plants. PMID:18479048

  1. Dry media blasting with wheat starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    The brand name TECHNOSTRIP covers several types of installations and facilities. These were developed mainly to meet the requirements of customers in the aeronautic field. The range of products includes: complete self-supporting and semi-automated system for aircraft stripping; large-size blasting booth for semi-automatic stripping; manual blasting booth; and sealed and portable manual stripping head. Wheat starch media was developed for particle blasting stripping and is used in TECHNOSTRIP. This paper reviews its origins and use as well as use of automated facilities, reliability, effects on materials, effects on environment, and utilization examples.

  2. Retinal sequelae of primary ocular blast injuries.

    PubMed

    Chalioulias, K; Sim, K T; Scott, R

    2007-06-01

    Primary ocular blast injury is an uncommon and disputed phenomenon. As personal ballistic protection of the head and torso improves for soldiers, increasing numbers of injuries to the unprotected areas such as the face and eyes may be expected; similarly the increase in the use of improvised explosive devices by insurgent terrorists in Iraq is increasing the number of primary blast injuries being seen by the Defence Medical Services. We report a rare case of primary blast injury to the eye and briefly discuss the literature on the subject. PMID:17896543

  3. CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Initial tests with CO{sub 2} pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO{sub 2} blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report.

  4. Visualization of explosion phenomena using a high-speed video camera with an uncoupled objective lens by fiber-optic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuoka, Nobuyuki; Miyoshi, Hitoshi; Kusano, Hideaki; Hata, Hidehiro; Hiroe, Tetsuyuki; Fujiwara, Kazuhito; Yasushi, Kondo

    2008-11-01

    Visualization of explosion phenomena is very important and essential to evaluate the performance of explosive effects. The phenomena, however, generate blast waves and fragments from cases. We must protect our visualizing equipment from any form of impact. In the tests described here, the front lens was separated from the camera head by means of a fiber-optic cable in order to be able to use the camera, a Shimadzu Hypervision HPV-1, for tests in severe blast environment, including the filming of explosions. It was possible to obtain clear images of the explosion that were not inferior to the images taken by the camera with the lens directly coupled to the camera head. It could be confirmed that this system is very useful for the visualization of dangerous events, e.g., at an explosion site, and for visualizations at angles that would be unachievable under normal circumstances.

  5. Fluid/Structure Interaction Computational Investigation of Blast-Wave Mitigation Efficacy of the Advanced Combat Helmet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Bell, W. C.; Pandurangan, B.; Glomski, P. S.

    2011-08-01

    To combat the problem of traumatic brain injury (TBI), a signature injury of the current military conflicts, there is an urgent need to design head protection systems with superior blast/ballistic impact mitigation capabilities. Toward that end, the blast impact mitigation performance of an advanced combat helmet (ACH) head protection system equipped with polyurea suspension pads and subjected to two different blast peak pressure loadings has been investigated computationally. A fairly detailed (Lagrangian) finite-element model of a helmet/skull/brain assembly is first constructed and placed into an Eulerian air domain through which a single planar blast wave propagates. A combined Eulerian/Lagrangian transient nonlinear dynamics computational fluid/solid interaction analysis is next conducted in order to assess the extent of reduction in intra-cranial shock-wave ingress (responsible for TBI). This was done by comparing temporal evolutions of intra-cranial normal and shear stresses for the cases of an unprotected head and the helmet-protected head and by correlating these quantities with the three most common types of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), i.e., axonal damage, contusion, and subdural hemorrhage. The results obtained show that the ACH provides some level of protection against all investigated types of mTBI and that the level of protection increases somewhat with an increase in blast peak pressure. In order to rationalize the aforementioned findings, a shockwave propagation/reflection analysis is carried out for the unprotected head and helmet-protected head cases. The analysis qualitatively corroborated the results pertaining to the blast-mitigation efficacy of an ACH, but also suggested that there are additional shockwave energy dissipation phenomena which play an important role in the mechanical response of the unprotected/protected head to blast impact.

  6. Membranes replace irradiated blast cells as growth requirement for leukemic blast progenitors in suspension culture

    SciTech Connect

    Nara, N.; McCulloch, E.A.

    1985-11-01

    The blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) may be considered as a renewal population, maintained by blast stem cells capable of both self-renewal and the generation of progeny with reduced or absent proliferative potential. This growth requires that two conditions be met: first, the cultures must contain growth factors in media conditioned either by phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated mononuclear leukocytes (PHA-LCM), or by cells of the continuous bladder carcinoma line HTB9 (HTB9-CM). Second, the cell density must be maintained at 10(6) blasts/ml; this may be achieved by adding irradiated cells to smaller numbers of intact blasts. The authors are concerned with the mechanism of the feeding function. They present evidence that (a) cell-cell contact is required. (b) Blasts are heterogeneous in respect to their capacity to support growth. (c) Fractions containing membranes from blast cells will substitute for intact cells in promoting the generation of new blast progenitors in culture. (d) This membrane function may be specific for AML blasts, since membranes from blasts of lymphoblastic leukemia or normal marrow cells were inactive.

  7. Blast Injuries: From Improvised Explosive Device Blasts to the Boston Marathon Bombing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay K; Ditkofsky, Noah G; York, John D; Abujudeh, Hani H; Avery, Laura A; Brunner, John F; Sodickson, Aaron D; Lev, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns. Primary blast injuries are caused by barotrauma from the initial increased pressure of the explosive detonation and the rarefaction of the atmosphere immediately afterward. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris carried by the blast wind and most often result in penetrating trauma from small shrapnel. Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the physical displacement of the victim and the wide variety of blunt or penetrating trauma sustained as a result of the patient impacting immovable objects such as surrounding cars, walls, or fences. Quaternary blast injuries include all other injuries, such as burns, crush injuries, and inhalational injuries. Radiography is considered the initial imaging modality for assessment of shrapnel and fractures. Computed tomography is the optimal test to assess penetrating chest, abdominal, and head trauma. The mechanism of blast injuries and the imaging experience of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing are detailed, as well as musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary injury patterns from blast injuries. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:26761543

  8. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  9. A parametric approach to shape field-relevant blast wave profiles in compressed-gas-driven shock tube.

    PubMed

    Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Chandra, Namas

    2014-01-01

    Detonation of a high-explosive produces shock-blast wave, shrapnel, and gaseous products. While direct exposure to blast is a concern near the epicenter, shock-blast can affect subjects, even at farther distances. When a pure shock-blast wave encounters the subject, in the absence of shrapnels, fall, or gaseous products the loading is termed as primary blast loading and is the subject of this paper. The wave profile is characterized by blast overpressure, positive time duration, and impulse and called herein as shock-blast wave parameters (SWPs). These parameters in turn are uniquely determined by the strength of high explosive and the distance of the human subjects from the epicenter. The shape and magnitude of the profile determine the severity of injury to the subjects. As shown in some of our recent works (1-3), the profile not only determines the survival of the subjects (e.g., animals) but also the acute and chronic biomechanical injuries along with the following bio-chemical sequelae. It is extremely important to carefully design and operate the shock tube to produce field-relevant SWPs. Furthermore, it is vital to identify and eliminate the artifacts that are inadvertently introduced in the shock-blast profile that may affect the results. In this work, we examine the relationship between shock tube adjustable parameters (SAPs) and SWPs that can be used to control the blast profile; the results can be easily applied to many of the laboratory shock tubes. Further, replication of shock profile (magnitude and shape) can be related to field explosions and can be a standard in comparing results across different laboratories. Forty experiments are carried out by judiciously varying SAPs such as membrane thickness, breech length (66.68-1209.68 mm), measurement location, and type of driver gas (nitrogen, helium). The effects SAPs have on the resulting shock-blast profiles are shown. Also, the shock-blast profiles of a TNT explosion from ConWep software is compared with the profiles obtained from the shock tube. To conclude, our experimental results demonstrate that a compressed-gas shock tube when designed and operated carefully can replicate the blast time profiles of field explosions accurately. Such a faithful replication is an essential first step when studying the effects of blast induced neurotrauma using animal models. PMID:25520701

  10. A Parametric Approach to Shape Field-Relevant Blast Wave Profiles in Compressed-Gas-Driven Shock Tube

    PubMed Central

    Sundaramurthy, Aravind; Chandra, Namas

    2014-01-01

    Detonation of a high-explosive produces shock-blast wave, shrapnel, and gaseous products. While direct exposure to blast is a concern near the epicenter, shock-blast can affect subjects, even at farther distances. When a pure shock-blast wave encounters the subject, in the absence of shrapnels, fall, or gaseous products the loading is termed as primary blast loading and is the subject of this paper. The wave profile is characterized by blast overpressure, positive time duration, and impulse and called herein as shock-blast wave parameters (SWPs). These parameters in turn are uniquely determined by the strength of high explosive and the distance of the human subjects from the epicenter. The shape and magnitude of the profile determine the severity of injury to the subjects. As shown in some of our recent works (1–3), the profile not only determines the survival of the subjects (e.g., animals) but also the acute and chronic biomechanical injuries along with the following bio-chemical sequelae. It is extremely important to carefully design and operate the shock tube to produce field-relevant SWPs. Furthermore, it is vital to identify and eliminate the artifacts that are inadvertently introduced in the shock-blast profile that may affect the results. In this work, we examine the relationship between shock tube adjustable parameters (SAPs) and SWPs that can be used to control the blast profile; the results can be easily applied to many of the laboratory shock tubes. Further, replication of shock profile (magnitude and shape) can be related to field explosions and can be a standard in comparing results across different laboratories. Forty experiments are carried out by judiciously varying SAPs such as membrane thickness, breech length (66.68–1209.68 mm), measurement location, and type of driver gas (nitrogen, helium). The effects SAPs have on the resulting shock-blast profiles are shown. Also, the shock-blast profiles of a TNT explosion from ConWep software is compared with the profiles obtained from the shock tube. To conclude, our experimental results demonstrate that a compressed-gas shock tube when designed and operated carefully can replicate the blast time profiles of field explosions accurately. Such a faithful replication is an essential first step when studying the effects of blast induced neurotrauma using animal models. PMID:25520701

  11. Modelling blast induced damage from a fully coupled explosive charge

    PubMed Central

    Onederra, Italo A.; Furtney, Jason K.; Sellers, Ewan; Iverson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents one of the latest developments in the blasting engineering modelling field—the Hybrid Stress Blasting Model (HSBM). HSBM includes a rock breakage engine to model detonation, wave propagation, rock fragmentation, and muck pile formation. Results from two controlled blasting experiments were used to evaluate the code’s ability to predict the extent of damage. Results indicate that the code is capable of adequately predicting both the extent and shape of the damage zone associated with the influence of point-of-initiation and free-face boundary conditions. Radial fractures extending towards a free face are apparent in the modelling output and matched those mapped after the experiment. In the stage 2 validation experiment, the maximum extent of visible damage was of the order of 1.45 m for the fully coupled 38-mm emulsion charge. Peak radial velocities were predicted within a relative difference of only 1.59% at the nearest history point at 0.3 m from the explosive charge. Discrepancies were larger further away from the charge, with relative differences of −22.4% and −42.9% at distances of 0.46 m and 0.61 m, respectively, meaning that the model overestimated particle velocities at these distances. This attenuation deficiency in the modelling produced an overestimation of the damage zone at the corner of the block due to excessive stress reflections. The extent of visible damage in the immediate vicinity of the blasthole adequately matched the measurements. PMID:26412978

  12. Correlations in the (Sub)millimeter Background from ACT BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajian, Amir; Viero, Marco P.; Addison, Graeme; Aguirre, Paula; Appel, John William; Battaglia, Nick; Bock, James J.; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dnner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Hughes, John P.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D.; Hlozek, Rene; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Lin, Yen-Ting; Marriage, Tobias A.; Marsden, Danica; Marsden, Gaelen; Menanteau, Felipe; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Moodley, Kavilan; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Niemack, Michael D.; Nolta, Michael R.; Page, Lyman A.; Parker, Lucas; Patanchon, Guillaume; Scott, Douglas; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N.; Staggs, Suzanne T.; Swetz, Daniel S.; Switzer, Eric R.; Thornton, Robert; Wollack, Ed

    2012-01-01

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency correlation power spectra of the cosmic (sub)millimeter background at 250, 350, and 500 ?m (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations made with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST); and at 1380 and 2030 ?m (218 and 148 GHz) from observations made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The overlapping observations cover 8.6 deg2 in an area relatively free of Galactic dust near the south ecliptic pole. The ACT bands are sensitive to radiation from the cosmic microwave background, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from galaxy clusters, and to emission by radio and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), while the dominant contribution to the BLAST bands is from DSFGs. We confirm and extend the BLAST analysis of clustering with an independent pipeline and also detect correlations between the ACT and BLAST maps at over 25? significance, which we interpret as a detection of the DSFGs in the ACT maps. In addition to a Poisson component in the cross-frequency power spectra, we detect a clustered signal at 4?, and using a model for the DSFG evolution and number counts, we successfully fit all of our spectra with a linear clustering model and a bias that depends only on redshift and not on scale. Finally, the data are compared to, and generally agree with, phenomenological models for the DSFG population. This study demonstrates the constraining power of the cross-frequency correlation technique to constrain models for the DSFGs. Similar analyses with more data will impose tight constraints on future models.

  13. Observations of cometary plasma wave phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.; Coroniti, F. V.; Kennel, C. F.; Gurnett, D. A.; Ip, W.-H.; Smith, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    The ICE plasma wave investigation utilized very long electric antennas (100 m tip-to-tip) and a very high sensitivity magnetic search coil to obtain significant local information on plasma physics phenomena occurring in the distant pickup regions of Comet Giacobini-Zinner and Comet Halley; and information on the processes that developed in the coma and tail of Giacobini-Zinner. The ICE plasma wave measurements associated with both comet encounters are summarized, and high sensitivity ICE observations are related to corresponding measurements from the other Halley spacecraft.

  14. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry of constant cross sectional area, and to facilitate fluid filling and draining operations in microgravity. The fluid cells may be used singly for bulk solutions, or in a Stokes diaphragm configuration to investigate membrane mediated phenomena. Thermal and electrical driving potentials are applied to the experiment fluids through boundary plates located at the ends of the fluid cells. In the ground based instrument, two constant temperature baths circulate through reservoirs adjacent to the boundary plates, and establish the thermal environment within the fluid cells. The boundary plates also serve as electrodes for measurement and application of electrical potentials. The Fluid Manipulation System associated with the MTA is a computer controlled system that enables storage and transfer of experiment fluids during on orbit operations. The system is used to automatically initiate experiments and manipulate fluids by orchestrating pump and valve operations through scripted sequences. Unique technologies are incorporated in the MTA for measurement of fluid properties. Volumetric Flow Sensors have been developed for precision measurement of total fluid volume contained within the fluid cells over time. This data is most useful for measuring the kinetics of osmosis, where fluid is transported from one fluid cell to another through a semipermeable membrane. The MicroSensor Array has been designed to perform in situ measurement of several important fluid parameters, providing simultaneous measurement of solution composition at multiple locations within the experiment fluids. Micromachined sensors and interface electronics have been developed to measure temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, cation activity, and anion activity. The Profile Refractometer uses a laser optical system to directly image the fluid Index of Refraction profile that exists along the MTA fluid cell axis. A video system acquires images of the RI profile over time, and records the transport kinetics that occur upon application of chemical, thermal, or electrical driving potentials. Image proces

  15. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed... mines. Silica sand or other materials containing more than 1 percent free silica shall not be used as...

  16. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    1981-03-17

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  17. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed... mines. Silica sand or other materials containing more than 1 percent free silica shall not be used as...

  18. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  19. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Russell N. (Shoreham, NY); Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY)

    1981-01-01

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  20. Visualizing Chemical Phenomena in Microdroplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sunghee; Wiener, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Phenomena that occur in microdroplets are described to the undergraduate chemistry community. Droplets having a diameter in the micrometer range can have unique and interesting properties, which arise because of their small size and, especially, their high surface area-to-volume ratio. Students are generally unfamiliar with the characteristics of

  1. Visualizing Chemical Phenomena in Microdroplets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sunghee; Wiener, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Phenomena that occur in microdroplets are described to the undergraduate chemistry community. Droplets having a diameter in the micrometer range can have unique and interesting properties, which arise because of their small size and, especially, their high surface area-to-volume ratio. Students are generally unfamiliar with the characteristics of…

  2. Quantum Phenomena Observed Using Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Tonomura, Akira

    2011-05-06

    Electron phase microscopy based on the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect principle has been used to illuminate fundamental phenomena concerning magnetism and superconductivity by visualizing quantitative magnetic lines of force. This paper deals with confirmation experiments on the AB effect, the magnetization process of tiny magnetic heads for perpendicular recording, and vortex behaviors in high-Tc superconductors.

  3. Detecting Residues On Grit-Blasted Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, H. L.; Zook, L. M.

    1989-01-01

    Addition of fluorescent or iridescent material to plastic grit particles proposed for detection of grit residues after grit-blast cleaning. Residual films visible by observing grit-blasted surfaces under infrared or ultraviolet light. Plastic grit contains fluorescent or iridescent additive in core and coating. Wherever grit material becomes embedded, additive makes it visible under infrared or ultraviolet light. Applicable to other grit materials, for example fluorescent or iridescent materials added to particles of glass, silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, or zirconium silicate.

  4. Space shuttle holddown post blast shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larracas, F. B.

    1991-01-01

    The original and subsequent designs of the Solid Rocket Booster/Holddown Post blast shield assemblies and their associated hardware are described. It presents the major problems encountered during their early use in the Space Shuttle Program, during the Return-to-Flight Modification Phase, and during their fabrication and validation testing phases. The actions taken to correct the problems are discussed, along with the various concepts now being considered to increase the useful life of the blast shield.

  5. Lightweight Energy Absorbers for Blast Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balles, Donald L.; Ingram, Thomas M.; Novak, Howard L.; Schricker, Albert F.

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic-energy-absorbing liners made of aluminum foam have been developed to replace solid lead liners in blast containers on the aft skirt of the solid rocket booster of the space shuttle. The blast containers are used to safely trap the debris from small explosions that are initiated at liftoff to sever frangible nuts on hold-down studs that secure the spacecraft to a mobile launch platform until liftoff.

  6. Automation of studies of the dynamics of blast processes in underground mining establishments

    SciTech Connect

    Sboev, V.M.

    1986-09-01

    A test was made of the subsystem of the geomechanical measurement-computer complex ''CMCC Mass-1'' and examined the feasibility of using it to automate investigations of explosive processes. Oscillograms of microseismic oscillations induced by a series of technological blasts in four pillars are presented in a figure. In concluding, the authors noted that as a result of the investigations of microseismic oscillations that develop due to blasting conditions, certain laws were established experimentally under mine conditions. They assume extremely critical significance for the monitoring and predicting of dynamic manifestations of frock pressure and the working of a structure of geochemical measurement-computer complexes.

  7. Blast furnace hearth life: Models for assessing the wear and understanding the transient thermal states

    SciTech Connect

    Leprince, G.; Steiler, J.M.; Sert, D. ); Libralesso, J.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Nowadays, the hearth is the most critical part of the blast furnace when aiming at a long campaign life. Consequently, a better understanding of refractories wear as well as flow mechanisms has become primordial for determining and, if possible, preventing the erosion process. Efforts of measurements have therefore been made during the blast furnace repairs, with the implementation of numerous thermocouples in the carbon bricks. Hence, it becomes possible to monitor and model continuously the internal state of the hearth in accordance with the measured temperature field. Since 1990, different numerical models have been developed and used with two principal aims: - to assess regularly the internal erosion line of the blast furnace hearth all along the campaign life, and - to simulate and if possible, to explain the important transient thermal states observed on some large blast furnaces. This paper describes the content of the two models used nowadays on most of the French blast furnaces and presents the main results obtained in accordance with the industrial variations of temperatures.

  8. Helmet liner evaluation to mitigate head response from primary blast exposure.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Philip A; Cronin, Duane S

    2015-01-01

    Head injury resulting from blast loading, including mild traumatic brain injury, has been identified as an important blast-related injury in modern conflict zones. A study was undertaken to investigate potential protective ballistic helmet liner materials to mitigate primary blast injury using a detailed sagittal plane head finite element model, developed and validated against previous studies of head kinematics resulting from blast exposure. Five measures reflecting the potential for brain injury that were investigated included intracranial pressure, brain tissue strain, head acceleration (linear and rotational) and the head injury criterion. In simulations, these measures provided consistent predictions for typical blast loading scenarios. Considering mitigation, various characteristics of foam material response were investigated and a factor analysis was performed which showed that the four most significant were the interaction effects between modulus and hysteretic response, stress-strain response, damping factor and density. Candidate materials were then identified using the predicted optimal material values. Polymeric foam was found to meet the density and modulus requirements; however, for all significant parameters, higher strength foams, such as aluminum foam, were found to provide the highest reduction in the potential for injury when compared against the unprotected head. PMID:24559088

  9. Comparing the Neuropsychological Test Performance of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans with and without Blast Exposure, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, Daniel; O'Neil, Maya Elin; Roost, Saw-Myo; Kowalski, Halina; Iverson, Grant L; Binder, Laurence M; Fann, Jesse R; Huckans, Marilyn

    2015-05-01

    To compare neuropsychological test performance of Veterans with and without mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), blast exposure, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We compared the neuropsychological test performance of 49 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans diagnosed with MTBI resulting from combat blast-exposure to that of 20 blast-exposed OEF/OIF Veterans without history of MTBI, 23 OEF/OIF Veterans with no blast exposure or MTBI history, and 40 matched civilian controls. Comparison of neuropsychological test performance across all four participant groups showed a complex pattern of mixed significant and mostly nonsignificant results, with omnibus tests significant for measures of attention, spatial abilities, and executive function. The most consistent pattern was the absence of significant differences between blast-exposed Veterans with MTBI history and blast-exposed Veterans without MTBI history. When blast-exposed Veteran groups with and without MTBI history were aggregated and compared to non-blast-exposed Veterans, there were significant differences for some measures of learning and memory, spatial abilities, and executive function. However, covariation for severity of PTSD symptoms eliminated all significant omnibus neuropsychological differences between Veteran groups. Our results suggest that, although some mild neurocognitive effects were associated with blast exposure, these neurocognitive effects might be better explained by PTSD symptom severity rather than blast exposure or MTBI history alone. PMID:26029852

  10. Neuropathology of explosive blast traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, John; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S F

    2012-10-01

    During the conflicts of the Global War on Terror, which are Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), there have been over a quarter of a million diagnosed cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The vast majority are due to explosive blast. Although explosive blast TBI (bTBI) shares many clinical features with closed head TBI (cTBI) and penetrating TBI (pTBI), it has unique features, such as early cerebral edema and prolonged cerebral vasospasm. Evolving work suggests that diffuse axonal injury (DAI) seen following explosive blast exposure is different than DAI from focal impact injury. These unique features support the notion that bTBI is a separate and distinct form of TBI. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge pertaining to bTBI. Areas of discussion are: the physics of explosive blast generation, blast wave interaction with the bony calvarium and brain tissue, gross tissue pathophysiology, regional brain injury, and cellular and molecular mechanisms of explosive blast neurotrauma. PMID:22836523

  11. Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M

    2009-07-27

    The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

  12. Underwater blast injury: a review of standards.

    PubMed

    Lance, Rachel M; Bass, Cameron R

    2015-09-01

    The first cases of underwater blast injury appeared in the scientific literature in 1917, and thousands of service members and civilians were injured or killed by underwater blast during WWII. The prevalence of underwater blast injuries and occupational blasting needs led to the development of many safety standards to prevent injury or death. Most of these standards were not supported by experimental data or testing. In this review, we describe existing standards, discuss their origins, and we comprehensively compare their prescriptions across standards. Surprisingly, we found that most safety standards had little or no scientific basis, and prescriptions across standards often varied by at least an order of magnitude. Many published standards traced back to a US Navy 500 psi guideline, which was intended to provide a peak pressure at which injuries were likely to occur. This standard itself seems to have been based upon a completely unfounded assertion that has propagated throughout the literature in subsequent years. Based on the limitations of the standards discussed, we outline future directions for underwater blast injury research, such as the compilation of epidemiological data to examine actual injury risk by human beings subjected to underwater blasts. PMID:26415071

  13. Effect of Blast-Induced Vibration from New Railway Tunnel on Existing Adjacent Railway Tunnel in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qingguo; Li, Jie; Li, Dewu; Ou, Erfeng

    2013-01-01

    The vibrations of existing service tunnels induced by blast-excavation of adjacent tunnels have attracted much attention from both academics and engineers during recent decades in China. The blasting vibration velocity (BVV) is the most widely used controlling index for in situ monitoring and safety assessment of existing lining structures. Although numerous in situ tests and simulations had been carried out to investigate blast-induced vibrations of existing tunnels due to excavation of new tunnels (mostly by bench excavation method), research on the overall dynamical response of existing service tunnels in terms of not only BVV but also stress/strain seemed limited for new tunnels excavated by the full-section blasting method. In this paper, the impacts of blast-induced vibrations from a new tunnel on an existing railway tunnel in Xinjiang, China were comprehensively investigated by using laboratory tests, in situ monitoring and numerical simulations. The measured data from laboratory tests and in situ monitoring were used to determine the parameters needed for numerical simulations, and were compared with the calculated results. Based on the results from in situ monitoring and numerical simulations, which were consistent with each other, the original blasting design and corresponding parameters were adjusted to reduce the maximum BVV, which proved to be effective and safe. The effect of both the static stress before blasting vibrations and the dynamic stress induced by blasting on the total stresses in the existing tunnel lining is also discussed. The methods and related results presented could be applied in projects with similar ground and distance between old and new tunnels if the new tunnel is to be excavated by the full-section blasting method.

  14. Hydrocortisone in culture protects the blast cells in acute myeloblastic leukemia from the lethal effects of cytosine arabinoside

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, G.S.; Wang, C.; Minkin, S.; Minden, M.D.; McCulloch, E.A. )

    1991-07-01

    The blast cells in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) respond to many of the same regulatory mechanisms that control normal hemopoiesis. These include the growth factors that bind to membrane receptors and steroid hormones or vitamins that have intracellular receptors. The authors report the effects in culture of the steroid glucocorticoid hydrocortisone on freshly explanted AML blasts from patients and on two continuous AML cell lines. Only small changes in clonogenic cell numbers in suspension cultures were seen in the presence of hydrocortisone. The most striking effect of the hormone was on the sensitivity of blasts cells to cytosine arabinoside (ara-C). In contrast to the response of AML blast cells to retinoic acid, a ligand for intracellular steroid receptors that sensitizes some blast populations to ara-C, hydrocortisone reduced the toxic effects of the drug. The protective action of hydrocortisone was not mediated through the cell cycle since exposure of blasts to hydrocortisone did not affect the percentage of cells in DNA synthesis as measured with the tritiated thymidine (3HTdR) suicide technique. The hydrocortisone effect could be demonstrated using a pulse (20 min) exposure protocol. Blasts pulsed with increasing specific activities of 3HTdR showed the usual response pattern with an initial loss in plating efficiency to about 50% of control, followed by a plateau, regardless of whether the cells had been exposed to hydrocortisone. Control blasts exposed to increasing ara-C concentrations gave very similar dose-response curves; in striking contrast, blast cells cultured in hydrocortisone, then pulsed with ara-C did not lose colony-forming ability even though the same population was sensitive to 3HTdR.

  15. [Rice blast prediction model based on analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Na; Yu, Hai-Ye; Zhang, Lei; Ren, Shun; Sui, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Lian-Jun

    2014-04-01

    In order to detect rice blast more rapidly, accurately and nondestructively, the identification and early warning models of rice blast were established in the present research. First of all, rice blast was divided into three grades according to the relative area of disease spots in rice leaf and laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectra of rice leaves at different disease levels were measured in the paddy fields. Meanwhile, 502-830 nm bands of laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectra were selected for the study of rice blast. Savitzky-Golay(SG) smoothing and First Derivative Transform(FDT) were applied for the pretreatment of laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectra. Then the method of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was used to achieve the dimension reduction on spectral information, three principal components whose variance are greater than 1 and cumulative credibility is 99.924% were extracted by this method. Furthermore, the tentative data were divided into calibration set and validation set, the levels of rice blast were taken as the predictors. Combined with the calibration set which contains the disease and spectral information of 133 leaves, Discriminant Analysis (DA), Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis (MLRA) and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) were used respectively to establish the identification and early warning models of rice blast. The Prediction examinations of the three models were made based on the validation set which contains the disease and spectral information of 89 leaves. The results show that all the models of PCA-DA, PCA-MLRA and PCA-MLP can carry on the prediction of rice blast, and the average prediction accuracy of PCA-MLP prediction model is 91.7% which is improved compared with PCA- DA and PCA- MLRA. PMID:25007618

  16. Blast traumatic brain injury in the rat using a blast overpressure model.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, Angela M; Shaughness, Michael C; Barry, Erin S; Ahlers, Stephen T; McCarron, Richard M; Grunberg, Neil E

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious health concern for civilians and military populations, and blast-induced TBI (bTBI) has become an increasing problem for military personnel over the past 10 years. To understand the biological and psychological effects of blast-induced injuries and to examine potential interventions that may help to prevent, attenuate, and treat effects of bTBI, it is valuable to conduct controlled animal experiments. This unit discusses available paradigms to model traumatic brain injury in animals, with an emphasis on the relevance of these various models to study blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). This paper describes the detailed methods of a blast overpressure (BOP) paradigm that has been used to conduct experiments with rats to model blast exposure. This particular paradigm models the pressure wave created by explosions, including improvised explosive devices (IEDs). PMID:23315947

  17. Heat-transfer phenomena in water-cooled zinc-fuming furnace jackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholey, K. E.; Richards, G. G.; Samarasekera, I. V.

    1991-04-01

    In the zinc slag-fuming process, zinc is removed from lead blast furnace slag by reduction with a coal-air mixture injected into the slag through submerged tuyeres. The furnace is constructed of water-cooled jackets which freeze a slag layer and contain the bath. This greatly reduces vessel wear caused by the violently agitated and corrosive bath. The jackets, however, fail due to the formation of cracks which grow from the slag face through the working face of the jacket to the water channel. In this study, in-plant measurements and mathematical modeling of heat transfer in the jackets have been combined to elucidate the mechanism of failure. The working face of a water jacket was instrumented with thermocouples and installed in a fuming furnace at the Trail smelter of Cominco Ltd., Trail, BC. Measurements revealed the presence of large thermal transients or temperature “spikes” in the panel in the region immediately above the tuyeres. These were generally observed during charging and tapping of the furnace and are likely associated with disturbances on the surface of the bath or gas injection effects when the liquid level is low. Temperatures at the midthickness were seen to rise by as much as 180 °C above the steady-state level. Under these conditions, low-cycle fatigue may lead to crack formation and propagation. A mathematical modeling analysis of the transient freezing phenomena indicates that the temperature spikes are associated with sudden slag falloff and direct contact of molten slag on the jacket. In order to reduce slag falloff, an increased number of anchoring fins should be used in critical areas.

  18. Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroney, O. J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed.

  19. Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena.

    PubMed

    Maroney, O J E

    2009-12-01

    The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed. PMID:20365152

  20. Young Stars and Planets Near the Sun: Explosive Phenomena from Falling Evaporating Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibadov, Subhon; Ibodov, Firuz S.

    2015-11-01

    Impacts of falling evaporating bodies (FEBs) with stars and planets at velocities V >~ 10 - 20 km/s will be accompanied, due to aerodynamic effects such as crushing and transversal expansion of the crushed mass, by the FEB's ``explosion'' and the generation of a strong ``blast'' wave, resulting in FEB-generated explosive/flare phenomena. Multiwavelength monitoring of nearby young stars (and exoplanets) with dense protoplanetary disks rich in FEB's is hence of interest for identifying such FEB-related mechanisms possibly underlying their variability.

  1. Young Stars and Planets Near the Sun: Explosive Phenomena from Falling Evaporating Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibadov, Subhon; Ibodov, Firuz S.

    2016-01-01

    Impacts of falling evaporating bodies (FEBs) with stars and planets at velocities V >~ 10 - 20 km/s will be accompanied, due to aerodynamic effects such as crushing and transversal expansion of the crushed mass, by the FEB's ``explosion'' and the generation of a strong ``blast'' wave, resulting in FEB-generated explosive/flare phenomena. Multiwavelength monitoring of nearby young stars (and exoplanets) with dense protoplanetary disks rich in FEB's is hence of interest for identifying such FEB-related mechanisms possibly underlying their variability.

  2. Visualization of solidification front phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1993-01-01

    Directional solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental platform which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Because of the wide-spread use of this experimental technique in space-based research, it has become apparent that a better understanding of all the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible.

  3. Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.

  4. New phenomena searches at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Soha, Aron; /UC, Davis

    2006-04-01

    The authors report on recent results from the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment, which is accumulating data from proton-antiproton collisions with {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. The new phenomena being explored include Higgs, Supersymmetry, and large extra dimensions. They also present the latest results of searches for heavy objects, which would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model.

  5. Bubbling phenomena of biharmonic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakauchi, Nobumitsu; Urakawa, Hajime

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, by using Moser's iteration technique, we will show that every sequence in the totality of biharmonic maps between two compact Riemannian manifolds (M, g) and (N, h) with m-energies (m = dim M ? 3) and L2-norm of the tension fields which are bounded above by any positive constant C, causes the bubbling phenomena, which is a generalization of the one for harmonic maps.

  6. Noise Induced Phenomena: a Sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wio, Horacio S.; Lindenberg, Katja

    2003-03-01

    Fluctuations or noise have played a changing role in the history of science. Historically, we can identify three views of noise. In the first, up to the end of the 19th century, noise was considered a nuisance to be avoided or eliminated. This is still the implication of the definition of the word noise in any standard dictionary. A second stage dates from the beginning of the 20th century, when it became clear from the study of fluctuations via Onsager relations and fluctuation-dissipation relations that one can obtain useful information about a physical system from its fluctuations. The third stage started about three decades ago, and is marked by the realization that noise can actually play a central role in inducing new phenomena. Examples where noise leads to organized behavior include stochastic resonance, noise-induced phase transitions, noise-induced pattern formation, and noise-induced transport. In this minicourse we sample some such noise-induced phenomena. While many of these fluctuation-induced phenomena involve temporal fluctuations, spatial fluctuations (disorder) can also play a similar organizing role. We briefly illustrate this scenario as well.

  7. Smooth blasting with the electronic delay detonator

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Ichijo, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Yoshiharu

    1995-12-31

    The authors utilized electronic detonators (EDs) to investigate the effect of high detonator delay accuracy on overbreak, remaining rock damage, and surface smoothness, in comparison with that of long-period delay detonators (0.25 sec interval) PDs. The experiments were conducted in a deep mine, in a test site region composed of very hard granodiorite with a seismic wave velocity of about 6.0 km/sec and a uniaxial compressive strength, uniaxial tensile strength, and Young`s modulus of 300 MPa, 12 MPa, and 73 GPa, respectively. The blasting design was for a test tunnel excavation of 8 m{sup 2} in cross section, with an advance per round of 2.5 m. Five rounds were performed, each with a large-hole cut and perimeter holes in a 0.4-m spacing charged with 20-mm-diameter water gel explosive to obtain low charge concentration. EDs were used in the holes on the perimeter of the right half, and PDs were used in all other holes. Following each shot, the cross section was measured by laser to determine amount of overbreak and surface smoothness. In situ seismic prospecting was used to estimate the depth of damage in the remaining rock, and the damage was further investigated by boring into both side walls.

  8. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction after primary blast injury in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hue, Christopher D; Cao, Siqi; Haider, Syed F; Vo, Kiet V; Effgen, Gwen B; Vogel, Edward; Panzer, Matthew B; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Meaney, David F; Morrison, Barclay

    2013-10-01

    The incidence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has increased substantially in recent military conflicts. However, the consequences of bTBI on the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a specialized cerebrovascular structure essential for brain homeostasis, remain unknown. In this study, we utilized a shock tube driven by compressed gas to generate operationally relevant, ideal pressure profiles consistent with improvised explosive devices (IEDs). By multiple measures, the barrier function of an in vitro BBB model was disrupted following exposure to a range of controlled blast loading conditions. Trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) decreased acutely in a dose-dependent manner that was most strongly correlated with impulse, as opposed to peak overpressure or duration. Significantly increased hydraulic conductivity and solute permeability post-injury further confirmed acute alterations in barrier function. Compromised ZO-1 immunostaining identified a structural basis for BBB breakdown. After blast exposure, TEER remained significantly depressed 2 days post-injury, followed by spontaneous recovery to pre-injury control levels at day 3. This study is the first to report immediate disruption of an in vitro BBB model following primary blast exposure, which may be important for the development of novel helmet designs to help mitigate the effects of blast on the BBB. PMID:23581482

  9. BLAST: a machine architecture for high-speed list processing using associative tables

    SciTech Connect

    Sohi, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of nonnumeric processing languages such as LISP, there has been an increasing demand for machine architectures that are ideally suited to run such languages. Access to the main data structure used in LISP systems, i.e., list structures, is not conducive to a pipelined machine organization. In this thesis, the BLAST machine architecture is presented for the efficient execution of LISP and other list processing languages similar to LISP. The main feature of the BLAST architecture is the way in which lists are represented. First, representation of lists in a logical space and their mapping onto Exception Tables (ETs) are discussed. This ET representation for lists has the potential to achieve a substantial reduction in the memory space required to represent the list structure over conventional representations. Second, the actual BLAST machine architecture and some major traversal algorithms are presented. Next, the author discusses some of the major tasks carried out in a list processing environment and shows how they could be executed efficiently on BLAST. Last, he carries an evaluation of the BLAST architecture and discusses the various tradeoffs based on measurements of LISP program behavior carried out by previous researchers. The most important parameter influencing the performance of the architecture, the frequency of forwarding pointers, is discussed.

  10. Luminous Phenomena - A Scientific Investigation of Anomalous Luminous Atmospheric Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.

    2003-12-01

    Anomalous atmospheric luminous phenomena reoccur in several locations of Earth, in the form of multi-color light balls characterized by large dimensions, erratic motion, long duration and a correlated electromagnetic field. The author (an astrophysicist) of this book, which is organized as a selection of some of his technical and popularizing papers and seminars, describes and discusses all the efforts that have been done in 10 years, through several missions and a massive data analysis, in order to obtain some scientific explanation of this kind of anomalies, in particular the Hessdalen anomaly in Norway. The following topics are treated in the book: a) geographic archive of the areas of Earth where such phenomena are known to reoccur most often; b) observational techniques of astrophysical kind that have been used to acquire the data; c) main scientific results obtained so far; d) physical interpretation and natural hypothesis vs. ETV hypothesis; e) historical and chronological issues; f) the importance to brindle new energy sources; g) the importance to keep distance from any kind of "ufology". An unpublished chapter is entirely devoted to a detailed scientific investigation project of light phenomena reoccurring on the Ontario lake; the chosen new-generation multi-wavelength sensing instrumentation that is planned to be used in future missions in that specific area, is described together with scientific rationale and planned procedures. The main results, which were obtained in other areas of the world, such as the Arizona desert, USA and the Sibillini Mountains, Italy, are also briefly mentioned. One chapter is entirely dedicated to the presentation of extensive abstracts of technical papers by the author concerning this specific subject. The book is accompanied with a rich source of bibliographic references.

  11. 7. LOOKING EAST AT HOIST HOUSE No. 1 AND BLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LOOKING EAST AT HOIST HOUSE No. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE No. 1, WITH ORE YARD AND ORE BRIDGES IN FOREGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  13. 3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT LOOKING NORTH. DOROTHY SIX IS THE CLOSEST FURNACE IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. CONTROL PANEL INSIDE OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE STOCKHOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  15. INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  16. 55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. GENERAL NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX WITH LADLE HOUSE AND IRON DESULPHERIZATION BUILDING ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  17. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSEUP, IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSE-UP, IRON NOTCH IN CENTER. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  18. 59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. 68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER PIPES FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. INTERIOR OF CAST HOUSE LOOKING NORTH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 13. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CAST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SOUTHWEST VIEW OF CAST HOUSE No. 1, BLAST FURNACE No. 1, AND HOIST HOUSE No. 1. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  1. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPENHEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPEN-HEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 AND CAST HOUSE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  2. 31. VIEW OF TRIPPER CAR ON TOP OF BLAST FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF TRIPPER CAR ON TOP OF BLAST FURNACE STOCKING TRESTLE LOOKING EAST. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 1. LOOKING EAST AT BLAST FURNACES NO. 3 AND No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING EAST AT BLAST FURNACES NO. 3 AND No. 4 FROM CRAWFORD STREET IN THE CITY OF DUQUESNE. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  4. DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  5. 58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. LOOKING EAST DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH BRICK SHED No. 3 IN FOREGROUND ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. DETAIL VIEW OF THE STOVES WITH HOT BLAST MAIN. #2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE STOVES WITH HOT BLAST MAIN. #2 BLAST FURNACE IS TO THE IMMEDIATE LEFT. VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. VIEW FACING EAST, VIEW FROM RIVER OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FACING EAST, VIEW FROM RIVER OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3. DORR THICKENER & ORE BRIDGE AT LEFT, HOT BLAST STOVES & DUST CATCHER CENTER, CAST HOUSE AT RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  9. 6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace from J.L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy, Ginn & Co. New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Blast Furnace Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

  10. 30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior to mixing, shall be mixed and stored in... Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents, or subsequent revisions. (b) Where pneumatic loading...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior to mixing, shall be mixed and stored in... Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents, or subsequent revisions. (b) Where pneumatic loading...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior to mixing, shall be mixed and stored in... Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents, or subsequent revisions. (b) Where pneumatic loading...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior to mixing, shall be mixed and stored in... Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents, or subsequent revisions. (b) Where pneumatic loading...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and... shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and... shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and... shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and... shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be...

  18. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and... shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be...

  19. Study on the Mechanism of Adhesion Improvement Using Dry-Ice Blasting for Plasma-Sprayed Al2O3 Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shujuan; Song, Bo; Hansz, Bernard; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2013-03-01

    The mechanisms of adhesion improvement of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings using dry-ice blasting were investigated. In this study, the change of substrate surface characteristics in both the topography and the wettability due to the treatment of dry-ice blasting was mainly studied. The effect of dry-ice blasting on Al2O3 splat morphology with different treatment durations was also examined. The residual stress of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings using dry-ice blasting was measured by curvature method and compared to that of coatings deposited with conventional air cooling. Based on these numerous assessment tests, it could be concluded that the adhesion improvement of Al2O3 coatings could be attributed to the cleaning effect of dry-ice blasting on different organic substances adsorbed on the substrates and the peening effect.

  20. Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Mary R.; Durgerian, Sally; Mourany, Lyla; Scheibel, Randall S.; Lowe, Mark J.; Beall, Erik B.; Koenig, Katherine A.; Parsons, Michael; Troyanskaya, Maya; Reece, Christine; Wilde, Elisabeth; Fischer, Barbara L.; Jones, Stephen E.; Agarwal, Rajan; Levin, Harvey S.; Rao, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes). Little is also known about the effects of blast TBI on neural networks, particularly over the long term. Because impairment in working memory has been linked to blunt-force TBI, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study sought to investigate whether brain activation in response to a working memory task would discriminate blunt-force from blast TBI. Twenty-five veterans (mean age = 29.8 years, standard deviation = 6.01 years, 1 female) who incurred TBI due to blast an average of 4.2 years prior to enrollment and 25 civilians (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 6.68 years, 4 females) with TBI due to blunt-force trauma performed the Sternberg Item Recognition Task while undergoing fMRI. The task involved encoding 1, 3, or 5 items in working memory. A group of 25 veterans (mean age = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 5.53 years, 0 females) and a group of 25 civilians (mean age = 27.3 years, standard deviation = 5.81 years, 0 females) without history of TBI underwent identical imaging procedures and served as controls. Results indicated that the civilian TBI group and both control groups demonstrated a monotonic relationship between working memory set size and activation in the right caudate during encoding, whereas the blast TBI group did not (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons using False Discovery Rate). Blast TBI was also associated with worse performance on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task relative to the other groups, although no other group differences were found on neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, inhibition, and general processing speed. These results could not be attributed to caudate atrophy or the presence of PTSD symptoms. Our results point to a specific vulnerability of the caudate to blast injury. Changes in activation during the Sternberg Item Recognition Task, and potentially other tasks that recruit the caudate, may serve as biomarkers for blast TBI. PMID:26110112

  1. Chemical changes of lakes within the Mount St. Helens blast zone

    SciTech Connect

    Wissmar, R.C.; Devol, A.H.; Nevissi, A.E.; Sedell, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Differences in the dissolved chemistry of lakes devastated by the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens are attributable to location relative to the lateral blast trajectory of the eruption and to the emplacement of mineral deposits. Elemental enrichment ratios of pre- and posteruption measurements for Spirit Lake and comparisons of the chemical concentrations and elemental ratios for lakes inside and outside the blast zone reflect the influences of the dissolution of magmatic and lithic deposits. The pH changes were minor because of buffering by carbonic acid and reactions involving mineral alteration, dissolved organics, and biological processes.

  2. Chemical changes of lakes within the mount st. Helens blast zone.

    PubMed

    Wissmar, R C; Devol, A H; Nevissi, A E; Sedell, J R

    1982-04-01

    Differences in the dissolved chemistry of lakes devastated by the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens are attributable to location relative to the lateral blast trajectory of the eruption and to the emplacement of mineral deposits. Elemental enrichment ratios of pre- and posteruption measurements for Spirit Lake and comparisons of the chemical concentrations and elemental ratios for lakes inside and outside the blast zone reflect the influences of the dissolution of magmatic and lithic deposits. The pH changes were minor because of buffering by carbonic acid and reactions involving mineral alteration, dissolved organics, and biological processes. PMID:17736248

  3. Air blast reflecting on a rigid cylinder: simulation and reduced scale experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlet, A.; Souli, M.; Aquelet, N.; Pennetier, O.; Girault, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Multi-Material ALE formulation is applied to simulate the propagation of an air blast through the atmosphere, and its reflection on an assumed rigid cylindrical obstacle. The mathematical and numerical implementations of this formulation are presented. In order to validate the formulation and prove its ability to capture the propagation and reflection of high pressure waves, comparisons of the simulations with the experimental blast pressure measured on an assumed rigid cylinder are performed. The simulation conducted via the presented models and methods gives good predictions for pressure time histories recorded on the rigid cylinder.

  4. Surface mine blasting near pressurized transmission pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Siskind, D.E.; Stagg, M.S.; Wiegand, J.E.; Schultz, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The US Bureau of Mines and the State of Indiana cooperated with AMAX Coal Co. and its consultants to determine the effects of coal mine overburden blasting on nearby pipelines. Five pressurized 76-m pipeline sections were installed on the Minnehaha Mine highwall near Sullivan, IN, for testing to failure. Four 17- to 51-cm-diameter welded steel pipes and one 22-cm PVC pipe were monitored for vibration, strain, and pressure for a period of 6 months while production blasting advanced up to the test pipeline field. In contrast to previous studies of small-scale, close-in blasting for construction, these tests involved overburden blasts of up to 950 kg per delay in 31-cm blastholes. Analyses found low pipe responses, strains, and calculated stresses from even large blasts. Ground vibrations of 120 to 250 mm/s produced worst case strains that were about 25 pcts of the strains resulting from normal pipeline operations and calculated stresses of only about 10 to 18 pct of the ultimate tensile strength. No pressurization failures or permanent strains occurred even at vibration amplitudes of 600 mm/s.

  5. Modelling human eye under blast loading.

    PubMed

    Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues. PMID:23521031

  6. 15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 IN LOWER CENTER OF PHOTO AT THE BASE OF HOT BLAST STOVES. HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) SHARING THE SAME CAST HOUSE WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. ORE BRIDGE & BLOWER HOUSE TO RIGHT, HULETT CAR DUMPER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  8. BLAST FURNACE CAST HOUSE EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study describes the state-of-the-art of controlling fumes escaping from blast furnace cast houses. Background information is based on: a study of existing literature; visits to blast furnaces in the U.S., Japan, and Europe; meetings with an ad hoc group of experienced blast f...

  9. 30 CFR 816.64 - Use of explosives: Blasting schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. 816.64... ACTIVITIES § 816.64 Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. (a) General requirements. (1) The operator shall... specific areas in which blasting will take place; (3) Dates and time periods when explosives are to...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1910 - Explosives and blasting; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives and blasting; general. 77.1910... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1910 Explosives and blasting; general. (a) Light and power... explosive materials, detonators, and any other related blasting material employed in the development of...

  13. 30 CFR 816.64 - Use of explosives: Blasting schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. 816.64... ACTIVITIES § 816.64 Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. (a) General requirements. (1) The operator shall... specific areas in which blasting will take place; (3) Dates and time periods when explosives are to...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  15. 30 CFR 816.64 - Use of explosives: Blasting schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. 816.64... ACTIVITIES § 816.64 Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. (a) General requirements. (1) The operator shall... specific areas in which blasting will take place; (3) Dates and time periods when explosives are to...

  16. 30 CFR 816.64 - Use of explosives: Blasting schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. 816.64... ACTIVITIES § 816.64 Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. (a) General requirements. (1) The operator shall... specific areas in which blasting will take place; (3) Dates and time periods when explosives are to...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1910 - Explosives and blasting; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting; general. 77.1910... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1910 Explosives and blasting; general. (a) Light and power... explosive materials, detonators, and any other related blasting material employed in the development of...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1910 - Explosives and blasting; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives and blasting; general. 77.1910... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1910 Explosives and blasting; general. (a) Light and power... explosive materials, detonators, and any other related blasting material employed in the development of...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1910 - Explosives and blasting; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives and blasting; general. 77.1910... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1910 Explosives and blasting; general. (a) Light and power... explosive materials, detonators, and any other related blasting material employed in the development of...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  2. 30 CFR 816.64 - Use of explosives: Blasting schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. 816.64... ACTIVITIES § 816.64 Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. (a) General requirements. (1) The operator shall... specific areas in which blasting will take place; (3) Dates and time periods when explosives are to...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1910 - Explosives and blasting; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... section, all men shall be removed from the slope or shaft prior to blasting. (e) Blasting areas in slopes... shaft between the overhead platform and the bottom where men are working shall be examined after each... platforms after each blast before men are lowered to the shaft bottom....

  4. Test of Some Hybrid Combinations to Rice Blast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. Blast resistant cultivars are recognized as the most efficacious and economical way to control this disease. Genetic resistance to rice blast is generally governed by a few major genes, often in c...

  5. Novel model to investigate blast injury in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Connell, Sean; Gao, Jian; Chen, Jun; Shi, Riyi

    2011-07-01

    Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a common injury modality associated with the current war efforts and increasing levels of terrorist activity. Exposure to the primary blast wave generated by explosive devices causes significant neurological deficits and is responsible for many of the war-related pathologies. Despite research efforts, the mechanism of injury is still poorly understood. To this end, we have established a novel ex vivo model for the direct observation and quantification of BINT at the tissue level. The model provides a quantifiable and reproducible method to illustrate the mechanism of BINT. Isolated sections of guinea pig spinal cord white matter were exposed to a supersonic shockwave using a blast generator with small-scaled explosives. The blast wave impact with isolated tissue was observed using focused shadowgraphy with a high-speed camera recording at 90,000 fps. Concurrently, functional deficits were measured by monitoring the production of compound action potentials using a double sucrose gap-recording chamber. Additionally, anatomical deficits were measured after blast exposure with a dye exclusion assay to visualize axonal membrane permeability. Our findings demonstrate that direct exposure to the blast wave compressed nervous tissue at a rate of 60 m/sec and led to significant functional deficits. Damage to the isolated spinal cord was marked by increased axonal permeability, suggesting rapid compression from the shockwave-generated high strain rates that resulted in membrane disruption. The model provides new insight into the mechanism of BINT and permits direct observation that may contribute to the development of appropriate treatment regimens. PMID:21529318

  6. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry of constant cross sectional area, and to facilitate fluid filling and draining operations in microgravity. The fluid cells may be used singly for bulk solutions, or in a Stokes diaphragm configuration to investigate membrane mediated phenomena. Thermal and electrical driving potentials are applied to the experiment fluids through boundary plates located at the ends of the fluid cells. In the ground based instrument, two constant temperature baths circulate through reservoirs adjacent to the boundary plates, and establish the thermal environment within the fluid cells. The boundary plates also serve as electrodes for measurement and application of electrical potentials. The Fluid Manipulation System associated with the MTA is a computer controlled system that enables storage and transfer of experiment fluids during on orbit operations. The system is used to automatically initiate experiments and manipulate fluids by orchestrating pump and valve operations through scripted sequences. Unique technologies are incorporated in the MTA for measurement of fluid properties. Volumetric Flow Sensors have been developed for precision measurement of total fluid volume contained within the fluid cells over time. This data is most useful for measuring the kinetics of osmosis, where fluid is transported from one fluid cell to another through a semipermeable membrane. The MicroSensor Array has been designed to perform in situ measurement of several important fluid parameters, providing simultaneous measurement of solution composition at multiple locations within the experiment fluids. Micromachined sensors and interface electronics have been developed to measure temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, cation activity, and anion activity. The Profile Refractometer uses a laser optical system to directly image the fluid Index of Refraction profile that exists along the MTA fluid cell axis. A video system acquires images of the RI profile over time, and records the transport kinetics that occur upon application of chemical, thermal, or electrical driving potentials. Image processing algorithms have been developed to analyze the refractometer images on a pixel by pixel basis, calibrating and scaling the measured Index of Refraction profile to correlated solution properties of interest such as density, concentration, and temperature. Additional software has been developed to compile the processed images into a three dimensional matrix that contains fluid composition data as a function of experiment time and position in the fluid cell. These data are combined with data from the other sensor systems, and analyzed in the context of transport coefficients associated with the various transport phenomena. Analysis protocols have been developed to measure the transient kinetics, and steady state distribution of fluid components that occur in response to the applied driving potentials. The results are expressed in terms of effective transport coefficients. Experiments have been performed using a variety of solutes, and results generated are that are in agreement with published transport coefficient values.

  7. Phenomena and Diosignes of Aratous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgoloupis, S. I.

    2013-01-01

    Aratous (305-240B.C.) was a singular intellectual, writer and poet which engage himself to compose a very interesting astronomical poet, using the "Dactylous sixstage' style, the formal style of the ancient Greek Epic poetry. This astronomic poem of Aratous "Phenomena and Diosignes" became very favorite reading during the Alexandrine, the Romman and the Byzandin eras as well and had received many praises from significant poets and particularly from Hipparchous and from Theonas from Alexandria, an astronomer of 4rth century A.C.(in Greeks)

  8. Improving scaling methods to estimate eruption energies from volcanic crater structures using blast experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonder, I.; Graettinger, A. H.; Valentine, G.; Schmid, A.; Zimanowski, B.; Majji, M.; Ross, P.; White, J. D.; Taddeucci, J.; Lube, G.; Kueppers, U.; Bowman, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    In an ongoing effort to understand the relevant processes behind the formation of volcanic crater-, maar-, and diatreme structures, experiments producing craters with radii exceeding one meter were conducted at University at Buffalos Geohazards Field Station. A chemical explosive was used as energy source for the tests, and detonated in prepared test beds made from several stratified, compacted aggregates. The amount of explosive, as well as its depth of burial were varied in the twelve experiments. The detonations were recorded by a diverse set of sensors including high-speed/high-definition cameras, seismic and electric field sensors, normal- and infrasound microphones. Morphology and structures were documented after each blast by manual measurements and semi-automated photogrammetry. After all blasts were complete the structures excavated and analyzed. The measured sensor signals were evaluated and related to blast energies, depths of burial and crater morphologies. Former experiments e.g. performed by Goto et al. (2001; Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4287-4290) considered craters of single blasts at a given lateral position and found empirical relationships emphasizing the importance of length scaling with the cube root of the blasts energy E. For example the depth of burial producing the largest crater radius--the ';optimal' depth--is proportional to E1/3, as is the corresponding radius. Resembling natural processes creating crater and diatreme structures the experiments performed here feature several blasts at one lateral position. The dependencies on E1/3 could be roughly confirmed. Also the scaled depth correlated with the sensor signals capturing the blasts dynamics. However, significant scatter was introduced by the pre-existing morphologies. Using a suitable re-definition for the charges depth of burial (';eruption depth'), accounting for a pre-existing (crater) morphology, the measured dependencies of morphology and blast dynamics on E can be improved significantly. Correlating the distribution of material confining the charge, and its distance to the latter, this volume-centric defined effective depth could provide means to relate ejecta distribution and eruption dynamics to the involved eruption energies and pre-eruptive settings.

  9. Modeling coal combustion behavior in an ironmaking blast furnace raceway: model development and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, D.; Austin, P.R.; Zulli, P.; Guo B.

    2009-03-15

    A numerical model has been developed and validated for the investigation of coal combustion phenomena under blast furnace operating conditions. The model is fully three-dimensional, with a broad capacity to analyze significant operational and equipment design changes. The model was used in a number of studies, including: Effect of cooling gas type in coaxial lance arrangements. It was found that oxygen cooling improves coal burnout by 7% compared with natural gas cooling under conditions that have the same amount of oxygen enrichment in the hot blast. Effect of coal particle size distribution. It was found that during two similar periods of operation at Port Kembla's BF6, a difference in PCI capability could be attributed to the difference in coal size distribution. Effect of longer tuyeres. Longer tuyeres were installed at Port Kembla's BF5, leading to its reline scheduled for March 2009. The model predicted an increase in blast velocity at the tuyere nose due to the combustion of volatiles within the tuyere, with implications for tuyere pressure drop and PCI capability. Effect of lance tip geometry. A number of alternate designs were studied, with the best-performing designs promoting the dispersion of the coal particles. It was also found that the base case design promoted size segregation of the coal particles, forcing smaller coal particles to one side of the plume, leaving larger coal particles on the other side. 11 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Computation of blast wave-obstacle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champney, J. M.; Chaussee, D. S.; Kutler, P.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the interaction of a planar blast wave with various obstacles are presented. These obstacles are either ground structures or vehicles flying in the atmosphere. For a structure on the ground, the blast wave encounter is side-on, while for the flying vehicles the encounter is either head-on or oblique. Second-order accurate, finite-difference, and shock-capturing procedures are employed to solve the two-dimensional, axisymmetric, and three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations. Results are presented for the flow field consisting of blast wave striking obstacles that are at rest, moving subsonically and moving supersonically. Comparison of the numerical results with experimental data for a configuration at rest substantiates the validity of this approach and its potential as a flow analysis tool.

  11. Paint removal using wheat starch blast media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry; Oestreich, John

    1993-03-01

    A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of cracks confirms better crack visibility with wheat starch media versus Type V or Type II plastic media. Testing of wheat starch media in several composite test programs, including fiberglass, Kevlar, and graphite-epoxy composites, showed no fiber damage. Process developments and production experience at the first U.S. aircraft stripping facility are also reviewed. Corporate and regional aircraft are being stripped in this three nozzle dry blast hanger.

  12. Shock Tunnel Studies of Scramjet Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalker, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Work focussed on a large number of preliminary studies of supersonic combustion in a simple combustion duct - thrust nozzle combination, investigating effects of Mach number, equivalence ratio, combustor divergence, fuel injecting angle and other parameters with an influence on the combustion process. This phase lasted for some three or four years, during which strongest emphasis was placed on responding to the request for preliminary experimental information on high enthalpy effects, to support the technology maturation activities of the NASP program. As the need for preliminary data became less urgent, it was possible to conduct more systematic studies of high enthalpy combustion phenomena, and to initiate other projects aimed at improving the facilities and instrumentation used for studying scramjet phenomena at high enthalpies. The combustion studies were particularly directed towards hypersonic combustion, and to the effects of injecting fuel along the combustion chamber wall. A substantial effort was directed towards a study of the effect of scale on the supersonic combustion process. The influence of wave phenomena (both compression waves and expansion waves) on the realization of thrust from a supersonic combustion process was also investigated. The effect of chemical kinetics was looked into, particularly as it affected the composition of the test flow provided by a ground facility. The effect of injection of the fuel through wall orifices was compared with injection from a strut spanning the stream, and the effect of heating the fuel prior to injection was investigated. Studies of fuel-air mixing by shock impingement were also done, as well as mass spectrometer surveys of a combustion wake. The use of hypersonic nozzles with an expansion tube was investigated. A new method was developed for measuring the forces acting of a model in less than one millisecond. Also included in this report are listings of published journal papers and conference presentations.

  13. Uranium Pyrophoricity Phenomena and Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    2000-04-20

    We have compiled a topical reference on the phenomena, experiences, experiments, and prediction of uranium pyrophoricity for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) with specific applications to SNFP process and situations. The purpose of the compilation is to create a reference to integrate and preserve this knowledge. Decades ago, uranium and zirconium fires were commonplace at Atomic Energy Commission facilities, and good documentation of experiences is surprisingly sparse. Today, these phenomena are important to site remediation and analysis of packaging, transportation, and processing of unirradiated metal scrap and spent nuclear fuel. Our document, bearing the same title as this paper, will soon be available in the Hanford document system [Plys, et al., 2000]. This paper explains general content of our topical reference and provides examples useful throughout the DOE complex. Moreover, the methods described here can be applied to analysis of potentially pyrophoric plutonium, metal, or metal hydride compounds provided that kinetic data are available. A key feature of this paper is a set of straightforward equations and values that are immediately applicable to safety analysis.

  14. Functional Status after Blast-Plus-Impact Complex Concussive Traumatic Brain Injury in Evacuated United States Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Christine L.; Johnson, Ann M.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Werner, Nicole J.; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fundamental questions remain unanswered about the longitudinal impact of blast-plus-impact complex traumatic brain injuries (TBI) from wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prospective, observational study investigated measures of clinical outcome in US military personnel evacuated to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) in Germany after such “blast-plus” concussive TBIs. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended assessments completed 6–12 months after injury indicated a moderate overall disability in 41/47 (87%) blast-plus TBI subjects and a substantial but smaller number (11/18, 61%, p=0.018) of demographically similar US military controls without TBI evacuated for other medical reasons. Cognitive function assessed with a neuropsychological test battery was not different between blast-plus TBI subjects and controls; performance of both groups was generally in the normal range. No subject was found to have focal neurological deficits. However, 29/47 (57%) of blast-plus subjects with TBI met all criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus 5/18 (28%) of controls (p=0.014). PTSD was highly associated with overall disability; 31/34 patients with PTSD versus 19/31 patients who did not meet full PTSD criteria had moderate to severe disability (p=0.0003). Symptoms of depression were also more severe in the TBI group (p=0.05), and highly correlated with PTSD severity (r=0.86, p<0.0001). Thus, in summary, high rates of PTSD and depression but not cognitive impairment or focal neurological deficits were observed 6–12 months after concussive blast-plus-impact complex TBI. Overall disability was substantially greater than typically reported in civilian non-blast concussive (“mild”) patients with TBI, even with polytrauma. The relationship between these clinical outcomes and specific blast-related aspects of brain injuries versus other combat-related factors remains unknown. PMID:24367929

  15. Development of an Animal Model for Burn-Blast Combined Injury and Cardiopulmonary System Changes in the Early Shock Stage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Quan; Chai, Jiake; Hu, Sen; Fan, Jun; Wang, Hong-Wei; Ma, Li; Duan, Hong-Jie; Liu, Lingying; Yang, Hongming; Li, Bai-Ling; Wang, Yi-He

    2015-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to establish an animal model for burn-blast combined injury research and elaborate cardiopulmonary system changes in the early shock stage. In this study, royal demolition explosive or RDX (hexagon, ring trimethylene nitramine) was used as an explosive source, and the injury conditions of the canine test subjects at various distances to the explosion (30, 50, and 70 cm) were observed by gross anatomy and pathology to determine a larger animal model of moderate blast injury. The canines were then subjected to a 35 % total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness flame injury using napalm, which completed the development of a burn-blast combined injury model. Based on this model, the hemodynamic changes and arterial blood gas analysis after the burn-blast combined injury were measured to identify the cardiopulmonary system characteristics. In this research, RDX explosion and flame injury were used to develop a severe burn-blast injury animal model that was stable, close to reality, and easily controllable. The hemodynamic and arterial blood gas changes in the canine subjects after burn-blast injury changed distinctly from the burn and blast injuries. Blood pressure and cardiac output fluctuated, and the preload was significantly reduced, whereas the afterload significantly increased. Meanwhile, the oxygen saturation (SO2) decreased markedly with carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2), and lactic acid (Lac) rose, and oxygen partial pressure (PO2) reduced. These changes suggested that immediate clinical treatment is important during burn-blast injury both to stabilize cardiac function and supply blood volume and to reduce the vascular permeability, thereby preventing acute pneumonedema or other complications. PMID:27011494

  16. Quarry blasts assessment and their environmental impacts on the nearby oil pipelines, southeast of Helwan City, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Adel M. E.; Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.

    2013-06-01

    Ground vibrations induced by blasting in the cement quarries are one of the fundamental problems in the quarrying industry and may cause severe damage to the nearby utilities and pipelines. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in quarries. The current paper presents the influence of the quarry blasts at the National Cement Company (NCC) on the two oil pipelines of SUMED Company southeast of Helwan City, by measuring the ground vibrations in terms of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV). The seismic refraction for compressional waves deduced from the shallow seismic survey and the shear wave velocity obtained from the Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) technique are used to evaluate the closest site of the two pipelines to the quarry blasts. The results demonstrate that, the closest site of the two pipelines is of class B, according to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) classification and the safe distance to avoid any environmental effects is 650 m, following the deduced Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) and scaled distance (SD) relationship (PPV = 700.08 × SD-1.225) in mm/s and the Air over Pressure (air blast) formula (air blast = 170.23 × SD-0.071) in dB. In the light of prediction analysis, the maximum allowable charge weight per delay was found to be 591 kg with damage criterion of 12.5 mm/s at the closest site of the SUMED pipelines.

  17. Planar blast scaling with condensed-phase explosives in a shock tube

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott L

    2011-01-25

    Blast waves are strong shock waves that result from large power density deposition into a fluid. The rapid energy release of high-explosive (HE) detonation provides sufficiently high power density for blast wave generation. Often it is desirable to quantify the energy released by such an event and to determine that energy relative to other reference explosives to derive an explosive-equivalence value. In this study, we use condensed-phase explosives to drive a blast wave in a shock tube. The explosive material and quantity were varied to produce blast waves of differing strengths. Pressure transducers at varying lengths measured the post-shock pressure, shock-wave arrival time and sidewall impulse associated with each test. Blast-scaling concepts in a one-dimensional geometry were then used to both determine the energy release associated with each test and to verify the scaling of the shock position versus time, overpressure versus distance, and impulse. Most blast scaling measurements to-date have been performed in a three-dimensional geometry such as a blast arena. Testing in a three-dimensional geometry can be challenging, however, as spherical shock-wave symmetry is required for good measurements. Additionally, the spherical wave strength decays rapidly with distance and it can be necessary to utilize larger (several kg) quantities of explosive to prevent significant decay from occurring before an idealized blast wave has formed. Such a mode of testing can be expensive, require large quantities of explosive, and be limited by both atmospheric conditions (such as rain) and by noise complaints from the population density near the test arena. Testing is possible in more compact geometries, however. Non-planar blast waves can be formed into a quasi-planar shape by confining the shock diffraction with the walls of a shock tube. Regardless of the initial form, the wave shape will begin to approximate a planar front after successive wave reflections from the tube walls. Such a technique has previously been used to obtain blast scaling measurements in the planar geometry with gaseous explosives and the condensed-phase explosive nitroguanidine. Recently, there has been much interest in the blast characterization of various non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) materials. With non-ideals, the detonation reaction zone is significantly larger (up to several cm for ANFO) than more ideal explosives. Wave curvature, induced by charge-geometry, can significantly affect the energy release associated with NIHEs. To measure maximum NIHE energy release accurately, it is desirable to minimize any such curvature and, if possible, to overdrive the detonation shock to ensure completion of chemical reactions ahead of the sonic locus associated with the reaction zone. This is achieved in the current study through use of a powerful booster HE and a charge geometry consisting of short cylindrical lengths of NIHE initiated along the charge centerline.

  18. An Initial Investigation of the Psychedelic Drug Flashback Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matefy, Robert E.; Krall, Roger G.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated some characteristics of persons experiencing "flashbacks," and provides systematic descriptions of the flashback phenomena. The drug user showed no significant differences in psychopathological characteristics as measured by the MMPI, nor significant differences in attentional processes as measured by the Embedded Figures

  19. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-09-29

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity.

  20. Blast exposure in rats with body shielding is characterized primarily by diffuse axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Garman, Robert H; Jenkins, Larry W; Switzer, Robert C; Bauman, Richard A; Tong, Lawrence C; Swauger, Peter V; Parks, Steven A; Ritzel, David V; Dixon, C Edward; Clark, Robert S B; Bayir, Hlya; Kagan, Valerian; Jackson, Edwin K; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2011-06-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the signature insult in combat casualty care. Survival with neurological damage from otherwise lethal blast exposures has become possible with body armor use. We characterized the neuropathologic alterations produced by a single blast exposure in rats using a helium-driven shock tube to generate a nominal exposure of 35 pounds per square inch (PSI) (positive phase duration ? 4 msec). Using an IACUC-approved protocol, isoflurane-anesthetized rats were placed in a steel wedge (to shield the body) 7 feet inside the end of the tube. The left side faced the blast wave (with head-only exposure); the wedge apex focused a Mach stem onto the rat's head. The insult produced ? 25% mortality (due to impact apnea). Surviving and sham rats were perfusion-fixed at 24 h, 72 h, or 2 weeks post-blast. Neuropathologic evaluations were performed utilizing hematoxylin and eosin, amino cupric silver, and a variety of immunohistochemical stains for amyloid precursor protein (APP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), ED1, and rat IgG. Multifocal axonal degeneration, as evidenced by staining with amino cupric silver, was present in all blast-exposed rats at all time points. Deep cerebellar and brainstem white matter tracts were most heavily stained with amino cupric silver, with the morphologic staining patterns suggesting a process of diffuse axonal injury. Silver-stained sections revealed mild multifocal neuronal death at 24 h and 72 h. GFAP, ED1, and Iba1 staining were not prominently increased, although small numbers of reactive microglia were seen within areas of neuronal death. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability (as measured by IgG staining) was seen at 24 h and primarily affected the contralateral cortex. Axonal injury was the most prominent feature during the initial 2 weeks following blast exposure, although degeneration of other neuronal processes was also present. Strikingly, silver staining revealed otherwise undetected abnormalities, and therefore represents a recommended outcome measure in future studies of blast TBI. PMID:21449683

  1. Effects of geometry on blast-induced loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Christopher Dyer

    Simulations of blasts in an urban environment were performed using Loci/BLAST, a full-featured fluid dynamics simulation code, and analyzed. A two-structure urban environment blast case was used to perform a mesh refinement study. Results show that mesh spacing on and around the structure must be 12.5 cm or less to resolve fluid dynamic features sufficiently to yield accurate results. The effects of confinement were illustrated by analyzing a blast initiated from the same location with and without the presence of a neighboring structure. Analysis of extreme pressures and impulses on structures showed that confinement can increase blast loading by more than 200 percent.

  2. The blast wave mitigation effects of a magnetogasdynamic decelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, Roy S; Lundgren, Ronald G; Tucker, Don H

    2009-01-01

    This work computes shock wave jump functions for viscous blast waves propagating in a magnetogasdynamic decelerator. The decelerator is assumed to be a one-dimensional channel with sides that are perfect conductors. An electric field applied on the walls of the channel produces a magnetogasdynamic pump, which decelerates the flow field induced by a blast wave. The blast wave jump functions computed here are compared to magnetogasdynamic results for steady supersonic channel flow to quantify potential blast mitigation effects. Theoretical shock wave jump functions are also presented for inviscid blast waves propagating in a one-dimensional channel with an electromagnetic field.

  3. BLAST: a more efficient report with usability improvements.

    PubMed

    Boratyn, Grzegorz M; Camacho, Christiam; Cooper, Peter S; Coulouris, George; Fong, Amelia; Ma, Ning; Madden, Thomas L; Matten, Wayne T; McGinnis, Scott D; Merezhuk, Yuri; Raytselis, Yan; Sayers, Eric W; Tao, Tao; Ye, Jian; Zaretskaya, Irena

    2013-07-01

    The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) website at the National Center for Biotechnology (NCBI) is an important resource for searching and aligning sequences. A new BLAST report allows faster loading of alignments, adds navigation aids, allows easy downloading of subject sequences and reports and has improved usability. Here, we describe these improvements to the BLAST report, discuss design decisions, describe other improvements to the search page and database documentation and outline plans for future development. The NCBI BLAST URL is http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMID:23609542

  4. Thermal oxidation of medical Ti6Al4V blasted with ceramic particles: Effects on the microstructure, residual stresses and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, M; Barriuso, S; Multigner, M; Gonzlez-Doncel, G; Gonzlez-Carrasco, J L

    2016-02-01

    Roughening of Ti6Al4V by blasting with alumina or zirconia particles improves the mechanical fixation of implants by increasing the surface area available for bone/implant apposition. Additional thermal oxidation treatments of the blasted alloy have already shown to be a complementary low-cost solution to enhancing the in vitro biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of the alloy. In this work, the effects of oxidation treatment on a grit blasted Ti6Al4V biomedical alloy have been analysed in order to understand the net effect of the combined treatments on the alloy fatigue properties. Synchrotron radiation diffraction experiments have been performed to measure residual stresses before and after the treatments and microstructural and hardness changes have been determined. Although blasting of Ti6Al4V with small spherical zirconia particles increases the alloy fatigue resistance with respect to unblasted specimens, fatigue strength after oxidation decreases below the unblasted value, irrespective of the type of particle used for blasting. Moreover, at 700C the as-blasted compressive residual stresses (700MPa) are not only fully relaxed but even moderate tensile residual stresses, of about 120MPa, are found beneath the blasted surfaces. Contrary to expectations, a moderate increase in hardness occurs towards the blasted surface after oxidation treatments. This can be attributed to the fact that grit blasting modifies the crystallographic texture of the Ti6Al4V shifting it to a random texture, which affects the hardness values as shown by additional experiments on cold rolled samples. The results indicate that the oxidation treatment performed to improve biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of grit blasted Ti6Al4V should be carried out with caution since the alloy fatigue strength can be critically diminished below the value required for high load-bearing components. PMID:26458115

  5. Time-dependent and radiation field effects on collisional-radiative simulations of radiative properties of blast waves launched in clusters of xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, R.; Espinosa, G.; Gil, J. M.; Rubiano, J. G.; Mendoza, M. A.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.; Symes, D. R.; Hohenberger, M.; Smith, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Radiative shock waves are ubiquitous throughout the universe and play a crucial role in the transport of energy into the interstellar medium. This fact has led to many efforts to scale the astrophysical phenomena to accessible conditions. In some laboratory experiments radiative blast waves are launched in clusters of gases by means of the direct deposition of the laser energy. In this work, by using a collisional-radiative model, we perform an analysis of the plasma level populations and radiative properties of a blast wave launched in a xenon cluster. In particular, for both the shocked and unshocked material, we study the influence of different effects such as LTE, steady-state or time-dependent NLTE simulations, plasma self-absorption or external radiation field in the determination of those properties and also in the diagnosis of the electron temperature of the blast wave.

  6. Mechanisms of primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury: insights from shock-wave research.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Manley, Geoffrey T; Gean, Alisa D; Ohtani, Kiyonobu; Armonda, Rocco; Tsukamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2011-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury caused by explosive or blast events is traditionally divided into four phases: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury. These phases of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) are biomechanically distinct and can be modeled in both in vivo and in vitro systems. The primary bTBI injury phase represents the response of brain tissue to the initial blast wave. Among the four phases of bTBI, there is a remarkable paucity of information about the cause of primary bTBI. On the other hand, 30 years of research on the medical application of shockwaves (SW) has given us insight into the mechanisms of tissue and cellular damage in bTBI, including both air-mediated and underwater SW sources. From a basic physics perspective, the typical blast wave consists of a lead SW followed by supersonic flow. The resultant tissue injury includes several features observed in bTBI, such as hemorrhage, edema, pseudoaneurysm formation, vasoconstriction, and induction of apoptosis. These are well-described pathological findings within the SW literature. Acoustic impedance mismatch, penetration of tissue by shock/bubble interaction, geometry of the skull, shear stress, tensile stress, and subsequent cavitation formation, are all important factors in determining the extent of SW-induced tissue and cellular injury. Herein we describe the requirements for the adequate experimental set-up when investigating blast-induced tissue and cellular injury; review SW physics, research, and the importance of engineering validation (visualization/pressure measurement/numerical simulation); and, based upon our findings of SW-induced injury, discuss the potential underlying mechanisms of primary bTBI. PMID:21332411

  7. Oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes for studying blast wave effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Amy C.; Andrusiv, Lubov P.; Courtney, Michael W.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the development and characterization of modular, oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes. Such tools are needed to produce realistic blast waves in a laboratory setting. The pressure-time profiles measured at 1 MHz using high-speed piezoelectric pressure sensors have relevant durations and show a true shock front and exponential decay characteristic of free-field blast waves. Descriptions are included for shock tube diameters of 27-79 mm. A range of peak pressures from 204 kPa to 1187 kPa (with 0.5-5.6% standard error of the mean) were produced by selection of the driver section diameter and distance from the shock tube opening. The peak pressures varied predictably with distance from the shock tube opening while maintaining both a true blast wave profile and relevant pulse duration for distances up to about one diameter from the shock tube opening. This shock tube design provides a more realistic blast profile than current compression-driven shock tubes, and it does not have a large jet effect. In addition, operation does not require specialized personnel or facilities like most blast-driven shock tubes, which reduces operating costs and effort and permits greater throughput and accessibility. It is expected to be useful in assessing the response of various sensors to shock wave loading; assessing the reflection, transmission, and absorption properties of candidate armor materials; assessing material properties at high rates of loading; assessing the response of biological materials to shock wave exposure; and providing a means to validate numerical models of the interaction of shock waves with structures. All of these activities have been difficult to pursue in a laboratory setting due in part to lack of appropriate means to produce a realistic blast loading profile.

  8. Oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes for studying blast wave effects.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Amy C; Andrusiv, Lubov P; Courtney, Michael W

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the development and characterization of modular, oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes. Such tools are needed to produce realistic blast waves in a laboratory setting. The pressure-time profiles measured at 1 MHz using high-speed piezoelectric pressure sensors have relevant durations and show a true shock front and exponential decay characteristic of free-field blast waves. Descriptions are included for shock tube diameters of 27-79 mm. A range of peak pressures from 204 kPa to 1187 kPa (with 0.5-5.6% standard error of the mean) were produced by selection of the driver section diameter and distance from the shock tube opening. The peak pressures varied predictably with distance from the shock tube opening while maintaining both a true blast wave profile and relevant pulse duration for distances up to about one diameter from the shock tube opening. This shock tube design provides a more realistic blast profile than current compression-driven shock tubes, and it does not have a large jet effect. In addition, operation does not require specialized personnel or facilities like most blast-driven shock tubes, which reduces operating costs and effort and permits greater throughput and accessibility. It is expected to be useful in assessing the response of various sensors to shock wave loading; assessing the reflection, transmission, and absorption properties of candidate armor materials; assessing material properties at high rates of loading; assessing the response of biological materials to shock wave exposure; and providing a means to validate numerical models of the interaction of shock waves with structures. All of these activities have been difficult to pursue in a laboratory setting due in part to lack of appropriate means to produce a realistic blast loading profile. PMID:22559580

  9. A mouse model of ocular blast injury that induces closed globe anterior and posterior pole damage.

    PubMed

    Hines-Beard, Jessica; Marchetta, Jeffrey; Gordon, Sarah; Chaum, Edward; Geisert, Eldon E; Rex, Tonia S

    2012-06-01

    We developed and characterized a mouse model of primary ocular blast injury. The device consists of: a pressurized air tank attached to a regulated paintball gun with a machined barrel; a chamber that protects the mouse from direct injury and recoil, while exposing the eye; and a secure platform that enables fine, controlled movement of the chamber in relation to the barrel. Expected pressures were calculated and the optimal pressure transducer, based on the predicted pressures, was positioned to measure output pressures at the location where the mouse eye would be placed. Mice were exposed to one of three blast pressures (23.6, 26.4, or 30.4 psi). Gross pathology, intraocular pressure, optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity were assessed 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after exposure. Contralateral eyes and non-blast exposed mice were used as controls. We detected increased damage with increased pressures and a shift in the damage profile over time. Gross pathology included corneal edema, corneal abrasions, and optic nerve avulsion. Retinal damage was detected by optical coherence tomography and a deficit in visual acuity was detected by optokinetics. Our findings are comparable to those identified in Veterans of the recent wars with closed eye injuries as a result of blast exposure. In summary, this is a relatively simple system that creates injuries with features similar to those seen in patients with ocular blast trauma. This is an important new model for testing the short-term and long-term spectrum of closed globe blast injuries and potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:22504073

  10. A mouse model of ocular blast injury that induces closed globe anterior and posterior pole damage

    PubMed Central

    Hines-Beard, Jessica; Marchetta, Jeffrey; Gordon, Sarah; Chaum, Edward; Geisert, Eldon E.; Rex, Tonia S.

    2012-01-01

    We developed and characterized a mouse model of primary ocular blast injury. The device consists of: a pressurized air tank attached to a regulated paintball gun with a machined barrel; a chamber that protects the mouse from direct injury and recoil, while exposing the eye; and a secure platform that enables fine, controlled movement of the chamber in relation to the barrel. Expected pressures were calculated and the optimal pressure transducer, based on the predicted pressures, was positioned to measure output pressures at the location where the mouse eye would be placed. Mice were exposed to one of three blast pressures (23.6, 26.4, or 30.4psi). Gross pathology, intraocular pressure, optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity were assessed 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after exposure. Contralateral eyes and non-blast exposed mice were used as controls. We detected increased damage with increased pressures and a shift in the damage profile over time. Gross pathology included corneal edema, corneal abrasions, and optic nerve avulsion. Retinal damage was detected by optical coherence tomography and a deficit in visual acuity was detected by optokinetics. Our findings are comparable to those identified in Veterans of the recent wars with closed eye injuries as a result of blast exposure. In summary, this is a relatively simple system that creates injuries with features similar to those seen in patients with ocular blast trauma. This is an important new model for testing the short-term and long-term spectrum of closed globe blast injuries and potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:22504073

  11. Low-Cost Blast Wave Generator for Studies of Hearing Loss and Brain Injury: Blast Wave Effects in Closed Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Andrew J.; Hayes, Sarah H.; Rao, Abhiram S.; Allman, Brian L.; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Ding, Dalian; Stolzberg, Daniel; Lobarinas, Edward; Mollendorf, Joseph C.; Salvi, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Military personnel and civilians living in areas of armed conflict have increased risk of exposure to blast overpressures that can cause significant hearing loss and/or brain injury. The equipment used to simulate comparable blast overpressures in animal models within laboratory settings is typically very large and prohibitively expensive. New Method To overcome the fiscal and space limitations introduced by previously reported blast wave generators, we developed a compact, low-cost blast wave generator to investigate the effects of blast exposures on the auditory system and brain. Results The blast wave generator was constructed largely from off the shelf components, and reliably produced blasts with peak sound pressures of up to 198 dB SPL (159.3 kPa) that were qualitatively similar to those produced from muzzle blasts or explosions. Exposure of adult rats to 3 blasts of 188 dB peak SPL (50.4 kPa) resulted in significant loss of cochlear hair cells, reduced outer hair cell function and a decrease in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Comparison to existing methods Existing blast wave generators are typically large, expensive, and are not commercially available. The blast wave generator reported here provides a low-cost method of generating blast waves in a typical laboratory setting. Conclusions This compact blast wave generator provides scientists with a low cost device for investigating the biological mechanisms involved in blast wave injury to the rodent cochlea and brain that may model many of the damaging effects sustained by military personnel and civilians exposed to intense blasts. PMID:25597910

  12. Studies of Novel Quantum Phenomena in Ruthenates

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Zhiqiang

    2011-04-08

    Strongly correlated oxides have been the subject of intense study in contemporary condensed matter physics, and perovskite ruthenates (Sr,Ca)n+1RunO3n+1 have become a new focus in this field. One of important characteristics of ruthenates is that both lattice and orbital degrees of freedom are active and are strongly coupled to charge and spin degrees of freedom. Such a complex interplay of multiple degrees of freedom causes the properties of ruthenates to exhibit a gigantic response to external stimuli under certain circumstances. Magnetic field, pressure, and chemical composition all have been demonstrated to be effective in inducing electronic/magnetic phase transitions in ruthenates. Therefore, ruthenates are ideal candidates for searching for novel quantum phenomena through controlling external parameters. The objective of this project is to search for novel quantum phenomena in ruthenate materials using high-quality single crystals grown by the floating-zone technique, and investigate the underlying physics. The following summarizes our accomplishments. We have focused on trilayered Sr4Ru3O10 and bilayered (Ca1-xSrx)3Ru2O7. We have succeeded in growing high-quality single crystals of these materials using the floating-zone technique and performed systematic studies on their electronic and magnetic properties through a variety of measurements, including resistivity, Hall coefficient, angle-resolved magnetoresistivity, Hall probe microscopy, and specific heat. We have also studied microscopic magnetic properties for some of these materials using neutron scattering in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have observed a number of unusual exotic quantum phenomena through these studies, such as an orbital selective metamagnetic transition, bulk spin valve effect, and a heavy-mass nearly ferromagnetic state with a surprisingly large Wilson ratio. Our work has also revealed underlying physics of these exotic phenomena. Exotic phenomena of correlated electron has been among central topics of contempary condensed matter physics. Ultrfast phase transitions accompanied by switching of conductivity or magnetization in stronly correlated materials are believed to be promising in developing next generation of transistors. Our work on layered ruthenates has remarkably advanced our understanding of how the exotic phenomena of correlated electrons is governed by the complex interplay between charge, spin, lattice and orbital degrees of freedom. In addition to studies on ruthenates, we have also expanded our research to the emerging field of Fe-based superconductors, focusing on the iron chalcogenide Fe1+y(Te1-xSex) superconductor system. We first studied the superconductivity of this alloy system following the discovery of superconductivity in FeSe using polycrystalline samples. Later, we successfuly grew high-quality single crystals of these materials. Using these single crystals, we have determined the magnetic structure of the parent compound Fe1+yTe, observed spin resonance of superconducting state in optimally doped samples, and established a phase diagram. Our work has produced an important impact in this burgeoning field. The PI presented an invited talk on this topic at APS March meeting in 2010. We have published 19 papers in these two areas (one in Nature materials, five in Physical Review Letters, and nine in Physical Review B) and submitted two (see the list of publications attached below).

  13. The Vestibular Effects of Repeated Low-Level Blasts.

    PubMed

    Littlefield, Philip D; Pinto, Robin L; Burrows, Holly L; Brungart, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use a prospective cohort of United States Marine Corps (USMC) instructors to identify any acute or long-term vestibular dysfunction following repeated blast exposures during explosive breaching training. They were assessed in clinic and on location during training at the USMC Methods of Entry School, Quantico, VA. Subjects received comprehensive baseline vestibular assessments and these were repeated in order to identify longitudinal changes. They also received shorter assessments immediately following blast exposure in order to identify acute findings. The main outcome measures were the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory, vestibular Visual Analog Scale (VAS) of subjective vestibular function, videonystagmography (VNG), vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP), rotary chair (including the unilateral centrifugation test), computerized dynamic posturography, and computerized dynamic visual acuity. A total of 11 breachers and 4 engineers were followed for up to 17 months. No acute effects or longitudinal deteriorations were identified, but there were some interesting baseline group differences. Upbeat positional nystagmus was common, and correlated (p<0.005) with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Several instructors had abnormally short low-frequency phase leads on rotary chair testing. This study evaluated breaching instructors over a longer test period than any other study, and the results suggest that this population appears to be safe from a vestibular standpoint at the current exposure levels. Upbeat positional nystagmus correlated with a history of mTBI in this population, and this has not been described elsewhere. The data trends also suggest that this nystagmus could be an acute blast effect. However, the reasons for the abnormally short phase leads seen in rotary chair testing are unclear at this time. Further investigation seems warranted. PMID:25790248

  14. A direction-sensitive underwater blast detector and its application for managing blast fishing.

    PubMed

    Woodman, George H; Wilson, Simon C; Li, Vincent Y F; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2004-12-01

    Little is known about the spatial and temporal distribution of blast fishing which hampers enforcement against this activity. We have demonstrated that a triangular array of hydrophones 1 m apart is capable of detecting blast events whilst effectively rejecting other sources of underwater noise such as snapping shrimp and nearby boat propellers. A total of 13 blasts were recorded in Sepangor bay, North of Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia from 7th to 15th July 2002 at distances estimated to be up to 20 km, with a directional uncertainty of 0.2 degrees . With such precision, a network of similar hydrophone arrays has potential to locate individual blast events by triangulation to within 30 m at a range of 10 km. PMID:15556182

  15. Blast From the Past: A Retrospective Analysis of Blast-induced Head Injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kristin E; Murphy, Justin M; Tsao, Jack W

    2016-03-01

    Because of the sharp increase in the number of military personnel exposed to explosive blasts in combat, research has been dedicated toward understanding the impact of explosions on the brain. It is important to consider that potential injuries that military personnel sustain may be both in the form of physical injury as well as "invisible" neuronal and psychological damage. Since the inception of the study of blast science in the Medieval and Renaissance eras, significant improvements have been made in the historical record keeping and biomedical analysis of blast injuries. This editorial comments on the evolution of blast science and the recognition of neurological sequelae from both the historical and scientific perspectives. PMID:26926849

  16. Induction Phenomena in Laser-Sustained Scramjets

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkawa, Yoko; Tamada, Kazunobu; Horisawa, Hideyuki; Kimura, Itsuro

    2005-04-27

    A preliminary study on induction phenomena in a laser-sustained scramjet was conducted. The induction processes include absorption process of a laser pulse by a reactive mixture, plasma formation, diffusion of active species, shock formation, thermalization process of ambient mixture, induction of local turbulence, etc. For observation of the initial phenomena, an experimental study on effects of a focused laser pulse (Nd:YAG, 335mJ/pulse, pulse width 5nsec) into a hydrogen-air mixture was conducted. Temporal evolutions of typical line spectrum of a laser-induced plasma of the mixture were measured with the photodiode or the photo-multiplier-tube through specific band-pass filters for each spectrum for OH, O+, N+, H, and O. It was shown that the emission from O abruptly increased at 2 nsec, peaked at about 5 nsec, followed by an abrupt drop at 6 nsec. The emission from H atoms secondly increased. Other emissions of N+, O+, and OH peaked at about 17 nsec and continued for about 1 msec.

  17. Process control techniques for the Sidmar blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenberghe, D.; Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. van

    1995-12-01

    The major challenge for modern blast furnace operation is the achievement of a very high productivity, excellent hot metal quality, low fuel consumption and longer blast furnace campaigns. The introduction of predictive models, decision supporting software and expert systems has reduced the standard deviation of the hot metal silicon content. The production loss due to the thermal state of the blast furnace has decreased three times since 1990. An appropriate control of the heat losses with high pulverized coal injection rates, is of the utmost importance for the life of the blast furnace. Different rules for the burden distribution of both blast furnaces are given. At blast furnace A, a peripheral gas flow is promoted, while at blast furnace B a more central gas flow is promoted.

  18. LTC American`s, Inc. vacuum blasting machine: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise.

  19. The design, implementation, and evaluation of mpiBLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, A. E.; Carey, L.; Feng, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    mpiBLAST is an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speed-up by segmenting a BLAST database and then having each node in a computational cluster search a unique portion of the database. Database segmentation permits each node to search a smaller portion of the database, eliminating disk I/O and vastly improving BLAST performance. Because database segmentation does not create heavy communication demands, BLAST users can take advantage of low-cost and efficient Linux cluster architectures such as the bladed Beowulf. In addition to presenting the software architecture of mpiBLAST we present a detailed performance analysis of mpiBLAST to demonstrate its scalability.

  20. Batch Blast Extractor: an automated blastx parser application

    PubMed Central

    Pirooznia, Mehdi; Perkins, Edward J; Deng, Youping

    2008-01-01

    Motivation BLAST programs are very efficient in finding similarities for sequences. However for large datasets such as ESTs, manual extraction of the information from the batch BLAST output is needed. This can be time consuming, insufficient, and inaccurate. Therefore implementation of a parser application would be extremely useful in extracting information from BLAST outputs. Results We have developed a java application, Batch Blast Extractor, with a user friendly graphical interface to extract information from BLAST output. The application generates a tab delimited text file that can be easily imported into any statistical package such as Excel or SPSS for further analysis. For each BLAST hit, the program obtains and saves the essential features from the BLAST output file that would allow further analysis. The program was written in Java and therefore is OS independent. It works on both Windows and Linux OS with java 1.4 and higher. It is freely available from: PMID:18831775