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Sample records for measuring cooking yield

  1. Effect of cold storage and cooking preparation methods on Warner-Bratzler shear force values and cook yield of chicken breast fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force and cook yield are widely used indications of chicken breast meat quality. Experimental design and work load commonly necessitate storage of chicken breast fillets in a refrigerator or freezer before parameters can be measured. The objective of this study was to in...

  2. Hot-boning enhances cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of postmortem deboning time on cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs. In Experiment 1 (3 replications), chicken thigh meat was separated from bones at 0.45 (hot-bone), 2, and 24 h and trimmed to obtain iliotibialis muscle. The iliotibiali...

  3. Delayed Carcass Deboning Results in Significantly Reduced Cook Yields of Boneless Skinless Chicken Thighs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boneless skinless chicken thighs are a new deboned poultry product in the retail market. Three trials were conducted to investigate the effect of postmortem carcass deboning time on the cook yields of boneless skinless chicken thighs as well as boneless skinless chicken breasts. Broiler carcasses ...

  4. Effect of thawing methods on cook yield of frozen broiler breast fillets deboned at different postmortem times

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of thawing conditions on weight loss or cook yield of frozen red meat has been intensively studied and results varied with meat types. There is a lack of information about the effect of thawing methods on cook yield of frozen white meat. The objective of the present study was to invest...

  5. Cooked yields, color, tenderness, and sensory traits of beef roasts cooked in an oven with steam generation versus a commercial convection oven to different endpoint temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bowers, L J; Dikeman, M E; Murray, L; Stroda, S L

    2012-10-01

    A CVap steam generation oven was compared with a Blodgett convection oven to examine effects on yields, cooked color, tenderness, and sensory traits of beef Longissimus lumborum (LL), Deep pectoralis (DP), and Biceps femoris (BF) muscles cooked to 1 of 3 temperatures (65.6, 71.1, or 76.7°C). Four roasts were cooked in the CVap for a constant time, and 2 roasts were cooked in the Blodgett until they reached target temperatures (3 replications). Cooking yields were higher (P<0.05) for BF and LL roasts in the CVap. Slice shear force (SSF) for BF roasts was lowest (P<0.05) in the CVap but lowest (P<0.05) for DP roasts in the Blodgett. No oven effect (P>0.05) was found for LL roasts. Sensory tenderness for BF roasts in the CVap was higher (P<0.05) than those in the Blodgett. Juiciness was higher (P<0.05) for LL roasts in the Blodgett. The CVap oven offers some tenderization (BF) and cooking yield advantages (BF and DP) over forced-air convection cooking. PMID:22607816

  6. Cooking frozen Turkey: duration, yield and stuffing alterations with solid-state starting temperature.

    PubMed

    Moran, E T; Bauermeister, L

    2015-08-01

    Frozen pre-stuffed turkeys from 12 week females were conductively cooked at 163°C to an 85°C internal breast end-point. Bread cubes having 50% added water filled crop and body cavity to 20% of weight the turkeys were then frozen. Each of 4 treatments employed 7 carcasses: one was thawed to +5°C with repetitions at -5, -15, and -25°C enabling a regression analysis. Time to attain breast end-point was 44 min when the starting temperature was +5°C, which increased to 63 min at -5°C, and 69 min at -25°C (P < 0.001, Q: quadratic). Thigh temperatures averaged 77°C. Crop stuffing was 80°C when cooking was initiated at +5°C and increased to 84°C as the starting temperatures fell to -25°C (P < 0.01, Q). Body cavity stuffing reached 65°C when the carcass had been thawed prior to cooking, thereafter decreasing to 59 and 60°C when at -5 and -15°C, respectively, before returning to 65°C for the -25°C case (P < 0.01, C: cubic). Total carcass loss was 18.8% when cooking was initiated at +5°C. This increased to 22.6% at -25°C (P < 0.01, Q). Total drip after cooking averaged 23.7% however, the percentage of fat in the drip increased from 51.1% when using +5°C, to 57.2% with carcasses at -25°C (P < 0.05, Q). The stuffing gained in weight, which could be attributed to associated water when thawed, as opposed to frozen (147 vs. 102g, P < 0.05, Q). Stuffing moisture was less when the carcasses had been frozen than if cooked after thawing, particularly for crop (59.4% using +5°C vs. 55.8% frozen, P < 0.05, Q). Fat dominated the DM: increase, which was similar among treatments and both locations (22.6%). Stuffing CP: increased with +5°C carcasses on thawing compared to frozen carcasses, particularly for crop (15.1 vs. 13.2% DM, P < 0.05, Q from +5 to -5°C, respectively). Changes in part yield and meat composition were minor. Heat for ice to change to liquid was the primary basis for alterations when cooking from the frozen state, while cavity stuffing consistently

  7. Magnetic susceptibilities measured on rocks of the upper Cook Inlet, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alstatt, A.A.; Saltus, R.W.; Bruhn, R.L.; Haeussler, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    We have measured magnetic susceptibility in the field on most of the geologic rock formations exposed in the upper Cook Inlet near Anchorage and Kenai, Alaska. Measured susceptibilities range from less than our detection limit of 0.01 x 10-3 (SI) to greater than 100 x 10-3 (SI). As expected, mafic igneous rocks have the highest susceptibilities and some sedimentary rocks the lowest. Rocks of the Tertiary Sterling Formation yielded some moderate to high susceptibility values. Although we do not have detailed information on the magnetic mineralogy of the rocks measured here, the higher susceptibilities are sufficient to explain the magnitudes of some short-wavelength aeromagnetic anomalies observed on recent surveys of the upper Cook Inlet.

  8. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, M.; Al-Adili, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Simutkin, V.; Solders, A.

    2016-06-01

    The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f) and Th(p,f) have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn) reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  9. Yield and textural properties of tofu as affected by soymilk coagulation prepared by a high-temperature pressure cooking process.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Feng; Chen, Zhenjia; Shi, Xiaodi; Wang, Ruican; Guo, Shuntang

    2016-12-15

    The cooking of raw soymilk is a necessary procedure prior to the production of tofu. The effects of the high-temperature pressure cooking (HTPC) and traditional cooking methods on the yield and textural properties of tofu products were investigated. Results showed that when HTPC was applied, the content of protein particles increased, thereby contributing to the formation of a dense network of tofu gel. Thus, significant improvement of textural properties, including hardness, chewiness and springiness, was observed. Moreover, HTPC contributes to the change in the composition of the particulate protein, whereas the proportion of β-conglycinin in the non-particulate protein increased. The start and end points of the protein coagulation induced by Ca(2+) moved backward, and slowed the coagulation process, which was conducive to the incorporation of water or dry matter into the gel. PMID:27451218

  10. Determination of Cooking Yields and Nutrient Retention Factors of Choline in Meat Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA’s recent research shows that meat products are good sources of choline. During cooking, nutrient levels are affected by moisture and fat losses and may be reduced by heating. To determine the impact of cooking on choline retention in meats, four nationwide composite samples of beef, bacon, cure...

  11. Effect of high-energy electron irradiation of chicken meat on thiobarbituric acid values, shear values, odor, and cooked yield

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.L.; Owens, S.L.; Tesch, S.; Hannah, K.W. )

    1990-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether electron-beam irradiation would affect shear values, yield, odor, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of chicken tissues. Broiler breasts (pectoralis superficialis) and whole thighs were irradiated with an electron-beam accelerator at levels to produce adsorbed doses of 100, 200, and 300 krads on the surface of the sample. The thigh samples were stored for 2, 4, and 8 days before testing for TBA values. The depth to which the radiation had penetrated the pectoralis superficialis muscle was also determined. Radiation penetrated 22 mm into slices of pectoralis superficialis muscle when 100 krad was absorbed by the surface of the tissue. The dose absorbed beneath the tissue surface to a depth of 10 mm was larger than the dose absorbed at the surface. The absorbed dose decreased as the depth of penetration increased. For cooked breast tissue, the shear values and moisture content were not affected by the absorbed radiation. Cooking losses of aged breast tissue were not affected by irradiation, but cooking losses were reduced in breast tissue that had not been aged. Irradiating uncooked thigh and uncooked breast samples produced a characteristic odor that remained after the thighs were cooked but was not detectable after the breast samples were cooked. With two exceptions, no significantly different TBA values were found that could be attributed to irradiation.

  12. Pressure wave measurements from thermal cook-off of an HMX based high explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Vandersall, K S

    2000-10-10

    A better understanding of thermal cook-off is important for safe handling and storing explosive devices. A number of safety issues exist about what occurs when a cased explosive thermally cooks off. For example, violence of the events as a function of confinement are important for predictions of collateral damage. This paper demonstrates how adjacent materials can be gauged to measure the resulting pressure wave and how this wave propagates in this adjacent material. The output pulse from the thermal cook-off explosive containing fixture is of obvious interest for assessing many scenarios.

  13. Pressure Wave Measurements from Thermal Cook-Off of an HMX Based High Explosive PBX 9501

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, F; Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Greenwood, D W; Vandersall, K S

    2001-05-31

    A better understanding of thermal cook-off is important for safe handling and storing explosive devices. A number of safety issues exist about what occurs when a cased explosive thermally cooks off. For example, violence of the events as a function of confinement are important for predictions of collateral damage. This paper demonstrates how adjacent materials can be gauged to measure the resulting pressure wave and how this wave propagates in this adjacent material. The output pulse from the thermal cook-off explosive containing fixture is of obvious interest for assessing many scenarios.

  14. Pressure Wave Measurements from Thermal Cook-off of an HMX Based Explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, J W; Tarver, C M; Urtiew, P A; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Vandersall, K S

    2001-05-09

    A better understanding of thermal cook-off is important for safe handling and storing explosive devices. A number of safety issues exist about what occurs when a cased explosive thermally cooks off. For example, violence of the events as a function of confinement are important for predictions of collateral damage. This paper demonstrates how adjacent materials can be gauged to measure the resulting pressure wave and how this wave propagates in this adjacent material. The output pulse from the thermal cook-off explosive containing fixture is of obvious interest for assessing many scenarios.

  15. A survey of commercially available broilers marketed as organic, free-range, and conventional broilers for cooked meat yields, meat composition, and relative value.

    PubMed

    Husak, R L; Sebranek, J G; Bregendahl, K

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this survey was to investigate qualitative and quantitative properties of meat from organic, free-range, and conventional broilers as currently provided to consumers. Fifteen broilers from 4 suppliers of each type were evaluated for raw meat yield, cooked meat yield, proximate composition, pH, color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes. Organic broilers yielded more dark (thigh) meat (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional, when compared on a raw-meat basis, but conventional and free-range broilers yielded more (P < 0.05) cooked light (breast) meat than organic. Protein content of organic breast and thigh meat was greater (P < 0.05) than conventional in the raw and the cooked meat comparisons. The pH of breast meat from organic broilers was higher (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Organic breast and thigh meat was less yellow (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Fatty acid analysis showed that organic breasts and thighs were lower (P < 0.05) in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and higher (P < 0.05) in polyunsaturated fatty acids than free-range and conventional broilers. Shear force measurements were less (P < 0.05) for both breast and thigh meat from conventional broilers relative to free-range and organic broilers. Sensory panel results indicated that thighs from conventional broilers were more tender (P < 0.05) and less chewy (P < 0.05) than thighs from free-range and organic broilers, whereas other sensory properties did not differ. At the time of the study, March through May of 2006, the average retail prices for US broilers were USD 3.19, USD 2.78, and USD 1.29 per pound (USD 7.03, USD 6.13, and USD 2.84/kg) for organic, free-range, and conventional, respectively. Whereas a difference in the fatty acid composition was the largest difference observed between retail broilers in this survey, it is important to note that diets and production environments within the study were not controlled

  16. Measurement of resistant starch content in cooked rice and analysis of gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nakayoshi, Yuuki; Nakamura, Sumiko; Kameo, Yoji; Shiiba, Daisuke; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Digestion-resistant starch (RS) has many physiologic functions. The RS content is measured by enzymatically degrading flour samples according to the method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Experiments have been performed with wheat, corn, and other grains, but there are no data for cooked rice grains in the form ingested by humans. Thus, we investigated a method to measure RS that is suitable for cooked rice grains using rice cultivars that are reported to differentially increase postprandial blood glucose in humans. Using a method for cooking individual rice grains and optimized enzyme reaction conditions, we established an RS measurement method. We also found that the amylopectin crystal condition affects the RS content measured using our method. PMID:25996617

  17. PREPARATION OF SPHERULITES FROM JET COOKED MIXTURES OF HIGH AMYLOSE STARCH AND FATTY ACIDS. EFFECT OF PREPARATION CONDITIONS ON SPHERULITE MORPHOLOGY AND YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When high amylose cornstarch (amylose content: 70%) was jet cooked with 5% palmitic acid, based on amylose, spherulite yields of approximately 60%, based on total starch, were obtained. Spherulites were characterized by SEM and x-ray diffraction. The types of spherulites formed depended on the met...

  18. Comparison of objective texture measurements in raw and cooked wooden breast meat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breast meat exhibiting the wooden breast condition is characterized as having an abnormally hard or rigid texture. The efficacy of using objective texture measurements to characterize the texture attributes of breast meat exhibiting this condition before and after cooking are not well under...

  19. Yield stress measurements using novel squeezing flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Daniel

    Techniques for measuring the yield stress of materials are numerous, but often plagued with difficulties and uncertainties in measurement. The primary methods include shear rheometry and, more recently, squeezing flow. Shear rheometry requires care on the part of the experimentalist to generate uniform flow fields and avoid shear banding or wall slip which may interfere with measurements. Squeezing flow tests are often performed with poorly controlled boundary conditions creating complicated flow fields. Further, the effects of the experimental modifications made to produce these boundary conditions in measurements are often not investigated and simply ignored. The main objective of this study was to develop a novel measuring technique to study the yield stress behavior of a model material, Carbopol. First attempts were made towards a novel lubricant injection squeezing (LIS) flow technique based on the continuous lubricated squeezing flow (CLSF) setup, as well as a novel lubricant film squeezing (LFS) technique which will allow measurement of the yield stress without the complicated treatment of either the sample or experimental setup required by currently favored methods. The novel techniques were developed and validated by direct comparison with shear measurements, the current gold standard for determining yield stress. Common squeezing techniques for characterizing yield stress fluids were also compared and found to be inadequate and inconsistent when compared to the shear measurements. The results from this study showed that the LIS and LFS methods are able to qualitatively determine a yield stress, but further investigation is required before they can be achieve their full potential as viable methods for determine yield stress.

  20. Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. Part I: Effect of temperature on product yields and heteroatom removal.

    PubMed

    Bezergianni, Stella; Dimitriadis, Athanasios; Kalogianni, Aggeliki; Pilavachi, Petros A

    2010-09-01

    Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil (WCO) was studied as a process for biofuels production. The hydrotreatment temperature is the most dominant operating parameter which defines catalyst performance as well as catalyst life. In this analysis, a hydrotreating temperature range of 330-398 degrees C was explored via a series of five experiments (330, 350, 370, 385 and 398 degrees C). Several parameters were considered for evaluating the effect of temperature including product yields, conversion, selectivity (diesel and gasoline), heteroatom removal (sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen) and saturation of double bonds. For all experiments the same commercial hydrotreating catalyst was utilized, while the remaining operating parameters were constant (pressure=1200 psig, LHSV=1.0 h(-1), H(2)/oil ratio=4000 scfb, liquid feed=0.33 ml/min and gas feed=0.4 scfh). It was observed that higher reactor temperatures are more attractive when gasoline production is of interest, while lower reaction temperatures are more suitable when diesel production is more important. PMID:20395136

  1. Precise Measurement of the Absolute Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; di Giulio, C.; San Luis, P. Facal; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J. R.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Monasor, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Ridky, J.; Rizi, V.; D'Orfeuil, B. Rouille; Salamida, F.; Schovanek, P.; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    2011-09-01

    We present preliminary results of the absolute yield of fluorescence emission in atmospheric gases. Measurements were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility with a variety of beam particles and gases. Absolute calibration of the fluorescence yield to 5% level was achieved by comparison with two known light sources--the Cherenkov light emitted by the beam particles, and a calibrated nitrogen laser. The uncertainty of the energy scale of current Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays experiments will be significantly improved by the AIRFLY measurement.

  2. COOKING-RELATED PARTICLE CONCENTRATIONS MEASURED IN AN OCCUPIED TOWNHOME IN RESTON, VA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In non-smoking households, cooking is one of the most significant sources of indoor particles. To date, there are limited data available regarding indoor particle concentrations generated by different types of cooking. To increase the knowledge base associated with particles ...

  3. Measurement of emissions from air pollution sources. 4. C1-C27 organic compounds from cooking with seed oils.

    PubMed

    Schauer, James J; Kleeman, Michael J; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-02-15

    The emission rates of gas-phase, semivolatile, and particle-phase organic compounds ranging in carbon number from C1 to C27 were measured from institutional-scale food cooking operations that employ seed oils. Two cooking methods and three types of seed oils were examined: vegetables stir-fried in soybean oil, vegetables stir-fried in canola oil, and potatoes deep fried in hydrogenated soybean oil. The emission rates of 99 organic compounds were quantified, and these include n-alkanes, branched alkanes, alkenes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, carbonyls, aromatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and lactones. Carbonyls and fatty acids (n-alkanoic and n-alkenoic acids) make up a significant portion of the organic compounds emitted from all three seed oil cooking procedures. The compositional differences in the organic compound emissions between the different cooking operations are consistent with the differences in the organic composition of the various cooking oils used. The distribution of the n-alkanoic acids between the gas and particle phases was found to be in good agreement with gas/particle partitioning theory. The relative importance of emissions from commercial deep frying operations to the total emissions of C16 and C18 n-alkanoic acids in the Los Angeles urban area was estimated using the available information and is estimated to account for approximately 7% of the total primary emissions of these acids. Additional emissions of these n-alkanoic acids from stir-frying and grill frying operations are expected. Estimates also indicate that seed oil cooking may make up a significant fraction of the emissions of lighter n-alkanoic acids such as nonanoic acid. PMID:11883419

  4. Effect of incorporating legume flour into semolina spaghetti on its cooking quality and glycaemic impact measured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chillo, Stefania; Monro, J A; Mishra, S; Henry, C J

    2010-03-01

    Spaghetti is a favoured carbohydrate source because of its low glycaemic impact. The protein quality of semolina spaghetti is not ideal, however, and could be improved by including legume flour. We investigated whether incorporating legume flour in spaghetti, to improve its nutritional value, would affect its cooking quality and glycaemic impact. Four types of spaghetti containing 10% of either mung bean, soya bean, red lentil or chickpea flour were made and compared with a spaghetti control made only of durum semolina. Cooking quality was determined as the optimal cooking time (OCT), cooking loss (CL), dry matter (DM), swelling index, colour, hardness and adhesiveness. The spaghetti samples with legume flour were similar to one another and to the control in values of OCT, DM, swelling index, colour, CL, hardness and adhesiveness. Glycaemic impact of the samples was measured in vitro as release of rapidly available carbohydrate and slowly available carbohydrate during pancreatic digestion. The glycaemic index (GI) of the spaghetti samples was estimated by calculation, using data obtained for a reference food of known GI (shredded wheat horizontal line an extrusion-cooked wheat-only product). The shredded wheat underwent rapid parabolic digestion, and the near linear phase during which most of the starch was digested was completed between 20 and 60 min digestion. In contrast, the digestion of spaghetti was much slower and progressed almost linearly to completion. All spaghetti samples, moreover, were similarly susceptible to digestion, and compared with the wheat reference were all significantly lower in terms of relative glycaemic impact. We conclude that the incorporation of 10% legume flour in spaghetti to improve its nutritional value does not affect its cooking quality or increase its glycaemic impact. PMID:20113187

  5. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  6. Retail display evaluation of steaks from select beef strip loins injected with a brine containing 1% ammonium hydroxide. Part 2: Cook yield, tenderness, and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Parsons, A N; VanOverbeke, D L; Goad, C L; Mireles DeWitt, C A

    2011-01-01

    The impact of 2 different brines on the palatability and tenderness of select beef strip loin steaks was evaluated. Brines were differentiated by the type of alkaline agent, 4.5% sodium-based phosphate (control brine; CON) or 1% ammonium hydroxide (ammonium hydroxide treatment; AHT), incorporated into the formula. Injected steaks were placed in high oxygen (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) MAP, stored 4 d at 4 °C in dark storage to simulate transportation, and then placed in retail display. Steaks were selected randomly on day 0, 7, and 14 retail display to measure pH, cook loss, shear force, and sensory characteristics. The pH for AHT steaks (pH 5.96) was slightly higher than CON steaks (pH 5.86; P < 0.05). Cook loss was lower (21%) for CON than AHT steaks (23%). There was neither a treatment nor day effect on tenderness as measured by Warner-Braztler shear force (P > 0.05). Sensory evaluation indicated that on day 0, retail display the initial juiciness, sustained juiciness, tenderness 1st impression, tenderness overall impression, and connective tissue in AHT steaks was not different from CON steaks (P > 0.05). A day effect (decrease) for those sensory parameters was observed only for sustained juiciness (P < 0.05). AHT steaks were rated higher in cooked beef flavor while CON steaks were higher in peppery and salty flavor. There was no difference in soapy and ammonia intensity between treatments. Results indicated that despite lower performance in cook loss the replacement of 4.5% sodium-based phosphate in a meat injection brine with 1% ammonium hydroxide produced a beef loin steak with comparable tenderness and palatability. Practical Application: The research in this study compares steaks that have been injected with a commercial brine formulated with sodium phosphates to steaks that have been injected with a brine where the sodium phosphate in the formulation was replaced with 1% ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium hydroxide is an USDA-FSIS approved ingredient in brines

  7. Fact Sheet: Accurately measuring forage yield in pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers have a few options for measuring pasture yield. These include pasture rulers, plate meters, and electronic gauges. Pasture rulers simply measure canopy height and assume that forage yield is directly related to height. Plate meters improve accuracy by measuring compressed height. Electronic ...

  8. EFFECTS OF A EUROPEAN STYLE ELECTRICAL STIMULATOR FOR POULTRY PROCESSING ON SHEAR VALUES AND COOK YIELD OF BROILER BREASTS PROCESSED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest is growing in the U. S. and Europe on the application of pulsed electric current (PEC) to improve poultry meat quality and yield, but European processing and stimulation procedures differ from those used in the U. S. In Europe, carcasses are stimulated after defeathering, contact points bei...

  9. Measurement of Neutron Yields from UF4

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Zane W; Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Ohmes, Martin F; Xu, Yunlin; Downar, Thomas J; Pozzi, Sara A

    2010-01-01

    We have performed measurements of neutron production from UF{sub 4} samples using liquid scintillator as the detector material. Neutrons and gamma rays were separated by a multichannel digital pulse shape discriminator, and the neutron pulse-height spectra were unfolded using sequential least-squares optimization with an active set strategy. The unfolded spectra were compared to estimates calculated with the SOURCES 4C code.

  10. Alcohol production from various enzyme-converted starches with or without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Rivera, B.C.

    1982-02-01

    The effectiveness of alcoholic fermentation was compared by measuring alcoholic yields from various starch mashes, both cooked and uncooked. Alcohol yields from cooked and liquefied starch by bacterial ..cap alpha..-amylase were 93.9% for corn, 92.0% for cassava, 90.6% for potato, and 73.0% for babassu, whereas alcohol yields from raw starch were 90.0% for corn, 89.0% for cassava, 48.9% for babassu, and 11.4% for potato. (JMT)

  11. The measurements of total electron yield from silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, A.-G.; Li, C.-Q.; Wang, L.; Pei, Y.-J.

    2009-12-01

    A device for measuring total electron yields in the energy range 4-65 keV from conductor was set up successfully, which was made up of electron gun system, vacuum system and electrical system. By the pulse electron gun method, the total electron yields in the energy range 4-65 keV from silver were measured, based on the relation between the secondary electron yield and total electron yield at high incident electron energy from metals, the secondary electron yields in the energy range 10-65 keV from silver were deduced. Total electron yields measured with the device were compared with theoretical values, and the deduced secondary electron yield were compared with several authors' values, the results were discussed and a conclusion was drawn that the deduced secondary electron yields and the total electron yields from silver measured with the device are credible. This project was supported by the Science Foundation of Nanjing University of Information and Technology (Grant No. QD65).

  12. Effective lactation yield: A measure to compare milk yield between cows with different dry period lengths.

    PubMed

    Kok, A; van Middelaar, C E; Engel, B; van Knegsel, A T M; Hogeveen, H; Kemp, B; de Boer, I J M

    2016-04-01

    To compare milk yields between cows or management strategies, lactations are traditionally standardized to 305-d yields. The 305-d yield, however, gives no insight into the combined effect of additional milk yield before calving, decreased milk yield after calving, and a possible shorter calving interval in the case of a shortened dry period. We aimed to develop a measure that would enable the comparison of milk yield between cows with different dry period (DP) lengths. We assessed the importance of accounting for additional milk yield before calving and for differences in calving interval. The 305-d yield was compared with a 365-d yield, which included additional milk yield in the 60 d before calving. Next, an effective lactation yield was computed, defined as the daily yield from 60d before calving to 60 d before the next calving, to account for additional milk yield before calving and for differences in calving interval. Test-day records and drying-off dates of 15 commercial farms were used to compute the 305-d, 365-d, and effective lactation yields for individual cows. We analyzed 817 second-parity lactations preceded by no DP, a short DP (20 to 40 d), or a conventional DP (49 to 90 d). Compared with cows with a conventional DP, the 305-d yield of cows with no DP was 7.0 kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) per day lower, and the 305-d yield of cows with a short DP was 2.3 kg of FPCM per day lower. Including additional milk yield before calving in the 365-d yield reduced this difference to 3.4 kg of FPCM per cow per day for cows with no DP and to 0.9 kg of FPCM per cow per day for cows with a short DP. Compared with cows with a conventional DP, median days open were reduced by 25d for cows with no DP and by 18d for cows with a short DP. Accounting for these differences in calving interval in the effective lactation yield further decreased yield reductions for cows with no DP or a short DP by 0.3 kg of FPCM per cow per day. At the herd level, estimated

  13. Nutrient database improvement project: the influence of USDA quality and yield grade on the separable components and proximate composition of raw and cooked retail cuts from the beef chuck.

    PubMed

    West, S E; Harris, K B; Haneklaus, A N; Savell, J W; Thompson, L D; Brooks, J C; Pool, J K; Luna, A M; Engle, T E; Schutz, J S; Woerner, D R; Arcibeque, S L; Belk, K E; Douglass, L; Leheska, J M; McNeill, S; Howe, J C; Holden, J M; Duvall, M; Patterson, K

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to provide updated information on the separable components, cooking yields, and proximate composition of retail cuts from the beef chuck. Additionally, the impact the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Quality and Yield Grade may have on such factors was investigated. Ultimately, these data will be used in the USDA - Nutrient Data Laboratory's (NDL) National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). To represent the current United States beef supply, seventy-two carcasses were selected from six regions of the country based on USDA Yield Grade, USDA Quality Grade, gender, and genetic type. Whole beef chuck primals from selected carcasses were shipped to three university laboratories for subsequent retail cut fabrication, raw and cooked cut dissection, and proximate analyses. The incorporation of these data into the SR will improve dietary education, product labeling, and other applications both domestically and abroad, thus emphasizing the importance of accurate and relevant beef nutrient data. PMID:24769877

  14. Nutrient database improvement project: the influence of U.S.D.A. Quality and Yield Grade on the separable components and proximate composition of raw and cooked retail cuts from the beef rib and plate.

    PubMed

    Martin, J N; Brooks, J C; Thompson, L D; Savell, J W; Harris, K B; May, L L; Haneklaus, A N; Schutz, J L; Belk, K E; Engle, T; Woerner, D R; Legako, J F; Luna, A M; Douglass, L W; Douglass, S E; Howe, J; Duvall, M; Patterson, K Y; Leheska, J L

    2013-11-01

    Beef nutrition is important to the worldwide beef industry. The objective of this study was to analyze proximate composition of eight beef rib and plate cuts to update the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Furthermore, this study aimed to determine the influence of USDA Quality Grade on the separable components and proximate composition of the examined retail cuts. Carcasses (n=72) representing a composite of Yield Grade, Quality Grade, gender and genetic type were identified from six regions across the U.S. Beef plates and ribs (IMPS #109 and 121C and D) were collected from the selected carcasses and shipped to three university meat laboratories for storage, retail fabrication, cooking, and dissection and analysis of proximate composition. These data provide updated information regarding the nutrient content of beef and emphasize the influence of common classification systems (Yield Grade and Quality Grade) on the separable components, cooking yield, and proximate composition of retail beef cuts. PMID:23793084

  15. IMPACT OF AN INDOOR COOK STOVE INTERVENTION ON MEASURES OF SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Aims: Approximately three billion people use inefficient and poorly-vented indoor cook stoves, which can result in high indoor air pollution concentrations. Few studies have evaluated the cardiovascular effects of indoor biomass burning. Methods: In this pilot s...

  16. Let's Cook!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author reports on a project which is teaching young parents, most of them from disadvantaged backgrounds, the skills they need to shop and cook healthily on a tight budget. In 2006, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) commissioned the National Federation of Women's Institutes (NFWI) to run "Let's Cook!", a three-year project to…

  17. ISOL Yield Predictions from Holdup-Time Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Spejewski, Eugene H.; Carter, H Kennon; Mervin, Brenden T.; Prettyman, Emily S.; Kronenberg, Andreas; Stracener, Daniel W

    2008-01-01

    A formalism based on a simple model is derived to predict ISOL yields for all isotopes of a given element based on a holdup-time measurement of a single isotope of that element. Model predictions, based on parameters obtained from holdup-time measurements, are compared to independently-measured experimental values.

  18. Do upland conservation measures reduce watershed sediment yield?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of conservation measures do not always result in an immediate and measurable sediment yield reduction at the outlet of large watersheds. In this study, instantaneous suspended sediment and discharge measurements, taken in 1943-1948 and again in 2004-2008, in the Fort Cobb Reservoir wa...

  19. Asphaltenes yield curve measurements on a microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Sieben, Vincent J; Tharanivasan, Asok Kumar; Ratulowski, John; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2015-10-21

    We describe a microfluidic apparatus and method for performing asphaltene yield measurements on crude oil samples. Optical spectroscopy measurements are combined with a microfluidic fluid handling platform to create an automated microfluidic apparatus to measure the asphaltene yield. The microfluidic measurements show good agreement with conventional wet chemistry measurements as well as available models. The initial absorbance of the oil is measured, and asphaltenes are removed from the oil by the gradual addition of n-alkane, which leads to flocculation and subsequent filtration. The absorbance of the de-asphalted oil (maltenes) is then measured and the initial asphaltene content is determined by the change in absorbance. The solubility of asphaltene is evaluated by varying the titrant-to-oil ratio (e.g., n-heptane-oil), which induces no, partial, or full precipitation of asphaltenes depending on the chosen ratio. The absorbance of the filtrate is measured and normalized to the maximum content to determine the fractional precipitation at each ratio. Traditionally, a yield curve comprised of 20 such ratios would require weeks to months to generate, while consuming over 6 L of solvent and more than 100 g of crude oil sample. Using the microfluidic approach described here, the same measurement can be performed in 1 day, with 0.5 L of solvent and 10 g of crude oil sample. The substantial reduction in time and consumables will enable more frequent asphaltene yield measurements and reduce its environmental impact significantly. PMID:26333290

  20. First fission mass yield measurements using SPIDER at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierbachtol, Krista; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arnold, Charles; Devlin, Matt; Bredeweg, Todd; Jandel, Marian; Jorgenson, Justin; Nelson, Ron; White, Morgan; Shields, Dan; Blakeley, Rick; Hecht, Adam

    2014-09-01

    Robust measurements of fission product properties, including mass yields, are important for advancing our understanding of the complex fission process and as improved inputs to calculation and simulation efforts in nuclear applications. The SPIDER detector, located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), is a recently developed mass spectrometer aimed at measuring fission product mass yields with high resolution as a function of incident neutron energy and product mass, charge, and kinetic energy. The prototype SPIDER detector has been assembled, tested, installed at the Lujan Center at LANSCE, and taken initial thermal neutron induced measurements. The first results of mass yields for spontaneous fission of 252Cf and thermal neutron-induced fission of 235U measured with SPIDER will be presented. Ongoing upgrades and future plans for SPIDER will also be discussed. This work is in part supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Projects 20110037DR and 20120077DR. LA-UR-14-24830.

  1. Fission Yield Measurements by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Irina Glagolenko; Bruce Hilton; Jeffrey Giglio; Daniel Cummings; Karl Grimm; Richard McKnight

    2009-11-01

    Correct prediction of the fission products inventory in irradiated nuclear fuels is essential for accurate estimation of fuel burnup, establishing proper requirements for spent fuel transportation and storage, materials accountability and nuclear forensics. Such prediction is impossible without accurate knowledge of neutron induced fission yields. Unfortunately, the accuracy of the fission yields reported in the ENDF/B-VII.0 library is not uniform across all of the data and much of the improvement is desired for certain isotopes and fission products. We discuss our measurements of cumulative fission yields in nuclear fuels irradiated in thermal and fast reactor spectra using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

  2. A new technique for measuring sputtering yields at high energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Y.; Griffith, J. E.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of thin, self-supporting carbon catcher foils allows one to measure sputtering yields in a broad range of materials with high sensitivity. Analyzing the foils with Rutherford forward scattering, sputtered Al, Si and P surface densities down to 5 x 10 to the 13th per sq cm with uncertainties of about 20 percent have been measured.

  3. Field measurement and estimate of gaseous and particle pollutant emissions from cooking and space heating processes in rural households, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Liu, Weijian; Du, Wei; Su, Shu; Duan, Yonghong; Lin, Nan; Zhuo, Shaojie; Wang, Xilong; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Pollutant emissions into outdoor air from cooking and space heating processes with various solid fuels were measured, and daily household emissions were estimated from the kitchen performance tests. The burning of honeycomb briquette had the lowest emission factors, while the use of wood produced the highest pollutants. Daily emissions from space heating were significantly higher than those from cooking, and the use of honeycomb briquette for cooking and raw coal chunk for space heating reduces 28%, 24% and 25% for CO, PM10 and PM2.5, compared to wood for cooking and peat for space heating. Much higher emissions were observed during the initial phase than the stable phase due to insufficient air supply and lower combustion temperature at the beginning of burning processes. However, more mass percent of fine particles formed in the later high temperature stable burning phase may increase potential inhalation exposure risks.

  4. Xenon Sputter Yield Measurements for Ion Thruster Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, John D.; Gardner, Michael M.; Johnson, Mark L.; Wilbur, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a technique that was used to measure total and differential sputter yields of materials important to high specific impulse ion thrusters. The heart of the technique is a quartz crystal monitor that is swept at constant radial distance from a small target region where a high current density xenon ion beam is aimed. Differential sputtering yields were generally measured over a full 180 deg arc in a plane that included the beam centerline and the normal vector to the target surface. Sputter yield results are presented for a xenon ion energy range from 0.5 to 10 keV and an angle of incidence range from 0 deg to 70 deg from the target surface normal direction for targets consisting of molybdenum, titanium, solid (Poco) graphite, and flexible graphite (grafoil). Total sputter yields are calculated using a simple integration procedure and comparisons are made to sputter yields obtained from the literature. In general, the agreement between the available data is good. As expected for heavy xenon ions, the differential and total sputter yields are found to be strong functions of angle of incidence. Significant under- and over-cosine behavior is observed at low- and high-ion energies, respectively. In addition, strong differences in differential yield behavior are observed between low-Z targets (C and Ti) and high-Z targets (Mo). Curve fits to the differential sputter yield data are provided. They should prove useful to analysts interested in predicting the erosion profiles of ion thruster components and determining where the erosion products re-deposit.

  5. Differential sputter yield measurements using cavity ringdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Surla, Vijay; Yalin, Azer P

    2007-07-01

    The first use of cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) to measure differential (angular) sputter yield profiles of sputtered particles is reported. Owing to the path-integrated nature of CRDS, inversion techniques are required. Our approach is to scan the optical axis relative to the source of sputtered particles and to measure the spatial profile of the CRDS signals. Modeling is then used to determine the differential sputter yield profile from the measured CRDS spatial profile. Demonstrative measurements are made with a Nd:YAG pumped optical parametric oscillator laser system for 750 eV argon ions normally incident on a molybdenum target. At these conditions we find an under- cosine sputtering distribution characterized by alpha = 0.22 +/- 0.07 in good agreement with past quartz crystal microbalance measurements (alpha = 0.19). PMID:17571136

  6. Cooking-related PM2.5 and acrolein measured in grocery stores and comparison with other retail types.

    PubMed

    Chan, W R; Sidheswaran, M; Sullivan, D P; Cohn, S; Fisk, W J

    2016-06-01

    We measured particulate matter (PM), acrolein, and other indoor air contaminants in eight visits to grocery stores in California. Retail stores of other types (hardware, furniture, and apparel) were also sampled on additional visits. Based on tracer gas decay data, most stores had adequate ventilation according to minimum ventilation rate standards. Grocery stores had significantly higher concentrations of acrolein, fine and ultrafine PM, compared to other retail stores, likely attributable to cooking. Indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and acrolein exceeded health guidelines in all tested grocery stores. Acrolein emission rates to indoors in grocery stores had a mean estimate about 30 times higher than in other retail store types. About 80% of the indoor PM2.5 measured in grocery stores was emitted indoors, compared to only 20% for the other retail store types. Calculations suggest a substantial increase in outdoor air ventilation rate by a factor of three from current level is needed to reduce indoor acrolein concentrations. Alternatively, acrolein emission to indoors needs to be reduced 70% by better capturing of cooking exhaust. To maintain indoor PM2.5 below the California annual ambient standard of 12 μg/m(3) , grocery stores need to use air filters with an efficiency rating higher than the MERV 8 air filters commonly used today. PMID:25939855

  7. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources are available that

  8. Liquid Scintillator Light Yield Measurements for the SNO+ Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grullon, Sean

    2013-04-01

    The SNO+ experiment is the follow-up to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). The heavy water that was in SNO will be replaced with a liquid scintillator of linear alkylbenzene. SNO+ will have a broad physics program which will include measuring the pep and CNO solar neutrino flux, detecting geo-neutrinos, studying reactor neutrino oscillations, serving as a supernova neutrino detector, and carrying out a search for neutrinoless double beta decay by loading an isotope such as neodymium into the liquid scintillator. Since energy resolution is of profound importance for the experiment, it is extremely important to accurately measure the light yield of the liquid scintillator for different loading percentages of Neodymium. A series of measurements made comparing the relative light yields of different liquid scintillator configurations to a Cherenkov spectrum will be described.

  9. Sources of Variability in the Measurement of Fungal Spore Yields

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C. S.; Slade, S. J.; Nordheim, E. V.; Cascino, J. J.; Harris, R. F.; Andrews, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Variability in the production of fungal spores and in the measurement of spore yields was investigated in four species of fungi: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum coccodes, Colletotrichum phomoides, and Acremonium strictum. When the fungi were grown on solid medium in microplates and spore yields were measured by counting the subsamples with a hemacytometer, the variability among hemacytometer squares was always the largest source of variation, accounting for 51 to 91% of the total variation. Variability among replicate cultures and results of repeat experiments were generally also significant. The effect of square-to-square variability on the precision of spore yield measurement was minimized by counting a moderate number (ca. 30) of squares per culture. Culture-to-culture variability limited the practical precision of spore production measurements to a 95% confidence interval of approximately the mean ± 25%. We provide guidelines for determining the number of replicate cultures required to attain this or other degrees of precision. Particle counter-derived spore counts and counts based on spore weights were much less variable than were hemacytometer counts, but they did not improve spore production estimates very much because of culture-to-culture variability. Results obtained by both of these methods differed from those obtained with a hemacytometer; particle counter measurements required a correction for spore pairs, while the relationship between spore weights and spore counts changed as the cultures aged. PMID:16347653

  10. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O`Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-07-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) has been developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E-2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E-v measurement.

  11. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O׳Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-04-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Finally, individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). These mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.

  12. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; et al

    2015-04-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Finally,more » individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). These mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.« less

  13. Final cook temperature monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John; Matthews, Michael; Glasco, Marc

    2006-04-01

    Fully cooked, ready-to-eat products represent one of the fastest growing markets in the meat and poultry industries. Modern meat cooking facilities typically cook chicken strips and nuggets at rates of 6000 lbs per hour, and it is a critical food safety issue to ensure the products on these lines are indeed fully cooked. Common practice now employs oven technicians to constantly measure final cook temperature with insertion-type thermocouple probes. Prior research has demonstrated that thermal imagery of chicken breasts and other products can be used to predict core temperature of products leaving an oven. In practice, implementation of a system to monitor core temperature can be difficult for several reasons. First, a wide variety of products are typically produced on the same production line and the system must adapt to all products. Second, the products can be often hard to find because they often leave the process in random order and may be touching or even overlapping. Another issue is finite measurement time which is typically only a few seconds. Finally, the system is subjected to a rigorous sanitation cycle and must hold up under wash down conditions. To address these problems, a calibrated 320x240 micro-bolometer camera was used to monitor the temperature of formed, breaded poultry products on a fully cooked production line for a period of one year. The study addressed the installation and operation of the system as well as the development of algorithms used to identify the product on a cluttered conveyor belt. It also compared the oven tech insertion probe measurements to the non-contact monitoring system performance.

  14. Chemistry Cook-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    For this activity, high school chemistry students compete in a cooking contest. They must determine the chemical and physical changes that occur in the food they prepare, present their recipe as a step-by-step procedure similar to a lab procedure, identify chemicals in the food, and present all measurements in both metric and English units. The…

  15. 40 CFR 52.741 - Control strategy: Ozone control measures for Cook, DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry and Will Counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equipment, and petroleum refining and related industries, any piece of equipment which has the potential to... Chicago Area replace the requirements of 40 CFR 52.741 Control strategy: Ozone control measures for Cook...) and the most stringent of: (A) The applicable standards in 40 CFR parts 60 and 61: (B) The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.741 - Control strategy: Ozone control measures for Cook, DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry and Will Counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment, and petroleum refining and related industries, any piece of equipment which has the potential to... Chicago Area replace the requirements of 40 CFR 52.741 Control strategy: Ozone control measures for Cook...) and the most stringent of: (A) The applicable standards in 40 CFR parts 60 and 61: (B) The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.741 - Control strategy: Ozone control measures for Cook, DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry and Will Counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment, and petroleum refining and related industries, any piece of equipment which has the potential to... Chicago Area replace the requirements of 40 CFR 52.741 Control strategy: Ozone control measures for Cook...) and the most stringent of: (A) The applicable standards in 40 CFR parts 60 and 61: (B) The...

  18. 40 CFR 52.741 - Control strategy: Ozone control measures for Cook, DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry and Will Counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equipment, and petroleum refining and related industries, any piece of equipment which has the potential to... Chicago Area replace the requirements of 40 CFR 52.741 Control strategy: Ozone control measures for Cook...) and the most stringent of: (A) The applicable standards in 40 CFR parts 60 and 61: (B) The...

  19. 40 CFR 52.741 - Control strategy: Ozone control measures for Cook, DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry and Will Counties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment, and petroleum refining and related industries, any piece of equipment which has the potential to... Chicago Area replace the requirements of 40 CFR 52.741 Control strategy: Ozone control measures for Cook...) and the most stringent of: (A) The applicable standards in 40 CFR parts 60 and 61: (B) The...

  20. Influence of infrared final cooking on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked meatball.

    PubMed

    Turp, Gulen Yildiz; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to improve the quality characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs via infrared cooking as a final stage. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooker at a voltage gradient of 15.26 V/cm for 92 s. Infrared cooking was then applied to the pre-cooked samples at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, and 8.475 kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, and 16.5 cm) and application durations (4, 8, and 12min). Effects of these parameters on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. The appearance of ohmically pre-cooked meatball samples was improved via infrared heating. A dark brown layer desired in cooked meatballs formed on the surface of the meatballs with lowest application distance (10.5 cm) and longest application duration (12 min). The texture of the samples was also improved with these parameters. However the cooking yield of the samples decreased at the longest application duration of infrared heating. PMID:26722702

  1. Radio Telescopes' Precise Measurements Yield Rich Scientific Payoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    Having the sharpest pictures always is a big advantage, and a sophisticated radio-astronomy technique using continent-wide and even intercontinental arrays of telescopes is yielding extremely valuable scientific results in a wide range of specialties. That's the message delivered to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Austin, Texas, by Mark Reid of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, a leading researcher in the field of ultra-precise astronomical position measurements. Very Long Baseline Interferometry provides extremely high precision that can extend use of the parallax technique to many more celestial objects. Parallax is a direct means of measuring cosmic distances by detecting the slight shift in an object’s apparent position in the sky caused by Earth’s orbital motion. Credit: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF "Using radio telescopes, we are measuring distances and motions of celestial bodies with unprecedented accuracy. That's helping us better understand many processes ranging from star formation to the scale of the entire Universe," Reid said. The observing technique, called Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), was pioneered in 1967, but has come into continuous use only in the past 10-15 years. The National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a system of 10 radio-telescope antennas ranging from Hawaii to the Caribbean, was dedicated in 1993. There are other VLBI systems in Europe and Asia, and large radio telescopes around the world cooperate regularly to increase sensitivity. VLBI observations routinely produce images hundreds of times more detailed than those made at visible-light wavelengths by the Hubble Space Telescope. Several groups of researchers from across the globe use the VLBA to study stellar nurseries in our own Milky Way Galaxy and measure distances to regions where new stars are forming. The key has been to improve measurement accuracy to a factor of a hundred times better than that produced by the

  2. Measuring the yield stress in magnetorheological fluids using ultrasounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-López, Jaime; Elvira, Luis; Montero de Espinosa Freijo, Francisco; Bossis, Georges; de Vicente, Juan

    2013-02-01

    In this work, we propose a method to accurately determine the yield stress in magnetorheological (MR) fluids using ultrasounds. The setup is constructed, and experimental data are obtained on a model conventional MR fluid under steady shear stress ramp-up tests. By using video-microscopy, ultrasonic techniques, and rheometry simultaneously, it is possible to precisely determine the yield stress at experimentally accessible times.

  3. Quantum dots fluorescence quantum yield measured by Thermal Lens Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Estupiñán-López, Carlos; Dominguez, Christian Tolentino; Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Fontes, Adriana; de Araujo, Renato E

    2014-01-01

    An essential parameter to evaluate the light emission properties of fluorophores is the fluorescence quantum yield, which quantify the conversion efficiency of absorbed photons to emitted photons. We detail here an alternative nonfluorescent method to determine the absolute fluorescence quantum yield of quantum dots (QDs). The method is based in the so-called Thermal Lens Spectroscopy (TLS) technique, which consists on the evaluation of refractive index gradient thermally induced in the fluorescent material by the absorption of light. Aqueous dispersion carboxyl-coated cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs samples were used to demonstrate the Thermal Lens Spectroscopy technical procedure. PMID:25103802

  4. Lithium: Measurement of Young's Modulus and Yield Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan P Schultz

    2002-11-07

    The Lithium Collection Lens is used for anti-proton collection. In analyzing the structural behavior during operation, various material properties of lithium are often needed. properties such as density, coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, specific heat, compressability, etc.; are well known. However, to the authors knowledge there is only one published source for Young's Modulus. This paper reviews the results from the testing of Young's Modulus and the yield strength of lithium at room temperature.

  5. Cooking the Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geras, Adele

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the points of comparison between cooking and writing, between books and food, as they relate to creative writing. Describes how recipe ingredients lists, cooking methods, menus, leftovers, and food presentation all relate to writing. (HB)

  6. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... flavor, rather than as a main ingredient. Cook fresh vegetables the heart-healthy way Try cooking vegetables ... delivers helpful articles and the latest news on keeping your heart healthy. Sign up today! Email:* State: ...

  7. Model-independent Higgs coupling measurements at the LHC using the H{yields}ZZ{yields}4l lineshape

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Heather E.; Salvail, Jeff Z.

    2011-10-01

    We show that combining a direct measurement of the Higgs total width from the H{yields}ZZ{yields}4l lineshape with Higgs signal rate measurements allows Higgs couplings to be extracted in a model-independent way from CERN LHC data. Using existing experimental studies with 30 fb{sup -1} at one detector of the 14 TeV LHC, we show that the couplings squared of a 190 GeV Higgs to WW, ZZ, and gg can be extracted with statistical precisions of about 10%, and a 95% confidence level upper limit on an unobserved component of the Higgs decay width of about 22% of the standard model Higgs width can be set. The method can also be applied for heavier Higgs masses.

  8. Simplified method measures changes in tensile yield strength using least number of specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, C. E.

    1967-01-01

    Simplified method determines yield strength due to heat treat, irradiation or mechanical treatment. Each specimen in a group of specimens is tested for yield stress point, subjected to heat treat or irradiation, and retested for new yield stress point which is a measure of change in material.

  9. Planning and task management in older adults: cooking breakfast.

    PubMed

    Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    The article describes a simulated "cooking breakfast" task in which participants must remember to start and stop cooking five foods so that all the foods are "ready" at the same time. In between starting and stopping operations, the participants also carried out a "table-setting" task as a filler activity. The breakfast task yields various measures of multitasking and executive control. Groups of younger and older adults performed the task; half of the participants in each group were bilinguals and the other half were monolinguals. The results showed substantial age-related decrements in most measures of executive control. Additionally, older bilinguals showed some advantages in task management over their monolingual peers. PMID:17225505

  10. Instrumental measurement of cooked rice texture by dynamic rheological testing and its relation to the fine structure of rice starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Prakash, Sangeeta; Nicholson, Timothy M; Fitzgerald, Melissa A; Gilbert, Robert G

    2016-08-01

    Increasing demands for better instrumental methods to evaluate cooked rice texture is driving innovations in rice texture research. This study characterized cooked rice texture by descriptive sensory analysis and two instrumental methods (texture profile analysis (TPA) and dynamic rheological testing) using a set of 18 varieties of rice with a wide range in amylose content (0-30%). The panellists' results indicated that hardness and stickiness were the two most discriminating attributes among 13 tested textural attributes. The consistency coefficient (K(*)) and loss tangent (tan δ) from a dynamic frequency sweep were used to compare with hardness and stickiness tested by TPA and sensory panellists, showing that using K(*) to express hardness, and tan δ to express stickiness, are both statistically and mechanistically meaningful. The instrumental method is rationalized in terms of starch structural differences between rices: a higher proportion of both amylose and long amylopectin branches with DP 70-100 causes a more elastic and less viscous texture, which is readily understood in terms of polymer dynamics in solution. PMID:27112873

  11. Application of secondary neutral mass spectrometry in low-energy sputtering yield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, S.; Zhang, J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Ray, P. K.; Shivaparan, N. R.; Smith, R. J.

    1997-06-01

    An experimental study was initiated to measure low-energy (150 to 600 eV) sputtering yields of molybdenum with xenon ions using a Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometer (SNMS). An ion gun was used to generate the ion beam. The ion current density at the target surface was approximately 30 μA/cm 2. The SNMS spectra obtained at 50° incident angle were converted to sputtering yields for perpendicular incidence by normalizing SNMS spectral data at 500 eV with the yield measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Sputtering yields as well as the shape of the yield-energy curve obtained in this manner are in reasonable agreement with those measured by other researchers using different techniques. Sputtering yields calculated by using two semi-empirical formulations agree reasonably well with the measured data.

  12. Energy yield determination of concentrator solar cells using laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisz, John F.; García, Iván; McMahon, William E.; Steiner, Myles A.; Ochoa, Mario; France, Ryan M.; Habte, Aron; Friedman, Daniel J.

    2015-09-01

    The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated for a four junction inverted metamorphic solar cell that has been completely characterized in the laboratory at room temperature using measurements fit to a comprehensive optoelectronic model of the multijunction solar cells. A simple model of the temperature dependence is used predict the performance of the solar cell under varying temperature and spectra characteristic of Golden, CO for an entire year. The annual energy conversion efficiency is calculated by integrating the predicted cell performance over the entire year. The effects of geometric concentration, CPV system thermal characteristics, and luminescent coupling are highlighted.

  13. Measurement of the asymmetry parameter for the decay {Lambda}{yields}p{pi}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Ablikim, M.; Bai, J. Z.; Bai, Y.; Cai, X.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. X.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, Jin; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, Y. P.; Deng, Z. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, C. S.; Gu, S. D.; Guo, Y. N.; He, K. L.; Heng, Y. K.; Hu, H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Based on a sample of 58x10{sup 6}J/{psi} decays collected with the BESII detector at the BEPC, the {Lambda} decay parameter {alpha}{sub {Lambda}}for {Lambda}{yields}p{pi}{sup +} is measured using about 9000 J/{psi}{yields}{Lambda}{Lambda}{yields}pp{pi}{sup +{pi}-} decays. A fit to the joint angular distributions yields {alpha}{sub {Lambda}({Lambda}{yields}p{pi}{sup +})}=-0.755{+-}0.083{+-}0.063, where the first error is statistical, and the second systematic.

  14. Measuring the fourth-generation b{yields}s quadrangle at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Wei-Shu; Kohda, Masaya; Xu Fanrong

    2011-11-01

    We show that simultaneous precision measurements of the CP-violating phase in time-dependent B{sub s}{yields}J/{psi}{phi} study and the B{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} rate, together with measuring m{sub t'} by direct search at the LHC, would determine V{sub t's}*V{sub t'b} and therefore the b{yields}s quadrangle in the four-generation standard model. The forward-backward asymmetry in B{yields}K*l{sup +}l{sup -} provides further discrimination.

  15. Copper activation deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements at the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Cooper, G W; Ruiz, C L; Leeper, R J; Chandler, G A; Hahn, K D; Nelson, A J; Torres, J A; Smelser, R M; McWatters, B R; Bleuel, D L; Yeamans, C B; Knittel, K M; Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Petrasso, R D; Styron, J D

    2012-10-01

    A DT neutron yield diagnostic based on the reactions, (63)Cu(n,2n)(62)Cu(β(+)) and (65)Cu(n,2n)( 64) Cu(β(+)), has been fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The induced copper activity is measured using a NaI γ-γ coincidence system. Uncertainties in the 14-MeV DT yield measurements are on the order of 7% to 8%. In addition to measuring yield, the ratio of activities induced in two, well-separated copper samples are used to measure the relative anisotropy of the fuel ρR to uncertainties as low as 5%. PMID:23126920

  16. Importance of cooking skills for balanced food choices.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christina; Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael

    2013-06-01

    A cooking skill scale was developed to measure cooking skills in a European adult population, and the relationship between cooking skills and the frequency of consumption of various food groups were examined. Moreover, it was determined which sociodemographic and psychological variables predict cooking skills. The data used in the present study are based on the first (2010) and second (2011) surveys of a yearly paper-and-pencil questionnaire (Swiss Food Panel). Data from 4436 participants (47.2% males) with a mean age of 55.5 years (SD=14.6, range 21-99) were available for analysis. The cooking skills scale was validated using a test-retest analysis, confirming that this new scale is a reliable and consistent instrument. Cooking enjoyment was the most important predictor for cooking skills, especially for men. Women had higher cooking skills in all age groups. Cooking skills correlated positively with weekly vegetable consumption, but negatively with weekly convenience food consumption frequency, even while holding the effect of health consciousness related to eating constant. In summary, cooking skills may help people to meet nutrition guidelines in their daily nutrition supply. They allow people to make healthier food choices. It is, therefore, important to teach children and teenagers how to cook and to encourage them to develop their cooking skills. PMID:23402717

  17. [Nixtamalization cooking characteristics of 11 maize varieties].

    PubMed

    Billeb de Sinibaldi, A C; Bressani, R

    2001-03-01

    In the present study, 11 maize varieties were analyzed for their nixtamalization cooking quality. The 11 varieties were grown in the same locality and in the same year. The samples were evaluated for their physical characteristics, such as moisture content averaging 13.3%, average 1000 kernel weight (312.5 g), grain hardness through density (1.28 g/ml) and percent floaters (9.5%). These data indicated that all maize varieties had a hard endosperm which is recommended for the nixtamalization cooking process. The 11 varieties were formed on the average by 5.7% seed coat, 11.5% germ and 82.8% endosperm. The low seed coat content suggest a low solids loss during processing. Cooking quality evaluation was done by applying a standard lime cooking procedure to all varieties. An average solid loss of 3.2% was measured, with 0.8% of seed coat still attached to the endosperm. Water absorption at the end of cooking was 40.8% without soaking and 46.9% at the end of soaking. Nixtamal moisture was 47.9% after soaking and only 41.5% at the end of cooking. Cooking time with soaking for 50% moisture in the grain varied from 69 to 122 minutes at 1500 meters over sea level. The cooked grain was dried with hot air and ground however, the particle size obtained was not as that in commercial nixtamalized maize flour. However, the cooking quality parameters to make dough and tortillas were acceptable, with a penetration index of hydrated flour of 178.6 mm, pH 7.97, water absorption index (WAI) of 3.23 g gel/g flour and 4.11% water solubility index (WSI). All flours from the 11 varieties of maize gave acceptable tortillas as evaluated by physical characteristics and sensory quality. However of the 11 varieties 7 including the control were superior for nixtamalization cooking quality. PMID:11515238

  18. System and technique for ultrasonic determination of degree of cooking

    DOEpatents

    Bond, Leonard J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Judd, Kayte M.; Pappas, Richard A.; Cliff, William C.; Pfund, David M.; Morgen, Gerald P.

    2007-03-20

    A method and apparatus are described for determining the doneness of food during a cooking process. Ultrasonic signal are passed through the food during cooking. The change in transmission characteristics of the ultrasonic signal during the cooking process is measured to determine the point at which the food has been cooked to the proper level. In one aspect, a heated fluid cooks the food, and the transmission characteristics along a fluid-only ultrasonic path provides a reference for comparison with the transmission characteristics for a food-fluid ultrasonic path.

  19. Quartz crystal microbalance-based system for high-sensitivity differential sputter yield measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, B.; Topper, J. L.; Farnell, C. C.; Yalin, A. P.

    2009-10-15

    We present a quartz crystal microbalance-based system for high sensitivity differential sputter yield measurements of different target materials due to ion bombardment. The differential sputter yields can be integrated to find total yields. Possible ion beam conditions include ion energies in the range of 30-350 eV and incidence angles of 0 deg. - 70 deg. from normal. A four-grid ion optics system is used to achieve a collimated ion beam at low energy (<100 eV) and a two-grid ion optics is used for higher energies (up to 750 eV). A complementary weight loss approach is also used to measure total sputter yields. Validation experiments are presented that confirm high sensitivity and accuracy of sputter yield measurements.

  20. Quartz crystal microbalance-based system for high-sensitivity differential sputter yield measurements.

    PubMed

    Rubin, B; Topper, J L; Farnell, C C; Yalin, A P

    2009-10-01

    We present a quartz crystal microbalance-based system for high sensitivity differential sputter yield measurements of different target materials due to ion bombardment. The differential sputter yields can be integrated to find total yields. Possible ion beam conditions include ion energies in the range of 30-350 eV and incidence angles of 0 degrees-70 degrees from normal. A four-grid ion optics system is used to achieve a collimated ion beam at low energy (<100 eV) and a two-grid ion optics is used for higher energies (up to 750 eV). A complementary weight loss approach is also used to measure total sputter yields. Validation experiments are presented that confirm high sensitivity and accuracy of sputter yield measurements. PMID:19895063

  1. Measurement of Pressure Dependent Fluorescence Yield of Air: Calibration Factor for UHECR Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Belz, J.W.; Burt, G.W.; Cao, Z.; Chang, F.Y.; Chen, C.C.; Chen, C.W.; Chen, P.; Field, C.; Findlay, J.; Huntemeyer, Petra; Huang, M.A.; Hwang, W.-Y.P.; Iverson, R.; Jones, B.F.; Jui, C.C.H.; Kirn, M.; Lin, G.-L.; Loh, E.C.; Maestas, M.M.; Manago, N.; Martens, K.; /Montana U. /Utah U. /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /SLAC /Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2005-07-06

    In a test experiment at the Final Focus Test Beam of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the fluorescence yield of 28.5 GeV electrons in air and nitrogen was measured. The measured photon yields between 300 and 400 nm at 1 atm and 29 C are Y(760 Torr){sup air} = 4.42 {+-} 0.73 and Y(760 Torr){sup N{sub 2}} = 29.2 {+-} 4.8 photons per electron per meter. Assuming that the fluorescence yield is proportional to the energy deposition of a charged particle traveling through air, good agreement with measurements at lower particle energies is observed.

  2. Cooking with Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosser, Arthur E.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests chemistry of cooking and analysis of culinary recipes as subject matter for introducing chemistry to an audience, especially to individuals with neutral or negative attitudes toward science. Includes sample recipes and experiments and a table listing scientific topics with related cooking examples. (JN)

  3. Self-absorption correction for solid-state photoluminescence quantum yields obtained from integrating sphere measurements.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Tai-Sang; Al-Kaysi, Rabih O; Müller, Astrid M; Wentz, Katherine M; Bardeen, Christopher J

    2007-08-01

    A new method is presented for analyzing the effects of self-absorption on photoluminescence integrating sphere quantum yield measurements. Both the observed quantum yield and luminescence spectrum are used to determine the self-absorption probability, taking into account both the initial emission and subsequent absorption and reemission processes. The analysis is experimentally validated using the model system of the laser dye perylene red dispersed in a polymer film. This approach represents an improvement over previous methods that tend to overestimate the true quantum yield, especially in cases with high sample absorbance or quantum yield values. PMID:17764365

  4. Effects of four different cooking methods on some quality characteristics of low fat Inegol meatball enriched with flaxseed flour.

    PubMed

    Turp, Gulen Yildiz

    2016-11-01

    The present study is concerned with the effects of four different cooking methods (grill, oven, pan and ohmic cooking) on physicochemical parameters (cooking yield moisture retention, fat retention, color, texture), fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of low fat Turkish traditional Inegol meatball. Flaxseed flour was used as a fat substitute in the production of meatballs. Meatball proximate composition was affected by the cooking methods mainly as a consequence of the weight losses. The highest cooking yield was found in samples cooked in the oven. Flaxseed flour contains high amount of α-linolenic acid and ohmic cooking seems to be the best cooking method in terms of retaining this fatty acid in meatballs enriched with flaxseed flour. However ohmic cooked meatball samples had a brighter surface color and harder texture in comparison with meatball samples cooked via traditional methods. There was no significant difference between the sensory evaluation scores of meatballs. PMID:27258146

  5. [Optimal measure for cultivation of Artemisia annua with high seeds yield].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yekuan; Li, Longyun; Hu, Yingi

    2009-09-01

    The relationship of Artemisia annua seed yield with density, N, P and K fertilizer applied amount was studied, and a mathematical model involving the 4 factors affecting seed yield was established using the orthogonal rotation design of quadratic regression. The seed yield function model was established according to parameters through field tests and data treated by computer techniques. The best agronomic measures complex project was selected and developed by computer imitation. The effects on seed yield of A. annua are density > N > P > K in turn. To obtain the highest yield density should be 13 000-15 000 plants x hm(-2), Ureal 186-242 kg x hm(-2), calcium superphosphate 874-1 023 kg x hm(-2), potassium chloride 135-165 kg x hm(-2) in the experiment. Reasonable planting density and fertilizer application could improve the seed yield of A. annua. PMID:19943472

  6. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  7. Measurement of the Fluorescence Quantum Yield Using a Spectrometer With an Integrating Sphere Detector.

    PubMed

    Gaigalas, Adolfas K; Wang, Lili

    2008-01-01

    A method is proposed for measuring the fluorescence quantum yield (QY) using a commercial spectrophotometer with a 150 mm integrating sphere (IS) detector. The IS detector is equipped with an internal cuvette holder so that absorbance measurements can be performed with the cuvette inside the IS. In addition, the spectrophotometer has a cuvette holder outside the IS for performing conventional absorbance measurements. It is shown that the fluorescence quantum yield can be obtained from a combination of absorbance measurements of the buffer and the analyte solution inside and outside the IS detector. Due to the simultaneous detection of incident and fluorescent photons, the absorbance measurements inside the IS need to be adjusted for the wavelength dependence of the photomultiplier detector and the wavelength dependence of the IS magnification factor. An estimate of the fluorescence emission spectrum is needed for proper application of the wavelength-dependent adjustments. Results are presented for fluorescein, quinine sulfate, myoglobin, rhodamine B and erythrosin B. The QY of fluorescein in 0.1 mol/L NaOH was determined as 0.90±0.02 where the uncertainty is equal to the standard deviation of three independent measurements. The method provides a convenient and rapid estimate of the fluorescence quantum yield. Refinements of the measurement model and the characteristics of the IS detector can in principle yield an accurate value of the absolute fluorescence quantum yield. PMID:27096110

  8. Science and Cooking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Many chefs are developing new approaches to prepare and present their cuisine using materials common to many physics labs, such as liquid nitrogen, foams, emulsions and hydrogels. In fact, the ingredients and methods of modern cooking can provide a wonderful inspiration to the teaching of introductory science. This talk will explore the physics of cooking and will include demonstrations. The science of several innovative techniques in cooking, including foams and the use of gelation, as well as more common processes, will be explored. The talk is inspired by a course taught at Harvard University through a collaboration of professors and well-known chefs. Presented by David Weitz, Harvard University.

  9. Preliminary investigation on the relationship of Raman spectra of sheep meat with shear force and cooking loss.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Heinar; Scheier, Rico; Hopkins, David L

    2013-01-01

    A prototype handheld Raman system was used as a rapid non-invasive optical device to measure raw sheep meat to estimate cooked meat tenderness and cooking loss. Raman measurements were conducted on m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum samples from two sheep flocks from two different origins which had been aged for five days at 3-4°C before deep freezing and further analysis. The Raman data of 140 samples were correlated with shear force and cooking loss data using PLS regression. Both sample origins could be discriminated and separate correlation models yielded better correlations than the joint correlation model. For shear force, R(2)=0.79 and R(2)=0.86 were obtained for the two sites. Results for cooking loss were comparable: separate models yielded R(2)=0.79 and R(2)=0.83 for the two sites. The results show the potential usefulness of Raman spectra which can be recorded during meat processing for the prediction of quality traits such as tenderness and cooking loss. PMID:22981122

  10. A successful solar cooking introduction model

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, W.F.

    1992-12-31

    The author reviews the process he has undertaken to introduce solar cooking in Central America. A slow but increasingly successful acceptance rate is attributed to the following factors: the adaptation of the physical design of the cooker to local conditions; the determination of essential accessories for successful cooking; preliminary assessment of the probability for successful solar cooking; the structure of the oven building workshops; the follow-up program for those who have built their solar ovens. The follow-up program is the emphasis of his current research. The program can be divided into two categories. One is physical maintenance, repair and upgrade needs. The second is education in solar cooking. Another is orientation in the physical use of the oven. While these measures are expected to increase utilization, subsidies will be needed if solar cookers are expected to compete with highly subsidized fuel alternatives such as natural gas and electricity.

  11. Note: A simple charge neutralization method for measuring the secondary electron yield of insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Ming Cao, Meng; Zhao, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Hai-Bo

    2014-03-15

    We report on a simple and effective charge neutralization method for measuring the total electron-induced secondary electron yield of insulators in a measurement system with a single pulsed electron gun. In this method, the secondary electron collector is negatively biased with respect to the sample to force some emitted secondary electrons to return to the sample surface and therefore to neutralize positive charges accumulated in the sample during the previous measurement. The adequate negative bias is determined and the equilibrium state of negative charging is discussed. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by the measured electron yields in the cases with and without charge neutralization and by comparison with existing electron yield data of polyimide.

  12. Copper activation deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, G. W.; Nelson, A. J.; Styron, J. D.; Ruiz, C. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Chandler, G. A.; Hahn, K. D.; Torres, J. A.; Smelser, R. M.; McWatters, B. R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Yeamans, C. B.; Knittel, K. M.; Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2012-10-15

    A DT neutron yield diagnostic based on the reactions, {sup 63}Cu(n,2n){sup 62}Cu({beta}{sup +}) and {sup 65}Cu(n,2n) {sup 64} Cu({beta}{sup +}), has been fielded at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The induced copper activity is measured using a NaI {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence system. Uncertainties in the 14-MeV DT yield measurements are on the order of 7% to 8%. In addition to measuring yield, the ratio of activities induced in two, well-separated copper samples are used to measure the relative anisotropy of the fuel {rho}R to uncertainties as low as 5%.

  13. Measurement of the B{sup +}{yields}{omega}l{sup +}{nu} and B{sup +}{yields}{eta}l{sup +}{nu} branching fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Cahn, R. N.

    2009-03-01

    We present a study of the charmless semileptonic B-meson decays B{sup +}{yields}{omega}l{sup +}{nu} and B{sup +}{yields}{eta}l{sup +}{nu}. The analysis is based on 3.83x10{sup 8} BB pairs recorded at the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector. The {omega} mesons are reconstructed in the channel {omega}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} and the {eta} mesons in the channels {eta}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} and {eta}{yields}{gamma}{gamma}. We measure the branching fractions B(B{sup +}{yields}{omega}l{sup +}{nu})=(1.14{+-}0.16{sub stat}{+-}0.08{sub syst})x10{sup -4} and B(B{sup +}{yields}{eta}l{sup +}{nu})=(0.31{+-}0.06{sub stat}{+-}0.08{sub syst})x10{sup -4}.

  14. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... and utensils are: Aluminum Copper Iron Lead Stainless steel Teflon™ (polytetrafluoroethlyene) Both lead and copper have been ... and should not be used for cooking. Stainless Steel Stainless steel cookware is low in cost and ...

  15. Energy losses during cooking processes

    SciTech Connect

    Thapar, A.; Engira, R.M.; Sohal, J.S.

    1983-12-01

    A major chunk of the thermal energy of the cooking fuel is wasted due to incomplete consumption, unfunctional design of cooking stoves and utensils. Several studies and their findings which are reported in the present paper pertain to: determination of minimum fuel consumption required for cooking of selected dishes under controlled and normal conditions; analysis of relative amounts of heat loss through different techniques during cooking under normal conditions; evaluation of effectiveness of different energy saving techniques with regard to cooking vessel.

  16. A new method for measuring the yield stress in thin layers of sedimenting blood.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, C L; Smith, C M; Blackshear, P L

    1987-01-01

    A new method is presented to describe the low shear rate behavior of blood. We observed the response of a thin layer of sedimenting blood to a graded shear stress in a wedge-shaped chamber. The method allows quantitation of the degree of phase separation between red cells and plasma, and extracts the yield stress of the cell phase as a function of hematocrit. Our studies showed that the behavior of normal human blood underwent a transition from a solid-like gel to a Casson fluid. This transition began at the Casson predicted yield stress. The viscoelastic properties of blood were examined at shear stresses below the yield stress. The measured Young's elastic moduli were in good agreement with published data. The yield stress of blood showed a linear dependence on hematocrit up to 60%, and increased more rapidly at higher hematocrit. PMID:3663830

  17. Cooking and grinding reduces the cost of meat digestion.

    PubMed

    Boback, Scott M; Cox, Christian L; Ott, Brian D; Carmody, Rachel; Wrangham, Richard W; Secor, Stephen M

    2007-11-01

    The cooking of food is hypothesized to have played a major role in human evolution partly by providing an increase in net energy gain. For meat, cooking compromises the structural integrity of the tissue by gelatinizing the collagen. Hence, cooked meat should take less effort to digest compared to raw meat. Likewise, less energy would be expended digesting ground meat compared to intact meat. We tested these hypotheses by assessing how the cooking and/or grinding of meat influences the energy expended on its digestion, absorption, and assimilation (i.e., specific dynamic action, SDA) using the Burmese python, Python molurus. Pythons were fed one of four experimental diets each weighing 25% of the snake's body mass: intact raw beef, intact cooked beef, ground raw beef, and ground cooked beef. We measured oxygen consumption rates of snakes prior to and up to 14 days following feeding and calculated SDA from the extra oxygen consumed above standard metabolic rate. Postprandial peak in oxygen consumption, the scope of peak rates, and SDA varied significantly among meal treatments. Pythons digesting raw or intact meals exhibited significantly larger postprandial metabolic responses than snakes digesting the cooked ground meals. We found cooking to decrease SDA by 12.7%, grinding to decrease SDA by 12.4%, and the combination of the two (cooking and grinding) to have an additive effect, decreasing SDA by 23.4%. These results support the hypothesis that the consumption of cooked meat provides an energetic benefit over the consumption of raw meat. PMID:17827047

  18. Relationship between neutron yield rate of tokamak plasmas and spectrometer measured flux for different sight lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gorini, G.; Kaellne, J.; Ognissanto, F.; Tardocchi, M.

    2011-03-15

    A parametric relationship between total neutron yield rate and collimated fluxes related to the brightness (B) of plasma chords ({lambda}) is developed for different emissivity distributions of tokamak plasmas. Specifically, the brightness was expressed as a function of chord coordinates of radial position using a simple model for the emissivity profiles of width parameter w. The functional brightness dependence B({lambda},w) was calculated to examine the relationship between measured flux and deduced yield rate, and its plasma profile dependence. The results were used to determine the chord range of minimum profile sensitivity in order to identify the preferred collimator sight for the determination of yield rate from neutron emission spectroscopy (YNES) measurements. The YNES method is discussed in comparison to conventional methods to determine the total neutron yield rates and related plasma fusion power relying on uncollimated flux measurements and a different calibration base for the flux-yield relationship. The results have a special bearing for tokamaks operating with both deuterium and deuterium-tritium plasmas and future high power machines such as for ITER, DEMO, and IGNITOR.

  19. Comparison of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive profiles of broiler breast fillets cooked from a frozen state and cooked after freeze/thaw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four replications were conducted to compare quality measurements, cook loss, shear force, and sensory quality profiles of cooked broiler breast meat (pectoralis major) prepared directly from a frozen state and prepared after freeze/thaw. In each replication, fresh broiler fillets (removed from carca...

  20. Measurements of {sigma}(e+e- {yields} hadrons) and B({psi}(3770) {yields} DD-bar, non-DD-bar)

    SciTech Connect

    Rong Gang

    2006-02-11

    We report measurements of the cross sections for inclusive hadronic event production in e+e- annihilation at the energies of 3.650, 3.6648, and 3.773 GeV and measurements of the branching fractions for {psi}(3770) {yields} D0D-bar0, D+D-, DD-bar, and for {psi}(3770) {yields} non-DD-bar.

  1. 233U mass yield measurements around and within the symmetry region with the ILL Lohengrin spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebboubi, A.; Kessedjian, G.; Sage, C.; Bernard, D.; Blanc, A.; Faust, H.; Köster, U.; Litaize, O.; Mutti, P.; Serot, O.

    2016-03-01

    The study of fission yields has a major impact on the characterization and understanding of the fission process and is mandatory for reactor applications. The LPSC in collaboration with ILL and CEA has developed a measurement program on fission fragment distributions at the Lohengrin spectrometer of the ILL, with a special focus on the masses constituting the heavy peak. We will present in this paper our measurement of the very low fission yields in the symmetry mass region and the heavy mass wing of the distribution for 233U thermal neutron induced fission. The difficulty due to the strong contamination by other masses with much higher yields will be addressed in the form of a new analysis method featuring the required contaminant correction. The apparition of structures in the kinetic energy distributions and possible interpretations will be discussed, such as a possible evidence of fission modes.

  2. Precise measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of the 337 nm band in atmospheric gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Curry, E.; Di Carlo, P.; Di Giulio, C.; Facal San Luis, P.; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Hörandel, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; Keilhauer, B.; Klages, H.; Kleifges, M.; Kuehn, F.; Li, S.; Monasor, M.; Nozka, L.; Palatka, M.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Ridky, J.; Rizi, V.; Rouille D'Orfeuil, B.; Salamida, F.; Schovanek, P.; Smida, R.; Spinka, H.; Ulrich, A.; Verzi, V.; Williams, C.

    2013-02-01

    A measurement of the absolute fluorescence yield of the 337 nm nitrogen band, relevant to ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) detectors, is reported. Two independent calibrations of the fluorescence emission induced by a 120 GeV proton beam were employed: Cherenkov light from the beam particle and calibrated light from a nitrogen laser. The fluorescence yield in air at a pressure of 1013 hPa and temperature of 293 K was found to be Y337=5.61±0.06stat±0.22syst photons/MeV. When compared to the fluorescence yield currently used by UHECR experiments, this measurement improves the uncertainty by a factor of three, and has a significant impact on the determination of the energy scale of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  3. Measurement of the charged multiplicity of Z{sup 0} {yields} b{bar b} events

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.

    1994-08-01

    Using an impact parameter tag to select an enriched sample of Z{sup 0} {yields} b{bar b} events, the authors have measured the difference between the average charged multiplicity of Z{sup 0} {yields} b{bar b} and Z{sup 0} {yields} hadrons to be {bar n}{sub b} - {bar n}{sub had} = 2.24 {+-} 0.30(stat.) {+-} 0.33(syst.) tracks per event. From this, they have derived {bar n}{sub b} - {bar n}{sub uds} = 3.31 {+-} 0.41 {+-} 0.79. Comparing this measurement with those at lower center-of-mass energies, the authors find no evidence that {bar n}{sub b} - {bar n}{sub uds} depends on energy, in agreement with a precise prediction of perturbative QCD.

  4. [Contrast of Z-Pinch X-Ray Yield Measure Technique].

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Wang, Liang-ping; Sheng, Liang; Lu, Yi

    2015-03-01

    Resistive bolometer and scintillant detection system are two mainly Z-pinch X-ray yield measure techniques which are based on different diagnostic principles. Contrasting the results from two methods can help with increasing precision of X-ray yield measurement. Experiments with different load material and shape were carried out on the "QiangGuang-I" facility. For Al wire arrays, X-ray yields measured by the two techniques were largely consistent. However, for insulating coating W wire arrays, X-ray yields taken from bolometer changed with load parameters while data from scintillant detection system hardly changed. Simulation and analysis draw conclusions as follows: (1) Scintillant detection system is much more sensitive to X-ray photons with low energy and its spectral response is wider than the resistive bolometer. Thus, results from the former method are always larger than the latter. (2) The responses of the two systems are both flat to Al plasma radiation. Thus, their results are consistent for Al wire array loads. (3) Radiation form planar W wire arrays is mainly composed of sub-keV soft X-ray. X-ray yields measured by the bolometer is supposed to be accurate because of the nickel foil can absorb almost all the soft X-ray. (4) By contrast, using planar W wire arrays, data from scintillant detection system hardly change with load parameters. A possible explanation is that while the distance between wires increases, plasma temperature at stagnation reduces and spectra moves toward the soft X-ray region. Scintillator is much more sensitive to the soft X-ray below 200 eV. Thus, although the total X-ray yield reduces with large diameter load, signal from the scintillant detection system is almost the same. (5) Both Techniques affected by electron beams produced by the loads. PMID:26117906

  5. Determination of advanced glycation endproducts in cooked meat products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gengjun; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a pathogenic factor implicated in diabetes and other chronic diseases, are produced in cooked meat products. The objective of this study was to determine the AGE content, as measured by Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) levels, in cooked chicken, pork, beef and fish (salmon and tilapia) prepared by three common cooking methods used by U.S. consumers: frying, baking, and broiling. The CML was detected in all the cooked samples, but the levels were dependent on types of meat, cooking conditions, and the final internal temperature. Broiling and frying at higher cooking temperature produced higher levels of CML, and broiled beef contained the highest CML content (21.8μg/g). Baked salmon (8.6μg/g) and baked tilapia (9.7μg/g) contained less CML as compared to the other muscle food samples. PMID:25172699

  6. Absolute calibration method for laser megajoule neutron yield measurement by activation diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Landoas, Olivier; Glebov, Vladimir Yu; Rossé, Bertrand; Briat, Michelle; Disdier, Laurent; Sangster, Thomas C; Duffy, Tim; Marmouget, Jean Gabriel; Varignon, Cyril; Ledoux, Xavier; Caillaud, Tony; Thfoin, Isabelle; Bourgade, Jean-Luc

    2011-07-01

    The laser megajoule (LMJ) and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) plan to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition using inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The neutron yield is one of the most important parameters to characterize ICF experiment performance. For decades, the activation diagnostic was chosen as a reference at ICF facilities and is now planned to be the first nuclear diagnostic on LMJ, measuring both 2.45 MeV and 14.1 MeV neutron yields. Challenges for the activation diagnostic development are absolute calibration, accuracy, range requirement, and harsh environment. At this time, copper and zirconium material are identified for 14.1 MeV neutron yield measurement and indium material for 2.45 MeV neutrons. A series of calibrations were performed at Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) on a Van de Graff facility to determine activation diagnostics efficiencies and to compare them with results from calculations. The CEA copper activation diagnostic was tested on the OMEGA facility during DT implosion. Experiments showed that CEA and Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) diagnostics agree to better than 1% on the neutron yield measurement, with an independent calibration for each system. Also, experimental sensitivities are in good agreement with simulations and allow us to scale activation diagnostics for the LMJ measurement range. PMID:21806179

  7. PREDICTING RICE YIELD RESPONSE TO MIDSEASON NITROGEN WITH PLANT AREA MEASURMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple method is needed to aid farmers with midseason N decisions in dry-seeded, delayed flood rice (Oryza sativa L.). This study was conducted to develop thresholds using visual and digital image measurements for predicting rice yield response to N topdressing. 'Francis' and 'Cheniere' (cv) ric...

  8. A new resonant based measurement method for squeeze mode yield stress of magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaluvan, Suresh; Shah, Kruti; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-10-01

    A new approach to measure the field-dependent yield stress of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in squeeze mode using the resonance concept is proposed. The measurement system is designed using the piezolaminated cantilever beam coupled with an electromagnetic coil based MR fluid squeezing setup. The cantilever beam is maintained at resonance using simple closed-loop electronics. The magnetic field produced by the coil changes the viscosity of MR fluids and produces an additional stiffness to the resonating cantilever beam. The shift in resonant frequency due to the change in viscosity of the MR fluid is measured, and the shift in frequency is analytically related to the yield stress. Two types of MR fluids based on sphere and plate iron particles are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed measurement system.

  9. Measuring {alpha} in B(t){yields}{rho}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}}

    SciTech Connect

    Gronau, M.; Zupan, J.

    2004-10-01

    Defining a most economical parametrization of time-dependent B{yields}{rho}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}} decays, including a measurable phase {alpha}{sub eff} which equals the weak phase {alpha} in the limit of vanishing penguin amplitudes, we propose two ways for determining {alpha} in this processes. We explain the limitation of one method, assuming only that two relevant tree amplitudes factorize and that their relative strong phase {delta}{sub t} is negligible. The other method, based on broken flavor SU(3), permits a determination of {alpha} in B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}} in an over constrained system using also rate measurements of B{sup 0,+}{yields}K*{pi} and B{sup 0,+}{yields}{rho}K. Current data are shown to restrict two ratios of penguin and tree amplitudes r{sub {+-}} to a narrow range around 0.2 and to imply an upper bound |{alpha}{sub eff}-{alpha}|<15 deg. . Assuming that {delta}{sub t} is much smaller than 90 deg. , we find {alpha}=(93{+-}16) deg. and (102{+-}20) deg. using BABAR and BELLE results for B(t){yields}{rho}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}}. Avoiding this assumption for completeness, we demonstrate the reduction of discrete ambiguities in {alpha} with increased statistics and show that SU(3) breaking effects are effectively second order in r{sub {+-}}.

  10. Measurements of fission yields in the heavy region at the recoil ass spectrometer lohengrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bail, A.; Serot, O.; Mathieu, L.; Litaize, O.; Materna, T.; Köster, U.; Faust, H.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.; Dupont, E.; Michel-Sendis, F.

    2009-10-01

    In spite of the huge amount of fission yield data available in different libraries, more accurate values are still needed for nuclear energy applications and to improve our understanding of the fission process. Thus measurements of fission yields were performed at the mass spectrometer Lohengrin at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France. The mass separator Lohengrin is situated at the research reactor of the institute and permits the placement of an actinide layer in a high thermal neutron flux. It separates fragments according to their atomic mass, kinetic energy and ionic charge state by the action of magnetic and electric fields. Coupled to a high resolution ionization chamber the experiment was used to investigate the mass and isotopic yields in the light mass region. Almost all fission yields of isotopes from Th to Cf have been measured at Lohengrin with this method. It has been extended in this work to the heavy mass region for the reactions 235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f), and 241Pu(nth,f). For these higher masses an isotopic separation is no longer possible. So, a new method was undertaken with the reaction 239Pu(nth,f) to determine the isotopic yields by γ spectrometry. The results are presented in this paper.

  11. Direct measurement of the yield stress of filamentous fermentation broths with the rotating vane technique.

    PubMed

    Leong-Poi, L; Allen, D G

    1992-07-01

    The existence of a yield stress in filamentous fermentation broths has important transport phenomena implications in the design and operation of bioreactors. In this study, the constant shear rate vane method was assessed for directly measuring the yield stress of filamentous Aspergillus niger fermentation broths, as well as model fluids (ketchup, yogurt, and pulp suspensions). The method involved rotating 4-, 6-, and 8-bladed vanes (7.2 cm < or = height < or = 15 cm; 4.0 cm < or = dia. < or= 6 cm) at speeds of 0.01 to 0.64 rpm in the fluid and plotting the torque as a function of time. Based on visual observations, the consistency of the results with vane type and speed and comparison with previous work on nonbiological samples, it was concluded that the method is an effective and consistent technique for yield stress measurements on filamentous fermentation broths. Based on comparisons with concentric cylinder viscometer results, it was also concluded that the value determined via the vane method was a "static" yield stress (values of up to 28 Pa) which was much greater than the extrapolated (or "dynamic") yield stress determined via the concentric cylinder viscometer. PMID:18601131

  12. SOURCE STRENGTHS OF ULTRAFINE AND FINE PARTICLES DUE TO COOKING WITH A GAS STOVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cooking, particularly frying, is an important source of particles indoors. Few studies have measured a full range of particle sizes, including ultrafine particles, produced during cooking. In this study, semicontinuous instruments with fine size discriminating ability were us...

  13. From Cooks to Carpenters: Measuring - A Saleable Work Skill. Occupation Simulation Packet. Grades 5th-6th.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Helena

    This teacher's guide contains simulated work experiences for 5th and 6th grade students using the isolated skill concept - measuring. Teacher instructions include objectives, evaluation, and sequence of activities. The guide contains pre-tests and post-tests with instructions and answer keys. Three pre-skill activities are suggested, such as…

  14. Surface studies and implanted helium measurements following NOVA high-yield DT experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M.A.; Hudson, G.B.

    1997-02-18

    This paper presents the results of three March 6, 1996 direct-drive high-yield DT NOVA experiments and provides `proof-of-principal` results for the quantitative measurement of energetic He ions. Semiconductor quality Si wafers and an amorphous carbon wafer were exposed to NOVA high-yield implosions. Surface damage was sub-micron in general, although the surface ablation was slightly greater for the carbon wafer than for the Si wafers. Melting of a thin ({approx} 0.1{mu}) layer of Si was evident from microscopic investigation. Electron microscopy indicated melted blobs of many different metals (e.g. Al, Au, Ta, Fe alloys, Cu and even Cd) on the surfaces. The yield measured by determining the numbers of atoms of implanted {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He indicate the number of DT fusions to be 9.1({plus_minus}2.3) X 10{sup 12} and DD fusions to be 4.8({plus_minus}1.0) x 10{sup 10}, respectively. The helium DT fusion yield is slightly lower than that of the Cu activation measurement, which was 1.3({plus_minus}0.l) x 10{sup 13} DT fusions.

  15. The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Mariantonella; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-04-01

    Cooking induces many chemical and physical modifications in foods; among these the phytochemical content can change. Many authors have studied variations in vegetable nutrients after cooking, and great variability in the data has been reported. In this review more than 100 articles from indexed scientific journals were considered in order to assess the effect of cooking on different phytochemical classes. Changes in phytochemicals upon cooking may result from two opposite phenomena: (1) thermal degradation, which reduces their concentration, and (2) a matrix softening effect, which increases the extractability of phytochemicals, resulting in a higher concentration with respect to the raw material. The final effect of cooking on phytochemical concentration depends on the processing parameters, the structure of food matrix, and the chemical nature of the specific compound. Looking at the different cooking procedures it can be concluded that steaming will ensure better preservation/extraction yield of phenols and glucosinolates than do other cooking methods: steamed tissues are not in direct contact with the cooking material (water or oil) so leaching of soluble compounds into water is minimised and, at the same time, thermal degradation is limited. Carotenoids showed a different behaviour; a positive effect on extraction and the solubilisation of carotenes were reported after severe processing. PMID:24227349

  16. Measurement of the Helicity Difference in {gamma}{sup {yields}p{yields}{yields}p{pi}+{pi}-} with the CLAS Spectrometer at Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sungkyun

    2010-08-05

    The study of the properties of baryon resonances can provide us with hints to help us understand the structure of non-perturbative QCD and the effect of a particular resonance on polarization observables. The investigation of double-pion photoproduction data is needed to discover higher-lying states and their properties at and above W {approx_equal} 1.8 GeV. Therefore, the analysis of the helicity difference in gp {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup +{pi}-} will help us in our understanding of QCD.The CLAS g9a (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Jefferson Laboratory, has accumulated photoproduction data using linearly and circularly polarized photons incident on a longitudinally-polarized butanol target in the photon energy range 0.3 to 2.4 GeV. The FROST experiment provides an important step toward a ''complete'' experiment for the reaction {gamma}N{yields}KY.In this contribution, the method to calculate the helicity difference for the reaction {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup +{pi}-} will be described and preliminary results will be discussed.

  17. Calibration methodology for proportional counters applied to yield measurements of a neutron burst

    SciTech Connect

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel E-mail: atarisal@gmail.com; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo; Mayer, Roberto E.

    2014-01-15

    This paper introduces a methodology for the yield measurement of a neutron burst using neutron proportional counters. This methodology is to be applied when single neutron events cannot be resolved in time by nuclear standard electronics, or when a continuous current cannot be measured at the output of the counter. The methodology is based on the calibration of the counter in pulse mode, and the use of a statistical model to estimate the number of detected events from the accumulated charge resulting from the detection of the burst of neutrons. The model is developed and presented in full detail. For the measurement of fast neutron yields generated from plasma focus experiments using a moderated proportional counter, the implementation of the methodology is herein discussed. An experimental verification of the accuracy of the methodology is presented. An improvement of more than one order of magnitude in the accuracy of the detection system is obtained by using this methodology with respect to previous calibration methods.

  18. What does cooking mean to you?: Perceptions of cooking and factors related to cooking behavior.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Frattaroli, Shannon

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of cooking in American life and evidence suggesting that meals cooked at home are healthier, little is known about perceptions of what it means to cook in the United States. The objective of this study was to describe perceptions of cooking and factors important to how cooking is perceived and practiced among American adults. Seven focus groups (N = 53; 39 female; 35 Black, 16 White, 2 Asian) were conducted from November 2014 to January 2015 in Baltimore City, Maryland. Participants were recruited from two neighborhoods; one with higher median income and access to healthy food and the other with lower income and low access to healthy food. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Participants' perceptions of cooking varied considerably, regardless of neighborhood income or food access, and spanned a continuum from all scratch cooking to anything made at home. Perceptions of cooking incorporated considerations of whether or how food was heated and the degree of time, effort and love involved if convenience foods were used. Key barriers to cooking included affordability, lack of time, and lack of enjoyment. Key facilitators of frequent cooking included extensive organization and time management to enable participants to incorporate cooking into their daily lives. Cooking is a complex concept and not uniformly understood. Efforts to encourage healthy cooking at home should consider the broad spectrum of activities Americans recognize as cooking as well as the barriers and facilitators to preparing food at home. Public health messages to encourage more frequent cooking should account for the heterogeneity in perspectives about cooking. More research should explore differences in perceptions about cooking in other diverse populations. PMID:26654888

  19. Absolute quantum yield measurements of colloidal NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+ upconverting nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Boyer, John-Christopher; van Veggel, Frank C J M

    2010-08-01

    In this communication we describe a technique for measuring the absolute quantum yields (QYs) of upconverting nanomaterials based on the use of a commercially available fluorimeter and an integrating sphere. Using this setup, we have successfully acquired luminescence efficiency data (pump laser, absorbed pump, and visible emitted intensities) for lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles. QYs in the range of 0.005% to 0.3% were measured for several NaYF(4): 2% Er(3+), 20% Yb(3+) nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 10 to 100 nm while a QY of 3% was measured for a bulk sample. PMID:20820726

  20. Pressure Wave Measurements Resulting from Thermal Cook-Off of the HMX Based High Explosive LX-04

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Frank; Vandersall, Kevin S.; Forbes, Jerry W.; Tarver, Craig M.; Greenwood, Daniel

    2004-07-01

    Experiments that investigate thermal and nearby explosion scenarios are needed to provide essential data to models for accurate predictions. A porous LX-04 (85/15 wt% HMX/Viton) sample was heated in a heavily confined donor charge until it thermally exploded. The reaction accelerated a steel cover plate across a 10 cm gap into a preheated gauged acceptor cylinder (near its theoretical maximum density) of LX-04. The carbon resistor gauges in the acceptor measured the resulting multi-dimensional ramp wave as it propagated through the pre-heated LX-04. Detonation of the LX-04 acceptor does not occur. Results are compared to similar experiments with acceptors at room temperature.

  1. Measuring neutron yield and ρR anisotropies with activation foils at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bionta, R. M.; Cooper, G. W.; Drury, O. B.; Hagmann, C. A.; Knittel, K. M.; Leeper, R. J.; Ruiz, C. L.; Schneider, D. H. G.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2013-11-01

    Neutron yields at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are measured with a suite of diagnostics, including activation of ˜20-200 g samples of materials undergoing a variety of energy-dependent neutron reactions. Indium samples were mounted on the end of a Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator (DIM), 25-50 cm from the implosion, to measure 2.45 MeV D-D fusion neutron yield. The 336.2 keV gamma rays from the 4.5 hour isomer of 115mIn produced by (n,n') reactions are counted in high-purity germanium detectors. For capsules producing D-T fusion reactions, zirconium and copper are activated via (n,2n) reactions at various locations around the target chamber and bay, measuring the 14 MeV neutron yield to accuracies on order of 7%. By mounting zirconium samples on ports at nine locations around the NIF chamber, anisotropies in the primary neutron emission due to fuel areal density asymmetries can be measured to a relative precision of 3%.

  2. Cooking with Quadratics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Luajean N.

    2010-01-01

    A project that mixes algebra with data collection, uses technology, extends into data analysis, and cooks marshmallows can excite both teachers and students. This article describes a project that intends to pique students' interest in higher mathematics, incorporate their knowledge of parabolas, and offer a meaningful mathematics experience. Using…

  3. Home-cooked care.

    PubMed

    Dean, Erin

    Hospital patients undoubtedly benefit when visitors bring in home-cooked meals. Patients are more likely to be well-nourished if they can eat food they enjoy. But it can present practical difficulties. Banning such food can prevent visitors from showing they care and present nurses with a dilemma. PMID:22880341

  4. Extrusion cooking: Legume pulses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion is used commercially to produce high value breakfast and snack foods based on cereals such as wheat or corn. However, this processing method is not being commercially used for legume pulses seeds due to the perception that they do not expand well in extrusion. Extrusion cooking of pulses (...

  5. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  6. Food Safety When Cooking

    MedlinePlus

    ... running water; do not rinse raw meat or poultry before cooking. 2. Separate . Keep raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs (and their juices and shells) ... fresh produce than you use for raw meat, poultry, and seafood. Or, cut the fresh produce first, ...

  7. Experimental Concept for a Precision Measurement of Nuclear Recoil Ionization Yields for Low Mass WIMP Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saab, T.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the response of dark matter detectors at the lowest recoil energies is important for correctly interpreting data from current experiments or predicting the sensitivity of future experiments to low mass weakly interacting massive particles. In particular, the ionization yield is essential for determining the correct recoil energy of candidate nuclear recoil events; however, few measurements in cryogenic crystals exist below 1 keV. Using the voltage-assisted calorimetric ionization detection technique with a mono-energetic neutron source, we show that it is possible to determine the ionization yield in cryogenic crystals down to an energy to 100 eV. This measurement will also determine the statistics of ionization production at these low energies.

  8. Precise Measurement of the Absolute Yield of Fluorescence Photons in Atmospheric Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ave, M.; Bohacova, M.; Daumiller, K.; Di Carlo, P.; Di Giulio, C.; Luis, P.Facal San; Gonzales, D.; Hojvat, C.; Horandel, J.R.; Hrabovsky, M.; Iarlori, M.; /INFN, Aquila /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.

    2011-01-01

    We have performed a measurement of the absolute yield of fluorescence photons at the Fermilab Test Beam. A systematic uncertainty at 5% level was achieved by the use of Cherenkov radiation as a reference calibration light source. A cross-check was performed by an independent calibration using a laser light source. A significant improvement on the energy scale uncertainty of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays is expected.

  9. Quantum Yield Determination Based on Photon Number Measurement, Protocols for Firefly Bioluminescence Reactions.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Quantum yield (QY), which is defined as the probability of photon production by a single bio/chemiluminescence reaction, is an important factor to characterize luminescence light intensity emitted diffusively from the reaction solution mixture. Here, methods to measure number of photons to determine QY according to the techniques of national radiometry standards are described. As an example, experiments using firefly bioluminescence reactions are introduced. PMID:27424895

  10. Accuracy of quantum sensors measuring yield photon flux and photosynthetic photon flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Tibbitts, T.; Sager, J.; Deitzer, G.; Bubenheim, D.; Koerner, G.; Bugbee, B.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Photosynthesis is fundamentally driven by photon flux rather than energy flux, but not all absorbed photons yield equal amounts of photosynthesis. Thus, two measures of photosynthetically active radiation have emerged: photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), which values all photons from 400 to 700 nm equally, and yield photon flux (YPF), which weights photons in the range from 360 to 760 nm according to plant photosynthetic response. We selected seven common radiation sources and measured YPF and PPF from each source with a spectroradiometer. We then compared these measurements with measurements from three quantum sensors designed to measure YPF, and from six quantum sensors designed to measure PPF. There were few differences among sensors within a group (usually <5%), but YPF values from sensors were consistently lower (3% to 20%) than YPF values calculated from spectroradiometric measurements. Quantum sensor measurements of PPF also were consistently lower than PPF values calculated from spectroradiometric measurements, but the differences were <7% for all sources, except red-light-emitting diodes. The sensors were most accurate for broad-band sources and least accurate for narrow-band sources. According to spectroradiometric measurements, YPF sensors were significantly less accurate (>9% difference) than PPF sensors under metal halide, high-pressure sodium, and low-pressure sodium lamps. Both sensor types were inaccurate (>18% error) under red-light-emitting diodes. Because both YPF and PPF sensors are imperfect integrators, and because spectroradiometers can measure photosynthetically active radiation much more accurately, researchers should consider developing calibration factors from spectroradiometric data for some specific radiation sources to improve the accuracy of integrating sensors.

  11. Particle emission factors during cooking activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonanno, G.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.

    Exposure to particles emitted by cooking activities may be responsible for a variety of respiratory health effects. However, the relationship between these exposures and their subsequent effects on health cannot be evaluated without understanding the properties of the emitted aerosol or the main parameters that influence particle emissions during cooking. Whilst traffic-related emissions, stack emissions and concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter < 100 nm) in urban ambient air have been widely investigated for many years, indoor exposure to UFPs is a relatively new field and in order to evaluate indoor UFP emissions accurately, it is vital to improve scientific understanding of the main parameters that influence particle number, surface area and mass emissions. The main purpose of this study was to characterise the particle emissions produced during grilling and frying as a function of the food, source, cooking temperature and type of oil. Emission factors, along with particle number concentrations and size distributions were determined in the size range 0.006-20 μm using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). An infrared camera was used to measure the temperature field. Overall, increased emission factors were observed to be a function of increased cooking temperatures. Cooking fatty foods also produced higher particle emission factors than vegetables, mainly in terms of mass concentration, and particle emission factors also varied significantly according to the type of oil used.

  12. A Measurement of the Scintillation Light Yield in CD4 Using a Photosensitive GEM Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Azmoun, B.; Azmoun, B.; Caccavano, A.; Rumore, M.; Sinsheimer, J.; Smirnov, N.; Stoll, S.; Woody, C.

    2010-08-01

    The absolute photon yield of scintillation light produced by highly ionizing particles in pure CF{sub 4} has been measured using a photosensitive Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector. The detector consists of two standard GEMs and a CsI coated GEM which acts as a photocathode that is sensitive to the 160 nm scintillation light produced in CF{sub 4}. The light yield was determined in terms of the number of scintillation photons emitted into a 4{pi} solid angle produced per MeV of energy deposited in the gas by a 5.5 MeV alpha particle and found to be 314 {+-} 15 photons per MeV. The quantum yield was determined using a fitting method to determine the number of photoelectrons from the measured pulse height distribution, and by an independent method using the measured gain of the GEM detector. The effect of scintillation light in CF{sub 4} on the performance of Cherenkov detectors, such as the PHENIX Hadron Blind Detector (HBD) at RHIC, is also discussed.

  13. Absolute quantum yield measurements of colloidal NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+ upconverting nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, John-Christopher; van Veggel, Frank C. J. M.

    2010-08-01

    In this communication we describe a technique for measuring the absolute quantum yields (QYs) of upconverting nanomaterials based on the use of a commercially available fluorimeter and an integrating sphere. Using this setup, we have successfully acquired luminescence efficiency data (pump laser, absorbed pump, and visible emitted intensities) for lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles. QYs in the range of 0.005% to 0.3% were measured for several NaYF4: 2% Er3+, 20% Yb3+ nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 10 to 100 nm while a QY of 3% was measured for a bulk sample.In this communication we describe a technique for measuring the absolute quantum yields (QYs) of upconverting nanomaterials based on the use of a commercially available fluorimeter and an integrating sphere. Using this setup, we have successfully acquired luminescence efficiency data (pump laser, absorbed pump, and visible emitted intensities) for lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles. QYs in the range of 0.005% to 0.3% were measured for several NaYF4: 2% Er3+, 20% Yb3+ nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 10 to 100 nm while a QY of 3% was measured for a bulk sample. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, powder XRDs and TEM micrographs of the samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00253d

  14. Measurements of branching fractions for B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{gamma}, B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{gamma}, and B{sup 0}{yields}{omega}{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Abrams, G. S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Cahn, R. N.

    2008-12-01

    We present branching fraction measurements for the radiative decays B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{gamma}, B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{gamma}, and B{sup 0}{yields}{omega}{gamma}. The analysis is based on a data sample of 465x10{sup 6} BB events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We find B(B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{gamma})=(1.20{sub -0.37}{sup +0.42}{+-}0.20)x10{sup -6}, B(B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{gamma})=(0.97{sub -0.22}{sup +0.24}{+-}0.06)x10{sup -6}, and a 90% C.L. upper limit B(B{sup 0}{yields}{omega}{gamma})<0.9x10{sup -6}, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. We also measure the isospin-violating quantity {gamma}(B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{gamma})/2{gamma}(B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{gamma})-1=-0.43{sub -0.22}{sup +0.25}{+-}0.10.

  15. Using a 3D profiler and infrared camera to monitor oven loading in fully cooked meat operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John; Giorges, Aklilu

    2009-05-01

    Ensuring meat is fully cooked is an important food safety issue for operations that produce "ready to eat" products. In order to kill harmful pathogens like Salmonella, all of the product must reach a minimum threshold temperature. Producers typically overcook the majority of the product to ensure meat in the most difficult scenario reaches the desired temperature. A difficult scenario can be caused by an especially thick piece of meat or by a surge of product into the process. Overcooking wastes energy, degrades product quality, lowers the maximum throughput rate of the production line and decreases product yield. At typical production rates of 6000lbs/hour, these losses from overcooking can have a significant cost impact on producers. A wide area 3D camera coupled with a thermal camera was used to measure the thermal mass variability of chicken breasts in a cooking process. Several types of variability are considered including time varying thermal mass (mass x temperature / time), variation in individual product geometry and variation in product temperature. The automatic identification of product arrangement issues that affect cooking such as overlapping product and folded products is also addressed. A thermal model is used along with individual product geometry and oven cook profiles to predict the percentage of product that will be overcooked and to identify products that may not fully cook in a given process.

  16. Measurement of partial L fluorescence yields of bismuth using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Ménesguen, Yves; Boyer, Bruno; Rodrigues, Matias; Lépy, Marie-Christine

    2016-03-01

    Tunable monochromatic photon radiation was used to measure transmission of a bismuth target in the energy range from 7keV to 20keV. Partial L fluorescence yields of bismuth were obtained by combining measurement of the fluorescence induced by photoionization of the bismuth target and X-rays from the radioactive decay of (210)Pb. Several photon energies have been used to successively ionize the L subshells, which allowed detailed analysis of the rearrangement spectra and determination of the X-ray relative intensities of the L1, L2 and L3 series. PMID:26651165

  17. Measurement of Scintillation and Ionization Yield and Scintillation Pulse Shape from Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, H.

    2015-05-26

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We also report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0 to 970 V/cm. For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V/cm. Furthermore, we report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from 83mKr internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons (Nex) and ion pairs (Ni) and their ratio (Nex/Ni) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.

  18. Measurement of Scintillation and Ionization Yield and Scintillation Pulse Shape from Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cao, H.

    2015-05-26

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We also report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0more » to 970 V/cm. For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V/cm. Furthermore, we report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from 83mKr internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons (Nex) and ion pairs (Ni) and their ratio (Nex/Ni) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.« less

  19. Exposure to Cooking Oil Fumes and Oxidative Damages: A Longitudinal Study in Chinese Military Cooks

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.; Chuang, Chien-Yi; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Lung, Shih-Chun; Loh, Ching-Hui; Yu, Dah-Shyong; Strickland, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking oil fumes contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic aromatic amines, benzene, and formaldehyde which may cause oxidative damages to DNA and lipids. We assessed the relations between exposure to cooking oil fumes (COF) and subsequent oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation among military cooks and office-based soldiers. The study population, including 61 Taiwanese male military cooks and a reference group of 37 office soldiers, collected urine samples pre-shift of the first weekday and post-shift of the fifth workday. We measured airborne particulate PAHs in military kitchens and offices and concentrations of urinary 1-OHP, a biomarker of PAH exposure, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, and urinary isoprostane (Isop). Airborne particulate PAHs levels in kitchens significantly exceeded those in office areas. The concentrations of urinary 1-OHP among military cooks increased significantly after 5 days of exposure to COF. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis adjusting for confounding, a change in log(8-OHdG) and log(Isop) were statistically significantly related to a unit change in log(1-OHP) (regression coefficient [β], β= 0.06, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.12) and (β= 0.07, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.13), respectively. Exposure to PAHs, or other compounds in cooking-oil fumes, may cause both oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. PMID:22968348

  20. Validation of a combi oven cooking method for preparation of chicken breast meat for quality assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality assessment of cooked meat can be significantly affected by cooking techniques. A combi oven is a relatively new cooking technology in the U.S. market. However, there was lack of published information about its effect on quality measurements of chicken meat. The objective of this study was...

  1. Isotopic yield measurement in the heavy mass region for 239Pu thermal neutron induced fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bail, A.; Serot, O.; Mathieu, L.; Litaize, O.; Materna, T.; Köster, U.; Faust, H.; Letourneau, A.; Panebianco, S.

    2011-09-01

    Despite the huge number of fission yield data available in the different evaluated nuclear data libraries, such as JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0, and JENDL-4.0, more accurate data are still needed both for nuclear energy applications and for our understanding of the fission process itself. It is within the framework of this that measurements on the recoil mass spectrometer Lohengrin (at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France) was undertaken, to determine isotopic yields for the heavy fission products from the 239Pu(nth,f) reaction. In order to do this, a new experimental method based on γ-ray spectrometry was developed and validated by comparing our results with those performed in the light mass region with completely different setups. Hence, about 65 fission product yields were measured with an uncertainty that has been reduced on average by a factor of 2 compared to that previously available in the nuclear data libraries. In addition, for some fission products, a strongly deformed ionic charge distribution compared to a normal Gaussian shape was found, which was interpreted as being caused by the presence of a nanosecond isomeric state. Finally, a nuclear charge polarization has been observed in agreement, with the one described on other close fissioning systems.

  2. Measurement of the B{yields}D{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K branching fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Amo Sanchez, P. del; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.

    2011-02-01

    We present a measurement of the branching fractions of the 22 decay channels of the B{sup 0} and B{sup +} mesons to D{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K, where the D{sup (*)} and D{sup (*)} mesons are fully reconstructed. Summing the 10 neutral modes and the 12 charged modes, the branching fractions are found to be B(B{sup 0}{yields}D{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K)=(3.68{+-}0.10{+-}0.24)% and B(B{sup +}{yields}D{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K)=(4.05{+-}0.11{+-}0.28)%, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic. The results are based on 429 fb{sup -1} of data containing 471x10{sup 6}BB pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

  3. Improved InGaN epitaxy yield by precise temperature measurement :yearly report 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Koleske, Daniel David; Creighton, James Randall; Russell, Michael J.; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2006-08-01

    This Report summarizes the first year progress (October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2005) made under a NETL funded project entitled ''Improved InGaN Epitaxy Yield by Precise Temperature Measurement''. This Project addresses the production of efficient green LEDs, which are currently the least efficient of the primary colors. The Project Goals are to advance IR and UV-violet pyrometry to include real time corrections for surface emissivity on multiwafer MOCVD reactors. Increasing wafer yield would dramatically reduce high brightness LED costs and accelerate the commercial manufacture of inexpensive white light LEDs with very high color quality. This work draws upon and extends our previous research (funded by DOE) that developed emissivity correcting pyrometers (ECP) based on the high-temperature GaN opacity near 400 nm (the ultraviolet-violet range, or UVV), and the sapphire opacity in the mid-IR (MIR) near 7.5 microns.

  4. Measurement of delayed-neutron yield from 237Np fission induced by thermal neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundorin, N. A.; Zhdanova, K. V.; Zhuchko, V. E.; Pikelner, L. B.; Rebrova, N. V.; Salamatin, I. M.; Smirnov, V. I.; Furman, V. I.

    2007-06-01

    The delayed-neutron yield from thermal-neutron-induced fission of the 237Np nucleus was measured using a sample periodically exposed to a pulsed neutron beam with subsequent detection of neutrons during the time intervals between pulses. The experiment was realized on an Isomer-M setup mounted in the IBR-2 pulsed reactor channel equipped with a mirror neutron guide. The setup and the experimental procedure are described, the background sources are thoroughly analyzed, and the experimental data are presented. The total delayed-neutron yield from 237Np fission induced by thermal neutrons is ν d = 0.0110 ± 0.0009. This study was performed at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (JINR, Dubna).

  5. Comparison of methods and achievable uncertainties for the relative and absolute measurement of photoluminescence quantum yields.

    PubMed

    Würth, Christian; Grabolle, Markus; Pauli, Jutta; Spieles, Monika; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2011-05-01

    The photoluminescence quantum yield (Φ(f)) that presents a direct measure for the efficiency of the conversion of absorbed photons into emitted photons is one of the spectroscopic key parameters of functional fluorophores. It determines the suitability of such materials for applications in, for example, (bio)analysis, biosensing, and fluorescence imaging as well as as active components in optical devices. The reborn interest in accurate Φ(f) measurements in conjunction with the controversial reliability of reported Φ(f) values of many common organic dyes encouraged us to compare two relative and one absolute fluorometric method for the determination of the fluorescence quantum yields of quinine sulfate dihydrate, coumarin 153, fluorescein, rhodamine 6G, and rhodamine 101. The relative methods include the use of a chain of Φ(f) transfer standards consisting of several "standard dye" versus "reference dye" pairs linked to a golden Φ(f) standard that covers the ultraviolet and visible spectral region, and the use of different excitation wavelengths for standard and sample, respectively. Based upon these measurements and the calibration of the instruments employed, complete uncertainty budgets for the resulting Φ(f) values are derived for each method, thereby providing evaluated standard operation procedures for Φ(f) measurements and, simultaneously, a set of assessed Φ(f) standards. PMID:21473570

  6. Solar cooking in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiping

    1992-12-31

    In the past 20 years, solar cooking has developed rapidly in China. Its popularity is easy to understand since China is a nation with a rural population of 800 million, 30% to 40% of which lack firewood. In recent years a number of scientists and engineers have researched solar cooking and tested solar cookers. The Solar Energy Laboratory has worked on the application of solar energy, especially solar cookers, and has made a number of significant achievements in the following areas: solar cooker theory; methods of designing solar cookers, testing characteristics of thermal efficiency; materials for cooker construction, and technological processes for producing cookers. This paper discusses their achievements and plans for future research.

  7. The energetic significance of cooking.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance. PMID:19732938

  8. Measurement of gas yields and flow rates using a custom flowmeter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Pinkston, J.C.; Stern, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    A simple gas collection apparatus based on the principles of a Torricelli tube has been designed and built to measure gas volume yields and flow rates. This instrument is routinely used to monitor and collect methane gas released during methane hydrate dissociation experiments. It is easily and inexpensively built, operates at ambient pressures and temperatures, and measures gas volumes of up to 7 L to a precision of about 15 ml (about 0.0025 mol). It is capable of measuring gas flow rates varying from more than 103 to less than 10-1 ml/min during gas evolution events that span minutes to several days. We have obtained a highly reproducible hydrate number of n=5.891 with a propagated uncertainty of ??0.020 for synthetic methane hydrate. ?? 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Secondary Electron Yield Measurements of Fermilab?s Main Injector Vacuum Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.J.; Capista, D.; Duel, K.L.; Zwaska, R.M.; Greenwald, S.; Hartung, W.; Li, Y.; Moore, T.P.; Palmer, M.A.; Kirby, R.; Pivi, M.; /SLAC

    2012-05-01

    We discuss the progress made on a new installation in Fermilab's Main Injector that will help investigate the electron cloud phenomenon by making direct measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) of samples irradiated in the accelerator. In the Project X upgrade the Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased by a factor of three compared to current operations. This may result in the beam being subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. Measured SEY values can be used to further constrain simulations and aid our extrapolation to Project X intensities. The SEY test-stand, developed in conjunction with Cornell and SLAC, is capable of measuring the SEY from samples using an incident electron beam when the samples are biased at different voltages. We present the design and manufacture of the test-stand and the results of initial laboratory tests on samples prior to installation.

  10. First measurement of the ionization yield of nuclear recoils in liquid argon

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, T.; Sangiorgio, Samuele; Bernstein, A.; Foxe, Michael P.; Hagmann, Chris; Jovanovic, Igor; Kazkaz, K.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Norman, E. B.; Pereverzev, S. V.; Rebassoo, Finn O.; Sorensen, Peter F.

    2014-05-01

    Liquid phase argon has long been used as a target medium for particle detection via scintillation light. Recently there has been considerable interest in direct detection of both hypothetical darkmatter particles and coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering. These as-yet unobserved neutral particle interactions are expected to result in a recoiling argon atom O(keV), generally referred to in the literature as a nuclear recoil. This prompts the question of the available electromagnetic signal in a liquid argon detector. In this Letter we report the first measurement of the ionization yield (Qy), detected electrons per unit energy, resulting from nuclear recoils in liquid argon, measured at 6.7 keV. This is also the lowest energy measurement of nuclear recoils in liquid argon.

  11. High precision tracking and the measurement of B(Z yields b b )/B(Z yields hadrons) with the Mark II at the SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Schumm, B.A.

    1991-03-01

    During the 1990 run of the Mark II at the SLC, the precision tracking system achieved a preliminary impact parameter resolution of 35.8 {plus minus} 1.3 {mu}m for high momentum tracks, which is the quadrature sum of 25 {plus minus} 5 {mu}m of intrinsic resolution smearing dominated by misalignments and other geometrical effects. A method is proposed by which this system can be used to measure B(Z {yields} b{rvec b}/B(Z {yields} hadrons)) with minimal systematic error. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Measurements of DT and DD neutron yields by neutron activation on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.W.; Larson, A.R.; LeMunyan, G.; Loughlin, M.J.

    1994-05-05

    A variety of elemental foils have been activated by neutron fluence from TFTR under conditions with the DT neutron yield per shot ranging from 10{sup 12} to over 10{sup 18}, and with the DT/(DD+DT) neutron ratio varying from 0.5% (from triton burnup) to unity. Linear response over this large dynamic range is obtained by reducing the mass of the foils and increasing the cooling time, all while accepting greatly improved counting statistics. Effects on background gamma-ray lines from foil-capsule-material contaminants. and the resulting lower limits on activation foil mass, have been determined. DT neutron yields from dosimetry standard reactions on aluminum, chromium, iron, nickel, zirconium, and indium are in agreement within the {plus_minus}9% (one-sigma,) accuracy of the measurements: also agreeing are yields from silicon foils using the ACTL library cross-section. While the ENDF/B-V library has too low a cross-section. Preliminary results from a variety of other threshold reactions are presented. Use of the {sup 115}In(n,n) {sup 115m}In reaction (0.42 times as sensitive to DT neutrons as DD neutrons) in conjunction with pure-DT reactions allows a determination of the DT/(DD+DT) ratio in trace tritium or low-power tritium beam experiments.

  13. Measurements of DT and DD neutron yields by neutron activation on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.W.; Larson, A.R.; LeMunyan, G.; Loughlin, M.J.

    1995-03-01

    A variety of elemental foils have been activated by neutron fluence from TFTR under conditions with the DT neutron yield per shot ranging from 10{sup 12} to over 10{sup 18}, and with the DT/(DD+DT) neutron ratio varying from 0.5% (from triton burnup) to unity. Linear response over this large dynamic range is obtained by reducing the mass of the foils and increasing the cooling time, all while accepting greatly improved counting statistics. Effects on background gamma-ray lines from foil-capsule-material contaminants, and the resulting lower limits on activation foil mass, have been determined. DT neutron yields from dosimetry standard reactions on aluminum, chromium, iron, nickel, zirconium, and indium are in agreement within the {+-}9% (one-sigma) accuracy of the measurements; also agreeing are yields from silicon foils using the ACTL library cross-section, while the ENDF/B-V library has too low a cross-section. Preliminary results from a variety of other threshold reactions are presented. Use of the {sup 115}In(n.n{prime}) {sup 115m}In reaction (0.42 times as sensitive to DT neutrons as DD neutrons) in conjunction with pure-DT reactions allows a determination of the DT/(DD+DT) ratio in trace tritium or low-power tritium beam experiments.

  14. Characterization of indoor cooking aerosol using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.; Landsberger, S.; Larson, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Suspended particles in air are potentially harmful to human health, depending on their sizes and chemical composition. Residential indoor particles mainly come from (a) outdoor sources that are transported indoors, (b) indoor dust that is resuspended, and (c) indoor combustion sources, which include cigarette smoking, cooking, and heating. Jedrychowski stated that chronic phlegm in elderly women was strongly related to the cooking exposure. Kamens et al. indicated that cooking could generate small particles (<0.1 [mu]m), and cooking one meal could contribute [approximately]5 to 18% of total daytime particle volume exposure. Although cooking is a basic human activity, there are not many data available on the properties of particles generated by this activity. Some cooking methods, such as stir-frying and frying, which are the most favored for Chinese and other Far East people, generate a large quantity of aerosols. This research included the following efforts: 1. investigating particle number concentrations, distributions, and their variations with four different cooking methods and ventilation conditions; 2. measuring the chemical composition of cooking aerosol samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  15. Proton source size measurements in the eA {yields} e{prime}ppX reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksey Stavinskiy; Konstantin Mikhaylov; R. Lednicky; Alexander Vlassov; Et. Al.

    2004-06-01

    Two-proton correlations at small relative momentum q were studied in the eA({sup 3}He, {sup 4}He, C, Fe) {yields} e{prime}ppX reaction at E{sub 0} = 4.46 GeV using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. The enhancement of the correlation function at small q was found to be in accordance with theoretical expectation. Emission region sizes were extracted and proved to be dependent on A and proton momentum. The size of the two-proton emission region on the lightest possible nucleus, He, was measured for the first time.

  16. Neutron generator yield measurements using a phoswich detector with the digital pulse shape analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzilov, Alexander; Novikov, Ivan; Womble, Phillip; Heinze, Julian

    2012-03-01

    The phoswich detector designed as a combination of two scintillators with dissimilar pulse shape characteristics that are optically coupled to each other and to a common photomultiplier is used for the simultaneous detection of fast and thermal neutrons. The digital signal processing of detector signals is used. The pulse shape analysis distinguishes the scintillation signals produced by photons, fast neutrons, and thermal neutrons. The phoswich was tested using the photon and neutron sources. We discuss neutron yield measurements for a pulse DT neutron generator. The spatial distribution of fast neutron flux and thermal neutron flux was evaluated for the generator in presence of neutron moderating materials.

  17. Light Yield Measurements of Heavy Photon Search (HPS) Muon Scintillator Hodoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolnik, Marianne; Stepanyan, Stepan

    2013-10-01

    The HPS is an experiment that will search for new heavy vector boson(s) in the mass range of 20 MeV/c2 to 1000 MeV/c2. One of the detectors used for this experiment is a muon hodoscope. We are interested in finding the light yield for the scintillator - wavelength-shifting fiber coupling that will be used in this muon hodoscope. The muon hodoscope will have background signals distorting the data. In order to reduce the background, a threshold cut will be made on the signal coming from the photo-detector. Precision of this cut depends on the average number of photoelectrons, Npe. Previous tests have shown that Npe with Wavelength Shifting (WLS) fibers placed through the holes that go lengthwise down the scintillator is ~12/MeV. In this new muon hodoscope the scintillators will have WLS fibers glued inside the holes. The optical epoxy allows more light, changing Npe. To find Npe, two scintillators with fibers will be used, one of which will have glued WLS fibers. Light will be readout out using photo multiplier tubes (PMTs). The system of two scintillator-fiber-PMTs and one trigger PMT with a scintillator are placed in a dark box. First, position of a single photoelectron peaks is found using an LED light, then using the signal from cosmic muons from trigger PMT light yield is measured. Data are analyzed using ROOT macros. Result of this measurement suggests that light yield form glued fibers is higher than from WLS fibers without glue by a factor of ~1.7, which is sufficient for operation of the HPS muon hodoscope.

  18. 46 CFR 121.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 121.220 Section 121.220 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance... cooking appliance must be installed to prevent movement in heavy seas. (c) For a grill or similar type...

  19. 46 CFR 121.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 121.220 Section 121.220 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance... cooking appliance must be installed to prevent movement in heavy seas. (c) For a grill or similar type...

  20. 46 CFR 121.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 121.220 Section 121.220 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance... cooking appliance must be installed to prevent movement in heavy seas. (c) For a grill or similar type...

  1. 46 CFR 121.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 121.220 Section 121.220 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance... cooking appliance must be installed to prevent movement in heavy seas. (c) For a grill or similar type...

  2. X-ray power and yield measurements at the refurbished Z machine

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M. C.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hohlfelder, R.; Jennings, C. A.; Johnson, D. W.; Jones, B.; Lopez, M. R.; MacArthur, J.; Mills, J. A.; Preston, T.; Rochau, G. A.; Savage, M.; Spencer, D.; Sinars, D. B.; Porter, J. L.

    2014-08-04

    Advancements have been made in the diagnostic techniques to measure accurately the total radiated x-ray yield and power from z-pinch loads at the Z Machine with high accuracy. The Z-accelerator is capable of outputting 2MJ and 330 TW of x-ray yield and power, and accurately measuring these quantities is imperative. We will describe work over the past several years which include the development of new diagnostics, improvements to existing diagnostics, and implementation of automated data analysis routines. A set of experiments were conducted on the Z machine where the load and machine configuration were held constant. During this shot series, it was observed that total z-pinch x-ray emission power determined from the two common techniques for inferring the x-ray power, Kimfol filtered x-ray diode diagnostic and the Total Power and Energy diagnostic gave 450 TW and 327 TW respectively. Our analysis shows the latter to be the more accurate interpretation. More broadly, the comparison demonstrates the necessity to consider spectral response and field of view when inferring xray powers from z-pinch sources.

  3. X-ray power and yield measurements at the refurbished Z machine

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M. C. Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hohlfelder, R.; Jennings, C. A.; Johnson, D. W.; Jones, B.; Lopez, M. R.; MacArthur, J.; Mills, J. A.; Preston, T.; Rochau, G. A.; Savage, M.; Spencer, D.; Sinars, D. B.; Porter, J. L.

    2014-08-15

    Advancements have been made in the diagnostic techniques to measure accurately the total radiated x-ray yield and power from z-pinch implosion experiments at the Z machine with high accuracy. The Z machine is capable of outputting 2 MJ and 330 TW of x-ray yield and power, and accurately measuring these quantities is imperative. We will describe work over the past several years which include the development of new diagnostics, improvements to existing diagnostics, and implementation of automated data analysis routines. A set of experiments on the Z machine were conducted in which the load and machine configuration were held constant. During this shot series, it was observed that the total z-pinch x-ray emission power determined from the two common techniques for inferring the x-ray power, a Kimfol filtered x-ray diode diagnostic and the total power and energy diagnostic, gave 449 TW and 323 TW, respectively. Our analysis shows the latter to be the more accurate interpretation. More broadly, the comparison demonstrates the necessity to consider spectral response and field of view when inferring x-ray powers from z-pinch sources.

  4. X-ray power and yield measurements at the refurbished Z machine

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jones, M. C.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hohlfelder, R.; Jennings, C. A.; Johnson, D. W.; Jones, B.; Lopez, M. R.; MacArthur, J.; Mills, J. A.; et al

    2014-08-04

    Advancements have been made in the diagnostic techniques to measure accurately the total radiated x-ray yield and power from z-pinch loads at the Z Machine with high accuracy. The Z-accelerator is capable of outputting 2MJ and 330 TW of x-ray yield and power, and accurately measuring these quantities is imperative. We will describe work over the past several years which include the development of new diagnostics, improvements to existing diagnostics, and implementation of automated data analysis routines. A set of experiments were conducted on the Z machine where the load and machine configuration were held constant. During this shot series,more » it was observed that total z-pinch x-ray emission power determined from the two common techniques for inferring the x-ray power, Kimfol filtered x-ray diode diagnostic and the Total Power and Energy diagnostic gave 450 TW and 327 TW respectively. Our analysis shows the latter to be the more accurate interpretation. More broadly, the comparison demonstrates the necessity to consider spectral response and field of view when inferring xray powers from z-pinch sources.« less

  5. The direct measurement of the shock yield strength of LY-12AL with manganin gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.; Xiaogang, J.

    1995-12-31

    One of the most important issues in the field of dynamic response of materials is the exact determination of the lateral stresses in shock loaded solids. The only direct technique to measure the stresses is by using piezoresistance stress gauges. In this paper we present the results of planar impact experiments with LY-12AL specimen, using parallel and transverse manganin gauges to measure the longitudinal and lateral tresses in the targets, respectively. The experimental records showed the invalidity of the present calibration curves for transverse gauges. We developed a modified model for the transverse gauges based on the elasto-plastic properties of the gauges. At last we obtained a reasonable shock yield strength curve for Ly-12 AL in the stress range of 0.8-8 GPa.

  6. Bioenergy: Direct applications in cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Dutt, G.S.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    1993-12-31

    Cooking stoves that burn traditional biofuels are used by half the world`s population, yet many are inefficient and hazardous to the health of those who tend them. In recent years, however, a new generation of cook stoves needing less fuel and emitting fewer airborne particulates has emerged. Many of the new designs run on biomass that has been transformed into a liquid, gaseous, or improved solid-fuel form. Alternative cooking systems are compared, and data from cooking trials conducted by the authors in a south Indian village are provided. 89 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. In-situ measurements of the secondary electron yield in an accelerator environment: Instrumentation and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, W. H.; Asner, D. M.; Conway, J. V.; Dennett, C. A.; Greenwald, S.; Kim, J.-S.; Li, Y.; Moore, T. P.; Omanovic, V.; Palmer, M. A.; Strohman, C. R.

    2015-05-01

    The performance of a particle accelerator can be limited by the build-up of an electron cloud (EC) in the vacuum chamber. Secondary electron emission from the chamber walls can contribute to EC growth. An apparatus for in-situ measurements of the secondary electron yield (SEY) in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) was developed in connection with EC studies for the CESR Test Accelerator program. The CESR in-situ system, in operation since 2010, allows for SEY measurements as a function of incident electron energy and angle on samples that are exposed to the accelerator environment, typically 5.3 GeV counter-rotating beams of electrons and positrons. The system was designed for periodic measurements to observe beam conditioning of the SEY with discrimination between exposure to direct photons from synchrotron radiation versus scattered photons and cloud electrons. The samples can be exchanged without venting the CESR vacuum chamber. Measurements have been done on metal surfaces and EC-mitigation coatings. The in-situ SEY apparatus and improvements to the measurement tools and techniques are described.

  8. Gas cooking range

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, R.K.; Narang, K.

    1984-02-14

    An energy-efficient gas cooking range features an oven section with improved heat circulation and air preheat, a compact oven/broiler burner, a smoke-free drip pan, an efficient piloted ignition, flame-containing rangetop burner rings, and a small, portable oven that can be supported on the burner rings. Panels spaced away from the oven walls and circulation fans provide very effective air flow within the oven. A gas shutoff valve automatically controls the discharge of heated gases from the oven so that they are discharged only when combustion is occurring.

  9. A consistent, differential versus integral, method for measuring the delayed neutron yield in fissions

    SciTech Connect

    Flip, A.; Pang, H.F.; D`Angelo, A.

    1995-12-31

    Due to the persistent uncertainties: {approximately} 5 % (the uncertainty, here and there after, is at 1{sigma}) in the prediction of the `reactivity scale` ({beta}{sub eff}) for a fast power reactor, an international project was recently initiated in the framework of the OECD/NEA activities for reevaluation, new measurements and integral benchmarking of delayed neutron (DN) data and related kinetic parameters (principally {beta}{sub eff}). Considering that the major part of this uncertainty is due to uncertainties in the DN yields (v{sub d}) and the difficulty for further improvement of the precision in differential (e.g. Keepin`s method) measurements, an international cooperative strategy was adopted aiming at extracting and consistently interpreting information from both differential (nuclear) and integral (in reactor) measurements. The main problem arises from the integral side; thus the idea was to realize {beta}{sub eff} like measurements (both deterministic and noise) in `clean` assemblies. The `clean` calculational context permitted the authors to develop a theory allowing to link explicitly this integral experimental level with the differential one, via a unified `Master Model` which relates v{sub d} and measurables quantities (on both levels) linearly. The combined error analysis is consequently largely simplified and the final uncertainty drastically reduced (theoretically, by a factor {radical}3). On the other hand the same theoretical development leading to the `Master Model`, also resulted in a structured scheme of approximations of the general (stochastic) Boltzmann equation allowing a consistent analysis of the large range of measurements concerned (stochastic, dynamic, static ... ). This paper is focused on the main results of this theoretical development and its application to the analysis of the Preliminary results of the BERENICE program ({beta}{sub eff} measurements in MASURCA, the first assembly in CADARACHE-FRANCE).

  10. The photoneutron yield predictions by PICA and comparison with the measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Job, P.K.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The photoneutron yields at higher photon energies have become very important since the advent of high energy electron accelerators. Bremsstrahlung is produced when the particle beam interacts with the storage-ring components or residual-gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum. Bremsstrahlung thus produced interacts with the high-Z materials in the beamline like the beam dumps and collimators to produce photoneutrons. There are three modes of neutron production by bremsstrahlung. At low energies ({>=}525 MeV), photons are absorbed by the dipole interaction and the compound nucleus thus formed decays emitting protons and neutrons and other heavier particles. At higher energies ({>=}25 MeV), photon interacts with the nucleus through absorption on a quasi-deuteron, which subsequently decays producing a neutron and proton pair which can interact with the rest of the nucleus. At still higher energies the photopion production becomes possible and competes with the quasi-deuteron process. In this paper we have calculated the photoneutron yield from a thick copper target using the photonuclear interaction code PICA. Using this as the neutron source, we have calculated the dose rates through heavy concrete and compared it with the measurements made at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Lab.

  11. Starch-Soybean Oil Composites with High Oil: Starch Ratios Prepared by Steam Jet Cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous mixtures of soybean oil and starch were jet cooked at oil:starch ratios ranging from 0.5:1 to 4:1 to yield dispersions of micron-sized oil droplets that were coated with a thin layer of starch at the oil-water interface. The jet cooked dispersions were then centrifuged at 2060 and 10,800 x ...

  12. Measurements of {Gamma}(Z{sup O} {yields} b{bar b})/{Gamma}(Z{sup O} {yields} hadrons) using the SLD

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, H.A. Jr. II

    1995-07-01

    The quantity R{sub b} = {Gamma}(Z{sup o} {yields}b{bar b})/{Gamma}(Z{sup o} {yields} hadrons) is a sensitive measure of corrections to the Zbb vertex. The precision necessary to observe the top quark mass dependent corrections is close to being achieved. LEP is already observing a 1.8{sigma} deviation from the Standard Model prediction. Knowledge of the top quark mass combined with the observation of deviations from the Standard Model prediction would indicate new physics. Models which include charged Higgs or light SUSY particles yield predictions for R{sub b} appreciably different from the Standard Model. In this thesis two independent methods are used to measure R{sub b}. One uses a general event tag which determines R{sub b} from the rate at which events are tagged as Z{sup o} {yields} b{bar b} in data and the estimated rates at which various flavors of events are tagged from the Monte Carlo. The second method reduces the reliance on the Monte Carlo by separately tagging each hemisphere as containing a b-decay. The rates of single hemisphere tagged events and both hemisphere tagged events are used to determine the tagging efficiency for b-quarks directly from the data thus eliminating the main sources of systematic error present in the event tag. Both measurements take advantage of the unique environment provided by the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) and the SLAC Large Detector (SLD). From the event tag a result of R{sub b} = 0.230{plus_minus}0.004{sub statistical}{plus_minus}0.013{sub systematic} is obtained. The higher precision hemisphere tag result obtained is R{sub b} = 0.218{plus_minus}0.004{sub statistical}{plus_minus}0.004{sub systematic}{plus_minus}0.003{sub Rc}.

  13. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top.

    The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual.

    The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image.

    The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. MEASUREMENT OF THE SECONDARY EMISSION YIELD OF A THIN DIAMOND WINDOW IN TRANSMISSION MODE.

    SciTech Connect

    CHANG, X.; RAO, T.; SMEDLEY, J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    The secondary emission enhanced photoinjector (SEEP) is a promising new approach to the generation of high-current, high-brightness electron beams. A low current primary electron beam with energy of a few thousand electron-volts strikes a specially prepared diamond window which emits secondary electrons with a current two orders of magnitude higher. The secondary electrons are created at the back side of the diamond and drift through the window under the influence of a strong electrical field. A hydrogen termination at the exit surface of the window creates a negative electron affinity (NEA) which allows the electrons to leave the diamond. An experiment was performed to measure the secondary electron yield and other properties. The results are discussed in this paper.

  15. Secondary electron yield measurements from thin surface coatings for NLC electron cloud reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Le Pimpec, F

    2004-05-17

    In the beam pipe of the positron damping ring of the Next Linear Collider, electrons will be created by beam interaction with the surrounding vacuum chamber wall and give rise to an electron cloud. Several solutions are possible for avoiding the electron cloud, without changing the beam bunch structure or the diameter of the vacuum chamber. Some of the currently available solutions for preventing this spurious electron load include reducing residual gas ionization by the beam, minimizing beam photon-induced electron production, and lowering the secondary electron yield (SEY) of the chamber wall. We will report on recent SEY measurements performed at SLAC on TiN coatings and TiZrV non-evaporable getter thin films.

  16. Measurements of Photoelectric Yield and Physical Properties of Individual Lunar Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A.; West, F. A.; Taylor, L.; Hoover, R.

    2005-01-01

    Micron size dust grains levitated and transported on the lunar surface constitute a major problem for the robotic and human habitat missions for the Moon. It is well known since the Apollo missions that the lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of micron/sub-micron size dust grains. Transient dust clouds over the lunar horizon were observed by experiments during the Apollo 17 mission. Theoretical models suggest that the dust grains on the lunar surface are charged by the solar UV radiation as well as the solar wind. Even without any physical activity, the dust grains are levitated by electrostatic fields and transported away from the surface in the near vacuum environment of the Moon. The current dust charging and the levitation models, however, do not fully explain the observed phenomena. Since the abundance of dust on the Moon's surface with its observed adhesive characteristics is believed to have a severe impact on the human habitat and the lifetime and operations of a variety of equipment, it is necessary to investigate the phenomena and the charging properties of the lunar dust in order to develop appropriate mitigating strategies. We will present results of some recent laboratory experiments on individual micro/sub-micron size dust grains levitated in electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The experiments involve photoelectric emission measurements of individual micron size lunar dust grains illuminated with UV radiation in the 120-160 nm wavelength range. The photoelectric yields are required to determine the charging properties of lunar dust illuminated by solar UV radiation. We will present some recent results of laboratory measurement of the photoelectric yields and the physical properties of individual micron size dust grains from the Apollo and Luna-24 sample returns as well as the JSC-1 lunar simulants.

  17. Vocational Cooking Class. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Kathy M.

    A project was conducted to develop a course in cooking skills for high school students interested in preparing for jobs or seeking advanced vocational training in the food service occupations. During the first phase of the project, the course instructor, who is also the head cook at the high school, completed courses in cardiopulmonary…

  18. Instrumentation of Slow Cook-off Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandusky, Harold

    2001-06-01

    Slow cook-off experiments are being conducted with measurements of temperature, pressure, and volume until the onset of reaction; and measurements of case velocity and blast overpressure during reaction. The goal is to relate changes in the energetic material during heating with time and position for onset of reaction plus reaction violence as a function of sample size, confinement, gas sealing, and heating profile. An apparatus in which the sample is confined by spring-loaded rams in a heated cylinder has been evaluated, both experimentally and computationally, with inert samples of Teflon. Experiments on the explosive PBXN-109 will be conducted and predicted without foreknowledge of the results. This effort is in conjunction with characterization of PBXN-109 and cook-off experiments in cylinders with fixed ends at the Naval Air Warfare Center/China Lake, and other characterization measurements as well as modeling at the Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories.

  19. Phase-resolved x-ray ferromagnetic resonance measurements in fluorescence yield

    SciTech Connect

    Marcham, M. K.; Keatley, P. S.; Neudert, A.; Hicken, R. J.; Cavill, S. A.; Shelford, L. R.; van der Laan, G.; Telling, N. D.; Childress, J. R.; Katine, J. A.; Shafer, P.; Arenholz, E.

    2010-10-14

    Phase-resolved x-ray ferromagnetic resonance (XFMR) has been measured in fluorescence yield, extending the application of XFMR to opaque samples on opaque substrates. Magnetization dynamics were excited in a Co{sub 50}Fe{sub 50}(0.7)/Ni{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}(5) bilayer by means of a continuous wave microwave excitation, while x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra were measured stroboscopically at different points in the precession cycle. By tuning the x-ray energy to the L{sub 3} edges of Ni and Fe, the dependence of the real and imaginary components of the element specific magnetic susceptibility on the strength of an externally applied static bias field was determined. First results from measurements on a Co{sub 50}Fe{sub 50}(0.7)/Ni{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}(5)/Dy(1) sample confirm that enhanced damping results from the addition of the Dy cap.

  20. Measurement of Yields and Fluctuations using Background and Calibration Data from the LUX Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pease, Evan; LUX Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) detector is a 350-kg liquid xenon (LXe) time-projection chamber designed for the direct detection of weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. LUX operates on the 4850-foot level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. Monoenergetic electronic recoil (ER) peaks in the WIMP search and calibration data from the first underground science run of the LUX detector have been used to measure ER light and charge yields in LXe between 5.2 keV and 662 keV. The energy resolution of the LUX detector at these energies will also be presented. Recombination fluctuations are observed to follow a linear dependence on the number of ions for the energies in this study, and this dependence is consistent with low-energy measurements made with a tritium beta source in the LUX detector. Using these results and additional measurements of the recoil bands from tritium and D-D neutron calibrations, I will compare recombination fluctuations in LXe response to electronic and nuclear recoils. The presenter is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science Graduate Student Research (SCGSR) program. The SCGSR program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education for the DOE under contract DE-AC05-06OR23100.

  1. Fission Yield Measurements from Highly Enriched Uranium Irradiated Inside a Boron Carbide Capsule

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Lori A.; Friese, Judah I.; Finn, Erin C.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Hines, Corey C.; King, Matthew D.; Henry, Kelley; Wall, Donald E.

    2013-05-01

    A boron carbide capsule was previously designed and tested by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Washington State University (WSU) for spectral-tailoring in mixed spectrum reactors. The presented work used this B4C capsule to create a fission product sample from the irradiation of highly enriched uranium (HEU) with a fast fission neutron spectrum. An HEU foil was irradiated inside of the capsule in WSU’s 1 MW TRIGA reactor at full power for 200 min to produce 5.8 × 1013 fissions. After three days of cooling, the sample was shipped to PNNL for radiochemical separations and analysis by gamma and beta spectroscopy. Fission yields for products were calculated from the radiometric measurements and compared to measurements from thermal neutron induced fission (analyzed in parallel with the non-thermal sample at PNNL) and published evaluated fast-pooled and thermal nuclear data. Reactor dosimetry measurements were also completed to fully characterize the neutron spectrum and total fluence of the irradiation.

  2. Waiting for precise measurements of K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu} and K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{nu}

    SciTech Connect

    Buras, Andrzej J.; Uhlig, Selma; Schwab, Felix

    2008-07-15

    In view of future plans for accurate measurements of the theoretically clean branching ratios Br(K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu}) and Br(K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{nu}), which should occur in the next decade, the relevant formulas for quantities of interest are collected and their theoretical and parametric uncertainties are analyzed. In addition to the angle {beta} in the unitarity triangle (UT), the angle {gamma} can also be determined from these decays with respectable precision and in this context the importance of the recent NNLO QCD calculation on the charm contribution to K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu} and of the improved estimate on the long-distance contribution by means of chiral perturbation theory are presented. In addition to known expressions, several new ones that should allow transparent tests of the standard model (SM) and of its extensions are presented. While the review is centered around the SM, models with minimal flavor violation and scenarios with new complex phases in decay amplitudes and meson mixing are also discussed. A review of existing results within specific extensions of the SM, in particular the littlest Higgs model with T-parity, Z{sup '} models, the MSSM, and a model with one universal extra dimension are given. A new ''golden'' relation between B and K systems is derived that involves ({beta},{gamma}) and Br(K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{nu}), and the virtues of (R{sub t},{beta}), (R{sub b},{gamma}), ({beta},{gamma}), and ({eta},{gamma}) strategies for the UT in the context of K{yields}{pi}{nu}{nu} decays with the goal of testing the SM and its extensions are investigated.

  3. COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Klug, Victoria; Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett

    2011-08-01

    Cooking of food and use of natural gas cooking burners generate pollutants that can have substantial impacts on residential indoor air quality. The extent of these impacts depends on cooking frequency, duration and specific food preparation activities in addition to the extent to which exhaust fans or other ventilation measures (e.g. windows) are used during cooking. With the intent of improving our understanding of indoor air quality impacts of cooking-related pollutants, we created, posted and advertised a web-based survey about cooking activities in residences. The survey included questions similar to those in California's Residential Appliance Saturation Survey (RASS), relating to home, household and cooking appliance characteristics and weekly patterns of meals cooked. Other questions targeted the following information not captured in the RASS: (1) oven vs. cooktop use, the number of cooktop burners used and the duration of burner use when cooking occurs, (2) specific cooking activities, (3) the use of range hood or window to increase ventilation during cooking, and (4) occupancy during cooking. Specific cooking activity questions were asked about the prior 24 hours with the assumption that most people are able to recollect activities over this time period. We examined inter-relationships among cooking activities and patterns and relationships of cooking activities to household demographics. We did not seek to obtain a sample of respondents that is demographically representative of the California population but rather to inexpensively gather information from homes spanning ranges of relevant characteristics including the number of residents and presence or absence of children. This report presents the survey, the responses obtained, and limited analysis of the results.

  4. Physicochemical properties of foal meat as affected by cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Cittadini, Aurora; Munekata, Paulo E; Domínguez, Rubén

    2015-10-01

    The present study deals with the effect of four different cooking techniques (roasting, grilling, microwave baking and frying with olive oil) on physicochemical parameters (cooking loss, WHC, texture and colour) and lipid oxidation (by TBARS measurement) of foal meat. Thermal treatments induced water loss (P<0.001), being lower in foal steaks cooked in the grill (25.8%) and higher in foal samples cooked in the microwave (39.5%). As it was expected, all the cooking methods increased TBARS index, since high temperature during cooking seems to cause an increase of the lipid oxidation in foal steaks. Statistical analysis displayed that WHC was affected (P<0.001) by thermal treatment, since the smallest WHC values were observed in samples from microwave treatment. Thermal treatment also caused a significant (P<0.001) increase in the force needed to cut the foal steaks. Regarding colour parameter, cooking led to an increase of L*-value (lightness) and b*-value (yellowness), while a*-value (redness) markedly decreased in all samples. PMID:26042921

  5. Experimental Measurements of the Secondary Electron Yield in the Experimental Measurement of the Secondary Electron Yield in the PEP-II Particle Accelerator Beam Line

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.T.F.; Collet, G.; King, F.; Kirby, R.E.; Markiewicz, T.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Seeman, J.; Le Pimpec, F.; /PSI, Villigen

    2010-08-25

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of the positron Damping Ring (DR) of future Linear Colliders (LC) such as ILC and CLIC. To test a series of promising possible electron cloud mitigation techniques as surface coatings and grooves, in the Positron Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II accelerator, we have installed several test vacuum chambers including (i) a special chamber to monitor the variation of the secondary electron yield of technical surface materials and coatings under the effect of ion, electron and photon conditioning in situ in the beam line; (ii) chambers with grooves in a straight magnetic-free section; and (iii) coated chambers in a dedicated newly installed 4-magnet chicane to study mitigations in a magnetic field region. In this paper, we describe the ongoing R&D effort to mitigate the electron cloud effect for the LC damping ring, focusing on the first experimental area and on results of the reduction of the secondary electron yield due to in situ conditioning.

  6. Improvements in Fabrication of Elastic Scattering Foils Used to Measure Neutron Yield by the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Reynolds, H. G.; Schoff, M. E.; Farrell, M. P.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Bionta, R. M.; Frenje, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    The magnetic recoil spectrometer uses a deuterated polyethylene polymer (CD2) foil to measure neutron yield in inertial confinement fusion experiments. Higher neutron yields in recent experiments have resulted in primary signal saturation in the detector CR-39 foils, necessitating the fabrication of thinner CD2 foils than established methods could provide. A novel method of fabricating deuterated polymer foils is described. The resulting foils are thinner, smoother, and more uniform in thickness than the foils produced by previous methods. Here, these new foils have successfully been deployed at the National Ignition Facility, enabling higher neutron yield measurements than previous foils, with nomore » primary signal saturation.« less

  7. Alcoholic fermentation of sorghum without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Thammarutwasik, P.; Koba, Y.; Ueda, S.

    1986-07-01

    Sorgum was used as raw material for alcoholic fermentation without cooking. Two varieties of sorghum grown in Thailand, KU 439 and KU 257, contained 80.0 and 75.8% of total sugar. Optimum amount of sorghum for alcoholic fermentation should be between 30 and 35% (w/v) in the fermentation broth. In these conditions 13.0 and 12.6% (v/v) of alcohol could be obtained in 84 and 91.9% yield based on the theoretical value of the starch content from KU 439 and KU 257, respectively.

  8. Cook stove assembly

    SciTech Connect

    DeFoort, Morgan W; Willson, Bryan D; Lorenz, Nathan; Brady, Michael P; Marchese, Anthony; Miller-Lionberg, Daniel D

    2014-12-02

    A combustion chamber, having an upper part and a lower part, may include an annular constriction, in combination with the combustion chamber, to aid in directing partially combusted gases such as carbon monoxide away from the periphery of the combustion chamber back toward its center, and into the flame front. The annular constriction may also impede the flow of partially combusted gases located at the periphery, thus increasing the time these gases spend within the combustion chamber and increasing the likelihood that any products of incomplete combustion will undergo combustion. The combustion chamber may further comprise a dual burner cooktop for directing combustion gases and exhaust to multiple cooking vessels. In further embodiments, the combustion chamber may be made of, lined, or clad with a metal alloy comprising iron, chromium, and aluminum.

  9. Cooking Up Creative Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2012-05-31

    There comes a time in every scientist’s career when one's mind seems to hit a wall. You can’t think of a new experiment that hasn’t been done before or figure out how to crack a problem that is blocking your progress. The easy questions have been answered. You go back to the wellspring of your creativity and find it dry. What to do? Collaborating with investigators who are investigating problems from a different data or analytical perspective is the best way I know to kick-start research creativity. They not only can provide new data, but they can also bring an expertise on how to get the most “flavor” out of the ingredient that they bring to your problem. As the complexity of the important biological problems continues to grow, too many cooks will never spoil the broth, but become a hallmark of the most creative research.

  10. Measurement of Short-Lived Fission-Product Yields of URANIUM-235 Using High-Resolution Gamma Spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipnis, Sameer Vijay

    Independent yields of short-lived fission products produced by the thermal neutron induced fission of ^{235}U were determined from the measurements of high resolution gamma spectra. Comparisons were made to the recommended yield values tabulated in the ENDF/B-VI evaluated fission-product data base. Measurements of the gamma spectra were made with a high purity germanium detector (HPGe) using a NaI(Tl) annulus for Compton suppression. Use of beta-gamma coincidence reduced the random background and also allowed a precise definition of the delay time. The experiment was carried out at the 5.5 MV Van de Graaff facility at the University of Massachusetts Lowell. Rapid transfer of the fission fragments to a low background counting environment, a crucial factor in determining the yields of short-lived fission products, was enabled by a helium -jet tape transport system. The recommended yields in the evaluated data file are a combination of experimental and model-predicted values. The latter source is used since data from many short-lived fission products is still missing or poorly known. The results presented here, especially the ones for the very short-lived isotopes may be used to reduce the uncertainties associated with some of the existing values or to replace model-predicted yields. Gaussian distributions of elemental yields, based on the set of experimentally determined independent yields were examined. The feasibility of predicting unmeasured yields on the basis of charge and mass complementarity was also addressed.

  11. Measuring the absolute deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Casey, D T; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Katz, J; Knauer, J P; Meyerhofer, D D; Sangster, T C; Bionta, R M; Bleuel, D L; Döppner, T; Glenzer, S; Hartouni, E; Hatchett, S P; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacKinnon, A; McKernan, M A; Moran, M; Moses, E; Park, H-S; Ralph, J; Remington, B A; Smalyuk, V; Yeamans, C B; Kline, J; Kyrala, G; Chandler, G A; Leeper, R J; Ruiz, C L; Cooper, G W; Nelson, A J; Fletcher, K; Kilkenny, J; Farrell, M; Jasion, D; Paguio, R

    2012-10-01

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF. PMID:23126915

  12. Measuring the absolute deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Doeppner, T.; Glenzer, S.; Hartouni, E.; Hatchett, S. P.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; MacKinnon, A.; and others

    2012-10-15

    A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  13. Measurements of fluorescence yield of electrons in air under atmospheric conditions: A key parameter for energy of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Gorodetzky, P.; Blacksley, C.; Wicek, F.; Monard, H.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.

    2012-12-01

    The measurement of the fluorescence yield and its dependence on atmospheric properties such as pressure, temperature or pollutants, are essential to obtain a reliable measurement of the primary energy of cosmic rays. A new type of absolute measurement of the nitrogen fluorescence yield in the air will be performed at LAL using 3 items which will yield an unprecedented precision in all conditions of pressure, temperature, and pollutants. A 5 MeV electron beam will be provided by the new electron accelerator PHIL at LAL(Laboratoire de l'Accélérateur Linéaire, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay). This source will induce florescence yield inside an integrating sphere. The sphere will be surrounded by a spherical envelope to create a temperature controlled chamber (a Dewar). With this setup it will be possible to vary the temperature from -60 C to +40 C and the pressure from 1 to 0.01 atm. An output device on this sphere will be equipped with a set of optical fibers driving the fluorescence light to a Jobin-Yvon spectrometer equipped with an LN_{2} cooled CCD. The fluorescence spectrum in the 300-430 nm range will be accurately measured in steps of 0.1 nm resolution. A PMT equipped with a BG3 filter (the same as on JEM-EUSO) will be set on the sphere to measure the integrated yield. The expected precision of the yield should be better than 5%.

  14. Cooking with Kids Positively Affects Fourth Graders' Vegetable Preferences and Attitudes and Self-Efficacy for Food and Cooking

    PubMed Central

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cooking with Kids (CWK), an experiential school-based food education program, has demonstrated modest influence on fruit and vegetable preference, food and cooking attitudes (AT), and self-efficacy (SE) among fourth-grade, mostly low-income Hispanic students in a quasiexperimental study with an inconsistent baseline. Effect was notably strong for boys and those without previous cooking experience. The aim of this project was to assess the effect of CWK with a mostly non-Hispanic white sample that assured no previous CWK exposure. Methods: The randomized, controlled assessment of CWK effect on fourth graders was conducted with 257 students in 12 classes in four public schools. CWK included a 1-hour introductory lesson, three 2-hour cooking classes, and three 1-hour fruit and vegetable tasting sessions led by trained food educators during the school day for one semester. Fruit preference, vegetable preference, and cooking AT and SE were assessed with a tested 35-item measure, shown to have test-retest reliability. Univariate analyses considered gender and previous cooking experience. Results: Intervention efficacy was confirmed in this mostly white sample (75%; 79% with previous cooking experience; 54% girls). Increases in vegetable preference, AT, and SE were all significantly greater in CWK students with ηp 2 of 0.03, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively. CWK most strongly improved AT and SE for boys without previous cooking experience. Conclusions: CWK significantly improved fourth-grade students' vegetable preferences, AT, and SE toward food and cooking, which are factors important to healthful eating and obesity prevention. Noncookers, especially boys, benefitted from this intervention. PMID:24320723

  15. Soalr cooking in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, L.

    1994-11-01

    Solar cooking must overcome a number of obstacles to realize its potential to improve the lives of women in developing countries. Unlike historical interest in solar cooking, current interest derives from vital environmental and human needs. Deforestation and reliance on wood for cooking lead to many hardships, especially for women, and women in developing countries need access to technology and funding. If the woman builds the oven herself, it notonly makes her more willing to use it but the process empower her with new knowledge and kills. The physical design of the oven must be adapted to local conditions and materials for the oven should be inexpensive and locally available.

  16. Fusion-neutron-yield, activation measurements at the Z accelerator: Design, analysis, and sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, K. D.; Cooper, G. W.; Ruiz, C. L.; Fehl, D. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Leeper, R. J.; Nelson, A. J.; Smelser, R. M.; Torres, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    We present a general methodology to determine the diagnostic sensitivity that is directly applicable to neutron-activation diagnostics fielded on a wide variety of neutron-producing experiments, which include inertial-confinement fusion (ICF), dense plasma focus, and ion beam-driven concepts. This approach includes a combination of several effects: (1) non-isotropic neutron emission; (2) the 1/r2 decrease in neutron fluence in the activation material; (3) the spatially distributed neutron scattering, attenuation, and energy losses due to the fielding environment and activation material itself; and (4) temporally varying neutron emission. As an example, we describe the copper-activation diagnostic used to measure secondary deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron yields on ICF experiments conducted on the pulsed-power Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. Using this methodology along with results from absolute calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations, we find that for the diagnostic configuration on Z, the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.037% ± 17% counts/neutron per cm2 and is ˜ 40% less sensitive than it would be in an ideal geometry due to neutron attenuation, scattering, and energy-loss effects.

  17. Fusion-neutron-yield, activation measurements at the Z accelerator: design, analysis, and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, K D; Cooper, G W; Ruiz, C L; Fehl, D L; Chandler, G A; Knapp, P F; Leeper, R J; Nelson, A J; Smelser, R M; Torres, J A

    2014-04-01

    We present a general methodology to determine the diagnostic sensitivity that is directly applicable to neutron-activation diagnostics fielded on a wide variety of neutron-producing experiments, which include inertial-confinement fusion (ICF), dense plasma focus, and ion beam-driven concepts. This approach includes a combination of several effects: (1) non-isotropic neutron emission; (2) the 1/r(2) decrease in neutron fluence in the activation material; (3) the spatially distributed neutron scattering, attenuation, and energy losses due to the fielding environment and activation material itself; and (4) temporally varying neutron emission. As an example, we describe the copper-activation diagnostic used to measure secondary deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron yields on ICF experiments conducted on the pulsed-power Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. Using this methodology along with results from absolute calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations, we find that for the diagnostic configuration on Z, the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.037% ± 17% counts/neutron per cm(2) and is ∼ 40% less sensitive than it would be in an ideal geometry due to neutron attenuation, scattering, and energy-loss effects. PMID:24784607

  18. Measurement of the fast Fission Yields of {sup 233}U with OSIRIS at Studsvik

    SciTech Connect

    Galy, J.; Fogelberg, B.; Rudstam, G.; Mach, H.; Storrer, F.

    1998-10-26

    The current investigations of accelerator driven energy systems (ADS) for transmutation purposes of nuclear wastes give a strong motivation to improve Fission Yield Data (FYD) for the {sup 232}Th/{sup 233}U nuclear fuel cycle. The dominant part of the neutron spectrum in most of the proposed ADS correspond to fast neutrons and can be simulated by {approx_equal}500 keV. A measurement of the fast {sup 233}U FYD was recently initiated in collaboration between the Reactor Studies Department of CEA (Cadarache, France) and the Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala University (Studsvik, Sweden) using the OSIRIS facility on-line mass separator coupled with the R2-0 thermal (water cooled, moderated) reactor as a neutron source. The target of {sup 233}U was shielded from thermal and epithermal neutrons by a boron carbide neutron absorber.A detailed description of this experiment and the method of analysis will be presented in the present paper.

  19. Fusion-neutron-yield, activation measurements at the Z accelerator: Design, analysis, and sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, K. D. Ruiz, C. L.; Fehl, D. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Smelser, R. M.; Torres, J. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Nelson, A. J.; Leeper, R. J.

    2014-04-15

    We present a general methodology to determine the diagnostic sensitivity that is directly applicable to neutron-activation diagnostics fielded on a wide variety of neutron-producing experiments, which include inertial-confinement fusion (ICF), dense plasma focus, and ion beam-driven concepts. This approach includes a combination of several effects: (1) non-isotropic neutron emission; (2) the 1/r{sup 2} decrease in neutron fluence in the activation material; (3) the spatially distributed neutron scattering, attenuation, and energy losses due to the fielding environment and activation material itself; and (4) temporally varying neutron emission. As an example, we describe the copper-activation diagnostic used to measure secondary deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron yields on ICF experiments conducted on the pulsed-power Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. Using this methodology along with results from absolute calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations, we find that for the diagnostic configuration on Z, the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.037% ± 17% counts/neutron per cm{sup 2} and is ∼ 40% less sensitive than it would be in an ideal geometry due to neutron attenuation, scattering, and energy-loss effects.

  20. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance must be provided with hinges and locking devices to...

  1. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance must be provided with hinges and locking devices to...

  2. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance must be provided with hinges and locking devices to...

  3. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping...) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance must be provided with hinges and locking devices to...

  4. 46 CFR 184.220 - Cooking equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking equipment. 184.220 Section 184.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.220 Cooking equipment. (a) Doors on a cooking appliance must...

  5. Measurement of fission yields from the 241Am(2nth,f) reaction at the Lohengrin Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouroux, Ch.; Blanc, A.; Bidaud, A.; Capellan, N.; Chabod, S.; Chebboubi, A.; Faust, H.; Kessedjian, G.; Köster, U.; Lemaitre, J.-F.; Letourneau, A.; Martin, F.; Materna, T.; Panebianco, S.; Sage, Ch.; Serot, O.

    2013-12-01

    The study of fission yields has a major impact on the characterization and understanding of the fission process and is mandatory for reactor applications. While the yields are known for the major actinides (235U, 239Pu) in the thermal neutron-induced fission, only few measurements have been performed on 242Am. This paper presents the results of a measurement at the Lohengrin mass spectrometer (ILL, France) on the reaction 241Am(2nth,f): a total of 41 mass yields in the light and the heavy peaks have been measured and compared with the fission process simulation code GEF. Modus operandi and first results of a second experiment performed in May 2013 on the same reaction but with the goal of extracting the isotopic yields are presented as well: 8 mass yields were re-measured and 18 isotopic yields have been investigated and are being analyzed. Results concerning the kinetic energy and its comparison with the GEF Code are also presented in this paper.

  6. Are Fluorescence Quantum Yields So Tricky to Measure? A Demonstration Using Familiar Stationery Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fery-Forgues*, Suzanne; Lavabre, Dominique

    1999-09-01

    Fluorescence quantum yields are used to quantify the efficiency of the emission process. In spite of the importance of these data, experimental directions for their acquisition are rarely given. A general procedure for determining the relative fluorescence quantum yield of solutions is described here, drawing attention to the many pitfalls that students may encounter. Starting materials are common yellow and pink highlighter pens.

  7. Assessment of Sugarcane Growth and Yield across Genotypes Using Canopy Reflectance Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of high-yielding sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) cultivars with resistance or tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses is critical for sustainable sugarcane production. Estimation of sugarcane yield potential based on growth and physiological traits during early growth sta...

  8. Assessment of Sugarcane Yield Potential across Large Numbers of Genotypes Using Canopy Reflectance Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canopy reflectance indices have been used to monitor plant growth and estimate yields in many field crops. Little is known if canopy reflectance of sugarcane (a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.) can be used to estimate growth and yield potential across large numbers of genotypes (clones) in the earl...

  9. Home Circadian Phase Assessments with Measures of Compliance Yield Accurate Dim Light Melatonin Onsets

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Helen J.; Wyatt, James K.; Park, Margaret; Fogg, Louis F.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: There is a need for the accurate assessment of circadian phase outside of the clinic/laboratory, particularly with the gold standard dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). We tested a novel kit designed to assist in saliva sampling at home for later determination of the DLMO. The home kit includes objective measures of compliance to the requirements for dim light and half-hourly saliva sampling. Design: Participants were randomized to one of two 10-day protocols. Each protocol consisted of two back-to-back home and laboratory phase assessments in counterbalanced order, separated by a 5-day break. Setting: Laboratory or participants' homes. Participants: Thirty-five healthy adults, age 21–62 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Most participants received at least one 30-sec epoch of light > 50 lux during the home phase assessments (average light intensity 4.5 lux), but on average for < 9 min of the required 8.5 h. Most participants collected every saliva sample within 5 min of the scheduled time. Ninety-two percent of home DLMOs were not affected by light > 50 lux or sampling errors. There was no significant difference between the home and laboratory DLMOs (P > 0.05); on average the home DLMOs occurred 9.6 min before the laboratory DLMOs. The home DLMOs were highly correlated with the laboratory DLMOs (r = 0.91, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Participants were reasonably compliant to the home phase assessment procedures. The good agreement between the home and laboratory dim light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) demonstrates that including objective measures of light exposure and sample timing during home saliva sampling can lead to accurate home DLMOs. Clinical Trial Registration: Circadian Phase Assessments at Home, http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01487252, NCT01487252. Citation: Burgess HJ, Wyatt JK, Park M, Fogg LF. Home circadian phase assessments with measures of compliance yield accurate dim light melatonin onsets. SLEEP 2015;38(6):889–897

  10. Methods for measurement of electron emission yield under low energy electron-irradiation by collector method and Kelvin probe method

    SciTech Connect

    Tondu, Thomas; Belhaj, Mohamed; Inguimbert, Virginie

    2010-09-15

    Secondary electron emission yield of gold under electron impact at normal incidence below 50 eV was investigated by the classical collector method and by the Kelvin probe method. The authors show that biasing a collector to ensure secondary electron collection while keeping the target grounded can lead to primary electron beam perturbations. Thus reliable secondary electron emission yield at low primary electron energy cannot be obtained with a biased collector. The authors present two collector-free methods based on current measurement and on electron pulse surface potential buildup (Kelvin probe method). These methods are consistent, but at very low energy, measurements become sensitive to the earth magnetic field (below 10 eV). For gold, the authors can extrapolate total emission yield at 0 eV to 0.5, while a total electron emission yield of 1 is obtained at 40{+-}1 eV.

  11. Measurement of quantum yield of up-conversion Luminescence in Er(3+)-doped nano-glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, V D; Tikhomirov, V K; Méndez-Ramos, J; del-Castillo, J; Görller-Walrand, C

    2009-03-01

    A measurement of quantum yield of up-conversion luminescence has been done for the Er(3+)-doped transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics 32(SiO,)9(AlO1.5)31.5(CdF2)18.5(PbF2)5.5(ZnF2): 3.5(ErF3) mol%, where most of Er3+ dopants partition in 8 nm diameter nano-crystals Er10Pb25F65. The yield was found by newly proposed method using the pump power dependence of the resonant luminescence. The result of the measurement points out that a theoretical maximum of 50% may be reached for the up-conversion luminescence yield in this material. This high yield is shown to be due to low phonon energy and short inter-dopant distances in the nano-crystals. PMID:19435083

  12. Why Do Students "Cook" Data?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.; Lewis, Cecil M., Jr.; Birk, James P.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the reasons for data fabrication among undergraduate and graduate students. Presents several examples of getting misled by the candle and tumbler demonstration. Concludes that presented facts, concepts, or principles increase the incidence of data cooking. (YDS)

  13. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    MedlinePlus

    ... guidelines for healthier cooking: Use olive or canola oil instead of butter or margarine. Choose soft margarine ( ... harder stick forms. Choose margarines with liquid vegetable oil, such as olive oil, as the first ingredient. ...

  14. The radiation-chemical yields of H 3O + and OH - as determined by nanosecond conductimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Robert F.; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Michael, Barry D.

    The radiation-chemical yields of ionic species formed upon irradiation of water by 3.5 MeV electrons have been determined directly using dc conductivity and optical measurements. Yields (expressed in μmol J -1) at 10 and 110 ns after the end of a 10 ns pulse are: for H 3O + = 0.371, 0.320; for OH - = 0.082, 0.045, and for e -aq = 0.299 and 0.275, respectively.

  15. Influence of Heating Temperature on Cooking Curve of Rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kunio; Akutsu, Atsuko; Otake, Ayumi; Moritaka, Hatsue

    The swelling behavior of a rice grain in water and an aqueous NaCl and acetic acid solution was investigated as a function of temperature. We observed that the rice grain in water shows an abrupt change in shape and size at 61 °C. The transition temperature Tv became higher in an order: sodium chloride aqueous solution > water > acetic acid aqueous solution. In order to clarify Tv, we also investigated kinetics on cooking of rice grains by the rheological measurement. The time development of compliance of rice grains in compression (cooking curve) from 5 to 1440 min was measured in the range of cooking temperatures from 61 to 80°C. We found that Tv is the onset temperature to complete the cooking of rice. The cooking curve at the cooking temperature neighborhood Tv was approximated by the first order reaction with the two different rate constants. The faster and slower reactions were explained as indicating the plasticizing effect of water on rice grains, and mainly the gelatinization of the starch in rice grains, respectively.

  16. Deuterium-tritium neutron yield measurements with the 4.5 m neutron-time-of-flight detectors at NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, M. J.; Bond, E. J.; Clancy, T. J.; Eckart, M. J.; Khater, H. Y.; Glebov, V. Yu.

    2012-10-15

    The first several campaigns of laser fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) included a family of high-sensitivity scintillator/photodetector neutron-time-of-flight (nTOF) detectors for measuring deuterium-deuterium (DD) and DT neutron yields. The detectors provided consistent neutron yield (Y{sub n}) measurements from below 10{sup 9} (DD) to nearly 10{sup 15} (DT). The detectors initially demonstrated detector-to-detector Y{sub n} precisions better than 5%, but lacked in situ absolute calibrations. Recent experiments at NIF now have provided in situ DT yield calibration data that establish the absolute sensitivity of the 4.5 m differential tissue harmonic imaging (DTHI) detector with an accuracy of {+-}10% and precision of {+-}1%. The 4.5 m nTOF calibration measurements also have helped to establish improved detector impulse response functions and data analysis methods, which have contributed to improving the accuracy of the Y{sub n} measurements. These advances have also helped to extend the usefulness of nTOF measurements of ion temperature and downscattered neutron ratio (neutron yield 10-12 MeV divided by yield 13-15 MeV) with other nTOF detectors.

  17. {lambda}-Polarization Measurement in {pi}-p{yields}K0{lambda} in the Framework of 'EPECUR' Experiment Proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I. G.; Budkovsky, P. E.; Kanavets, V. P.; Kats, M. M.; Koroleva, L. I.; Kulikov, V. V.; Morozov, B. V.; Nesterov, V. M.; Ryltsov, V. V.; Sakharov, V. A.; Sulimov, A. D.; Svirida, D. N.; Filimonov, E. A.; Golubev, V. V.; Kovalev, A. I.; Kozlenko, N. G.; Kozlov, V. S.; Krivshich, A. G.; Novinsky, D. V.; Sumachev, V. V.

    2007-06-13

    The idea of 'EPECUR' was inspired by the recent splash of the activity around the pentaquark matters. The goal of the experiment is the search for narrow resonant states in the reactions {pi}-p {yields} {pi}-p and {pi}-p {yields} K0{lambda} based on the very precise cross section measurements in fine energy steps of 0.5 MeV in terms of the invariant mass. As a valuable byproduct of the second stage of the experiment, {lambda}-polarization in {pi}-p {yields} K0{lambda} can be measured, based on the well-known weak {lambda}-decay asymmetry. The expected statistical significance of the measurement overrides the best existing data from 'NIMROD' detector by an order of magnitude. The experimental setup is under construction at the ITEP proton synchrotron in collaboration with PNPI and ACU.

  18. SOFIA, a Next-Generation Facility for Fission Yields Measurements and Fission Study. First Results and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audouin, L.; Pellereau, E.; Taieb, J.; Boutoux, G.; Béliera, G.; Chatillon, A.; Ebran, A.; Gorbinet, T.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Tassan-Got, L.; Jurado, B.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Caamano, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Paradela, C.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.-L.; Vargas, J.; Casarejos, E.; Heinz, A.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rossi, D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Simon, H.; Voss, B.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Fission fragments play an important role in nuclear reactors evolution and safety. However, fragments yields are poorly known : data are essentially limited to mass yields from thermal neutron-induced fissions on a very few nuclei. SOFIA (Study On FIssion with Aladin) is an innovative experimental program on nuclear fission carried out at the GSI facility, which aims at providing isotopic yields on a broad range of fissioning systems. Relativistic secondary beams of actinides and pre-actinides are selected by the Fragment Separator (FRS) and their fission is triggered by electromagnetic interaction. The resulting excitation energy is comparable to the result of an interaction with a low-energy neutron, thus leading to useful data for reactor simulations. For the first time ever, both fission fragments are completely identified in charge and mass in a new recoil spectrometer, allowing for precise yields measurements. The yield of prompt neutrons can then be deduced, and the fission mechanism can be ascribed, providing new constraints for fission models. During the first experiment, all the technical challenges were matched : we have thus set new experimental standards in the measurements of relativistic heavy ions (time of flight, position, energy loss).This communication presents a first series of results obtained on the fission of 238U; many other fissioning systems have also been measured and are being analyzed presently. A second SOFIA experiment is planned in September 2014, and will be focused on the measurement of the fission of 236U, the analog of 235U+n.

  19. The Cook Mountain problem: Stratigraphic reality and semantic confusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E. |

    1994-12-31

    Historical inconsistency as to what constitutes the Cook Mountain Formation illustrates the semantic confusion resulting from extending surface-derived stratigraphic names into the subsurface without a full understanding of basin architecture. At the surface, the Cook Mountain Formation consists of fossilerous marine shale, glaucony and marl, and marginal-marine sandstone and shale between the nonmarine Sparta Formation sandstones below and the nonmarine Yegua Formation sandstones and lignitic shales above. Fossils are abundant, including the benthic foraminifer Ceratobulimina eximia. As subsurface exploration began, the first occurrence of Ceratobulimina eximia {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes} was used as the top of the marine {open_quotes}Cook Mountain Shale{close_quotes} below the Yegua section. Downdip, the overlying Yegua was found to become a sequence of marine shales and marginal-marine sandstones, the lower part of which yielded {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes}. Because of this, the lower sandstones were called {open_quotes}Cook Mountain{close_quotes} in many fields. At the Yegua shelf margin, {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes} is absent. Different exploration teams have used their own definitions for {open_quotes}Cook Mountain{close_quotes}, leading to substantial confusion.

  20. Gradual Reduction in Sodium Content in Cooked Ham, with Corresponding Change in Sensorial Properties Measured by Sensory Evaluation and a Multimodal Machine Vision System

    PubMed Central

    Greiff, Kirsti; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Misimi, Ekrem; Hersleth, Margrethe; Aursand, Ida G.

    2015-01-01

    The European diet today generally contains too much sodium (Na+). A partial substitution of NaCl by KCl has shown to be a promising method for reducing sodium content. The aim of this work was to investigate the sensorial changes of cooked ham with reduced sodium content. Traditional sensorial evaluation and objective multimodal machine vision were used. The salt content in the hams was decreased from 3.4% to 1.4%, and 25% of the Na+ was replaced by K+. The salt reduction had highest influence on the sensory attributes salty taste, after taste, tenderness, hardness and color hue. The multimodal machine vision system showed changes in lightness, as a function of reduced salt content. Compared to the reference ham (3.4% salt), a replacement of Na+-ions by K+-ions of 25% gave no significant changes in WHC, moisture, pH, expressed moisture, the sensory profile attributes or the surface lightness and shininess. A further reduction of salt down to 1.7–1.4% salt, led to a decrease in WHC and an increase in expressible moisture. PMID:26422367

  1. Gradual Reduction in Sodium Content in Cooked Ham, with Corresponding Change in Sensorial Properties Measured by Sensory Evaluation and a Multimodal Machine Vision System.

    PubMed

    Greiff, Kirsti; Mathiassen, John Reidar; Misimi, Ekrem; Hersleth, Margrethe; Aursand, Ida G

    2015-01-01

    The European diet today generally contains too much sodium (Na(+)). A partial substitution of NaCl by KCl has shown to be a promising method for reducing sodium content. The aim of this work was to investigate the sensorial changes of cooked ham with reduced sodium content. Traditional sensorial evaluation and objective multimodal machine vision were used. The salt content in the hams was decreased from 3.4% to 1.4%, and 25% of the Na(+) was replaced by K(+). The salt reduction had highest influence on the sensory attributes salty taste, after taste, tenderness, hardness and color hue. The multimodal machine vision system showed changes in lightness, as a function of reduced salt content. Compared to the reference ham (3.4% salt), a replacement of Na(+)-ions by K(+)-ions of 25% gave no significant changes in WHC, moisture, pH, expressed moisture, the sensory profile attributes or the surface lightness and shininess. A further reduction of salt down to 1.7-1.4% salt, led to a decrease in WHC and an increase in expressible moisture. PMID:26422367

  2. Emissions from cooking microwave popcorn.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Jacky A; Krebs, Kenneth A; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2007-01-01

    This study characterized chemicals released into a chamber in the process of cooking microwave popcorn. Seventeen types of microwave popcorn from eight different brands were studied. The work proceeded in two phases: phase one investigated chemicals emitted during popping and opening, phase two investigated chemicals emitted at discrete intervals from 0-40 minutes post-pop opening. The research was performed using a microwave oven enclosed in a chamber with ports for air sampling of particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs in the air samples were identified and quantified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). PM was characterized using both an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) to cover a full range of emitted sizes. The compounds measured during popping and opening included butter flavoring components such as diacetyl, butyric acid, acetoin, propylene glycol, 2-nonanone, and triacetin and bag components such as p-xylene and perfluorinated alcohol 8:2 telomer. The greatest chemical quantity is emitted when the bag is opened post-popping; more than 80% of the total chemical emissions occur at this time. PMID:17987444

  3. Measurement of the K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu} branching ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, S.; Atiya, M.; Bhuyan, B.; Chiang, I-H.; Diwan, M. V.; Frank, J. S.; Haggerty, J.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S. H.; Li, K. K.; Littenberg, L. S.; Redlinger, G.; Strand, R. C.; Viren, B.; Anisimovsky, V. V.; Ivashkin, A. P.; Khabibullin, M. M.; Khotjantsev, A. N.; Kudenko, Yu. G.; Mineev, O. V.

    2008-03-01

    Experiment E949 at Brookhaven National Laboratory studied the rare decay K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu} and other processes with an exposure of 1.77x10{sup 12} K{sup +}'s. The data were analyzed using a blind analysis technique yielding one candidate event with an estimated background of 0.30{+-}0.03 events. Combining this result with the observation of two candidate events by the predecessor experiment E787 gave the branching ratio B(K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu}{nu})=(1.47{sub -0.89}{sup +1.30})x10{sup -10}, consistent with the standard model prediction of (0.74{+-}0.20)x10{sup -10}. This is a more detailed report of results previously published [V. V. Anisimovsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 031801 (2004)].

  4. Fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers during cooking of fish in a new model cooking apparatus and a household microwave.

    PubMed

    Bendig, Paul; Hägele, Florian; Blumenstein, Marina; Schmidt, Jasmin; Vetter, Walter

    2013-07-10

    Fish is a major source of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Because fish is mainly consumed after cooking, this measure may alter the pattern and amounts of PBDEs that are finally consumed. To investigate this issue, we developed a model cooking apparatus consisting of a small glass bowl and a beaker glass with an exhaust fitted with a polyurethane foam filter connected to a water jet pump. In this model cooking apparatus, fish (1 g) and/or sunflower oil (0.2/0.4 g) spiked with three PBDE congeners was cooked for 30 min. Small amounts of the semi-volatile PBDEs were evaporated from the fish (BDE-47 < BDE-15), while the non-volatile BDE-209 was partly transformed. Additional experiments in a household microwave provided similar results, except that no transformation was observed for BDE-209. The model cooking apparatus proved to be well-suited to study the fate of polyhalogenated compounds in fish during cooking. PMID:23772916

  5. Higher-order multipole amplitude measurement in {psi}{sup '}{yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c2}

    SciTech Connect

    Ablikim, M.; An, F. F.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Berger, N.; Bian, J. M.; Cai, X.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Chu, Y. P.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Deng, Z. Y.; Dong, L. Y.

    2011-11-01

    Using 106x10{sup 6} {psi}{sup '} events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII storage ring, the higher-order multipole amplitudes in the radiative transition {psi}{sup '}{yields}{gamma}{chi}{sub c2}{yields}{gamma}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}/{gamma}K{sup +}K{sup -} are measured. A fit to the {chi}{sub c2} production and decay angular distributions yields M2=0.046{+-}0.010{+-}0.013 and E3=0.015{+-}0.008{+-}0.018, where the first errors are statistical and the second systematic. Here M2 denotes the normalized magnetic quadrupole amplitude and E3 the normalized electric octupole amplitude. This measurement shows evidence for the existence of the M2 signal with 4.4{sigma} statistical significance and is consistent with the charm quark having no anomalous magnetic moment.

  6. Diverse lamb genotypes 4. Predicting the yield of saleable meat and high value trimmed cuts from carcass measurements.

    PubMed

    Safari, E; Hopkins, D L; Fogarty, N M

    2001-06-01

    To determine how current predictors of carcass and cut yield perform in the Australian lamb industry a large study was undertaken using diverse genotypes. Carcass measurements and yield data were obtained for 591 lambs representing two sexes (cryptorchids, ewes). The lambs were sired by a selection of Texel (T), Poll Dorset (PD), Border Leicester (BL) and Merino (M) rams crossed with Border Leicester×Merino (BLM) and Merino (M) ewes giving six genotypes (T×BLM, PD×BLM, T×M, PD×M, BL×M, M×M). The percentage yield of saleable meat, hindquarter, loin and a range of trimmed cuts were predicted using models based on hot carcass weight, EUROP conformation score, m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum area (LL area) in combination with three different measures of carcass fatness: (1) the depth of muscle and fat tissue from the surface of the carcass to the lateral surface of 12th rib, 110 mm from the midline (GR); (2) fat depth over the LL at the deepest part of the muscle (FATC); and (3) fat depth at the 5th rib, 110 mm from the midline (FAT5). FAT5 was identified as the most accurate and robust (stable) fat measurement for the prediction of saleable meat yield in a production system based on diverse genotypes. Using GR as a fatness measurement led to overestimation of fatness level and underestimation of yield in T sired lambs. Conformation score after carcass weight and any of the fat measurements improved (P<0.01) the prediction of the yield of saleable meat, hindquarter, loin and all trimmed lamb cuts with the exception of the ribloin (rack). LL area added significantly (P<0.01) to the prediction of the yield of saleable meat, hindquarter and trimmed lamb cuts, but not for the midloin and neck fillet at a constant carcass weight and fatness. Large proportions of the variation in all yields were unaccounted for, even after the inclusion of either conformation or LL area. Predictions based on carcass weight and any of the three different fat measurements were not

  7. Controlled warming effects on wheat growth and yield: field measurements and modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate warming may raise wheat yields in cooler climates and lower them in warmer. To understand these contrasting effects, infrared heating lamps were used to warm irrigated spring wheat by 1.5 'C (day) and 3.0 'C (night) above unheated controls during different times of the year at Maricopa, AZ. ...

  8. Evaluation of measured and simulated cotton water use and yield under full and deficit irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AquaCrop model simulates crop growth, water use, yield, and water use efficiency of several crops including cotton. The model is intended to be useful for irrigation planning and management, and it attempts to balance simplicity and accuracy so that it can be applied in locations where weather a...

  9. The Effect of Test Machine Compliance on the Measured Shear Punch Yield Stress as Predicted Using Finite Element Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Toloczko, Mychailo; Abe, Katsunori; Hamilton, Margaret L.; Garner, Francis A.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2001-10-01

    In previous research involving the use of the shear punch test, it was assumed that the displacement of the punch tip was only slightly different than the crosshead displacement. The present work explores this assumption and its ramifications by simulating the shear punch test with finite element analysis (FEA). The simulations suggest that punch tip displacement is much less than previously assumed, and that for the test frames which have been used, crosshead displacement is over an order of magnitude greater than punch tip displacement. This difference in displacements is thought to be due to test machine and punch compliance, and a simple elasticity calculation of the compliance of the punch, the test machine, and a specimen gives a result which is in agreement with the FEA simulations. The effect of using punch tip displacement on the observed effective shear yield stress was evaluated using FEA simulated shear punch tests on several different metals. Yield was measured at several different offset shear strains with a 1.0% offset shear yield strength measurement providing the best correlation with 0.2% offset uniaxial yield strength. When using the 1.0% offset shear yield values, the previously observed material-to-material variability in the tensile-shear correlation all but disappeared. Based on this work, it appears that the material-to-material variations in prior correlations between uniaxial yield strength and shear yield strength is due to a combination of large test machine compliance and material-to-material differences in the work hardening exponent.

  10. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Sheinbaum, Claudia; Balam, Marco V; Robles, Guillermo; Lelo de Larrea, Sebastian; Mendoza, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the potential use of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil in Mexico City. The study is divided in two main areas: the analysis of a waste cooking oil collection pilot project conducted in food markets of a Mexico City region; and the exhaust emissions performance of biodiesel blends measured in buses of the Mexico City public bus transportation network (RTP). Results from the waste cooking oil collection pilot project show that oil quantities disposed depend upon the type of food served and the operational practices in a cuisine establishment. Food markets' waste cooking oil disposal rate from fresh oil is around 10%, but with a very high standard deviation. Emission tests were conducted using the Ride-Along-Vehicle-Emissions-Measuring System in two different types of buses while travelling a regular route. Results shows that the use of biodiesel blends reduces emissions only for buses that have exhaust gas recirculation systems, as analysed by repeated measure analysis of variance. The potential use in Mexico City of waste cooking oil for biodiesel is estimated to cover 2175 buses using a B10 blend. PMID:26142425

  11. Secondary Electron Yield Measurements of TiN coating and TiZrV getter film(LCC-128)

    SciTech Connect

    Le Pimpec, F

    2003-10-09

    In the beam pipe of the positron Main Damping Ring (MDR) of the Next Linear Collider (NLC), ionization of residual gases and secondary electron emission give rise to an electron cloud which can cause the loss of the circulating beam. One path to avoid the electron cloud is to ensure that the vacuum wall has low secondary emission yield and, therefore, we need to know the secondary emission yield (SEY) for candidate wall coatings. We report on SEY measurements at SLAC on titanium nitride (TiN) and titanium-zirconium-vanadium (TiZrV) thin sputter deposited films, as well as describe our experimental setup.

  12. Measurement of upper limits for {upsilon}{yields}{gamma}+R decays

    SciTech Connect

    Rosner, J. L.; Adam, N. E.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Duboscq, J. E.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, R.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hertz, D.; Jones, C. D.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.

    2007-12-01

    We report on a study of exclusive radiative decays {upsilon}(nS){yields}{gamma}+R (n=1, 2, 3), with R a narrow resonant hadronic state decaying into four or more charged particles (plus possible neutrals). Using data collected from the CLEO III detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we present upper limits of order 10{sup -4} for such bottomonium two-body decays as a function of the mass M{sub R} recoiling opposite the photon.

  13. Absolute prompt-gamma yield measurements for ion beam therapy monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M; Bajard, M; Brons, S; Chevallier, M; Dauvergne, D; Dedes, G; De Rydt, M; Freud, N; Krimmer, J; La Tessa, C; Létang, J M; Parodi, K; Pleskač, R; Prieels, D; Ray, C; Rinaldi, I; Roellinghoff, F; Schardt, D; Testa, E; Testa, M

    2015-01-21

    Prompt-gamma emission detection is a promising technique for hadrontherapy monitoring purposes. In this regard, obtaining prompt-gamma yields that can be used to develop monitoring systems based on this principle is of utmost importance since any camera design must cope with the available signal. Herein, a comprehensive study of the data from ten single-slit experiments is presented, five consisting in the irradiation of either PMMA or water targets with lower and higher energy carbon ions, and another five experiments using PMMA targets and proton beams. Analysis techniques such as background subtraction methods, geometrical normalization, and systematic uncertainty estimation were applied to the data in order to obtain absolute prompt-gamma yields in units of prompt-gamma counts per incident ion, unit of field of view, and unit of solid angle. At the entrance of a PMMA target, where the contribution of secondary nuclear reactions is negligible, prompt-gamma counts per incident ion, per millimetre and per steradian equal to (124 ± 0.7stat ± 30sys) × 10(-6) for 95 MeV u(-1) carbon ions, (79 ± 2stat ± 23sys) × 10(-6) for 310 MeV u(-1) carbon ions, and (16 ± 0.07stat ± 1sys) × 10(-6) for 160 MeV protons were found for prompt gammas with energies higher than 1 MeV. This shows a factor 5 between the yields of two different ions species with the same range in water (160 MeV protons and 310 MeV u(-1) carbon ions). The target composition was also found to influence the prompt-gamma yield since, for 300/310 MeV u(-1) carbon ions, a 42% greater yield ((112 ± 1stat ± 22sys) × 10(-6) counts ion(-1) mm(-1) sr(-1)) was obtained with a water target compared to a PMMA one. PMID:25548833

  14. Measurement of the muon-induced neutron yield in liquid scintillator and stainless steel at LNGS with the LVD experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, R.; Garbini, M.; Sartorelli, G.; Selvi, M.; Collaboration: LVD Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    We describe the measurement of the muon-induced neutron yield in liquid scintillator and stainless steel (SS) at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), with the LVD experiment. The Large Volume Detector (LVD) is located in Hall A of the LNGS and is made of 1000 t of liquid scintillator and 1000 t of SS. Using an independent measurement to evaluate the background and with the support of a full Monte Carlo simulation based on Geant4, we measured a neutron yield of (2.9±0.6)×10{sup −4} and (1.5±0.3)×10{sup −3} in liquid scintillator and in stainless steel, respectively.

  15. Spring wheat-leaf phytomass and yield estimates from airborne scanner and hand-held radiometer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aase, J. K.; Siddoway, F. H.; Millard, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt has been made to relate hand-held radiometer measurements, and airborne multispectral scanner readings, with both different wheat stand densities and grain yield. Aircraft overflights were conducted during the tillering, stem extension and heading period stages of growth, while hand-held radiometer readings were taken throughout the growing season. The near-IR/red ratio was used in the analysis, which indicated that both the aircraft and the ground measurements made possible a differentiation and evaluation of wheat stand densities at an early enough growth stage to serve as the basis of management decisions. The aircraft data also corroborated the hand-held radiometer measurements with respect to yield prediction. Winterkill was readily evaluated.

  16. Measurements of branching fraction ratios and CP-asymmetries in suppressed B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})K{sup -} and B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){pi}{sup -} decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Brucken, E.; Devoto, F.; Mehtala, P.; Orava, R.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Casal, B.; Cuevas, J.; Gomez, G.; Palencia, E.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vizan, J.; Amerio, S.; Dorigo, T.; Totaro, P.; Amidei, D.

    2011-11-01

    We report the first reconstruction in hadron collisions of the suppressed decays B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})K{sup -} and B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){pi}{sup -}, sensitive to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa phase {gamma}, using data from 7 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron collider. We reconstruct a signal for the B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})K{sup -} suppressed mode with a significance of 3.2 standard deviations, and measure the ratios of the suppressed to favored branching fractions R(K)=[22.0{+-}8.6(stat){+-}2.6(syst)]x10{sup -3}, R{sup +}(K)=[42.6{+-}13.7(stat){+-}2.8(syst)]x10{sup -3}, R{sup -}(K)=[3.8{+-}10.3(stat){+-}2.7(syst)]x10{sup -3} as well as the direct CP-violating asymmetry A(K)=-0.82{+-}0.44(stat){+-}0.09(syst) of this mode. Corresponding quantities for B{sup -}{yields}D({yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){pi}{sup -} decay are also reported.

  17. Quantum yield measurements of light-induced H₂ generation in a photosystem I-[FeFe]-H₂ase nanoconstruct.

    PubMed

    Applegate, Amanda M; Lubner, Carolyn E; Knörzer, Philipp; Happe, Thomas; Golbeck, John H

    2016-01-01

    The quantum yield for light-induced H2 generation was measured for a previously optimized bio-hybrid cytochrome c 6-crosslinked PSI(C13G)-1,8-octanedithiol-[FeFe]-H2ase(C97G) (PSI-H2ase) nanoconstruct. The theoretical quantum yield for the PSI-H2ase nanoconstruct is 0.50 molecules of H2 per photon absorbed, which equates to a requirement of two photons per H2 generated. Illumination of the PSI-H2ase nanoconstruct with visible light between 400 and 700 nm resulted in an average quantum yield of 0.10-0.15 molecules of H2 per photon absorbed, which equates to a requirement of 6.7-10 photons per H2 generated. A possible reason for the difference between the theoretical and experimental quantum yield is the occurrence of non-productive PSI(C13G)-1,8-octanedithiol-PSIC13G (PSI-PSI) conjugates, which would absorb light without generating H2. Assuming the thiol-Fe coupling is equally efficient at producing PSI-PSI conjugates as well as in producing PSI-H2ase nanoconstructs, the theoretical quantum yield would decrease to 0.167 molecules of H2 per photon absorbed, which equates to 6 photons per H2 generated. This value is close to the range of measured values in the current study. A strategy that purifies the PSI-H2ase nanoconstructs from the unproductive PSI-PSI conjugates or that incorporates different chemistries on the PSI and [FeFe]-H2ase enzyme sites could potentially allow the PSI-H2ase nanoconstruct to approach the expected theoretical quantum yield for light-induced H2 generation. PMID:25527460

  18. Citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b yeast when grown on waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Xu, Jiaxing; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang; He, Jianlong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, citric acid was produced from waste cooking oil by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b. To get the maximal yield of citric acid, the compositions of the medium for citric acid production were optimized, and our results showed that extra nitrogen and magnesium rather than vitamin B1 and phosphate were needed for CA accumulation when using waste cooking oil. The results also indicated that the optimal initial concentration of the waste cooking oil in the medium for citric acid production was 80.0 g/l, and the ideal inoculation size was 1 × 10(7) cells/l of medium. We also reported that during 10-l fermentation, 31.7 g/l of citric acid, 6.5 g/l of isocitric acid, 5.9 g/l of biomass, and 42.1 g/100.0 g cell dry weight of lipid were attained from 80.0 g/l of waste cooking oil within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 94.6 % of the waste cooking oil was utilized by the cells of Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the yield of citric acid was 0.4 g/g waste cooking oil, which suggested that waste cooking oil was a suitable carbon resource for citric acid production. PMID:25488499

  19. A New Neutron Time-of-Flight Detector for DT Yield and Ion-Temperature Measurements on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-11-01

    A new neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector for DT yield and ion-temperature measurements in DT implosions on the OMEGA Laser System was designed, fabricated, tested, and calibrated. The goal of this detector is to provide a second line of sight for DT yield and ion-temperature measurements in the 1 ×1012 to 1014 yield range. The nTOF detector consists of a 40-mm-diam, 20-mm-thick BC-422Q(1%) scintillator coupled with a one-stage Photek PMT-140 photomultiplier tube. To avoid PMT saturation at high yields a neutral density filter ND1 is inserted between the scintillator and PMT. Both the scintillator and PMT are shielded from hard x rays by 5 mm of lead on all sides and 10 mm in the direction of the target. The nTOF detector is located at 15.8 m from target chamber center in the OMEGA Target Bay. The design details and calibration results of this nTOF detector in DT implosions on OMEGA will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  20. A practical beryllium activation detector for measuring DD neutron yield from ICF targets

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1996-06-01

    A neutron activation detector based on the reaction {sup 9}Be(n,{alpha}){sup 6}He({beta}{sup {minus}}){sup 6}Li has been designed which could potentially allow DD yield determinations within a few minutes after an ICF implosion or other pulsed neutron event with precision comparable to methods currently in use in ICF experiments. The detector is based on previous work, but has been redesigned to allow use in a reentrant tube less than six inches in diameter, and to increase detection efficiency. The detector consists of beryllium rods imbedded in plastic scintillator and coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Neutrons interact with the beryllium to produce {sup 6}He, which decays by emission of a {beta}{sup {minus}} particle with a maximum energy of 3.51 MeV with a half life of 808 ms. The {beta}{sup {minus}} particles are counted, and a neutron yield is determined for the total activity produced. The short half life of {sup 6}He will result in high specific activity and allow quick determination of the amount of {sup 6}He produced.

  1. Measurements of high-energy photonuclear reaction yields in the 2.5 GeV electron beam stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Shin, Kazuo; Ban, Syuichi; Namito, Yoshihito; Nakamura, Hajime; Hirayama, Hideo

    1997-02-01

    Measurements were made for radioactive nuclide yields formed in Al, Fe, Cu and Nb foils by the irradiation of bremsstrahlung generated by ˜2.5 GeV electrons. The foils were inserted in a Cu beam stop and irradiated by electrons. For a comparison, calculations of the yields were carried out. The photon energy spectrum obtained by the EGS4 code was multiplied by the photonuclear cross sections evaluated by the PICA code at photon energies below 350 MeV, and by Rudstam's formula at higher energies above 350 MeV. It was found that the calculated values tended to overestimate the measured ones, especially for nuclides whose mass was moderately far from that of target nuclide.

  2. Measurement of the Charge and Light Yield of Low Energy Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Xenon at Different Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Matthew; Aprile, Elena; de Perio, Patrick; Goetzke, Luke; Greene, Zach; Lin, Qing; Messina, Marcello; Plante, Guillaume; Rizzo, Alfio; Zhang, Yun

    2016-03-01

    Dual-phase liquid xenon detectors continue to lead in the search for the direct detection of dark matter. Characterization of the response of liquid xenon to low energy (<= 20 keV) nuclear recoils is essential to establish the sensitivity of these detectors to dark matter. The neriX detector at Columbia University is a dual-phase time projection chamber that is optimized for simultaneous measurements of light and charge from these low-energy interactions. A coincidence technique is employed to extract the light and charge yield from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon as a function of energy deposited and applied electric field. In this talk, we will present preliminary results from the light and charge yield measurements. We acknowledge continued support of the XENON Dark Matter program at Columbia University by the National Science Foundation.

  3. Measurements of fusion neutron yields by neutron activation technique: Uncertainty due to the uncertainty on activation cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankunas, Gediminas; Batistoni, Paola; Sjöstrand, Henrik; Conroy, Sean

    2015-07-01

    The neutron activation technique is routinely used in fusion experiments to measure the neutron yields. This paper investigates the uncertainty on these measurements as due to the uncertainties on dosimetry and activation reactions. For this purpose, activation cross-sections were taken from the International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File (IRDFF-v1.05) in 640 groups ENDF-6 format for several reactions of interest for both 2.5 and 14 MeV neutrons. Activation coefficients (reaction rates) have been calculated using the neutron flux spectra at JET vacuum vessel, both for DD and DT plasmas, calculated by MCNP in the required 640-energy group format. The related uncertainties for the JET neutron spectra are evaluated as well using the covariance data available in the library. These uncertainties are in general small, but not negligible when high accuracy is required in the determination of the fusion neutron yields.

  4. Identification of the cationic excited state of cyclopentanone via time-resolved Ion yield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Wanlong; Yin, Hang; Liu, Xiaochun; Lv, Hang; Zhao, Lei; Shi, Ying; Yan, Bing; Jin, Mingxing; Ding, Dajun; Xu, Haifeng

    2016-06-01

    We report the experimental evidence of the one-photon resonance in the cationic excited state of cyclopentanone using the femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe method. The transients of the parent ion and the C2H4+ fragment exhibit constant depletion in the pump-probe delay time up to 7 ps, however, that of the C4H8+/C3H4O+ fragment presents formation behavior. By recording dependence of the ion yields as the probe laser intensity, we demonstrate one 400-nm photon resonance in the cationic excited state, which is assigned as the D4(2A) cationic state based on the theoretical calculations. Possible dissociation mechanism of the D4 state is also discussed.

  5. Yield measurements for resonances above the multi-α threshold in 20Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokalova, Tz.; Freer, M.; Curtis, N.; Ashwood, N. I.; Barr, M.; Malcolm, J. D.; Wheldon, C.; Ziman, V. A.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Aprahamian, A.; Bucher, B.; Couder, M.; Fang, X.; Jung, F.; Lu, W.; Roberts, A.; Tan, W. P.; Copp, P.; Lesher, S. R.

    2013-05-01

    The reaction 16O(α,20Ne), has been studied with beam energies from 23.0 to 29.0 MeV in 100-keV steps. Resonant states in 20Ne have been populated which are above the multi-α decay threshold and that decay via 8Be + 8Be + α and 8Be + 12C(02+). An array of four silicon-strip detectors was used for the detection of four of the five emitted α particles, enabling the full reconstruction of the kinematics. The normalized yields have been obtained, with indications of significant strength above 24.5 MeV arising from several possible resonances.

  6. Length Dependent Thermal Conductivity Measurements Yield Phonon Mean Free Path Spectra in Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977

  7. Length dependent thermal conductivity measurements yield phonon mean free path spectra in nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J

    2015-01-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977

  8. Mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1993-01-19

    Mutagenic heterocyclic amines are generated in foods when they are cooked at temperatures over 150[degrees]C. These compounds are present from 0.1 to 50 ppb depending on the food and the cooking conditions. These heterocyclic amines are not only present in cooked red meat, fish, chicken, and in baked and fried foods derived from grain. Mutagenicity of fried beef hamburgers cooked at 230[degrees]C is 800 [plus minus] 37 TA98 revertants per gram cooked weight. We measured 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-flquinoxaline (MelQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-flquinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-flquinoline (IQ) formation at this temperature and found 3.0 [plus minus] 2.0,1.0 [plus minus] 0.18, and 0.06 [plus minus] 0.03 ng/g, respectively. 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was found at a higher concentration of 9.6 ng/g. We have shown these heterocyclic amines are capable of producing both reverse and forward mutations in Salmonella bacteria and forward mutations in Chinese Hamster Cells.

  9. Mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1993-01-19

    Mutagenic heterocyclic amines are generated in foods when they are cooked at temperatures over 150{degrees}C. These compounds are present from 0.1 to 50 ppb depending on the food and the cooking conditions. These heterocyclic amines are not only present in cooked red meat, fish, chicken, and in baked and fried foods derived from grain. Mutagenicity of fried beef hamburgers cooked at 230{degrees}C is 800 {plus_minus} 37 TA98 revertants per gram cooked weight. We measured 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-flquinoxaline (MelQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-flquinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-flquinoline (IQ) formation at this temperature and found 3.0 {plus_minus} 2.0,1.0 {plus_minus} 0.18, and 0.06 {plus_minus} 0.03 ng/g, respectively. 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was found at a higher concentration of 9.6 ng/g. We have shown these heterocyclic amines are capable of producing both reverse and forward mutations in Salmonella bacteria and forward mutations in Chinese Hamster Cells.

  10. In situ measurement of the ion incidence angle dependence of the ion-enhanced etching yield in plasma reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Belen, Rodolfo Jun; Gomez, Sergi; Kiehlbauch, Mark; Aydil, Eray S.

    2006-11-15

    The authors propose and demonstrate a technique to determine the ion incidence angle dependence of the ion-enhanced etching yield under realistic plasma conditions and in situ in an arbitrary plasma reactor. The technique is based on measuring the etch rate as a function of position along the walls of features that initially have nearly semicircular cross sections. These initial feature shapes can be easily obtained by wet or isotropic plasma etching of holes patterned through a mask. The etch rate as a function of distance along the feature profile provides the etching yield as a function of the ion incidence angle. The etch rates are measured by comparing digitized scanning electron micrograph cross sections of the features before and after plasma etching in gas mixtures of interest. The authors have applied this technique to measure the ion incidence angle dependence of the Si etching yield in HBr, Cl{sub 2}, SF{sub 6}, and NF{sub 3} plasmas and binary mixtures of SF{sub 6} and NF{sub 3} with O{sub 2}. Advantages and limitations of this method are also discussed.