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1

High-speed photography of microscale blast wave phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed photography has been a primary tool for the study of blast wave phenomena, dating from the work of Toepler, even before the invention of the camera! High-speed photography was used extensively for the study of blast waves produced by nuclear explosions for which, because of the large scale, cameras running at a few hundred frames per second were adequate to obtain sharp images of the supersonic shock fronts. For the study of the blast waves produced by smaller explosive sources, ever-increasing framing rates were required. As a rough guide, for every three orders of magnitude decrease in charge size a ten-fold increase of framing rate was needed. This severely limited the use of photography for the study of blast waves from laboratory-scale charges. There are many techniques for taking single photographs of explosive phenomena, but the strongly time-dependent development of a blast wave, requires the ability to record a high-speed sequence of photographs of a single event. At ICHSPP25, Kondo et al of Shimadzu Corporation demonstrated a 1 M fps video camera that provides a sequence of up to 100 high-resolution frames. This was subsequently used at the Shock Wave Research Center of Tohoku University to record the blast waves generated by an extensive series of silver azide charges ranging in size from 10 to 0.5mg. The resulting images were measured to provide radius-time histories of the primary and secondary shocks. These were analyzed with techniques similar to those used for the study of explosions from charges with masses ranging from 500 kg to 5 kt. The analyses showed the cube-root scaling laws to be valid for the very small charges, and provided a detailed record of the peak hydrostatic pressure as a function of radius for a unit charge of silver azide, over a wide range of scaled distances. The pressure-radius variation was compared to that from a unit charge of TNT and this permitted a detailed determination of the TNT equivalence of silver azide as a function of peak pressure and radius. The availability of the Shimadzu high-speed framing camera has made it possible to perform experiments at the laboratory scale that previously could be done only on large-scale field trials. At the laboratory scale, many experiments can be performed on the same day, as compared to the months or even years required for the preparation of large-scale field experiments. The economic savings are even greater.

Dewey, John M.; Kleine, Harald

2005-03-01

2

AIR-BLAST PHENOMENA IN THE HIGH-PRESSURE REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface level and aboveground static overpressures, near-surface ; differential pressures, and near-surface total pressures were measured on Burst ; Priscilla. Gages were placed at ground ranges from 450 ft to 4500 ft, with a ; concentration of measurements in the high-pressure region. Blast swttches, which ; measured arrival time only, were placed at several ranges, the closest at 100-ft ;

L. M. Swift; D. C. Sachs; A. R. Kriebel

1960-01-01

3

Hysteresis phenomena in hydraulic measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hysteresis phenomena demonstrate the lag between the generation and the removal of some physical phenomena. This paper studies the hysteresis phenomena of the head-drop in a scaled model pump turbine using experiment test and CFD methods. These lag is induced by complicated flow patterns, which influenced the reliability of rotating machine. Keeping the same measurement procedure is concluded for the hydraulic machine measurement.

Ran, H. J.; Luo, X. W.; Chen, Y. L.; Xu, H. Y.; Farhat, M.

2012-11-01

4

Terrorism and blast phenomena: lessons learned from the attack on the USS Cole (DDG67).  

PubMed

Blast phenomena and injuries to the musculoskeletal system have been well documented for the past 50 years. The USS Cole was attacked in Aden Harbor in Yemen on October 12, 2000. Seventeen sailors were killed and 39 were wounded. The bombing of the USS Cole and an analysis of the pattern of injury are unique compared with previous terrorist bombing attacks in which the predominant injury pattern is from Type II and Type III blast phenomena. Because the ship superstructure did not collapse, there were no confounding variables in examining the pattern of injury as there would have been with shrapnel-generating devices or detonations with subsequent building collapse. The morbidity and mortality sustained by the victims was almost exclusively from Type I and Type III blast effects. The musculoskeletal system was a clear marker for mortality and morbidity. Fractures of the cranium, spine, pelvis, and long bones denoted increasing severity of injury to critical organ systems. Shipboard firefighting was successful in containing fires and there was very little morbidity from inhalational injuries or burns. Blast phenomena that affect ships or buildings that have been specifically built to absorb a blast attack likely will manifest a different mode and pattern of injury than those seen in traditional terrorist blast events. PMID:15187838

Langworthy, Michael J; Sabra, John; Gould, Mark

2004-05-01

5

Scientific director`s report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1.6. Blast measurements, Part I. Summary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the blast pressures in Shots Dog, Easy, and George, together with earth-shock measurements on Shots Easy and George, gave new and important information concerning the magnitude and character of the blast wave near an atomic bomb. These experiments showed that secondary phenomena due presumably to thermal radiation and ion combination affect the pressure wave rather markedly near the

G. K. Hartmann; C. W. Lampson; C. J. Aronson

1951-01-01

6

Measurement of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio at Blast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proton's electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities related to its underlying electromagnetic structure. Recent measurements of the form factor ratio from recoil proton polarization experiments at JLab indicate a striking departure from previous measurements above Q2 ≈ 1 GeV2. The unique capabilities of the BLAST detector with a polarized internal hydrogen gas target in a polarized electron storage ring

J. Seely; B. Clasie; C. Crawford; D. Dutta; H. Gao; H. Kolster; J. R. Calarco

2003-01-01

7

Use of Blast Test Device (BTD) During Auditory Blast Overpressure Measurement. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 4-2-831.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Test Operations Procedure (TOP) defines procedures for blast overpressure tests that must simultaneously address both the auditory and non- auditory hazards of a weapon or explosive during a single measurement opportunity.

2008-01-01

8

High-frequency measurements of blast wave propagation.  

PubMed

Blast wave propagation measurements were conducted to investigate nonlinear propagation effects on blast waveform evolution with distance. Measurements were made with a wide-bandwidth capacitor microphone for comparison with conventional 3.175-mm (1/8-in.) microphones with and without baffles. It was found that the 3.175-mm microphone did not have sufficient high-frequency response to capture the actual rise times in some regions. For a source of 0.57 kg (1.25 lb) of C-4 plastic explosive, the trend observed is that nonlinear effects steepened the waveform, thereby decreasing the shock rise time, up to a range of 50 m. At 100 m, the rise times had increased slightly. PMID:17004495

Loubeau, Alexandra; Sparrow, Victor W; Pater, Larry L; Wright, Wayne M

2006-09-01

9

MEASUREMENT OF FREE AIR ATOMIC BLAST PRESSURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

BS>Peak free-air overpressure versus time measurements in the 10-to-2 ; psi range were obtained as a function of distance directly over a nuclear burst ; at a low scaled height. This information was to be used to establish the points ; in space at which the reflected and direct shock waves merge into a single shock ; wave and to

N. A. Haskell; J. A. Fava; R. M. Brubaker

1958-01-01

10

Magnetic field measurements of the BLAST spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid has been built to study nuclear physics reactions using a stored, polarized electron beam and a variety of polarized targets internal to the storage ring. The spectrometer consists of eight coils surrounding the target cell. There is a requirement of nominally zero field along the centerline of the spectrometer for proper electron beam storage. In addition, the polarized internal targets require a low field gradient in the target region. Magnetic field measurements were made near the beam centerline to guide the alignment of the coils and satisfy the field magnitude and gradient requirements. After the coils were aligned, the magnetic field was measured in the detector regions to provide information for particle tracking.

Dow, Karen A.; Botto, Tancredi; Goodhue, Abigail; Hasell, Douglas; Loughnan, Dylan; Murphy, Kilian; Smith, Timothy Paul; Ziskin, Vitaliy

2009-02-01

11

Simulation of gas flow phenomena in high-voltage self-blast circuit breakers at heavy fault current interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

CFD (computational fluid dynamics) calculations for high- and low-current arcs in an interrupter of the self-blast type have been performed. The high-current simulation provides information about the mixing process of the hot PTFE cloud with the cold SF6 which is difficult to access for measurement. In addition, it yields the gas state inside the pressure chamber when the fault current

Max Claessens; Roland von Starck; Hans G. Thiel

1997-01-01

12

Airblast pressure transducer for measurements in nuclear blast simulators. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extremely rugged resistance-based blast pressure transducer is developed over a number of years for use in the blast and shock environment of high explosive-driven nuclear blast simulators. A novel silicon disk with integral (diffused) strain sensitive regions is used as the transduction element for measurements of peaks to 69 MPa and requiring microsecond rise time response. Evolution of the

Quintana

1980-01-01

13

Flow Cytometric Measurements of Cell Surface Phenomena.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study of cell surface phenomena by flow cytometry has been pursued by several groups. These studies have produced new insights into a variety of areas of biology. However, the capabilities of flow systems have not been fully exploited. A technique for...

J. H. Jett

1979-01-01

14

BLAST AND SHOCK MEASUREMENTS. III. TRANSIENT GROUND DISPLACEMENT MEASUREMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made to measure the transient ground displacement for the ; surface and underground shots of Operation JANGLE. The method of high speed ; photography of the ground motion is described. Negative results were obtained ; for both the surface and underground shots. This method does not appear ; promising for any future nuclear surface tests. With good

1952-01-01

15

An ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor for blast event measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soldiers who are exposed to explosions are at risk of suffering traumatic brain injury (TBI). Since the causal relationship between a blast and TBI is poorly understood, it is critical to have sensors that can accurately quantify the blast dynamics and resulting wave propagation through a helmet and skull that are imparted onto and inside the brain. To help quantify the cause of TBI, it is important to record transient pressure data during a blast event. However, very few sensors feature the capabilities of tracking the dynamic pressure transients due to the rapid change of the pressure during blast events, while not interfering with the physical material layers or wave propagation. In order to measure the pressure transients efficiently, a pressure sensor should have a high resonant frequency and a high spatial resolution. This paper describes an ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor based on the Fabry-Perot principle for the application of measuring the rapid pressure changes in a blast event. A shock tube experiment performed in US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center has demonstrated that the resonant frequency of the sensor is 4.12 MHz, which is relatively close to the designed theoretical value of 4.113 MHz. Moreover, the experiment illustrated that the sensor has a rise time of 120 ns, which demonstrates that the sensor is capable of observing the dynamics of the pressure transient during a blast event.

Wu, Nan; Zou, Xiaotian; Tian, Ye; Fitek, John; Maffeo, Michael; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie; Wang, Xingwei

2012-05-01

16

Microbarograph measurements around the large French blast simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airblast propagations from large shock tubes may cause acoustic insults or possible cosmetic damage to the surrounding environment. Plans for constructing a large shock tube facility, and the associated environmental impact assessment, necessitated a measurement program to verify and refine prediction models based on small shock tubes and various guns. Microbarograph measurements were made at eight locations around a large

Reed

1984-01-01

17

Pressure transducer mounts for internal blast measurements on thin metal walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three mounts are described for installing pressure transducers on thin walls for internal blast measurements in which the walls undergo ductile rupture. Details of the mounts are presented and each mount is evaluated from several examples of pressure-time profiles obtained from thin steel walled cubes and ship compartment studies. Two designs proved effective, one having a flange and a sheath to protect the transducer, and another, a simpler and lighter design, consisting of a welded ring.

Yiannakopoulos, George; Kiernan, Peter

1999-04-01

18

Precise Measurement of Deuteron Tensor Analyzing Powers with BLAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a precision measurement of the deuteron tensor analyzing powers T20 and T21 at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center. Data were collected simultaneously over a momentum transfer range Q=2.15-4.50fm-1 with the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid using a highly polarized deuterium internal gas target. The data are in excellent agreement with calculations in a framework of effective field theory. The deuteron charge monopole and quadrupole form factors GC and GQ were separated with improved precision, and the location of the first node of GC was confirmed at Q=4.19±0.05fm-1. The new data provide a strong constraint on theoretical models in a momentum transfer range covering the minimum of T20 and the first node of GC.

Zhang, C.; Kohl, M.; Akdogan, T.; Alarcon, R.; Bertozzi, W.; Booth, E.; Botto, T.; Calarco, J. R.; Clasie, B.; Crawford, C.; Degrush, A.; Dow, K.; Farkhondeh, M.; Fatemi, R.; Filoti, O.; Franklin, W.; Gao, H.; Geis, E.; Gilad, S.; Hasell, D.; Karpius, P.; Kolster, H.; Lee, T.; Maschinot, A.; Matthews, J.; McIlhany, K.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R.; Rapaport, J.; Redwine, R.; Seely, J.; Shinozaki, A.; Sindile, A.; Širca, S.; Six, E.; Smith, T.; Tonguc, B.; Tschalär, C.; Tsentalovich, E.; Turchinetz, W.; Xiao, Y.; Xu, W.; Zhou, Z.-L.; Ziskin, V.; Zwart, T.

2011-12-01

19

Optical measurement and scaling of blasts from gram-range explosive charges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory-scale experiments with gram-range explosive charges are presented. Optical shadowgraphy and high-speed digital imaging are used to measure the explosive-driven shock-wave position as a function of time. From this, shock Mach number-versus-distance from the explosion center can be found. These data then yield the peak overpressure and duration, which are the key parameters in determining the potential damage from an explosion as well as the TNT equivalent of the explosive. Piezoelectric pressure gage measurements of overpressure duration at various distances from the explosive charges compare well with theoretical calculations. A scaling analysis yields an approach to relate the gram-range blast to a large-scale blast from the same or different explosives. This approach is particularly suited to determining the properties and behavior of exotic explosives like triacetone triperoxide (TATP). Results agree with previous observations that the concept of a single TNT equivalence value is inadequate to fully describe an explosive yield, rather TNT equivalence factor and overpressure duration should be presented as functions of radius.

Hargather, Michael J.; Settles, Gary S.

2007-12-01

20

Measurement of effective blast energy for direct initiation of spherical gaseous detonations from high-voltage spark discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, effective energy from spark discharge for direct blast initiation of spherical gaseous detonations is investigated. In the experiment, direct initiation of detonation is achieved via a spark discharge from a high-voltage and low-inductance capacitor bank and the spark energy is estimated from the analysis of the current output. To determine the blast wave energy from the powerful spark, the time-of-arrival of the blast wave in air is measured at different radii using a piezoelectric pressure transducer. Good agreement is found in the scaled blast trajectories, i.e., scaled time c o· t/ R o where c o is the ambient sound speed, as a function of blast radius R s/ R o between the numerical simulation of a spherical blast wave from a point energy source and the experimental results where the explosion length scale R o is computed using the equivalent spark energy from the first 1/4 current discharge cycle. Alternatively, by fitting the experimental trajectories data, the blast energy estimated from the numerical simulation appears also in good agreement with that obtained experimentally using the 1/4 cycle criterion. Using the 1/4 cycle of spark discharge for the effective energy, direct initiation experiments of spherical gaseous detonations are carried out to determine the critical initiation energy in C2H2-2.5O2 mixtures with 70 and 0% argon dilution. The experimental results obtained from the 1/4 cycle of spark discharge agree well with the prediction from two initiation models, namely, the Lee's surface energy model and a simplified work done model. The main source of discrepancy in the comparison can be explained by the uncertainty of cell size measurement which is needed for both the semi-empirical models.

Zhang, B.; Ng, H. D.; Lee, J. H. S.

2012-01-01

21

Air blast measurements at 20 and 40 km distance from detonating 10 and 20 ton high explosive charges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air blast overpressure measurements have been made at 20 and 40 km distance from the detonation of 10 and 20 ton high explosive charges at Alvdalen Shooting Range in Sweden. Temperatures and wind velocities were also measured. Simple rules were set up and methods elaborated to avoid complaints, and damage to buildings outside the Alvdalen Shooting Range.

Eriksson, T.; Selin, B.; Aseborn, I.

1993-02-01

22

An Undergraduate Experiment for the Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air: Phenomena and Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we present and discuss some phenomena in an undergraduate experiment for the measurement of the speed of sound in air. A square wave distorts when connected to a piezoelectric transducer. Moreover, the amplitude of the receiving signal varies with the driving frequency. Comparing with the Gibbs phenomenon, these phenomena can be…

Yang, Hujiang; Zhao, Xiaohong; Wang, Xin; Xiao, Jinghua

2012-01-01

23

An Undergraduate Experiment for the Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air: Phenomena and Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, we present and discuss some phenomena in an undergraduate experiment for the measurement of the speed of sound in air. A square wave distorts when connected to a piezoelectric transducer. Moreover, the amplitude of the receiving signal varies with the driving frequency. Comparing with the Gibbs phenomenon, these phenomena can be…

Yang, Hujiang; Zhao, Xiaohong; Wang, Xin; Xiao, Jinghua

2012-01-01

24

Measurement of Tensor Analyzing Powers in Elastic Electron Deuteron Scattering with BLAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A precision measurement of the deuteron tensor analyzing powers T20 and T21 in elastic electron-deuteron scattering has been carried out at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center. Data were collected simultaneously over a momentum transfer range of 2.15 to 4.5 fm-1 using a polarised, stored electron beam; the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector; and a highly polarized, internal deuterium gas target. The elastic deuteron form factors GC and GQ were extracted with improved precision using the new data; confirming the location of the first node of the charge monopole form factor. The new data provide strong constraints on nuclear models in a momentum transfer range covering the minimum of T20 and the first node of GC.

Kohl, Michael

2007-04-01

25

Spatially and temporally resolved temperature and shock-speed measurements behind a laser-induced blast wave of energetic nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatially and temporally resolved temperature measurements behind an expanding blast wave are made using picosecond (ps) N2 coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) following laser flash heating of mixtures containing aluminum nanoparticles embedded in ammonium-nitrate oxidant. Production-front ps-CARS temperatures as high as 3600 +/- 180 K--obtained for 50-nm-diameter commercially produced aluminum-nanoparticle samples--are observed. Time-resolved shadowgraph images of the evolving blast waves are also obtained to determine the shock-wave position and corresponding velocity. These results are compared with near-field blast-wave theory to extract relative rates of energy release for various particle diameters and passivating-layer compositions.

Roy, Sukesh; Jiang, Naibo; Stauffer, Hans U.; Schmidt, Jacob B.; Kulatilaka, Waruna D.; Meyer, Terrence R.; Bunker, Christopher E.; Gord, James R.

2013-05-01

26

Measurements of hideout phenomena in tube-support-plate crevices  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on an autoclave and a water treatment and monitoring system simulating the secondary side of a steam generator used to investigate the hideout phenomena of sodium chloride in a tube-support-plate crevice. The primary-side heating tube is simulated by an internal heater. The experiments are performed at 1 atm pressure. The effects of heat flux, bulk concentration, crevice width, and the presence of a porous medium are investigated. It is found that the solute concentrates heavily near the upper end of the crevice. This concentration distribution in the axial direction is confirmed by a model developed in a parallel study. The hideout rate increases with increasing heat flux and bulk concentration. The concentration level in the crevice at a given time increases with increasing heat flux and bulk concentration and with decreasing crevice width. The presence of a porous medium in the crevice significantly enhances the concentration effect.

Wang, R.C.; Pan, C.; Tsai, C. (National Tsing-Hua Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 30043 (TW))

1991-04-01

27

Comparison of building loads analysis and system thermodynamics (BLAST) computer program simulations and measured energy use for Army buildings. Interim report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes an analysis of actual measured energy consumption vs energy consumption simulated by the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) computer program. A dental clinic and a battalion headquarters and classroom building were modeled; comparisons of the BLAST output using onsite weather and measured energy consumption data are made for the two buildings. The report includes tables

D. Herron; L. M. Windingland; D. C. Hittle

1980-01-01

28

Blast Injuries  

MedlinePLUS

... blast over-pressurization wave travels at a high velocity and is affected by the environment; for example, ... injuries are similar to those observed following high-speed motor vehicle accidents. Quaternary blast injury can occur ...

29

Blast wave energy diagnostic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distance radiation waves that supersonically propagate in optically thick, diffusive media are energy sensitive. A blast wave can form in a material when the initially diffusive, supersonic radiation wave becomes transonic. Under specific conditions, the blast wave is visible with radiography as a density perturbation. [Peterson et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 056901 (2006)] showed that the time-integrated drive energy can be measured using blast wave positions with uncertainties less than 10% at the Z Facility. In some cases, direct measurements of energy loss through diagnostic holes are not possible with bolometric and x-ray radiometric diagnostics. Thus, radiography of high compression blast waves can serve as a complementary technique that provides time-integrated energy loss through apertures. In this paper, we use blast waves to characterize the energy emerging through a 2.4 mm aperture and show experimental results in comparison to simulations.

Tierney, Thomas E.; Tierney, Heidi E.; Idzorek, George C.; Watt, Robert G.; Peterson, Robert R.; Peterson, Darrell L.; Fryer, Christopher L.; Lopez, Mike R.; Jones, Michael C.; Sinars, Daniel; Rochau, Gregory A.; Bailey, James E.

2008-10-01

30

Field rate measurement of time-dependent magnetic phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic viscosity parameter ? of sintered and melt quenched Nd-Fe-B magnets was measured using the constant-field and constant-rate methods. The results obtained by the two methods are compared to each other. The constant-rate method works well for melt quenched Nd-Fe-B, which has a very low reversible susceptibility. However the values of ? obtained by the two methods do not agree

Hong Sun; Wenjie Pang

2000-01-01

31

Measuring transient high temperature thermal phenomena in hostile environment  

SciTech Connect

The design of an instrumentation system is presented which measures the temperature and strain response of a rapidly heated and pressurized stainless steel cylinder for reactor fuel cladding and provides a simultaneous cinematographic record of the full circumference of the cylinder at 10,000 frames/second over a one-second test duration. The integrated test requirements are discussed in detail, and include a rotating prism type high-speed camera, with an optical resolution which enables visual location of cladding failures, a pyrometer, which provides reliable temperature measurements within the range of 500 to 1100 C, and an optical extensometer, which is capable of handling two strain ranges (1% and 50%) during the transient testing. The use of a reflective chamber, which improves illumination uniformity, is discussed, and the spectral energy distribution utilized by each instrument is considered. A brief description of an experiment in which a piece of cylindrical nuclear fuel pin cladding is subjected to thermal and pressure transient is presented.

Brenden, B.B.; Hartman, J.S.; Reich, F.R.

1980-01-01

32

Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6, blast measurements. Part 3. Pressure near ground level. Section 4. Blast asymmetry from aerial photographs. Section 5. Ball-crusher-gauge measurements of peak pressure  

SciTech Connect

Aerial motion pictures from manned aircraft were taken of the Dog, Easy, and George Shots and from a drone aircraft on Dog Shot to determine whether asymmetries in the blast waves could be detected and measured. Only one film, that taken of Dog Shot from a drone, was considered good enough to warrant detailed analysis, but this failed to yield any positive information on asymmetries. The analysis showed that failure to obtain good arrival-time data arose from a number of cases, but primarily from uncertainities in magnification and timing. Results could only be matched with reliable data from blast-velocity switches by use of large corrections. Asymnetries, if present, were judged to have been too small or to have occurred too early to be detected with the slow-frame speed used. Recommendations for better results include locating the aircraft directly overhead at the time of burst and using a camera having greater frame speed and provided with timing marks.

Not Available

1985-04-01

33

Measurement of the tensor analyzing powers T20 and T21 in elastic electron-deuteron scattering with BLAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the BLAST experiment at MIT-Bates, precision measurements of single and double polarization observables were carried out by scattering longitudinally polarized electrons from internal, isotopically pure and highly polarized hydrogen and deuterium targets in elastic and quasi-elastic kinematics. Analysis of elastic scattering data acquired with tensor-polarized deuterium has provided new results at low momentum transfer for the deuteron tensor analyzing powers T20 and T21 which will be presented. )

Kohl, Michael

2010-02-01

34

Measurement of the magnetic form factor of the neutron with quasielastic electron scattering from vector-polarized deuterium with BLAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the BLAST experiment at MIT-Bates, precision measurements of single and double polarization observables were carried out by scattering longitudinally polarized electrons from internal, isotopically pure and highly polarized hydrogen and deuterium targets in elastic and quasi-elastic kinematics. Analysis of inclusive scattering data acquired with vector-polarized deuterium has provided new results at low momentum transfer for the neutron magnetic form factor GM^n which will be presented. )

Alarcon, Ricardo

2010-02-01

35

MEASUREMENT OF AIR-BLAST EFFECTS FROM SIMULATED NUCLEAR-REACTOR-CORE EXCURSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are discussed from a method of determining the transient blast ; loading on a containment shell during a simulated reactor core excursion. Three ; methods of energy release were studiedi suddenly releasing nitrogen gas at high ; static pressure; igniting a confined propellant; and detonating an explosive in ; an air-or water-filled simulated reactor core vessel. (W.D.M.);

W. C. Olson; R. J. Larson; H. Goldstein

1959-01-01

36

MEASUREMENT OF AIR BLAST EFFECTS FROM SIMULATED NUCLEAR REACTOR CORE EXCURSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were conducted to evaluate methods of simulating on a small scale, ; the effect of nuclear reactor runaway'' on a containment shell surrounding the ; reactor. Reactor core vessels, simulated by small pressure tanks, were burst by ; chemical reactions of various rates, and the resulting pressure-time histories ; were recorded by piezoelectric air blast gages placed at various

R. J. Larson; W. C. Olson

1957-01-01

37

Quantum metrology - standards of measurement based on atomic and quantum phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past quarter of a century has seen a great change in ideas about units and standards of measurement. The system based on mechanical standards such as the metre bar is being replaced by one based on atomic and quantum phenomena such as a wavelength of light. The new system is now, in part, internationally accepted through definitions of the

A H Cook

1972-01-01

38

Quantitative limits of thermal and fluid phenomena measurements using the neutron attenuation characteristics of materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal and spatial resolution of the neutron radiographic technique were investigated in order to apply this technique to the visualization and measurement of thermal and fluid phenomena. The temporal resolution of three imaging methods of temporally resolved neutron radiography-static neutron radiography with a pulsed neutron beam and high frame rate neutron radiography with either a pulsed or steady neutron beam-was

K. Mishima; T. Hibiki

1996-01-01

39

Gun muzzle blast and flash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A repository of fundamental experimental and analytical data concerning the complex phenomena associated with gun-muzzle blast and flash effects is presented, proceeding from gun muzzle signatures to modern gun-propulsion concepts, interior and transitional ballistics, and characterizations of blast-wave research and muzzle flash. Data are presented in support of a novel hypothesis which explains the ignition of secondary flash and elucidates the means for its suppression. Both chemical and mechanical (often competing) methods of flash suppression are treated. The historical work of Kesslau and Ladenburg is noted, together with French, British, Japanese and American research efforts and current techniques of experimental characterization for gun muzzle phenomena.

Klingenberg, Guenter; Heimerl, Joseph M.

40

Comparison of Blast Wave Simulations Using Spatially Uniform and Experimentally Measured X-ray Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of energy loss through diagnostic and\\/or laser-entrance holes with or without shine shields is of interest to a class of inertial confinement fusion experiments envisioned for the National Ignition and ZR Facilities. We discuss the energy source in 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations using Lasnex [G. Zimmermann et al.] for blast wave experiments recently fielded at the Z facility driven

Heidi Tierney; Robert Peterson; Darrell Peterson; Thomas Tierney

2006-01-01

41

Computer cast blast modelling  

SciTech Connect

Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

Chung, S. [ICI Explosives Canada, North York, ON (Canada); McGill, M. [ICI Explosives USA, Dallas, TX (United States); Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-07-01

42

Mabs monograph air blast instrumentation, 1943 - 1993. Measurement techniques and instrumentation. Volume 3. Air blast structural target and gage calibration. Technical report, 17 September 1993-31 May 1994, FLD04  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural response measurement techniques and instrumentation developed by Military Applications of Blast Simulators (MABS) participating countries for field tests over the period 1943 through 1993 are summarized. Electronic and non-electronic devices deployed on multi-ton nuclear and high-explosive events are presented with calibration techniques. The country and the year the gage was introduced are included with the description. References for each

R. E. Reisler; J. H. Keefer; N. H. Ethridge

1995-01-01

43

Time-Resolved Laser Doppler Measurements in the Underexpanded Jet of a Model Gas-Blast Circuit Breaker under Arcing Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A differential laser Doppler system has been used in conjunction with a self-triggered oscillographic raster display system for measuring particle concentrations and flow velocities in a model gas-blast circuit breaker. The flow velocities have been correlated with particle size to enable extrapolation to be made to determine the true plasma flow velocity. The results have been deconvoluted to take account

P. S. Todorovic; Gordon R. Jones

1985-01-01

44

Blast phenomena in urban tunnel systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic infrastructure in urbanised areas is increasingly projected in tunnels underground or covered over, these days. A consequence is that in case of an incident with hazardous materials the safety level for fellow road users in tunnels is considerably less than it is in surface infrastructure. To reduce the consequences of incidents for fellow tunnel users, urban tunnels are sometimes

A. C. van den Berg; J. Weerheijm

2006-01-01

45

Impact of T-ACASI on Survey Measurements of Subjective Phenomena  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have shown that audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing (audio-CASI) and telephone audio-CASI (T-ACASI) technologies yield increased reporting of sensitive and stigmatized objective phenomena such as sexual and drug use behaviors. Little attention has been given, however, to the impact of these technologies on the measurement of subjective phenomena (attitudes, opinions, feelings, etc.). This article reports results for the seven subjective measurements included in the National STD and Behavior Measurement Experiment (NSBME). NSBME drew probability samples of USA and Baltimore adults (Ns = 1,543 and 744, respectively) and randomized these respondents to be interviewed by T-ACASI or telephone interviewer-administered questioning (T-IAQ). Response distributions for all subjective measurements obtained by T-ACASI diverge from those obtained by human telephone interviewers. For six of our seven ordinal-scaled measurements, this divergence involved shifting responses directionally along the ordinal scale, as opposed to a nondirectional redistribution among response categories. When interviewed by T-ACASI, respondents were more supportive of traditional gender roles and corporal punishment, less supportive of integrated neighborhoods and same-gender sex, and more likely to agree that occasional marijuana use is harmless and to describe themselves as attractive. The majority of these results suggest that telephone survey respondents may provide more “tolerant” and “socially liberal” responses to human interviewers than to a T-ACASI computer. Similarly, although the evidence is not entirely consistent, the impact of T-ACASI appears to increase with the social vulnerability of the population surveyed.

Harmon, Thomas; Turner, Charles F.; Rogers, Susan M.; Eggleston, Elizabeth; Roman, Anthony M.; Villarroel, Maria A.; Chromy, James R.; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana; Li, Sheping

2009-01-01

46

Blast injury.  

PubMed

The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

de Candole, C A

1967-01-28

47

Blast Injury  

PubMed Central

The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude.

de Candole, C. A.

1967-01-01

48

Flow Measurement in Helical Inducer and Estimate of Fluctuating Blade Force in Cavitation Surge Phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attachment of inducer is a powerful method to improve the cavitation performance of a turbo-pump. Cavitation surge phenomena, occurring under the severe suction pressure at a partial flow rate, is focused in the present paper. Flow measurements were carried out at the inlet and outlet sections of a flat-plate helical inducer with the solidity of 2.0 and tip blade angle of 11° by using a total-head yaw-meter with a phase locked sampling method in one period of the shaft rotation or the cavitation oscillation. Time variation of the flow distributions during the oscillation is clarified with observed cavitation behaviors. After these results are compared with those in conditions just before and after the oscillations, the fluctuating blade forces are estimated from the blade to blade distributions of casing wall pressures measured in these conditions.

Furukawa, Akinori; Ishizaka, Koichi; Watanabe, Satoshi

49

Density-of-states effective mass and scattering parameter measurements by transport phenomena in thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel machine has been developed to measure transport coefficients in the temperature range of 50-350 K of thin films deposited on electrically insulating substrates. The measured coefficients-resistivity, Hall, Seebeck, and Nernst-are applied to solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation to give information about the film's density-of-states effective mass, the Fermi energy level, and an energy-dependent scattering parameter. The machine is designed to eliminate or compensate for simultaneously occurring transport phenomena that would interfere with the desired measured quantity, while allowing for all four coefficients to be measured on the same sample. An average density-of-states effective mass value of 0.29+/-0.04me was measured on the transparent conductive oxide, cadmium stannate (CTO), over a carrier concentration range of 2-7×1020 cm-3. This effective mass value matched previous results obtained by optical and thermoelectric modeling. The measured scattering parameter indicates that neutral impurities or a mixture of scattering mechanisms may inhibit the transport of carriers in CTO.

Young, D. L.; Coutts, T. J.; Kaydanov, V. I.

2000-02-01

50

Metallurgical Evaluation of Grit Blasted Versus Non-Grit Blasted Iridium Alloy Clad Vent Set Cup Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallurgical evaluations were conducted to determine what, if any, grain size differences exist between grit blasted and non-grit blasted DOP-26 iridium alloy cup surfaces and if grit blasting imparts sufficient compressive cold work to induce abnormal grain growth during subsequent temperature exposures. Metallographic measurements indicated that grit blasting cold worked the outside cup surface to a depth of approximately 19

George B Ulrich; Hu Foster Longmire

2010-01-01

51

High Brightness Imaging for Real Time Measurement of Shock, Particle, and Combustion Fronts Produced by Enhanced Blast Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High brightness imaging (HBI) has been used to study the structure of the leading shock, particles immediately behind the leading shock, and the following contact surface of combustion front (i.e., the 'fireball') produced during testing of enhanced blast...

K. L. McNesby B. E. Homan R. E. Lottero

2004-01-01

52

The study of some peculiar phenomena in ultra-soft x-ray measurements using synthetic multilayer crystals  

SciTech Connect

Several interesting phenomena involving ultra-soft X-rays and synthetic multilayer crystals were studied as a result of the on-going process of improving the Rigaku Model 3630 Wafer Analyzer for the measurement of BPSG (1000-2500 {Angstrom}) and other thin films. These phenomena can be divided into four categories; {open_quotes}ghost{close_quotes} peaks, diffraction from the substrate, fluorescence from the multilayer and higher order lines from the multilayer. Each of these is a potential source of error in the measurement of ultra-soft X-rays. Fortunately, as will be shown, each can be readily dealt with. 3 refs., 7 figs.

Kobayashi, H.; Toda, K.; Kohno, H.; Arai, T. [Rigaku Industrial Corp., Osaka (Japan); Wilson, R. [Rigaku/USA, Inc., Danvers, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

53

RESEARCH PAPERS : Ionospheric signature of surface mine blasts from Global Positioning System measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sources such as atmospheric or buried explosions and shallow earthquakes are known to produce infrasonic pressure waves in the atmosphere Because of the coupling between neutral particles and electrons at ionospheric altitudes, these acoustic and gravity waves induce variations of the ionospheric electron density. The Global Positioning System (GPS) provides a way of directly measuring the total electron content in

Eric Calais; J. Bernard Minster; Michelle Hofton; Michael Hedlin

1998-01-01

54

Underwater explosions and cavitation phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aspects of underwater explosions and cavitation phenomena have been studied by using a thermodynamic equation of state for water and a one-dimensional Lagrangian hydrocode. The study showed that surface cavitation is caused by the main blast wave and a bubble pulse from rebound of a release wave moving toward the center of the exploding bubble. Gravity has little effect

Kamegai

1979-01-01

55

A simple conceptual model of primary pulmonary blast injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary pulmonary blast injury arises from direct exposure to blast overpressure, and may lead to severe lung injury and systemic air embolism. The phenomena of spallation and implosion can be explained by a simple conceptual model without invoking complex physical principles.

Anthony M.-H Ho

2002-01-01

56

An electronic apparatus to measure the retinal-neural fading phenomena.  

PubMed

Fading and regeneration of visual stimuli is a phenomenon which occurs under the condition of redundant visual stimulation in the human eye. By totally encompassing a subject's visual field with large sheets of colored cardboard, which provided an undifferentiated ground, it was found that the color spontaneously disappeared and reappeared. This evidence suggested that the cycle is a fundamental aspect of the visual process. The Retinal-Neural Fading Phenomena Device was developed using light-emitting diodes (LED) as the stimulus source. This allowed the quantitative measurement of the rate of fade and degree of satiation the eye undergoes under a redundant presentation equivalent to stabilized images. The rate and degree of satiation to redundant stimulation appears to correlate highly with a subject's reading efficiency. The data suggested that rapid and deep satiation was the favored outcome if one is to be free from reading or perceptual disorders. This leads to the speculation that rapid fade of afterimages of previously read symbols is required to prepare the visual system for new material. Conversely, the inability to suppress afterimages may be a physiological factor in the "dyslexic syndrome." PMID:604884

Albee, J L; Albee, P R; Young, F A

1977-12-01

57

Control of the blasting process for a stressed rock mass  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of rock workings at deep levels of Donbass mines during drilling and blasting operations is related to critical dynamic phenomena of rock pressure. With the aim of establishing the correlation between explosive pulse parameters and potential elastic energy for rocks during failure, the problem was set for determining the critical value of loading occurring during explosion of a blast-hole charge and the satisfactory condition of developing the failure process in a quasistatic approximation not leading to critical dynamic phenomena.

Efremov, E.I.; Chernygina, L.F.

1987-07-01

58

Analysis of the dynamic phenomena during lamination of multilayer printed circuit board by the measurement of pressure distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop improved methods for manufacturing multilayer printed circuit boards (MLPCBs), it is necessary to understand the dynamic phenomena that occur during the lamination process. For this purpose, the authors have performed direct measurement of the pressure distribution in MLPCB laminates during curing by the application of their own force sensor technique and have concluded that the dynamic

Y. Hatamura; K. Yamauchi

1990-01-01

59

Fluid dynamics of the 1997 Boxing Day volcanic blast on Montserrat, West Indies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Directed volcanic blasts are powerful explosions with a significant laterally directed component, which can generate devastating, high-energy pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Such blasts are an important class of eruptive phenomena, but quantified understanding of their dynamics and effects is still incomplete. Here we use 2-D and 3-D multiparticle thermofluid dynamic flow codes to examine a powerful volcanic blast that occurred

T. Esposti Ongaro; A. B. Clarke; A. Neri; B. Voight; C. Widiwijayanti

2008-01-01

60

Development of a three-dimensional PIV measurement technique for the experimental study of air bubble collapse phenomena  

SciTech Connect

Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a quantitative flow measurement technique. The objective of this study is to develop a new three-dimensional PIV technique for the experimental study of air bubble collapse phenomena. A three-dimensional measurement technique is necessary since bubble collapse is a three-dimensional phenomenon. The investigation of the velocity flow field around a collapsing air bubble can provide detailed three-dimensional quantitative information to help improve the understanding of the related heat transfer processes.

Yang, Y.H.; Hassan, Y.A.; Schmidl, W.D. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

61

Brain injuries from blast.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) from blast produces a number of conundrums. This review focuses on five fundamental questions including: (1) What are the physical correlates for blast TBI in humans? (2) Why is there limited evidence of traditional pulmonary injury from blast in current military field epidemiology? (3) What are the primary blast brain injury mechanisms in humans? (4) If TBI can present with clinical symptoms similar to those of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), how do we clinically differentiate blast TBI from PTSD and other psychiatric conditions? (5) How do we scale experimental animal models to human response? The preponderance of the evidence from a combination of clinical practice and experimental models suggests that blast TBI from direct blast exposure occurs on the modern battlefield. Progress has been made in establishing injury risk functions in terms of blast overpressure time histories, and there is strong experimental evidence in animal models that mild brain injuries occur at blast intensities that are similar to the pulmonary injury threshold. Enhanced thoracic protection from ballistic protective body armor likely plays a role in the occurrence of blast TBI by preventing lung injuries at blast intensities that could cause TBI. Principal areas of uncertainty include the need for a more comprehensive injury assessment for mild blast injuries in humans, an improved understanding of blast TBI pathophysiology of blast TBI in animal models and humans, the relationship between clinical manifestations of PTSD and mild TBI from blunt or blast trauma including possible synergistic effects, and scaling between animals models and human exposure to blasts in wartime and terrorist attacks. Experimental methodologies, including location of the animal model relative to the shock or blast source, should be carefully designed to provide a realistic blast experiment with conditions comparable to blasts on humans. If traditional blast scaling is appropriate between species, many reported rodent blast TBI experiments using air shock tubes have blast overpressure conditions that are similar to human long-duration nuclear blasts, not high explosive blasts. PMID:22012085

Bass, Cameron R; Panzer, Matthew B; Rafaels, Karen A; Wood, Garrett; Shridharani, Jay; Capehart, Bruce

2011-10-20

62

Accuracy and Response of Tourmaline Gages for Measurement of Underwater Explosion Phenomena.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tourmaline gages have been used for some time to record and study underwater shock phenomena from explosions. Tourmaline is unique in that its piezoelectric constants are the same polarity. It does not require constraint in one dimension and thus, a diaph...

R. B. Tussing

1982-01-01

63

PROTECTIVE DESIGNS FOR BLAST AND IMPACT THREATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes methods for designing and implementing protective technologies for improving the blast and impact resistance of buildings. A protection plan for buildings may include designing blast-resistant columns, walls, and windows; other elements of security may also play a major part, including physical security measures such as: anti-ram barriers and fencing to demarcate a protective perimeter; features such as

J. E. Crawford

64

Paranormal phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.

Alex Gaina

1996-01-01

65

Blast investigation by fast multispectral radiometric analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge regarding the processes involved in blasts and detonations is required in various applications, e.g. missile interception, blasts of high-explosive materials, final ballistics and IED identification. Blasts release large amount of energy in short time duration. Some part of this energy is released as intense radiation in the optical spectral bands. This paper proposes to measure the blast radiation by a fast multispectral radiometer. The measurement is made, simultaneously, in appropriately chosen spectral bands. These spectral bands provide extensive information on the physical and chemical processes that govern the blast through the time-dependence of the molecular and aerosol contributions to the detonation products. Multi-spectral blast measurements are performed in the visible, SWIR and MWIR spectral bands. Analysis of the cross-correlation between the measured multi-spectral signals gives the time dependence of the temperature, aerosol and gas composition of the blast. Farther analysis of the development of these quantities in time may indicate on the order of the detonation and amount and type of explosive materials. Examples of analysis of measured explosions are presented to demonstrate the power of the suggested fast multispectral radiometric analysis approach.

Devir, A. D.; Bushlin, Y.; Mendelewicz, I.; Lessin, A. B.; Engel, M.

2011-05-01

66

Proceedings of the eleventh annual symposium on explosives and blasting research  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 26 papers presented at the conference. Topics relate to performance of explosives, blast wave propagation, charge malfunctions, building response to ground vibrations, tunnel excavations, detonator design, reduction of ground vibration, blast design, blast fragmentation measurement, and blast analysis. Most of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1995-12-31

67

Blasting injuries in surface mining with emphasis on flyrock and blast area security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: Blasting is a hazardous component of surface mining. Serious injuries and fatalities result from improper judgment or practice during rock blasting. This paper describes several fatal injury case studies, analyzes causative factors, and emphasizes preventive measures. Method: This study examines publications by MSHA, USGS, and other authors. The primary source of information was MSHA's injury-related publications. Results: During the

T. S. Bajpayee; T. R. Rehak; G. L. Mowrey; D. K. Ingram

2004-01-01

68

Nucleon and Deuteron Form Factors from BLAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BLAST experiment was designed to study in a systematic manner the spin-dependent, electromagnetic interaction on hydrogen and deuterium. Measuring only asymmetries in electron scattering with respect to the beam helicity, target spin, or both; the BLAST experiment was able to extract information on nucleon and deuteron form factors independent of beam intensity or target density. By further forming ``super-ratios'' of asymmetries, measurements were possible independent of beam and target polarization thus reducing uncertainties due to these quantities as well. Some of the form factor results from BLAST will be briefly presented here. Also, in response to observed discrepancies between polarization measurements and those obtained using traditional Rosenbluth separation techniques a proposed experiment, OLYMPUS, which will use the BLAST detector to measure the two photon contribution to elastic electron scattering will also be presented.

Hasell, D. K.

2009-12-01

69

Blast furnace stove control  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

Muske, K.R. [Villanova Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chaubal, P.C. [Inland Steel Industries Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Research Labs.

1998-12-31

70

Experiences with computer systems in blast furnace operation control at Rautaruukki  

SciTech Connect

Low energy consumption, together with high productivity and stable blast furnace operation, has been achieved at Rautaruukki's Raahe Steel Works as a result of the efficient use of computer technology in process control and improvements in raw materials quality. The blast furnace supervision system is designed to support the decision-making in medium and long-term process control. The information presenting the blast furnace operation phenomena is grouped so that little time is needed to obtain the current state of the process. Due to the complexity of the blast furnace process, an expert system to guide and diagnose the short and medium-term blast furnace operation has been developed.

Inkala, P.; Karppinen, A. (Rautaruukki Oy, Raahe (Finland). Raahe Steel Works); Seppanen, M. (Rautaruukki Oy Engineering, Oulu (Finland))

1994-09-01

71

Blast injury research models  

PubMed Central

Blast injuries are an increasing problem in both military and civilian practice. Primary blast injury to the lungs (blast lung) is found in a clinically significant proportion of casualties from explosions even in an open environment, and in a high proportion of severely injured casualties following explosions in confined spaces. Blast casualties also commonly suffer secondary and tertiary blast injuries resulting in significant blood loss. The presence of hypoxaemia owing to blast lung complicates the process of fluid resuscitation. Consequently, prolonged hypotensive resuscitation was found to be incompatible with survival after combined blast lung and haemorrhage. This article describes studies addressing new forward resuscitation strategies involving a hybrid blood pressure profile (initially hypotensive followed later by normotensive resuscitation) and the use of supplemental oxygen to increase survival and reduce physiological deterioration during prolonged resuscitation. Surprisingly, hypertonic saline dextran was found to be inferior to normal saline after combined blast injury and haemorrhage. New strategies have therefore been developed to address the needs of blast-injured casualties and are likely to be particularly useful under circumstances of enforced delayed evacuation to surgical care.

Kirkman, E.; Watts, S.; Cooper, G.

2011-01-01

72

Nuclear techniques for the inspection of blast furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon hearth wall failures in blast furnaces create safety risks and require a large expense to repair. To avoid failures they are replaced early, incurring costs in wasted hearth wall use. Two non-invasive measurements provide realtime analysis of wall integrity. The two major failure modes are erosion of carbon thickness and iron-filled cracks in the bricks. Measurements of backscattered gamma-ray spectra and thermal neutron decay rate can identify both phenomena. Gamma-ray spectra from a compact Linac beam primarily respond to average carbon thickness. Neutron decay time, using a pulsed neutron source, is sensitive to iron in the carbon volume. Each measurement is sensitive to the other failure made, but the combination permits each phenomenon to be resolved. These techniques can detect a high atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section material behind one of low atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section.

Schweitzer, J. S.; Lanza, R. C.

1999-06-01

73

Nuclear techniques for the inspection of blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

Carbon hearth wall failures in blast furnaces create safety risks and require a large expense to repair. To avoid failures they are replaced early, incurring costs in wasted hearth wall use. Two non-invasive measurements provide realtime analysis of wall integrity. The two major failure modes are erosion of carbon thickness and iron-filled cracks in the bricks. Measurements of backscattered gamma-ray spectra and thermal neutron decay rate can identify both phenomena. Gamma-ray spectra from a compact Linac beam primarily respond to average carbon thickness. Neutron decay time, using a pulsed neutron source, is sensitive to iron in the carbon volume. Each measurement is sensitive to the other failure made, but the combination permits each phenomenon to be resolved. These techniques can detect a high atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section material behind one of low atomic number and thermal neutron absorption cross section.

Schweitzer, J. S.; Lanza, R. C. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3046 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

1999-06-10

74

Detection and Quantification of the Dead Man Floating State in the Blast Furnace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lower part, the hearth, is a crucial region of the ironmaking blast furnace. The life length of it often determines the campaign length of the furnace and the thermal state and permeability of the hearth exert strong influence on liquids drainage and hot metal chemistry. In order to operate the furnace efficiently, the hearth state should be controlled, but the conditions in the hearth are extremely hostile with little possibility to carry out direct measurements. This article presents a set of methods and models through which the floating of the hearth coke bed, the dead man, can be assessed. Data from three industrial blast furnaces illustrate how a systematic analysis of available measurements, in combination with results of mathematical models of the phenomena in the hearth, can successfully detect and quantify the dead man floating state.

Brännbacka, Johnny; Saxén, Henrik; Pomeroy, Dave

2007-06-01

75

Mixing Effect in Internal Blast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detonation product gases are usually assumed to be completely mixed with an existing atmosphere by the time a peak quasi-static pressure (Pqs) is reached within an enclosed internal blast environment. With incomplete mixing, however, comes a loss in pressure from unburned fuel as well as a previously unrecognized source of error: heat capacity of the gas increases substantially with temperature, providing an energy sink in regions of unmixed hot gas. Our objective was to look at the extent of mixing by measuring gas temperature at several locations within a blast chamber at the time of peak Pqs. We recorded ranges of up to 400° C depending on charge location within the chamber, which is presumed to affect turbulence and mixing. Losses in peak Pqs of up to 13% may be attributed to this mixing effect for 1-kg Pentolite charges in a 62-m3 chamber in the simple geometries tested. A reasonably accurate Pqs may be extracted from blast wave reverberations in a chamber, allowing a closer look at effects such as gas mixing and consistency among multiple gages. These results point to an explanation for missing energy and a better understanding of heat flow in internal blast.

Granholm, R. H.; Sandusky, H. W.

2009-12-01

76

The BLAST experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bates large acceptance spectrometer toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The detector and experimental program were designed to study, in a systematic manner, the spin-dependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems. As such the data will provide improved measurements for neutron, proton, and deuteron form factors. The data will also allow details of the reaction mechanism, such as the role of final state interactions, pion production, and resonances to be studied. The experiment used: a longitudinally polarized electron beam stored in the South Hall Storage Ring; a highly polarized, isotopically pure, internal gas target of hydrogen or deuterium provided by an atomic beam source; and a symmetric, general purpose detector based on a toroidal spectrometer with tracking, time-of-flight, Cherenkov, and neutron detectors. Details of the experiment and operation are presented.

Hasell, D.; Akdogan, T.; Alarcon, R.; Bertozzi, W.; Booth, E.; Botto, T.; Calarco, J. R.; Clasie, B.; Crawford, C.; Degrush, A.; Dow, K.; Dutta, D.; Farkhondeh, M.; Fatemi, R.; Filoti, O.; Franklin, W.; Gao, H.; Geis, E.; Gilad, S.; Hersman, W.; Holtrop, M.; Ihloff, E.; Karpius, P.; Kelsey, J.; Kohl, M.; Kolster, H.; Krause, S.; Lee, T.; Maschinot, A.; Matthews, J.; McIlhany, K.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R.; Rapaport, J.; Redwine, R.; Seely, J.; Shinozaki, A.; Sindile, A.; Širca, S.; Smith, T.; Sobczynski, S.; Tanguay, M.; Tonguc, B.; Tschalaer, C.; Tsentalovich, E.; Turchinetz, W.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van der Laan, J.; Wang, F.; Wise, T.; Xiao, Y.; Xu, W.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, Z.; Ziskin, V.; Zwart, T.

2009-05-01

77

Assessment of Atmospheric Emissions from Quenching of Blast Furnace Slag with Blast Furnace Blowdown Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of 15 emission measurements made on a laboratory scale facility simulating typical plant slag quenching practice. The measurements were made to determine if a potential alternative to treatment prior to discharge of blast furnace ...

G. Annamraju W. Kemner P. J. Schworer

1984-01-01

78

Interferometric measurement technique for the temperature field of axisymmetric buoyant phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described to measure the temperature field of axisymmetric laminar thermals, plumes, and starting plume caps in a liquid. The sample liquid is placed in a Mach-Zender interferometer, and an infinite-fringe interferogram is recorded on photographic film. By comparison with a bar pattern interferogram, the fringe shift field was measured to an accuracy of + or - 0.02.

R. L. Boxman; D. J. Shlien

1978-01-01

79

Blast noise classification with common sound level meter metrics.  

PubMed

A common set of signal features measurable by a basic sound level meter are analyzed, and the quality of information carried in subsets of these features are examined for their ability to discriminate military blast and non-blast sounds. The analysis is based on over 120?000 human classified signals compiled from seven different datasets. The study implements linear and Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) support vector machines (SVM) to classify blast sounds. Using the orthogonal centroid dimension reduction technique, intuition is developed about the distribution of blast and non-blast feature vectors in high dimensional space. Recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) is then used to eliminate features containing redundant information and rank features according to their ability to separate blasts from non-blasts. Finally, the accuracy of the linear and RBF SVM classifiers is listed for each of the experiments in the dataset, and the weights are given for the linear SVM classifier. PMID:22894205

Cvengros, Robert M; Valente, Dan; Nykaza, Edward T; Vipperman, Jeffrey S

2012-08-01

80

Blast furnace reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vast a dvances h ave b een m ade in blast-furnace t echnology d uring t he p ast two decades through p lant t rials and plant d evelopments a ssisted by research to provide b etter u nderstanding of physical and chemical w orkings of the blast f urnace. T he f ields of research have i ncluded

E. T. Turkdogan

1978-01-01

81

Proposed Measures to Reduce Human Suffering After Terrorist Attack: Lessons from the 1998 Bomb Blast of the American Embassy Building in Nairobi, Kenya.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bomb blast, which rocked the US Embassy building in the center of Nairobi City, was executed by terrorists associated with Osama Bin Laden on 7th August 1998. Detailed account of what happened after the blast has been given by Mathenge et al, 1998. In...

G. M. Mailu V. W. Mathenge

2001-01-01

82

Lidar and radar measurements of the melting layer: observations of dark and bright band phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-wavelength lidar measurements in the melting layer revealing the presence of dark and bright bands have been performed by the University of BASILicata Raman lidar system (BASIL) during a stratiform rain event. Simultaneously radar measurements have been also performed from the same site by the University of Hamburg cloud radar MIRA 36 (35.5 GHz), the University of Hamburg dual-polarization micro rain radar (24.15 GHz) and the University of Manchester UHF wind profiler (1.29 GHz). Measurements from BASIL and the radars are illustrated and discussed in this paper for a specific case study on 23 July 2007 during the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS). Simulations of the lidar dark and bright band based on the application of concentric/eccentric sphere Lorentz-Mie codes and a melting layer model are also provided. Lidar and radar measurements and model results are also compared with measurements from a disdrometer on ground and a two-dimensional cloud (2DC) probe on-board the ATR42 SAFIRE. Measurements and model results are found to confirm and support the conceptual microphysical/scattering model elaborated by Sassen et al. (2005).

Di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Cacciani, M.; Norton, E. G.; Peters, G.; Dufournet, Y.

2012-05-01

83

Backdraft Phenomena.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to develop a fundamental physical understanding of backdraft phenomena. The research was divided into three phases: exploratory simulations, gravity current modeling, and quantitative backdraft experiments. The primary goal...

C. M. Fleischmann

1994-01-01

84

Pion Electroproduction from Deuterium at BLAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest pion electroproduction results from the BLAST (Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid) experiment at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center are presented. The experiment used the BLAST detector, a longitudinally polarized electron beam at 850 MeV, and internal targets of polarized hydrogen and vector and tensor polarized deuterium. Event selection and particle identification will be discussed. The measured asymmetries for exclusive pion electroproduction from deuterium will be presented and compared with results obtained from hydrogen and available theoretical predictions.

Shinozaki, Aki

2007-04-01

85

Use of a fast near-infrared spectrometer for absorption and emission measurements within the expanding blast wave of a high explosive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the use of a fast InGaAs array and spectrometer to measure properties related to near-infrared absorption and emission (750 nm -1500 nm) following a high explosive detonation. Using a broadband light source and a rigid absorption gauge, gas temperatures are measured at a rate of 20 kHz for a period of several milliseconds behind the blast wave from a PETN, PBXN-5, and PBXN-113 detonations. The temperature and concentration of water vapor is determined by fitting experimental transmission spectra to a simulated database. Strong emission signatures obtained during the PETN breakout event (integrated over approximately the first 20 microseconds) indicate the presence of high energy nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Measurements from water absorption at a distance of 23 cm from the PETN charge indicate temperatures decaying from 1600 K to 600 K during the first few milliseconds, and measurements of non-ideal explosives with optically thick postdetonation environments are also demonstrated. These measurements are intended to aid the development of detonation and explosive simulations.

Koch, Jon D.; Carney, Joel; Lightstone, James; Piecuch, Scott

2012-03-01

86

Interferometric measurement technique for the temperature field of axisymmetric buoyant phenomena.  

PubMed

A method is described to measure the temperature field of axisymmetric laminar thermals, plumes, and starting plume caps in a liquid. The sample liquid is placed in a Mach-Zender interferometer, and an infinite-fringe interferogram is recorded on photographic film. By comparison with a bar pattern interferogram, the fringe shift field was measured to an accuracy of +/-0.02. The Bockasten series approximation of the Abel transformation was applied to the fringe shift field to obtain the radial refractive index variation field, which in turn could be related to the temperature variation field through an empirical relationship. Temperature accuracies in the range of +/-0.05 to +/-0.5 degrees C were obtained. The radial temperature profile of the plume was found to be monotonically decreasing, while the cap had a local maximum offset from the axis. PMID:20203867

Boxman, R L; Shlien, D J

1978-09-01

87

BLAST+: architecture and applications  

PubMed Central

Background Sequence similarity searching is a very important bioinformatics task. While Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) outperforms exact methods through its use of heuristics, the speed of the current BLAST software is suboptimal for very long queries or database sequences. There are also some shortcomings in the user-interface of the current command-line applications. Results We describe features and improvements of rewritten BLAST software and introduce new command-line applications. Long query sequences are broken into chunks for processing, in some cases leading to dramatically shorter run times. For long database sequences, it is possible to retrieve only the relevant parts of the sequence, reducing CPU time and memory usage for searches of short queries against databases of contigs or chromosomes. The program can now retrieve masking information for database sequences from the BLAST databases. A new modular software library can now access subject sequence data from arbitrary data sources. We introduce several new features, including strategy files that allow a user to save and reuse their favorite set of options. The strategy files can be uploaded to and downloaded from the NCBI BLAST web site. Conclusion The new BLAST command-line applications, compared to the current BLAST tools, demonstrate substantial speed improvements for long queries as well as chromosome length database sequences. We have also improved the user interface of the command-line applications.

2009-01-01

88

Passive blast pressure sensor  

DOEpatents

A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

2013-03-19

89

Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation  

SciTech Connect

Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

2010-10-01

90

ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

E.F. fitch

1995-03-13

91

Effects of mine blasting on residential structures  

SciTech Connect

Blasting is common in the coal industry to remove rock overburden so that the exposed coal can be mechanically excavated. The ground vibrations and air blast produced by blasting are often felt by residents surrounding the mines. There has been a trend for regulatory authorities, especially those concerned with the environment, to impose low limits on blast vibration levels in response to community pressure, based on human perception and response to vibration. This paper reports the findings of an extensive study on a house which was located adjacent to a coal mine. The house was monitored for over 1 year and was subjected to ground peak particle velocity (PPV) ranging from 1.5 to 222 mm/s. The house was instrumented with accelerometers to measure its dynamic response due to blasting and it was also monitored for cracks before and after each blast. Based on this study, ground motion amplifications along the height of the structure have been established. A simplified methodology presented in this paper has been used to estimate the ground PPV at which cracking is likely.

Gad, E.F.; Wilson, J.L.; Moore, A.J.; Richards, A.B. [Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Vic. (Australia). Faculty of Engineering & Industrial Science

2005-08-01

92

Precise measurements of the density and critical phenomena near the phase transitions in helium using high-Q niobium microwave cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental approach of using high-Q niobium microwave resonator (Q?1010) and high resolution thermometry to achieve precise measurements of the density and critical phenomena in liquid helium near\\u000a phase transitions is described. The numerical verifications of the experimental feasibility as well as the applications of\\u000a the precision density measurement techniques are discussed.

N.-C. Yeh; W. Jiang; D. M. Strayer; N. N. Asplund

1996-01-01

93

Blast-wave characteristics near Site 300  

SciTech Connect

The blast-wave overpressures propagating in the atmosphere near the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 have been measured at selected locations to determine whether the Site 300 blast operations will be hindered by the proposed construction of a residential development adjacent to its border.We tested high-explosives (HE) weights ranging from 14 to 545 lb under various weather conditions. Although more tests should be conducted before a definitive statement can be made on the blast propagation near Site 300, we offer the following preliminary interpretation of the results obtained to date. The readings at the closest locations show that the blast-wave overpressures exceed the 126-decibel (dB) level established by LLNL at about 250 lb of HE detonation. The weather conditions do not materially affect the pressure levels at these locations. Insufficient test data exist along the Corral Hollow Road perimeter, making it difficult to reasonably predict HE blast effects along the southern border. Therefore, we recommend that additional measurements be made along this and other boundaries in future tests, to provide more comprehensive data to help determine the blast-wave propagation characteristics in the proposed development areas. Blast-wave focusing may occur in the proposed residential development area under certain weather conditions. We recommend that this possibility should be addressed for its potentially adverse impact on the proposed residential area. Because the testing ground controlled by Physics International, Inc. (PI) is adjacent to Site 300, it is important to be aware of PI`s detonation activities. Peak overpressure measurements near PI`s Corral Hollow Road entrance reveal that PI shots over 25 lb HE have exceeded 126 dB, the limit established by LLNL for safe operations.

Kang, Sang-Wook; Kleiber, J.C. Jr.

1993-08-01

94

Blast lung: experience at CIMS.  

PubMed

Blast lung is a clinical condition which is characterised by respiratory difficulty and hypoxia without obvious external injury to the chest in bomb blast cases. Two patients of the bomb blast episode were brought at emergency department at Chhattisgarh Institute of Medical Sciences, Bilaspur in a state of shock. After proper wound care, resuscitation and investigation both the cases proved to be that of blast lung. In bomb blast cases although there might not be any external injury over chest wall, it will be sensible to rule out blast lung in all cases with the help of computerised tomography. PMID:23029850

Singh, Archana; Deshkar, A M; Kashyap, B K; Choudhary, K N; Naik, S K; Tembhurnikar, P S; Singh, B P

2012-02-01

95

Evolution of blast wave profiles in simulated air blasts: experiment and computational modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock tubes have been extensively used in the study of blast traumatic brain injury due to increased incidence of blast-induced neurotrauma in Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. One of the important aspects in these studies is how to best replicate the field conditions in the laboratory which relies on reproducing blast wave profiles. Evolution of the blast wave profiles along the length of the compression-driven air shock tube is studied using experiments and numerical simulations with emphasis on the shape and magnitude of pressure time profiles. In order to measure dynamic pressures of the blast, a series of sensors are mounted on a cylindrical specimen normal to the flow direction. Our results indicate that the blast wave loading is significantly different for locations inside and outside of the shock tube. Pressure profiles inside the shock tube follow the Friedlander waveform fairly well. Upon approaching exit of the shock tube, an expansion wave released from the shock tube edges significantly degrades the pressure profiles. For tests outside the shock tube, peak pressure and total impulse reduce drastically as we move away from the exit and majority of loading is in the form of subsonic jet wind. In addition, the planarity of the blast wave degrades as blast wave evolves three dimensionally. Numerical results visually and quantitatively confirm the presence of vortices, jet wind and three-dimensional expansion of the planar blast wave near the exit. Pressure profiles at 90° orientation show flow separation. When cylinder is placed inside, this flow separation is not sustained, but when placed outside the shock tube this flow separation is sustained which causes tensile loading on the sides of the cylinder. Friedlander waves formed due to field explosives in the intermediate-to far-field ranges are replicated in a narrow test region located deep inside the shock tube.

Chandra, N.; Ganpule, S.; Kleinschmit, N. N.; Feng, R.; Holmberg, A. D.; Sundaramurthy, A.; Selvan, V.; Alai, A.

2012-09-01

96

Densification of pond ash by blasting  

SciTech Connect

Fly ash from thermal power plants is disposed, in huge quantities in ash ponds, which occupy large land areas otherwise useful for agriculture, housing, or other development. For effective rehabilitation of ash ponds, densification of the slurry deposit is essential to increase the bearing capacity and to improve its resistance to liquefaction. Extensive field trials were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of deep blasting for densification of deposited fly ash. Ninety explosions comprising 15 single blasts, with varying depths and quantities of charges, and 3 group blasts, each having 25 charges placed at various spacings, were carried out. The compaction achieved in terms of an increase in relative density was evaluated from surface settlement measurements. Extensive field monitoring was undertaken through pore-water pressure measurements, vibration measurements, penetration tests, and block vibration tests. For the average charge of 2--4 g of explosive per cubic meter of untreated deposit, the average relative density was found to improve from 50% to 56--58%. Analysis of the test results indicates that deep blasting may be an effective technique for modest compaction of loose fly ash deposits. The field testing program presented in this paper provides valuable information that can be used for planning blast densification of fly ash deposits.

Gandhi, S.R.; Dey, A.K.; Selvam, S. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India)

1999-10-01

97

Poloidal field measurements during transient phenomena on MTX: Sawtooth perturbations and the effect of ECH on disruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fifteen channel far-infrared polarimeter has been used to measure poloidal field (B(sub p)) profiles during transient events on MTX. Here we present experimental results on two separate phenomena. First, strong B(sub p) perturbations are observed to be correlated with the sawtooth crash. The on-axis safety factor q(sub 0) approximately 0.8, is approximately constant before and after the crash. Although the perturbed field profile during the crash is too complex to invert unambiguously, several observations concerning existing sawtooth models can be made. The low value of q(sub 0) combined with the large amplitude and complex radial structure of the B(sub p) perturbations, is more consistent with the stochastic or the double-layer reconnection sawtooth models rather than other standard models such as Kadomtsev reconnection or quasi-interchange. In addition, poloidal field measurements were made prior to disruptions on MTX, both with and without electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The disruption studied here, is related to the buildup of heavy-metal impurities in the core, which is particularly prevalent at lower densities. The impurity radiation leads to a collapse of the T(sub e), and J profiles followed by a disruption. The application of on-axis ECH during the T(sub e) collapse but prior to the disruption can repeak the T(sub e) and J profiles thus preventing the disruption. Since the core impurity radiation depends quite sensitively on T(sub e) heating significantly effects the power balance in the core, leading to stability for this type of disruption.

Rice, B. W.; Hooper, E. B.

1993-01-01

98

Integrated, Multi-Scale Characterization of Imbibition and Wettability Phenomena Using Magnetic Resonance and Wide-Band Dielectric Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The petrophysical properties of rocks, particularly their relative permeability and wettability, strongly influence the efficiency and the time-scale of all hydrocarbon recovery processes. However, the quantitative relationships needed to account for the influence of wettability and pore structure on multi-phase flow are not yet available, largely due to the complexity of the phenomena controlling wettability and the difficulty of characterizing rock properties at the relevant length scales. This project brings together several advanced technologies to characterize pore structure and wettability. Grain-scale models are developed that help to better interpret the electric and dielectric response of rocks. These studies allow the computation of realistic configurations of two immiscible fluids as a function of wettability and geologic characteristics. These fluid configurations form a basis for predicting and explaining macroscopic behavior, including the relationship between relative permeability, wettability and laboratory and wireline log measurements of NMR and dielectric response. Dielectric and NMR measurements have been made show that the response of the rocks depends on the wetting and flow properties of the rock. The theoretical models can be used for a better interpretation and inversion of standard well logs to obtain accurate and reliable estimates of fluid saturation and of their producibility. The ultimate benefit of this combined theoretical/empirical approach for reservoir characterization is that rather than reproducing the behavior of any particular sample or set of samples, it can explain and predict trends in behavior that can be applied at a range of length scales, including correlation with wireline logs, seismic, and geologic units and strata. This approach can substantially enhance wireline log interpretation for reservoir characterization and provide better descriptions, at several scales, of crucial reservoir flow properties that govern oil recovery.

Mukul M. Sharma; Steven L. Bryant; Carlos Torres-Verdin; George Hirasaki

2007-09-30

99

Blast Furnace Operation with Oxygen-Enriched Unheated Blast Air.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three trials with oxygen-enriched unheated blast air are described. The trials were conducted in the Bureau of Mines experimental blast furnace located in Bruceton, PA. For the first trial, moisture was added to the oxygenated blast. The second and third ...

P. L. Woolf

1985-01-01

100

Operation SANDSTONE. Nuclear Explosions--1948. Annex 5. Part 3. Blast Measurement of Pressure as a Function of Time.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chapter 11 reports on the free-piston gauges used to measure the parameters of the air shock wave at various distances from the point of detonation. This gauge consists of a piston, free to move with no restoring forces, and acted upon at one end by the s...

W. E. Curtis

1985-01-01

101

Monitoring the setting of concrete containing blast-furnace slag by measuring the ultrasonic p-wave velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic transmission measurements allow the continuous monitoring of the setting of both mortar and concrete samples, which is important to determine for instance the formwork removal time. However, aspects such as the cause of the low initial velocity, the relation between the velocity and the setting times and the effect of cement type or cement replacing additives are still under

Nicolas Robeyst; Elke Gruyaert; Christian U. Grosse; Nele De Belie

2008-01-01

102

Blast Noise Standards and Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of noise from quarry production blasting was conducted at seven crushed-stone quarries, providing information on close-in noise generation, comparative instrumentation, and evaluation of the sound levels as related to blasting parameters and exis...

D. E. Siskind C. R. Summers

1974-01-01

103

Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential

Ensar Oguz

2004-01-01

104

Littoral blasts: Pumice-water heat transfer and the conditions for steam explosions when pyroclastic flows enter the ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steam explosions, or littoral blasts, generated when pyroclastic flows interact with seawater may be a common, although rarely documented, phenomena. The development of steam explosions rather than passive steam production is related to the rate of thermal energy transfer from hot pyroclasts to water. We conduct a series of laboratory experiments to quantify the heat transfer and steam production rates when hot pyroclasts encounter water. Hot pumice (>200°C) rapidly ingests water while remaining at the surface, producing measurable amounts of steam during the process. Approximately 10% of the thermal energy of the pumice particles is partitioned into the production of steam, and smaller particles have greater steam production rates. The laboratory experiments are used to develop a subgrid model for steam production that can be incorporated into a multiphase numerical framework. We use this model to study the critical steam production rates required to initiate explosive events. For conditions typical of many pyroclastic flows, particles smaller than ˜1-5 mm are required to initiate a littoral blast. A second set of two-dimensional numerical simulations is conducted to simulate the 12-13 July Soufrière Hills dome collapse event that reached the sea. The simulations predict that the focus of the blast is likely generated several hundred meters offshore and although the landward directed base surge is primarily dry (<15% water vapor), the area immediately above the blast is steam-rich and may be a likely site for the production of accretionary lapilli.

Dufek, J.; Manga, M.; Staedter, M.

2007-11-01

105

Management of primary blast injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blast waves are produced following the detonation of munitions, the firing of large caliber guns, or from any type of explosion. These blast waves can be powerful enough to injure the individuals exposed to them. This type of injury is called primary blast injury (PBI) and the organs most vulnerable to PBI are the gas-filled organs, namely the ear, the

Gregory J. Argyros

1997-01-01

106

Expanded rock blast modeling capabilities of DMC( )BLAST, including buffer blasting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A discrete element computer program named DMC( )BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting. This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented a...

D. S. Preece J. P. Tidman S. H. Chung

1996-01-01

107

Operation Ivy. Project 6. 2. Report to the Scientific Director. Blast-wave mass-motion measurements  

SciTech Connect

OPERATION IVY was instrumented for the mass-motion method of pressure measurement in a manner similar to that used on OPERATIONS BUSTER-JANGLE and TUMBLER-SNAPPER. Low-altitude pyrotechnic mortar bursts and high-altitude gun bursts (on Mike only) labeled the air for photographic recording. The methods of instrumentation are described, the method of data analysis is outlined and derived data on time of arrival, peak material velocity, peak shock velocity, and peak overpressure are presented in tabular and graphical form. Appendixes present meteorological and ballistic data and calculations. An outstanding conclusion of the experiment is the lowness of peak overpressures near the surface compared with the peak overpressures at altitudes up to 25,000 feet because of the effect of atmospheric inhomogeneity at long ranges. The mass-motion technique offers a useful diagnostic tool for the determination of total hydrodynamic yield.

Seacord, D.F.

1985-09-01

108

Simulation of a nuclear blast wave with a gaseous detonation tube. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an ongoing interest in simulating nonideal blast environments for nuclear effects research. In particular, one would like to be able to impose peaked blast waves on real ground surfaces and experimentally measure the ensuing dusty airblast environment. Proposed here is a gaseous detonation tube blast simulator. A disposable (or reusable) shock tube would be constructed on a in-situ

Kuhl

1983-01-01

109

Proceedings of the tenth annual symposium on explosives and blasting research  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 26 papers presented at the conference. Topics relate to blast vibration analysis and modeling, malfunctioning explosives, detonators, rock fragmentation, structural response of buildings to blasting, computer modeling, blast design, and measurement of rock properties. Most of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1994-12-31

110

Jet Blast Hazards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report encompasses a broad review of hazards directly related to inadvertent use of jet thrust power and its adverse effects on other aircraft, airport-ramp personnel, passengers and airport equipment. These jet-blast hazards are illustrated by a repr...

1972-01-01

111

Factors Affecting Internal Blast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal blast refers to explosion effects in confined spaces, which are dominated by the heat output of the explosive. Theoretical temperatures and pressures may not be reached due to heat losses and incomplete gas mixing. Gas mixing can have the largest effect, potentially reducing peak quasi-static pressure by a factor of two due to lack of thermal equilibrium between products

R. H. Granholm; H. W. Sandusky; J. E. Felts

2007-01-01

112

FACTORS AFFECTING INTERNAL BLAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal blast refers to explosion effects in confined spaces, which are dominated by the heat output of the explosive. Theoretical temperatures and pressures may not be reached due to heat losses and incomplete gas mixing. Gas mixing can have the largest effect, potentially reducing peak quasi-static pressure by a factor of two due to lack of thermal equilibrium between products

R. H. Granholm; H. W. Sandusky; J. E. Felts

2007-01-01

113

Explosions and blast injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powerful explosions have the potential to inflict many different types of injuries on victims, some of which may be initially occult. Flying debris and high winds commonly cause conventional blunt and penetrating trauma. Injuries caused by blast pressures alone result from complex interactions on living tissues. Interfaces between tissues of different densities or those between tissues and trapped air result

John M. Wightman; Sheri L. Gladish

2001-01-01

114

Comparison of building loads analysis and system thermodynamics (BLAST) computer program simulations and measured energy use for army buildings. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of a study which compared actual energy use data collected for two typical Army buildings by the Army's Fixed Facilities Energy Monitoring Project with energy-use data predicted by the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory's (CERL's) Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) energy analysis computer program. It was concluded that to compare actual building

Herron

1981-01-01

115

A System for Monitoring, Measurement and Analysis of Transient Performance and Stall Phenomena of Gas Turbine Engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acceleipation of gas turbine engines pushes the compressor of the engine to the limits of stable operation and may lead to unstable engine conditions with an entire loss of thrust. Therefore, transient performance of turbofan engines has to be considered when designing the engine. A setup for the experimental irivestigation of transient performance and unsteady flow phenomena on a turbofan

T. Herpel; L. Fottner

1993-01-01

116

Expanded rock blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST, including buffer blasting  

SciTech Connect

A discrete element computer program named DMC{_}BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting. This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in 2-D. DMC{_}BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts. The blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST have been expanded to include independently dipping geologic layers, top surface, bottom surface and pit floor. The pit can also now be defined using coordinates based on the toe of the bench. A method for modeling decked explosives has been developed which allows accurate treatment of the inert materials (stemming) in the explosive column and approximate treatment of different explosives in the same blasthole. A DMC{_}BLAST user can specify decking through a specific geologic layer with either inert material or a different explosive. Another new feature of DMC{_}BLAST is specification of an uplift angle which is the angle between the normal to the blasthole and a vector defining the direction of explosive loading on particles adjacent to the blasthole. A buffer (choke) blast capability has been added for situations where previously blasted material is adjacent to the free face of the bench preventing any significant lateral motion during the blast.

Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidman, J.P.; Chung, S.H. [ICI Explosives (Canada)

1996-12-31

117

Blast Loading Experiments of Surrogate Models for Tbi Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to characterize the interaction of explosive blast waves through simulated anatomical models. We have developed physical models and a systematic approach for testing traumatic brain injury (TBI) mechanisms and occurrences. A simplified series of models consisting of spherical PMMA shells housing synthetic gelatins as brain simulants have been utilized. A series of experiments was conducted to compare the sensitivity of the system response to mechanical properties of the simulants under high strain-rate explosive blasts. Small explosive charges were directed at the models to produce a realistic blast wave in a scaled laboratory test cell setting. Blast profiles were measured and analyzed to compare system response severity. High-speed shadowgraph imaging captured blast wave interaction with the head model while particle tracking captured internal response for displacement and strain correlation. The results suggest amplification of shock waves inside the head near material interfaces due to impedance mismatches. In addition, significant relative displacement was observed between the interacting materials suggesting large strain values of nearly 5%. Further quantitative results were obtained through shadowgraph imaging of the blasts confirming a separation of time scales between blast interaction and bulk movement. These results lead to the conclusion that primary blast effects could cause TBI occurrences.

Alley, M. D.; Son, S. F.

2009-12-01

118

Lidar and Triple-Wavelength Doppler Radar Measurements of the Melting Layer: A Revised Model for Dark and Brightband Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the recent Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers (CRYSTAL) Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (FACE) field campaign in southern Florida, rain showers were probed by a 0.523-mum lidar and three (0.32-, 0.86-, and 10.6-cm wavelength) Doppler radars. The full repertoire of backscattering phenomena was observed in the melting region, that is, the various lidar and radar dark

Kenneth Sassen; James R. Campbell; Jiang Zhu; Pavlos Kollias; Matthew Shupe; Christopher Williams

2005-01-01

119

BLAST BIOLOGY. Technical Progress Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data regarding the biologic consequences of exposure to ;\\u000a several environmental variations associated with actual and simulated explosive ;\\u000a detonations were reviewed. Blast biology is discussed relative to primary, ;\\u000a secondary, tentiary, and miscellaneous blast effects as those attributable, ;\\u000a respectively, to variations in environmental pressure, trauma from blast-produced ;\\u000a missiles (both penetrating and nonpenetrating), the consequences of physical

C. S. White; D. R. Richmond

1959-01-01

120

Energy release protection for pressurized systems. I - Review of studies into blast and fragmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of blast and fragmentation hazards associated with a pressure system rupture are presented. Areas of concern related to blast hazards include the system energy (prior to its explosive failure), chemical characteristics of the media contained within a bursting pressure system, secondary explosions, and energy release. Such aspects of blast effect as height of the burst (in an above-the-ground explosion), dimensional effects of the explosive, multiple explosions, burning rate of the explosive, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, and confinement (for explosions within an enclosed structure) are discussed. Also treated are hazards from fragments or missiles ejected (fragmentation hazards), including initial frament velocity, velocity retardation, range, blast-generated fragments (from adjacent structures), and media and soil ejection. Mathematical treatments and graphs representing the individual aspects of the blast and fragmentation phenomena are included.

Brown, S. J.

1985-12-01

121

BLAST resolves origins of Cosmic Infrared Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmic infrared background (CIB), composed of starlight which is absorbed by dust and re-emitted at infrared wavelengths, has approximately the same intensity as the optical background. The CIB is most intense at around 200,m, where the atmosphere is very opaque, which makes observing it very difficult. The Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimetre Telescope (BLAST) operates above 99.5% of the atmosphere and has made the first direct observations at 250, 350 and 500,m. In December 2006, BLAST completed an 11-day flight over Antarctica. 220 hours of data were collected, 90 of which were spent in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) South Field. We calculate the covariance of the BLAST data with catalogs of 24,m sources. With this method, we measure the CIB brightness levels at BLAST wavelengths. This analysis resolves the CIB into contributions from 24,m identified galaxies. At 500,m, we find that over half of the light comes from sources with redshifts greater than 1.2. Furthermore, this analysis allows us to determine the characteristics of the galaxies which produce the CIB.

Ngo, Henry

2009-05-01

122

Radiative shell thinning in intense laser-driven blast waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural evolution of blast waves launched by intense laser pulses in gases is investigated. These blast waves exhibit significant energy loss through radiation while propagating in xenon as evidenced by interferometric imaging revealing radiative precursors and deceleration parameters well below those of an energy-conserving wave. Thinning of the blast wave shell from radiative cooling is observed through comparison of shocks launched in gases of differing atomic number. Shell thinning is also measured when the gas density is altered, indicating the influence of conditions within the preshock medium. These results are compared with radiative-hydrodynamic simulations. British Crown Copyright 2009/MOD.

Osterhoff, J.; Symes, D. R.; Edens, A. D.; Moore, A. S.; Hellewell, E.; Ditmire, T.

2009-02-01

123

Pediatric blast lung injury from a fireworks-related explosion.  

PubMed

Blast injuries related to explosions have been described in the literature but are uncommon in children. We describe a multisystem blast injury in a child resulting from a commercial firework-related explosion in her home. She presented with respiratory failure, shock, altered level of consciousness, and multiple orthopedic injuries. The patient required immediate stabilization and resuscitation in the emergency department and a prolonged hospitalization. This report reviews the spectrum of injuries that are seen in blast-related trauma and the emergency measures needed for rapid stabilization of these critical patients. PMID:22668665

Ratto, Jessica; Johnson, Bernadette K; Condra, Cole S; Knapp, Jane F

2012-06-01

124

An automatic MEG low-frequency source imaging approach for detecting injuries in mild and moderate TBI patients with blast and non-blast causes.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild (and some moderate) TBI can be difficult to diagnose because the injuries are often not detectable on conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in TBI patients generate abnormal low-frequency magnetic activity (ALFMA, peaked at 1-4 Hz) that can be measured and localized by magnetoencephalography (MEG). We developed a new automated MEG low-frequency source imaging method and applied this method in 45 mild TBI (23 from combat-related blasts, and 22 from non-blast causes) and 10 moderate TBI patients (non-blast causes). Seventeen of the patients with mild TBI from blasts had tertiary injuries resulting from the blast. The results show our method detected abnormalities at the rates of 87% for the mild TBI group (blast-induced plus non-blast causes) and 100% for the moderate group. Among the mild TBI patients, the rates of abnormalities were 96% and 77% for the blast and non-blast TBI groups, respectively. The spatial characteristics of abnormal slow-wave generation measured by Z scores in the mild blast TBI group significantly correlated with those in non-blast mild TBI group. Among 96 cortical regions, the likelihood of abnormal slow-wave generation was less in the mild TBI patients with blast than in the mild non-blast TBI patients, suggesting possible protective effects due to the military helmet and armor. Finally, the number of cortical regions that generated abnormal slow-waves correlated significantly with the total post-concussive symptom scores in TBI patients. This study provides a foundation for using MEG low-frequency source imaging to support the clinical diagnosis of TBI. PMID:22542638

Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Drake, Angela; Holland, Martin; Asmussen, Sarah; D'Andrea, John; Chun, Won; Levy, Michael; Cui, Li; Song, Tao; Baker, Dewleen G; Hammer, Paul; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Coimbra, Raul; Diwakar, Mithun; Boyd, Cynthia; Neff, John; Liu, Thomas T; Webb-Murphy, Jennifer; Farinpour, Roxanna; Cheung, Catherine; Harrington, Deborah L; Heister, David; Lee, Roland R

2012-04-20

125

Blast load assessment using hydrocodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of pressures and impulses produced by blast loads with the aid of hydrocodes is studied in this paper. Numerical results are compared with those obtained with existing analytical expressions for different scaled distances and boundary conditions. In particular, the capacity of both methods to capture multiple reflections of the blast load is analyzed. The effects of mesh size

B. Luccioni; D. Ambrosini; R. Danesi

2006-01-01

126

Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1996-12-31

127

Centrifugal shot blast system  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

NONE

1998-02-01

128

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

William S. McPhee

1999-05-31

129

Reactive Blast Waves from Composite Charges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated here is the performance of composite explosives - measured in terms of the blast wave they drive into the surrounding environment. The composite charge configuration studied here was a spherical booster (1\\/3 charge mass), surrounded by aluminum (Al) powder (2\\/3 charge mass) at an initial density of = 0.604 g\\/cc. The Al powder acts as a fuel but does

A L Kuhl; J B Bell; V E Beckner

2009-01-01

130

Lidar and Triple-Wavelength Doppler Radar Measurements of the Melting Layer: A Revised Model for Dark- and Brightband Phenomena.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the recent Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers (CRYSTAL) Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (FACE) field campaign in southern Florida, rain showers were probed by a 0.523-?m lidar and three (0.32-, 0.86-, and 10.6-cm wavelength) Doppler radars. The full repertoire of backscattering phenomena was observed in the melting region, that is, the various lidar and radar dark and bright bands. In contrast to the ubiquitous 10.6-cm (S band) radar bright band, only intermittent evidence is found at 0.86 cm (K band), and no clear examples of the radar bright band are seen at 0.32 cm (W band), because of the dominance of non-Rayleigh scattering effects. Analysis also reveals that the relatively inconspicuous W-band radar dark band is due to non-Rayleigh effects in large water-coated snowflakes that are high in the melting layer. The lidar dark band exclusively involves mixed-phase particles and is centered where the shrinking snowflakes collapse into raindrops-the point at which spherical particle backscattering mechanisms first come into prominence during snowflake melting. The traditional (S band) radar brightband peak occurs low in the melting region, just above the lidar dark-band minimum. This position is close to where the W-band reflectivities and Doppler velocities reach their plateaus but is well above the height at which the S-band Doppler velocities stop increasing. Thus, the classic radar bright band is dominated by Rayleigh dielectric scattering effects in the few largest melting snowflakes.

Sassen, Kenneth; Campbell, James R.; Zhu, Jiang; Kollias, Pavlos; Shupe, Matthew; Williams, Christopher

2005-03-01

131

Neural networks for the identification and control of blast furnace hot metal quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation and control of blast furnaces poses a great challenge because of the difficult measurement and control problems associated with the unit. The measurement of hot metal composition with respect to silica and sulfur are critical to the economic operation of blast furnaces. The measurement of the compositions require spectrographic techniques which can be performed only off line. An

V. R Radhakrishnan; A. R Mohamed

2000-01-01

132

Bound Water and Thermodieletric Phenomena Affecting Soil Water Content Measurement using Time Domain Reflectometry and Radar Remote Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We documented a potentially substantial temperature influence on near-surface soil water content (theta ) measurements using time domain reflectometry (TDR) and suspended Horn Antenna GPR, in the presence of large diurnal temperature fluctuations. Laboratory experiments revealed interplay between reduction in the dielectric constant of bulk water with increasing temperature (T); and an increase in measured bulk dielectric constant with increased

D. Or; J. M. Wraith; G. Serbin; Y. Chen; S. B. Jones

2004-01-01

133

Determination of Explosive Blast Loading Equivalencies with AN Explosively Driven Shock Tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values were measured for C4, ANFO, and two perchlorate explosives. Explosive equivalencies from these values were found to agree with prior theory and experiment.

Jackson, Scott I.; Morris, John S.; Hill, Larry G.

2009-12-01

134

Blast-Induced Translational Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mathematical model was developed to predict the time displacement histories of objects translated by the blast winds from conventional or nuclear explosions; these predictions were then compared to actual experiments. The objects studied varied in size ...

E. R. Fletcher I. G. Bowen

1966-01-01

135

Global primary blast injury: a rat model.  

PubMed

Blast wave injury from bombs cause a unique but poorly understood spectrum of injuries. Previous blast wave models involved high energy explosives detonated in an open field without the sophisticated monitoring of laboratory equipment. We characterized a rodent model that produces a global blast injury in a safe laboratory environment. Male rats, prospectively randomized to four groups of ten, were anesthetized and subjected to a blast at 2.0 cm, 2.5 cm, or 3.5 cm from the blast nozzle. The control group received no blast. Intensity of the blast (80-120 psi peak pressure, 1-2 msec duration) was controlled by varying the distance of the blast wave generator to the rat. The rats were monitored for three hours following the blast and then euthanized. Bradycardia was an immediate but transient response to blast injury. Mean arterial pressure was bimodal with severe hypotension occurring immediately after the blast and, again, two to three hours later. The characteristic injuries from a blast wave, such as pulmonary hemorrhage with increased lung weight, intestinal serosal hemorrhage, and hemoperitoneum, were found in the rats subjected to the blast pressure wave. In conclusion, our rodent model accurately reproduces the clinical spectrum of injuries seen in blast victims and will provide a powerful tool for studying the pathophysiology and potential treatments of bomb blast victims. PMID:9793276

Irwin, R J; Lerner, M R; Bealer, J F; Lightfoot, S A; Brackett, D J; Tuggle, D W

1998-10-01

136

STUDY OF ANOMALOUS MINE BLASTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Altai-Sayan mining region located east of Novosibirsk, Russia, comprises over 72 mines which are located between 7 and 559 km from the International Monitoring System (IMS) primary 3-component station ZAL. We have origin time and location estimates of 853 blasts that have occurred in this trend between 1\\/1\\/1995 and 6\\/30\\/2000. The mines are known to use millisecond delay-fire blasting

Michael A. H. Hedlin; Vitaly I. Khalturin

137

Water blasting paint removal methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water blasting is a paint removal technique that has been used for cleaning and paint removal for many years. The major disadvantages until recently were the slow rate of paint removal and the possibility of damage to the substrate from the high pressures used. With the improvement in nozzle design that allows for higher operating pressures and the use of environmentally compliant paint softeners or strippers, water blasting is becoming a recognized technique for paint removal in the aircraft industry.

Foster, Terry

1995-04-01

138

Computer systems for controlling blast furnace operations at Rautaruukki  

SciTech Connect

Energy accounts for a significant portion of the total blast furnace production costs and, to minimize energy consumption, both technical and economical aspects have to be considered. Thus, considerable attention has been paid to blast furnace energy consumption and productivity. The most recent furnace relines were in 1985 and 1986. At that time, the furnaces were modernized and instrumentation was increased. After the relines, operation control and monitoring of the process is done by a basic automation systems (DCS`s and PLC`s) and a supervision system (process computer). The supervision system is the core of the control system combining reports, special displays, trends and mathematical models describing in-furnace phenomena. Low energy consumption together with high productivity and stable blast furnace operation have been achieved due to an improvement in raw materials quality and implementation of automation and computer systems to control blast furnace operation. Currently, the fuel rate is low and productivity is in excess of 3.0 tonnes/cu meter/day, which is one of the highest values achieved anywhere for long-term operation.

Inkala, P.; Karppinen, A. [Rautaruukki Oy, Raahe (Finland); Seppanen, M. [Rautaruukki Oy Engineering, Oulu (Finland)

1995-08-01

139

Blast from explosive evaporation of carbon dioxide: experiment, modeling and physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive evaporation of a superheated liquid is a relevant hazard in the process industry. A vessel rupture during storage, transport or handling may lead to devastating blast effects. In order to assess the risk associated with this hazard or to design protective measures, an accurate prediction model for the blast generated after vessel rupture is needed. For this reason a fundamental understanding of the effects of a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) is essential. In this paper, we report on a number of well-defined BLEVE experiments with 40-l liquid CO2 bottles. The existing inertia-limited BLEVE model has been validated by its application to these experiments. Good qualitative agreement between model and experiment was found, while quantitatively the results provide a safe estimate. Possible model improvements taking into account the finite rate of evaporation are described. These comprise phenomena such as bubble nucleation and growth rate, and the two-phase flow regime. Suggestions for improved experiments are given as well.

van der Voort, M. M.; van den Berg, A. C.; Roekaerts, D. J. E. M.; Xie, M.; de Bruijn, P. C. J.

2012-03-01

140

Blasting Rocks and Blasting Cars Applied Engineering  

ScienceCinema

June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated ... June 30, 2004 Berkeley Lab lecture: Deb Hopkins works with industries like automobile, mining and paper to improve their evaluation and measuring techniques. For several years, she has coordinated a program at Berkeley Lab funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, a collaboration between the federal government and the U.S. Council for Automotive Research. Nondestructive evaluation techniques to test a car's structural integrity are being developed for auto assembly lines.

141

Understanding the effects of Doppler phenomena in white light Fabry-Perot interferometers for simultaneous position and velocity measurement.  

PubMed

In static tests, low-power (<5 mW) white light extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric position sensors offer high-accuracy (?m) absolute measurements of a target's position over large (cm) axial-position ranges, and since position is demodulated directly from phase in the interferogram, these sensors are robust to fluctuations in measured power levels. However, target surface dynamics distort the interferogram via Doppler shifting, introducing a bias in the demodulation process. With typical commercial off-the-shelf hardware, a broadband source centered near 1550 nm, and an otherwise typical setup, the bias may be as large as 50-100 ?m for target surface velocities as low as 0.1 mm/s. In this paper, the authors derive a model for this Doppler-induced position bias, relating its magnitude to three swept-filter tuning parameters. Target velocity (magnitude and direction) is calculated using this relationship in conjunction with a phase-diversity approach, and knowledge of the target's velocity is then used to compensate exactly for the position bias. The phase-diversity approach exploits side-by-side measurement signals, transmitted through separate swept filters with distinct tuning parameters, and permits simultaneous measurement of target velocity and target position, thereby mitigating the most fundamental performance limitation that exists on dynamic white light interferometric position sensors. PMID:23033021

Moro, Erik A; Todd, Michael D; Puckett, Anthony D

2012-09-20

142

Does the Defining Issues Test Measure Psychological Phenomena Distinct From Verbal Ability?: An Examination of Lykken’s Query  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the incremental validity of the Defining Issues Test (DIT), a test purporting to measure moral reasoning ability relative to verbal ability and other major markers of the construct of general intelligence (g). Across 2 independent studies of intellectually precocious adolescents (top 0. 5%), results obtained with the DIT revealed that gifted individuals earned significantly higher moral reasoning

Cheryl E. Sanders; David Lubinski; Camilla Persson Benbow

1995-01-01

143

Aircraft Jet Engine Exhaust Blast Effects on Par-56 Runway Threshold Lamp Fixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of jet engine exhaust blast on PAR-56 on lamps located at the runway threshold were measured in this project. Sensors were placed on and near the lamp assemblies which measured blast velocity and temperature, bulb face temperature, lamp fixtur...

A. J. Barile J. K. Struck

1989-01-01

144

Tyre-blast injuries.  

PubMed

A teenager college student was fatally injured by burst tyre air pressure while waiting on a public bus stand to catch a bus to reach her college at Kuala Lumpur. She accidentally came near the wheel while boarding when tube and tyre got burst .The air pressure had blown the girl in the air and she subsequently fell on a rough surface. The iron-locking rim of the wheel acted as a missile and hit the girl. She died on her way to the hospital. A medico-legal autopsy was performed which showed extensive injuries in the cranial and chest cavity. Head had large scalp laceration with diffuse separation and gaping from in the vault region; skull bones were fractured. Chest cavity had extensive rib fractures, lacerated lungs and haemo-thorax while externally there was no obvious injury. It requires intensive care management and screening of the victims. Tyre-blast injuries are not so common. This case exposes the hazard due to burst tyre. PMID:19329081

Murty, O P

2009-01-29

145

Is there conscious choice in directed mutation, phenocopies, and related phenomena? An answer based on quantum measurement theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous article (Goswami, 1997), it was suggested that an application of quantum measurement theory under the auspices\\u000a of a monistic idealist ontology (that consciousness is the ground of being) can solve many difficult problems of neo-Darwinism,\\u000a e.g., alternating rapid creativity and homeostasis observed in evolution and the directionality, origin, and nature of life.\\u000a In this article, we propose

Amit Goswami; Dennis Todd

1997-01-01

146

Manual for the prediction of blast and fragment loadings on structures  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this manual is to provide Architect-Engineer (AE) firms guidance for the prediction of air blast, ground shock and fragment loadings on structures as a result of accidental explosions in or near these structures. Information in this manual is the result of an extensive literature survey and data gathering effort, supplemented by some original analytical studies on various aspects of blast phenomena. Many prediction equations and graphs are presented, accompanied by numerous example problems illustrating their use. The manual is complementary to existing structural design manuals and is intended to reflect the current state-of-the-art in prediction of blast and fragment loads for accidental explosions of high explosives at the Pantex Plant. In some instances, particularly for explosions within blast-resistant structures of complex geometry, rational estimation of these loads is beyond the current state-of-the-art.

Not Available

1980-11-01

147

Measurement of fluorescence phenomena from yttrium and gadolinium fluors using a 45 MeV proton beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a program to determine proton induced damage and its effect on relative scintillation efficiency for various yttrium and gadolinium based fluors, materials were selected for high efficiency, fast prompt fluorescence response, and minimal delayed fluorescence. These fluors were exposed to a 45 MeV proton beam at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) using the High Energy Materials Irradiation Chamber (HEMIC). Data obtained at IUCF indicates that the measured 45 MeV proton dose to reduce the fluorescence brightness to half its original value (half brightness dose - N1/2) was found to be 2.2 to 7.3 times larger than that measured at 3 MeV. The corresponding average 45 MeV half brightness dose values, measured at elevated temperature, were 4.0 to 83.7 times larger than at 3 MeV. Although the interaction cross section for 45 MeV protons is smaller than at 3 MeV, each of the resulting high energy reactions causes more damage to the fluor. This research was completed as part of the Fluorescent Materials and Bonding: Extended Energy program under contract DASG60-90-C-0144 for the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC).

Hollerman, W. A.; Fisher, J. H.; Holland, L. R.; Jenkins, G. M.; Nisen, D. B.; Williams, E. K.; Foster, C. C.

1994-12-01

148

Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

Dr. Chenn Zhou

2012-08-15

149

Quantifying Momentum Transfer Due to Blast Waves from Oxy-Acetylene Driven Shock Tubes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Shock tubes have been widely used since the 1950s to study physical phenomena such as shock waves, combustion chemistry, and the response of materiel to blast loading. Recently, laboratory-scale shock tubes driven by oxy- acetylene were described. It was ...

A. Courtney H. Her M. Courtney

2012-01-01

150

Implementation of the exploding wire technique to study blast-wave-structure interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effort invested in improving our understanding of the physics of high-energy explosion events has been steadily increasing since the latter part of the twentieth century. Moreover, the dramatic increase in computer power over the last two decades has made the numerical simulation approach the dominant tool for investigating blast phenomena and their effects. However, field tests, on both large and small scales, are still in use. In the current paper, we present an experimental tool to better resolve and study the blast-structure interaction phenomenon and to help validate the numerical simulations of the same. The experimental tool uses an exploding wire technique to generate small-scale cylindrical and spherical blast waves. This approach permits safe operation, high repeatability, and the use of advanced diagnostic systems. The system was calibrated using an analytical model, an empirical model, and numerical simulation. To insure that spherical blast geometry was achieved, a set of free air blast experiments was done in which high-speed photography was used to monitor the blast structure. A scenario in which an explosion occurred in the vicinity of a structure demonstrated the system's capabilities. Using this simple but not trivial configuration showed unequivocally the effectiveness of this tool. From this comparison, it was found that at early times of blast-structure interaction, the agreement between the two sets of results was very good, but at later times incongruences appeared. Effort has been made to interpret this observation. Furthermore, by using similitude analysis, the results obtained from the small-scale experiments can be applied to the full-scale problem. We have shown that an exploding wire system offers an inexpensive, safe, easy to operate, and effective tool for studying phenomena related to blast-wave-structure interactions.

Ram, O.; Sadot, O.

2012-11-01

151

Mask materials for powder blasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powder blasting, or abrasive jet machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials such as glass, silicon and ceramics. The particle jet (which expands to about 1 cm in diameter) can be optimized for etching, while the mask defines the small and complex structures. The quality of the mask influences the performance of powder blasting. In this study we tested and compared several mask types and added a new one: electroplated copper. The latter combines a highly resistant mask material for powder blasting with the high-resolution capabilities of lithography, which makes it possible to obtain an accurate pattern transfer and small feature sizes (<50 µm).

Wensink, Henk; Jansen, Henri V.; Berenschot, J. W.; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

2000-06-01

152

Blasting, graphical interfaces and Unix  

SciTech Connect

A discrete element computer program, DMC (Distinct Motion Code) was developed to simulate blast-induced rock motion. To simplify the complex task of entering material and explosive design parameters as well as bench configuration, a full-featured graphical interface has been developed. DMC is currently executed on both Sun SPARCstation 2 and Sun SPARCstation 10 platforms and routinely used to model bench and crater blasting problems. This paper will document the design and development of the full-featured interface to DMC. The development of the interface will be tracked through the various stages, highlighting the adjustments made to allow the necessary parameters to be entered in terms and units that field blasters understand. The paper also discusses a novel way of entering non-integer numbers and the techniques necessary to display blasting parameters in an understandable visual manner. A video presentation will demonstrate the graphics interface and explains its use.

Knudsen, S. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-11-01

153

New Results from BLAST at MIT-Bates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BLAST experiment was designed to study in a systematic manner the spin-dependent electromagnetic interaction on few-body nuclei. Utilizing the polarized electron beam in the MIT-Bates South Hall Storage Ring, highly-polarized isotopically pure targets of hydrogen and deuterium, and the symmetric toroidal BLAST detector; precise measurements have been made which permit the extraction of the proton and neutron electric and magnetic form factors. The neutron electric form factor especially is now known to a precision comparable to that of the other nucleon form factors. In this talk, I will present these measurements, as well as their transform into spatial coordinates.

Crawford, Christopher

2008-04-01

154

Reduction of optically observed artillery blast wave trajectories using low dimensionality models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muzzle blast trajectories from firings of a 152 mm caliber gun howitzer were obtained with high-speed optical imagers and used to assess the fidelity with which low dimensionality models can be used for data reduction. Characteristic flow regions were defined for the blast waves. The near-field region was estimated to extend to 0.98 - 1.25 meters from the muzzle and the far-field region was estimated to begin at 2.61 - 3.31 meters. Blast wave geometries and radial trajectories were collected in the near through far-fields with visible imagers operating at 1,600 Hz. Beyond the near-field the blast waves exhibited a near-spherical geometry in which the major axis of the blast lay along the axis of the gun barrel and measured within 95% of the minor axis. Several blast wave propagation models were applied to the mid and far-field data to determine their ability to reduce the blast wave trajectories to fewer parameters while retaining the ability to distinguish amongst three munitions configurations. A total of 147 firings were observed and used to assess within-configuration variability relative to separation between configurations. Results show that all models perform well, and drag and point blast model parameters additionally provide insight into phenomenology of the blast.

Steward, Bryan J.; Gross, Kevin C.; Perram, Glen P.

2011-05-01

155

Blast furnace slags as sorbents of phosphate from water solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is focused on the sorption of phosphorus from aqueous solutions by crystalline and amorphous blast furnace slags. Slag sorption kinetics were measured, adsorption tests were carried out and the effect of acidification on the sorption properties of slags was studied. The kinetic measurements confirmed that the sorption of phosphorus on crystalline as well as amorphous slags can be

Bruno Kostura; Hana Kulveitová; Juraj Leško

2005-01-01

156

Surface Mining and the Natural Environment: Blasting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blasting is the process commonly used to fracture the rock strata overlying a mineral seam. It is an important component of many surface mining operations. The technical guide will discuss several aspects of blasting, including a description of the method...

M. L. Clar J. M. Ward

1980-01-01

157

Evaluation of Plastic Media Blasting Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report evaluates the design of plastic media blasting (PMB) equipment currently used in the military and private industry. Five PMB functional equipment groups were established: blasting, floor recovery, media recycling, ventilation, and dense partic...

E. Radonich M. Wells

1987-01-01

158

Low Cost Oxygen for Blast Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A low cost process is examined which provides oxygen enrichment of blast air for blast furnaces to increase steel production without increasing the steelmaking or final finishing facilities. The proposed process is designed to separate the oxygen from nit...

R. Jablin

1980-01-01

159

Brain Injury Risk from Primary Blast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives: Increased use of explosive devices in recent military conflicts have resulted in, blast overpressure is the primary cause of traumatic brain injury among combat veterans (Owens, 2008). Primary blast injury has been studied extensively in air-c...

C. R. Bass K. A. Rafaels M. B. Panzer R. S. Salzar W. A. Woods

2012-01-01

160

30 CFR Blasting - Surface and Underground  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Surface and Underground Blasting Electric Blasting Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...in the same work area shall be initiated from one source. Electric BlastingâSurface and...

2010-07-01

161

Blast Pendulum Testing of Milliken Tegris Panels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Milliken contracted Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct blast pendulum tests on various panels. The blast pendulum allows one to investigate a material's capability of mitigating sample deformation and bulk structural loading that result from '...

D. J. Grosch E. J. Sagebiel H. Eleazer

2008-01-01

162

A Review of Engineering Control Technology for Exposures Generated During Abrasive Blasting Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review presents information on measures for controlling worker exposure to toxic airborne contaminants generated during abrasive blasting operations occurring primarily in the construction industry. The exposures of concern include respirable crystalline silica, lead, chromates, and other toxic metals. Unfortunately, silica sand continues to be widely used in the United States as an abrasive blasting medium, resulting in high

Michael R. Flynn; Pam Susi

2004-01-01

163

The effect of particle feed rate on the plastic media blast jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paint removal from military aircraft is often done by plastic media blasting (PMB): the use of plastic grit in a conventional blast jet. However, there is some concern that PMB will cause damage. To help in evaluating this possibility, a time of flight'' meter is used to measure particle velocity in the jet, as a function of air pressure, distance

M. J. McIntosh

1992-01-01

164

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PROTECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING BLAST RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes methods for designing and implementing protective technologies for improving the blast resistance of buildings. A protection plan for buildings may include designing blast-resistant columns, walls, and windows; other elements of security may also play a major part, including physical security measures such as: anti-ram barriers and fencing to demarcate a protective perimeter; features such as lighting, CCTVs,

John E. Crawford; Shengrui Lan

165

Autonomous growth potential of leukemia blast cells is associated with poor prognosis in human acute leukemias  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have described a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model that permits the subcutaneous growth of primary human acute leukemia blast cells into a measurable subcutaneous nodule which may be followed by the development of disseminated disease. Utilizing the SCID mouse model, we examined the growth potential of leukemic blasts from 133 patients with acute leukemia, (67 acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Ying Yan; Eric A Wieman; Xiuqin Guan; Ann A Jakubowski; Peter G Steinherz; Richard J O'Reilly

2009-01-01

166

Explosive blasting method and means  

SciTech Connect

An explosive blasting method and apparatus are claimed for producing rock fragmentation and reducing the amplitude of seismic effects (ground vibration) in the vicinity of the blast. It utilizes an air gap method and apparatus for superheating the air surrounding the charge in a borehole. This raises the pressure therein coupled with the use of multiple detonation points along the borehole for the reduction of burn time. This reduces the quantity of explosives used along with a marked reduction of seismic shock, sound, and dust effects to the surrounding area.

Bowling, D.S.; Moore, R.N.

1983-05-10

167

Nucleon Form Factors from BLAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BLAST (Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid) experiment has been carried out at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center to study spin-dependent electron scattering from protons and deuterons with small systematic uncertainties. The experiment used a longitudinally polarized, intense electron beam stored in the Bates South Hall Ring in combination with isotopically pure, highly-polarized internal targets of polarized hydrogen and vector- and tensor-polarized deuterium from an atomic beam source. The BLAST data have been used to extract precise results for the elastic form factor ratios GE/GM of the proton and the neutron at low momentum transfer.

Kohl, Michael

2009-08-01

168

New Results from the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (blast)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment using the novel technique of scattering a longitudinally polarized electron beam from polarized internal hydrogen/deuterium gas targets was carried out in the South Hall Ring at the MIT-Bates Accelerator Center. The scattered particles were detected by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio, (GEp)/(G_M^p) at Q2 = 0.1 - 0.65 (GeV/c)2 has been determined from the experiment by measuring the spin-dependent ep elastic scattering asymmetry in the two symmetric sectors of the BLAST simultaneously for the first time. The neutron electric form factor GEn in the same Q2 range has been extracted by measuring the spin-dependent asymmetry from the ?c d(?c e,e'n) process with a vector polarized deuterium target. These results on the nucleon form factors from the BLAST experiment are presented.

Gao, Haiyan

169

Blast wave investigated using a high enthalpy blast simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study to examine the behavior of blast propagation is described. Its decay characteristics are analyzed to establish an empirical relationship for peak pressure distribution. A scaled length parameter is used in the development of a peak pressure prediction scheme. An assessment is also made to improve the data correlation using the axial Mach disc distance in scaling the

K. C. Phan; C. V. Hurdle

1990-01-01

170

Blast wave investigation using a high enthalpy blast simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study to examine the behavior of blast propagation is described. Its decay characteristics are analyzed to establish an empirical relationship for peak pressure distribution which employs scaled length parameter. An assessment is also made to improve the data correlation using the axial Mach disk distance in scaling the radial distance from the tube exit.

K. C. Phan; C. V. Hurdle

1990-01-01

171

System for supplying blasting media to a media blasting system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a pressure pot system for supplying blasting media under pressure to a pressurized blasting conduit for feeding blasting media to one or more blasting guns, the system including a media storage means and a first and second pressure chambers with means for pressurizing and exhausting the first and second chambers, the media storage means being stacked above the pressure chambers with the first pressure chamber stacked above the second pressure chamber; first and second media valve means for providing communication between the storage means and the first pressure chamber and between the pressure chambers, respectively; air valve means for controlling the air pressurizing and exhausting of the first and second pressure chambers, the improvement comprising: means for opening and closing the first and second media valve means and the air valve means, the first, second and air valve means being offset from each other in both vertical and horizontal dimensions; push rods extending vertically upward from the valve means and spaced one from the other for actuating the valve means to open and close the same; an overhead cam shaft means mounted above the push rods and having a plurality of spaced cams, each of the cams being aligned and operatively associated with one of the push rods for actuating the push rods and thereby the valve means to control the opening and closing of the first and second media valve means and the air valve means; and actuating means for actuating the cam shaft means.

Van Kuiken, L.L. Jr.

1988-10-25

172

An equivalent method for blasting vibration simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the complicated blasting load, the diversified medium models and various constitutive relations of the rock mass, and a huge job for simulating blasting of multiple holes, it is very difficult and costly to simulate the blasting vibration accurately in numerical computation. This paper presents an equivalent simulation method so as to transform this complex dynamic problem into an

Wenbo Lu; Jianhua Yang; Ming Chen; Chuangbing Zhou

2011-01-01

173

7 CFR 3201.78 - Blast media.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Blast media. 3201.78 Section 3201.78 Agriculture... Designated Items § 3201.78 Blast media. (a) Definition. Abrasive particles...preference for qualifying biobased blast media. By that date, Federal agencies...

2013-01-01

174

The pathology of primary blast overpressure injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary blast injury occurs in civilian and military detonations and from the firing of weapon systems. The pathology of primary blast injury has been reported for the last 70 years and has primarily been limited to descriptions of gross pathology and histology. Commonly accepted tenets have not been confirmed as blast overpressure experiments in enclosures and with multiple detonations have

Maria A. Mayorga

1997-01-01

175

Physical Mechanisms of Quarry Blast Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Models of quarry blasts may serve to develop efficient and robust methods for discriminating quarry blasts from other sources. In this report, we present progress on modeling quarry blasts at the Chemline quarry in central Texas and the Black Thunder mine...

T. G. Barker K. L. mcLaughlin J. Bonner

1997-01-01

176

29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...moored or anchored within 1,500 feet shall be notified before a blast is fired. (e) No blast shall be fired while any swimming or diving operations are in progress in the vicinity of the blasting area. If such operations are in progress, signals...

2013-07-01

177

Blast wave diagnostic for the petawatt laser system  

SciTech Connect

We report on a diagnostic to measure the trajectory of a blast wave propagating through a plastic target 400 {micro}m thick. This blast wave is generated by the irradiation of the front surface of the target with {approximately} 400 J of 1 {micro}m laser radiation in a 20 ps pulse focused to a {approximately} 50 {micro}m diameter spot, which produces an intensity in excess of 1O{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. These conditions approximate a point explosion and a blast wave is predicted to be generated with an initial pressure nearing 1 Gbar which decays as it travels approximately radially outward from the interaction region We have utilized streaked optical pyrometry of the blast front to determine its time of arrival at the rear surface of the target Applications of a self-similar Taylor-Sedov blast wave solution allows the amount of energy deposited to be estimated The experiment, LASNEX design simulations and initial results are discussed.

Budil, K. S., LLNL

1998-06-03

178

An Analytic Model of Close-Range Blast Fragment Loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of blast-fragmentation warheads need to be carefully characterized in a variety of applications like passive and active vehicle protection or hard target defeat and TBM defense. With these applications in mind, we have developed a collection of tools called FI-BLAST (Fast Interface for Blast-Fragment Load Analysis of Structures). In the present paper we describe the essential part of these tools, namely the close range blast-fragment model. The meaning of ``close range'' is here defined as the standoff to a charge at which blast effects can inflict serious damage on massive structures. In order to quantify our model's range of validity, examples of measured and calculated momentum of bare and confined charges are given in the present paper. Short (L/D = 0.5) and long (L/D = 5) cylindrical charges are included as well as spherical charges. The presented examples demonstrate that the model gives reasonable results in the intended domains of application.

Rottenkolber, Ernst; Arnold, Werner

2006-07-01

179

Blast Loading Experiments of Developed Surrogate Models for TBI Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to characterize the interaction of explosive blast waves through simulated anatomical systems. We have developed physical models and a systematic approach for testing traumatic brain injury (TBI) mechanisms and occurrences. A simplified series of models consisting of spherical PMMA shells followed by SLA prototyped skulls housing synthetic gelatins as brain simulants have been utilized. A series of experiments was conducted with the simple geometries to compare the sensitivity of the system response to mechanical properties of the simulants under high strain-rate explosive blasts. Small explosive charges were directed at the models to produce a realistic blast wave in a scaled laboratory setting. Blast profiles were measured and analyzed to compare system response severity. High-speed shadowgraph imaging captured blast wave interaction with the head model while particle tracking captured internal response for displacement and strain correlation. The results suggest amplification of shock waves inside the head due to impedance mismatches. Results from the strain correlations added to the theory of internal shearing between tissues.

Alley, Matthew; Son, Steven

2009-06-01

180

High resolution powder blast micromachining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder blasting, or Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials like glass, silicon and ceramics. By introducing electroplated copper as a new mask material, the feature size of this process was decreased. It

Henk Wensink; J. W. Berenschot; Henri V. Jansen; Miko C. Elwenspoek

2000-01-01

181

Blast waves in frozen soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of experimental studies of spherical blast waves in seasonally frozen soils with different physical and mechanical properties at different temperatures. A comparison with results in [i, 2] shows that the wave parameters depend strongly on the characteristics of the soil in the initial unfrozen state and on the temperature. When the temperature falls, the maximum stresses and

G. M. Lyakhov; G. B. Frash

1983-01-01

182

Gun Blast from Naval Guns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The available data on gun blasts from naval guns are complied utilizing computer curve fitting techniques. Curves of peak free-air pressure are presented for all naval guns, ranging in size from 20 mm to 16in./50. In addition, curves of arrival time, dura...

M. F. Walther

1972-01-01

183

Temporally resolved planar measurements of transient phenomena in a partially pre-mixed swirl flame in a gas turbine model combustor  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents observations and analysis of the time-dependent behavior of a 10 kW partially pre-mixed, swirl-stabilized methane-air flame exhibiting self-excited thermo-acoustic oscillations. This analysis is based on a series of measurements wherein particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of the OH radical were performed simultaneously at 5 kHz repetition rate over durations of 0.8 s. Chemiluminescence imaging of the OH{sup *} radical was performed separately, also at 5 kHz over 0.8 s acquisition runs. These measurements were of sufficient sampling frequency and duration to extract usable spatial and temporal frequency information on the medium to large-scale flow-field and heat-release characteristics of the flame. This analysis is used to more fully characterize the interaction between the self-excited thermo-acoustic oscillations and the dominant flow-field structure of this flame, a precessing vortex core (PVC) present in the inner recirculation zone. Interpretation of individual measurement sequences yielded insight into various physical phenomena and the underlying mechanisms driving flame dynamics. It is observed for this flame that location of the reaction zone tracks large-scale fluctuations in axial velocity and also conforms to the passage of large-scale vortical structures through the flow-field. Local extinction of the reaction zone in regions of persistently high principal compressive strain is observed. Such extinctions, however, are seen to be self healing and thus do not induce blowout. Indications of auto-ignition in regions of unburned gas near the exit are also observed. Probable auto-ignition events are frequently observed coincident with the centers of large-scale vortical structures, suggesting the phenomenon is linked to the enhanced mixing and longer residence times associated with fluid at the core of the PVC as it moves through the flame. (author)

Boxx, I.; Stoehr, M.; Meier, W. [Institut fuer Verbrennungstechnik, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft-und Raumfahrt (DLR), Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Carter, C. [Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)/PRAS, 1950 Fifth St, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

2010-08-15

184

Nucleon form factors and charge densities from the BLAST Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BLAST experiment was designed to study in a systematic manner the spin-dependent electromagnetic interaction. Utilizing the polarized electron beam in the MIT-Bates South Hall Storage Ring, highly-polarized isotopically pure targets of hydrogen and deuterium, and the symmetric general purpose BLAST detector; precise measurements have been made which permit the extraction of the proton and neutron charge and magnetic form factors. The neutron electric form factor especially is now known to a precision comparable to that of the other nucleon form factors. These results, together with previously existing data, will constrain theoretical models constructed to explain the detailed structure of nucleon form factors.

Crawford, Chris

2007-10-01

185

How to Measure Qualitative Understanding of DC-Circuit Phenomena - Taking a Closer Look at the External Representations of 9-Year-Olds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pupils' qualitative understanding of DC-circuit phenomena is reported to be weak. In numerous research reports lists of problems in understanding the functioning of simple DC-circuits have been presented. So-called mental model surveys have uncovered difficulties in different age groups, and in different phases of instruction. In this study, the concept of qualitative understanding, and the content or position of reported mental models of DC-circuit phenomena are discussed. On the grounds of this review, new tools for investigating qualitative understanding and analysing external representations of DC-circuit phenomena are presented. According to this approach, the external representations of DC-circuit phenomena that describe pupils' expressed conceptions of the topic should include both empirical-based models and theoretical explanations. In the empirical part of this study , third-graders (9-year-olds) learning DC-circuit phenomena in a comprehensive school in a small group were scrutinised. The focus of the study is the external representations manifested in the talk of the small group. The study challenges earlier studies, which claim that children exhibit a wide range of qualitative difficulties when learning DC-circuit phenomena. In this study it will be shown that even in the case of abstract subject matter like DC-circuit phenomena, small groups that highlight empirical-based modelling and activate talk can be a fruitful learning environment, where pupils' qualitative understanding really develops. Thus, the study proposes taking a closer look at pupils' external representations concerning DC-circuit phenomena.

Kallunki, Veera

2013-04-01

186

How to Measure Qualitative Understanding of DC-Circuit Phenomena - Taking a Closer Look at the External Representations of 9-Year-Olds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pupils' qualitative understanding of DC-circuit phenomena is reported to be weak. In numerous research reports lists of problems in understanding the functioning of simple DC-circuits have been presented. So-called mental model surveys have uncovered difficulties in different age groups, and in different phases of instruction. In this study, the concept of qualitative understanding, and the content or position of reported mental models of DC-circuit phenomena are discussed. On the grounds of this review, new tools for investigating qualitative understanding and analysing external representations of DC-circuit phenomena are presented. According to this approach, the external representations of DC-circuit phenomena that describe pupils' expressed conceptions of the topic should include both empirical-based models and theoretical explanations. In the empirical part of this study, third-graders (9-year-olds) learning DC-circuit phenomena in a comprehensive school in a small group were scrutinised. The focus of the study is the external representations manifested in the talk of the small group. The study challenges earlier studies, which claim that children exhibit a wide range of qualitative difficulties when learning DC-circuit phenomena. In this study it will be shown that even in the case of abstract subject matter like DC-circuit phenomena, small groups that highlight empirical-based modelling and activate talk can be a fruitful learning environment, where pupils' qualitative understanding really develops. Thus, the study proposes taking a closer look at pupils' external representations concerning DC-circuit phenomena.

Kallunki, Veera

2012-05-01

187

Biologic response to complex blast waves  

SciTech Connect

Small, bare charges were detonated inside an M59 armored personnel carrier (APC) in an attempt to simulate the complex blast waves generated by the jets from shaped-charge warheads penetrating into armored vehicles. Anesthetized sheep were placed inside the APC at 92- and 122-cm ranges from 57- or 113-g pentolite charges. Pressure-time was measured by pressure transducers either mounted on the animals or free standing at comparable ranges on the opposite side of the vehicle. In general, the waveforms were characterized by an initial shock wave of less than 1-msec duration followed by repeated reflections of decreasing magnitude. No deaths nor lung hemorrhages were observed, but all the animals sustained severe ear injury. Animals subjected to peak overpressures of 1.2 to 2.3 bar from the 113-g explosions also received slight non-auditory blast injuries to the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts; those exposed to peak overpressures of just under 1 bar from the 57-g charges did not. The non-auditory blast injuries inside the APC were more severe than those sustained by sheep at comparable distances from 113-g charges in the open. The results suggested that the biological consequences of a complex wave of the type encountered in this study can be equated approximately to a Friedlander wave with a peak overpressure equal to that of the complex wave and with a total impulse equal to the impulse over the first 2 to 3 msec of the complex wave. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Richmond, D.R.; Yelverton, J.T.; Fletcher, E.R.; Phillips, Y.Y.

1985-01-01

188

Model for blast furnace on-line simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blast furnace simulation model developed primarily for on-line application is presented. The model, which describes the steady-state operation of the furnace in one spatial dimension, is adapted to data from the real process by adjusting a set of parameters. A thermodynamic process interface provides the boundary conditions. The model, which is shown to act as an intelligent measurement device

H. Saxén; H. Uusi-Honko; A. Kilpinen

189

Systolic pressure variation in hemodynamic monitoring after severe blast injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluid management in patients following blast injury is a major challenge. Fluid overload can exacerbate pulmonary dysfunction, whereas suboptimal resuscitation may exacerbate tissue damage. In three patients, we compared three methods of assessing volume status: central venous (CVP) and pulmonary artery occlusion (PAOP) pressures, left ventricular end-diastolic area (LVEDA) as measured by transesophageal echocardiography, and systolic pressure variation (SPV) of

Yoram G Weiss; Arieh Oppenheim-Eden; Dan Gilon; Charles L Sprung; Michael Muggia-Sullam; Reuven Pizov

1999-01-01

190

Blast Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Swine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to develop a survival model of blast- induced traumatic brain injury (BI-TBI) in swine. Two air guns were constructed, each having different lengths, air chamber volumes and barrel diameters. Air velocity was measured with a b...

S. Panter

2011-01-01

191

Nucleon form factors and the BLAST experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the electric and magnetic form factors of the nucleon present a sensitive test of nucleon models and QCD-inspired theories. A precise knowledge of the neutron form factors at low Q2 is also essential to reduce the systematic errors of parity violation experiments. At the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, the nucleon form factors have been measured by means of scattering of polarized electrons from vector-polarized hydrogen and deuterium. The experiment used the longitudinally polarized stored electron beam of the MIT-Bates South Hall Ring along with an isotopically pure, highly vector-polarized internal atomic hydrogen and deuterium target provided by an atomic beam source. The measurements have been carried out with the symmetric Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) with enhanced neutron detection capability.

Alarcon, R.

2007-03-01

192

Nucleon form factors and the BLAST experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the charge and magnetic form factors of the nucleon present a sensitive test of nucleon models and QCD-inspired theories. A precise knowledge of the neutron form factors at low Q2 is also essential to reduce the systematic errors of parity-violation experiments. At the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, the nucleon form factors have been measured by means of scattering of polarized electrons from vector-polarized hydrogen and deuterium. The experiment used the longitudinally polarized stored electron beam of the MIT-Bates South Hall Ring along with an isotopically pure, highly vector-polarized internal atomic hydrogen and deuterium target provided by an atomic beam source. The measurements have been carried out with the symmetric Bates Large-Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) with enhanced neutron detection capability.

Alarcon, R.

2007-06-01

193

Cold blast furnace syndrome: a new source of toxic inhalation by nitrogen oxides  

PubMed Central

Methods: Fourteen workers developed acute respiratory symptoms shortly after exposure to "air blast" from blast furnace tuyeres. These included chest tightness, dyspnoea, rigors, and diaphoresis. Chest radiographs showed pulmonary infiltrates, and lung function a restrictive abnormality. This report includes a description of clinical features of the affected workers and elucidation of the probable cause of the outbreak. Results: Clinical features and occupational hygiene measurements suggested the most likely cause was inhalation of nitrogen oxides at high pressure and temperature. While the task could not be eliminated, engineering controls were implemented to control the hazard. No further cases have occurred. Conclusions: "Cold blast furnace syndrome" represents a previously undescribed hazard of blast furnace work, probably due to inhalation of nitrogen oxides. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute toxic inhalational injuries in blast furnace workers.

Tague, I; Llewellin, P; Burton, K; Buchan, R; Yates, D

2004-01-01

194

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

William S. McPhee

2001-08-31

195

Antioxidant treatment reduces blast-induced cochlear damage and hearing loss.  

PubMed

Exposure to blast overpressure has become one of the hazards of both military and civilian life in many parts of the world due to war and terrorist activity. Auditory damage is one of the primary sequela of blast trauma, affecting immediate situational awareness and causing permanent hearing loss. Protecting against blast exposure is limited by the inability to anticipate the timing of these exposures, particularly those caused by terrorists. Therefore a therapeutic regimen is desirable that is able to ameliorate auditory damage when administered after a blast exposure has occurred. The purpose of this study was to determine if administration of a combination of antioxidants 2,4-disulfonyl ?-phenyl tertiary butyl nitrone (HPN-07) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) beginning 1 h after blast exposure could reduce both temporary and permanent hearing loss. To this end, a blast simulator was developed and the operational conditions established for exposing rats to blast overpressures comparable to those encountered in an open-field blast of 14 pounds per square inch (psi). This blast model produced reproducible blast overpressures that resulted in physiological and physical damage to the auditory system that was proportional to the number and amplitude of the blasts. After exposure to 3 consecutive 14 psi blasts 100% of anesthetized rats had permanent hearing loss as determined at 21 days post exposure by auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) testing. Animals treated with HPN-07 and NAC after blast exposure showed a significant reduction in ABR threshold shifts and DPOAE level shifts at 2-16 kHz with significant reduction in inner hair cell (IHC) and outer hair cell (OHC) loss across the 5-36 kHz region of the cochlea compared with control animals. The time course of changes in the auditory system was documented at 3 h, 24 h, 7 day and 21 day after blast exposure. At 3 h after blast exposure the auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold shifts were elevated by 60 dB in both treated and control groups. A partial recovery of to 35 dB was observed at 24 h in the controls, indicative of a temporary threshold shift (TTS) and there was essentially no further recovery by 21 days representing a permanent threshold shift (PTS) of about 30 dB. Antioxidant treatment increased the amount of both TTS and PTS recovery relative to controls by 10 and 20 dB respectively. Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) reached a maximum level shift of 25-30 dB measured in both control and treated groups at 3 h after blast exposure. These levels did not change by day 21 in the control group but in the treatment group the level shifts began to decline at 24 h until by day 21 they were 10-20 dB below that of the controls. Loss of cochlear hair cells measured at 21 day after blast exposure was mostly in the outer hair cells (OHC) and broadly distributed across the basilar membrane, consistent with the distribution of loss of frequency responses as measured by ABR and DPOAE analysis and typical of blast-induced damage. OHC loss progressively increased after blast exposure reaching an average loss of 32% in the control group and 10% in the treated group at 21 days. These findings provide the first evidence that a combination of antioxidants, HPN-07 and NAC, can both enhance TTS recovery and prevent PTS by reducing damage to the mechanical and neural components of the auditory system when administered shortly after blast exposure. PMID:22326291

Ewert, Donald L; Lu, Jianzhong; Li, Wei; Du, Xiaoping; Floyd, Robert; Kopke, Richard

2012-02-06

196

Experimental and Computational Study of Water Blast Mitigation Associated with Different Water Configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An explosion yielding a shock wave is just one of the many threats the US faces. This threat can cause damage to equipment, structures, and cause significant risk to personnel. These threats define an immediate importance for understanding blast mitigation techniques via readily available mitigants. Specific blast mitigation techniques using water are being studied. Four fundamentally different water configurations are being considered. The fundamental mitigation mechanisms such as momentum transfer, large impedance differences, and evaporation are being explored. Laboratory testing using an explosively driven shock tube and a pressurized air shock tube are used for configurations including: solid water barriers, water sprays, water sheets, and individual droplets of water. Trends observed will be explained based on simulations coupled with known droplet breakup phenomena and analysis. We will report on experimental results and analysis, in addition to discussing the various blast mechanisms associated with each testing configuration.

Zakrajsek, Andrew; Miklaszewski, Eric; Son, Steven

2011-06-01

197

DECAMETER AND METER WAVELENGTH RADAR STUDIES OF ARTIFICIAL PLASMA CLOUDS IN THE LOWER IONOSPHERE. I. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF THE ATMOSPHERE DISCERNED FROM BLAST WAVE MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of cesium-seeded explosive bursts in the 90- to 110-km altitude region have been observed with meter and decameter wave radar. Detailed measurements of contact surface expansion, undulation, and stabilization have been used to acquire estimates of the altitude dependence of atmospheric pressure and density in the lower ionosphere. It has been found that events in the development of

John R. Davis; John C. Moore

1970-01-01

198

A miniature pressure sensor for blast event evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a great potential threat to people who deal with explosive devices. Protection from TBI has attracted more and more interest. Great efforts have been taken to the studies on the understanding of the propagation of the blast events and its effect on TBI. However, one of the biggest challenges is that the current available pressure sensors are not fast enough to capture the blast wave especially the transient period. This paper reports an ultrafast pressure sensor that could be very useful for analysis of the fast changing blast signal. The sensor is based on Fabry-Perot (FP) principle. It uses a 45º angle polished fiber sitting in a V-groove on a silicon chip. The endface of the angle polished fiber and the diaphragm which is lifted off on the side wall of the V-groove form the FP cavity. The sensor is very small and can be mounted on different locations of a helmet to measure blast pressure simultaneously. The tests were conducted at Natick Soldier Research, Development, and Engineering Center (NSRDEC) in Natick, MA. The sensors were mounted in a shock tube, side by side with the reference sensors, to measure a rapidly increased pressure. The results demonstrated that our sensors' responses agreed well with those from the electrical reference sensors and their response time is comparable.

Wu, Nan; Wang, Wenhui; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

2011-05-01

199

Alumina grit blasting parameters for surface preparation in the plasma spraying operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines how the grit blasting process influences the surface roughness of different sub-strates, the grit residue, and the grit erosion. The influence of grit blasting conditions on induced sub-strate residual stresses is also discussed. Aluminum alloy, cast iron, and hard steel were blasted with white alumina grits of 0.5,1, and 1.4 mm mean diameters. Grit blasting was performed using either a suction-type or a pressure-type machine equipped with straight nozzles made of B4C. The influence of the follow-ing parameters was studied: grit blasting distance (56 to 200 mm), blasting time (3 to 30 s), angle between nozzle and blasted surface (30°, 60°, 90°), and blasting pressure (0.2 to 0.7 MPa). The roughness of the substrate was characterized either by using a perthometer or by image analysis. The grit residue remain-ing at the blasted surface was evaluated after cleaning by image analysis. The residual stresses induced by grit blasting were determined by using the incremental hole drilling method and by measuring the de-flection of grit-blasted beams. Grit size was determined to be the most important influence on roughness. The average values of Ra and Rt and the percentage of grit residue increased with grit size as well as the depth of the plastic zone under the substrate. An increase of the pressure slightly increased the values of Äa and Rt but also promoted grit breakdown and grit residue. A blasting time of 3 to 6 s was sufficient to obtain the highest roughness and limit the grit breakdown. The residual stresses generated under the blasted surface were compressive, and the depth of the affected zone depended on the grit diameter, the blasting pressure, and the Young’s modulus of the substrate. More-over, the maximum residual stress was reached at the limit of the plastic zone (i.e., several tenths of a mil-limeter below the substrate surface).

Mellali, M.; Grimaud, A.; Leger, A. C.; Fauchais, P.; Lu, J.

1997-06-01

200

Primary and secondary skeletal blast trauma.  

PubMed

This study examines primary (resulting from blast wave) and secondary (resulting from disintegrated, penetrating fragments) blast trauma to the skeleton. Eleven pigs were exposed to semi-controlled blast events of varying explosive type, charge size, and distance, including some cases with shrapnel. Skeletal trauma was found to be extensive, presenting as complex, comminuted fractures with numerous small, displaced bone splinters and fragments. Traumatic amputation of the limbs and cranium was also observed. Fractures were concentrated in areas nearer the blast, but there was generally no identifiable point of impact. Fractures were more random in appearance and widespread than those typically associated with gunshot or blunt force injury events. These patterns appear to be uniquely associated with blast trauma and may therefore assist forensic anthropologists and other forensic examiners in the interpretation of skeletal trauma by enabling them to differentiate between blast trauma and trauma resulting from some other cause. PMID:21981586

Christensen, Angi M; Smith, Victoria A; Ramos, Vanessa; Shegogue, Candie; Whitworth, Mark

2011-10-07

201

How to Measure Qualitative Understanding of DC-Circuit Phenomena--Taking a Closer Look at the External Representations of 9-Year-Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pupils' qualitative understanding of DC-circuit phenomena is reported to be weak. In numerous research reports lists of problems in understanding the functioning of simple DC-circuits have been presented. So-called mental model surveys have uncovered difficulties in different age groups, and in different phases of instruction. In this study, the…

Kallunki, Veera

2013-01-01

202

How to Measure Qualitative Understanding of DC-Circuit Phenomena--Taking a Closer Look at the External Representations of 9-Year-Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pupils' qualitative understanding of DC-circuit phenomena is reported to be weak. In numerous research reports lists of problems in understanding the functioning of simple DC-circuits have been presented. So-called mental model surveys have uncovered difficulties in different age groups, and in different phases of instruction. In this study, the…

Kallunki, Veera

2013-01-01

203

Modeling Coal Seam Damage in Cast Blasting  

SciTech Connect

A discrete element computer program named DMC_BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece & Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions. DMC_BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Coal seam chilling refers to the shattering of a significant portion of the coal leaving unusable fines. It is also refereed to as coal damage. Chilling is caused during a blast by a combination of explosive shock energy and movement of the adjacent rock. Chilling can be minimized by leaving a buffer zone between the bottom of the blastholes and the coal seam or by changing the blast design to decrease the powder factor or by a combination of both. Blast design in coal mine cast blasting is usually a compromise between coal damage and rock fragmentation and movement (heave). In this paper the damage to coal seams from rock movement is examined using the discrete element computer code DMC_BLAST. A rock material strength option has been incorporated into DMC_BLAST by placing bonds/links between the spherical particles used to model the rock. These bonds tie the particles together but can be broken when the tensile, compressive or shear stress in the bond exceeds the defined strength. This capability has been applied to predict coal seam damage, particularly at the toe of a cast blast where drag forces exerted by movement of the overlying rock can adversely effect the top of the coal at the bench face. A simulation of coal mine cast blasting has been performed with special attention being paid to the strength of the coal and its behavior at t he bench face during movement of the overlying material.

Chung, S.H.; Preece, D.S.

1998-11-23

204

Full-Trajectory Diagnosis of Laser-Driven Radiative Blast Waves in Search of Thermal Plasma Instabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental investigations into the dynamics of cylindrical, laser-driven, high-Mach-number shocks are used to study the thermal cooling instability predicted to occur in astrophysical radiative blast waves. A streaked Schlieren technique measures the full blast-wave trajectory on a single-shot basis, which is key for observing shock velocity oscillations. Electron density profiles and deceleration parameters associated with radiative blast waves were recorded, enabling the calculation of important blast-wave parameters including the fraction of radiated energy, ?, as a function of time for comparison with radiation-hydrodynamics simulations.

Moore, A. S.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Lazarus, J.; Hohenberger, M.; Robinson, J. S.; Smith, R. A.; Plant, T. J. A.; Symes, D. R.; Dunne, M.

2008-02-01

205

Head injury and blast exposure: vestibular consequences.  

PubMed

Young adults are more likely to suffer blast injury and traumatic brain injury (TBI) than other age groups. This article reviews the literature on the vestibular consequences of blast exposure and TBI and concussion. In addition, the vestibular test findings obtained from 31 veterans with a history of blast exposure and/or mild TBI are presented. The authors discuss loss of horizontal semicircular canal function and postural instability related to head injury. Preliminary data suggest the novel theory that otolith organs are uniquely vulnerable to head injury and blast exposure. PMID:21474007

Akin, Faith W; Murnane, Owen D

2011-04-01

206

Wave and Fracture Phenomena in Impacted Ceramics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An optical measuring technique in combination with high speed photography is provided to solve the problem of this contract, the investigation of wave and fracture phenomena in opaque ceramic materials. Surface disturbances caused by these mechanical even...

S. Winkler

1988-01-01

207

Review of Anode Phenomena in Vacuum Arcs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reviews anode phenomena in vacuum arcs. It discusses arc modes at the anode, anode temperature measurements, anode ions, transitions of the arc into various modes (principally the anode spot mode), and theoretical explanations of anode phenomen...

H. C. Miller

1984-01-01

208

Health Hazard Assessment for Blast Overpressure Exposures Subtitle - Blast Overpressure Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advent of nuclear blast caused a renewed interest in blast research in the United States. Thus, was the beginning of the Blast Overpressure Program at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. From the early 1950's through 1997, research on the biomedical,...

B. S. Martinez J. H. Stuhmiller

1999-01-01

209

Effect of Grit-Blasting on the Surface Energy of Graphite\\/Epoxy Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact-angle measurements were used to determine the surface energies of graphite\\/epoxy composites before and after grit-blasting with 80- and 220-grit garnet particles. Two different composite systems cured at 350°F were considered but they behaved similarly. Contact angles made by a series of liquids, including water, ethylene glycol, glycerol, formamide, and methylene iodide on as-tooled and grit-blasted composite panels were measured

F. J. Boerio; B. Roby; R. G. Dillingham; R. H. Bossi; R. L. Crane

2006-01-01

210

Understanding the Physics of changing mass phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changing mass phenomena, like a falling chain or a bungee jumper, might give surprising results, even for experienced physicists. They have resulted in hot discussions in journals, in which for instance Physics professors claim the impossibility of an acceleration larger then g in case of a bungee jumper. These phenomena are also interesting as topics for challenging student projects, and used as such by Dutch high school students. I will take these phenomena as the context in which I like to demonstrate the possibilities of ICT in the learning process of physics. Especially dynamical modeling enables us to describe these phenomena in an elegant way and with knowledge of high school mathematics. Furthermore tools for video-analysis and data from measurements with sensors allow us to study the phenomena in experiments. This example demonstrates the level of implementation of ICT in Physics Education in The Netherlands [1].

Ellermeijer, A. L.

2008-05-01

211

Factors in Selecting and Applying Commercial Explosives and Blasting Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the report commercial blasting compounds are classified according to their nitroglycerin (or equivalent explosive oil) and ammonium nitrate content as dynamites, gelatins, blasting agents, military explosives, and blasting accessories. The ingredients ...

R. A. Dick

1968-01-01

212

Traumatic amputation by explosive blast: pattern of injury in survivors.  

PubMed

Explosive blast causes a pattern of injury including primary blast lung, secondary fragment injury and traumatic amputation of limbs. Major traumatic amputation is rare in survivors of bomb blast but common in those who die. The mechanism of such injury has not been previously determined, but must be established if protective measures are to be developed for members of the armed forces. The nature of 41 traumatic amputations in 29 servicemen who survived to reach medical care after blast injury was investigated to determine the anatomical level of amputation and the pattern of soft tissue damage. Joints were an infrequent site of amputation and the tibial tuberosity was a particularly frequent site of lower-limb severance. Comparison of the pattern of injury was made with that seen in ejecting fast-jet pilots, who frequently suffer major flailing injury; there appears to be a substantially different injury distribution. The accepted mechanism of traumatic amputation, avulsion by the dynamic overpressure, is challenged; it is suggested that the shockwave resulting from an explosion is capable of causing at least bone disruption in a limb. PMID:1486425

Hull, J B

1992-12-01

213

Implications of blast exposure for central auditory function: a review.  

PubMed

Auditory system functions, from peripheral sensitivity to central processing capacities, are all at risk from a blast event. Accurate encoding of auditory patterns in time, frequency, and space are required for a clear understanding of speech and accurate localization of sound sources in environments with background noise, multiple sound sources, and/or reverberation. Further work is needed to refine the battery of clinical tests sensitive to the sorts of central auditory dysfunction observed in individuals with blast exposure. Treatment options include low-gain hearing aids, remote-microphone technology, and auditory-training regimens, but clinical evidence does not yet exist for recommending one or more of these options. As this population ages, the natural aging process and other potential brain injuries (such as stroke and blunt trauma) may combine with blast-related brain changes to produce a population for which the current clinical diagnostic and treatment tools may prove inadequate. It is important to maintain an updated understanding of the scope of the issues present in this population and to continue to identify those solutions that can provide measurable improvements in the lives of Veterans who have been exposed to high-intensity blasts during the course of their military service. PMID:23341279

Gallun, Frederick J; Lewis, M Samantha; Folmer, Robert L; Diedesch, Anna C; Kubli, Lina R; McDermott, Daniel J; Walden, Therese C; Fausti, Stephen A; Lew, Henry L; Leek, Marjorie R

2012-01-01

214

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a suborbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between three arrays, observes simultaneously in broadband (30%) spectral windows at 250, 350, and 500 ?m. The optical design is based on a 2 m diameter telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 ?m. The gondola pointing system enables raster mapping of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of ~30" postflight pointing reconstruction to <~5" rms is achieved. The onboard telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a preselected set of maps, with the option of manual override. In this paper we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. BLAST performed a test flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100 hr flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in 2005 June; and a 250 hr, circumpolar flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, in 2006 December.

Pascale, E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Chung, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; MacTavish, C. J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Martin, T. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N.; Truch, M. D. P.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

2008-07-01

215

Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and microhardness testing respectively.

Bernier, Evan Thomas

216

Rodent model of direct cranial blast injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury resulting from an explosive blast is one of the most serious wounds suffered by warfighters, yet the effects of explosive blast overpressure directly impacting the head are poorly understood. We developed a rodent model of direct cranial blast injury (dcBI), in which a blast overpressure could be delivered exclusively to the head, precluding indirect brain injury via thoracic transmission of the blast wave. We constructed and validated a Cranium Only Blast Injury Apparatus (COBIA) to deliver blast overpressures generated by detonating .22 caliber cartridges of smokeless powder. Blast waveforms generated by COBIA replicated those recorded within armored vehicles penetrated by munitions. Lethal dcBI (LD(50) ? 515?kPa) was associated with: (1) apparent brainstem failure, characterized by immediate opisthotonus and apnea leading to cardiac arrest that could not be overcome by cardiopulmonary resuscitation; (2) widespread subarachnoid hemorrhages without cortical contusions or intracerebral or intraventricular hemorrhages; and (3) no pulmonary abnormalities. Sub-lethal dcBI was associated with: (1) apnea lasting up to 15?sec, with transient abnormalities in oxygen saturation; (2) very few delayed deaths; (3) subarachnoid hemorrhages, especially in the path of the blast wave; (4) abnormal immunolabeling for IgG, cleaved caspase-3, and ?-amyloid precursor protein (?-APP), and staining for Fluoro-Jade C, all in deep brain regions away from the subarachnoid hemorrhages, but in the path of the blast wave; and (5) abnormalities on the accelerating Rotarod that persisted for the 1 week period of observation. We conclude that exposure of the head alone to severe explosive blast predisposes to significant neurological dysfunction. PMID:21639724

Kuehn, Reed; Simard, Philippe F; Driscoll, Ian; Keledjian, Kaspar; Ivanova, Svetlana; Tosun, Cigdem; Williams, Alicia; Bochicchio, Grant; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

2011-08-08

217

BLAST autonomous daytime star cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed two redundant daytime star cameras to provide the fine pointing solution for the balloon-borne submillimeter telescope, BLAST. The cameras are capable of providing a reconstructed pointing solution with an absolute accuracy < 5". They are sensitive to stars down to magnitudes ~ 9 in daytime float conditions. Each camera combines a 1 megapixel CCD with a 200mm f/2 lens to image a 2° × 2.5° field of the sky. The instruments are autonomous. An internal computer controls the temperature, adjusts the focus, and determines a real-time pointing solution at 1 Hz. The mechanical details and flight performance of these instruments are presented.

Rex, Marie; Chapin, Edward; Devlin, Mark J.; Gundersen, Joshua; Klein, Jeff; Pascale, Enzo; Wiebe, Donald

2006-07-01

218

Refractories for lining blast furnaces  

SciTech Connect

The authors develop and introduce a technology for the production of chamotte kaolin refractories with a porosity of not more than 12% and a mass proportion of not less than 42% A1/sub 2/O/sub 3/ on the basis of chamotte from high-grade Polozhe kaolin, and also additions to the batch of finely milled mullite-corundum chamotte. Using the new technology, a batch of goods designated ShPD-42 was produced for lining the shafts, bosh, and upper parts of blast furnaces of large capacity.

Fedoruk, R.M.; Baksheeva, V.S.; Karyakina, E.L.; Khmelenko, T.P.; Pitak, N.V.

1986-01-01

219

27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or...Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or...donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium nitrate Blasting agent Minimum thickness...

2010-04-01

220

27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or...Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or...donor when barricaded (ft.) Ammonium nitrate Blasting agent Minimum thickness...

2009-04-01

221

Ion exchange phenomena  

SciTech Connect

Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

2011-05-01

222

Modeling of laser-generated radiative blast waves, with applications to late-term supernova remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of laser astrophysics is to provide a means by which aspects of specific astrophysical phenomena can be reproduced in the laboratory. Although the hydrodynamic instabilities of early supernova remnants have already been studied using this method, the role of significant radiative losses in shock propagation (for example, in late-term remnants) has only been imperfectly modeled. This thesis introduces an improved self-similar analytic approach to radiative blast-wave evolution where the total amount of energy loss remains constant in proportion to the energy flux entering the shock front. The approximation is solved for the cases in which both energy loss from the shock front and heating of the shock (due to the presence of ionization precursors) are significant. Because this solution is independent of the exact method of cooling, it is appropriate for both the laboratory and astrophysical regimes. In addition, this thesis applies the analytic approximation to laboratory- produced radiative blast waves as well as to numerical models of these experimental blast waves. These results will allow for better design of laser-based experiments with further applications to astrophysical phenomena, as well as for an increase in the understanding of the challenges involved in scaling radiative phenomena between laboratory experiments and astrophysical theory.

Keilty, Katherine Anne

2003-11-01

223

Flow phenomena in turbomachines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes work carried out at the Gas Turbine Laboratory at MIT during the period 10/20/89 - 10/19/92, as part of our multi-investigator effort on basic unsteady flow phenomena in turbomachines. Within the overall project four separate tasks are specified. These are, in brief: (1) The Influence of Inlet Temperature Nonuniformities on Turbine Heat Transfer and Dynamics; (2) Assessment of Unsteady Losses in Stator/ Rotor Interactions; (3) Unsteady Phenomena and Flowfield instabilities in Multistage Axial Compressors; (4) Vortex Wake-Compressor Blade Interaction in Cascades - A New Rapid Method for Unsteady Separation and Vorticity Flux Calculations.

Creitzer, E. M.; Epstein, A. H.; Giles, M. B.; McCune, J. E.; Tan, C. S.

1993-01-01

224

Imaging of snapping phenomena  

PubMed Central

Snapping phenomena result from the sudden impingement between anatomical and/or heterotopical structures with subsequent abrupt movement and noise. Snaps are variously perceived by patients, from mild discomfort to significant pain requiring surgical management. Identifying the precise cause of snaps may be challenging when no abnormality is encountered on routinely performed static examinations. In this regard, dynamic imaging techniques have been developed over time, with various degrees of success. This review encompasses the main features of each imaging technique and proposes an overview of the main snapping phenomena in the musculoskeletal system.

Guillin, R; Marchand, A J; Roux, A; Niederberger, E; Duvauferrier, R

2012-01-01

225

In vitro biological effects of titanium rough surface obtained by calcium phosphate grid blasting.  

PubMed

Surface roughness modulates the osseointegration of orthopaedic and dental titanium implants. High surface roughness are currently obtained by blasting of titanium implants with silica or aluminium oxide abrasive particles. This process may cause the release of cytotoxic silicium or aluminium ions in the peri-implant tissue. To generate a biocompatible roughened titanium surface, we currently develop an innovative grid-blasting process using biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) particles. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) discs were either polished, BCP grid-blasted or left as-machined. BCP grid-blasting created an average surface roughness of 1.57 +/- 0.07 microm compared to the original machined surface of 0.58 +/- 0.05 microm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated traces of calcium and phosphorus and relatively less aluminium on the BCP grid-blasted surface than on the initial titanium specimen. Scanning electronic microscopy observations and measurement of mitochondrial activity (MTS assay) showed that osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were viable in contact with the BCP grid-blasted titanium surface. In addition, our results indicate that MC3T3-E1 cells expressed ALP activity and conserved their responsiveness to bone morphogenetic protein BMP-2. The overall results clearly indicate that this calcium phosphate grid-blasting technique increases the roughness of titanium implants and provides a non-cytotoxic surface with regard to mouse osteoblasts. PMID:15207462

Citeau, Anthony; Guicheux, Jerome; Vinatier, Claire; Layrolle, Pierre; Nguyen, Thien P; Pilet, Paul; Daculsi, Guy

2005-01-01

226

Viscoelastic Materials Study for the Mitigation of Blast-Related Brain Injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent preliminary research into the causes of blast-related brain injury indicates that exposure to blast pressures, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficient to protect the warfighter from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. Commercially available viscoelastic materials, designed to dampen vibration caused by shock waves, might be useful as helmet liners to dampen blast waves. The objective of this research is to develop an experimental technique to test these commercially available materials when subject to blast waves and evaluate their blast mitigating behavior. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is being used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 1 to 500 psi) in a test fixture at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release nitrogen gas from the breech to impact instrumented targets. The targets consist of aluminum/ viscoelastic polymer/ aluminum materials. Blast attenuation is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis, Jr.

2011-06-01

227

Blast-related traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

A bomb blast may cause the full severity range of traumatic brain injury (TBI), from mild concussion to severe, penetrating injury. The pathophysiology of blast-related TBI is distinctive, with injury magnitude dependent on several factors, including blast energy and distance from the blast epicentre. The prevalence of blast-related mild TBI in modern war zones has varied widely, but detection is optimised by battlefield assessment of concussion and follow-up screening of all personnel with potential concussive events. There is substantial overlap between post-concussive syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder, and blast-related mild TBI seems to increase the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-concussive syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, and chronic pain are a clinical triad in this patient group. Persistent impairment after blast-related mild TBI might be largely attributable to psychological factors, although a causative link between repeated mild TBIs caused by blasts and chronic traumatic encephalopathy has not been established. The application of advanced neuroimaging and the identification of specific molecular biomarkers in serum for diagnosis and prognosis are rapidly advancing, and might help to further categorise these injuries. PMID:23884075

Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; McFarlane, Alexander C; Bragge, Peter; Armonda, Rocco A; Grimes, Jamie B; Ling, Geoffrey S

2013-07-22

228

Facilities Used for Plastic Media Blasting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The equipment used for plastic media blasting (PMB) is generally independent of the media and is similar to equipment used in traditional abrasive blasting. PMB equipment is usually modified to enable the close control of the media flow and the operation ...

T. Foster

1995-01-01

229

Paint removal using wheat starch blast media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of

Terry Foster; John Oestreich

1993-01-01

230

Simulation of blast waves with shock tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that quasi-one-dimensional computational techniques can be successfully used to model the flow in large, geometrically complicated shock tubes. Such shock tubes, or blast simulators, can be used to simulate nuclear or conventional explosions by shaping the pressure history. Results from computations show favorable agreement when compared with data taken in a blast simulator facility in Gramat, France.

Andrew Mark

1990-01-01

231

The biology of CML blast crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

of BCR\\/ABL with genes dysregulated dur- ing disease progression. Most genetic abnormalities of CML blast crisis have a direct or indirect effect on p53 or Rb (or both) gene activity, which are primarily required for cell proliferation and sur- vival, but not differentiation. Thus, the differentiation arrest of CML blast crisis cells is a secondary consequence of these abnormalities or

Bruno Calabretta; Danilo Perrotti

2004-01-01

232

Blast furnace coal injection in China  

SciTech Connect

The development of blast furnace coal injection in China will be summarized. The improvements in the technical process for pneumatic conveying, injection feed control, distribution and combustion of pulverized coal will be covered. Ideas are also described concerning the use of oxy-coal technology in a blast furnace.

Zhou, J.G. (Ministry of Metallurgical Industry, Beijing (China). Central Iron and Steel Research Inst.)

1994-09-01

233

The Biological Effects Of Repeated Blasts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of investigations on the biological effects of repeated blasts were reviewed. In the present study, sheep and swine were subjected to multiple blasts at a rate of one per minute in a high-explosive-driven shocktube. Three 1% lethal doses (LD1)...

D. R. Richmond E. R. Fletcher J. T. Yelverton

1981-01-01

234

Severe tyre blast injuries during servicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe destructive potential of the tyre explosions has received little attention in the medical literature. Fatal and severely deforming injuries have been reported. These blasts mainly affect the personnel servicing big vehicle tyres such as trucks and buses. We aimed to review the relevant literature on tyre blast injuries so as to define the mechanism of injury, outcome, and its

Ashraf F. Hefny; Hani O. Eid; Fikri M. Abu-Zidan

2009-01-01

235

Fragmentation Monitoring of Production Blasts at Mrica,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of the project was to collect field data regarding blasting, bench geometry and rock structures and to study the influence of these properties on the size distribution of the blasted rock. A conceptual model called SweFrag, for predicting the size...

S. Abrahamsson B. Niklasson F. Ouchterlony

1987-01-01

236

Blast-related fracture patterns: a forensic biomechanical approach  

PubMed Central

Improved protective measures and medical care has increased the survivability from battlefield injuries. In an attempt to reduce the debilitating consequences of blast injury, understanding and mitigating the effects of explosion on the extremities is key. In this study, forensic biomechanical analyses have been applied to determine mechanisms of injury after the traumatic event. The aims of this study were (i) to determine which effects of the explosion are responsible for combat casualty extremity bone injury in two distinct environments, namely open, free-field (open group), and in vehicle or in cover (enclosed group), and (ii) to determine whether patterns of combat casualty bone injury differed between environments. Medical records of casualties admitted to a military hospital in Afghanistan were reviewed over a six-month period. Explosive injuries have been sub-divided traditionally into primary, secondary and tertiary effects. All radiographs were independently reviewed by a military radiologist, a team of military orthopaedic surgeons and a team of academic biomechanists, in order to determine ‘zones of injury’ (ZoIs), and their related mechanisms. Sixty-two combat casualties with 115 ZoIs were identified. Thirty-four casualties in the open group sustained 56 ZoIs; 28 casualties in the enclosed group sustained 59 ZoIs. There was no statistical difference in mean ZoIs per casualty between groups (p = 0.54). There was a higher proportion of lower limb injuries in the enclosed group compared with the open group (p < 0.05). Of the casualties in the open group, 1 ZoI was owing to the primary effects of blast, 10 owing to a combination of primary and secondary blast effects, 23 owing to secondary blast effects and 24 owing to tertiary blast effects. In contrast, tertiary blast effects predominated in the enclosed group, accounting for 96 per cent of ZoIs. These data clearly demonstrate two distinct injury groups based upon the casualties' environment. The enclosed environment appears to attenuate the primary and secondary effects of the explosion. However, tertiary blast effects were the predominant mechanism of injury, with severe axial loading to the lower extremity being a characteristic of the fractures seen. The development of future mitigation strategies must focus on reducing all explosion-related injury mechanisms. Integral to this process is an urgent requirement to better understand the behaviour of bone in this unique environment.

Ramasamy, Arul; Hill, Adam M.; Masouros, Spyros; Gibb, Iain; Bull, Anthony M. J.; Clasper, Jon C.

2011-01-01

237

Dynamic fragmentation of blast mitigants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental evidence from a wide range of sources shows that the expanding cloud of explosively disseminated material comprises “particles” or fragments which have different dimensions from those associated with the original material. Powders and liquids have often been used to surround explosives to act as blast mitigants, and this is the main driver for our research. There are also many other areas of interest where an initially intact material surrounding an explosive charge is dynamically fragmented into a distribution of fragment sizes. Examples of such areas include fuel air explosives and enhanced blast explosives as well as quasi-static pressure mitigation systems, and our studies are thus also relevant to these applications. In this paper, we consider the processes occurring as an explosive interacts with a surrounding layer of liquid or powder and identify why it is important to model these processes as a multiphase material problem as opposed to a single phase, single material velocity problem. We shall present results from this class of numerical modelling. In this paper we shall explore what determines the particle or fragment size distribution resulting from explosive dissemination of a layer of material and discuss reasons why clouds from disseminated liquids and powders look similar. We shall support our analysis with results from recent explosives trials and introduce early results from some ongoing small scale explosive mitigation experiments.

Milne, A. M.; Parrish, C.; Worland, I.

2010-02-01

238

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a suborbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between three arrays, observes simultaneously in broadband (30%) spectral windows at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The optical design is based on a 2 m diameter telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 microns. The gondola pointing system enables raster mapping of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of 30"; postflight pointing reconstruction to <5" rms is achieved. The onboard telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a preselected set of maps, with the option of manual override. On this poster, we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. BLAST performed a test flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100 hour flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in 2005 June; and a 250 hour, circumpolar flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 2006 December. The BLAST collaboration acknowledges the support of NASA through grants NAG5-12785, NAG5-13301, and NNGO-6GI11G, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Ontario Innovation Trust, the Puerto Rico Space Grant Consortium, the Fondo Institucional para la Investigacion of the University of Puerto Rico, and the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs.

Truch, Matthew D. P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Chung, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; MacTavish, C. J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Martin, T. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N. E.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

2009-01-01

239

30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. 816.66 Section 816.66...Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting...the blasting schedule. (c) Access control. Access within the...

2013-07-01

240

Aspects of blast resistant masonry design  

SciTech Connect

Blast resistant design should be examined for building code incorporation, due to the potential of explosions occurring in an industrial society. Specifically, public and commercial structures of concrete masonry construction need additional building code criteria, since these buildings have high density populations to protect. Presently, blast resistant design is accomplished by using government published manuals, but these do not address industry standard construction. A design air blast load of 4.54 kg (10 lbs) of TNT, located 0.91 m (3 ft) above ground surface and 30.48 m (100 ft) from a structure should be considered standard criteria. This loading would be sufficient to protect against blast, resist progressive failure, and yet not be an economic impediment. Design details and adequate inspection must be observed to ensure blast resistant integrity. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Volkman, D.E.

1989-01-01

241

COLLECTIVE PHENOMENA IN ACCELERATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed the development of accelerators of ever-larger current, both peak and average, as well as a proliferation of storage rings of ever-greater luminosity. Consequently, there is considerable interest in and growing concern with, the phenomena which limit beam currents and beam densities, namely, the collective modes of behavior of relativistic particle beams. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated

Sessler; Andrew M

1972-01-01

242

Solar cosmic ray phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review attempts to present an integrated view of the several types of solar cosmic ray phenomena. The relevant large and small scale properties of the interplanetary medium are first surveyed, and their use in the development of a quantitative understanding of the cosmic ray propagation processes summarised. Solar cosmic ray events, in general, are classified into two phenomenological categories:

K. G. McCracken; U. R. Rao

1970-01-01

243

Wave Phenomena Simulations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains interactive wave motion simulations for students in introductory physics classes. The various simulations model phenomena such as wave superposition, reflection, and refraction, as well as the interference of waves, the Doppler effect, the superposition of sine waves, and the various intensities of spherical waves.

Taylor, Barney

2003-10-10

244

Mechanisms and pathophysiology of the low-level blast brain injury in animal models.  

PubMed

The symptoms of primary blast-induced mTBI, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression overlap. Evidence of an organic basis for these entities has been scarce and controversial. We present a review of animal studies demonstrating that low-level blast causes pathophysiological and functional changes in the brain. We monitor a time period from minutes to approximately 1 week after blast exposure from multiple modes (air, underwater, localized and whole body). The most salient findings observed were (1) the peak pressures (P(max)) in the brain, elicited from the blast from the firing of military weapons (P(max) 23-45 kPa), have a similar magnitude as that registered in air close to the head. Corresponding measurements during the detonation pulse from explosives under water show a P(max) in the brain, which is only 10% of that in water outside the head. (2) The rise time of the pressure curve is 10 times longer in the brain as compared with the blast in air outside the head during firing of military weapons. (3) The lower frequencies in the blast wave appear to be transmitted more readily to the brain than the higher frequencies. (4) When animals are exposed to low levels of blast, the blast wave appears mostly transmitted directly to the brain during air exposure, not via the thorax or abdomen. (5) Low levels of blast cause brain edema, as indicated by increased bioelectrical impedance, an increase in the intracranial pressure, small brain hemorrhages and impaired cognitive function. PMID:20580846

Säljö, Annette; Mayorga, Maria; Bolouri, Hayde; Svensson, Berndt; Hamberger, Anders

2010-05-24

245

Discrimination of earthquakes and quarry blasts in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, a large number of quarry blasts have been detonated in the eastern Black Sea region. When these blasts are recorded by seismic stations, they contaminate the regional earthquake catalog. It is necessary to discriminate quarry blast records from the earthquake catalogs in order to determine the real seismicity of the region. Earthquakes and quarry blasts can be separated through different methods. These methods should be applied concurrently in order to safely distinguish these events. In this study, we discriminated quarry blasts from earthquakes in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. We used 186 seismic events recorded by the Karadeniz Technical University and Bogaziçi University Kandilli Observatory Earthquake Research Institute stations which are Trabzon, Espiye, Pazar, Borçka, Ayd?ntepe, and Gümü?hane between years of 2002 and 2010. For the discrimination of quarry blasts from earthquakes, we used both, statistical methods (calculation of the maximum ratio of S to P waves (S/P), complexity ( C)) and spectral methods (spectrogram calculation). These methods included measuring the maximum amplitude S/P, C, spectral ratio, and time-frequency analysis. We especially relied on two-dimensional time-frequency analysis methods to discriminate quarry blasts from earthquakes in Turkey. As a result of this study, 68 % of the examined seismic events were determined to be quarry blasts and 32 % to be earthquakes. The earthquakes occurring on land are related to small faults and the blasts are concentrated in large quarries. Nearly 40 % of the earthquakes occurred in the Black Sea, most of them are related to the Black Sea thrust belt, where the largest earthquake was observed in the time period studied. The areas with the largest earthquake potential in the eastern Black Sea region are in the sea.

Y?lmaz, ?eyda; Bayrak, Yusuf; Ç?nar, Hakan

2013-04-01

246

Comparison of seismic and explosive energy in five smooth blasting test rounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seismic monitoring and analysis of five smooth blasting test rounds in hardrock (gneiss) is described. The ultimate goal of the test blasts was to avoid large seismic vibration levels. Vibrations were measured with a time resolution of 32,000 samples per second with three-component accelerometers at distances between 3 and 9m from the charges. Examination of the accelerograms resulted in

K.-G. Hinzen

1998-01-01

247

Small-Scale Shock Reactivity and Internal Blast Test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosives react from a strong shock, even in quantities too small for detonation. The potential for a new material to be an explosive can be evaluated from this shock reactivity. The recently developed small-scale shock reactivity test (SSRT) uses very high confinement to allow prompt reactions to occur in less than half-gram samples well below critical diameter. Early and late-time reactions are simultaneously measured from a single sample subjected to the output from an RP-80 detonator. Prompt reactions are quantified by a dent in a soft aluminum witness block, while later reactions, such as from fuel/air combustion, are measured by recording blast pressure. Internal blast quasi-static pressure is obtained by confining the sample apparatus within a three-liter chamber. Late-time reaction effects of plastics, and results from HMX, HMX/Aluminum, and a plastic-bonded explosive (PBX) are reported.

Granholm, R. H.; Sandusky, H. W.

2006-07-01

248

Arc extinction performance of SF6gas blast interrupter  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a model SF6gas blast interrupter, arc extinction performance was investigated. The measurements were carried out for di\\/dt values ranging from 13 ? 27 A\\/µs, for RRRV extending from 3.5? 13.0kV\\/µs and for a fixed pressure of 15kg\\/cm2. On the other hand, the voltage and current wave forms near current zero in the short line fault (SLF) test circuit were

H. Nishikawa; A. Kobayashi; T. Okazaki; S. Yamashita

1976-01-01

249

Study of blast event propagation in different media using a novel ultrafast miniature optical pressure sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI, also called intracranial injury) is a high potential threat to our soldiers. A helmet structural health monitoring system can be effectively used to study the effects of ballistic/blast events on the helmet and human skull to prevent soldiers from TBI. However, one of the biggest challenges lies in that the pressure sensor installed inside the helmet system must be fast enough to capture the blast wave during the transient period. In this paper, an ultrafast optical fiber sensor is presented to measure the blast signal. The sensor is based on a Fabry-Pérot (FP) interferometeric principle. An FP cavity is built between the endface of an etched optical fiber tip and the silica thin diaphragm attached on the end of a multimode optical fiber. The sensor is small enough to be installed in different locations of a helmet to measure blast pressure simultaneously. Several groups of tests regarding multi-layer blast events were conducted to evaluate the sensors' performance. The sensors were mounted in different segments of a shock tube side by side with the reference sensors, to measure a rapidly increasing pressure. The segments of the shock tube were filled with different media. The results demonstrated that our sensors' responses agreed well with those from the electrical reference sensors. In addition, the home-made shock tube could provide a good resource to study the propagation of blast event in different media.

Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Hongtao; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

2011-05-01

250

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model.  

PubMed

Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein-linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

Goldstein, Lee E; Fisher, Andrew M; Tagge, Chad A; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W; Goletiani, Cezar J; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A; Cantu, Robert C; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K; Wolozin, Benjamin L; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D; Budson, Andrew E; Kowall, Neil W; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F; Moss, William C; Cleveland, Robin O; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Stanton, Patric K; McKee, Ann C

2012-05-16

251

Acceleration of Ungapped Extension in Mercury BLAST  

PubMed Central

The amount of biosequence data being produced each year is growing exponentially. Extracting useful information from this massive amount of data efficiently is becoming an increasingly difficult task. There are many available software tools that molecular biologists use for comparing genomic data. This paper focuses on accelerating the most widely used such tool, BLAST. Mercury BLAST takes a streaming approach to the BLAST computation by off loading the performance-critical sections to specialized hardware. This hardware is then used in combination with the processor of the host system to deliver BLAST results in a fraction of the time of the general-purpose processor alone. This paper presents the design of the ungapped extension stage of Mercury BLAST. The architecture of the ungapped extension stage is described along with the context of this stage within the Mercury BLAST system. The design is compact and runs at 100 MHz on available FPGAs, making it an effective and powerful component for accelerating biosequence comparisons. The performance of this stage is 25× that of the standard software distribution, yielding close to 50× performance improvement on the complete BLAST application. The sensitivity is essentially equivalent to that of the standard distribution.

Buhler, Jeremy; Chamberlain, Roger D.

2007-01-01

252

LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report  

SciTech Connect

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

NONE

1997-07-31

253

Quarter-scale close-in blast-loading experiments in support of the planned contained firing facility  

SciTech Connect

In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is proposing to construct a 60-kg firing chamber to provide blast-effects containment for most of its open-air, high-explosive, firing operations. Even though the Laboratory`s operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the generated hazardous waste. One of the main design considerations is the extremely close-in (Z = 0.66 ft/lb{sup l/3}) blast loading on the reinforced concrete ff the chamber. Historically, floor damage due to close-in loading has been a common problem for other blast chambers within the US Department of Energy and Department of Defense (DOE/DoD). Blast-effects testing and computer analysis were conducted on a replica quarter-scale model of the preliminary floor design. Nineteen blast tests ranging from scaled distances of 1.14 ft/lb{sup l/3} (25%) to 0.57ft/lb{sup 1/3} (200%) were performed on the strain-gaged floor model. In response to predicted and measured failures at the 25% level, various state-of-the-art blast attenuation systems were quickly developed and tested. The most effective blast-attenuation system provided a significant improvement by reducing the measured floor stresses to acceptable levels while minimizing, by its reusability, the impact on the environment.

Pastrnak, J.W.; Baker, C.F.; Simmons, L.F.

1994-07-27

254

30 CFR 75.1320 - Multiple-shot blasting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Multiple-shot blasting. 75.1320 Section 75.1320...and Blasting § 75.1320 Multiple-shot blasting. (a) No more than 20 boreholes...blasting cut coalâ (i) The first shot or shots fired in a round shall be...

2009-07-01

255

30 CFR 75.1320 - Multiple-shot blasting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple-shot blasting. 75.1320 Section 75.1320...and Blasting § 75.1320 Multiple-shot blasting. (a) No more than 20 boreholes...blasting cut coalâ (i) The first shot or shots fired in a round shall be...

2010-07-01

256

Lunar transient phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar transient phenomena (LTP) sightings are classified into five categories: brightenings, darkenings, reddish colorations, bluish colorations, and obscurations. There is evidence that the remaining LTP's are of lunar origin. A substantial number of sightings are independently confirmed. They have been recorded on film and spectrograms, as well as with photoelectric photometers and polarization equipment. It suggested that the LTP's may be gentle outgassings of less-than-volcanic proportions.

Cameron, W. S.

1991-03-01

257

Blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Blast exposure has been the most common cause of TBI, occurring through multiple mechanisms. What is less clear is whether the primary blast wave causes brain damage through mechanisms that are distinct from those common in civilian TBI and whether multiple exposures to low-level blast can lead to long-term sequelae. Complicating TBI in soldiers is the high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder. At present, the relationship is unclear. Resolution of these issues will affect both treatment strategies and strategies for the protection of troops in the field. PMID:21093677

Elder, Gregory A; Mitsis, Effie M; Ahlers, Stephen T; Cristian, Adrian

2010-10-15

258

Partnering and the WCI blast furnace reline  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, WCI Steel entered into a partnership agreement to perform a blast furnace reline. The reline included a complete rebrick from the tuyere breast to the furnace top including the tapholes. Also included was the replacement of the Paul Wurth top equipment from the receiving hoppers through the gearbox and distribution chute, a skip incline replacement, and installation of tilting runners and a casthouse roof. The bustle pipe and hot blast main were repaired. One stove was also replaced. The reline was accomplished in 36 days, wind to wind, which allowed for 29 days of construction inside the blast furnace proper.

Musolf, D.W. [WCI Steel, Inc., Warren, OH (United States)

1997-11-01

259

CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies  

SciTech Connect

Initial tests with CO{sub 2} pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO{sub 2} blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report.

Archibald, K.E.

1997-01-01

260

Effect of the Blasting Angle on Blast Processing of a Cylindrical Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blast processing is a substrate processing technique during which spherical or granular materials are jetted against the substrate surface using compressed air. Blasting techniques is widely used for various mechanical parts as a surface reforming technique. When performing blast processing to a complicated-shaped substrate for the purpose of thermal spraying method, it is difficult to set blasting angle to a constant value and it is necessary to clarify the effect of state of substrate on blast processing. In present paper, the effect of blasting angle to removal processing effect and the modification state of substrate is investigated. Results from this investigation are summarized as follows: When blasting angle ? was 30º, the removal quantity ? showed the maximum. The removal quantity became large as cylindrical diameter D was larger. Removal quantity of particle diameter a =100 ?m is bigger than that of a =700 ?m. As a nozzle movement rate v increased, removal quantity ? became small. As blasting angle ? became small, removal quantity ? became large even though nozzle movement rate v was changed. As blasting pressure P increases, removal quantity ? became big.

Kubohori, Toshifumi; Binti Khalil, Nur Zalikha; Tojo, Yuichi; Takahashi, Shigetaka

261

Primary blast injuries--an updated concise review.  

PubMed

Blast injuries have been increasing in the civilian setting and clinicians need to understand the spectrum of injury and management strategies. Multisystem trauma associated with combined blunt and penetrating injuries is the rule. Explosions in closed spaces increase the likelihood of primary blast injury. Rupture of tympanic membranes is an inaccurate marker for severe primary blast injury. Blast lung injury manifests early and should be managed with lung-protective ventilation. Blast brain injury is more common than previously appreciated. PMID:22411082

Yeh, Daniel Dante; Schecter, William P

2012-05-01

262

Plastic Media Blasting Recycling Equipment Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) is a new technology introduced as a candidate to replace wet chemical paint stripping of airframes and component parts. This report documents the physical testing, observations, and laboratory analyses used to evaluate the eff...

1988-01-01

263

Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) waste treatment technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental and occupational hazard regulations have motivated consideration of several new developments in paint removal technology. Plastic Media Blasting (PMB)/paint wastes consist predominantly of degraded plastic media plus the stripped paint. They...

H. Jermyn R. P. Wichner

1991-01-01

264

BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

Unknown

1999-10-01

265

Materials Evaluations in an Experimental Blast Furnace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven evaluation tests with blast furnace iron-bearing burden materials are described. The effects of pellet strength, fines in the burden, decreasing slag volume, pellet size, eliminating stone with superfluxed sinter, and eliminating stone by prefluxing...

P. L. Woolf

1984-01-01

266

Blast Trauma: The Effects on Hearing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project will determine what effects impulse noise (blast trauma) has on hearing performance, the response patterns of auditory nerve fibers and the morphology of cochlea. Initially, audiograms and psychophysical tuning curves of the normal chinchilla...

R. P. Hamernik D. Henderson R. Salvi

1981-01-01

267

Improvement of Blasting Techniques in Opencast Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experience to date indicates that the most important factors affecting the degree of blasting required are the homogeneity of the hard rocks and their overall thickness, taken together with the amount of regional jointing, stratification fractures and ind...

1987-01-01

268

Fabrication of microstructures by powder blasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis deals with the use of powder blasting as a micromachining\\u000atechnique to create micro systems. Powder blasting is a technology in\\u000awhich small particles, accelerated by an air jet, are directed towards a\\u000abrittle target for mechanical material removal. It is especially useful for\\u000aglass machining due to the limitations of other glass micromachining\\u000atechniques.\\u000aParticle jets have

Hendrik Wensink

2002-01-01

269

Creating successful blast furnace refractory systems  

SciTech Connect

Successful lifetimes of the refractories utilized in the blast furnace are dependent on a variety of external factors such as operation, geometry, cooling capability, configuration and arrangement, as well as refractory properties. These external factors, as well as the properties required to withstand the main mechanisms of wear, combine to create the successful refractory system. These significant factors and properties are reviewed with the intention of providing guidelines required for successful refractory performance in the blast furnace.

Dzermejko, A.J. [UCAR Carbon Co., Inc., Columbia, TN (United States)

1995-07-01

270

Blast injuries: mechanics and wounding patterns.  

PubMed

Blast and fragment injuries are the most frequently encountered wounds in modern warfare. Explosive devices have become the preferred weapon of domestic and foreign terrorists because they are relatively inexpensive to manufacture and can cause substantial casualties. Although blast injuries have traditionally been associated with the battlefield, this type of trauma is being seen more commonly today among noncombatants due to increasing worldwide terrorism. PMID:20371000

Covey, Dana C; Born, Christopher T

2010-01-01

271

Rice Blast Genomics: K12 Outreach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outreach component of the Rice Blast Project provides online genomics activities for high-school students. A lab manual is also offered free of charge to teachers of high-school biology in North Carolina, Texas, Kentucky, Arizona, Virginia, and Indiana. The Rice Blast Project is a collaboration of scientists from North Carolina State University, Texas A&M University, University of Kentucky, University of Arizona, Purdue University, Ohio State University, and Virginia Bioinformatics Institute.

272

Diffuse and spatially variable white matter disruptions are associated with blast-related mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) due to explosive blast is common among military service members and often associated with long term psychological and cognitive disruptions. Little is known about the neurological effects of blast-related mTBI and whether they differ from those of civilian, non-blast mTBI. Given that brain damage from blasts may be diffuse and heterogeneous, we tested the hypothesis that blast mTBI is associated with subtle white matter disruptions in the brain that are spatially inconsistent across individuals. We used diffusion tensor imaging to examine white matter integrity, as quantified by fractional anisotropy (FA), in a group of American military service members with (n=25) or without (n=33) blast-related mTBI who had been deployed as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom. History of civilian non-blast mTBI was equally common across groups, which enabled testing of both blast and non-blast mTBI effects on measures sensitive to (1) concentrated, spatially consistent (average FA within a region of interest [ROI]), (2) concentrated, spatially variable (number of ROIs with low average FA), and (3) diffuse (number of voxels with low FA) disruptions of white matter integrity. Blast mTBI was associated with a diffuse, global pattern of lower white matter integrity, and this pattern was not affected by previous civilian mTBI. Neither type of mTBI had an effect on the measures sensitive to more concentrated and spatially consistent white matter disruptions. Additionally, individuals with more than one blast mTBI tended to have a larger number of low FA voxels than individuals with a single blast injury. These results indicate that blast mTBI is associated with disrupted integrity of several white matter tracts, and that these disruptions are diluted by averaging across the large number of voxels within an ROI. The reported pattern of effects supports the conclusion that the neurological effects of blast mTBI are diffuse, widespread, and spatially variable. PMID:22040736

Davenport, Nicholas D; Lim, Kelvin O; Armstrong, Michael T; Sponheim, Scott R

2011-10-20

273

Apparatus Based Experimental Study of Physics Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic measurement concepts of a new apparatus for the experimental study of physics phenomena based on laser modules and detectors are presented in this paper. Construction details of the proposed apparatus are also described. Measurement time base is 100 musec (depending on the microprocessor used) and in each cycle, data coming from eight photo-detectors are stored. When an experiment is

Theodore Pachidis; Kostas Tarchanidis; John. Lygouras

2006-01-01

274

Neuropathology of explosive blast traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

During the conflicts of the Global War on Terror, which are Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), there have been over a quarter of a million diagnosed cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The vast majority are due to explosive blast. Although explosive blast TBI (bTBI) shares many clinical features with closed head TBI (cTBI) and penetrating TBI (pTBI), it has unique features, such as early cerebral edema and prolonged cerebral vasospasm. Evolving work suggests that diffuse axonal injury (DAI) seen following explosive blast exposure is different than DAI from focal impact injury. These unique features support the notion that bTBI is a separate and distinct form of TBI. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge pertaining to bTBI. Areas of discussion are: the physics of explosive blast generation, blast wave interaction with the bony calvarium and brain tissue, gross tissue pathophysiology, regional brain injury, and cellular and molecular mechanisms of explosive blast neurotrauma. PMID:22836523

Magnuson, John; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S F

2012-10-01

275

Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System  

SciTech Connect

The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

Hart, M M

2009-07-27

276

Neuro-glial and systemic mechanisms of pathological responses in rat models of primary blast overpressure compared to "composite" blast.  

PubMed

A number of experimental models of blast brain injury have been implemented in rodents and larger animals. However, the variety of blast sources and the complexity of blast wave biophysics have made data on injury mechanisms and biomarkers difficult to analyze and compare. Recently, we showed the importance of rat position toward blast generated by an external shock tube. In this study, we further characterized blast producing moderate traumatic brain injury and defined "composite" blast and primary blast exposure set-ups. Schlieren optics visualized interaction between the head and a shock wave generated by external shock tube, revealing strong head acceleration upon positioning the rat on-axis with the shock tube (composite blast), but negligible skull movement upon peak overpressure exposure off-axis (primary blast). Brain injury signatures of a primary blast hitting the frontal head were assessed and compared to damage produced by composite blast. Low to negligible levels of neurodegeneration were found following primary blast compared to composite blast by silver staining. However, persistent gliosis in hippocampus and accumulation of GFAP/CNPase in circulation was detected after both primary and composite blast. Also, markers of vascular/endothelial inflammation integrin alpha/beta, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and L-selectin along with neurotrophic factor nerve growth factor-beta were increased in serum within 6?h post-blasts and persisted for 7?days thereafter. In contrast, systemic IL-1, IL-10, fractalkine, neuroendocrine peptide Orexin A, and VEGF receptor Neuropilin-2 (NRP-2) were raised predominantly after primary blast exposure. In conclusion, biomarkers of major pathological pathways were elevated at all blast set-ups. The most significant and persistent changes in neuro-glial markers were found after composite blast, while primary blast instigated prominent systemic cytokine/chemokine, Orexin A, and Neuropilin-2 release, particularly when primary blast impacted rats with unprotected body. PMID:22403567

Svetlov, Stanislav I; Prima, Victor; Glushakova, Olena; Svetlov, Artem; Kirk, Daniel R; Gutierrez, Hector; Serebruany, Victor L; Curley, Kenneth C; Wang, Kevin K W; Hayes, Ronald L

2012-02-09

277

Simplified simulation of the transient behavior of temperatures in the upper shaft of the blast furnace  

SciTech Connect

The blast furnace is the principal process in the world for production of iron for primary steelmaking. The furnace acts as a huge countercurrent heat exchange and chemical reactor with complicated heat and mass transfer phenomena and chemical reactions. The flows of burden and gas in the blast furnace shaft strongly affect the fuel economy of the process. An optimal gas flow distribution, which is obtained by controlling the burden distribution, leads to a high utilization degree of the reducing gas, smooth burden descent, and little wear of the furnace lining. Here, a one-dimensional dynamic model of the upper part of the blast furnace shaft is applied to study the evolution of gas and burden temperatures, mainly in order to shed light on the transient phenomena after charging dumps of burden. The effects of irregularities in the burden descent and charging are also studied briefly. The simulations demonstrate that the temperatures of the burden layers in the lower part of the simulated region assume a quasi-steady state, indicating that the changes in the top gas temperature experienced immediately after a dump of burden arise primarily because of heat transfer between the gas and the dump. These results support the idea that such temporary changes can be interpreted in terms of distribution of the dumps on the burden surface.

Saxen, H. [Aabo Akademi Univ. (Finland)

1998-06-01

278

The phenomena of inner experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a survey of phenomena that present themselves during moments of naturally occurring inner experience. In our previous studies using Descriptive Experience Sampling (DES) we have discovered five frequently occurring phenomena—inner speech, inner seeing, unsymbolized thinking, feelings, and sensory awareness. Here we quantify the relative frequency of these phenomena. We used DES to describe 10 randomly identified moments

Christopher L. Heavey; Russell T. Hurlburt

2008-01-01

279

Distribution of blood-brain barrier disruption in primary blast injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from explosive-related blast overpressure is a topic at the forefront of neurotrauma research. Compromise of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and other cerebral blood vessel dysfunction is commonly reported in both experimental and clinical studies on blast injury. This study used a rifle primer-driven shock tube to investigate cerebrovascular injury in rats exposed to low-impulse, pure primary blast at three levels of overpressure (145, 232, and 323 kPa) and with three survival times (acute, 24, and 48 h). BBB disruption was quantified immunohistochemically by measuring immunoglobulin G (IgG) extravasation with image analysis techniques. Pure primary blast generated small lesions scattered throughout the brain. The number and size of lesions increased with peak overpressure level, but no significant difference was seen between survival times. Despite laterally directed blast exposure, equal numbers of lesions were found in each hemisphere of the brain. These observations suggest that cerebrovascular injury due to primary blast is distinct from that associated with conventional TBI. PMID:23568152

Yeoh, Stewart; Bell, E David; Monson, Kenneth L

2013-04-09

280

Study of Perturbations on High Mach Number Blast Waves in Various Gasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed a series of experiments examining the properties of high Mach number blast waves. Experiments were conducted on the Z-Beamlet^1 laser at Sandia National Laboratories. We created blast waves in the laboratory by using 10 J- 1000 J laser pulses to illuminate millimeter scale solid targets immersed in gas. Our experiments studied the validity of theories forwarded by Vishniac and Ryu^2-4 to explain the dynamics of perturbations on astrophysical blast waves. These experiments consisted of an examination of the evolution of perturbations of known primary mode number induced on the surface of blast waves by means of regularly spaced wire arrays. The temporal evolution of the amplitude of the induced perturbations relative to the mean radius of the blast wave was fit to a power law in time. Measurements were taken for a number of different mode numbers and background gasses and the results show qualitative agreement with previously published theories for the hydrodynamics of thin shell blast wave. The results for perturbations on nitrogen gas have been recently published^5. .^1 P. K. Rambo, I. C. Smith, J. L. Porter, et al., Applied Optics 44, 2421 (2005). ^2 D. Ryu and E. T. Vishniac, Astrophysical Journal 313, 820 (1987). ^3 D. Ryu and E. T. Vishniac, Astrophysical Journal 368, 411 (1991). ^4 E. T. Vishniac, Astrophysical Journal 274, 152 (1983). ^5 A. D. Edens, T. Ditmire, J. F. Hansen, et al., Physical Review Letters 95 (2005).

Edens, A.; Adams, R.; Rambo, P.; Shores, J.; Smith, I.; Atherton, B.; Ditmire, T.

2006-10-01

281

Nonlinear propagation of high-frequency energy from blast waves as it pertains to bat hearing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Close exposure to blast noise from military weapons training can adversely affect the hearing of both humans and wildlife. One concern is the effect of high-frequency noise from Army weapons training on the hearing of endangered bats. Blast wave propagation measurements were conducted to investigate nonlinear effects on the development of blast waveforms as they propagate from the source. Measurements were made at ranges of 25, 50, and 100 m from the blast. Particular emphasis was placed on observation of rise time variation with distance. Resolving the fine shock structure of blast waves requires robust transducers with high-frequency capability beyond 100 kHz, hence the limitations of traditional microphones and the effect of microphone orientation were investigated. Measurements were made with a wide-bandwidth capacitor microphone for comparison with conventional 3.175-mm (?-in.) microphones with and without baffles. The 3.175-mm microphone oriented at 90° to the propagation direction did not have sufficient high-frequency response to capture the actual rise times at a range of 50 m. Microphone baffles eliminate diffraction artifacts on the rise portion of the measured waveform and therefore allow for a more accurate measurement of the blast rise time. The wide-band microphone has an extended high-frequency response and can resolve shorter rise times than conventional microphones. For a source of 0.57 kg (1.25 lb) of C-4 plastic explosive, it was observed that nonlinear effects steepened the waveform, thereby decreasing the shock rise time, from 25 to 50 m. At 100m, the rise times had increased slightly. For comparison to the measured blast waveforms, several models of nonlinear propagation are applied to the problem of finite-amplitude blast wave propagation. Shock front models, such as the Johnson and Hammerton model, and full-waveform marching algorithms, such as the Anderson model, are investigated and compared to experimental results. The models successfully predict blast wave rise times at medium distances in a homogeneous atmosphere, although rise time predictions are shorter than what was measured in an inhomogeneous atmosphere. Atmospheric turbulence, absent in the models, may be the primary cause of this difference in rise times at longer distances. Results from the measurements and models indicate that bats located within approximately 200 m of the detonation of 0.57kg of C-4 will be exposed to audible levels of high-frequency energy, but whether those levels could be damaging to bat hearing cannot be established at this time.

Loubeau, Alexandra

282

Reduction of sidewall inclination and blast lag of powder blasted channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powder blasting (abrasive jet machining) is a fast directional machining technique for brittle materials like silicon and glass. The cross-section of a powder blasted channel has a rounded V-shape. These inclined sidewalls are caused by the typical impact angle dependent removal rate for brittle materials. It has a negative influence on the channel depth and aspect ratio, and results in

Henk Wensink; Miko C. Elwenspoek

2002-01-01

283

Reducing the Structural Vulnerability of Food-Processing Plants to the Blast and Thermal Effects of Nuclear Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report studies the reduction of the structural vulnerability of representative food plants in the United States to the blast overpressures and thermal energy released by nuclear weapons. It develops hardening measures for strengthening points or areas...

R. I. Young R. H. Powley

1964-01-01

284

Blast traumatic brain injury in the rat using a blast overpressure model.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious health concern for civilians and military populations, and blast-induced TBI (bTBI) has become an increasing problem for military personnel over the past 10 years. To understand the biological and psychological effects of blast-induced injuries and to examine potential interventions that may help to prevent, attenuate, and treat effects of bTBI, it is valuable to conduct controlled animal experiments. This unit discusses available paradigms to model traumatic brain injury in animals, with an emphasis on the relevance of these various models to study blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). This paper describes the detailed methods of a blast overpressure (BOP) paradigm that has been used to conduct experiments with rats to model blast exposure. This particular paradigm models the pressure wave created by explosions, including improvised explosive devices (IEDs). PMID:23315947

Yarnell, Angela M; Shaughness, Michael C; Barry, Erin S; Ahlers, Stephen T; McCarron, Richard M; Grunberg, Neil E

2013-01-01

285

Recent Results from the BLAST Experiment (Nucleon Form Factors)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent precise polarization measurements have considerably improved constraints on nucleon electromagnetic form factors. The BLAST experiment, carried out at MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, was designed to study these quantities systematically using the intense polarized stored electron beam of the South Hall Ring, highly polarized internal gas jet targets, and a symmetric toroidal spectrometer. Simultaneous measurements of multiple reaction channels with different combinations of beam and target polarizations were carried out to extract the nucleon form factors with high precision at Q2< 1 GeV2/c2. Results for the nucleon form factors GEp, GMp, GEn, and GMn are presented and discussed.

Franklin, Wilbur A.

2007-06-01

286

[Study on quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag].  

PubMed

Quantificational analysis method for the non-crystalline and crystalline contents in blast furnace slag was studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The process of quantificational analysis method includes standard samples preparation, samples preparation, X-ray diffraction measurement and data treatment. The data treatment includes integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks in certain diffraction angle range, linear fitting and quantificational coefficient determination. The preparation methods of standard samples for X-ray diffraction of blast furnace slag were proposed, including 100% crystalline sample and 100% non-crystalline sample. The 100% crystalline sample can be obtained by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1 000-1 200 degrees C, and the 100% non-crystalline sample can be obtained by quenching the molten slag with enough water. The X-ray diffraction method of quantificational analysis of non-crystalline content in blast furnace slag was proposed with the 100% non-crystalline and 100% crystalline standard samples, and the quantificational coefficient can be obtained by linear regression on the integration areas of non-crystalline curve and crystalline peaks of X-ray diffraction in the 2-theta range 20 degrees-40 degrees. This method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 80%. The non-crystalline and crystalline contents of original blast furnace slag are obtained by combining the X-ray diffraction results and mathematical treatment, and this method is suitable for the blast furnace slag with the non-crystalline content over 90%, whose process includes preparing the 100% crystalline standard sample by heating blast furnace slag for 12 h at 1000-1200 degrees C, samples preparation with the 0.02 interval in the 0-0.1 mass ratio range of 100% crystalline to original slag, X-ray diffraction measurement of the samples prepared and data treatment using iterative linear regression. The quantificational analysis method for blast furnace slag can be applied to various kinds of blast furnace slag from different steel plants. PMID:18479048

Yan, Ding-Liu; Guo, Pei-Min; Qi, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Chun-Xia; Wang, Hai-Feng; Dai, Xiao-Tian

2008-02-01

287

Anomalous Light Phenomena vs. Bioelectric Brain Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a research proposal concerning the instrumented investigation of anomalous light phenomena that are apparently correlated with particular mind states, such as prayer, meditation or psi. Previous research by these authors demonstrate that such light phenomena can be monitored and measured quite efficiently in areas of the world where they are reported in a recurrent way. Instruments such as optical equipment for photography and spectroscopy, VLF spectrometers, magnetometers, radar and IR viewers were deployed and used massively in several areas of the world. Results allowed us to develop physical models concerning the structural and time-variable behaviour of light phenomena, and their kinematics. Recent insights and witnesses have suggested to us that a sort of "synchronous connection" seems to exist between plasma-like phenomena and particular mind states of experiencers who seem to trigger a light manifestation which is very similar to the one previously investigated. The main goal of these authors is now aimed at the search for a concrete "entanglement-like effect" between the experiencer's mind and the light phenomena, in such a way that both aspects are intended to be monitored and measured simultaneously using appropriate instrumentation. The goal of this research project is twofold: a) to verify quantitatively the existence of one very particular kind of mind-matter interaction and to study in real time its physical and biophysical manifestations; b) to repeat the same kind of experiment using the same test-subject in different locations and under various conditions of geomagnetic activity.

Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.

288

Alkahest NuclearBLAST : a user-friendly BLAST management and analysis system  

PubMed Central

Background - Sequencing of EST and BAC end datasets is no longer limited to large research groups. Drops in per-base pricing have made high throughput sequencing accessible to individual investigators. However, there are few options available which provide a free and user-friendly solution to the BLAST result storage and data mining needs of biologists. Results - Here we describe NuclearBLAST, a batch BLAST analysis, storage and management system designed for the biologist. It is a wrapper for NCBI BLAST which provides a user-friendly web interface which includes a request wizard and the ability to view and mine the results. All BLAST results are stored in a MySQL database which allows for more advanced data-mining through supplied command-line utilities or direct database access. NuclearBLAST can be installed on a single machine or clustered amongst a number of machines to improve analysis throughput. NuclearBLAST provides a platform which eases data-mining of multiple BLAST results. With the supplied scripts, the program can export data into a spreadsheet-friendly format, automatically assign Gene Ontology terms to sequences and provide bi-directional best hits between two datasets. Users with SQL experience can use the database to ask even more complex questions and extract any subset of data they require. Conclusion - This tool provides a user-friendly interface for requesting, viewing and mining of BLAST results which makes the management and data-mining of large sets of BLAST analyses tractable to biologists.

Diener, Stephen E; Houfek, Thomas D; Kalat, Sam E; Windham, DE; Burke, Mark; Opperman, Charles; Dean, Ralph A

2005-01-01

289

Transport phenomena in nanofluidics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport of fluid in and around nanometer-sized objects with at least one characteristic dimension below 100nm enables the occurrence of phenomena that are impossible at bigger length scales. This research field was only recently termed nanofluidics, but it has deep roots in science and technology. Nanofluidics has experienced considerable growth in recent years, as is confirmed by significant scientific and practical achievements. This review focuses on the physical properties and operational mechanisms of the most common structures, such as nanometer-sized openings and nanowires in solution on a chip. Since the surface-to-volume ratio increases with miniaturization, this ratio is high in nanochannels, resulting in surface-charge-governed transport, which allows ion separation and is described by a comprehensive electrokinetic theory. The charge selectivity is most pronounced if the Debye screening length is comparable to the smallest dimension of the nanochannel cross section, leading to a predominantly counterion containing nanometer-sized aperture. These unique properties contribute to the charge-based partitioning of biomolecules at the microchannel-nanochannel interface. Additionally, at this free-energy barrier, size-based partitioning can be achieved when biomolecules and nanoconstrictions have similar dimensions. Furthermore, nanopores and nanowires are rooted in interesting physical concepts, and since these structures demonstrate sensitive, label-free, and real-time electrical detection of biomolecules, the technologies hold great promise for the life sciences. The purpose of this review is to describe physical mechanisms on the nanometer scale where new phenomena occur, in order to exploit these unique properties and realize integrated sample preparation and analysis systems.

Schoch, Reto B.; Han, Jongyoon; Renaud, Philippe

2008-07-01

290

Critical phenomena in magnetic nanowires.  

PubMed

In this paper we report the first experimental study of critical phenomena in case of magnetic nanowires of nickel near the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition from the electrical transport properties. Nickel nanowire arrays, prepared by potentiostatic electrodeposition of nickel inside pores of nanoporous anodic alumina template were well characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy and Energy dispersive Spectroscopy. Precise electrical resistance measurement of the nanowire arrays of wire diameter 20 nm have been done in the temperature range between 300 K to 700 K. We see a drop in the Curie temperature as observed from the resistivity anomaly. We analyzed the resistance data near the critical region and extracted the critical exponent alpha directly from the resistance. We observed a decrease in the critical part of the resistivity including a decrease in the magnitude of the critical exponent alpha and severe modification in the correction to scaling. PMID:19928208

Kamalakar, M Venkata; Raychaudhuri, A K

2009-09-01

291

Blasting to the Substrate of Various Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blasting is a substrate processing technique during which spherical or granular materials made of metal or ceramics are jetted against the substrate surface using compressed air. The high speed colliding of blasting materials against the surface produces a peening effect. The purpose of blasting is to create a clean substrate surface. However, there are almost no investigations that consider the influence of the substrate temperature. The object of this investigation is to clarify the influence of substrate temperature on blasting. Results of this investigation are summarized as follows: in spite of the substrate material, the removal rate was the smallest at 260~270 K. Influence of substrate temperature on the removal rate of an Al substrate is larger than that of other substrates. Influence of substrate temperature on arc height is large when higher than the room temperature. Influence of substrate temperature on arc height of an Al substrate is larger than that of other substrates. As hardness HV value increases, arc height becomes large. Even if the substrate temperature changes, an Am substrate can be used as a standard substrate for the blasting process.

Kubohori, Toshifumi; Tojo, Yuichi; Inui, Yasuyuki

2010-10-01

292

Bayesian detection of acoustic muzzle blasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic detection of gunshots has many security and military applications. Most gunfire produces both an acoustic muzzle-blast signal as well as a high-frequency shockwave. However some guns do not propel bullets with the speed required to cause shockwaves, and the use of a silencer can significantly reduce the energy of muzzle blasts; thus, although most existing commercial and military gunshot detection systems are based on shockwave detection, reliable detection across a wide range of applications requires the development of techniques which incorporate both muzzle-blast and shockwave phenomenologies. The detection of muzzle blasts is often difficult due to the presence of non-stationary background signals. Previous approaches to muzzle blast detection have applied pattern recognition techniques without specifically considering the non-stationary nature of the background signals and thus these techniques may perform poorly under realistic operating conditions. This research focuses on time domain modeling of the non-stationary background using Bayesian auto-regressive models. Bayesian parameter estimation can provide a principled approach to non-stationary modeling while also eliminating the stability concerns associated with standard adaptive procedures. Our proposed approach is tested on a synthetic dataset derived from recordings of actual background signals and a database of isolated gunfire. Detection results are compared to a standard adaptive approach, the least-mean squares (LMS) algorithm, across several signal to background ratios in both indoor and outdoor conditions.

Morton, Kenneth D., Jr.; Collins, Leslie

2009-05-01

293

Fluid/Structure Interaction Computational Investigation of Blast-Wave Mitigation Efficacy of the Advanced Combat Helmet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To combat the problem of traumatic brain injury (TBI), a signature injury of the current military conflicts, there is an urgent need to design head protection systems with superior blast/ballistic impact mitigation capabilities. Toward that end, the blast impact mitigation performance of an advanced combat helmet (ACH) head protection system equipped with polyurea suspension pads and subjected to two different blast peak pressure loadings has been investigated computationally. A fairly detailed (Lagrangian) finite-element model of a helmet/skull/brain assembly is first constructed and placed into an Eulerian air domain through which a single planar blast wave propagates. A combined Eulerian/Lagrangian transient nonlinear dynamics computational fluid/solid interaction analysis is next conducted in order to assess the extent of reduction in intra-cranial shock-wave ingress (responsible for TBI). This was done by comparing temporal evolutions of intra-cranial normal and shear stresses for the cases of an unprotected head and the helmet-protected head and by correlating these quantities with the three most common types of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), i.e., axonal damage, contusion, and subdural hemorrhage. The results obtained show that the ACH provides some level of protection against all investigated types of mTBI and that the level of protection increases somewhat with an increase in blast peak pressure. In order to rationalize the aforementioned findings, a shockwave propagation/reflection analysis is carried out for the unprotected head and helmet-protected head cases. The analysis qualitatively corroborated the results pertaining to the blast-mitigation efficacy of an ACH, but also suggested that there are additional shockwave energy dissipation phenomena which play an important role in the mechanical response of the unprotected/protected head to blast impact.

Grujicic, M.; Bell, W. C.; Pandurangan, B.; Glomski, P. S.

2011-08-01

294

Characterization of blasted austenitic stainless steel and its corrosion resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the corrosion resistance of stainless steel is deteriorated by blasting, but the reason for this deterioration is not clear. A blasted austenitic stainless steel plate (JIS-SUS304) has been characterized with comparison to the scraped and non-blasted specimens. The surface roughness of the blasted specimen is larger than that of materials finished with #180 paper. A martensite phase is formed in the surface layer of both blasted and scraped specimens. Compressive residual stress is generated in the blasted specimen and the maximum residual stress is formed at 50 100 µm from the surface. The corrosion potentials of the blasted specimen and subsequently solution treated specimen are lower than that of the non-blasted specimen. The passivation current densities of the blasted specimens are higher those of the non-blasted specimen. The blasted specimen and the subsequently solution treated specimen exhibit rust in 5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution, while the non-blasted specimen and ground specimen do not rust in the solution. It is concluded that the deterioration of corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel through blasting is caused by the roughed morphology of the surface.

Otsubo, F.; Kishitake, K.; Akiyama, T.; Terasaki, T.

2003-12-01

295

30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. 817.66 Section 817.66...Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting...in § 817.64(a). (c) Access control. Access within the...

2013-07-01

296

Simple Phenomena, Slow Motion, Surprising Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a few simple experiments that are worthwhile for slow motion recording and analysis either because of interesting phenomena that can be seen only when slowed down significantly or because of the ability to do precise time measurements. The experiments described in this article are quite commonly done in Czech schools. All…

Koupil, Jan; Vicha, Vladimir

2011-01-01

297

Passive Localization Methods based on Distributed Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to methods for localizing individual sensor nodes connected in a network. The novelty of the proposed method is the model-based approach (i.e., rigorous exploitation of physical background knowledge) using local observations of a distributed phenomenon. By unobtrusively exploiting background phenomena, the individual sensor nodes can be localized by only locally measuring its surrounding without the necessity

Felix Sawo; Thomas C. Henderson; Christopher Sikorski; Uwe D. Hanebeck

298

Simple Phenomena, Slow Motion, Surprising Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a few simple experiments that are worthwhile for slow motion recording and analysis either because of interesting phenomena that can be seen only when slowed down significantly or because of the ability to do precise time measurements. The experiments described in this article are quite commonly done in Czech schools. All…

Koupil, Jan; Vicha, Vladimir

2011-01-01

299

Single Pass Streaming BLAST on FPGAs*†  

PubMed Central

Approximate string matching is fundamental to bioinformatics and has been the subject of numerous FPGA acceleration studies. We address issues with respect to FPGA implementations of both BLAST- and dynamic-programming- (DP) based methods. Our primary contribution is a new algorithm for emulating the seeding and extension phases of BLAST. This operates in a single pass through a database at streaming rate, and with no preprocessing other than loading the query string. Moreover, it emulates parameters turned to maximum possible sensitivity with no slowdown. While current DP-based methods also operate at streaming rate, generating results can be cumbersome. We address this with a new structure for data extraction. We present results from several implementations showing order of magnitude acceleration over serial reference code. A simple extension assures compatibility with NCBI BLAST.

Herbordt, Martin C.; Model, Josh; Sukhwani, Bharat; Gu, Yongfeng; VanCourt, Tom

2008-01-01

300

Femtosecond laser energy deposition in strongly absorbing cluster gases diagnosed by blast wave trajectory analysis  

SciTech Connect

An intense ultrafast laser pulse can be very strongly absorbed in a moderate density gas composed of van der Waals bonded clusters. In this paper, the deposition of the energy of intense 30 fs light pulses in a gas of deuterium clusters has been diagnosed using a technique based on analysis of the trajectories of the resulting cylindrically symmetric blast waves. Using the well-known relation between blast wave velocity and energy deposition in gas, the laser energy deposited per unit length as a function of distance in gas jet plume was measured. These measurements were conducted in jets containing either deuterium clusters or simple deuterium molecules.

Zweiback, J.; Ditmire, T.

2001-10-01

301

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

302

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPENHEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST WITH OPEN-HEARTH TO LEFT WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 AND CAST HOUSE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

303

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSEUP, IRON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 CLOSE-UP, IRON NOTCH IN CENTER. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

304

30 CFR 57.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...device, all persons shall leave the blast area except persons in a blasting shelter or other location that protects them from concussion (shock wave), flying material, and gases. (f) Before firing a blastâ (1) Ample warning shall be given to...

2009-07-01

305

30 CFR 56.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...device, all persons shall leave the blast area except persons in a blasting shelter or other location that protects them from concussion (shock wave), flying material, and gases. (f) Before firing a blastâ (1) Ample warning shall be given to...

2009-07-01

306

Underwater Blast Injury - a Review of the Literature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Underwater blast injury is reviewed for the period 1916 to the present date (1970). The physics of the blast, the mechanism of injury, the pathology, and clinical considerations are discussed. A discussion and criticism is presented of the various formula...

N. M. Wolf

1970-01-01

307

Enhancements and Analysis of CTH Software for Underbody Blast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accurate tools and procedures for simulating the blast effects of shallow buried explosive devices are critical to the Department of Defense's efforts to design blast-resistant vehicles that can increase crew survivability and counter the threat from impr...

C. Moore R. Thyagarajan R. Weed

2013-01-01

308

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 AREA BELOW BUSTLE PIPE, CINDER NOTCH IN CENTER, SLAG RUNNER IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

309

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 LOOKING EAST, SLAG RUNNERS & GATES IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

310

30 CFR 57.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...device, all persons shall leave the blast area except persons in a blasting shelter or other location that protects them from concussion (shock wave), flying material, and gases. (f) Before firing a blastâ (1) Ample warning shall be given to...

2013-07-01

311

30 CFR 56.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...device, all persons shall leave the blast area except persons in a blasting shelter or other location that protects them from concussion (shock wave), flying material, and gases. (f) Before firing a blastâ (1) Ample warning shall be given to...

2013-07-01

312

30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits...and shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from...

2013-07-01

313

Blast-furnace performance with coal-dust injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the blast-furnace shop at OAO Alchevskii Met- allurgicheskii Kombinat (AMK), the injection of coal- dust fuel is promising. Preliminary steps toward its introduction are underway, including analytical research. In this context, we calculate blast-furnace per- formance when using coal-dust fuel in the present work. As in any combined blast, the consumption of coal- dust fuel in unit blast and

G. G. Vasyura

2007-01-01

314

New results from BLAST on the nucleon electromagnetic form factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a new experiment was carried out in the South Hall Ring at the MIT-Bates Accelerator Laboratory. This experiment utilized a polarized electron beam, a pure hydrogen (deuterium) internal polarized gas target, and the symmetric Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio, GEpGMp at Q2= 0.15 - 0.65 (GeV/c)2 has been determined from the experiment by measuring the spin-dependent ep elastic scattering asymmetry in both sectors simultaneously. This is the first experiment to measure GEpGMp using a polarized proton target, which is complementary to recoil polarimetry experiments. The neutron magnetic form factor GMn has been extracted from the measurement of the spin-dependent asymmetry from the inclusive dvec (evec ,e) process in a similar Q2 with a vector polarized deuterium target, and the neutron electric form factor GEn has been extracted by measuring the spin-dependent asymmetry from the coincidence dvec (evec ,e'n) process simultaneously. Preliminary results on the nucleon form factors from the BLAST experiment are presented.

Gao, Haiyan

2006-11-01

315

Precursory phenomena observed in the total electron content measurements before great Hokkaido earthquake of September 25, 2003 ( M = 8.3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the analysis of the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) variations obtained with using GPS measurements\\u000a before the Hokkaido earthquake (M = 8.3) is presented. Anomalous behavior of TEC was detected within several days before the\\u000a main event. Anomaly appeared as the local TEC enhancement situated in the vicinity of the forthcoming earthquake epicenter.\\u000a These structures occurred during

I. E. Zakharenkova; I. I. Shagimuratov; A. Krankowski; A. F. Lagovsky

2007-01-01

316

Temporally resolved planar measurements of transient phenomena in a partially pre-mixed swirl flame in a gas turbine model combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents observations and analysis of the time-dependent behavior of a 10kW partially pre-mixed, swirl-stabilized methane–air flame exhibiting self-excited thermo-acoustic oscillations. This analysis is based on a series of measurements wherein particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of the OH radical were performed simultaneously at 5kHz repetition rate over durations of 0.8s. Chemiluminescence imaging of the

I. Boxx; M. Stöhr; C. Carter; W. Meier

2010-01-01

317

Temporally resolved planar measurements of transient phenomena in a partially pre-mixed swirl flame in a gas turbine model combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents observations and analysis of the time-dependent behavior of a 10 kW partially pre-mixed, swirl-stabilized methane-air flame exhibiting self-excited thermo-acoustic oscillations. This analysis is based on a series of measurements wherein particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of the OH radical were performed simultaneously at 5 kHz repetition rate over durations of 0.8 s. Chemiluminescence

I. Boxx; M. Stoehr; W. Meier; C. Carter

2010-01-01

318

Application of Infrared-Attenuated Total Reflection Technique Combined with Sedimentation Phenomena to Particle Size Measurement: Fundamental Experiments on Applicability of the Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method using infrared attenuated total reflection (IR-ATR) spectroscopy and sedimentation of particles in a suspension was proposed for particle size measurement. The time dependence of the IR-ATR signal intensity for mono-size dispersed particles agreed qualitatively with the theoretical expectation. Content analyses of samples containing dispersed particles of two sizes gave values close to actual ones. The possibility of size distribution analysis was shown.

Sarno, B. J.; Yoshidome, T.; Ikuta, Y.; Rabor, J. B.; Tsurumura, Y.; Montecillo, M. E.; Higo, M.

2013-09-01

319

Lidar and radar measurements of the melting layer in the frame of the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study: observations of dark and bright band phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS), lidar dark and bright bands were observed by the University of BASILicata Raman lidar system (BASIL) during several intensive (IOPs) and special (SOPs) observation periods (among others, 23 July, 15 August, and 17 August 2007). Lidar data were supported by measurements from the University of Hamburg cloud radar MIRA 36 (36 GHz), the University of Hamburg dual-polarization micro rain radars (24.1 GHz) and the University of Manchester UHF wind profiler (1.29 GHz). Results from BASIL and the radars for 23 July 2007 are illustrated and discussed to support the comprehension of the microphysical and scattering processes responsible for the appearance of the lidar and radar dark and bright bands. Simulations of the lidar dark and bright band based on the application of concentric/eccentric sphere Lorentz-Mie codes and a melting layer model are also provided. Lidar and radar measurements and model results are also compared with measurements from a disdrometer on ground and a two-dimensional cloud (2DC) probe on-board the ATR42 SAFIRE.

di Girolamo, P.; Summa, D.; Bhawar, R.; di Iorio, T.; Norton, E. G.; Peters, G.; Dufournet, Y.

2011-11-01

320

Thermal effects in blasting and erosion of polymeric materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of solid particle blasting has been investigated as a means for the removal of coatings from polymeric substrates for reuse and recycling. Experimentally, it has been observed that during particle blasting, substantial temperature rises are observed in the polymer substrates, even when the blast media is solid carbon dioxide at less than ?78.5°C. Such temperature rises are not

P. H. Shipway; D. P. Weston

2009-01-01

321

Plastic Media Blasting - An alternative for coating removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) is a revolutionary method for the rapid and safe removal of primer, paint and even powder and other chemically resistant coatings from a vast range of products without the use of toxic chemicals or pneumatic blasting with hard abrasives. Although resembling sand-blasting, PMB does not use the hard abrasives or high pressures of that process. Instead,

Kenneth E. Abbott

1989-01-01

322

Layered sacrificial claddings under blast loading Part I — analytical studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the behaviour of layered sacrificial claddings subjected to blast loading.The cladding layers are constructed out of thin mild steel sheets. The blast load was modelled as an equivalent triangular blast pulse. Both experimental and numerical analyses have been carried out. The analytical work is presented in this paper. Finite element analysis with step by step

S. Guruprasad; Abhijit Mukherjee

2000-01-01

323

Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast

MANUEL G

2001-01-01

324

Spectrum of abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Abdominal organ injury in a primary blast type is always challenging for diagnosis. Air containing abdominal viscera is most vulnerable to effects of primary blast injury. In any patient exposed to a primary blast wave who presents with an acute abdomen, an abdominal organ injury is to be kept in a clinical suspicion. AIM: Study various abdominal organ injuries

Imtiaz Wani; Fazal Q Parray; Tariq Sheikh; Rauf A Wani; Abid Amin; Imran Gul; Mir Nazir

2009-01-01

325

Electrohydraulic rock blasting for mining in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional rock blasting promotes many negative environmental impacts including ground vibration, flying rock, air blast, and the emission of noise, dust and gases. An unconventional alternative process is the application of electrohydraulic principles. Electrohydraulic blasting is able to create a state of fracturing and rupture in the rock, almost instantly. A high current impulse generator produces the energy, without the

Carlos Magno Muniz e Silva; Edson Guedes da Costa; Wildor Theodoro Hennies

2001-01-01

326

Abrasive Blasting Agents: Designing Studies to Evaluate Relative Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica used in abrasive blasting are at increased risk of developing a debilitating and often fatal fibrotic lung disease called silicosis. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that silica sand be prohibited as abrasive blasting material and that less hazardous materials be used in blasting operations. However, data are needed on

Ann Hubbs; Mark Greskevitch; Eileen Kuempel; Fernando Suarez; Mark Toraason

2005-01-01

327

Reevaluation of refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The category ‘refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEBt)’ consists of two sub-sets; one group is categorized based on the percentage of blasts in the marrow (?20%) and other is based on the percentage of blasts in the peripheral blood (?5%). We separated RAEBt patients based on these two criteria and compared hematologic and clinical relevance to assess the

Kazuma Ohyashiki; Jiroh Nishimaki; Nahoko Shoji; Keisuke Miyazawa; Yukihiko Kimura; Junko H Ohyashiki

2001-01-01

328

Hypervelocity impact phenomena  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to determine the equations of state of materials in regimes of extreme high pressures, temperatures and strain rates that are not attainable on current two-stage light-gas guns. Understanding high-pressure material behavior is crucial to address the physical processes associated with a variety of hypervelocity impact events related to space sciences-orbital-debris impact, debris-shield designs, high-speed plasma propagation, and impact lethality applications. At very high impact velocities material properties will be dominated by phase-changes, such as melting or vaporization, which cannot be achieved at lower impact velocities. Development of well-controlled and repeatable hypervelocity launch capabilities is the first step necessary to improve our understanding of material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not currently available using conventional two-stage light-gas gun techniques. In this paper, techniques that have been used to extend both the launch capabilities of a two-stage light gas gun to 16 km/s, and their use to determine the material properties at pressures and temperature states higher than those ever obtained in the laboratory are summarized. The newly developed hypervelocity launcher (HVL) can launch intact (macroscopic dimensions) plates to 16 km/s. Time-resolved interferometric techniques have been used to determine shock-loading/release characteristics of materials impacted by such fliers as well as shock-induced vaporization phenomena in fully vaporized states. High-speed photography or radiography has been used to evaluate the debris propagation characteristics resulting from disc impact of thin bumper sheets at hypervelocities in excess of 10 km/s using the HVL. Examples of these experiments are provided in this paper.

Chhabildas, L.C.

1995-07-01

329

A direction-sensitive underwater blast detector and its application for managing blast fishing.  

PubMed

Little is known about the spatial and temporal distribution of blast fishing which hampers enforcement against this activity. We have demonstrated that a triangular array of hydrophones 1 m apart is capable of detecting blast events whilst effectively rejecting other sources of underwater noise such as snapping shrimp and nearby boat propellers. A total of 13 blasts were recorded in Sepangor bay, North of Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia from 7th to 15th July 2002 at distances estimated to be up to 20 km, with a directional uncertainty of 0.2 degrees . With such precision, a network of similar hydrophone arrays has potential to locate individual blast events by triangulation to within 30 m at a range of 10 km. PMID:15556182

Woodman, George H; Wilson, Simon C; Li, Vincent Y F; Renneberg, Reinhard

2004-12-01

330

Simulation of a nuclear blast wave with a gaseous detonation tube. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

There is an ongoing interest in simulating nonideal blast environments for nuclear effects research. In particular, one would like to be able to impose peaked blast waves on real ground surfaces and experimentally measure the ensuing dusty airblast environment. Proposed here is a gaseous detonation tube blast simulator. A disposable (or reusable) shock tube would be constructed on a in-situ ground surface of interest. The tube would be sealed and filled with a detonatable gas mixture. When a planar detonation wave is initiated at one end of the tube, it induces a peaked blast wave which expands self-similarly with time--the longer the detonation run distance, the longer the blast wave duration. Similarity analysis of such a wave (which consists of a constant-velocity Chapman-Jouguet detonation followed by an adiabatic rarefaction wave expressed in terms of a Riemann characteristic) results in a closed-form analytic solution for the flow field time history. It is shown that the static and dynamic pressure waveforms associated with this detonation give a high fidelity simulation of a nuclear surface burst.

Kuhl, A.L.

1983-03-01

331

Swift GRBs and the blast wave model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex structure of the light curves of Swift GRBs has made their interpretation and that of the blast wave caused by the burst, more difficult than in the pre-Swift era. We aim to constrain the blast wave parameters: electron energy distribution, p, density profile of the circumburst medium, k, and the continued energy injection index, q. We do so by comparing the observed multi-wavelength light curves and X-ray spectra of a Swift sample to the predictions of the blast wave model. We can successfully interpret all of the bursts in our sample of 10, except two, within the framework of the blast wave model, and we can estimate with confidence the electron energy distribution index for 6 of the sample. Furthermore we identify jet breaks in half of the bursts. A statistical analysis of the distribution of p reveals that, even in the most conservative case of least scatter, the values are not consistent with a single, universal value. The values of k suggest that the circumburst density profiles are not drawn from only one of the constant density or wind-like media populations.

Curran, P. A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Starling, R. L. C.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

2009-05-01

332

Use of Waste Oil in Blast Furnaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project dealt with investigating the conditions under which waste oil could be used instead of heavy fuel oil to fire blast furnaces so as to permit cost savings. When using waste oil, the pumps in the feed line that were used to build up the supply p...

K. Goebel

1983-01-01

333

PMB (Plastic Media Blasting): An Implementation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is aimed at determining how to cause a plastic media blasting facility in the Ardmore Industrial Airpark. It outlines a detailed asset plan that includes an architectural model for multi-use large aircraft maintenance hangars. The market analys...

1988-01-01

334

Plastic Media Blasting Data Gathering Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) is proving to be a cost effective method of paint removal with many benefits. Economic savings may reach 50 percent of chemical stripping costs, while hazardous waste volumes can be reduced by up to 90 percent. This task gathe...

1986-01-01

335

Thermal Treatment of Plastic Media Blasting Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plastic media blasting (PMB) is a process employed by the Air Force and others to strip protective coatings from aircraft and other equipment. The waste is made up of about 90% plastic medium and 10% paint residue, when garnet is not used. The plastic med...

U. Gat M. D. Kass D. B. Lloyd

1995-01-01

336

Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) waste treatment technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental and occupational hazard regulations have motivated consideration of several new developments in paint removal technology. Plastic Media Blasting (PMB)\\/paint wastes consist predominantly of degraded plastic media plus the stripped paint. They are, in general, placed in the category of being characteristically hazardous'' according to the definition in the RCRA Act because of the excess leachability of toxic metals. The

H. Jermyn; R. P. Wichner

1991-01-01

337

BLAST: Building energy simulation in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of energy use in buildings under local weather conditions were studied and evaluated using the energy simulation program BLAST-3.0. The parameters used in the energy simulation for the study and evaluation include the architectural features, different internal building heat load settings and weather data. In this study, mathematical equations and the associated coefficients useful to the industry were

Sai-Keung Fong

1999-01-01

338

Design of blast simulators for nuclear testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quasi-dimensional computational technique is used to model the flow of a large, complicated shock tube. The shock tube, or Large Blast Simulator, is used to simulate conventional or nuclear explosions by shaping the pressure history. Results from computations show favorable agreement when compared with data taken in the facility at Gramat, France. Such future shock tubes will include a

A. Mark; K. O. Opalka; C. W. Jr. Kitchens

1981-01-01

339

Rice blast evaluation of newly introduced germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic resistance to the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia grisea oryzae) was identified in newly introduced rice germplasm through quarantine when tested in artificially inoculated greenhouse and field nursery tests during the 2007 growing season. Of 229 accessions, 31 we...

340

MODELING BLAST-RELATED BRAIN INJURY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent military conicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have highlighted the wartime eect of traumatic brain in- jury (TBI). While it is not clear why TBI has been so prominent in these particular conicts, one reason may be that improvements in body armor have led to in- creased survivability of blasts. Closed traumatic brain injury covers a spectrum of central nervous

M. Nyein; A. J erusalem; R. Radovitzky; D. Moore; L. Noels

341

People Interview: Solar physics blasts into space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTERVIEW Solar physics blasts into space Lucie Green's physics and astrophysics degree has taken her to the Crimea to study binary stars and to the Mullard Space Science Laboratory. David Smith talks to her about her career as a solar physicist and her involvement in outreach activities.

2010-09-01

342

Expanding Blast Furnace Slag Without Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansion of blast furnace slag causes emissions of hydrogen sulfide, creating an air pollution problem common throughout the steel industry. This paper describes a new process, called pelletizing which eliminates the air pollution problem while at the same time producing a superior slag product.

Richard Jablin

1972-01-01

343

The Stability of Plane Blast Waves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The stability of a plane blast wave to surface perturbations is examined. It is found possible by making a 'thin' sheet approximation to the geometry, to obtain a set of ordinary differential equations which describe the sheet motion. These equations are ...

R. Gerwin R. B. Hall

1968-01-01

344

Dangers of Toxic Fumes from Blasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the potential hazards posed by the toxic fumes produced by detonating explosives in surface m ining and construction operations. Blasting operations produce both toxic and nontoxic gaseous products; the toxic being mainly carbon monoxide (CO) and the oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The quantity of toxic gases produced by an explosive is affected by formulation, confinement, age of

Richard J. Mainiero; Marcia L. Harris

345

Comment on "chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model".  

PubMed

In their recent paper, Goldstein et al. show murine brain tau neuropathology after explosive blast with head rotation but do not present additional evidence that would delineate whether this neuropathology was principally caused by blast exposure alone or by blast exposure plus head rotational injury. PMID:23100624

Tsao, Jack W

2012-10-24

346

The Foulness multiton air blast simulator. Part 3: Blast wave formation and methods used to drive the simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which blast waves are generated by a helical charge of detonating fuse in a 4.9 m diameter nuclear air blast simulator were studied in order to achieve control over the waveform produced. The problem of producing low pressure blast waves with long duration was overcome by immersing the charge in an aqueous foam in the firing chamber.

P. M. Clare

1980-01-01

347

Effects of geometry on blast-induced loadings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations of blasts in an urban environment were performed using Loci/BLAST, a full-featured fluid dynamics simulation code, and analyzed. A two-structure urban environment blast case was used to perform a mesh refinement study. Results show that mesh spacing on and around the structure must be 12.5 cm or less to resolve fluid dynamic features sufficiently to yield accurate results. The effects of confinement were illustrated by analyzing a blast initiated from the same location with and without the presence of a neighboring structure. Analysis of extreme pressures and impulses on structures showed that confinement can increase blast loading by more than 200 percent.

Moore, Christopher Dyer

348

Histologic and biomechanical evaluation of 2 resorbable-blasting media implant surfaces at early implantation times.  

PubMed

This study evaluated 3 implant surfaces in a dog model: (1) resorbable-blasting media + acid-etched (RBMa), alumina-blasting + acid-etching (AB/AE), and AB/AE + RBMa (hybrid). All of the surfaces were minimally rough, and Ca and P were present for the RBMa and hybrid surfaces. Following 2 weeks in vivo, no significant differences were observed for torque, bone-to-implant contact, and bone-area fraction occupied measurements. Newly formed woven bone was observed in proximity with all surfaces. PMID:23964778

Marin, Charles; Bonfante, Estevam A; Jeong, Ryan; Granato, Rodrigo; Giro, Gabriela; Suzuki, Marcelo; Heitz, Claiton; Coelho, Paulo G

2013-08-01

349

Oxygen transfer phenomena in 48-well microtiter plates: determination by optical monitoring of sulfite oxidation and verification by real-time measurement during microbial growth.  

PubMed

Oxygen limitation is one of the most frequent problems associated with the application of shaking bioreactors. The gas-liquid oxygen transfer properties of shaken 48-well microtiter plates (MTPs) were analyzed at different filling volumes, shaking diameters, and shaking frequencies. On the one hand, an optical method based on sulfite oxidation was used as a chemical model system to determine the maximum oxygen transfer capacity (OTR(max)). On the other hand, the Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was applied for online measurement of the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) during growth of the methylotropic yeast Hansenula polymorpha. A proportionality constant between the OTR(max) of the biological system and the OTR(max) of the chemical system were indicated from these data, offering the possibility to transform the whole set of chemical data to biologically relevant conditions. The results exposed "out of phase" shaking conditions at a shaking diameter of 1 mm, which were confirmed by theoretical consideration with the phase number (Ph). At larger shaking diameters (2-50 mm) the oxygen transfer rate in MTPs shaken at high frequencies reached values of up to 0.28 mol/L/h, corresponding to a volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) of 1,600 1/h. The specific mass transfer area (a) increases exponentially with the shaking frequency up to values of 2,400 1/m. On the contrary, the mass transfer coefficient (k(L)) is constant at a level of about 0.15 m/h over a wide range of shaking frequencies and shaking diameters. However, at high shaking frequencies, when the complete liquid volume forms a thin film on the cylindric wall of the well, the mass transfer coefficient (k(L)) increases linearly to values of up to 0.76 m/h. Essentially, the present investigation demonstrates that the 48-well plate outperforms the 96-well MTP and shake flasks at widely used operating conditions with respect to oxygen supply. The 48-well plates emerge, therefore, as an excellent alternative for microbial cultivation and expression studies combining the advantages of both the high-throughput 96-well MTP and the classical shaken Erlenmeyer flask. PMID:15696519

Kensy, Frank; Zimmermann, Hartmut F; Knabben, Ingo; Anderlei, Tibor; Trauthwein, Harald; Dingerdissen, Uwe; Büchs, Jochen

2005-03-20

350

LTC American`s, Inc. vacuum blasting machine: Baseline report  

SciTech Connect

The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise.

NONE

1997-07-31

351

A computational model of blast loading on the human eye.  

PubMed

Ocular injuries from blast have increased in recent wars, but the injury mechanism associated with the primary blast wave is unknown. We employ a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction computational model to understand the stresses and deformations incurred by the globe due to blast overpressure. Our numerical results demonstrate that the blast wave reflections off the facial features around the eye increase the pressure loading on and around the eye. The blast wave produces asymmetric loading on the eye, which causes globe distortion. The deformation response of the globe under blast loading was evaluated, and regions of high stresses and strains inside the globe were identified. Our numerical results show that the blast loading results in globe distortion and large deviatoric stresses in the sclera. These large deviatoric stresses may be indicator for the risk of interfacial failure between the tissues of the sclera and the orbit. PMID:23591604

Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Ziegler, Kimberly; Seo, Jung Hee; Ramesh, K T; Nguyen, Thao D

2013-04-17

352

Otologic blast injuries due to the Kenya embassy bombing.  

PubMed

Otologic injuries are frequently associated with large blasts. On August 7, 1998, a large truck bomb exploded next to the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. Initial patient findings and care are reviewed. Five months later, an otologic screening and care mission was then sent to comprehensively screen all remaining blast victims on site in Nairobi and to determine degree of persistent injury. Surgical care appropriate for an outpatient environment was provided. Five of 14 tympanic membranes without intervention failed to heal, while 3 of 3 with previous intervention had. Blast injury severity did not correlate to distance from blast epicenter. This may be due to channeling of the blast through the embassy building and an unpredictable pattern of blast overpressure within the building. It is recommended that comprehensive otologic screening be performed after blast events to identify occult injuries and improve outcomes. Early intervention for tympanic membrane perforation (suctioning, eversion of perforations, and paper patch) is recommended. PMID:15605933

Helling, Eric Robert

2004-11-01

353

The design, implementation, and evaluation of mpiBLAST  

SciTech Connect

mpiBLAST is an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speed-up by segmenting a BLAST database and then having each node in a computational cluster search a unique portion of the database. Database segmentation permits each node to search a smaller portion of the database, eliminating disk I/O and vastly improving BLAST performance. Because database segmentation does not create heavy communication demands, BLAST users can take advantage of low-cost and efficient Linux cluster architectures such as the bladed Beowulf. In addition to presenting the software architecture of mpiBLAST we present a detailed performance analysis of mpiBLAST to demonstrate its scalability.

Darling, A. E. (Aaron E.); Carey, L. (Lucas); Feng, W. C. (Wu-Chun)

2003-01-01

354

Novel model to investigate blast injury in the central nervous system.  

PubMed

Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a common injury modality associated with the current war efforts and increasing levels of terrorist activity. Exposure to the primary blast wave generated by explosive devices causes significant neurological deficits and is responsible for many of the war-related pathologies. Despite research efforts, the mechanism of injury is still poorly understood. To this end, we have established a novel ex vivo model for the direct observation and quantification of BINT at the tissue level. The model provides a quantifiable and reproducible method to illustrate the mechanism of BINT. Isolated sections of guinea pig spinal cord white matter were exposed to a supersonic shockwave using a blast generator with small-scaled explosives. The blast wave impact with isolated tissue was observed using focused shadowgraphy with a high-speed camera recording at 90,000 fps. Concurrently, functional deficits were measured by monitoring the production of compound action potentials using a double sucrose gap-recording chamber. Additionally, anatomical deficits were measured after blast exposure with a dye exclusion assay to visualize axonal membrane permeability. Our findings demonstrate that direct exposure to the blast wave compressed nervous tissue at a rate of 60 m/sec and led to significant functional deficits. Damage to the isolated spinal cord was marked by increased axonal permeability, suggesting rapid compression from the shockwave-generated high strain rates that resulted in membrane disruption. The model provides new insight into the mechanism of BINT and permits direct observation that may contribute to the development of appropriate treatment regimens. PMID:21529318

Connell, Sean; Gao, Jian; Chen, Jun; Shi, Riyi

2011-06-30

355

Review of methods to attenuate shock/blast waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quick and reliable shock wave attenuation is the goal of every protection facility and therefore it is not surprising that achieving this has drawn much attention during the past hundred years. Different options have been suggested; their usefulness varying from a reasonable protection to the opposite, a shock enhancement. An example for a suggestion for shock mitigation that turned out to be an enhancement of the impinging shock wave was the idea to cover a protected object with a foam layer. While the pressure behind the reflected shock wave from the foam frontal surface was smaller than that recorded in a similar reflection from a rigid wall [25], the pressure on the “protected” surface, attached to the foam's rear-surface, was significantly higher than that recorded in a similar reflection from a bare, rigid wall [11]. In protecting humans and installations from destructive shock and/or blast waves the prime goal is to reduce the wave amplitude and the rate of pressure increase across the wave front. Both measures result in reducing the wave harmful effects. During the past six decades several approaches for achieving the desired protection have been offered in the open literature. We point out in this review that while some of the suggestions offered are practical, others are impractical. In our discussion we focus on recent schemes for shock/blast wave attenuation, characterized by the availability of reliable measurements (notably pressure and optical diagnostics) as well as high-resolution numerical simulations.

Igra, O.; Falcovitz, J.; Houas, L.; Jourdan, G.

2013-04-01

356

Safer blasting agents and procedures for blasting in gassy non-coal mines. [Quarterly] technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines` research program is focused on developing procedures and guidelines for acceptable underground oil shale blasting that fulfill the operational requirements for efficiency while maintaining a high level of safety when operating under gassy mine conditions. This work is aimed at providing new information, alternate methods, and innovation in underground blasting procedures. The results from this research will have direct impact on regulatory standards for blasting under gassy mine conditions. Based on the low incendivity data from the Cannon Gallery and several months of recent testing in their mine, Kennecott`s Greens Creek base metal mine in Alaska had decided to exclusively use a low incendive bulk emulsion product in place of the low incendive water gel prod ct for all blasting operations. As was the case with the low incendive water gel product, the use of this bulk product resulted in: no dust ignitions and related injuries and/or production/equipment losses; the elimination if preblasting measures of using stemming and water sprays, and the improvement of roadways due to the reduction of water.

Weiss, E.S.

1993-11-01

357

The Experimental Study of the Blast from Bombs and Bare Charges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives an account of investigations on the blast from bare and cased charges of explosive ranging in weight from a few pounds to several thousand pounds. The measuring technique, involving the use of piezo-electric gauges with cathoderay oscillographs, is described, and features of theoretical interest or of practical importance are illustrated. It is shown that, at any rate

G. Grime; H. Sheard

1946-01-01

358

Experimental investigation on cellular breakup of a planar liquid sheet from an air-blast nozzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular breakup phenomenon is investigated experimentally for a planar liquid sheet from an air-blast nozzle. The dominant sinuous wave growing spatially downstream forms complicated cellular structures of perforated thin films and surrounding ligaments. Several characteristic parameters are measured from photographic images and compared with linear temporal analysis. The dominant wavelength is proportional to the inverse square of the relative

Kang Y. Huh; Xianguo Li; Metin Renksizbulut

2004-01-01

359

Modeling of Blast Furnace with Layered Cohesive Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is a moving bed reactor involving counter-, co-, and cross-current flows of gas, powder, liquids, and solids, coupled with heat exchange and chemical reactions. The behavior of multiple phases directly affects the stability and productivity of the furnace. In the present study, a mathematical model is proposed to describe the behavior of fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, as well as chemical reactions in a BF, in which gas, solid, and liquid phases affect each other through interaction forces, and their flows are competing for the space available. Process variables that characterize the internal furnace state, such as reduction degree, reducing gas and burden concentrations, as well as gas and condensed phase temperatures, have been described quantitatively. In particular, different treatments of the cohesive zone (CZ), i.e., layered, isotropic, and anisotropic nonlayered, are discussed, and their influence on simulation results is compared. The results show that predicted fluid flow and thermochemical phenomena within and around the CZ and in the lower part of the BF are different for different treatments. The layered CZ treatment corresponds to the layered charging of burden and naturally can predict the CZ as a gas distributor and liquid generator.

Dong, X. F.; Yu, A. B.; Chew, S. J.; Zulli, P.

2010-04-01

360

Droplet Breakup Mechanisms in Air-blast Atomizers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomization processes are encountered in many natural and man-made phenomena. Examples are pollen release by plants, human cough or sneeze, engine fuel injectors, spray paint and many more. The physics governing the atomization of liquids is important in understanding and utilizing atomization processes in both natural and industrial processes. We have observed the governing physics of droplet breakup in an air-blast water atomizer using a high magnification, high speed, and high resolution LASER imaging technique. The droplet breakup mechanisms are investigated in three major categories. First, the liquid drops are flattened to form an oblate ellipsoid (lenticular deformation). Subsequent deformation depends on the magnitude of the internal forces relative to external forces. The ellipsoid is converted into a torus that becomes stretched and disintegrates into smaller drops. Second, the drops become elongated to form a long cylindrical thread or ligament that break up into smaller drops (Cigar-shaped deformation). Third, local deformation on the drop surface creates bulges and protuberances that eventually detach themselves from the parent drop to form smaller drops.

Aliabadi, Amir Abbas; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Lim, Kelly

2011-11-01

361

Spike morphology in blast-wave-driven instability experiments  

SciTech Connect

The laboratory experiments described in the present paper observe the blast-wave-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability with three-dimensional (3D) initial conditions. About 5 kJ of energy from the Omega laser creates conditions similar to those of the He-H interface during the explosion phase of a supernova. The experimental target is a 150 {mu}m thick plastic disk followed by a low-density foam. The plastic piece has an embedded, 3D perturbation. The basic structure of the pattern is two orthogonal sine waves where each sine wave has an amplitude of 2.5 {mu}m and a wavelength of 71 {mu}m. In some experiments, an additional wavelength is added to explore the interaction of modes. In experiments with 3D initial conditions the spike morphology differs from what has been observed in other Rayleigh-Taylor experiments and simulations. Under certain conditions, experimental radiographs show some mass extending from the interface to the shock front. Current simulations show neither the spike morphology nor the spike penetration observed in the experiments. The amount of mass reaching the shock front is analyzed and potential causes for the spike morphology and the spikes reaching the shock are discussed. One such hypothesis is that these phenomena may be caused by magnetic pressure, generated by an azimuthal magnetic field produced by the plasma dynamics.

Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Fryxell, B.; Budde, A. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science, Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hansen, J. F.; Miles, A. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Plewa, T. [Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, 400 Dirac Science Library, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Hearn, N. [Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Knauer, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2010-05-15

362

Conductance phenomena in microcrystalline cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the conduction phenomena in compacted tablets of cellulose with varying relative humidity (RH) with techniques such as Low Frequency Dielectric Spectroscopy (LFDS) and Transient Current (TC) at room temperature. Two exponential decaying regions in the transient current measurements indicate two ionic species contributing to the conduction mechanism. A high power-law exponent of 9 for the conductance with moisture content has been found. The mobility initially decreases with RH up to monolayer coverage, and further water vapor increases the mobility, indicating a blocking of available positions for the charge carrier ions. When the amount of water molecules present in the tablet increases one order of magnitude, the number of charge carriers increases 5-6 orders of magnitude, suggesting a transition from a power-law increase to a linear effective medium theory for the conduction. The charge carrier dependence on RH suggests that a percolating network of water molecules adsorbed to 6-OH units on the cellulose chain span through the sample. The conductivity mechanisms in cellulose are still not clear.

Nilsson, M.

2006-02-01

363

Electromechanical phenomena in semiconductor nanostructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromechanical phenomena in semiconductors are still poorly studied from a fundamental and an applied science perspective, even though significant strides have been made in the last decade or so. Indeed, most current electromechanical devices are based on ferroelectric oxides. Yet, the importance of the effect in certain semiconductors is being increasingly recognized. For instance, the magnitude of the electric field in an AlN/GaN nanostructure can reach 1-10 MV/cm. In fact, the basic functioning of an (0001) AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor is due to the two-dimensional electron gas formed at the material interface by the polarization fields. The goal of this review is to inform the reader of some of the recent developments in the field for nanostructures and to point out still open questions. Examples of recent work that involves the piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects in semiconductors include: the study of the optoelectronic properties of III-nitrides quantum wells and dots, the current controversy regarding the importance of the nonlinear piezoelectric effect, energy harvesting using ZnO nanowires as a piezoelectric nanogenerator, the use of piezoelectric materials in surface acoustic wave devices, and the appropriateness of various models for analyzing electromechanical effects. Piezoelectric materials such as GaN and ZnO are gaining more and more importance for energy-related applications; examples include high-brightness light-emitting diodes for white lighting, high-electron mobility transistors, and nanogenerators. Indeed, it remains to be demonstrated whether these materials could be the ideal multifunctional materials. The solutions to these and other related problems will not only lead to a better understanding of the basic physics of these materials, but will validate new characterization tools, and advance the development of new and better devices. We will restrict ourselves to nanostructures in the current article even though the measurements and calculations of the bulk electromechanical coefficients remain challenging. Much of the literature has focused on InGaN/GaN, AlGaN/GaN, ZnMgO/ZnO, and ZnCdO/ZnO quantum wells, and InAs/GaAs and AlGaN/AlN quantum dots for their optoelectronic properties; and work on the bending of nanowires have been mostly for GaN and ZnO nanowires. We hope the present review article will stimulate further research into the field of electromechanical phenomena and help in the development of applications.

Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Willatzen, M.

2011-02-01

364

Ordering Phenomena in Undercooled Alloys  

SciTech Connect

Much of the work performed under this grant was devoted to using modern ideas in kinetics to understand atom movements in metallic alloys far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Kinetics arguments were based explicitly on the vacancy mechanism for atom movements. The emphasis was on how individual atom movements are influenced by the local chemical environment of the moving atom, and how atom movements cause changes in the local chemical environments. The author formulated a kinetic master equation method to treat atom movements on a crystal lattice with a vacancy mechanism. Some of these analyses [3,10,16] are as detailed as any treatment of the statistical kinetics of atom movements in crystalline alloys. Three results came from this work. Chronologically they were (1) A recognition that tracking time dependencies is not necessarily the best way to study kinetic phenomena. If multiple order parameters can be measured in a material, the ''kinetic path'' through the space spanned by these order parameters maybe just as informative about the chemical factors that affect atom movements [2,3,5-7,9-11,14-16,18,19,21,23,24,26,36,37]. (2) Kinetic paths need not follow the steepest gradient of the free energy function (this should be well-known), and for alloys far from equilibrium the free energy function can be almost useless in describing kinetic behavior. This is why the third result surprised me. (3) In cluster approximations with multiple order parameters, saddle points are common features of free energy functions. Interestingly, kinetic processes stall or change time scale when the kinetic path approaches a state at a saddle point in the free energy function, even though these states exist far from thermodynamic equilibrium. The author calls such a state a ''pseudostable'' (falsely stable) state [6,21,26]. I have also studied these phenomena by more ''exact'' Monte Carlo simulations. The kinetic paths showed features similar to those found in analytical theories. The author found that a microstructure with interfaces arranged in space as a periodic minimal surface is a probably an alloy at a saddle point in its free energy function [21,26,37].

Fultz, Brent

1997-07-17

365

Eclipse Phenomena -- a Book Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is a review of the book Eclipse Phenomena in Astronomy by F. Link. The author of this book is a Czechoslovakian astronomer who has been associated with both Eastern and Western research in astronomy and space exploration.

G. F. Schilling

1969-01-01

366

Vacuum arc recovery phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experimental and theoretical study has been designed to uncover the mechanism underlying the rapid recovery of electrical strength of a short vacuum gap after arcing. In the experiment the contacts were of gas-free silver and the contact area and gap length were varied. Recovery strength was measured following the forced extinction of a 250 amp arc in 0.5

J. A. Rich; G. A. Farrall

1964-01-01

367

Blast exposure in rats with body shielding is characterized primarily by diffuse axonal injury.  

PubMed

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the signature insult in combat casualty care. Survival with neurological damage from otherwise lethal blast exposures has become possible with body armor use. We characterized the neuropathologic alterations produced by a single blast exposure in rats using a helium-driven shock tube to generate a nominal exposure of 35 pounds per square inch (PSI) (positive phase duration ? 4 msec). Using an IACUC-approved protocol, isoflurane-anesthetized rats were placed in a steel wedge (to shield the body) 7 feet inside the end of the tube. The left side faced the blast wave (with head-only exposure); the wedge apex focused a Mach stem onto the rat's head. The insult produced ? 25% mortality (due to impact apnea). Surviving and sham rats were perfusion-fixed at 24 h, 72 h, or 2 weeks post-blast. Neuropathologic evaluations were performed utilizing hematoxylin and eosin, amino cupric silver, and a variety of immunohistochemical stains for amyloid precursor protein (APP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), ED1, and rat IgG. Multifocal axonal degeneration, as evidenced by staining with amino cupric silver, was present in all blast-exposed rats at all time points. Deep cerebellar and brainstem white matter tracts were most heavily stained with amino cupric silver, with the morphologic staining patterns suggesting a process of diffuse axonal injury. Silver-stained sections revealed mild multifocal neuronal death at 24 h and 72 h. GFAP, ED1, and Iba1 staining were not prominently increased, although small numbers of reactive microglia were seen within areas of neuronal death. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability (as measured by IgG staining) was seen at 24 h and primarily affected the contralateral cortex. Axonal injury was the most prominent feature during the initial 2 weeks following blast exposure, although degeneration of other neuronal processes was also present. Strikingly, silver staining revealed otherwise undetected abnormalities, and therefore represents a recommended outcome measure in future studies of blast TBI. PMID:21449683

Garman, Robert H; Jenkins, Larry W; Switzer, Robert C; Bauman, Richard A; Tong, Lawrence C; Swauger, Peter V; Parks, Steven A; Ritzel, David V; Dixon, C Edward; Clark, Robert S B; Bayir, Hülya; Kagan, Valerian; Jackson, Edwin K; Kochanek, Patrick M

2011-06-01

368

Ground and air vibrations caused by surface blasting. Volume 3. Computer simulation predictor of ground vibrations induced by blasting. Open file report (final) 1 October 1980-30 September 1983  

SciTech Connect

A computer program was written to simulate ground vibrations induced by multiple-hole surface blasts. The program is an inexpensive and relatively easy to use tool for predicting the principal blast vibration characteristics that determine damage and annoyance potential: peak particle velocity, frequency content, and pulse duration. The program generates a complete ground motion history by superposing, at any surface position, the vibrations induced by each individual explosive charge. It requires specification of and allows accounting for the blast geometry, initiation sequence (including random delays), position with respect to blast, pulse characteristics induced by each charge, and propagation laws. A methodology is outlined to determine the necessary variables either on the basis of site investigations (velocity, attenuation, pulse), or by backcalculation from measured blast vibration records. The latter procedure was applied to blasts from two coal strip mines. It was determined that the main difficulties are backcalculating individual pulses, propagation (especially dispersion) parameters, and delays. It was shown that a normal distribution of delays influences the results and the response of a single degree of freedom structure significantly.

Barkley, R.C.; Daemen, J.J.K.

1983-09-01

369

A mouse model of ocular blast injury that induces closed globe anterior and posterior pole damage.  

PubMed

We developed and characterized a mouse model of primary ocular blast injury. The device consists of: a pressurized air tank attached to a regulated paintball gun with a machined barrel; a chamber that protects the mouse from direct injury and recoil, while exposing the eye; and a secure platform that enables fine, controlled movement of the chamber in relation to the barrel. Expected pressures were calculated and the optimal pressure transducer, based on the predicted pressures, was positioned to measure output pressures at the location where the mouse eye would be placed. Mice were exposed to one of three blast pressures (23.6, 26.4, or 30.4 psi). Gross pathology, intraocular pressure, optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity were assessed 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after exposure. Contralateral eyes and non-blast exposed mice were used as controls. We detected increased damage with increased pressures and a shift in the damage profile over time. Gross pathology included corneal edema, corneal abrasions, and optic nerve avulsion. Retinal damage was detected by optical coherence tomography and a deficit in visual acuity was detected by optokinetics. Our findings are comparable to those identified in Veterans of the recent wars with closed eye injuries as a result of blast exposure. In summary, this is a relatively simple system that creates injuries with features similar to those seen in patients with ocular blast trauma. This is an important new model for testing the short-term and long-term spectrum of closed globe blast injuries and potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:22504073

Hines-Beard, Jessica; Marchetta, Jeffrey; Gordon, Sarah; Chaum, Edward; Geisert, Eldon E; Rex, Tonia S

2012-04-07

370

Oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes for studying blast wave effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development and characterization of modular, oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes. Such tools are needed to produce realistic blast waves in a laboratory setting. The pressure-time profiles measured at 1 MHz using high-speed piezoelectric pressure sensors have relevant durations and show a true shock front and exponential decay characteristic of free-field blast waves. Descriptions are included for shock tube diameters of 27-79 mm. A range of peak pressures from 204 kPa to 1187 kPa (with 0.5-5.6% standard error of the mean) were produced by selection of the driver section diameter and distance from the shock tube opening. The peak pressures varied predictably with distance from the shock tube opening while maintaining both a true blast wave profile and relevant pulse duration for distances up to about one diameter from the shock tube opening. This shock tube design provides a more realistic blast profile than current compression-driven shock tubes, and it does not have a large jet effect. In addition, operation does not require specialized personnel or facilities like most blast-driven shock tubes, which reduces operating costs and effort and permits greater throughput and accessibility. It is expected to be useful in assessing the response of various sensors to shock wave loading; assessing the reflection, transmission, and absorption properties of candidate armor materials; assessing material properties at high rates of loading; assessing the response of biological materials to shock wave exposure; and providing a means to validate numerical models of the interaction of shock waves with structures. All of these activities have been difficult to pursue in a laboratory setting due in part to lack of appropriate means to produce a realistic blast loading profile.

Courtney, Amy C.; Andrusiv, Lubov P.; Courtney, Michael W.

2012-04-01

371

Oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes for studying blast wave effects.  

PubMed

This paper describes the development and characterization of modular, oxy-acetylene driven laboratory scale shock tubes. Such tools are needed to produce realistic blast waves in a laboratory setting. The pressure-time profiles measured at 1 MHz using high-speed piezoelectric pressure sensors have relevant durations and show a true shock front and exponential decay characteristic of free-field blast waves. Descriptions are included for shock tube diameters of 27-79 mm. A range of peak pressures from 204 kPa to 1187 kPa (with 0.5-5.6% standard error of the mean) were produced by selection of the driver section diameter and distance from the shock tube opening. The peak pressures varied predictably with distance from the shock tube opening while maintaining both a true blast wave profile and relevant pulse duration for distances up to about one diameter from the shock tube opening. This shock tube design provides a more realistic blast profile than current compression-driven shock tubes, and it does not have a large jet effect. In addition, operation does not require specialized personnel or facilities like most blast-driven shock tubes, which reduces operating costs and effort and permits greater throughput and accessibility. It is expected to be useful in assessing the response of various sensors to shock wave loading; assessing the reflection, transmission, and absorption properties of candidate armor materials; assessing material properties at high rates of loading; assessing the response of biological materials to shock wave exposure; and providing a means to validate numerical models of the interaction of shock waves with structures. All of these activities have been difficult to pursue in a laboratory setting due in part to lack of appropriate means to produce a realistic blast loading profile. PMID:22559580

Courtney, Amy C; Andrusiv, Lubov P; Courtney, Michael W

2012-04-01

372

Discrete element modeling of rock blasting in benches with joints and bedding planes - initial development  

SciTech Connect

A Discrete element computer program named DMC (Distinct Motion Code) has been developed for modeling rock blasting. This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements which are represented as circles in 2-D. DMC calculations have been compared with measurements on bench blasts in the field with relatively good comparison. Structural rock mass characteristics have a significant impact on any blast and DMC has not, until now, included these effects. This paper discusses a recently added DMC capability for treating joints and bedding planes in bench blast simulations. Material strength is treated in DMC by creating links between spheres to hold them together. The links can be broken based on any criterion; simple tension, compression and shear are currently employed. Joint sets are treated in DMC by defining the dip of each set toward or away from the bench face along with the joint spacing. Strength links that cross joint planes can have their strength properties modified or they can be deleted. Modification of the link patterns based on joint sets creates distinct blocks of spheres outlined by the intersecting joints. These blocks of spheres move together as a solid unit unless stress and strain conditions within the block indicate that links should be broken. Simulations using this capability show some blocks remaining intact throughout the blast and some being partially or completely broken. When this occurs, the joint pattern is shown to influence the characteristics of the blast. Upon completion of this capability both rock breakage and motion will be modeled during the same simulation. Much work remains to be done on this concept making this paper a progress report on the development of this new capability.

Preece, D.S.

1995-05-01

373

Shougang No. 2 blast furnace enlargement  

SciTech Connect

Shougang is expanding to become a 10 million ton/year steel plant in 1995. In 1990, the capacity of Shougang No. 2 blast furnace was enlarged from 1,327 to 1,726 cu meters. The project consisted of building a new furnace on the old site while maintaining the operation of the old furnace. The project was completed in 188 calendar days, 3 days ahead of schedule. Shougang has a large, comprehensive technical force that includes design, construction and production. Most of the equipment and instrumentation, both mechanical and electrical, were fabricated by Shougang personnel. The future increase in capacity of No. 1, 3 and 4 blast furnaces will exceed that of No. 2 furnace.

Wang, Z.Z. (Shougang Iron and Steel Corp., Beijing (China))

1994-09-01

374

A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting  

SciTech Connect

A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

2006-07-01

375

Acute blast injury reduces brain abeta in two rodent species.  

PubMed

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. How the primary blast wave affects the brain is not well understood. In particular, it is unclear whether blast injures the brain through mechanisms similar to those found in non-blast closed impact injuries (nbTBI). The ?-amyloid (A?) peptide associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease is elevated acutely following TBI in humans as well as in experimental animal models of nbTBI. We examined levels of brain A? following experimental blast injury using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for A? 40 and 42. In both rat and mouse models of blast injury, rather than being increased, endogenous rodent brain A? levels were decreased acutely following injury. Levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) were increased following blast exposure although there was no evidence of axonal pathology based on APP immunohistochemical staining. Unlike the findings in nbTBI animal models, levels of the ?-secretase, ?-site APP cleaving enzyme 1, and the ?-secretase component presenilin-1 were unchanged following blast exposure. These studies have implications for understanding the nature of blast injury to the brain. They also suggest that strategies aimed at lowering A? production may not be effective for treating acute blast injury to the brain. PMID:23267342

De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A; Kim, Soong Ho; Steele, John W; Shaughness, Michael C; Maudlin-Jeronimo, Eric; Hall, Aaron A; Dekosky, Steven T; McCarron, Richard M; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Gandy, Sam; Ahlers, Stephen T; Elder, Gregory A

2012-12-21

376

Blast waves and how they interact with structures.  

PubMed

The paper defines and describes blast waves, their interaction with a structure and its subsequent response. Explosions generate blast waves, which need not be due to explosives. A blast wave consists of two parts: a shock wave and a blast wind. The paper explains how shock waves are formed and their basic properties. The physics of blast waves is non-linear and therefore non-intuitive. To understand how an explosion generates a blast wave a numerical modelling computer code, called a hydrocode has to be employed. This is briefly explained and the cAst Eulerian hydrocode is used to illustrate the formation and propagation of the blast wave generated by a 1 kg sphere of TNT explosive detonated 1 m above the ground. The paper concludes with a discussion of the response of a structure to a blast wave and shows that this response is governed by the structures natural frequency of vibration compared to the duration of the blast wave. The basic concepts introduced are illustrated in a second simulation that introduces two structures into the blast field of the TNT charge. PMID:11307674

Cullis, I G

2001-02-01

377

Extracellular cyclophilin A protects against blast-induced neuronal injury.  

PubMed

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent neurobehavioral deficits are major disabilities suffered by the military and civilian population worldwide. Rigorous scientific research is underway to understand the mechanism of blast TBI and thereby develop effective therapies for protection and treatment. By using an in vitro shock tube model of blast TBI with SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, we have demonstrated that blast exposure leads to neurobiological changes in an overpressure and time dependent manner. Paradoxically, repeated blast exposures resulted in less neuronal injury compared to single blast exposure and suggested a potential neuroprotective mechanism involving released cyclophilin A (CPA). In the present study, we demonstrate accumulation of CPA in the culture medium after repeated blast exposures supporting the notion of extracellular CPA mediated neuroprotection. Post-exposure treatment of the cells with purified recombinant CPA caused significant protection against blast-induced neuronal injury. Furthermore, repeated blast exposure was associated with phosphorylation of the proteins ERK1/2 and Bad suggesting a potential mechanism of neuroprotection by extracellular CPA and may aid in the development of targeted therapies for protection against blast-induced TBI. PMID:23511555

Arun, Peethambaran; Abu-Taleb, Rania; Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Wang, Ying; Long, Joseph B; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

2013-03-17

378

Blast resistance of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional transient deformations of a laminate comprised of several unidirectional fiber reinforced layers perfectly bonded to each other and subjected to a blast load are analyzed by the finite element method with an in-house developed, verified and fully validated code with rate-dependent damage evolution equations for anisotropic bodies. The continuum damage mechanics approach employing three internal variables is used to

R. C. Batra; N. M. Hassan

2008-01-01

379

Laboratory Blast Simulator for Composite Materials Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Blasts and explosives have raised serious concerns in recent years due to the fatal injury and catastrophic damage they have\\u000a caused in the combat zones and due to industrial accidents. Owing to their lightweight and complex damage process, fiber-reinforced\\u000a composite materials have been found to have higher energy absorption capability and to be able to generate less lethal debris\\u000a than

Guojing Li; Dahsin Liu

380

Protecting blasting operations from possible lawsuits  

SciTech Connect

Any blasting violations, whether detected by an inspector, or undetected and therefore unwritten, will likely come back to haunt you if there is a lawsuit stemming from an alleged personal injury or property damage. These violations can be used by a plaintiff's attorney to show that the operation was not conducted according to law and not in a professional manner. This could effect the amount of punitive damages awarded on top of the actual loss award. This article describes the operations.

Ludwiczak, J.T.

1987-05-01

381

The Blast Polarized H\\/d Target  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST)1 is a detector designed to study the spin dependent electromagnetic response of few-body nuclei at momentum transfers up to 1 (GeV\\/c)2. The strength of the experiment lies in its unique combination of large acceptance spectrometer, highly polarized electron beam, and dilution free internal gas targets. The Atomic Beam Source (ABS)2,3 which operated in

H. Kolster; C. Crawford; K. McIlhany; N. Meitanis; R. Milner; T. Wise; V. Ziskin

2002-01-01

382

Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer.

Not Available

1999-07-01

383

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995  

SciTech Connect

A potentially new use for Illinois coal is its use as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. This proposal is a follow-up to one funded for the 1993--94 period. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900{degrees}C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter there were two major accomplishments.

Crelling, J.C.

1995-12-31

384

The Kirovskiy Explosion of September 29, 1996: Example of a CTB Event Notification for a Routine Mining Blast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

- On September 29, 1996, a routine mining blast of about 390 metric tons was detonated underground at the Kirovskiy mine in the central Kola Peninsula. The United States was notified two weeks in advance that the blast was to take place and was given the date, approximate time, location and total charge. The explosion was detected and located by the prototype International Data Center (pIDC) and published in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB). Detailed information about the blast, including the type and depth of mining operation, the underground charge configuration, and the blasting delay pattern, is reviewed and combined with a seismological analysis of the event. The seismic analysis points to a possible associated tectonic component to the blast, consisting of a small rock burst or induced tremor, spall, or some combination of these mechanisms, that may have enhanced the shear waves, produced large Rg waves at low frequency, and small Pn/Sn and Pn/Lg amplitude ratios at high frequency. While these discriminants might identify the event as an earthquake, the spectral/cepstral analysis of the event clearly shows the ripple-fire delays. This event provides important confidence-building measures for both location calibration, in the form of travel-time corrections for location of mine events in this region, and for improved understanding of seismic discriminants expected for large mine blasts that may have an associated induced tectonic component (e.g., spall, mine tremor or rock burst).

Baumgardt, D. R.; Leith, W.

385

Vehicle overturning vulnerability from air blast loads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overturning response of an armored personnel carrier to air blast loads derived from a nuclear blast environment is presented. The orientation of the vehicle is side-on to the air blast shock front. It is assumed there is no translation at the downwind wheels, i.e., the roll over point. In addition, the vehicle is assumed to behave as a rigid body. That is, the suspension system are taken as rigid, so that the wheels and axles rotate in unison with the body. It can be shown that this assumption slightly overestimates the overturning resistance of vehicles with suspension systems. For a stiff suspension system, such as that of the APC, the rigid body behavior assumption is justified. The only motion possible for this analysis is rotation about the rollover point. The effect of overturning restraint systems has been included in the analysis by incorporating a perfectly plastic vehicle to ground connection on the upwind side of the vehicle. The results give the threshold nuclear environment that just causes overturning. The threshold environment is given in terms of a peak overpressure corresponding to a weapon yield. Results are presented for a range of weapon yields from 1KT to 1MT.

Robinson, R. R.; Napadensky, H.; Longinow, A.

1984-08-01

386

Interfacial phenomena and microscale transport processes in evaporating ultrathin menisci  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of interfacial phenomena in the three-phase contact line region, where a liquid-vapor interface intersects a solid surface, is of importance to many equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes. However, lack of experimental data on microscale transport processes controlled by interfacial phenomena has restricted progress. This thesis includes a high resolution image analyzing technique, based on reflectivity measurements, that accurately measures

Sashidhar S. Panchamgam

2006-01-01

387

The Blast Experiment:. Polarized Electron Scattering from Hydrogen and Deuterium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, the nucleon form factors have been measured by scattering polarized electrons from vector-polarized hydrogen and deuterium. The experiment used the longitudinally polarized electron beam stored in the MIT-Bates South Hall Ring along with an isotopically pure, highly vector-polarized internal atomic hydrogen and deuterium target provided by an atomic beam source. The measurements were carried out with the symmetric Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST). Results are presented for the proton form factor ratio, ? p GEp/G_M^p, and for the charge form factor of the neutron, GEn. Both results are more precise than previous data in the corresponding Q2 ranges.

Alarcon, R.

388

Recent Results from the BLAST Experiment (Nucleon Form Factors)  

SciTech Connect

Recent precise polarization measurements have considerably improved constraints on nucleon electromagnetic form factors. The BLAST experiment, carried out at MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, was designed to study these quantities systematically using the intense polarized stored electron beam of the South Hall Ring, highly polarized internal gas jet targets, and a symmetric toroidal spectrometer. Simultaneous measurements of multiple reaction channels with different combinations of beam and target polarizations were carried out to extract the nucleon form factors with high precision at Q2< 1 GeV2/c2. Results for the nucleon form factors G{sub E}{sup p}, G{sub M}{sup p}, G{sub E}{sup n}, and G{sub M}{sup n} are presented and discussed.

Franklin, Wilbur A. [MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center, 21 Manning Rd., Middleton, MA 01949 (United States)

2007-06-13

389

[Update: blast and explosion trauma].  

PubMed

In recent decades, acoustic shock and explosion traumas have increased in frequency in the general population. Beside the use of fireworks and firearms, airbag ignitions and explosions caused by terror or suicidal acts are also relevant. Depending on duration and strength of the sound pressure affecting the human ear, isolated inner ear damage or additional ear drum perforation and interruption of the middle ear ossicle chain can result. By means of otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, measurement of otoacoustic emissions, and other neurootological examinations, the severity of the trauma can be determined. With prompt and adequate therapy, permanent hearing loss can be minimized. In particular, the measurement of otoacoustic emissions allows conclusions to be made on the functionality of the outer hair cells which are damaged first in most cases. Histological investigations on noise-exposed cochleas show extensive damage to the outer hair cells in the frequency range between 1.0 and 4.0 kHz, which correlates well with audiometric measurements. PMID:21769579

van de Weyer, P S; Praetorius, M; Tisch, M

2011-08-01

390

Rock damage control in bedrock blasting excavation for a nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drill and blast is a major method for bedrock excavation in nuclear power plant engineering. Under blasting excavation, blast-induced vibration propagates in rock mass and induces damage to surrounding rock. Studying the characteristics of wave propagation and blast-induced damage to rock mass is most important to restrict the damage extension. In the present paper, in support of the bedrock blasting

Li Haibo; Xia Xiang; Li Jianchun; Zhao Jian; Liu Bo; Liu Yaqun

2011-01-01

391

Using an electronic detonator system and expanded blast patterns to prevent sympathetic detonation at Powder River Basin coal mines  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a systematic approach to prevent cast blast holes from detonating sympathetically through the use of the electronic initiation and expanded blast patterns. In-situ measurements were recorded from pressure probes, velocity of detonation probes and near field accelerometers, along with digital images generated from a high speed CCD camera. Large diameter angled drill holes were also checked for any measurable amount of deviation by a cable type borehole measurement tool. The field measurements provided the scientific evidence, statistical data, and documentation necessary to develop a sound method or a 'road map' that would minimize and in some situations prevent the occurrence of blast hole sympathetic detonation. 2 refs., 3 figs.

Yang, R.; Fleetwood, K.; Haid, J. [Orica USA Inc., Watkins, CO (United States). Advanced Mining Solutions

2005-07-01

392

An adaptive low complexity and high performance BLAST detection algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that MIMO channel capacity was greatly improved by used of BLAST code, but the existing methods still have the decoding complexity and precision problem. This paper analyzes the advantage and disadvantage of the present detection algorithms for the BLAST system. An adaptive BLAST decoding algorithm with lower decoding complexity is proposed. The simulations show that the adaptive detection can achieve the moderate tradeoff between complexity and performance.

Wang, Desheng; Fu, Jie; Zhu, Guangxi; Liu, Deming

2009-08-01

393

Performance Evaluation of the V-BLAST Coset Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the analytical performance evaluation of the V-BLAST coset detector (CD). The V-BLAST-CD is a sub-optimal detector for spatial multiplexing MIMO systems using non-binary constellations. In the V-BLAST-CD the decision on the transmitted vector is taken by applying the maximum likelihood detector on a list of candidate vectors containing only a subset of the possible transmitted

M. Magarini; A. Spalvieri

2005-01-01

394

Cluster merger blast wave and the mystery of ringlike radio-relic formation around some galaxy clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work I studied the nature and important effects of massive galaxy cluster merger phenomena. Due to inherent complexity of such events analytical solution is impossible, so, numerical simulations are performed using ENZO-2.1 hydrodynamic code. It is noticed that the formation of Mega parsec scale merger shocks in such events substantially change the energy distribution of Inter Cluster Medium. A striking similarity is noticed between expanding intra cluster medium during mergers with the blast wave formation in supernovae explosion. The blast wave meets the void/ accretion shocks when propagated out to the virial radius. Particle acceleration at the meeting point produce a significant amount of synchrotron radio emission through which curved shocks are made visible in radio waves. This study thus also sheds some light on the formation of curved and nearly symmetric radio emission found in Abell 3376, Abell 3667, CIZA J2242.8+5301, plck g287.0+32.9 etc. clusters.

Paul, Surajit

2012-12-01

395

Plastic Media Blasting - An alternative for coating removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) is a revolutionary method for the rapid and safe removal of primer, paint and even powder and other chemically resistant coatings from a vast range of products without the use of toxic chemicals or pneumatic blasting with hard abrasives. Although resembling sand-blasting, PMB does not use the hard abrasives or high pressures of that process. Instead, PMB uses reusable plastic particles which are applied at pressures of 20 to 40 psi. The unique abrasive blast media not only replaces potentially hazardous abrasives such as silica sand, but since it is reusable it also generates less overall waste material.

Abbott, Kenneth E.

1989-03-01

396

Bomb blast injury: effect on middle and inner ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To study the symptomatology, clinical findings and the effects of blast injury on middle and inner ear in survivors of bomb\\u000a blast.\\u000a \\u000a Settings City of Mumbai, India.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study group consisted of 52 patients exposed to the bomb blast that occurred on 25th August 2003.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Result and Analysis  The distance of the victim from the blast site has no major infiuence

M. V. Jagade; R. A. Patil; I. S. Suhail; P. Kelkar; S. Nemane; J. Mahendru; V. Kalbande; P. Kewle

2008-01-01

397

Transient changes in neuronal cell membrane permeability after blast exposure.  

PubMed

The biochemical mechanisms of explosive blast-induced traumatic brain injury and the subsequent long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities are still not completely understood. We studied the biochemical mechanism of blast traumatic brain injury using our recently reported in-vitro model system with a shock tube. Primary blast exposure of in-vitro models leads to neurobiological changes in an overpressure dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Lactate dehydrogenase was released significantly into the extracellular medium without cell death after blast exposure, indicating compromised cell membrane integrity. We further explored the integrity of cell membrane after blast exposure by fluorescent dye uptake/release techniques in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Our data indicate that blast exposure leads to an overpressure-dependent transient increase in the release of preloaded calcein AM into the culture medium with proportional intracellular decrease. Uptake of an extracellular nucleic acid-binding dye TO-PRO-3 iodide was also increased significantly after blast exposure, indicating that the increased molecular transport is bidirectional and nuclear membrane integrity is also affected by blast exposure. These results suggest that blast exposure perturbs the integrity of the neuronal cell membrane, leading to increased bidirectional transport of molecules--a potential mechanism that can lead to traumatic brain injury. PMID:22426026

Arun, Peethambaran; Abu-Taleb, Rania; Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Wang, Ying; Long, Joseph B; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

2012-04-18

398

Mechanisms of hearing loss after blast injury to the ear.  

PubMed

Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body's most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction. PMID:23840874

Cho, Sung-Il; Gao, Simon S; Xia, Anping; Wang, Rosalie; Salles, Felipe T; Raphael, Patrick D; Abaya, Homer; Wachtel, Jacqueline; Baek, Jongmin; Jacobs, David; Rasband, Matthew N; Oghalai, John S

2013-07-01

399

Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

400

13. BUILDING NO. 621, INTERIOR, TOP OF BLASTING TUB UNDERNEATH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. BUILDING NO. 621, INTERIOR, TOP OF BLASTING TUB UNDERNEATH SAWDUST HOPPER. BLASTING TUB HAS DOUBLE WALLS OF 3/4' THICK STEEL ARMOR PLATE. CHARGE TO BE TESTED IS BURIED IN SAWDUST WITH FLAME RESISTANT CHEMICALS. ELEVATOR BEHIND TUB CARRIES SAWDUST BACK TO TOP OF SAWDUST HOPPER AFTER TEST IS COMPLETED AND SAWDUST IN BLASTING TUB HAS BEEN SIFTED FOR SHELL FRAGMENTS. LOUVERS IN WALLS ARE HINGED FREELY SO THEY OPEN TO RELIEVE BLAST PRESSURE DURING A TEST. - Picatinny Arsenal, 600 Area, Test Areas District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

401

22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps. 121.11 Section 121.11 Foreign Relations...11 Military demolition blocks and blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in Category IV(a) do not...

2013-04-01

402

77 FR 31878 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Blasting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request; Blasting Operations and Use of Explosives Standard ACTION: Notice...Blasting Operations and Use of Explosives Standard,'' to the Office of Management...INFORMATION: The Blasting and Use of Explosives Standard at 29 CFR part 1926,...

2012-05-30

403

77 FR 58173 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Explosive Materials and Blasting Units...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Existing Information Collection; Explosive Materials and Blasting Units (Pertains...Administration (MSHA) evaluates and approves explosive materials and blasting units as permissible...However, since there are no permissible explosives or blasting units available that...

2012-09-19

404

29 CFR 1926.906 - Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting. 1926.906 Section 1926.906...1926.906 Initiation of explosive chargesâelectric blasting. (a) Electric blasting caps shall not be used where...

2013-07-01

405

A model for estimating the viscosity of blast furnace slags with optical basicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viscosity is an important physical property of blast furnace slags and has a great influence on blast furnace operations. Because of time consumption and difficulties encountered during high temperature experimental measurement, viscosity data are also limited, so a reasonable and accurate estimation model is required to provide the data for controlling and optimizing the blast furnace process. In the present study a viscosity model was proposed for blast furnace slags. In the model the activation energy was calculated by the optical basicity corrected for cations required for the charge compensation of AlO{4/5-}, and the temperature dependence was described by the Weymann-Frenkel equation. The estimated viscosity values of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO, and CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO-TiO2 systems fit well with experiment data, with the mean deviation less than 25%.

Hu, Xiao-jun; Ren, Zhong-shan; Zhang, Guo-hua; Wang, Li-jun; Chou, Kuo-chih

2012-12-01

406

Discovery potential for new phenomena  

SciTech Connect

The authors examine the ability of future facilities to discover and interpret non-supersymmetric new phenomena. The authors first explore explicit manifestations of new physics, including extended gauge sectors, leptoquarks, exotic fermions, and technicolor models. They then take a more general approach where new physics only reveals itself through the existence of effective interactions at lower energy scales.

Godfrey, S. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Ottawa Carleton Inst. for Physics; Hewett, J.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Price, L.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.

1997-03-01

407

Electromechanical phenomena in semiconductor nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromechanical phenomena in semiconductors are still poorly studied from a fundamental and an applied science perspective, even though significant strides have been made in the last decade or so. Indeed, most current electromechanical devices are based on ferroelectric oxides. Yet, the importance of the effect in certain semiconductors is being increasingly recognized. For instance, the magnitude of the electric field

L. C. Lew Yan Voon; M. Willatzen

2011-01-01

408

Visualizing Chemical Phenomena in Microdroplets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phenomena that occur in microdroplets are described to the undergraduate chemistry community. Droplets having a diameter in the micrometer range can have unique and interesting properties, which arise because of their small size and, especially, their high surface area-to-volume ratio. Students are generally unfamiliar with the characteristics of…

Lee, Sunghee; Wiener, Joseph

2011-01-01

409

Visualizing Chemical Phenomena in Microdroplets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phenomena that occur in microdroplets are described to the undergraduate chemistry community. Droplets having a diameter in the micrometer range can have unique and interesting properties, which arise because of their small size and, especially, their high surface area-to-volume ratio. Students are generally unfamiliar with the characteristics of…

Lee, Sunghee; Wiener, Joseph

2011-01-01

410

Dust phenomena in processing plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust phenomena in processing plasmas are reviewed from the new viewpoint of birth of material in the plasma. The gas-phase growth of particles has been extensively studied for Si4 RF plasmas. The Si particles usually grow through three distinctive stages: an initial growth phase up to about 10 nm, whose size is between size ranges dominated by plasma properties and

Yukio Watanabe

1997-01-01

411

Efcient Rendering of Atmospheric Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rendering of atmospheric bodies involves modeling the complex interaction of light throughout the highly scat- tering medium of water and air particles. Scattering by these particles creates many well-known atmospheric optical phenomena including rainbows, halos, the corona, and the glory. Unfortunately, most radiative transport approximations in computer graphics are ill-suited to render complex angularly dependent effects in the presence of

Kirk Riley; David S. Ebert; Martin Kraus; Jerry Tessendorf; Charles Hansen

412

Magnetostrictive Phenomena in Magnetorheological Elastomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A host of fascinating and useful magnetic phenomena are found in composites containing magnetizable particles in viscoelastic solids. Embedding magnetically soft iron particles in natural rubber produces a class of magnetostrictive composites sometimes termed magnetorheological (MR) elastomers. We have previously shown that these materials can exhibit viscoelastic moduli that increase substantially in an applied magnetic field. In this paper, we

J. M. Ginder; S. M. Clark; W. F. Schlotter; M. E. Nichols

2002-01-01

413

Virtual Physics Laboratory: Wave Phenomena  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Northwestern University discusses wave phenomena. The site features interactive applets of various wave types, including longitudinal, transverse, mixed, and sound waves. Also included are animations of superposition, beat frequencies, and the distinction between phase and group velocities, wave packets, and wave reflections.

Astronomy, The D.; University, Northwestern

414

Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law

O. J. E. Maroney

2009-01-01

415

Phenomena of flooding with condensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penetration of ECC water in the downcomer region of PWRs has recently been the subject of considerable research due to its importance in the safety analysis of a hypothetical LOCA. The difficulties in such analysis lie in the lack of understanding of the basic phenomena of counter-current two-phase flow, complicated also by the condensation effect and the geometry effect

Fan

1979-01-01

416

Theory of dynamic critical phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introductory review of the central ideas in the modern theory of dynamic critical phenomena is followed by a more detailed account of recent developments in the field. The concepts of the conventional theory, mode-coupling, scaling, universality, and the renormalization group are introduced and are illustrated in the context of a simple example-the phase separation of a symmetric binary fluid.

P. C. Hohenberg; B. I. Halperin

1977-01-01

417

Impact and Blast Resistance of Sandwich Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Response of conventional and modified sandwich plate designs is examined under static load, impact by a rigid cylindrical or flat indenter, and during and after an exponential pressure impulse lasting for 0.05 ms, at peak pressure of 100 MPa, simulating a nearby explosion. The conventional sandwich design consists of thin outer (loaded side) and inner facesheets made of carbon/epoxy fibrous laminates, separated by a thick layer of structural foam core. In the three modified designs, one or two thin ductile interlayers are inserted between the outer facesheet and the foam core. Materials selected for the interlayers are a hyperelas-tic rate-independent polyurethane;a compression strain and strain rate dependent, elastic-plastic polyurea;and an elastomeric foam. ABAQUS and LS-Dyna software were used in various response simulations. Performance comparisons between the enhanced and conventional designs show that the modified designs provide much better protection against different damage modes under both load regimes. After impact, local facesheet deflection, core compression, and energy release rate of delamination cracks, which may extend on hidden interfaces between facesheet and core, are all reduced. Under blast or impulse loads, reductions have been observed in the extent of core crushing, facesheet delaminations and vibration amplitudes, and in overall deflections. Similar reductions were found in the kinetic energy and in the stored and dissipated strain energy. Although strain rates as high as 10-4/s1 are produced by the blast pressure, peak strains in the interlayers were too low to raise the flow stress in the polyurea to that in the polyurethane, where a possible rate-dependent response was neglected. Therefore, stiff polyurethane or hard rubber interlayers materials should be used for protection of sandwich plate foam cores against both impact and blast-induced damage.

Dvorak, George J.; Bahei-El-Din, Yehia A.; Suvorov, Alexander P.

418

BLAST: RESOLVING THE COSMIC SUBMILLIMETER BACKGROUND  

SciTech Connect

The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has made 1 deg{sup 2}, deep, confusion-limited maps at three different bands, centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South Field. By calculating the covariance of these maps with catalogs of 24 mum sources from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, we have determined that the total submillimeter intensities are 8.60 +- 0.59, 4.93 +- 0.34, and 2.27 +- 0.20 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} at 250, 350, and 500 mum, respectively. These numbers are more precise than previous estimates of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and are consistent with 24 mum-selected galaxies generating the full intensity of the CIB. We find that the fraction of the CIB that originates from sources at z >= 1.2 increases with wavelength, with 60% from high-redshift sources at 500 mum. At all BLAST wavelengths, the relative intensity of high-z sources is higher for 24 mum-faint sources than that for 24 mum-bright sources. Galaxies identified as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by their Infrared Array Camera colors are 1.6-2.6 times brighter than the average population at 250-500 mum, consistent with what is found for X-ray-selected AGNs. BzK-selected galaxies are found to be moderately brighter than typical 24 mum-selected galaxies in the BLAST bands. These data provide high-precision constraints for models of the evolution of the number density and intensity of star-forming galaxies at high redshift.

Marsden, Gaelen; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Ngo, Henry [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bock, James J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Hughes, David H. [Instituto Nacional de AstrofIsica Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Magnelli, Benjamin [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d'Astrophysique, Bat. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Olmi, Luca [Physics Department, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Box 23343, UPR station, Puerto Rico 00931 (United States); Patanchon, Guillaume, E-mail: gmarsden@phas.ubc.c [Universite Paris Diderot, Laboratoire APC, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet 75205 Paris (France)

2009-12-20

419

Direct injection of natural gas in blast furnaces at high rates: Preliminary statistical analysis of blast furnace carbon balance at Armco-Middletown. Topical report, January 1990-September 1992  

SciTech Connect

The economic benefits of supplemental fuel injections depend, in part, on the coke replacement ratio. An assessment of the accuracy with which blast furnace coke rate may be measured and a determination of the key drivers of coke rate uncertainty are offered, to provide guidance for experiments in high-rate gas injection. Using statistical analysis tools, an expression for the measurement error associated with the various terms of blast furnace carbon balance is developed. Coke rate calculations based on the material balance are most sensitive to coke carbon content and to proper tracking of hot metal tapping schedule.

Neels, J.K.; Brown, F.C.

1992-09-01

420

Complex craniofacial trauma resulting from fireworks blast.  

PubMed

The authors report the case of a patient who sustained a complex craniofacial trauma secondary to a recreational fireworks blast. Initial assessment and management were performed with a multidisciplinary approach to achieve control of cerebral hemorrhage, debridement of wounds and brain, isolation of the brain from the external environment, reconstruction of the cranial base floor, and orbital and facial reconstruction. Modification of multiple conventional approaches, along with a multispecialty surgical team, were used to deal effectively with this unusual patient who was treated by single-stage immediate management. Reconstruction of both the intracranial and extracranial compartments was considered successful with a satisfactory cosmetic result. PMID:18362706

Romano, Fabio; Catalfamo, Luciano; Siniscalchi, Enrico Nastro; Conti, Alfredo; Angileri, Filippo Flavio; De Ponte, Francesco Saverio; Tomasello, Francesco

2008-03-01

421

Blast predictions for Coyote Canyon explosions  

SciTech Connect

In order to conduct tests of small explosives (up to 7.5 tons of TNT) on the Kirkland Air Force Base without damaging nearby structures or seriously disturbing neighbors, explosive yield limits have been developed for no damage regardless of weather conditions and for keeping the sonic effects below the threshold of general audibility. In addition, an up-to-date blast prediction procedure, based on locally available weather data and forecasts, was developed for use by USAF meteorologists. The data used, development methods, and results are presented. (LCL)

Reed, J.W.

1982-01-01

422

Celestial Blast in Bleak Reticulum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Reticulum constellation [1] certainly isn't a big hit for amateur astronomers. This tiny, bleak and diamond-shaped constellation, not far on the sky from the Large Magellanic Cloud, is often overlooked. But recently, astronomers had a closer look at a galaxy situated inside it. And more precisely at an exploding star hosted by the spiral galaxy NGC 1559 [2]. On the night of August 4, 2005, the renowned Australian amateur astronomer and SN discoverer Reverend Robert Evans discovered a supernova just North of the galaxy with his 0.31-m telescope. The supernova - the explosion of a star - was of magnitude 13.8, that is, only 20 times fainter than the entire host galaxy. Being the 104th supernova discovered in 2005, it received the name SN 2005df. Notably, Evans had already discovered 2 other supernovae in the same galaxy: in 1984 (SN 1984J) and in 1986 (SN 1986L). The following night, astronomer Marilena Salvo and her Australian colleagues classified the supernova as a somewhat unusual type Ia supernova, caught probably 10 days before it reached its maximum brightness. Such a supernova is thought to be the result of the explosion of a small and dense star - a white dwarf [3] - inside a binary system. As its companion was continuously spilling matter onto the white dwarf, the white dwarf reached a critical mass, leading to a fatal instability and the supernova. These are exactly a kind of supernovae in which Dietrich Baade, Ferdinando Patat (ESO), Lifan Wang (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA), and their colleagues are interested. In particular, they study the polarization properties of this kind of supernova in order to learn more about their asphericity, which holds important clues to the detailed physics that governs this terminal catastrophe in the life of such stars. Having an accepted observing programme that uses the FORS1 multi-mode instrument on Kueyen, one of the four Unit Telescopes of ESO's 8.2m Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal, they triggered a Target of Opportunity request so that on-duty astronomers at the VLT could observe this supernova, which was done on August 6. From a very first analysis of their data, Wang and his colleagues found that SN 2005df resembles closely another supernova they had studied before, SN 2001el, whose explosion they showed was significantly asymmetric (see ESO PR 23/03). NGC 1559 is a SBc(s)-type spiral galaxy [4] located about 50 million light-years away, that weighs the equivalent of about 10,000 million of suns, and is about 7 times smaller than our Milky Way: on the sky, it measures about 4x2 arcmin2. Receding from us at a speed of about 1,300 km/s, it is a galaxy of the Seyfert type. Such galaxies are characterized by a bright nucleus that radiates strongly in the blue and in the ultraviolet. Astronomers think that about 2 solar masses of gas per year are transformed into stars in this galaxy. Like most galaxies, NGC 1559 probably contains a black hole in its centre, which should have a mass that is equivalent to 300,000 suns. Technical Information: ESO PR Photo 26/05 is a composite based on four images taken with FORS1 on Kueyen (VLT) by Paul Vreeswijk, Dominique Naef and Chris Lidman (ESO) for Dietrich Baade, Ferdinando Patat, and Lifan Wang. The images were taken through different filters: V, R, I, and a narrow-band filter centred on the H-alpha line. The exposure time is 60 seconds in the three broad-band filters (V, R and I) and 3 min in the H-alpha filter. The field of view is 5.5 x 4.7 arcmin2. North is up and East is to the left.

2005-08-01

423

High energy density radiative blast wave experiments in clustered gas targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the efficient absorption of laser energy by clustered gases allows the study of high energy density systems at low average density with table-top scale lasers. Thus generation of radiative shocks at moderate drive energies in high Z materials can be achieved for the purpose of laboratory astrophysics. Using the Vulcan laser we have performed radiative shock experiments. We observe radiative shell thinning in Ar at high shock velocities, increasing the shocks susceptibility to instabilities. Utilising streaked Schlieren measurements, we measure shock velocity oscillations in Kr for the first time, indicative of the thermal cooling instability [1]. We also report on advanced diagnostics for characterisation of blast wave propagation. These include temporally resolved temperature measurement, proton radiography and the use of a second, perpendicular blast wave to probe the primary shock ambient medium. [4pt] [1] M. Hohenberger et al., submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

Doyle, Hugo; Olsson-Robbie, Stefan; Hohenberger, Matthias; Gumbrell, Edward; Moore, Alastair; Symes, Dan; Smith, Roland

2010-11-01

424

Blast mines: physics, injury mechanisms and vehicle protection.  

PubMed

Since World War II, more vehicles have been lost to land mines than all other threats combined. Anti-vehicular (AV) mines are capable of disabling a heavy vehicle, or completely destroying a lighter vehicle. The most common form of AV mine is the blast mine, which uses a large amount of explosive to directly damage the target. In a conventional military setting, landmines are used as a defensive force-multiplier and to restrict the movements of the opposing force. They are relatively cheap to purchase and easy to acquire, hence landmines are also potent weapons in the insurgents' armamentarium. The stand-offnature of its design has allowed insurgents to cause significant injuries to security forces in current conflicts with little personal risk. As a result, AV mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have become the most common cause of death and injury to Coalition and local security forces operating in Iraq and Afghanistan. Detonation of an AV mine causes an explosive, exothermic reaction which results in the formation of a shockwave followed by a rapid expansion of gases. The shockwave is mainly reflected by the soillair interface and fractures the soil cap overthe mine. The detonation products then vent through the voids in the soil, resulting in a hollow inverse cone which consists of the detonation gases surrounded by the soil ejecta. It is the combination of the detonation products and soil ejecta that interact with the target vehicle and cause injury to the vehicle occupants. A number of different strategies are required to mitigate the blast effects of an explosion. Primary blast effects can be reduced by increasing the standoff distance between the seat of the explosion and the crew compartment. Enhancement of armour on the base of the vehicle, as well as improvements in personal protection can prevent penetration of fragments. Mitigating tertiary effects can be achieved by altering the vehicle geometry and structure, increasing vehicle mass, as well as developing new strategies to reduce the transfer of the impulse through the vehicle to the occupants. Protection from thermal injury can be provided by incorporating fire resistant materials into the vehicle and in personal clothing. The challenge for the vehicle designer is the incorporation of these protective measures within an operationally effective platform. PMID:20397600

Ramasamy, A; Hill, A M; Hepper, A E; Bull, A M J; Clasper, J C

2009-12-01

425

An effort to simulate magnetospheric-ionospheric effects in the presence of seismic phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes the Soviet MACS (Magnetospheric-Atmospheric Coupling through Seismoacoustic phenomena) program, in which the effects of simulated earthquakes on processes in the magnetosphere and ionosphere were investigated. Seismic events were simulated by the explosion of large charges containing several hundreds of tons of TNT. Particular consideration is given to data acquired from the blast (288 tons of TNT) in the vicinity of Alma-Ata on November 28, 1981. A scheme describing the effect of the seismic waves on the upper atmosphere is elaborated.

Alperovich, L. S.; Vugmeister, B. O.; Gokhberg, M. B.; Drobzhev, V. I.; Erushchenkov, A. I.; Ivanov, E. A.; Kudriavtsev, V. P.; Kulichkov, S. N.; Krasnov, V. M.; Matveev, A. K.

426

IDENTIFICATION OF BLAST RESISTANCE GENES IN INDICA RICE GERMPLASM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice blast caused by Pyricularia grisea (Cooke) Sacc., is a major fungal disease of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the US, and of irrigated rice worldwide. Indica rice, rice grown in tropical areas is one possible source of additional blast resistance genes (Pi-genes) that could be incorporat...

427

General view of blast furnace "A"; looking southeast; The building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of blast furnace "A"; looking southeast; The building to the right is the crucible steel building - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

428

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE)/ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, WITH SINTERING PLANT CONVEYORS & TRANSFER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

429

Jet Blast Fence Investigation at John F. Kennedy International Airport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A blast fence installed at the departure end of runway 31L at John F. Kennedy International Airport intended to protect aircraft landing on runway 4R from the effects of jet blast was believed to be ineffective. Tests were conducted in two phases. The ini...

G. H. Christiansen

1975-01-01

430

Simulation and Improvement of the Micro Abrasive Blasting Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro abrasive blasting (MAB) is becoming an important machining technique for the fabrication of Micro Electro Mechanical systems. The process is based on the erosion of a mask-protected brittle substrate by an abrasive-laden air jet. Currently available blasting machines are relatively simple. However, to exploit this technique for applications of industrial interest a more efficient and controllable process is required.

B. Karpuschewski; A. M. Hoogstrate; M. Achtsnick

2004-01-01

431

Investigation of Ultrafast Laser-Driven Radiative Blast Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the evolution of cylindrically symmetric blast waves produced by the deposition of femtosecond laser pulses in gas jets. In high- Z gases radiative effects become important. We observe the production of an ionization precursor ahead of the shock front and deceleration parameters below the adiabatic value of 1\\/2 (for a cylinder), an effect expected when the blast

M. J. Edwards; A. J. MacKinnon; J. Zweiback; K. Shigemori; D. Ryutov; A. M. Rubenchik; K. A. Keilty; E. Liang; B. A. Remington; T. Ditmire

2001-01-01

432

Discontinuous Galerkin Methods Applied to Shock and Blast Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe procedures to model transient shock interaction problems using discontinuous Galerkin methods to solve the compressible Euler equations. The problems are motivated by blast flows surrounding cannons with perforated muzzle brakes. The goal is to predict shock strengths and blast over pressure. This application illustrates several computational difficulties. The software must handle complex geometries. The problems feature strong interacting

Nicolas Chevaugeon; Jianguo Xin; P. Hu; Xiangrong Li; D. Cler; Joseph E. Flaherty; Mark S. Shephard

2005-01-01

433

Blast-related traumatic brain injury research gaps”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DoD Blast Injury Research Program was established at the direction of Congress in the FY 2006 National Defense Authorization Act to coordinate and manage the medical research efforts and programs of the DoD relating to the prevention, mitigation, and treatment of blast injuries. The Secretary of Defense has designated the Secretary of the Army as the Executive Agent (EA)

M. J. Leggieri

2009-01-01

434

Numerical study of rock fracturing during blasting excavation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the process of excavations, blasting can induce damage inside surrounding rock, which may change the mechanical properties of rock mass and influence the stability of structure. Considering the effects of material properties and loading conditions, two numerical models, a rock blasting excavation model with two excavation steps and a planar rock model with four boreholes, are developed through the

Zhangtao Zhou; Zheming Zhu; XinXing Jin; Hao Tang; Yuan Wang

2010-01-01

435

A Cross-Platform for Tunnel Blast Design and Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital Mine has become the inevitable development trend of the future mines. Blasting is a essential process during the exploration and development of practical mining engineering. The blasting always plays a direct influence on the efficiency of each follow-up production process and if it were not handled correctly, it will even threaten the safety of miners. This paper presents a

Tingting Zhu; Chao Wang; Mingmin Zhang; Zhigeng Pan

2011-01-01

436

Modelling and evaluation of the micro abrasive blasting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro abrasive blasting (MAB) is becoming an important machining technique for the cost effective fabrication of micro devices. The material removal process is based on the erosion of a mask-protected brittle substrate by an abrasive-laden air jet. To exploit the potentials of this technique for applications of industrial interest, the blasting process has to become more efficient and better predictable.

M. Achtsnick; P. F. Geelhoed; A. M. Hoogstrate; B. Karpuschewski

2005-01-01

437

Blast Impact on Aluminum Foam Composite Sandwich Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandwich aluminum foam structures are being considered for energy absorption applications, crashworthiness, protection of transformer housings, and structural safety. Blast loading is one such phenomenon that is a potential threat to such structures. This study examines LS-DYNA modeling for aluminum foam sandwich composites subjected to blast loads. The sandwich composite was designed using polymer composite facesheets and aluminum foam as

Rajan Sriram; Uday K. Vaidya

438

Modeling of the Non-Auditory Response to Blast Overpressure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to develop mathematical models of the physical processes that cause blast injury so that the results of these tests using animals in simple blast environments can be safely translated to estimating hazard to man exposed to blas...

J. H. Stuhmiller

1987-01-01

439

Direct Initiation of Detonation by Non-Ideal Blast Waves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is a theoretical investigation of the initiation of detonation by nonideal blast waves. The study used the output of the CLOUD program as the source of flow data for blast waves generated by bursting spheres. Each cell that surrounds the bursti...

R. J. Cesarone

1977-01-01

440

Direct initiation of detonation by non-ideal blast waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a theoretical investigation of the initiation of detonation by nonideal blast waves. The study used the output of the CLOUD program as the source of flow data for blast waves generated by bursting spheres. Each cell that surrounds the bursting sphere is assumed to be reactive with an Arrhenius type kinetic rate law over a temperature range

R. J. Cesarone

1977-01-01

441

Test and Evaluation of the Modified Ocd Blast Closure Valves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight OCD blast closure valves were tested and evaluated by the U. S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory. Three sizes of valves were included -- 600 cfm, 1,200 cfm, and 2,500 cfm. The valves are designed to be closed by blast actuation and/or pneumaticall...

J. Andon

1965-01-01

442

Analysis and Prevention of Flyrock Accidents in Surface Blasting Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blasting is a primary means of extracting minerals and ores at surface mining operations. The domestic consumption of explosives and blasting agents during the year 2002 was about 5.53 billion pounds. Flyrock is always a major concern for the blaster. Fly...

H. C. Verakis T. E. Lobb T. S. Bajpayee

2008-01-01

443

Enhancing Oil Production by Helical Hydraulic Sand-Blasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The helical hydraulic sand-blasting slotting technology is a new development of the traditional hydraulic sand-blasting slotting technology. The original nozzle gun movement control system was replaced with a helical slid rail, and thus the application was extended to directional and horizontal wells. Experiments were conducted to study the feasibility abrasive water jet slotting sand prevention tubes. The effects of slotting

G. Li; J. Song; J. Niu; R. Tang; Z. Huang

2007-01-01

444

Seismo-acoustic analysis of the near quarry blasts using Plostina small aperture array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic and acoustic signals are important to recognize different type of industrial blasting sources in order to discriminate between them and natural earthquakes. We have analyzed the seismic events listed in the Romanian catalogue (Romplus) for the time interval between 2011 and 2012, and occurred in the Dobrogea region, in order to determine detection seismo-acoustic signals of quarry blasts by Plostina array stations. Dobrogea is known as a seismic region characterized by crustal earthquakes with low magnitudes; at the same time, over 40 quarry mines are located in the area, being sources of blasts recorded both with the seismic and infrasound sensors of the Romanian Seismic Network. Plostina seismo-acoustic array, deployed in the central part of Romania, consists of 7 seismic sites (3C broad-band instruments and accelerometers) collocated with 7 infrasound instruments. The array is particularly used for the seismic monitoring of the local and regional events, as well as for the detection of infrasonic signals produced by various sources. Considering the characteristics of the infrasound sensors (frequency range, dynamic, sensibility), the array proved its efficiency in observing the signals produced by explosions, mine explosion and quarry blasts. The quarry mines included for this study cover distances of two hundreds of kilometers from the station and routinely generate explosions that are detected as seismic and infrasonic signals with Plostina array. The combined seismo-acoustic analysis uses two types of detectors for signal identification: one, applied for the seismic signal identification, is based on array processing techniques (beamforming and frequency-wave number analysis), while the other one, which is used for infrasound detection and characterization, is the automatic detector DFX-PMCC (Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation Method). Infrasonic waves generated by quarry blasts have frequencies ranging from 0.05 Hz up to at least 6 Hz and amplitudes below 5 Pa. Seismic data analysis shows that the frequency range of the signals are above 2 Hz. Surface explosions such as quarry blasts are useful sources for checking detection and location efficiency, when seismic measurements are added. The process is crucial for discrimination purposes and for establishing of a set of ground-truth infrasound events. Ground truth information plays a key role in the interpretation of infrasound signals, by including near-field observations from industrial blasts.

Ghica, Daniela; Stancu, Iulian; Ionescu, Constantin

2013-04-01

445

PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY AMONG VICTIMS OF BOMB BLAST  

PubMed Central

Thirty one victims of bomb blast in a bus caused by terrorist activity in Dausa district, Rajasthan on 22.5.96, were evaluated for psychological reactions 3 days & 2 weeks after the incident. All hospitalized & non hospitalised bomb blast victims were assessed within 3 days of injury by objective predictors (percent of burnt area, facial disfigurement, limb amputations, fractures etc.) and subjective predictors (emotional distress and perceived social support). Detailed history, physical and mental state examination of all patients was carried out and for those having scores more then 17 on GHQ-60 (Hindi version), IPIS was administered. Diagnosis was made by 3 senior consultant psychiatrists of Psychiatric Centre, Jaipur, on the basis oflCD-10. At day 3 of 31 patients studied 11 (35.45%) had psychiatric morbidity. Out of which 6 (19.35%) had acute stress reaction, 3 (9.68%) had depression and 2 (6.45%) dissociative amnesia. Most commonly reported symptoms on IPIS were depersonalisation, derealisation, sleep disturbances specially generalised sleep loss, loss of appetite, nightmares, situational anxiety, depression, mental irritability, dulness of feelings, self blame, guilt, loss of interest, suicidal ideas, and worry about money, spouse, work and children. Most common physical injury was burns, followed by hearing disturbances, wounds received due to glass <& metal pieces and non specific pains and aches. Findings of follow up have been discussed and battery of tests for evaluation of victims of acute trauma has been suggested.

Gautam, Shiv; Gupta, I.D.; Batra, Lalit; Sharma, Himanshiu; Khandelwal, Rakesh; Pant, Anshuman

1998-01-01

446

Supersonic fan nozzle for abrasive blasting media  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A supersonic fan nozzle for abrasive blast removal of coatings particularly for use with plastic abrasive media, provides much greater media particle velocity, a more uniform velocity profile, and a more uniform media particle distribution than prior art nozzles. The new nozzle has a constant height throat area about 1 inch long, about 1.57 inches wide, and about 0.125 inche high. The throat opens into a constant height diverging slot which diverges at about a 6.5 degree half-angle for about 9.5 inches to a final exit width of about 3.75 inches. A nozzle-to-hose coupling connects at one end to a conventionally sized blasting hose and at the other by a rectangular opening to the throat. Used with light plastic media entrained in an airflow stream at operating pressures of 15 to 80 psig, the nozzle has successfully removed coatings from a variety of delicate underlying substrates with little or no observable damage to the substrates. In tests, it has produced minimal residual stress effects on substrates while increasing production stripping rates by 50-200% . Tests have shown that the optimum range of dimensions for the new nozzle are a slot exit area to throat area ratio about 2.2 to about 2.5 and a constant divergence half-angle of about 5 to about 8 degrees.

1994-12-06

447

Benchmarking PSI-BLAST in genome annotation.  

PubMed

The recognition of remote protein homologies is a major aspect of the structural and functional annotation of newly determined genomes. Here we benchmark the coverage and error rate of genome annotation using the widely used homology-searching program PSI-BLAST (position-specific iterated basic local alignment search tool). This study evaluates the one-to-many success rate for recognition, as often there are several homologues in the database and only one needs to be identified for annotating the sequence. In contrast, previous benchmarks considered one-to-one recognition in which a single query was required to find a particular target. The benchmark constructs a model genome from the full sequences of the structural classification of protein (SCOP) database and searches against a target library of remote homologous domains (<20 % identity). The structural benchmark provides a reliable list of correct and false homology assignments. PSI-BLAST successfully annotated 40 % of the domains in the model genome that had at least one homologue in the target library. This coverage is more than three times that if one-to-one recognition is evaluated (11 % coverage of domains). Although a structural benchmark was used, the results equally apply to just sequence homology searches. Accordingly, structural and sequence assignments were made to the sequences of Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (see http://www.bmm.icnet. uk). The extent of missed assignments and of new superfamilies can be estimated for these genomes for both structural and functional annotations. PMID:10547299

Müller, A; MacCallum, R M; Sternberg, M J

1999-11-12

448

Tailored Blast Wave Production Pertaining to Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the first production of "tailored" blast waves in cluster media using a 1 ps laser pulse focused to 2 × 1016 W/cm2. This new technique allows cylindrical blast waves to be produced with a strong axial modulation of variable spatial frequency, as a seed for instability growth. Energy deposition is modified by changing the cluster density whilst keeping the atomic density of the target constant. Electron density maps show the production of strongly modulated blast waves and the development of a thin shell structure in H at late times, and the trajectories show blast waves forming in H, and Ar. In Xe, a blast wave does not form on the timescales studied. Analysis of astrophysical similarity parameters suggests that a hydrodynamically similar situation is created in H, and that further evolution would create a regime where radiative effects may be influential in Ar and Xe.

Moore, A. S.; Symes, D. R.; Smith, R. A.

449

Tailored Blast Wave Production Pertaining to Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the first production of “tailored” blast waves in cluster media using a 1 ps laser pulse focused to 2×1016 W/cm2. This new technique allows cylindrical blast waves to be produced with a strong axial modulation of variable spatial frequency, as a seed for instability growth. Energy deposition is modified by changing the cluster density whilst keeping the atomic density of the target constant. Electron density maps show the production of strongly modulated blast waves and the development of a thin shell structure in H at late times, and the trajectories show blast waves forming in H, and Ar. In Xe, a blast wave does not form on the timescales studied. Analysis of astrophysical similarity parameters suggests that a hydrodynamically similar situation is created in H, and that further evolution would create a regime where radiative effects may be influential in Ar and Xe.

Moore, A. S.; Symes, D. R.; Smith, R. A.

2005-07-01

450

Note: A table-top blast driven shock tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer that explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

Courtney, Michael W.; Courtney, Amy C.

2010-12-01

451

Coupled rock motion and gas flow modeling in blasting  

SciTech Connect

The spherical element computer code DMC (Distinct Motion Code) used to model rock motion resulting from blasting has been enhanced to allow routine computer simulations of bench blasting. The enhancements required for bench blast simulation include: (1) modifying the gas flow portion of DMC, (2) adding a new explosive gas equation of state capability, (3) modifying the porosity calculation, and (4) accounting for blastwell spacing parallel to the face. A parametric study performed with DMC shows logical variation of the face velocity as burden, spacing, blastwell diameter and explosive type are varied. These additions represent a significant advance in the capability of DMC which will not only aid in understanding the physics involved in blasting but will also become a blast design tool. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Preece, D.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Knudsen, S.D. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

452

Magnetoelectric charge states of matter-energy. A second approximation. Part VII. Diffuse relativistic superconductive plasma. Measurable and non-measurable physical manifestations. Kirlian photography. Laser phenomena. Cosmic effects on chemical and biological systems.  

PubMed

Experimental evidence suggests that all objects, and especially living objects, contain and are surrounded by diffuse clouds of matter-energy probably best considered as a superconductive plasma state and best analyzed by application of an extended form of the Einstein special theory of relativity. Such a plasma state would have physical properties that for relativistic reasons the experimentalists could not expect to measure, and also those he could expect to measure. Not possible to measure should be (a) absorption or reflection of light, (b) electric charge mobilities of Hall effects, and (c) any particulate structure within the plasma. Possible to measure should be (a) channel formation ("arcing") in high applied electric fields (e.g., as in Kirlian photography), (b) effects of the plasma on temperatures and potentials of electrons in solid objects moving through that plasma, (c) facilitation of coupling between electromagnetic oscillations in sets of adjacent molecules, resulting in facilitation of laser and maser emissions of electromagnetic waves and in facilitation of geometrical alignment of adjacent molecules, and (d) magnetic and electric flux trapping with resultant magnetic and/or electric dipole moments. Experimental evidence suggests that diffuse superconductive plasma may reach the earth from the sun, resulting in diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in rates of antigen-antibody reactions as well as in rates of precipitation and crystallization of solids from solutions. PMID:7454856

Cope, F W

1980-01-01

453

On-Line Measurement of Plasma-Sprayed Ni-Particles during Impact on a Ti-Surface: Influence of Surface Oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of plasma-sprayed Ni5%Al particles on polished and grit-blasted Ti6Al4V samples under oxidized and nonoxidized conditions. For this purpose, measurements of thermal radiation and velocity of individual plasma-sprayed particles were carried out. From the thermal radiation at impact, splat diameter during flattening and temperature evolution during cooling were evaluated. Characteristic parameters related to the quality of contact between the splat and the substrate were retrieved. The flattening speed was introduced to characterize wetting, while the cooling rate was used to characterize solidification. The idea was to get a signature of particle impact for a given surface roughness and oxidation state by identifying parameters which strongly affect the splat behavior. Sieved Ni5%Al powder in a narrow range (+65 -75 ?m) was sprayed on four sets of titanium alloy surfaces, consisting of polished and grit-blasted samples, one set had a nonoxidized surface and the other one was oxidized in an oven at 600 °C for two hours. Resulting splats after impact were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, the splats on oxidized surface showed pores in their core and detached fingers at the periphery. The cooling rate and flattening degree significantly increased on the oxidized smooth surface compared to the nonoxidized one. This trend was not found in grit-blasted surfaces, which implies that impact phenomena are different on grit-blasted surfaces than on smooth surfaces thus further work is needed.

Bahbou, M. F.; Nylén, P.

2007-12-01

454

Statistical phenomena in particle beams  

SciTech Connect

Particle beams are subject to a variety of apparently distinct statistical phenomena such as intrabeam scattering, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, coherent instabilities, and radiofrequency noise diffusion. In fact, both the physics and mathematical description of these mechanisms are quite similar, with the notion of correlation as a powerful unifying principle. In this presentation we will attempt to provide both a physical and a mathematical basis for understanding the wide range of statistical phenomena that have been discussed. In the course of this study the tools of the trade will be introduced, e.g., the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, noise theory, correlation functions, and beam transfer functions. Although a major concern will be to provide equations for analyzing machine design, the primary goal is to introduce a basic set of physical concepts having a very broad range of applicability.

Bisognano, J.J.

1984-09-01

455

Cathodic phenomena in aluminum electrowinning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although aluminum is one of the world's highest production-volume primary metals, it is particularly costly to produce for a variety of factors, not the least of which are the expenses associated with electrolytic reduction. Based on the scale of global aluminum processing, even minor improvements in the electrowinning technology can result in significant savings of resources. Thus, from this perspective, the following reviews recent studies of cathodic phenomena in aluminum electrowinning.

Bouteillon, J.; Poignet, J. C.; Rameau, J. J.

1993-02-01

456

Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual\\u000amotion machines and the existence of a non-decreasing, globally unique entropy\\u000afunction forms the starting point of many textbook presentations of the\\u000afoundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena\\u000aassociated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of\\u000avalidity of this basis of the second law

O. J. E. Maroney

2009-01-01

457

New phenomena searches at CDF  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on recent results from the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment, which is accumulating data from proton-antiproton collisions with {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. The new phenomena being explored include Higgs, Supersymmetry, and large extra dimensions. They also present the latest results of searches for heavy objects, which would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model.

Soha, Aron; /UC, Davis

2006-04-01

458

Comment on "chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model".  

PubMed

In a case study, the authors report an increase in phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain, a marker of neuroaxonal damage, in the plasma of a blast-exposed patient immediately after injury. They suggest that this phosphoprotein may be a useful body fluid indicator of acute blast traumatic brain injury. PMID:23100625

Tisdall, Martin; Petzold, Axel

2012-10-24

459

Measurement of Airblast Parameters on the Minor Uncle Explosion Event Using Passive Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the measurement by the author of two of the fundamental blast parameters associated with explosions in air, i.e., dynamic pressure impulse (DPI), and blast pressure. The report illustrates how valuable a role inexpensive, passive instru...

J. S. Howe

1996-01-01

460

Noise Induced Phenomena: a Sampler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluctuations or noise have played a changing role in the history of science. Historically, we can identify three views of noise. In the first, up to the end of the 19th century, noise was considered a nuisance to be avoided or eliminated. This is still the implication of the definition of the word noise in any standard dictionary. A second stage dates from the beginning of the 20th century, when it became clear from the study of fluctuations via Onsager relations and fluctuation-dissipation relations that one can obtain useful information about a physical system from its fluctuations. The third stage started about three decades ago, and is marked by the realization that noise can actually play a central role in inducing new phenomena. Examples where noise leads to organized behavior include stochastic resonance, noise-induced phase transitions, noise-induced pattern formation, and noise-induced transport. In this minicourse we sample some such noise-induced phenomena. While many of these fluctuation-induced phenomena involve temporal fluctuations, spatial fluctuations (disorder) can also play a similar organizing role. We briefly illustrate this scenario as well.

Wio, Horacio S.; Lindenberg, Katja

2003-03-01

461

The Physics of Supernova Remnant Blast Waves. II. Electron-Ion Equilibration in DEM L71 in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present analysis and modeling of X-ray spectra from the blast wave shock of DEM L71 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This remnant exhibits widespread Balmer-dominated emission characteristic of nonradiative shocks in partially neutral gas. We have used Chandra ACIS-S data and optical Fabry-Pérot spectra of the blast wave to measure the electron and proton temperatures, respectively. In principle, when

Cara E. Rakowski; Parviz Ghavamian; John P. Hughes

2003-01-01

462

Preparation of perovskite type titanium-bearing blast furnace slag photocatalyst doped with sulphate and investigation on reduction Cr(VI) using UV–vis light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perovskite type titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (TBBFS) and sulphate-modified titanium-bearing blast furnace slag (SO42?\\/TBBFS) photocatalysts were prepared by the high-energy ball milling method at different calcination temperature. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra and SEM measurements. The photocatalytic activities of the different catalysts were evaluated by the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) under UV–vis light irradiation.

X. F. Lei; X. X. Xue

2008-01-01

463

Gamma-ray Burst Afterglow Model Fitting Based Directly on Blast Wave Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-ray burst are the most luminous explosions in the universe, seen as sudden flashes in gamma-rays, often followed by a long-lasting afterglow signal detected from X-rays to radio. On the one hand, afterglow blast waves are complex two dimensional phenomena that require high-performance parallel computer hydrodynamical simulations to accurately model their evolution from ultra-relativistic collimated jets to quasi-spherical non-relativistic flow. These simulations require numerical techniques such as adaptive mesh refinement in a Lorentz boosted frame in order to fully resolve the physics of the outflow. On the other hand, the dynamics and resulting synchrotron emission ultimately depend on a limited number of parameters, leading to a number of useful scale invariances between different explosion parameters. This can be exploited to open a new avenue in afterglow data analysis, where we fit scale-invariant blast wave light curves and dynamics directly to (broadband) afterglow data. As a result, it is now possible to accurately model features such as the `jet break' of the light curve and the transition to non-relativistic flow, where simulation results differ markedly from earlier analytical prescriptions. I will present our latest results, where we use various methods to simulate blast waves from afterglows and other relativistic transients and from these simulations derive our novel approach to data analysis. Comparison with data from Swift presents a challenge for the jet break interpretation of many light curves and emphasizes the role of the observer angle even for observers still located within the opening angle of the relativistic jet.

Van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, A.

2013-01-01

464

Preparation of Aluminum Coatings by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying and Dry-Ice Blasting and Their Corrosion Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum coating, as an example of spray coating material with low hardness, was deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying while dry-ice blasting was applied during the deposition process. The deposited coatings were characterized in terms of microstructure, porosity, phase composition, and the valence states. The results show that the APS aluminum coatings with dry-ice blasting present a porosity of 0.35 ± 0.02%, which is comparable to the bulk material formed by the mechanical compaction. In addition, no evident oxide has been detected, except for the very thin and impervious oxide layer at the outermost layer. Compared to plasma-sprayed Al coatings without dry-ice blasting, the adhesion increased by 52% for Al substrate using dry-ice blasting, while 25% for steel substrate. Corrosion behavior of coated samples was evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous using electrochemistry measurements. The electrochemical results indicated that APS Al coating with dry-ice blasting was more resistant to pitting corrosion than the conventional plasma-sprayed Al coating.

Dong, Shu-Juan; Song, Bo; Zhou, Gen-Shu; Li, Chang-Jiu; Hansz, Bernard; Liao, Han-Lin; Coddet, Christian

2013-10-01

465

Impact of Drill and Blast Excavation on Repository Performance Confirmation  

SciTech Connect

There has been considerable work accomplished internationally examining the effects of drill and blast excavation on rock masses surrounding emplacement openings of proposed nuclear waste repositories. However, there has been limited discussion tying the previous work to performance confirmation models such as those proposed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper addresses a possible approach to joining the available information on drill and blast excavation and performance confirmation. The method for coupling rock damage data from drill and blast models to performance assessment models for fracture flow requires a correlation representing the functional relationship between the peak particle velocity (PPV) vibration levels and the potential properties that govern water flow rates in the host rock. Fracture aperture and frequency are the rock properties which may be most influenced by drill and blast induced vibration. If it can be shown (using an appropriate blasting model simulation) that the effect of blasting is far removed from the waste package in an emplacement drift, then disturbance to the host rock induced in the process of drill and blast excavation may be reasonably ignored in performance assessment calculations. This paper proposes that the CANMET (Canada Center for Mineral and Energy Technology) Criterion, based on properties that determine rock strength, may be used to define a minimum PPV. This PPV can be used to delineate the extent of blast induced damage. Initial applications have demonstrated that blasting models can successfully be coupled with this criterion to predict blast damage surrounding underground openings. The Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain has used a blasting model to generate meaningful estimates of near-field vibration levels and damage envelopes correlating to data collected from pre-existing studies conducted. Further work is underway to expand this application over a statistical distribution of geologic parameters, encompassing all the rock types that will be encountered for the proposed repository site at Yucca Mountain. This paper suggests that, based on predicted and verified vibration levels from blasting a distance equal to four standard deviations is unlikely to affect properties that govern water flow in the host rock. The authors propose this predicted distance and verification of vibration levels may be applied to the excavation of repository subsurface openings that may be most efficiently excavated by drill and blast methods with a reasonable assurance of safety.