Sample records for measuring vaginal closure

  1. Vaginitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common vaginal infections are Bacterial Vaginosis Trichomoniasis Vaginal Yeast Infection Some vaginal infections are transmitted through sexual contact, but others, such as yeast infections, probably are not. Other Causes of Vaginitis ...

  2. Vaginal cuff closure at abdominal hysterectomy: comparing sutures with absorbable staples.

    PubMed

    Stovall, T G; Summitt, R L; Lipscomb, G H; Ling, F W

    1991-09-01

    To compare two methods of vaginal cuff closure during abdominal hysterectomy, 60 patients were randomized to one of two cuff-closure methods. The vaginal cuff was closed with three interrupted 0-Dexon sutures in 30 and with absorbable staples in 30. Both groups were similar with respect to age, gravidity, parity, preoperative indication, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. The operative technique and quantity of irrigation used was standardized. Operative blood loss was calculated by the weight method and an unactivated, medium flat Jackson-Pratt drain was left in place for collecting postoperative cuff cultures at 24 and 48 hours. The mean operative times in the suture group (97.4 minutes) and staple group (93.4 minutes) were not significantly different (P greater than .05). Cuff-closure time was more rapid (P = .0001) in the staple group (5.8 minutes) than in the suture group (9.3 minutes). Intraoperative cultures were positive in eight of 30 suture patients (26.7%) and eight of 30 staple patients (26.7%). Postoperative cultures at either 24 or 48 hours were positive in four women (13.3%) in the suture group and six (20%) in the staple group. Febrile morbidity occurred in six (20%) in each group. Three staple and two suture subjects developed a vaginal cuff abscess or hematoma, one of whom was readmitted to the hospital for intravenous antibiotics and draining of the vaginal cuff abscess. The presence of a positive vaginal cuff culture did not predict clinical outcome. Based on these observations and the increased cost of the stapling device, we conclude that there is no significant clinical advantage of surgical staples over traditional sutures for vaginal cuff closure at abdominal hysterectomy. PMID:1876376

  3. A Temperature-Monitoring Vaginal Ring for Measuring Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Peter; Desjardins, Delphine; Kumar, Sandeep; Fetherston, Susan M.; Le-Grand, Roger; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Helgadóttir, Berglind; Bjarnason, Ásgeir; Narasimhan, Manjula; Malcolm, R. Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background Product adherence is a pivotal issue in the development of effective vaginal microbicides to reduce sexual transmission of HIV. To date, the six Phase III studies of vaginal gel products have relied primarily on self-reporting of adherence. Accurate and reliable methods for monitoring user adherence to microbicide-releasing vaginal rings have yet to be established. Methods A silicone elastomer vaginal ring prototype containing an embedded, miniature temperature logger has been developed and tested in vitro and in cynomolgus macaques for its potential to continuously monitor environmental temperature and accurately determine episodes of ring insertion and removal. Results In vitro studies demonstrated that DST nano-T temperature loggers encapsulated in medical grade silicone elastomer were able to accurately and continuously measure environmental temperature. The devices responded quickly to temperature changes despite being embedded in different thickness of silicone elastomer. Prototype vaginal rings measured higher temperatures compared with a subcutaneously implanted device, showed high sensitivity to diurnal fluctuations in vaginal temperature, and accurately detected periods of ring removal when tested in macaques. Conclusions Vaginal rings containing embedded temperature loggers may be useful in the assessment of product adherence in late-stage clinical trials. PMID:25965956

  4. 50 CFR 660.509 - Accountability measures (season closures).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Accountability measures (season closures). 660.509 Section 660...660.509 Accountability measures (season closures). (a) General rule. ...beginning of the next fishing period or season. Regional Administrator shall...

  5. 50 CFR 660.509 - Accountability measures (season closures).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Accountability measures (season closures). 660.509 Section 660...660.509 Accountability measures (season closures). (a) General rule. ...beginning of the next fishing period or season. Regional Administrator shall...

  6. 50 CFR 660.509 - Accountability measures (season closures).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Accountability measures (season closures). 660.509 Section 660...660.509 Accountability measures (season closures). (a) General rule. ...beginning of the next fishing period or season. Regional Administrator shall...

  7. Assemblies for in vitro measurement of bioadhesive strength and retention characteristics in simulated vaginal environment.

    PubMed

    Vermani, Kavita; Garg, Sanjay; Zaneveld, Lourens J D

    2002-10-01

    The vaginal route of administration offers a promising option for local and systemic delivery of drugs. Conventional vaginal formulations are associated with limitations of poor retention, leakage, and messiness, thereby causing inconvenience to users. To overcome these limitations, formulations that adhere to the vaginal mucosa for a sufficient period of time need to be developed. Bioadhesion and retention are desirable characteristics of a vaginal formulation to achieve desired efficacy. These properties can be built in during formulation development by the use of bioadhesive polymers. In the present study, assemblies for in vitro measurement of bioadhesive strength and retention characteristics of vaginal formulations have been developed. A modified simulated vaginal fluid (SVFM) was used to simulate vaginal conditions for bioadhesion studies. Cellophane hydrated with SVFM and isolated sheep vaginal mucosa were used as model membranes. The bioadhesive potential of various polymers and their combinations was evaluated. Among the polymers evaluated, xanthan gum (XG), sodium alginate (SA), Polycarbophil (PC), and their combinations (XG + SA and XG + PC) were found to possess significant bioadhesive strength. In retention experiments, XG, SA, and combinations (XG + SA and XG + PC) were retained in isolated sheep vaginal tissue, while PC exhibited poor retention under experimental conditions. Based on the results of the study conducted, XG, SA, and combinations (XG + SA and XG + PC) have been proposed as potential candidates for developing bioadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems. PMID:12455472

  8. Sexual arousal in women: The development of a measurement device for vaginal blood volume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Geer; Patricia Morokoff; Pamela Greenwood

    1974-01-01

    Undergraauate women were shown erotic and nonerotic films. A vaginal photoplethysmograph was developed and used to measure pressure pulse and vaginal blood volume during film presentations. All subjects yielded a visible increase in pressure pulse amplitude during the presentation of the erotic films. Statistical analyses of the pressure pulse data strongly confirmed (p 0.001) the visual impressions. In addition, total

  9. Novel application for ion mobility spectrometry: diagnosing vaginal infections through measurement of biogenic amines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeev Karpas; Walter Chaim; Rachel Gdalevsky; Boris Tilman; Avi Lorber

    2002-01-01

    A method for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and other vaginal infections, based on measurement of biogenic amines present in a sample of vaginal fluid by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was developed. Sample introduction is through a two step procedure: addition of alkaline solution to release the volatile amines followed by heating and acid addition for emanation of the semi-volatile

  10. Zhang et al Effect of a collector bag for measurement of postpartum blood loss after vaginal1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Zhang et al 1 Effect of a collector bag for measurement of postpartum blood loss after vaginal1 collector bag for measurement of postpartum blood loss after vaginal delivery in reducing the6 incidence maternity units and 25381 women who had a vaginal delivery10 Interventions- Maternity units were randomly

  11. Bringing closure to microlensing mass measurement

    E-print Network

    Neal Dalal; Benjamin F. Lane

    2002-09-12

    Interferometers offer multiple methods for studying microlensing events and determining the properties of the lenses. We investigate the study of microlensing events with optical interferometers, focusing on narrow-angle astrometry, visibility, and closure phase. After introducing the basics of microlensing and interferometry, we derive expressions for the signals in each of these three channels. For various forecasts of the instrumental performance, we discuss which method provides the best means of measuring the lens angular Einstein radius theta_E, a prerequisite for determining the lens mass. If the upcoming generation of large-aperture, AO-corrected long baseline interferometers (e.g. VLTI, Keck, OHANA) perform as well as expected, theta_E may be determined with signal-to-noise greater than 10 for all bright events. We estimate that roughly a dozen events per year will be sufficiciently bright and have long enough durations to allow the measurement of the lens mass and distance from the ground. We also consider the prospects for a VLTI survey of all bright lensing events using a Fisher matrix analysis, and find that even without individual masses, interesting constraints may be placed on the bulge mass function, although large numbers of events would be required.

  12. Systematic assessment and validation of compliance-based crack closure measurements in fatigue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yigeng Xu; P. J Gregson; I Sinclair

    2000-01-01

    Different methods of closure measurement and issues related to the identification of closure points are examined. Based on compliance curves obtained from crack mouth clip gauges and near-tip strain gauges, a systematic assessment of closure measurements has been made by a variety of non-subjective methods. Closure results obtained from compliance curves are also compared with direct crack tip observations. For

  13. Vaginal Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Vaginal problems are some of the most common reasons women go to the doctor. They may have ... the problem is vaginitis, an inflammation of the vagina. The main symptom is smelly vaginal discharge, but ...

  14. Clindamycin Vaginal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an infection caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the vagina). Clindamycin is in a class ... works by slowing or stopping the growth of bacteria. Vaginal clindamycin cannot be used to treat vaginal ...

  15. Vaginitis, cervicitis, and cervical length in pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jantien J. Boomgaard; Karin S. Dekker; Elsabet van Rensburg; Corlia van den Berg; Illse Niemand; Roosmarie H. Bam; Hendrik S. Cronjé

    1999-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the possible association among vaginitis, cervicitis, and cervical length in pregnancy. Study Design: Primigravid volunteers, between 20 and 36 weeks’ gestation (n = 210), were examined. Vaginitis was diagnosed by pH determination and wet mount smear, cervicitis was diagnosed by cervicography, and cervical length was diagnosed by vaginal ultrasonographic measurement. Patients with both vaginitis and

  16. Calculated and measured drift closure during the spent-fuel test in Climax granite

    SciTech Connect

    Yow, J.L. Jr.; Butkovich, T.R.

    1982-04-01

    Horizontal and vertical measurements of drift closures have been made with a manually operated tape extensometer since about 6 weeks after the emplacement of the spent fuel at various locations along the length of the drifts. The averaged closures are less than 0.6 mm from the onset of measurements through about two years after the spent fuel emplacement. These results have been compared with thermo-elastic finite element calculations using measured medium properties. The comparisons show that most of the closure of the drifts occurred between the time the spent fuel was emplaced and the time of first measurement. The comparisons show that the results track each other, in that where closure followed by dilation is measured, the calculations also show this effect. The agreement is excellent, although where closures of less than 0.2 mm are measured the comparison with calculations is limited by measurement reproducability. Once measurements commenced the averaged measured closures remain to within 30% of the calculated total closure in each drift. 9 figures, 1 table.

  17. Closure measures for coarse-graining of the tent map

    SciTech Connect

    Pfante, Oliver, E-mail: pfante@mis.mpg.de; Olbrich, Eckehard; Bertschinger, Nils [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstrasse 22, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstrasse 22, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Ay, Nihat; Jost, Jürgen [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstrasse 22, 04103 Leipzig (Germany) [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstrasse 22, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Leipzig University, PF 100920, 04009 Leipzig (Germany); Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    We quantify the relationship between the dynamics of a time-discrete dynamical system, the tent map T and its iterations T{sup m}, and the induced dynamics at a symbolical level in information theoretical terms. The symbol dynamics, given by a binary string s of length m, is obtained by choosing a partition point ??[0,1] and lumping together the points x?[0,1] s.t. T{sup i}(x) concurs with the i ? 1th digit of s—i.e., we apply a so called threshold crossing technique. Interpreting the original dynamics and the symbolic one as different levels, this allows us to quantitatively evaluate and compare various closure measures that have been proposed for identifying emergent macro-levels of a dynamical system. In particular, we can see how these measures depend on the choice of the partition point ?. As main benefit of this new information theoretical approach, we get all Markov partitions with full support of the time-discrete dynamical system induced by the tent map. Furthermore, we could derive an example of a Markovian symbol dynamics whose underlying partition is not Markovian at all, and even a whole hierarchy of Markovian symbol dynamics.

  18. THE INTERFEROMETRY TECHNICS APPLIED ON RESIDUAL SUBSIDENCE ANALYSIS MEASUREMENT OF CLOSURE COAL MINES, EXAMPLE FROM NORD

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE INTERFEROMETRY TECHNICS APPLIED ON RESIDUAL SUBSIDENCE ANALYSIS MEASUREMENT OF CLOSURE COAL surface above abandoned mines. KEYWORDS: coal mines, subsidence, residual, interferometry RÉSUMÉ: L. MOTS-CLEFS: mines de charbon, subsidence, résiduel, interférométrie 1. Introduction and objective

  19. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  20. Prediction of ovulation with the use of oral and vaginal electrical measurements during treatment with clomiphene citrate.

    PubMed

    Fernando, R S; Regas, J; Betz, G

    1987-03-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of measuring salivary and vaginal electrical resistance in monitoring ovulation induced by clomiphene citrate (CC). Data from 28 cycles of 12 women treated with CC were compared with those of 18 cycles of 13 women who were ovulating spontaneously. Patterns of salivary readings in CC and spontaneous cycles were similar and showed a preovulatory peak 6.2 (mean) days before the luteinizing hormone peak. The trend in vaginal readings for CC cycles differed from that of spontaneous ovulations in that the values were depressed during and shortly after CC therapy. Occurrence of the periovulatory nadir and subsequent rise was common to both groups. The rise in vaginal readings CC cycles occurred within 24 hours of the luteinizing hormone peak in 88% of cases. Retrospective analysis showed that, based on this method, artificial insemination would have been timed appropriately in 25 of 27 cycles or in every cycle, depending on the protocol used. The results indicate that the method is equally useful for predicting and confirming ovulation in cycles in which CC was used to induce ovulation as it is in spontaneous cycles. PMID:3556619

  1. Estrogen Vaginal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... estradiol vaginal ring is also used to treat hot flushes ('hot flashes'; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... mild soap and warm water. Do not use hot water or boil the applicator. Ask your pharmacist ...

  2. Vaginal reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lesavoy, M.A.

    1985-05-01

    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients.

  3. Stages of Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Vaginal Cancer Key Points Vaginal cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ... to the pelvis . Stages of Vaginal Cancer Key Points After vaginal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are ...

  4. Measurement of Sexual Arousal in Postoperative Male-to-Female Transsexuals Using Vaginal Photoplethysmography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne A. Lawrence; Elizabeth M. Latty; Meredith L. Chivers; J. Michael Bailey

    2005-01-01

    Mens sexual arousal patterns are category-specific: Men typically display significantly greater physiological responses to sexual stimuli depicting members of their preferred gender category. Category-specific patterns of sexual arousal have not been consistently reported in natal women. We used vaginal photoplethysmography to examine patterns of sexual arousal in 11 male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals following sex reassignment surgery (SRS) and in 72 natal

  5. Designing preclinical perceptibility measures to evaluate topical vaginal gel formulations: relating user sensory perceptions and experiences to formulation properties.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Kathleen M; Fava, Joseph L; Rosen, Rochelle K; Vargas, Sara; Shaw, Julia G; Kojic, E Milu; Kiser, Patrick F; Friend, David R; Katz, David F

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The effectiveness of any biomedical prevention technology relies on both biological efficacy and behavioral adherence. Microbicide trials have been hampered by low adherence, limiting the ability to draw meaningful conclusions about product effectiveness. Central to this problem may be an inadequate conceptualization of how product properties themselves impact user experience and adherence. Our goal is to expand the current microbicide development framework to include product "perceptibility," the objective measurement of user sensory perceptions (i.e., sensations) and experiences of formulation performance during use. For vaginal gels, a set of biophysical properties, including rheological properties and measures of spreading and retention, may critically impact user experiences. Project LINK sought to characterize the user experience in this regard, and to validate measures of user sensory perceptions and experiences (USPEs) using four prototype topical vaginal gel formulations designed for pericoital use. Perceptibility scales captured a range of USPEs during the product application process (five scales), ambulation after product insertion (six scales), and during sexual activity (eight scales). Comparative statistical analyses provided empirical support for hypothesized relationships between gel properties, spreading performance, and the user experience. Project LINK provides preliminary evidence for the utility of evaluating USPEs, introducing a paradigm shift in the field of microbicide formulation design. We propose that these user sensory perceptions and experiences initiate cognitive processes in users resulting in product choice and willingness-to-use. By understanding the impact of USPEs on that process, formulation development can optimize both drug delivery and adherence. PMID:24180360

  6. Vaginal anus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fidel Ruiz-Moreno; Amable Gerdo-Ceballo; Gilberto Lozano-Saldivar

    1980-01-01

    A technique is described by which congenital ectopic anorectum with normal intestinal tissue opening into the vulva (“vaginal\\u000a anus”) was successfully corrected in two teen-age patients. The technique has several advantages: a new anal canal is formed\\u000a and the wounds heal promptly with little postoperative pain and reduced risk of postoperative anal stenosis.

  7. Using image processing to measure tree crown diameters and estimate percent crown closure

    E-print Network

    Gabriel, Darren Kyle

    1994-01-01

    USING IMAGE PROCESSING TO MEASURE TREE CROWN DIAMETERS AND ESTIMATE PERCENT CROWN CLOSURE A THESIS by DARREN KYLE GABRIEL Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... Approved as to style and content by: Robert D. Baker (Chair of Committee) Robert C. a (Member) David N. A el (Member) chard F. Fish (Head of Department) December l994 Major Subject: Forestry ABSTRACT Using Image Processing to Measure Tree Crown...

  8. Use of synthetic mesh to prevent recurrent vaginal evisceration: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Jurus; Peter Finamore; Babak Vakili

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal evisceration of the bowel is a rare and life-threatening complication of gynecologic surgery; recurrence is even more\\u000a rare. Most cases in the literature discuss primary closure of the dehisced vaginal cuff with delayed absorbable sutures via\\u000a a vaginal, abdominal, or laparoscopic approach. The case presented here is of a patient who had a history of recurrent vaginal\\u000a evisceration treated

  9. Effect of load excursions and specimen thickness on crack closure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    McMaster, F.J.; Smith, D.J.

    1999-07-01

    The effects of simple load excursions on fatigue crack growth and crack closure measurements in aluminum alloy 2024-T351 are presented. The crack closure loads were measured local to the crack tip in 6-mm and 14-mm-thick specimens, using an Elbert type gage for measuring crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD). All specimens were manufactured from a single lot of 15.7-mm-thick plate. Preliminary tests to establish the level of crack closure for a given level of remote constant-amplitude loading were also undertaken, with consistently different levels of crack opening and closing loads observed. Crack opening and closing stresses obtained from the Elber-type (CTOD) gage, when compared with those from a (global) clip gage, showed identical results for opening stresses, but crack closing stresses were approximately 15% to 20% higher in the CTOD measurements. The results apparently contradict many analytical closure models, which have crack closing stresses lower than crack opening stresses. Simple overload, underload and over/underload cycles were performed. Differences in the number of post-overload retardation cycles for the two thicknesses, in the single overload test, were obtained. It was found that the 6-mm-thick specimen's fatigue life was two times larger than for the 14-mm-thick specimen. The measured opening stresses were found to be in general agreement with the trends obtained for the fatigue crack growth results. Greater fatigue lives were obtained in the overload tests, with subsequent higher crack opening stresses measured. After a certain number of cycles following an overload, constant-amplitude crack growth rates were restored. However, the crack opening stresses did not return to the preoverload constant-amplitude values, but increased relative to the preoverload constant-amplitude crack opening stresses.

  10. Sexual Response in Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Controlled Laboratory Study Measuring Vaginal Blood Flow and Subjective Sexual Arousal.

    PubMed

    Both, Stephanie; Ter Kuile, Moniek; Enzlin, Paul; Dekkers, Olaf; van Dijk, Marieke; Weijenborg, Philomeen

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have indicated that women with diabetes mellitus are at higher risk to develop sexual dysfunctions. In the current study, we hypothesized that lower genital arousal response-as a consequence of diabetes-related damage to nerves and blood vessels-might play a part in these higher prevalence rates. Vaginal blood flow, subjective sexual response, and clitoral sensitivity were compared between women with diabetes and healthy controls, and associations with diabetes complications were investigated. In pre- and postmenopausal women with type 1 diabetes (n = 42) and healthy controls (n = 46), vaginal blood flow was measured as vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA). VPA was assessed at rest, during erotic film viewing, and during vibrotactile clitoral stimulation. Subjective sexual arousal was measured using a questionnaire. Clitoral sensitivity was assessed by a vibration perception test. Data on diabetes complications were obtained from medical records, and neuropathy was assessed by quantitative sensory testing. VPA, subjective sexual arousal, and clitoral sensitivity were not significantly different between women with diabetes and controls. Nevertheless, women with diabetes who had retinopathy showed significantly lower VPA than women without retinopathy, and women with diabetes who had neuropathy showed significantly higher sensation thresholds for vibrotactile clitoral stimulation. The results do not support the hypothesis of a disrupted genital arousal response in women with diabetes. However, the observed associations between retinopathy and vaginal blood flow, and between neuropathy and clitoral sensitivity, suggest that diabetes-related complications might adversely affect the physiological basis of female sexual response. PMID:26054485

  11. Is uterine depth measurement by trans-vaginal ultrasound alone as accurate as measurement carried out by trans-abdominal ultrasound-guided trial transfer?

    PubMed Central

    Edris, Fawaz E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the reliability of trans-vaginal-scan (TVS) in measuring the uterine depth (UD) in comparison with ultrasound-guided trial-transfer (UTT). Methods: This prospective study was conducted in 66 consecutive patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). The study took place in a private IVF center in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between November 2013 and January 2014. The patients underwent UD measurements using TVS and UTT, sequentially. All scans were performed by a single sonographer, and all UTT were carried out by a single physician who was blinded to the TVS measurement. Results: The median (95% confidence interval) UD measurement using the TVS method was 6.9 cm (5.0-12.5) and UTT was 7.1 cm (5.9-13.5), (p<0.0001). Fifteen patients (22.7%) had a difference of >1 cm between the 2 measurement modalities (group-B). When measured by UTT, 93.3% of patients in group-B had UD ?8cm, compared with 9.8% of patients in group-A, (p<0.0001). Group-B had a significantly longer uterine cavity when measured by UTT (p<0.0001), and a trend towards significance when measured by TVS (p=0.055). The TVS measurements generally underestimated UD when compared with UTT. Conclusion: Trans-vaginal-scan is less reliable than UTT and should not be used as a substitute. Larger sample-size studies involving different personnel, and equipment is needed. PMID:25316468

  12. Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzortziou, Maria; Herman, Jay R.; Gallegos, Charles L.; Neale, Patrick J.; Subramaniam, Ajit; Harding, Lawrence W., Jr.; Ahmad, Ziauddin

    2006-06-01

    We combined detailed bio-optical measurements and radiative transfer modeling to perform an 'optical closure' experiment for an optically complex and biologically productive region of the Chesapeake Bay. We used this experiment to evaluate certain assumptions commonly used in bio-optical models, and to investigate which optical characteristics are most important to accurately model and interpret remote sensing ocean-color observations in these Case 2 waters. Direct measurements were made of the magnitude, variability, and spectral characteristics of backscattering and absorption that are critical for accurate parameterizations in satellite bio-optical algorithms and underwater radiative transfer simulations. We found that the ratio of backscattering to total scattering (i.e. the backscattering fraction, bb/ b) varied considerably depending on particulate loading, distance from land, and mixing processes, and had an average value of 0.0128 at 530 nm. Incorporating information on the magnitude, variability, and spectral characteristics of particulate backscattering into the radiative transfer model, rather than using a volume scattering function commonly assumed for turbid waters, was critical to obtaining agreement between model calculations and measured radiometric quantities. In-situ measurements of absorption coefficients need to be corrected for systematic overestimation due to scattering errors, and this correction commonly employs the assumption that absorption by particulate matter at near-infrared wavelengths is zero. Direct measurements, however, showed that particulate matter in the Bay had small, but non-zero, absorption in the 700-730 nm wavelength region. Accounting for this residual particulate absorption when correcting in-situ measured absorption spectra for scattering errors was important in model simulations of water reflectance in the green wavelengths, where reflectance spectra in estuarine waters peak. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence considerably affected the magnitude of water reflectance in the red wavelengths. Very good optical closure was obtained between independently measured water inherent optical properties and radiation fields, after applying the results from our detailed measurements to model bio-optical processes in these Case 2 waters. The good optical closure was consistent over the observed wide range of water optical characteristics. Average absolute percent differences between measured and model-estimated water-leaving radiances were 6.35% at 443 nm, 7.73% at 554 nm, and 6.86% at 670 nm, considerably smaller than those presented in the few studies of optical closure performed previously in near shore waters of similar optical complexity. These results show that bio-optical processes can be confidently modeled in complex estuarine waters, and underscore the importance of accurate formulations for backscattering, long-wavelength particulate absorption, and chlorophyll fluorescence.

  13. An Evaluation of the Plasticity-Induced Crack-Closure Concept and Measurement Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, James C., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of the plasticity-induced crack-closure concept is made, in light of some of the questions that have been raised on the validity of the concept, and the assumptions that have been made concerning crack-dp damage below the crack-opening stress. The impact of using other crack-tip parameters, such as the cyclic crack-tip displacement, to model crack-growth rate behavior was studied. Crack-growth simulations, using a crack-closure model, showed a close relation between traditional Delta K eff, and the cyclic crack-tip displacement (Delta eff) for an aluminum alloy and a steel. Evaluations of the cyclic hysteresis energy demonstrated that the cyclic plastic damage below the crack-opening stress was negligible in the Paris crack-growth regime. Some of the standard and newly proposed remote measurement methods to determine the 'effective' crack-tip driving parameter were evaluated on middle-crack tension specimens. A potential source of the Kmax effect on crack-growth rates was studied on an aluminum alloy. Results showed that the ratio of Kmax to Kc had a strong effect on crack-growth rates at high stress ratios and at low stress ratios for very high stress levels. The crack-closure concept and the traditional crack-growth rate equations were able to correlate and predict crack-growth rates under these extreme conditions.

  14. General Information about Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Vaginal Cancer Key Points Vaginal cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ... to the pelvis . Stages of Vaginal Cancer Key Points After vaginal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are ...

  15. Vaginal and Vulvar Cancers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Cancer Home Vaginal and Vulvar Cancers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... body parts later. When cancer starts in the vagina, it is called vaginal cancer. The vagina, also ...

  16. Vaginal Yeast Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Vaginal Yeast Infection Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Vaginal yeast infection, or vulvovaginal candidiasis, is a common cause ...

  17. The measurement of the oral and vaginal electrolytes as a new method of predicting ovulation.

    PubMed

    Valente, S

    1988-01-01

    To be able to know with certainty the day of ovulation has always posed a major problem to the gynecologist, for various reasons. Today, knowing the day of ovulation and, still better, being able to forecast it with some assurance, is even more necessary for the various fecundation programs. The results are here presented of experimentation in a new method of prediction of ovulation which is based on the measuring of the electrolytes present in the saliva and in the cervical mucus in the first phase of the cycle, with the aim of being able to predict in advance the day of ovulation. PMID:3402085

  18. Analysis of Vaginal Cell Populations during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL L. FIDEL; WEI LUO; CHAD STEELE; JOSEPH CHABAIN; MARC BAKER

    1999-01-01

    Studies with an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis suggest that local cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is more important than systemic CMI for protection against vaginitis. The present study, however, showed that, compared to uninfected mice, little to no change in the percentage or types of vaginal T cells occurred during a primary vaginal infection or during a secondary vaginal infection

  19. Closure study on measured and modeled optical properties for dry and hydrated laboratory inorganic aerosols with mixtures of dicarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Junjun; Du, Ke; Wang, Wei; Rood, Mark J.

    2013-12-01

    A laboratory-based closure study was completed to compare measured and modeled optical properties and their dependence on controlled relative humidity (RH) for inorganic salts, dicarboxylic acids, and their mixtures. The closure between measured and modeled values of the light scattering coefficients were evaluated by calculating the average relative difference (ARD) values, which revealed agreement within 8.0% for the total scattering (?sp) and 14.8% for the back scattering (?bsp) values at dry RH conditions for all test aerosols. These ARD values were less than the total relative uncertainty based on the measurement and modeling approaches, indicating the achievement of closure for ?sp and ?bsp. Optical properties derived from ?sp including: (1) the hygroscopic growth factor, f?sp, (2) the backscatter ratio, b, and (3) the Ångström exponent, å, were also compared with measured values. The ARD values between corresponding measured and modeled results for these derived optical parameters ranged from 0.1% to 30.8%. The impact of particulate organic matter (POM) on optical and hygroscopic properties of the aerosols tested here was also compared to the aerosol optical and composition measurements that occurred during the New England Air Quality Study-Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation field campaign. Such comparison confirmed that a larger POM mass fraction resulted in less hygroscopicity for both the ambient and the laboratory aerosols. This study evaluated closure between laboratory measurements and model calculations and validated the reliability of the measured and modeled results with the closure analysis. Therefore, Mie-Lorentz model can be used to calculate the optical properties and their dependence on RH for other aerosols with more confidence.

  20. Prediction and measurement of direct-normal solar irradiance: A closure experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halthore, R. N.; Schwartz, S. E.; Michalsky, J. J.; Anderson, G. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Ten Brink, H. M.

    1997-01-01

    Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident on a plane perpendicular to the Sun's direction on a unit area at the earth's surface in unit time, depends only on the atmospheric extinction of sunlight without regard to the details of extinction-whether absorption or scattering. Here the authors describe a set of closure experiments performed in north-central Oklahoma, wherein measured atmospheric composition is input to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN-3, to predict DNSI, which is then compared to measured values. Thirty six independent comparisons are presented; the agreement between predicted and measured values falls within the combined uncertainties in the prediction (2%) and measurement (0.2%) albeit with a slight bias ((approximately) 1% overprediction) that is independent of the solar zenith angle. Thus these results establish the adequacy of current knowledge of the solar spectrum and atmospheric extinction as embodied in MODTRAN-3 for use in climate models. An important consequence is the overwhelming likelihood that the atmospheric clear-sky absorption is accurately described to within comparable uncertainties.

  1. Prediction and measurement of direct-normal solar irradiance: A closure experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Halthore, R.N.; Schwartz, S.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Michalsky, J.J. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Anderson, G.P. [Hanscomb AFB (United States); Ferrare, R.A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Ten Brink, H.M. [Energy Research Inst. (Netherlands)

    1997-03-01

    Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident on a plane perpendicular to the Sun`s direction on a unit area at the earth`s surface in unit time, depends only on the atmospheric extinction of sunlight without regard to the details of extinction--whether absorption or scattering. Here the authors describe a set of closure experiments performed in north-central Oklahoma, wherein measured atmospheric composition is input to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN-3, to predict DNSI, which is then compared to measured values. Thirty six independent comparisons are presented; the agreement between predicted and measured values falls within the combined uncertainties in the prediction (2%) and measurement (0.2%) albeit with a slight bias ({approximately} 1% overprediction) that is independent of the solar zenith angle. Thus these results establish the adequacy of current knowledge of the solar spectrum and atmospheric extinction as embodied in MODTRAN-3 for use in climate models. An important consequence is the overwhelming likelihood that the atmospheric clear-sky absorption is accurately described to within comparable uncertainties.

  2. The Human Vaginal Microbiome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda A. Wilson; Susan M. Thomas; Mengfei Ho

    \\u000a Humans live in association with abundant, complex, and dynamic microbial populations (the microbiome) that colonize many body\\u000a sites, including the vaginal tract. Interactions between the host and the vaginal microbiota greatly affect women’s health,\\u000a where they often serve a protective role in maintaining vaginal health. Disruption of the microbial composition can lead to\\u000a increased susceptibility to various urogenital diseases, including

  3. JAMA Patient Page: Vaginal Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Vaginal Symptoms V aginal symptoms are one of the ... includes an article about diagnosing vaginal symptoms. DIAGNOSING VAGINAL SYMPTOMS FOR MORE INFORMATION • American College of Obstetricians ...

  4. Management of persistent vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Nyirjesy, Paul

    2014-12-01

    With vaginitis remaining a common condition that leads women to seek care, it is not surprising that some women develop chronic vulvovaginal problems that are difficult to diagnose and treat. With a differential diagnosis that encompasses vulvar disorders and infectious and noninfectious causes of vaginitis, accurate diagnosis is the cornerstone of choosing effective therapy. Evaluation should include a symptom-specific history, careful vulvar and vaginal examination, and office-based tests (vaginal pH, amine test, saline and 10% potassium hydroxide microscopy). Ancillary tests, especially yeast culture with speciation, are frequently crucial to obtaining a correct diagnosis. A heavy but normal physiologic discharge can be determined by excluding other causes. With vulvovaginal candidiasis, differentiating between Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida infection has important treatment ramifications. Most patients with C albicans infections can be successfully treated with maintenance antifungal therapy, usually with fluconazole. Although many non-albicans Candida, particularly Candida glabrata, may at times be innocent bystanders, vaginal boric acid therapy is an effective first choice for many true non-albicans Candida infections. Recurrent bacterial vaginosis, a difficult therapeutic challenge, can often be controlled with maintenance therapy. Multiple options, especially high-dose tinidazole, have been used for metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis. With the aging of the U.S. population, atrophic vaginitis and desquamative inflammatory vaginitis, both associated with hypoestrogenism, are encountered frequently in women with persistent vaginitis. PMID:25415165

  5. Vaginal erotic sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heli Alzate; Maria Ladi Londono

    1984-01-01

    Vaginal erotic sensitivity was investigated in a group of 48 coitally experienced volunteers by means of systematic digital stimulation of both vaginal walls. It was found that 45 subjects reported erotic sensitivity located in most cases on the upper anterior wall, and of those, 30 (66. 7%) either reached orgasm or requested to stop stimulation short of orgasm. This study

  6. High-precision mass measurements of nickel, copper, and gallium isotopes and the purported shell closure at N=40

    E-print Network

    C. Guenaut; G. Audi; D. Beck; K. Blaum; G. Bollen; P. Delahaye; F. Herfurth; A. Kellerbauer; H. -J. Kluge; J. Libert; D. Lunney; S. Schwarz; L. Schweikhard; C. Yazidjian

    2007-01-22

    High-precision mass measurements of more than thirty neutron-rich nuclides around the Z=28 closed proton shell were performed with the triple-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN to address the question of a possible neutron shell closure at N=40. The results, for 57,60,64-69Ni (Z=28), 65-74,76Cu (Z=29), and 63-65,68-78Ga (Z=31), have a relative uncertainty of the order of 10^8. In particular, the masses of 72-74,76Cu have been measured for the first time. We analyse the resulting mass surface for signs of magicity, comparing the behavior of N=40 to that of known magic numbers and to mid-shell behavior. Contrary to nuclear spectroscopy studies, no indications of a shell or sub-shell closure are found for N=40.

  7. Large Vaginal and Bladder Calculi in a Woman With Previous Operation of Bladder Exstrophy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli, Mahmoud; Ghoreifi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    This is to report the case of a huge vaginal stone, and bladder calculi in a 26-year-old woman with previous operation of bladder exstrophy. It seems that the vaginal stone was secondary to the remaining wire used in her previous reconstructive surgery for pelvic closure 20 years ago and now surgery is performed to remove the vaginal and bladder stones. PMID:24719809

  8. Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign. The ... the facts about gynecologic cancer, providing important “inside knowledge” about their bodies and health. What are vaginal ...

  9. Review of Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Adisruption of the dynamic equilibrium of the healthy vagina may have significant sequelae, leading to chronic or serious conditions. Therefore, all cases of vaginitis should be accurately diagnosed and appropriately treated. PMID:18475337

  10. Vaginitis - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of all ages. It can be caused by: Yeast , bacteria, viruses, and parasites Bubble baths, soaps, vaginal ... Creams or suppositories are used to treat yeast infections in the ... at drug stores, some grocery stores, and other stores. Treating ...

  11. Women's Psychological Adjustment Following Emergency Cesarean versus Vaginal Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padawer, Jill A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated psychological adjustment and satisfaction in women who had given birth vaginally or by cesarean section. Cesarean mothers reported significantly less satisfaction with the delivery than did vaginal mothers; however no differences were found in postpartum psychological adjustment as measured by depression, anxiety, and confidence in…

  12. Extinction of the N=20 neutron-shell closure for 32Mg examined by direct mass measurements

    E-print Network

    A. Chaudhuri; C. Andreoiu; T. Brunner; U. Chowdhury; S. Ettenauer; A. T. Gallant; G. Gwinner; A. A. Kwiatkowski; A. Lennarz; D. Lunney; T. D. Macdonald; B. E. Schultz; M. C. Simon; V. V. Simon; J. Dilling

    2013-10-09

    The 'island of inversion' around $^{32}$Mg is one of the most important paradigm for studying the disappearance of the stabilizing 'magic' of a shell closure. We present the first Penning-trap mass measurements of the exotic nuclides $^{29-31}$Na and $^{30-34}$Mg, which allow a precise determination of the empirical shell gap for $^{32}$Mg. The new value of 1.10(3) MeV is the lowest observed shell gap for any nuclide with a canonical magic number.

  13. Evidence for the extinction of the N=20 neutron-shell closure for 32Mg from direct mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, A.; Andreoiu, C.; Brunner, T.; Chowdhury, U.; Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A. T.; Gwinner, G.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lennarz, A.; Lunney, D.; Macdonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Dilling, J.

    2013-11-01

    The “island of inversion” around 32Mg is one of the most important paradigms for studying the disappearance of the stabilizing “magicity” of a shell closure. We present the first Penning-trap mass measurements of the exotic nuclides 29-31Na and 30-34Mg, which allow precise determination of the empirical shell gap for 32Mg. The new value of 1.10(3) MeV is the smallest observed shell gap for any nuclide with a canonical magic number.

  14. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    MedlinePLUS

    Pruritus vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching ... Common causes of vaginal itching and discharge in young girls include: Chemicals such as perfumes and dyes in detergents, fabric softeners, creams, ointments, ...

  15. Aerobic vaginitis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Donders, Ggg; Bellen, G; Rezeberga, D

    2011-09-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alteration in vaginal bacterial flora that differs from bacterial vaginosis (BV). AV is characterised by an abnormal vaginal microflora accompanied by an increased localised inflammatory reaction and immune response, as opposed to the suppressed immune response that is characteristic of BV. Given the increased local production of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and IL-8 associated with AV during pregnancy, not surprisingly AV is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis and funisitis of the fetus. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment for AV in pregnant or non-pregnant women, but a broader spectrum drug such as clindamycin is preferred above metronidazole to prevent infection-related preterm birth. The exact role of AV in pregnancy, the potential benefit of screening, and the use of newer local antibiotics, disinfectants, probiotics and immune modulators need further study. PMID:21668769

  16. Disturbed anal sphincter function following vaginal delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Wynne, J M; Myles, J L; Jones, I; Sapsford, R; Young, R E; Hattam, A; Cantamessa, S E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently interest in idiopathic (neurogenic) faecal incontinence has swung from denervation of the external anal sphincter to the internal sphincter. AIMS: To evaluate the effects of vaginal delivery on the internal sphincter. SUBJECTS: 1372 mothers were studied antenatally and 1202 were accepted into the study. METHODS: Sphincter pressures were measured antenatally, in the early postnatal period, and six to 10 weeks later in selected patients. RESULTS: 755 of 1202 subjects assessed antenatally were primiparous women and 447 multiparous women. Some 320 previous spontaneous vaginal deliveries (SVD) (mean 59 mm Hg) and 67 previous forceps deliveries (mean 58 mm Hg) had lower resting pressures than 755 primiparous women (mean 66 mm Hg) (p < 0.01). A total of 493 subjects were reassessed postnatally. There were 372 SVDs, 47 vacuum extractions, 20 forceps, and 54 caesarean deliveries. All vaginal deliveries but not caesarean sections dropped their resting anal pressures from antenatal values (p < 0.001). Some 227 first SVDs had a much greater fall than 145 subsequent SVDs. In 162 subjects who had undergone their first vaginal delivery and who were followed up there was some recovery but the resting pressures were still lowered at six to 10 weeks post partum. CONCLUSIONS: The first vaginal delivery causes a permanent lowering of resting anal pressures. The possible reasons for this are discussed. PMID:8881822

  17. Vaginal Toxic Shock Reaction Triggering Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Nigel; Edlind, Thomas D.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report two cases of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) associated with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. Materials and Methods Case report of two patients, one with an acute and one with a chronic presentation, diagnosed with DIV on the basis of clinical findings and wet mount microscopy. Pre- and posttreatment vaginal bacterial and yeast cultures were obtained. Results Pretreatment vaginal bacterial cultures from both patients grew TSST-1-producing S. aureus. Subsequent vaginal bacterial cultures following oral antibiotic therapy were negative. Conclusions DIV may be triggered through TSST-1-mediated vaginal toxic shock reaction. PMID:23222054

  18. Extension of the Averaging Time in Eddy-Covariance Measurements and Its Effect on the Energy Balance Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charuchittipan, Doojdao; Babel, Wolfgang; Mauder, Matthias; Leps, Jens-Peter; Foken, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The modified ogive analysis and the block ensemble average were employed to investigate the impact of the averaging time extension on the energy balance closure over six land-use types. The modified ogive analysis, which requires a steady-state condition, can extend the averaging time up to a few hours and suggests that an averaging time of 30 min is still overall sufficient for eddy-covariance measurements over low vegetation. The block ensemble average, which does not require a steady-state condition, can extend the averaging time to several days. However, it can improve the energy balance closure for some sites during specific periods, when secondary circulations exist in the vicinity of the sensor. These near-surface secondary circulations mainly transport sensible heat, and when near-ground warm air is transported upward, the sensible heat flux observed by the block ensemble average will increase at longer averaging times. These findings suggest an alternative energy balance correction for a ground-based eddy-covariance measurement, in which the attribution of the residual depends on the ratio of sensible heat flux to the buoyancy flux. The fraction of the residual attributed to the sensible heat flux by this energy balance correction is larger than in the energy balance correction that preserves the Bowen ratio.

  19. Long-term vaginal antibody delivery: delivery systems and biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, W M; Sherwood, J K; Adams, D R; Castle, P; Haller, P

    2000-02-01

    Topical delivery systems can provide prolonged delivery of antibodies to the vaginal mucosal surface for long-term protection against infectious diseases. We examined the biodistribution of antibodies during 30 days of vaginal antibody delivery in mice. Different antibody preparations (including monoclonal IgG and IgM, as well as several different (125)I-labeled IgGs) were administered by polymer vaginal rings, which were designed to provide continuous antibody delivery. Antibody concentrations remained high in the vaginal secretions for up to 30 days after disk insertion; radiolabeled antibody was also found, at approximately 100 times lower concentration, in the blood and other tissues. The measured concentrations agreed reasonably well with a simple pharmacokinetic model, which was used to calculate mucosal and systemic concentrations as a function of antibody delivery and elimination rates. Results from the model were consistent with previously reported antibody pharmacokinetic measurements: the half-life for antibody elimination for the vagina was approximately 3 h; the half-life for IgG(1) clearance from the blood was >1 day; and the overall permeability constant for vaginal uptake of IgG was approximately 0.01 to 0.03 h(-1). These results provide important information for the design of controlled antibody delivery devices for vaginal use, and suggest that high-dose, long-term vaginal administration of antibodies may be a reasonable approach for achieving sustained mucosal and systemic antibody levels. PMID:10620255

  20. Assessing outcome after a modified vaginal wall sling for stress incontinence with intrinsic sphincter deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabetta Costantini; Luigi Mearini; Ettore Mearini; Cinzia Pajoncini; Federico Guercini; Vittorio Bini; Massimo Porena

    2005-01-01

    Forty women with stress incontinence, intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD), associated or not with urethral hypermobility, a Valsalva leak point pressure (VLLP) 20 and a maximum urethral closure pressure 20 underwent in situ vaginal wall sling. The main modification to the technique was the use of two small Marlex meshes placed at the lateral edges of the sling. Outcome was assessed

  1. Bilateral uterosacral ligament vaginal vault suspension with site-specific endopelvic fascia defect repair for treatment of pelvic organ prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew D. Barber; Anthony G. Visco; Alison C. Weidner; Cindy L. Amundsen; Richard C. Bump

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The anatomic and functional success of suspension of the vaginal cuff to the proximal uterosacral ligaments is described. Study Design: Forty-six women underwent vaginal site-specific repair of endopelvic fascia defects with suspension of the vaginal cuff to the proximal uterosacral ligaments for pelvic organ prolapse. Outcome measures included operative complications, pelvic organ prolapse quantitation, and assessment of pelvic floor

  2. Evaluation of the Effects of a New Intravaginal Gel, Containing Purified Bovine Colostrum, on Vaginal Blood Flow and Vaginal Atrophy in Ovariectomized Rat

    PubMed Central

    Vailati, Silvia; Melloni, Elsa; Riscassi, Ermanno; Behr Roussel, Delphine; Sardina, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Vaginal dryness due to vaginal atrophy is a common complaint of postmenopausal women, interfering with sexual function and quality of life. Hormone replacement therapy is the only effective therapy but with known risks that leave unmet medical needs. A new product, ZP-025 vaginal gel, containing purified (dialyzed lyophilized) bovine colostrum, has been developed for the treatment of vaginal dryness secondary to vaginal atrophy. Aim The study aims to investigate the effects of intravaginal application of ZP-025 on vaginal atrophy using an animal model. Methods Ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Three weeks after surgery, rats were divided into four groups and treated for 4 weeks (twice a day) with placebo or ZP-025 at low (0.5%) or high (2.3%) concentrations of colostrum; in the control group, rats did not receive any treatment. Changes in vaginal blood flow due to pelvic nerve stimulation were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry and vaginal tissue was collected for histological assay. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures were vaginal blood flow before and after pelvic nerve stimulation and histology of vaginal epithelium. Results Treatment with ZP-025 to ovariectomized rats induced an increase of vaginal blood flow parameters (vascular capacitance, amplitude and area under the curve of the response) in response to pelvic nerve stimulation compared with control group, statistically significant at 2.3%. Vaginal epithelium showed a physiological estrous cycle aspect in treated animals, with at least five cell layers vs. one or two cell layers in control rats. As expected from a topical formulation, systemic effects on body weights and uterine wet weights were not observed with application of ZP-025. Conclusions In this study, the new product ZP-025, containing purified colostrum, was shown to have beneficial effects on vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rats, improving vaginal hemodynamics and thickness of vaginal epithelium. Vailati S, Melloni E, Riscassi E, Behr Roussel D, and Sardina M. Evaluation of the effects of a new intravaginal gel, containing purified bovine colostrum, on vaginal blood flow and vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rat. Sex Med 2013;1:35–43. PMID:25356286

  3. The excision of uterine fibroids by vaginal myomectomy: a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Davies; Roger Hart; Adam L Magos

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of the excision of uterine fibroids by vaginal myomectomy.Design: Prospective study.Setting: A gynecology department of a university teaching hospital.Patient(s): Women with menorrhagia, pelvic pain, symptoms of pressure, or subfertility attributable to moderate-sized uterine fibroids who otherwise would have required abdominal or laparoscopic myomectomy.Intervention(s): Vaginal myomectomy.Main Outcome Measure(s): The feasibility of vaginal surgery,

  4. Visual Closure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groffman, Sidney

    An experimental test of visual closure based on an information-theory concept of perception was devised to test the ability to discriminate visual stimuli with reduced cues. The test is to be administered in a timed individual situation in which the subject is presented with sets of incomplete drawings of simple objects that he is required to name…

  5. Heterogeneity of vaginal microbial communities within individuals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Thomas, Susan M; Ho, Mengfei; Sharma, Shobha; Reich, Claudia I; Frank, Jeremy A; Yeater, Kathleen M; Biggs, Diana R; Nakamura, Noriko; Stumpf, Rebecca; Leigh, Steven R; Tapping, Richard I; Blanke, Steven R; Slauch, James M; Gaskins, H Rex; Weisbaum, Jon S; Olsen, Gary J; Hoyer, Lois L; Wilson, Brenda A

    2009-04-01

    Recent culture-independent studies have revealed that a healthy vaginal ecosystem harbors a surprisingly complex assemblage of microorganisms. However, the spatial distribution and composition of vaginal microbial populations have not been investigated using molecular methods. Here, we evaluated site-specific microbial composition within the vaginal ecosystem and examined the influence of sampling technique in detection of the vaginal microbiota. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were prepared from samples obtained from different locations (cervix, fornix, outer vaginal canal) and by different methods (swabbing, scraping, lavaging) from the vaginal tracts of eight clinically healthy, asymptomatic women. The data reveal that the vaginal microbiota is not homogenous throughout the vaginal tract but differs significantly within an individual with regard to anatomical site and sampling method used. Thus, this study illuminates the complex structure of the vaginal ecosystem and calls for the consideration of microenvironments when sampling vaginal microbiota as a clinical predictor of vaginal health. PMID:19158255

  6. Treatment of vaginal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Domoney, Claudine

    2014-03-01

    Vaginal or vulvovaginal atrophy is a widespread but poorly recognized condition of peri- and post-menopausal women. It causes urogenital symptoms of dryness, reduced lubrication, itching, burning, irritable bladder symptoms and painful intercourse. This impacts quality of life and sexual health, but increases with time rather than reduces, as with most other menopausal symptoms. With early identification, treatments can improve these symptoms and reverse the physical changes. However, when embedded, bladder and sexual changes have occurred and these may be more difficult to remedy. Therefore, it is important to educate both healthcare professionals and women about these symptoms and advise on the range of interventions available. PMID:24601810

  7. Careful Measurements and Energy Balance Closure - The Case of Soil Heat Flux

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An area of persistent concern in micrometeorological measurements is the failure to close the energy balance at surface flux stations. While most attention has focused on corrections associated with the eddy fluxes, none of the energy balance terms are measured without error. The flux plate method i...

  8. Microbicides Development Programme: design of a phase III trial to measure the efficacy of the vaginal microbicide PRO 2000\\/5 for HIV prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Nunn; Sheena McCormack; Angela M Crook; Robert Pool; Clare Rutterford; Richard Hayes

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With 2.5 million new HIV infections per year, effective preventive methods against HIV are urgently needed, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. MDP301 is an ongoing trial of the vaginal microbicide PRO 2000\\/5 being conducted by the Microbicides Development Programme. The main objective of the trial is to determine the efficacy and safety of 0.5% and 2% concentrations of PRO 2000\\/5

  9. Results of the Round Robin on opening-load measurement conducted by ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edward P.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental Round Robin on the measurement of the opening load in fatigue crack growth tests was conducted on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis. The Round Robin evaluated the current level of consistency of opening load measurements among laboratories and to identify causes for observed inconsistency. Eleven laboratories participated in the testing of compact and middle-crack specimens. Opening-load measurements were made for crack growth at two stress-intensity factor levels, three crack lengths, and following an overload. All opening-load measurements were based on the analysis of specimen compliance data. When all of the results reported (from all participants, all measurement methods, and all data analysis methods) for a given test condition were pooled, the range of opening loads was very large--typically spanning the lower half of the fatigue loading cycle. Part of the large scatter in the reported opening-load results was ascribed to consistent differences in results produced by the various methods used to measure specimen compliance and to evaluate the opening load from the compliance data. Another significant portion of the scatter was ascribed to lab-to-lab differences in producing the compliance data when using nominally the same method of measurement.

  10. A CLOSURE EXPERIMENT: PREDICTION AND MEASUREMENT OF DIRECT-NORMAL SOLAR

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    than calibration uncertainty may be important. The radiative transfer model MODTRAN-3 is used of comparing the MODTRAN-3 predicted value with the direct-normal shortwave irradiance measured by a calibrated

  11. Alpha-fetoprotein in vaginal fluids. The early diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Tóth, P; Mészáros, C; Csáki, G

    1990-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein, one of the most characteristic proteins of pregnancy, is present in the amniotic fluid during the whole period of pregnancy. In the case of premature rupture of the membranes it is appearing in the vaginal fluid. The level of AFP was measured by the ELISA technique in the vaginal fluid of pregnant women. In 70 cases of the rupture of membranes and in 33 cases of splitting of the membranes the AFP was measurable in the vaginal fluid and it was not detectable in 31 cases of urine and in 16 cases of vaginal fluids of pregnant women without any sign of premature rupture of the membranes. PMID:1707287

  12. Effectiveness of vaginal tablets containing lactobacilli versus pH tablets on vaginal health and inflammatory cytokines: a randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Hemalatha, R; Mastromarino, P; Ramalaxmi, B A; Balakrishna, N V; Sesikeran, B

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of lactobacilli on vaginal health and proinflammatory cytokines. Sixty-seven patients with bacterial vaginosis (BV), 50 with intermediate flora and 42 with normal vaginal flora were enrolled in this double-blind study. The subjects were randomized to receive probiotic lactobacilli vaginal tablets (L. brevis CD2, L. salivarius subsp. salicinius, L. plantarum) or the vaginal pH tablet (active comparator). Cervico-vaginal lavage was collected to measure the concentrations of IL-1?, TNF? and IL-6 by ELISA. Neutral sphingomyelinase activity was also quantified in both arms before and after treatment. The probiotic vaginal tablet was well tolerated and no side effects were reported. The study demonstrated a cure rate of nearly 80 %; i.e., 32 % of the women could restore normal vaginal flora and 47 % had improved Nugent score, whereas 20 % of the subjects did not clear BV in the first follow-up (after 8 days treatment). The pH tablet containing pH lowering compounds induced resolution of BV and restoration of normal vaginal flora in 74 % and 26 %, respectively. The lactobacilli tablet was found to be better than the pH tablet in preventing BV in healthy subjects. A significant reduction in IL-1? and IL-6 vaginal cytokines was observed after treatment with lactobacilli, while the active comparator did not have any effect on local proinflammatory cytokines. Vaginal neutral sphingomyelinase activity was not modified in either group. Vaginal tablets containing lactobacilli can cure BV and reduce vaginal inflammatory response. PMID:22777592

  13. Using image processing to measure tree crown diameters and estimate percent crown closure 

    E-print Network

    Gabriel, Darren Kyle

    1994-01-01

    was employed. The intensity of measurements conducted in the laboratory varied from 7 percent to 75 percent. It was discovered that using the computer to measure tree crown diameters yielded results that were no worse than the standard method using a scale... that the experimenter helps manage. At 10:00 in the morning the boss requested that an appraisal be conducted based on the volume of the timber on the property. A field cruise was infeasible due to the fact that the property was approximately 260 acres in size...

  14. Cadmium mass measurements between the neutron shell closures at N = 50 and 82

    SciTech Connect

    Borgmann, Ch.; Blaum, K.; Boehm, Ch.; George, S.; Kreim, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Breitenfeldt, M. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Naimi, S. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay France (France); Baruah, S.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L. [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Beck, D.; Dworschak, M.; Herfurth, F.; Minaya-Ramirez, E.; Savreux, R.; Yazidjian, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Cakirli, R. B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey); Casten, R. F. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-28

    The mass values of the neutron-deficient cadmium isotopes {sup 99-109}Cd and of the neutron-rich isotopes {sup 114,120,122-124,126,128}Cd have been measured using ISOLTRAP. The behavior of the separation energies of the cadmium isotopes from N = 50 to 82 is discussed.

  15. Results of the second Round Robin on opening-load measurement conducted by ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on crack closure measurement and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    A second experimental Round Robin on the measurement of the crack opening load in fatigue crack growth tests has been completed by the ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis. Fourteen laboratories participated in the testing of aluminum alloy compact tension specimens. Opening-load measurements were made at three crack lengths during constant Delta K, constant stress ratio tests by most of the participants. Four participants made opening-load measurements during threshold tests. All opening-load measurements were based on the analysis of specimens compliance behavior, where the displacement/strain was measured either at the crack mouth or the mid-height back face location. The Round Robin data were analyzed for opening load using two non-subjective analysis methods: the compliance offset and the correlation coefficient methods. The scatter in the opening load results was significantly reduced when some of the results were excluded from the analysis population based on an accept/reject criterion for raw data quality. The compliance offset and correlation coefficient opening load analysis methods produced similar results for data populations that had been screened to eliminate poor quality data.

  16. [Treatment of uterine prolapse and vaginal vault by vaginal route].

    PubMed

    de Tayrac, R; Letouzey, V; Costa, P; Haab, F; Delmas, V

    2009-12-01

    All the prolapses of the median compartment (uterine or vault prolapse) of the pelvis have the same physiopathology. The surgical treatment must be reserved to symptomatic patients. Hysterectomy is discussed. The gold standard of the vaginal way is the sacrospinofixation (Richter procedure) Many other procedures are possible: colpofixation or colpocléisis. On young premenopausal women, the abdominal sacrofixation is the gold standard, but in postmenopausal ones, the vaginal way, specially the sacrospinofixation, is quicker and with less morbidity and hospitalization. PMID:19969278

  17. Approaching the N=82 shell closure with mass measurements of Ag and Cd isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Breitenfeldt, M.; Baruah, S.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L. [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, D-17487 Greifswald (Germany); Borgmann, Ch.; Boehm, Ch.; George, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Minaya-Ramirez, E.; Naimi, S. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Universite de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Beck, D.; Dworschak, M.; Herfurth, F.; Savreux, R.; Yazidjian, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Physikalisches Institut, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Cakirli, R. B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey); Casten, R. F. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Delahaye, P. [CERN, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    Mass measurements of neutron-rich Cd and Ag isotopes were performed with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The masses of {sup 112,114-124}Ag and {sup 114,120,122-124,126,128}Cd, determined with relative uncertainties between 2x10{sup -8} and 2x10{sup -7}, resulted in significant corrections and improvements of the mass surface. In particular, the mass of {sup 124}Ag was previously unknown. In addition, other masses that had to be inferred from Q values of nuclear decays and reactions have now been measured directly. The analysis includes various mass differences, namely the two-neutron separation energies, the applicability of the Garvey-Kelson relations, double differences of masses deltaV{sub pn}, which give empirical proton-neutron interaction strengths, as well as a comparison with recent microscopic calculations. The deltaV{sub pn} results reveal that for even-even nuclides around {sup 132}Sn the trends are similar to those in the {sup 208}Pb region.

  18. Comparison of acoustic and strain gauge techniques for crack closure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, O.; Inman, R. V.; Frandsen, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative study on the systems performances of the COD gauge and the acoustic transmission techniques to elastic deformation of part-through crack and compact tension specimens has been conducted. It is shown that the two instruments measure two completely different quantities: The COD gauge yields information on the length change of the specimen whereas the acoustic technique is sensitive directly to the amount of contract area between two surfaces, interfering with the acoustic signal. In another series of experiments, compression tests on parts with specifically prepared surfaces were performed so that the surface contact area could be correlated with the transmitted acoustic signal, as well as the acoustic with the COD gauge signal. A linear relation between contact area and COD gauge signal was obtained until full contact had been established.

  19. Transverse vaginal septum with congenital vesical-vaginal communication and cyclical hematuria.

    PubMed

    Chin, Arnold I; Rutman, Matthew; Raz, Shlomo

    2007-03-01

    Cyclical hematuria is an unusual presentation of a müllerian fusion anomaly. We report a patient with transverse vaginal septum and menstruation by way of the lower urinary tract because of a vesical-vaginal communication. A defect of vertical fusion, transverse vaginal septum results from failure of canalization of the vaginal plate. Reconstruction using a transvaginal and transabdominal approach created a direct anastomosis between the proximal vaginal segment and the distal vaginal pouch. Previously described cases are reviewed. PMID:17382175

  20. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  1. Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. A review.

    PubMed Central

    Oates, J K; Rowen, D

    1990-01-01

    Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis is an uncommon cause of an intractable vaginitis often accompanied by serious dyspareunia, which can occur at any stage of reproductive life and after the menopause. The cytological changes are identical with those seen in atrophic vaginitis yet the disorder often occurs in the presence of apparently normal ovarian function. Vaginal synechiae and stenosis develop in an appreciable number of patients. Treatment is unsatisfactory though there is some response to either local or systemic steroid therapy. The literature is reviewed and the association of some cases with lichen planus of the mouth and genitals discussed. Its causation and natural history remain largely unknown and there is as yet, insufficient evidence to regard it as a single entity. It is likely that the incidence of the disorder is underestimated. PMID:2202657

  2. Pharmacological profiling of neuropeptides on rabbit vaginal wall and vaginal artery smooth muscle in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Aughton, K L; Hamilton-Smith, K; Gupta, J; Morton, J S; Wayman, C P; Jackson, V M

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Hypothalamic neuropeptides centrally modulate sexual arousal. However, the role of neuropeptides in peripheral arousal has been ignored. Vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle relaxation in the vagina is important for female sexual arousal. To date, in vitro studies have focused on vaginal strips with no studies on vaginal arteries. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sexual hypothalamic neuropeptides on rabbit vaginal wall strips and arteries. Experimental approach: Tissue bath and wire myography techniques were used to measure isometric tension from strips and arteries, respectively. Key results: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) relaxed both preparations, effects that were only antagonized by the VIP/PACAP antagonist VIP6–28 (10?nM) and the PAC1 antagonist PACAP 6–38 (1??M). The melanocortin agonist ?-melanocortin-stimulating hormone (1??M), but not bremelanotide (1??M), also relaxed both preparations. Oxytocin and vasopressin contracted vaginal preparations, which could be antagonized by the V1A antagonist SR 49059. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the NPY Y1 agonist Leu31, Pro34 NPY only contracted arteries, which was antagonized by the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP 3226. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH; 1??M) contracted arteries. Conclusion and implications: Hypothalamic neuropeptides can exert contractile and relaxant effects on vaginal strips and arteries. NPY Y1, V1A, MCH1 antagonists as well as VIP/PAC1 agonists may have therapeutic potential in both central and peripheral female sexual arousal. Differences in effect of neuropeptides between preparations raise the question of which preparation is important for female sexual arousal. PMID:18587425

  3. Borehole creep closure measurements and numerical calculations at the Big Hill Texas SPR (Strategic Petroleum Reserve) storage site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Preece; R. R. Beasley; K. L. Goin

    1986-01-01

    The Big Hill Texas salt dome is being developed as an additional site for the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Ten deep (1433 m) boreholes were drilled in 1983 for leaching the first five storage caverns. Leaching has been delayed and the ten wells have been used to study the in-situ creep behavior of rock salt. Creep closure has been

  4. Misoprostol 50 ?g Sublingually versus Vaginally for Labor Induction at Term: A Randomized Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eray Caliskan; Harika Bodur; Semih Ozeren; Aydin Corakci; Sabiha Ozkan; Izzet Yucesoy

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of misoprostol 50 ?g vaginally and 50 ?g sublingually for labor induction at term. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty women were randomized to receive misoprostol 50 ?g vaginally (n = 80) or 50 ?g sublingually misoprostol (n = 80). The doses were given every 4 h (maximum 6 doses). Primary outcome measure was

  5. Randomized trial to determine optimal dose of vaginal misoprostol for preabortion cervical priming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuldip Singh; Y. F Fong; R. N. V Prasad; F Dong

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the optimal dosage of vaginal misoprostol for cervical priming before vacuum aspiration abortion.Methods: One hundred twenty women were assigned randomly to receive 200, 400, 600, or 800 ?g of misoprostol given vaginally. Vacuum aspiration was performed 3–4 hours after the insertion of misoprostol tablets. The degree of cervical dilation before operation was measured with a Hegar dilator.

  6. Cervical length versus vaginal PH in the second trimester as preterm birth predictor

    PubMed Central

    Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Tabasi, Zohreh; Mesdaghinia, Elaheh; Sehat, Mojtaba; Mehrdad, Mahdian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate diagnostic value of vaginal pH and cervical length measurement in the second trimester of pregnancy as a preterm labor (PTL) predictor. Methods: During a prospective cohort study 438 uncomplicated singleton pregnant women between 18 and 24 weeks of gestation were assessed regarding vaginal PH and cervical length. Vaginal pH was measured using Ph-indicator strips and cervical length was determined using transvaginal ultrasound. The cut-off values for vaginal PH and cervical length were defined as 5 and <30 mm respectively. Results: Vaginal pH of 5 and above was found in 162/438 women (37%) while cervical length <30mm was found in 38/438 (8.7%). The incidence of PTL < 37 weeks was 87/438 (19.9%) while the incidence of early (PTL <34 weeks) was 51/438 (11.6%). Predictive value of higher vaginal PH was significantly more (31%) than vaginal PH<5 (13%) in predicting PTL. As a result, alkaline vaginal PH significantly increases the odds of preterm labor (OR=3.06). Shortened cervical length is better predictor of PTL than higher vaginal PH with positive predictive value of 71% and negative predictive value of 85%. Cervical length less than 30 mm nearly 14-fold increases odds of preterm birth (OR=13.9). Conclusion: Compared to alkaline vaginal PH, shortened cervical length has better value to predict PTL overall. However, regarding early or late PTL, vaginal PH is more accurate to predict late PTL, while cervical length measurement is more appropriate to predict early PTL (<34 weeks).

  7. Probing the N = 32 shell closure below the magic proton number Z = 20: Mass measurements of the exotic isotopes 52,53K

    E-print Network

    Rosenbusch, M; Atanasov, D; Barbieri, C; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Borgmann, Ch; Breitenfeldt, M; Cakirli, R B; Cipollone, A; George, S; Herfurth, F; Kowalska, M; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Navrátil, P; Neidherr, D; Schweikhard, L; Somà, V; Stanja, J; Wienholtz, F; Wolf, R N; Zuber, K

    2015-01-01

    The recently confirmed neutron-shell closure at N = 32 has been investigated for the first time below the magic proton number Z = 20 with mass measurements of the exotic isotopes 52,53K, the latter being the shortest-lived nuclide investigated at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The resulting two-neutron separation energies reveal a 3 MeV shell gap at N = 32, slightly lower than for 52Ca, highlighting the doubly-magic nature of this nuclide. Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Boguliubov and ab initio Gorkov-Green function calculations are challenged by the new measurements but reproduce qualitatively the observed shell effect.

  8. Probing the N=32 Shell Closure below the Magic Proton Number Z=20: Mass Measurements of the Exotic Isotopes ^{52,53}K.

    PubMed

    Rosenbusch, M; Ascher, P; Atanasov, D; Barbieri, C; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Borgmann, Ch; Breitenfeldt, M; Cakirli, R B; Cipollone, A; George, S; Herfurth, F; Kowalska, M; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Navrátil, P; Neidherr, D; Schweikhard, L; Somà, V; Stanja, J; Wienholtz, F; Wolf, R N; Zuber, K

    2015-05-22

    The recently confirmed neutron-shell closure at N=32 has been investigated for the first time below the magic proton number Z=20 with mass measurements of the exotic isotopes ^{52,53}K, the latter being the shortest-lived nuclide investigated at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The resulting two-neutron separation energies reveal a 3 MeV shell gap at N=32, slightly lower than for ^{52}Ca, highlighting the doubly magic nature of this nuclide. Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and ab initio Gorkov-Green function calculations are challenged by the new measurements but reproduce qualitatively the observed shell effect. PMID:26047224

  9. Probing the N =32 Shell Closure below the Magic Proton Number Z =20 : Mass Measurements of the Exotic Isotopes K,5352

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbusch, M.; Ascher, P.; Atanasov, D.; Barbieri, C.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Borgmann, Ch.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Cakirli, R. B.; Cipollone, A.; George, S.; Herfurth, F.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, S.; Lunney, D.; Manea, V.; Navrátil, P.; Neidherr, D.; Schweikhard, L.; Somà, V.; Stanja, J.; Wienholtz, F.; Wolf, R. N.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-01

    The recently confirmed neutron-shell closure at N =32 has been investigated for the first time below the magic proton number Z =20 with mass measurements of the exotic isotopes K,5352 , the latter being the shortest-lived nuclide investigated at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The resulting two-neutron separation energies reveal a 3 MeV shell gap at N =32 , slightly lower than for 52Ca, highlighting the doubly magic nature of this nuclide. Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and ab initio Gorkov-Green function calculations are challenged by the new measurements but reproduce qualitatively the observed shell effect.

  10. Probing the N = 32 shell closure below the magic proton number Z = 20: Mass measurements of the exotic isotopes 52,53K

    E-print Network

    M. Rosenbusch; P. Ascher; D. Atanasov; C. Barbieri; D. Beck; K. Blaum; Ch. Borgmann; M. Breitenfeldt; R. B. Cakirli; A. Cipollone; S. George; F. Herfurth; M. Kowalska; S. Kreim; D. Lunney; V. Manea; P. Navrátil; D. Neidherr; L. Schweikhard; V. Somà; J. Stanja; F. Wienholtz; R. N. Wolf; K. Zuber

    2015-06-01

    The recently confirmed neutron-shell closure at N = 32 has been investigated for the first time below the magic proton number Z = 20 with mass measurements of the exotic isotopes 52,53K, the latter being the shortest-lived nuclide investigated at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The resulting two-neutron separation energies reveal a 3 MeV shell gap at N = 32, slightly lower than for 52Ca, highlighting the doubly-magic nature of this nuclide. Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Boguliubov and ab initio Gorkov-Green function calculations are challenged by the new measurements but reproduce qualitatively the observed shell effect.

  11. Temperature dependence of the intrinsic small fatigue crack growth behavior in Ni-base superalloys based on measurement of crack closure

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, M.; Yamada, H. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Nohmi, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Akashi (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    The effect of temperature on the small fatigue crack growth behavior of a single crystal and directionally solidified Ni-base superalloys was investigated at temperatures between 873 to 1,123 K by measuring the crack closure. The results were also compared with those of the physically long crack. It was found that the propagation resistance and the fatigue threshold of the long cracks increased with temperature in all the materials. The long crack growth rates at three temperatures were approximately represented by an unique curve, after taking account of crack closure level and elastic modulus. In contrast, the small crack growth resistance decreased with temperature even when the crack closure phenomenon was taken into consideration. Furthermore, the small fatigue cracks exhibited considerably higher growth rates than the long cracks at a given effective stress intensity factor range and also grew under effective stress intensity factor ranges below the long crack threshold. The factors responsible for the lack of similitude in propagation rates between small and long cracks were also discussed, based on these observations and the chemical analysis near the crack tip using the electron probe microanalyzer.

  12. Clear-column closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol extinction during ACE-Asia using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ and ship-based lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, B.; Hegg, D.; Wang, J.; Bates, D.; Redemann, J.; Welton, E.; Russell, P.; Livingston, J.; Jonsson, H.; Seinfeld, J.; Flagan, R.; Covert, D.

    2002-12-01

    The Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) studied aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. It was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. Closure experiments are an important step towards reducing these uncertainties. Closure studies have revealed important insights about aerosol sampling and inadvertent modification in such previous aerosol studies as TARFOX, ACE-2 and SAFARI 2000. In this paper we assess the consistency (closure) between solar beam attenuation measured by the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) and derived from airborne in situ and ship-based lidar methods during the Spring 2001 phase of the ACE-Asia field experiment. Aboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter, AATS-14 measured solar beam transmission at 14 wavelengths between 354 and 1558 nm, yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and columnar water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction spectra and water vapor concentration. Aboard the same aircraft aerosol extinction has also been derived from in situ measurements of scattering (nephelometers) and absorption (particle soot absorption photometer, PSAP) or calculated from particle size distribution measurements (mobility analyzers and aerodynamic particle sizers). Twin Otter vertical profiles flown near the R. V. Ronald H. Brown allowed extinction profile comparisons with a Micro Pulse Lidar operated aboard the ship. The extinction profiles obtained by the different techniques show good agreement for the vertical distribution of aerosol layers. However, the level of agreement in absolute magnitude of the derived aerosol extinction varied among the aerosol layers sampled.

  13. High uterosacral vaginal vault suspension with fascial reconstruction for vaginal repair of enterocele and vaginal vault prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Karram; S. Goldwasser; S. Kleeman; A. Steele; B. Vassallo; P. Walsh

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review retrospectively the functional and anatomic outcomes of women who underwent vaginal repair of enterocele and vault prolapse with the use of an intraperitoneal suspension of the vaginal vault to the uterosacral ligaments in conjunction with fascial reconstruction of the anterior and posterior vaginal wall. Study Design: Two hundred two women with

  14. Uterosacral ligament fixation for vaginal vault suspension in uterine and vaginal vault prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Van Jenkins

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the simplicity, safety, anatomic, and functional success of using the uterosacral ligaments for correction of significant complex uterine and vaginal vault prolapse by the vaginal route. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty women with uterine or vaginal vault prolapse with descent of the cervix or the vaginal vault to the introitus or greater were

  15. Symptoms of Vaginal and Vulvar Cancers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Knowledge Campaign Print Materials Brochure Fact Sheets Symptoms Diaries Posters Public Service Announcements Survivor Stories Dee Toni ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Vaginal Cancer Early on, most vaginal cancers do ...

  16. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaginal Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Vaginal Cancer Talking With ... and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer ...

  17. Vaginal birth after C-section

    MedlinePLUS

    VBAC ... section in the past. This is called a vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). ... Most women who try VBAC are able to deliver vaginally. If you can have a VBAC, there are many good reasons to try it rather ...

  18. Anterior Chamber Depth Measurement as a Screening Tool for Primary Angle-closure Glaucoma in an East Asian Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe G. Devereux; Paul J. Foster; Jamyanjav Baasanhu; Davaatseren Uranchimeg; Pak-Sang Lee; T. Erdenbeleig; David Machin; Gordon J. Johnson; Poul Helge Alsbirk

    Objective: To evaluate anterior chamber depth mea- surement as a method of screening for primary angle- closure glaucoma in an East Asian population. Design: Two-phase, cross-sectional, community- based study. Setting: Rural and urban locations in the Hovsgol and Omnogobi provinces, Mongolia. Participants: Nine hundred forty-two (94.2%) of 1000 individuals in Hovsgol (1995) and 775 (96.9%) of 1000 individuals in Omnogobi

  19. The vaginal microbiome, vaginal anti-microbial defence mechanisms and the clinical challenge of reducing infection-related preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Witkin, S S

    2015-01-01

    Ascending bacterial infection is implicated in about 40-50% of preterm births. The human vaginal microbiota in most women is dominated by lactobacilli. In women whose vaginal microbiota is not lactobacilli-dominated anti-bacterial defence mechanisms are reduced. The enhanced proliferation of pathogenic bacteria plus degradation of the cervical barrier increase bacterial passage into the endometrium and amniotic cavity and trigger preterm myometrial contractions. Evaluation of protocols to detect the absence of lactobaciili dominance in pregnant women by self-measuring vaginal pH, coupled with measures to promote growth of lactobacilli are novel prevention strategies that may reduce the occurrence of preterm birth in low-resource areas. PMID:25316066

  20. Pharmacokinetic fundamentals of vaginal treatment with clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Ritter, W; Patzschke, K; Krause, U; Stettendorf, S

    1982-01-01

    Absorption of clotrimazole after vaginal application was estimated to be between 3 and 10%. In order to investigate the fate of clotrimazole reaching systemic circulation, pharmacokinetic studies following oral and intravenous administration were carried out. The concentrations of clotrimazole in vaginal fluid and in blood plasma after vaginal application of 200 and 500 mg were determined using a specific assay by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. Fungicidal concentrations of clotrimazole in vaginal fluid up to 3 days after application of one vaginal tablet containing 500 mg were found. In contrast, clotrimazole plasma levels were lower than 0.01 micrograms/ml, demonstrating that clotrimazole is rapidly metabolized. PMID:7160239

  1. How Is Vaginal Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... present and, if so, what type it is. Imaging tests Chest x-ray If vaginal cancer is diagnosed, a plain x- ... possible metastases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans use radio waves and strong magnets instead of x-rays to make images of the body. The energy ...

  2. Synergetic effects of fatigue crack closure mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Zuidema, J.; Soest, T.M. van; Janssen, M.

    1999-07-01

    Results are presented relating to the relative effect of two closure mechanisms. Two different crack closure mechanisms, closure due to surface roughness induced by shear lips and conventional plasticity-induced closure, are investigated and compared by performing fatigue crack growth tests on aluminum 2024 and technically pure aluminum. Constant {Delta}K tests using a sudden change in {Delta}K are used in order to measure both closure effects separately and also the combined effects of both mechanisms. It is found that in the case of a combined application of closure mechanisms the retardation result after a load transition is sometimes greater than the sum of the retardations of the separate mechanisms. Under the test conditions used the combined effect may be 2.4 times greater than the sum of the separate effects.

  3. Crack-closure and crack-growth measurements in surface-flawed titanium alloy Ti6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elber, W.

    1975-01-01

    The crack-closure and crack-growth characteristics of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were determined experimentally on surface-flawed plate specimens. Under cyclic loading from zero to tension, cracks deeper than 1 mm opened at approximately 50 percent of the maximum load. Cracks shallower than 1 mm opened at higher loads. The correlation between crack-growth rate and the total stress-intensity range showed a lower threshold behavior. This behavior was attributed to the high crack-opening loads at short cracks because the lower threshold was much less evident in correlations between the crack-growth rates and the effective stress-intensity range.

  4. Vaginal deployment and tenofovir delivery by microbicide gels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; Yuan, A; Chuchuen, O; Ham, A; Yang, K H; Katz, D F

    2015-06-01

    Gels are one of the soft material platforms being evaluated to deliver topically acting anti-HIV drugs (microbicides) to the vaginal environment. For each drug, its loaded concentration, gel properties and applied volume, and frequency of dosing can be designed to optimize PK and, thence, PD. These factors also impact user sensory perceptions and acceptability. Deterministic compartmental modeling of vaginal deployment and drug delivery achieved by test gels can help delineate how multiple parameters characterizing drug, vehicle, vaginal environment, and dosing govern details of PK and PD and also gel leakage from the canal. Such microbicide delivery is a transport process combining convection, e.g., from gel spreading along the vaginal canal, with drug diffusion in multiple compartments, including gel, mucosal epithelium, and stroma. The present work builds upon prior models of gel coating flows and drug diffusion (without convection) in the vaginal environment. It combines and extends these initial approaches in several key ways, including: (1) linking convective drug transport due to gel spreading with drug diffusion and (2) accounting for natural variations in dimensions of the canal and the site of gel placement therein. Results are obtained for a leading microbicide drug, tenofovir, delivered by three prototype microbicide gels, with a range of rheological properties. The model includes phosphorylation of tenofovir to tenofovir diphosphate (which manifests reverse transcriptase activity in host cells), the stromal concentration distributions of which are related to reference prophylactic values against HIV. This yields a computed summary measure related to gel protection ("percent protected"). Analyses illustrate tradeoffs amongst gel properties, drug loading, volume and site of placement, and vaginal dimensions, in the time and space history of gel distribution and tenofovir transport to sites of its anti-HIV action and concentrations and potential prophylactic actions of tenofovir diphosphate therein. PMID:25874971

  5. Individual differences in need for cognitive closure.

    PubMed

    Webster, D M; Kruglanski, A W

    1994-12-01

    This article introduces an individual-difference measure of the need for cognitive closure. As a dispositional construct, the need for cognitive closure is presently treated as a latent variable manifested through several different aspects, namely, desire for predictability, preference for order and structure, discomfort with ambiguity, decisiveness, and close-mindedness. This article presents psychometric work on the measure as well as several validation studies including (a) a "known-groups" discrimination between populations assumed to differ in their need for closure, (b) discriminant and convergent validation with respect to related personality measures, and (c) replication of effects obtained with situational inductions of the need for closure. The present findings suggest that the Need for Closure Scale is a reliable and valid instrument of considerable potential utility in future "motivated social cognition" research. PMID:7815301

  6. Social Network Closure and Child Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Anne C.; Newsome, Deborah; Nickerson, Pamela; Bazley, Ronda

    2001-01-01

    Identified fourth graders' peer groups and measured social network closure--extent to which meaningful social relationships exist between children and their friends' parents and among parents whose children are friends. Found that higher social network closure related to higher academic achievement and lower parent-reported externalizing…

  7. The vaginal microbiome: rethinking health and diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bing; Forney, Larry J.; Ravel, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal microbiota form a mutually beneficial relationship with their host and have major impact on health and disease. In recent years our understanding of vaginal bacterial community composition and structure has significantly broadened as a result of investigators using cultivation-independent methods based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. In asymptomatic, otherwise healthy women, several kinds of vaginal microbiota exist, the majority often dominated by species of Lactobacillus, while others comprise a diverse array of anaerobic microorganisms. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal conditions and is vaguely characterized as the disruption of the equilibrium of the ‘normal’ vaginal microbiots. A better understanding of ‘normal’ and ‘healthy’ vaginal ecosystems that is based on its ‘true’ function and not simply on its composition would help better define health and further improve disease diagnostics as well as the development of more personalized regimens to promote health and treat diseases. PMID:22746335

  8. Vaginal microbiome: rethinking health and disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bing; Forney, Larry J; Ravel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Vaginal microbiota form a mutually beneficial relationship with their host and have a major impact on health and disease. In recent years our understanding of vaginal bacterial community composition and structure has significantly broadened as a result of investigators using cultivation-independent methods based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. In asymptomatic, otherwise healthy women, several kinds of vaginal microbiota exist, the majority often dominated by species of Lactobacillus, while others are composed of a diverse array of anaerobic microorganisms. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal condition and is vaguely characterized as the disruption of the equilibrium of the normal vaginal microbiota. A better understanding of normal and healthy vaginal ecosystems that is based on their true function and not simply on their composition would help better define health and further improve disease diagnostics as well as the development of more personalized regimens to promote health and treat diseases. PMID:22746335

  9. Vaginal microbial flora and outcome of pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura DonatiAugusto; Augusto Di Vico; Marta Nucci; Lorena Quagliozzi; Terryann Spagnuolo; Antonietta Labianca; Marina Bracaglia; Francesca Ianniello; Alessandro Caruso; Giancarlo Paradisi

    2010-01-01

    Background  The vaginal microflora of a healthy asymptomatic woman consists of a wide variety of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera\\u000a and species dominated by the facultative, microaerophilic, anaerobic genus Lactobacillus. The activity of Lactobacillus is essential to protect women from genital infections and to maintain the natural healthy balance of the vaginal flora. Increasing\\u000a evidence associates abnormalities in vaginal flora during

  10. Epidemiologic determinants of vaginal pH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Montserrat García-Closas; Rolando Herrero; Concepción Bratti; Allan Hildesheim; Mark E. Sherman; Lidia Ana Morera; Mark Schiffman

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between vaginal pH and factors related to cervical cancer. Study Design: In a population-based sample of 9161 women from Guanacaste Province in Costa Rica women were categorized into 2 groups, those with vaginal pH in the reference range (4.0-4.5) and those with elevated vaginal pH (5.0-5.5). Odds ratios were used to

  11. Continuous low dose estradiol released from a vaginal ring versus estriol vaginal cream for urogenital atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Barentsen; Peter H. M. van de Weijer; Jan H. N. Schram

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if the efficacy of continuous low dose estradiol released from a vaginal ring is equivalent to estriol vaginal cream regarding improvement of the patient's subjective feeling of vaginal dryness and to determine if there is a preference for either of the two study treatments. Methods: Open-label randomized parallel group trial with active control with a blind evaluation

  12. 21 CFR 884.5900 - Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. 884.5900 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5900 Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. (a) Identification. A therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus is a device...

  13. 21 CFR 884.5900 - Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. 884.5900 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5900 Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. (a) Identification. A therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 884.5900 - Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. 884.5900 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5900 Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. (a) Identification. A therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus is a device...

  15. 21 CFR 884.5900 - Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. 884.5900 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5900 Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. (a) Identification. A therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus is a device...

  16. 21 CFR 884.5900 - Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. 884.5900 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5900 Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus. (a) Identification. A therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus is a device...

  17. What Are the Key Statistics about Vaginal Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... factors for vaginal cancer? What are the key statistics about vaginal cancer? Vaginal cancer is rare. Only ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

  18. Management of twins: vaginal or cesarean delivery?

    PubMed

    Bibbo, Carolina; Robinson, Julian N

    2015-06-01

    Recent level I evidence from a single randomized-controlled trial has shown that there is no difference in fetal or neonatal outcomes (composite of fetal/neonatal death or serious neonatal morbidity) between planned cesarean delivery and planned vaginal delivery for twins between 32 and 38 6/7 weeks. As long as the presenting twin is vertex, vaginal delivery should be considered regardless of the presentation of the second twin. To avoid unnecessary cesarean deliveries and maternal morbidity, it is important to continue to train residents to perform obstetrics maneuvers necessary for vaginal delivery of twins such as vaginal breech extraction. PMID:25851847

  19. Effect of periodic compressive overstrain excursions on crack closure and crack growth rates of short fatigue cracks -- Measurement and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Varvani-Farahani, A.; Topper, T.H.

    1999-07-01

    A comparison of the growth of fatigue cracks under constant-amplitude straining and under strain histories having periodic compressive overstrains revealed that the fracture surface near the crack tip and the crack growth rate changed dramatically with the application of compressive overstrains. When the magnitude of compressive overstrains was increased, the height of the fracture surface irregularities was reduced as the increasing overstrain progressively flattened fracture surface asperities near the crack tip. The reduced asperity height was accompanied by a lower crack closure stress and a higher crack growth rate. The fatigue strength was reduced by a factor that ranged from 1.24 at short lives (10{sup 4} cycles) to 3.37 at long lives (10{sup 7} cycles) when periodic compressive overstrains of near yield point magnitude were applied in uniaxial tests. The corresponding reductions in the fatigue strength for shear tests varied from 1.40 to 1.70. A model of the plastic deformation of the fracture surface asperities at the crack tip (under periodic compressive overstrains) was developed to relate the crushing of the asperities to crack closure and crack growth rate. The model correlates the magnitude of the periodic compressive overstrain, the fracture surface asperity height, and the plastically flattened area to the fully effective strain intensity factor range ({Delta}K{sub eff}) and its ratio to the range of strain intensity factor ({Delta}K{sub ({epsilon})}) obtained from constant-amplitude straining, U = {Delta}K{sub eff}/{Delta}K{sub ({epsilon})}. For both uniaxial and shear fatigue straining, the strain range at a fatigue life of 10{sup 7} cycles for constant-amplitude straining ({Delta}{epsilon}{sub fl}) and the effective strain range, ({Delta}{epsilon}{sub eff.fl}) at 10{sup 7} cycles in the strain-equivalent life curve, obtained from strain histories containing periodic compressive overstrains, were used to calculate the U ratio (U = {Delta}K{sub eff.fl}/{Delta}{epsilon}{sub fl}). These values were close to those obtained from the model.

  20. Bacterial vaginosis, vaginal flora patterns and vaginal hygiene practices in patients presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome in The Gambia, West Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Demba; Linda Morison; Maarten Schim van der Loeff; Akum A Awasana; Euphemia Gooding; Robin Bailey; Philippe Mayaud; Beryl West

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) – a syndrome characterised by a shift in vaginal flora – appears to be particularly common in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known of the pattern of vaginal flora associated with BV in Africa. We conducted a study aimed at determining the prevalence of BV and patterns of BV-associated vaginal micro-flora among women with vaginal discharge

  1. Diagnostic Value of Vaginal Discharge, Wet Mount and Vaginal pH – An Update on the Basics of Gynecologic Infectiology

    PubMed Central

    Frobenius, W.; Bogdan, C.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of uncomplicated vulvovaginal complaints (e.g. bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis) can be detected with uncomplicated basic infectiological tests and can usually be treated effectively without requiring further diagnostic procedures. Tests include measurement of vaginal pH, preparation and assessment of wet mount slides prepared from vaginal or cervical discharge, and the correct clinical and microbiological classification of findings. In Germany, at least in recent years, this has not been sufficiently taught or practiced. As new regulations on specialist gynecologic training in Germany are currently being drawn up, this overview provides basic information on gynecologic infectiology and summarizes clinically relevant aspects of recent microbiological findings on the physiology and pathology of vaginal flora. The clinical signs and symptoms of aerobic vaginitis, the pathogenesis of which is still not completely understood, are also reviewed. Finally, the symptoms, indications and risk factors for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are presented. In contrast to the above-listed infections, PID requires immediate culture of the pathogen from samples (e.g. obtained by laparoscopy) with microbiological diagnostic procedures carried out by specialist laboratories. A schematic summary of all pathologies discussed here is presented. PMID:26028693

  2. Temporal Dynamics of the Human Vaginal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Gajer, Pawel; Brotman, Rebecca M.; Bai, Guoyun; Sakamoto, Joyce; Schütte, Ursel M.E.; Zhong, Xue; Koenig, Sara S.K.; Fu, Li; Ma, Zhanshan; Zhou, Xia; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Ravel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating the factors that impinge on the stability of bacterial communities in the vagina may help in predicting the risk of diseases that affect women’s health. Here, we describe the temporal dynamics of the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 32 reproductive age women over a 16-week period. The analysis revealed the dynamics of five major classes of bacterial communities and showed that some communities change markedly over short time periods, whereas others are relatively stable. Modeling community stability using new quantitative measures indicates that deviation from stability correlates with time in the menstrual cycle, bacterial community composition and sexual activity. The women studied are healthy, thus it appears that neither variation in community composition per se, nor higher levels of observed diversity (co-dominance) are necessarily indicative of dysbiosis, in which there is microbial imbalance accompanied by symptoms. PMID:22553250

  3. Temporal dynamics of the human vaginal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gajer, Pawel; Brotman, Rebecca M; Bai, Guoyun; Sakamoto, Joyce; Schütte, Ursel M E; Zhong, Xue; Koenig, Sara S K; Fu, Li; Ma, Zhanshan Sam; Zhou, Xia; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J; Ravel, Jacques

    2012-05-01

    Elucidating the factors that impinge on the stability of bacterial communities in the vagina may help in predicting the risk of diseases that affect women's health. Here, we describe the temporal dynamics of the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 32 reproductive-age women over a 16-week period. The analysis revealed the dynamics of five major classes of bacterial communities and showed that some communities change markedly over short time periods, whereas others are relatively stable. Modeling community stability using new quantitative measures indicates that deviation from stability correlates with time in the menstrual cycle, bacterial community composition, and sexual activity. The women studied are healthy; thus, it appears that neither variation in community composition per se nor higher levels of observed diversity (co-dominance) are necessarily indicative of dysbiosis. PMID:22553250

  4. Vaginal pH and microflora related to yeast infections and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S M Drake; B A Evans; A Gerken

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between vaginal pH, microflora, and yeast infection was investigated in 93 women randomly treated with either nystatin or miconazole pessaries and cream for two weeks. The vaginal pH was measured in a control group of 48 women. In the study group, 37 patients defaulted, 39 were cured, and 17 required treatment during the six-month follow-up period. In both

  5. Laparoscopically assisted vaginal resection of rectovaginal endometriosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Possover; Herbert Diebolder; Karin Plaul; Achim Schneider

    2000-01-01

    Background: We wanted to establish a technique of laparoscopically assisted radical vaginal surgery for deep endometriosis of the rectovaginal septum with extensive rectal involvement.Technique: The procedure is started by vaginally excising the involved area which is left on the rectum, followed by bilateral dissection of the pararectal and retrorectal spaces. Para- and retrosigmoido-rectal spaces are developed laparoscopically along the coccygeosacral

  6. Vaginal Lactobacillus Flora of Healthy Swedish Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandra Vasquez; Tell Jakobsson; Siv Ahrne; Urban Forsum; Goran Molin

    2002-01-01

    Species of the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex are generally considered to constitute most of the vaginal Lactobacillus flora, but the flora varies between studies. However, this may be due to difficulties in identifying the closely related species within the L. acidophilus complex by using traditional methods and to variations in the vaginal status of the participants. Two hundred two isolates from

  7. Excision of high vaginal septum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fahed Al-Abdulhadi; Michael Fidelis Diejomaoh; Assem El Biaa; Jiri Jirous; Mona Al-Qenae

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Transverse vaginal septum occurs because there is a defect in vertical fusion during embryological development of the vagina.\\u000a It is quite rare and is infrequently encountered by most obstetricians and gynecologists in their practice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case report  A 14-year-old unmarried student, Miss AUX, presented to a private gynecologist complaining of absent menses. Initial examination\\u000a and investigation revealed intact hymen, normal uterus but

  8. Ultra-low-dose estriol and Lactobacillus acidophilus vaginal tablets (Gynoflor(®)) for vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal breast cancer patients on aromatase inhibitors: pharmacokinetic, safety, and efficacy phase I clinical study.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert; Neven, Patrick; Moegele, Maximilian; Lintermans, Anneleen; Bellen, Gert; Prasauskas, Valdas; Grob, Philipp; Ortmann, Olaf; Buchholz, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    Phase I pharmacokinetic (PK) study assessed circulating estrogens in breast cancer (BC) patients on a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) with vaginal atrophy using vaginal ultra-low-dose 0.03 mg estriol (E3) and Lactobacillus combination vaginal tablets (Gynoflor(®)). 16 women on NSAI with severe vaginal atrophy applied a daily vaginal tablet of Gynoflor(®) for 28 days followed by a maintenance therapy of 3 tablets weekly for 8 weeks. Primary outcomes were serum concentrations and PK of E3, estradiol (E2), and estrone (E1) using highly sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Secondary outcomes were clinical measures for efficacy and side effects; microscopic changes in vaginal epithelium and microflora; and changes in serum FSH, LH, and sex hormone-binding globulin. Compared with baseline, serum E1 and E2 did not increase in any of the women at any time following vaginal application. Serum E3 transiently increased after the first application in 15 of 16 women, with a maximum of 168 pg/ml 2-3 h post-insertion. After 4 weeks, serum E3 was slightly increased in 8 women with a maximum of 44 pg/ml. The vaginal atrophy resolved or improved in all women. The product was well tolerated, and discontinuation of therapy was not observed. The low-dose 0.03 mg E3 and Lactobacillus acidophilus vaginal tablets application in postmenopausal BC patients during AI treatment suffering from vaginal atrophy lead to small and transient increases in serum E3, but not E1 or E2, and therefore can be considered as safe and efficacious for treatment of atrophic vaginitis in BC patients taking NSAIs. PMID:24718774

  9. Early results of a novel technique for anterior vaginal wall prolapse repair: anterior vaginal wall darn

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe the results of a 1-year patient follow-up after anterior vaginal wall darn, a novel technique for the repair of anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Methods Fifty-five patients with anterior vaginal wall prolapse underwent anterior vaginal wall darn. The anterior vaginal wall was detached using sharp and blunt dissection via an incision beginning 1 cm proximal to the external meatus and extending to the vaginal apex. The space between the tissues that attach the lateral vaginal walls to the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis was then darned. Cough Stress Test, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification, seven-item Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, and six-item Urogenital Distress Inventory scores were performed 1-year postoperatively to evaluate recovery. Results One-year postoperatively, all patients were satisfied with the results of the procedure. No patient had vaginal mucosal erosion or any other complication. Conclusions One-year postoperative findings for patients in this series indicate that patients with stage II–III anterior vaginal wall prolapse were successfully treated with the anterior vaginal wall darn technique. PMID:24973955

  10. Column Closure Studies of Lower Tropospheric Aerosol and Water Vapor During ACE-Asia Using Airborne Sunphotometer, Airborne In-Situ and Ship-Based Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Hegg, A.; Wang, J.; Bates, D.; Redemann, J.; Russells, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Jonsson, H. H.; Welton, E. J.; Seinfield, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    We assess the consistency (closure) between solar beam attenuation by aerosols and water vapor measured by airborne sunphotometry and derived from airborne in-situ, and ship-based lidar measurements during the April 2001 Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia). The airborne data presented here were obtained aboard the Twin Otter aircraft. Comparing aerosol extinction o(550 nm) from four different techniques shows good agreement for the vertical distribution of aerosol layers. However, the level of agreement in absolute magnitude of the derived aerosol extinction varied among the aerosol layers sampled. The sigma(550 nm) computed from airborne in-situ size distribution and composition measurements shows good agreement with airborne sunphotometry in the marine boundary layer but is considerably lower in layers dominated by dust if the particles are assumed to be spherical. The sigma(550 nm) from airborne in-situ scattering and absorption measurements are about approx. 13% lower than those obtained from airborne sunphotometry during 14 vertical profiles. Combining lidar and the airborne sunphotometer measurements reveals the prevalence of dust layers at altitudes up to 10 km with layer aerosol optical depth (from 3.5 to 10 km altitude) of approx. 0.1 to 0.2 (500 nm) and extinction-to-backscatter ratios of 59-71 sr (523 nm). The airborne sunphotometer aboard the Twin Otter reveals a relatively dry atmosphere during ACE- Asia with all water vapor columns less than 1.5 cm and water vapor densities w less than 12 g/cu m. Comparing layer water vapor amounts and w from the airborne sunphotometer to the same quantities measured with aircraft in-situ sensors leads to a high correlation (r(sup 3)=0.96) but the sunphotometer tends to underestimate w by 7%.

  11. Collagen-coated vs noncoated low-weight polypropylene meshes in a sheep model for vaginal surgery. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Tayrac, Renaud; Alves, Antoine; Thérin, Michel

    2007-05-01

    The aims of this study were dual. First, to evaluate the feasibility of a sheep model as an animal model for vaginal surgery with meshes. Second, to compare host response to two low-weight polypropylene (PP) meshes, a noncoated (Soft Prolene, Gynecare, Ethicon) and a coated mesh with an absorbable hydrophilic film (Ugytex, Sofradim). Thirty-six 20 x 20 mm polypropylene meshes (18 coated and 18 noncoated) were surgically implanted by the vaginal route in 12 adult ewes. Meshes were implanted in the anterior (n=12) and the posterior vaginal compartments (n=24). Animals were killed 1 (n=6) and 12 (n=6) weeks after surgery. Postimplantation evaluation included macroscopical examination, histological and immunohistochemical analysis and histomorphometrical measures of the distance between the meshes and the vaginal epithelium. The experimental procedure was feasible in all cases. Vaginal erosions were observed twice as frequently with the noncoated-PP meshes (6/18, 33.3%) as with the coated-PP meshes (3/18, 16.7%), even if that difference was not significant (p=0.4). However, no differences were observed between the two meshes in terms of shrinkage, tissue ingrowth, inflammatory response, and position of the mesh in the vaginal wall. The mechanism involved in the reduction of vaginal erosion could be due to the lesser adhesion of the coated mesh on the vaginal wound during the early postoperative period. PMID:16941070

  12. Vaginitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... resources for press Selected Profiles & Interviews Selected biographies & science-focused interviews Multimedia Audio briefings, videos & podcasts related to NICHD research About NICHD Institute ...

  13. Assessment of voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction in continent and incontinent women using transperineal ultrasound, manual muscle testing and vaginal squeeze pressure measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith A. Thompson; Peter B. O’Sullivan; N. Kathryn Briffa; Patricia Neumann

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the study were: (1) to assess women performing voluntary pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions, on initial instruction without biofeedback teaching, using transperineal ultrasound, manual muscle testing, and perineometry and (2) to assess for associations between the different measurements of PFM function. Sixty continent (30 nulliparous and 30 parous) and 60 incontinent (30 stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and

  14. Vaginal atrophy in breast cancer survivors: role of vaginal estrogen therapy.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Luciano; Gadducci, Angiolo; Vizza, Enrico; Tomao, Silverio; Vici, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Early menopause and related vaginal atrophy is a well known side-effect of hormone adjuvant treatment in breast cancer patients, particularly during aromatase-inhibitors therapy. Due to estrogens contra-indication, proper therapy for such symptom remains often an inadequately addressed clinical problem. After an accurate assessment of the risk/benefit ratio, vaginal low-dose estrogen treatment (better with estriol) [corrected] may have a role in controlling vaginal atrophy in selected and informed breast cancer women. PMID:22994445

  15. Vaginal calculi secondary to urethrovaginal fistula with vaginal stenosis in a 14-year-old girl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Liu; Xiao Huang; Junjie Lu; Zhigen Zhang; Ping Wang; Zheng Huang

    2008-01-01

    The author reports a case of vaginal calculi secondary to urethrovaginal fistula with vaginal stenosis in a 14-year-old girl.\\u000a The initial urethrovaginal fistula and vaginal stenosis resulted from pelvic trauma after a traffic accident, with subsequent\\u000a surgical urethral realignment and anterior colporrhaphy without success. The patient had continuous urinary incontinence for\\u000a a duration of 11 years after surgery, and was finally

  16. Development of an in vitro alternative assay method for vaginal irritation.

    PubMed

    Ayehunie, Seyoum; Cannon, Chris; Larosa, Karen; Pudney, Jeffrey; Anderson, Deborah J; Klausner, Mitchell

    2011-01-11

    The vaginal mucosa is commonly exposed to chemicals and therapeutic agents that may result in irritation and/or inflammation. In addition to acute effects, vaginal irritation and inflammation can make women more susceptible to infections such as HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Hence, the vaginal irritation potential of feminine care formulations and vaginally administered therapeutic agents is a significant public health concern. Traditionally, testing of such materials has been performed using the rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) assay. In the current study, we investigated whether the organotypic, highly differentiated EpiVaginal™ tissue could be used as a non-animal alternative to the RVI test. The EpiVaginal tissue was exposed to a single application of ingredients commonly found in feminine hygiene products and the effects on tissue viability (MTT assay), barrier disruption (measured by transepithelial electrical resistance, TEER and sodium fluorescein (NaFl) leakage), and inflammatory cytokine release (interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-8) patterns were examined. When compared to untreated controls, two irritating ingredients, nonoxynol 9 and benzalkonium chloride, reduced tissue viability to <40% and TEER to <60% while increasing NaFl leakage by 11-24% and IL-1? and IL-1? release by >100%. Four other non-irritating materials had minimal effects on these parameters. Assay reproducibility was confirmed by testing the chemicals using three different tissue production lots and by using tissues reconstructed from cells obtained from three different donors. Coefficients of variation between tissue lots reconstructed with cells obtained from the same donor or lots reconstructed with cells obtained from different donors were less than 10% and 12%, respectively. In conclusion, decreases in tissue viability and barrier function and increases in IL-1? and IL-1? release appear to be useful endpoints for preclinical screening of topically applied chemicals and formulations for their vaginal irritation potential. PMID:20937349

  17. The effect of vitamin D on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Parastou; Tadayon, Mitra; Abbaspour, Mohammadreza; Latifi, Seyed Mahmood; Rashidi, Iran; Delaviz, Hamdollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most of the women suffer from vaginal atrophy and dryness, and therefore, efficient and safe treatment is needed to improve vaginal lubrication. Vitamin D has several important functions which may be effective in proliferation and repair of the epithelial tissue. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin D vaginal suppositories on maturation index, pH, and dryness in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Women were enrolled in this double-blind clinical trial, in whom menopause occurred at least one year ago. Those women who had an abnormal Papanicolaou smear, had undergone hormonal treatment, or have had vaginal infection in the previous year were excluded. Forty-four women who found eligible were randomized into two equal groups, the treatment and control groups, which received vitamin D and placebo vaginal suppository daily for 8 weeks, respectively. Vaginal pH and maturation value were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Pain, dryness, and paleness were assessed before treatment and at the end of the 2, 4, and 8 weeks of treatment. Results: In the treatment group, the number (Mean ± SD) of superficial cells increased (69.76 ± 12.4) and vaginal pH decreased (1.42 ± 0.67) significantly compared to the control group after 56 days. The mean pain significantly reduced after 8 weeks in the treatment group (1.23 ± 0.53) compared to the control group 1.95 ± 0.74 (P < 0.001). The mean of dryness and paleness reduced significantly in the treatment group versus control at 56 days. Conclusions: Vitamin D is effective in improving the maturation index and decreased the pH and dryness of the vaginal atrophy due to menopause. PMID:25878698

  18. Vaginal pH and Microbicidal Lactic Acid When Lactobacilli Dominate the Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    O’Hanlon, Deirdre E.; Moench, Thomas R.; Cone, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Lactic acid at sufficiently acidic pH is a potent microbicide, and lactic acid produced by vaginal lactobacilli may help protect against reproductive tract infections. However, previous observations likely underestimated healthy vaginal acidity and total lactate concentration since they failed to exclude women without a lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota, and also did not account for the high carbon dioxide, low oxygen environment of the vagina. Fifty-six women with low (0-3) Nugent scores (indicating a lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota) and no symptoms of reproductive tract disease or infection, provided a total of 64 cervicovaginal fluid samples using a collection method that avoided the need for sample dilution and rigorously minimized aerobic exposure. The pH of samples was measured by microelectrode immediately after collection and under a physiological vaginal concentration of CO2. Commercial enzymatic assays of total lactate and total acetate concentrations were validated for use in CVF, and compared to the more usual HPLC method. The average pH of the CVF samples was 3.5 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD), range 2.8-4.2, and the average total lactate was 1.0% ± 0.2% w/v; this is a five-fold higher average hydrogen ion concentration (lower pH) and a fivefold higher total lactate concentration than in the prior literature. The microbicidal form of lactic acid (protonated lactic acid) was therefore eleven-fold more concentrated, and a markedly more potent microbicide, than indicated by prior research. This suggests that when lactobacilli dominate the vaginal microbiota, women have significantly more lactic acid-mediated protection against infections than currently believed. Our results invite further evaluations of the prophylactic and therapeutic actions of vaginal lactic acid, whether provided in situ by endogenous lactobacilli, by probiotic lactobacilli, or by products that reinforce vaginal lactic acid. PMID:24223212

  19. Assessment of voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction in continent and incontinent women using transperineal ultrasound, manual muscle testing and vaginal squeeze pressure measurements.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Judith A; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Briffa, N Kathryn; Neumann, Patricia

    2006-11-01

    The aims of the study were: (1) to assess women performing voluntary pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions, on initial instruction without biofeedback teaching, using transperineal ultrasound, manual muscle testing, and perineometry and (2) to assess for associations between the different measurements of PFM function. Sixty continent (30 nulliparous and 30 parous) and 60 incontinent (30 stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and 30 urge urinary incontinence (UUI)) women were assessed. Bladder neck depression during attempts to perform an elevating pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction occurred in 17% of continent and 30% of incontinent women. The UUI group had the highest proportion of women who depressed the bladder neck (40%), although this was not statistically significant (p=0.060). The continent women were stronger on manual muscle testing (p=0.001) and perineometry (p=0.019) and had greater PFM endurance (p<0.001) than the incontinent women. There was a strong tendency for the continent women to have a greater degree of bladder neck elevation than the incontinent women (p=0.051). There was a moderate correlation between bladder neck movement during PFM contraction measured by ultrasound and PFM strength assessed by manual muscle testing (r=0.58, p=0.01) and perineometry (r=0.43, p=0.01). The observation that many women were performing PFM exercises incorrectly reinforces the need for individual PFM assessment with a skilled practitioner. The significant correlation between the measurements of bladder neck elevation during PFM contraction and PFM strength measured using MMT and perineometry supports the use of ultrasound in the assessment of PFM function; however, the correlation was only moderate and, therefore, indicates that the different measurement tools assess different aspects of PFM function. It is recommended that physiotherapists use a combination of assessment tools to evaluate the different aspects of PFM function that are important for continence. Ultrasound is useful to determine the direction of pelvic floor movement in the clinical assessment of pelvic floor muscle function in a mixed subject population. PMID:16532264

  20. Vaginal childbirth and pelvic floor disorders

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Hafsa U; Handa, Victoria L

    2013-01-01

    Childbirth is an important event in a woman’s life. Vaginal childbirth is the most common mode of delivery and it has been associated with increased incidence of pelvic floor disorders later in life. In this article, the authors review and summarize current literature associating pelvic floor disorders with vaginal childbirth. Stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse are strongly associated with vaginal childbirth and parity. The exact mechanism of injury associating vaginal delivery with pelvic floor disorders is not known, but is likely multifactorial, potentially including mechanical and neurovascular injury to the pelvic floor. Observational studies have identified certain obstetrical exposures as risk factors for pelvic floor disorders. These factors often coexist in clusters; hence, the isolated effect of these variables on the pelvic floor is difficult to study. PMID:23638782

  1. Development of Vaginal Microbicides and Related Information

    Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

    ... Search FDA Submit search. ... draft FDA guidance for vaginal microbicides, select presentations from public meetings, and literature publications in ...

  2. Comparison of the vaginal microbiota diversity of women with and without human papillomavirus infection: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The female genital tract is an important bacterial habitat of the human body, and vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role in vaginal health. The alteration of vaginal microbiota affects millions of women annually, and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, previous studies have primarily focused on the association between bacterial vaginosis and HPV infection. Little is known about the composition of vaginal microbial communities involved in HPV acquisition. The present study was performed to investigate whether HPV infection was associated with the diversity and composition of vaginal microbiota. Methods A total of 70 healthy women (32 HPV-negative and 38 HPV-positive) with normal cervical cytology were enrolled in this study. Culture-independent polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to measure the diversity and composition of vaginal microbiota of all subjects. Results We found significantly greater biological diversity in the vaginal microbiota of HPV-positive women (p?vaginal microbiota from the two groups had different profiles. Conclusions Our study is the first systematic evaluation of an association between vaginal microbiota and HPV infection, and we have demonstrated that compared with HPV-negative women, the bacterial diversity of HPV-positive women is more complex and the composition of vaginal microbiota is different. PMID:23758857

  3. High-precision Penning trap mass measurements of neutron-rich sulfur isotopes at the N=28 shell closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringle, R.; Bachelet, C.; Block, M.; Bollen, G.; Facina, M.; Folden, C. M., III; Guénaut, C.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Morrissey, D. J.; Pang, G. K.; Prinke, A. M.; Savory, J.; Schury, P.; Schwarz, S.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.

    2009-12-01

    Direct mass measurements of the neutron-rich S40-44 isotopes were performed at the Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The resulting mass excesses (MEs) are ME(S40)=-22837.8(3.9) keV, ME(S41)=-19008.6(4.1) keV, ME(S42)=-17637.9(2.7) keV, ME(S43)=-12195.5(4.9) keV, and ME(S44)=-9204.2(5.2) keV, and they represent improvements by factors of 20 to 50 in the precision of previous mass measurements of these isotopes.

  4. Extremely preterm vaginal breech delivery en caul

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane R Richmond; Lucie Morin; Alice Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To describe an alternative method of vaginal birth to the conventional assisted delivery for extremely preterm breech infants within intact amnions, and to compare the immediate neonatal outcomes with those delivered by cesarean.METHODS:Retrospective review of singleton breech deliveries under 26 weeks’ gestation after spontaneous labor with intact membranes. Nine “en caul” vaginal births after tocolysis and six cesarean deliveries performed

  5. Emerging therapies for postmenopausal vaginal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Pickar, James H

    2013-05-01

    Symptoms related to vaginal atrophy are a significant problem for postmenopausal women and estrogen has been the gold standard for its treatment. A number of recent reviews of vaginal estrogen products are available. This review will, therefore, focus on other products and potential products for this indication, including the tissue selective estrogen complex and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Additionally, lesser-studied approaches will be discussed. PMID:23434231

  6. Mixed vaginitis-more than coinfection and with therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Jack D; Subramanian, Chitra; Foxman, Betsy; Fairfax, Marilyn; Gygax, Scott E

    2013-04-01

    Mixed vaginitis is due to the simultaneous presence of at least two vaginal pathogens, both contributing to an abnormal vaginal milieu and, hence, symptoms and signs of vaginitis. In mixed vaginitis, both pathogens require specific therapy for complete eradication of concurrent manifestations. In coinfection, although two pathogens are identified, a potential pathogen may be present but may not be a cause of existing vaginal symptoms. Although data remain sparse, mixed vaginitis occurs rarely (<5 %). By contrast, pathogen coinfection occurs frequently in women with vaginitis. Approximately 20 %-30 % of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) are coinfected with Candida species. Coexistence of BV pathogens and T. vaginalis is even more common, with coinfection rates of 60 %-80 %. Both coinfection and mixed vaginitis have significant clinical and therapeutic implications and are worthy of further investigation. PMID:23354954

  7. [Magnetic urethral closure device : Negative outcome after implantation for the treatment of female urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Anding, R; van Ahlen, H; Müller, S C; Latz, S

    2015-07-01

    We report on a negative outcome after implantation of a magnetic urethral closure device, consisting of one part screwed into the pubic bone and one part as a vaginal cone, for the treatment of urinary stress incontinence grade III. Continence was never achieved for the patient. The urethra narrowed over time due to erosion and scarring and the patient started intermittent catheterization, because spontaneous micturition was not possible. The magnet was broken, the bladder neck was eroded, several fragments were found in the bladder, and numerous fragments were scattered throughout the small pelvis. Surgery consisted of removing most of the fragments, followed by bladder neck closure and suprapubic diversion. PMID:25989875

  8. Accuracy of Vaginal Symptom Self-Diagnosis Algorithms for Deployed Military Women

    PubMed Central

    Ryan-Wenger, Nancy A.; Neal, Jeremy L.; Jones, Ashley S.; Lowe, Nancy K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Deployed military women have an increased risk for development of vaginitis due to extreme temperatures, primitive sanitation, hygiene and laundry facilities, and unavailable or unacceptable health care resources. The Women in the Military Self-Diagnosis (WMSD) and Treatment Kit was developed as a field-expedient solution to this problem. Objectives The primary study aims were to evaluate the accuracy of women’s self-diagnosis of vaginal symptoms and 8 diagnostic algorithms, and to predict potential self-medication omission and commission error rates. Method Participants included 546 active duty, deployable Army (43.3%) and Navy (53.6%) women with vaginal symptoms who sought health care at troop medical clinics on base. In the clinic lavatory, women conducted a self-diagnosis using a sterile cotton swab to obtain vaginal fluid, a FemExam® card to measure positive or negative pH and amines, and the investigator-developed WMSD Decision-Making guide. Potential self-diagnoses were “bacterial infection” (bacterial vaginosis and/or trichomonas vaginitis - BV/TV), “yeast infection” (candida vaginitis – CV), “no infection/normal”, or “unclear.” The Affirm VPIII® laboratory reference standard was used to detect clinically significant amounts of vaginal fluid DNA for organisms associated with BV, TV and CV. Results Women’s self-diagnostic accuracy was 56% for BV/TV and 69.2% for CV. False positives would have led to a self-medication commission error rate of 20.3% for BV/TV and 8% for CV. Potential self-medication omission error rates due to false negatives were 23.7% for BV/TV and 24.8% for CV. The positive predictive power (PPV) of diagnostic algorithms for BV/TV ranged from 0 to 78.1%, and for CV was 41.7%. Discussion The algorithms were based on clinical diagnostic standards. The non-specific nature of vaginal symptoms, mixed infections, and a faulty device intended to measure vaginal pH and amines explain why none of the algorithms reached the goal of 95% accuracy. The next prototype of the WMSD Kit will not include non-specific vaginal signs and symptoms in favor of recently available point-of-care devices that identify antigens or enzymes of the causative BV, TV, and CV organisms. PMID:20010039

  9. [A new approach to urinary continence disorders in women: urodynamic ultrasonic examination by the vaginal route].

    PubMed

    Beco, J; Sulu, M; Schaaps, J P; Lambotte, R

    1987-01-01

    The vesicourethral junction, the urethra cannot be seen when using the abdominal approach because of the interposition of the pubic symphysis. The ultrasonic vaginal approach makes it possible. 53 patients were ultrasonically observed during an urodynamic exploration. The simultaneous utilization of both methods has permit to observe the mechanisms of normal or pathological voiding. When initiating a voluntary micturition, an area (called "prepubic muscle") located in front of the pubic symphysis between the clitoris and the urethral meatus, exert a traction on the periurethral sphincteric area. This sphincteric area, which is well shown by ultrasound, contracts longitudinally (causing shortening of the urethra and opening of the bladder neck) and causes a drop in urethral closure pressure. The increase in the distance between the inferior part of the pubic symphysis and the anterior vaginal wall comes about because of slackening of the elevator ani muscles. This slackening occurs at different times before the bladder contracts. The urethra opens; the complete course of this organ is well defined. Things return to their previous state when voiding finishes. In the case of stress incontinence, the lack of transmission of pressure urodynamically found when the woman is coughing can be seen as a sliding mechanism within the space of Retzius and at the urethro-vesical junction behind the symphysis pubis. The degree of sliding depends on the strength of the cough. In all cases of pure stress incontinence without there being low urethral closure pressure, a maximum stress caused by coughing will produce more than 5 MM sliding before the urethra opens. If the urinary incontinence is due to low urethral closure pressure, the urethra opens without sliding of the urethro-vesical junction whenever the abdominal pressure increases. Urethral instability resembles voluntary voiding but without any voluntary command. "Prepubic" contractions, longitudinal contractions in the sphincteric area and slackening of the levator ani muscles, alone or in association, explain why urethral closure pressure drops. Sometimes this drop is followed by an increase in bladder pressure. PMID:3330102

  10. Clinical Features of Bacterial Vaginosis in a Murine Model of Vaginal Infection with Gardnerella vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Nicole M.; Lewis, Warren G.; Lewis, Amanda L.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis of the vaginal flora characterized by a shift from a Lactobacillus-dominant environment to a polymicrobial mixture including Actinobacteria and Gram-negative bacilli. BV is a common vaginal condition in women and is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth. Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the most frequently isolated bacterial species in BV. However, there has been much debate in the literature concerning the contribution of G. vaginalis to the etiology of BV, since it is also present in a significant proportion of healthy women. Here we present a new murine vaginal infection model with a clinical isolate of G. vaginalis. Our data demonstrate that this model displays key features used clinically to diagnose BV, including the presence of sialidase activity and exfoliated epithelial cells with adherent bacteria (reminiscent of clue cells). G. vaginalis was capable of ascending uterine infection, which correlated with the degree of vaginal infection and level of vaginal sialidase activity. The host response to G. vaginalis infection was characterized by robust vaginal epithelial cell exfoliation in the absence of histological inflammation. Our analyses of clinical specimens from women with BV revealed a measureable epithelial exfoliation response compared to women with normal flora, a phenotype that, to our knowledge, is measured here for the first time. The results of this study demonstrate that G. vaginalis is sufficient to cause BV phenotypes and suggest that this organism may contribute to BV etiology and associated complications. This is the first time vaginal infection by a BV associated bacterium in an animal has been shown to parallel the human disease with regard to clinical diagnostic features. Future studies with this model should facilitate investigation of important questions regarding BV etiology, pathogenesis and associated complications. PMID:23527214

  11. Influence of endometriosis on visceromotor and cardiovascular responses induced by vaginal distention in the rat

    E-print Network

    Berkley, Karen J.

    Influence of endometriosis on visceromotor and cardiovascular responses induced by vaginal; accepted 30 April 2007 Abstract This study examined pseudoaffective responses elicited by vaginal. Distendable latex balloons were inserted into the vaginal canal. While an increasing series of vaginal

  12. Vaginal oestrogen for overactive bladder in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ostle, Zoe

    2015-06-11

    This article asks the question 'Should nurses recommend vaginal oestrogen for overactive bladder in post-menopausal women?' The article will review the evidence for use of vaginal oestrogen and consider the potential side-effects and risks. The main finding is that vaginal oestrogen is effective for treatment of overactive bladder in post-menopausal women with vaginal atrophy. However, vaginal atrophy is undertreated. This article identifies some of the barriers that may prevent diagnosis and treatment, and suggests changes in practice. Nurses should take the initiative and ask post-menopausal women about symptoms. Nurses should be trained to examine women, diagnose vaginal atrophy and discuss treatment. PMID:26067792

  13. Evaluation of the Affirm Ambient Temperature Transport System for the Detection and Identification of Trichomonas vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Candida Species from Vaginal Fluid Specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HAYWOOD L. BROWN; EANNA D. FULLER; THOMAS E. DAVIS; JANE R. SCHWEBKE; SHARON L. HILLIER

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the performance of the Affirm Ambient Temperature Transport System (ATTS) over time and to estimate the length of time the system can preserve a vaginal specimen containing the three common organisms causing vaginitis: Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida species, and Gard- nerella vaginalis (one of the causative agents of bacterial vaginosis). Women with symptoms

  14. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and HR-ToF-AMS measurements at a coastal site in Hong Kong: size-resolved CCN activity and closure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, J. W.; Yeung, M. C.; Li, Y. J.; Lee, B. Y. L.; Chan, C. K.

    2014-04-01

    The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties of atmospheric aerosols were measured on 1-30 May 2011 at a coastal site in Hong Kong. Size-resolved CCN activation curves, the ratio of number concentration of CCN (NCCN) to aerosol concentration (NCN) as a function of particle size, were obtained at supersaturation (SS) = 0.15%, 0.35%, 0.50%, and 0.70% using a DMT CCN counter (CCNc) and a TSI scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The mean bulk size-integrated NCCN ranged from ∼500 cm-3 at SS = 0.15% to ∼2100 cm-3 at SS = 0.70%, and the mean bulk NCCN / NCN ratio ranged from 0.16 at SS = 0.15% to 0.65 at SS = 0.70%. The average critical mobility diameters (D50) at SS = 0.15%, 0.35%, 0.50%, and 0.70% were 116 nm, 67 nm, 56 nm, and 46 nm, respectively. The corresponding average hygroscopic parameters (?CCN) were 0.39, 0.36, 0.31, and 0.28. The decrease in ?CCN can be attributed to the increase in organic to inorganic volume ratio as particle size decreases, as measured by an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The ?CCN correlates reasonably well with ?AMS based on size-resolved AMS measurements: ?AMS = ?org × forg + ?inorg × finorg, where forg and finorg are the organic and inorganic volume fractions, respectively, ?org = 0.1 and ?inorg = 0.6, with a R2 of 0.51. In closure analysis, NCCN was estimated by integrating the measured size-resolved NCN for particles larger than D50 derived from ? assuming internal mixing state. Estimates using ?AMS from size-resolved AMS measurements show that the measured and predicted NCCN were generally within 10% of each other at all four SS. The deviation increased to 26% when ?AMS was calculated from bulk PM1 AMS measurements of particles because PM1 was dominated by particles of 200 nm to 500 nm in diameter, which had a larger inorganic fraction than those of D50 (particle diameter < 200 nm). A constant ? = 0.33 (the average value of size-resolved ?AMS over the course of campaign) was found to give an NCCN prediction within 12% of the actual measured values. We also compared NCCN estimates based on the measured average D50 and the average size-resolved CCN activation ratio to examine the relative importance of hygroscopicity and mixing state. NCCN was found to be relatively more sensitive to the mixing state and hygroscopicity at a high SS = 0.70% and a low SS = 0.15%, respectively.

  15. Evaluation of Rapidly Disintegrating Vaginal Tablets of Tenofovir, Emtricitabine and Their Combination for HIV-1 Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Meredith R.; Peet, M. Melissa; Davis, Sarah; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Friend, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal tablets are being developed as an alternative to gels as an inexpensive, discreet dosage form for the administration of microbicides. This work describes the pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluation of rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets containing tenofovir (TFV, 10 mg), emtricitabine (FTC, 10 mg), and the combination of TFV and FTC (10 mg each) under in vitro and in vivo conditions, and in direct comparison to the clinical TFV 1% gel, a microbicide product in Phase III clinical testing. The PK of TFV and FTC from tablets were also evaluated in female rabbits following intravaginal administration. Direct comparison of a single dose of TFV tablets (intact or predissolved at 10 mg/mL) and TFV 1% gel showed no differences in the vaginal PK of TFV between groups; however systemic bioavailability of TFV was significantly higher from the gel. When rabbits were dosed either once or daily for seven days with intact tablets of TFV, FTC, or the combination of TFV/FTC, vaginal and systemic concentrations of TFV and FTC were unaffected by co-formulation. Moreover, plasma PK parameters were similar following a single dose or seven once-daily doses. Tissue concentrations of TFV and FTC in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration ranged between 104 and 105 ng/g. Concentrations of TFV-diphospate (TFV-DP, the active metabolite) were also high (over 103 ng/g or about 3000 to 6000 fmol/mg) in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration and similar to those measured following administration of TFV 1% gel. These data demonstrate that rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets may be a suitable topical microbicide dosage form providing similar vaginal TFV PK to that of TFV 1% gel. The data also support co-administration of FTC with TFV in a single vaginal tablet to create a combination microbicide in a simple and inexpensive dosage form. PMID:25494201

  16. Administration of oral and vaginal prebiotic lactoferrin for a woman with a refractory vaginitis recurring preterm delivery: appearance of lactobacillus in vaginal flora followed by term delivery.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Katsufumi; Tokunaka, Mayumi; Oba, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Shirato, Nahoko; Okai, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is one of the prebiotics present in the human body. A 38-year-old multiparous woman with poor obstetrical histories, three consecutive preterm premature rupture of membrane at the 19th, 23rd and 25th week of pregnancy, was referred to our hospital. She was diagnosed as having refractory vaginitis. Although estriol vaginal tablets were used for 4 months, the vaginitis was not cured. We administrated vaginal tablets and oral agents of prebiotic LF, resulting in a Lactobacillus predominant vaginal flora. When she was pregnant, she continued to use the LF, and the Lactobacillus in the vaginal flora was continuously observed during pregnancy. An elective cesarean section was performed at the 38th week of pregnancy. When the administration of LF was discontinued after the delivery, Lactobacillus in the vaginal flora was disappeared. PMID:24118573

  17. Effect of Vaginal Lubricants on Natural Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Anne Z.; Long, D. Leann; Tanner, Catherine; Herring, Amy H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over-the-counter vaginal lubricants have been shown to negatively affect in vitro sperm motility. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of vaginal lubricant use during procreative intercourse on natural fertility. Methods Women aged 30–44 years with no history of infertility who had been trying to conceive for less than 3 months completed a baseline questionnaire on vaginal lubricant use. Subsequently, women kept a diary to record menstrual bleeding, intercourse, and vaginal lubricant use and conducted standardized pregnancy testing for up to 6 months. Diary data were used to determine the fertile window and delineate lubricant use during the fertile window. A proportional hazards model was used to estimate fecundability ratios with any lubricant use in the fertile window considered as a time-varying exposure. Results Of the 296 participants, 75 (25%) stated in their baseline questionnaire that they use vaginal lubricants while attempting to conceive. Based on daily diary data, 57% of women never used a lubricant, 29% occasionally used a lubricant, and 14% used a lubricant frequently. Women who used lubricants during the fertile window had similar fecundability to those women who did not use lubricants (fecundability ratio 1.05, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.85) after adjusting for age, partner race, and intercourse frequency in the fertile window. Conclusion Lubricants are commonly used by couples during procreative intercourse. Lubricant use during procreative intercourse does not appear to reduce the probability of conceiving. PMID:22914390

  18. A comprehensive review of vaginitis phytotherapy.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Hanieh; Fallah-Tafti, Mehrnaz; Karimi-Darmiyan, Maliheh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-11-01

    To overview phytotherapy of vaginitis in order to identify new approaches for new pharmacological treatments. All related literature databases were searched for herbal medicinal treatment in vaginitis. The search terms were plant, herb, herbal therapy, phytotherapy, vaginitis, vaginal, anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas. All of the human, animal and in vitro studies were included. Anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas effects were the key outcomes. The plants including carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, menthol, terpinen-4-ol and thymol exhibited anti-candida effects. A very low concentration of geranium oil and geraniol blocked mycelial growth, but not yeast. Tea tree oil including terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpineol showed anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-protozoal properties against trichomonas. Allium hirtifolium (persian shallot) comparable to metronidazole exhibited anti-trichomonas activity due to its components such as allicin, ajoene and other organosulfides. The plants having beneficial effects on vaginitis encompass essential oils that clear the pathway that future studies should be focused to standardize theses herbs. PMID:22514885

  19. The preterm prediction study: Significance of vaginal infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Meis; Robert L. Goldenberg; Brian Mercer; Atef Moawad; Anita Das; Donald McNellis; Francee Johnson; Jay D. Iams; Elizabeth Thom; William W. Andrews

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the association of bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginitis, and monilial vaginitis with spontaneous preterm birth at<35 weeks 0 days.STUDY DESIGN: A total of 2929 women at 10 centers were studied at 24 and 28 weeks' gestation by Gram stain of vaginal smear, wet mount, and 10% potassium hydroxide preparations to detect vaginal infections.RESULTS: The rates

  20. Effect of estradiol valerate and levonorgestrel on vaginal health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jittima Manonai; Apichart Chittacharoen; Urusa Theppisai

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of the combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT) estradiol valerate\\/levonorgestrel on vaginal symptoms, vaginal health index, vaginal pH, and vaginal cytology. Study design: A prospective, open-label study involving 32 postmenopausal women was performed in Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. All the subjects received sequential oral estrogen–progestogen hormone replacement therapy, which contains 2mg estradiol valerate and

  1. 6. Launch closure, close up of closure motor, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Launch closure, close up of closure motor, view towards north - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  2. The myth of closure.

    PubMed

    Boss, Pauline; Carnes, Donna

    2012-12-01

    Therapies for grief and loss have traditionally focused on the work of grieving. The goal was to reach an endpoint, now popularly called closure. There are, however, many people who, through no fault of their own, find a loss so unclear that there can be no end to grief. They have not failed in the work of grieving, but rather have suffered ambiguous loss, a type of loss that is inherently open ended. Instead of closure, the therapeutic goal is to help people find meaning despite the lack of definitive information and finality. Hope lies in increasing a family's tolerance for ambiguity, but first, professionals must increase their own comfort with unanswered questions. In this article, the authors, one a poet, the other a family therapist and theorist, offer a unique blending of theory, reflection, and poetry to experientially deepen the process of self-reflection about a kind of loss that defies closure. PMID:23230978

  3. A closure study of aerosol mass concentration measurements: comparison of values obtained with filters and by direct measurements of mass distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kihong; Kittelson, David B.; McMurry, Peter H.

    We compare measurements of aerosol mass concentrations obtained gravimetrically using Teflon coated glass fiber filters and by integrating mass distributions measured with the differential mobility analyzer-aerosol particle mass analyzer (DMA-APM) technique (Aerosol Sci. Technol. 36 (2002) 227). The DMA-APM technique measures the distribution of particle mass as a function of mobility size for particles of arbitrary shape and composition (Relationship between particle mass and mobility, and between aerodynamic and mobility size distributions for diesel exhaust particles, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2003). Because DMA-APM measurements are made on particles suspended in the air, data are not affected by volatilization or adsorption that can affect the accuracy of the filter measurements. We show that the average ratio of the filter to DMA-APM mass concentrations for laboratory-generated dioctyl sebacate (DOS) and sodium chloride (NaCl) aerosols is 1.14±0.28, and they are well correlated ( R2>0.97). For diesel exhaust aerosols from an engine operating at 75% load, the two techniques agreed well with the average ratio of 0.98±0.20. When the engine was operated at a low (10%) load, mass concentrations measured with the filter were 2.13±0.54 times higher than values measured with the DMA-APM. We believe that the higher filter loading may be due to the adsorption of condensable vapors, which are emitted at higher rates under low engine load conditions. Measurements in which the condensable organics were removed with a catalytic stripper show much better agreement between the filter and DMA-APM, which support the hypothesis that vapor adsorption leads to artificially high filter data for low-load measurements. We conclude that the DMA-APM technique can be used to evaluate the accuracy of filter samples that may be affected by sampling artifacts, and to measure mass distributions with high time resolution for sub-0.5 ?m aerosols.

  4. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  5. Group A streptococcal vaginitis: an unrecognized cause of vaginal symptoms in adult women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Verstraelen; Rita Verhelst; Mario Vaneechoutte; Marleen Temmerman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  Vaginal infection with group A streptococci (GAS) is an established cause of vaginitis amongst prepubescent girls, but largely\\u000a unrecognized in adult women and therefore often misdiagnosed as vulvovaginal candidosis. We sought to give an overview of\\u000a the epidemiology, risk factors, symptoms, signs, and treatment of GAS vaginitis in adult women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Systematic literature search.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We identified nine case reports covering 12

  6. Vaginal Cuff Dehiscence: Risk Factors and Associated Morbidities

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs Weizman, Noga; Einarsson, Jon I.; Wang, Karen C.; Vitonis, Allison F.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To evaluate whether the route and surgical technique by which hysterectomy is performed influence the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of total hysterectomy cases performed at Brigham and Woman's Hospital or Faulkner Hospital during 2009 through 2011. Results: During the study period, 2382 total hysterectomies were performed; 23 of these (0.96%) were diagnosed with cuff dehiscence, and 4 women had recurrent dehiscence. Both laparoscopic (odds ratio, 23.4; P = .007) and robotic (odds ratio, 73; P = .0006) hysterectomies were associated with increased odds of cuff dehiscence in a multivariate regression analysis. The type of energy used during colpotomy, mode of closure (hand sewn, laparoscopic suturing, or suturing assisted by a device), and suture material did not differ significantly between groups; however, continuous suturing of the cuff was a protective factor (odds ratio, 0.24; P = .03). Women with dehiscence had more extensive procedures, as well as an increased incidence of additional major postoperative complications (17.4% vs 3%, P = .004). Conclusion: The rate of cuff dehiscence in our cohort correlates with the current literature. This study suggests that the risk of dehiscence is influenced mainly by the scope and complexity of the surgical procedure. It seems that different colpotomy techniques do not influence the rate of cuff dehiscence; however, continuous suturing of the cuff may be superior to interrupted suturing. PMID:25901104

  7. Feasibility of histological scoring and colony count for evaluating infective severity in mouse vaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-E; Luo, Dan; Chen, Rong-Yi; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Ying; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative measurement of the infective level is relatively difficult in experimental vaginal candidiasis. Female BALB/c mice aged 8 to 10 weeks were randomly divided into E1, E2 and E0 groups, which received subcutaneous injection of 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg of estradiol benzoate or 0.1 ml soybean oil 3 days before vaginal inoculation, respectively, and hormone treatment continued every other day thereafter. Each group was further divided into infected and noninfected subgroups. The infected mice were inoculated intravaginally with 10 ?l (5 × 10(4) conidia) of Candida albicans suspension, while the noninfected mice were inoculated with 10 ?l phosphate-buffered saline. Direct microscopic examination, colony count and vaginal histopathology including infection degree and inflammation extent were performed at 3, 7 and 14 days post inoculation. Estrogen treatment increased the vaginal fungal burden and extent of infection and inflammation compared with the control group, and 0.3 mg/week estrogen generally induced more severe infection and inflammation than 0.15 mg/week estrogen did. Colony count peaked on day 3 and decreased remarkably after 7 days. Infection score increased gradually during the first 7 days and decreased on day 14, while inflammation extent exacerbated progressively over the course of 14 days. This study demonstrates that the modified histological scoring system might be more feasible than colony count for evaluation of infectivity and dynamic change in experimental vaginal candidiasis. PMID:23903055

  8. Tank closure reducing grout

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  9. Ocular Biometry in Angle Closure

    PubMed Central

    Razeghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Banifatemi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare ocular biometric parameters in primary angle closure suspects (PACS), primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and acute primary angle closure (APAC). Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 113 patients including 33 cases of PACS, 45 patients with PACG and 35 subjects with APAC. Central corneal thickness (CCT), axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and lens thickness (LT) were measured with an ultrasonic biometer. Lens-axial length factor (LAF), relative lens position, corrected ACD (CACD) and corrected lens position were calculated. The parameters were measured bilaterally but only data from the right eyes were compared. In the APAC group, biometric parameters were also compared between affected and unaffected fellow eyes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors. Results No statistically significant difference was observed in biometric parameters between PACS and PACG eyes, or between affected and fellow eyes in the APAC group (P>0.05 for all comparisons). However, eyes with APAC had thicker cornea (P=0.001), thicker lens (P<0.0001), shallower ACD (P=0.009), shallower CACD (P=0.003) and larger LAF (P<0.0001). Based on ROC curve analysis, lower ACD, and larger LT, LAF and CCT values were associated with APAC. In the APAC group, LAF (P<0.0001) and CCT (P=0.001) were significant risk factors. Conclusion This study revealed no significant difference in biometric characteristics in eyes with PACS and PACG. However, larger LAF and CCT were predictive of APAC. PMID:23825708

  10. Fixation of the vaginal apex to the coccygeous fascia during repair of vaginal vault eversion with enterocele

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Peters; Maureen L. Christenson

    1995-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of fixation of the vaginal apex to the coccygeus fascia with fixation to the sacrospinous ligament during surgical repair of vaginal vault eversion with enetrocele.Study design: The records of 121 patients with postheysterectomy vaginal vault eversion with enterocele treated by the author between 1983 and 1994 were reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative

  11. Immunity to vaginal infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 in adult mice: characterization of the immunoglobulins in vaginal mucus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Earl L Parr; John J Bozzola; Margaret B Parr

    1998-01-01

    Progestin-treated female mice are susceptible to vaginal infection by two sexually transmitted disease organisms: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Chlamydia trachomatis. Vaccination of mice with HSV-2 or chlamydial antigens elicits immunity to vaginal infection that may be due in part to secreted antibodies in the vaginal lumen. Analysis of the role of these antibodies in immunity would be

  12. Constructing Force-Closure Grasps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Van-duc Nguyen

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents fast and simple algorithms for directly constructing force-closure grasps based on the shape of the grasped object. The synthesis of force-closure grasps finds in dependent regions of contact for the fingertips, such that the motion of the grasped object is totally constrained. A force- closure grasp implies equilibrium grasps exist. In the reverse direction, we show that

  13. The role of mode of delivery on elastic fiber architecture and vaginal vault elasticity: a rodent model study

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Keith; Billah, Mubashir; Raparia, Eva; Shah, Anup; Silverstein, Moshe; Ahmad, Amanda; Boutis, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of the role of mode of delivery and pregnancy on the architecture of vaginal elastic fibers and vaginal vault elasticity in female Sprague-Dawley rats. In primiparous rats submitted to spontaneous or Cesarean delivery and virgin rats submitted to simulated delivery, the tortuosity of elastic fibers (defined as the ratio of length to end-to-end distance) was observed to decrease when measured two days to two weeks postpartum. In addition, the measured tortuosity of elastic fibers in multiparous rats was greater than that of virgin rats. The tortuosity of elastic fibers of all rats measured at two days postpartum were found to be similar to that of multiparous rats. At two weeks postpartum the measured tortuosity of vaginal elastic fibers was indistinguishable from virgin rats, regardless of the delivery method. Borrowing from the field of polymer physics, a model is suggested that connects elastic fiber tortuosity to the resulting tension under an applied stress; fibers having high tortuosity are expected to provide less structural support than more linear, low tortuosity fibers. To probe the macroscopic effects in elasticity due to architectural changes observed in elastic fibers, we have measured the stiffness of the vaginal vault in each cohort using a pressure-infusion system. The vaginal vault stiffness of all primiparous rats measured two weeks postpartum was greater than that measured two days postpartum. In addition, the vaginal vault of virgin rats was stiffer than that of multiparous rats. These observations confirmed that vaginal vault elastic fibers undergo significant remodeling due to pregnancy and parturition, and that the complex remodeling may be a significant contributor to tissue elasticity. Remarkably, regardless of the mode of delivery or simulated tissue trauma, elastic fiber tortuosity is observed to decrease from two days to two weeks postpartum indicating the onset of repair and recovery of tissue stiffness. PMID:24099948

  14. Vaginal Lactobacillus: biofilm formation in vivo - clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Ventolini, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli provide protection against intrusive pathogenic bacteria. Some Lactobacillus spp. produce in vitro a thick, protective biofilm. We report in vivo formation of biofilm by vaginal Lactobacillus jensenii. The biofilm formation was captured in fresh wet-mount microscopic samples from asymptomatic patients after treatment for recurrent bacterial vaginitis. In vivo documentation of biofilm formation is in our opinion noteworthy, and has significant clinical implications, among which are the possibility to isolate, grow, and therapeutically utilize lactobacilli to prevent recurrent vaginal infections and preterm labor associated with vaginal microbial pathogens. PMID:25733930

  15. Secretory Aspartyl Proteinases Cause Vaginitis and Can Mediate Vaginitis Caused by Candida albicans in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Amacker, Mario; Kasper, Lydia; Roselletti, Elena; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Kaeser, Matthias; Moser, Christian; Hube, Bernhard; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaginal inflammation (vaginitis) is the most common disease caused by the human-pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Secretory aspartyl proteinases (Sap) are major virulence traits of C. albicans that have been suggested to play a role in vaginitis. To dissect the mechanisms by which Sap play this role, Sap2, a dominantly expressed member of the Sap family and a putative constituent of an anti-Candida vaccine, was used. Injection of full-length Sap2 into the mouse vagina caused local neutrophil influx and accumulation of the inflammasome-dependent interleukin-1? (IL-1?) but not of inflammasome-independent tumor necrosis factor alpha. Sap2 could be replaced by other Sap, while no inflammation was induced by the vaccine antigen, the N-terminal-truncated, enzymatically inactive tSap2. Anti-Sap2 antibodies, in particular Fab from a human combinatorial antibody library, inhibited or abolished the inflammatory response, provided the antibodies were able, like the Sap inhibitor Pepstatin A, to inhibit Sap enzyme activity. The same antibodies and Pepstatin A also inhibited neutrophil influx and cytokine production stimulated by C. albicans intravaginal injection, and a mutant strain lacking SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 was unable to cause vaginal inflammation. Sap2 induced expression of activated caspase-1 in murine and human vaginal epithelial cells. Caspase-1 inhibition downregulated IL-1? and IL-18 production by vaginal epithelial cells, and blockade of the IL-1? receptor strongly reduced neutrophil influx. Overall, the data suggest that some Sap, particularly Sap2, are proinflammatory proteins in vivo and can mediate the inflammasome-dependent, acute inflammatory response of vaginal epithelial cells to C. albicans. These findings support the notion that vaccine-induced or passively administered anti-Sap antibodies could contribute to control vaginitis. PMID:26037125

  16. Development and evaluation of acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet for mixed vaginal infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohd Aftab Alam; Farhan Jalees Ahmad; Zeenat Iqbal Khan; Roop Krishen Khar; Mushir Ali

    2007-01-01

    An acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was developed for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections. From the bioadhesion\\u000a experiment and release studies it was found that polycarbophil and sodium carboxymethylcellulose is a good combination for\\u000a an acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet. Sodium monocitrate was used as a buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4),\\u000a which is an attribute of a healthy vagina.

  17. Evaluation of the Hall-effect sensor for determination of eyelid closure in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVEN R. HAMIEL; JOEL N. BLEICHER; MARTIN R. TUBACH; JAMES C. CRONAN

    1995-01-01

    A small device to detect eyelid closure was designed on the basis of a Hall-effect sensor. Accurate sensing of normal eyelid closure is required to develop a prosthetic eyelid closure device for patients with paralyzed orbicularis oculi muscles. In this study, six rabbits had the sensors surgically implanted. A Hall-effect sensor, a small device that measures magnetic fields, was implanted

  18. Effect of Duration of Teat Cup Liner Closure Per Pulsation Cycle on Bovine Mastitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. Reitsma; E. J. CANTfl; R. J. Grindal; D. R. Westgarth; A. J. Bramley

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of teat end expansion and contraction times from step changes in pressure suggest that teat ends require a minimal duration of liner closure for response. Effect of duration of liner closure per pulsation cycle on suscepti- bility of the udder to infection was tested. Four durations of liner closure (liner more than half closed) were applied: zero, .17, .34,

  19. Development of an arid site closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, J.W.; Barnes, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes the development of a prototype plan for the effective closure and stabilization of an arid low-level waste disposal site. This plan will provide demonstrated closure techniques for a trench in a disposal site at Los Alamos. The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models, CREAMS and HELP, was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that CREAMS generally represented soil moisture more accurately than HELP simulations. Precautions for determining parameter values for model input and for interpreting simulation results are discussed. A specific example is presented showing how the field-validated hydrologic models can be used to develop a final prototype closure plan. 15 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. [Neonatal outcomes after instrumental vaginal delivery].

    PubMed

    Baud, O

    2008-12-01

    Instrumental vaginal delivery is currently widely used among obstetrical practices and leads to significant decrease in fetal mortality and morbidity. However, these practices could be associated with several neonatal adverse effects. Very few of these complications are specific and most of them could be observed during normal vaginal delivery. Neonatal mortality is not changed by forceps or vacuum use if no other risk factors are associated. The main neonatal adverse outcomes described with both techniques are extra and intracranial haemorrhages. Usually, intra-cerebral haemorrhages have good neurological prognosis. However, few longitudinal studies are available in the literature on long term outcome of exposed newborns. Other traumatic complications observed when using forceps (facial nerve palsy, cranial skull) are not associated with long term functional consequences. Many of the most severe neonatal complications are observed when perinatal asphyxia has occurred. Extractor types and quality of use under defined criteria are closely associated with neonatal adverse outcomes in operative vaginal delivery. Forceps deliveries are as safe as vacuum deliveries to the neonate. In conclusion, operative vaginal delivery performed for maternal or fetal reasons are associated with several neonatal adverse events, usually non specific and with a short term good prognosis. PMID:19268202

  1. Vaginal mesh erosion after abdominal sacral colpopexy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony G. Visco; Alison C. Weidner; Matthew D. Barber; Evan R. Myers; Geoffrey W. Cundiff; Richard C. Bump; W. Allen Addison

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Our goal was to compare the prevalence of vaginal mesh erosion between abdominal sacral colpopexy and various sacral colpoperineopexy procedures. Study Design: We undertook a retrospective analysis of all sacral colpopexies and colpoperineopexies performed between March 1, 1992, and February 28, 1999. The patients were divided into the following 4 groups: abdominal sacral colpopexy, abdominal sacral colpoperineopexy, and 2

  2. Postirradiation angiosarcoma of the vaginal vault

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.W.; SenGupta, S.K. (Queen's Univ., Kingston, (Ontario))

    1991-05-01

    We describe a unique case of an angiosarcoma arising in the vaginal vault 21 years after hysterectomy and radiotherapy for stage I carcinoma of the cervix. We also review the literature regarding angiosarcomas arising after previous radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies.

  3. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español ... Guide to Body Image Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not KidsHealth > ...

  4. Vaginal misoprostol compared with vaginal gemeprost in termination of second trimester pregnancy. A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Wong, K S; Ngai, C S; Wong, A Y; Tang, L C; Ho, P C

    1998-10-01

    A prospective randomized trial was conducted in 140 women to compare the efficacy of vaginal gemeprost with vaginal misoprostol for termination of second trimester pregnancy. Women requesting termination of second trimester pregnancy were randomized into two groups. Group A women were given 1 mg vaginal gemeprost every 3 h for a maximum of five doses in the first 24 h, whereas group B women were given 400 micrograms vaginal misoprostol every 3 h for a maximum of five doses in 24 h. The median induction-abortion interval in the vaginal misoprostol group (14.1 h) was significantly shorter than that in the gemeprost group (19.5 h). The percentage of women who achieved successful abortion within 24 h in the misoprostol group (80.0%) was significantly higher than that in the gemeprost group (58.6%). There was no significant difference in the incidence of side effects between the two groups except for diarrhea, which was more common in the gemeprost group. The incidence of fever was more common in the misoprostol group. It is concluded that vaginal misoprostol is more effective than gemeprost in termination of second trimester pregnancy. PMID:9866000

  5. Atrophic Vaginitis in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Difficult Survivorship Issue

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Joanne; Pahouja, Gaurav; Andersen, Barbara; Lustberg, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Management of breast cancer includes systematic therapies including chemotherapy and endocrine therapy can lead to a variety of symptoms that can impair the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. Atrophic vaginitis, caused by decreased levels of circulating estrogen to urinary and vaginal receptors, is commonly experienced by this group. Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure and endocrine therapies including aromatase inhibitors and selective estrogen receptor modulators can trigger the onset of atrophic vaginitis or exacerbate existing symptoms. Symptoms of atrophic vaginitis include vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and irritation of genital skin, pruritus, burning, vaginal discharge, and soreness. The diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis is confirmed through patient-reported symptoms and gynecological examination of external structures, introitus, and vaginal mucosa. Lifestyle modifications can be helpful but are usually insufficient to significantly improve symptoms. Non-hormonal vaginal therapies may provide additional relief by increasing vaginal moisture and fluid. Systemic estrogen therapy is contraindicated in breast cancer survivors. Continued investigations of various treatments for atrophic vaginitis are necessary. Local estrogen-based therapies, DHEA, testosterone, and pH-balanced gels continue to be evaluated in ongoing studies. Definitive results are needed pertaining to the safety of topical estrogens in breast cancer survivors. PMID:25815692

  6. VAGINAL DEGENERATION FOLLOWING IMPLANTATION OF SYNTHETIC MESH WITH INCREASED STIFFNESS

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Rui; Abramowitch, Steven; Knight, Katrina; Palcsey, Stacy; Nolfi, Alexis; Feola, Andrew; Stein, Susan; Moalli, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the impact of the prototype prolapse mesh Gynemesh PS to that of two new generation lower stiffness meshes, UltraPro and SmartMesh, on vaginal morphology and structural composition. Design A mechanistic study employing a non-human primate (NHP) model. Setting Magee-Womens Research Institute at the University of Pittsburgh. Population Parous rhesus macaques, with similar age, weight, parity and POP-Q scores. Methods Following IACUC approval, 50 rhesus macaques were implanted with Gynemesh PS (n=12), UltraPro with its blue line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of vagina (n=10), UltraPro with its blue line parallel to the longitudinal axis of vagina (n=8) and SmartMesh (n=8) via sacrocolpopexy following hysterectomy. Sham operated animals (n=12) served as controls. Main Outcome Measures The mesh-vagina complex (MVC) was removed after 12 weeks and analyzed for histomorphology, in situ cell apoptosis, total collagen, elastin, glycosaminoglycan content and total collagenase activity. Appropriate statistics and correlation analyses were performed accordingly. Results Relative to sham and the two lower stiffness meshes, Gynemesh PS had the greatest negative impact on vaginal histomorphology and composition. Compared to sham, implantation with Gynemesh PS caused substantial thinning of the smooth muscle layer (1557 ± 499?m vs 866 ± 210 ?m, P=0.02), increased apoptosis particularly in the area of the mesh fibers (P=0.01), decreased collagen and elastin content (20% (P=0.03) and 43% (P=0.02), respectively) and increased total collagenase activity (135% (P=0.01)). GAG (glycosaminoglycan), a marker of tissue injury, was the highest with Gynemesh PS compared to sham and other meshes (P=0.01). Conclusion Mesh implantation with the stiffer mesh Gynemesh PS induced a maladaptive remodeling response consistent with vaginal degeneration. PMID:23240802

  7. Characterisation of protein stability in rod-insert vaginal rings.

    PubMed

    Pattani, Aditya; Lowry, Deborah; Curran, Rhonda M; McGrath, Stephanie; Kett, Vicky L; Andrews, Gavin P; Malcolm, R Karl

    2012-07-01

    A major goal in vaccine development is elimination of the 'cold chain', the transport and storage system for maintenance and distribution of the vaccine product. This is particularly pertinent to liquid formulation of vaccines. We have previously described the rod-insert vaginal ring (RiR) device, comprising an elastomeric body into which are inserted lyophilised, rod-shaped, solid drug dosage forms, and having potential for sustained mucosal delivery of biomacromolecules, such as HIV envelope protein-based vaccine candidates. Given the solid, lyophilised nature of these insert dosage forms, we hypothesised that antigen stability may be significantly increased compared with more conventional solubilised vaginal gel format. In this study, we prepared and tested vaginal ring devices fitted with lyophilised rod inserts containing the model antigen bovine serum albumin (BSA). Both the RiRs and the gels that were freeze-dried to prepare the inserts were evaluated for BSA stability using PAGE, turbidimetry, microbial load, MALDI-TOF and qualitative precipitate solubility measurements. When stored at 4 °C, but not when stored at 40 °C/75% RH, the RiR formulation offered protection against structural and conformational changes to BSA. The insert also retained matrix integrity and release characteristics. The results demonstrate that lypophilised gels can provide relative protection against degradation at lower temperatures compared to semi-solid gels. The major mechanism of degradation at 40 °C/75% RH was shown to be protein aggregation. Finally, in a preliminary study, we found that addition of trehalose to the formulation significantly reduces the rate of BSA degradation compared to the original formulation when stored at 40 °C/75% RH. Establishing the mechanism of degradation, and finding that degradation is decelerated in the presence of trehalose, will help inform further development of RiRs specifically and polymer based freeze-dried systems in general. PMID:22486955

  8. Bowel Preparation Before Vaginal Prolapse Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Alicia C.; Parker-Autry, Candace Y.; Markland, Alayne D.; Varner, R. Edward; Huisingh, Carrie; Richter, Holly E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare surgeons’ intraoperative surgeon acceptability or assessment of the operative field regarding bowel contents. and patients’ satisfaction with or without a mechanical bowel preparation prior to reconstructive vaginal prolapse surgery. Methods In this single-blind, randomized trial, women scheduled to undergo vaginal prolapse surgery with a planned apical suspension and posterior colporrhaphy were allocated using block-randomization to an intervention or control group. Surgeons were blinded to patient allocation. One day prior to surgery, mechanical bowel preparation instructions consisted of a clear-liquid diet and two self-administered saline enemas; the controls sustained a regular diet and nothing by mouth after midnight. The primary outcome was surgeons’ intraoperative assessment of surgical field regarding bowel contents, as measured on a 4-point Likert scale (1, excellent; 4, poor). Secondary outcomes included participant satisfaction and bowel symptoms. The primary outcome was determined by intention-to-treat analysis and other analyses were per protocol. Results Of the 150 women randomized (75 women to intervention and control), 145 completed the study. No differences existed in the demographic, clinical, and intraoperative characteristics between groups (p>0.05). Surgeons’ intraoperative assessment rating was 85% “excellent/good” with bowel preparation vs. 90% for controls (OR=0.59, 95% CI 0.21–1.61; p=0.30). The bowel preparation group was less likely to report “complete” satisfaction compared to the controls (OR=0.11, 95% CI 0.04–0.35; p<0.001). Abdominal fullness and cramping, fatigue, anal irritation, and hunger pains were greater in the bowel preparation group (all p<0.01). Conclusion Prior to reconstructive vaginal surgery, mechanical bowel preparation conferred no benefit regarding surgeons’ intraoperative assessment of operative field, reflected decreased patient satisfaction, and had increased abdominal symptoms. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01431040. PMID:24402594

  9. Development of self-contained, indwelling vaginal temperature probe for use in cattle research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A device was developed to monitor the vaginal temperature of cattle in a research setting. This device decreases labor involved with monitoring temperature compared with manual temperature readings. It also allows for temperature measurements without the presence of a human handler or without restra...

  10. Vaginal Douching Among Latinas: Practices and Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, María; Anderson, Matthew R.; Alvarez, Adelyn; Karasz, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Vaginal douching is widely practiced by American women, particularly among minority groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. This research sought to investigate vaginal hygiene practices and meaning associated with them among Latina women and adolescents. Study results would guide development of an intervention to decrease douching among Latinas. Methods In depth qualitative interviews conducted with English- and Spanish-speaking women aged 16–40, seeking care for any reason who reported douching within the last year (n = 34). Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods. One-third of interviews were conducted in Spanish. Results Two explanatory models for douching motives emerged: one stressed cosmetic benefits; the other, infection prevention and control. Most women reported douching to eliminate menstrual residue; a small number reported douching in context of sexual intercourse or vaginal symptoms. Many were unaware of associated health risks. Respondents typically learned about douching from female family members and friends. Male partners were described as having little to no involvement in the decision to douche. Women varied in their willingness to stop douching. Two-thirds reported receiving harm reduction messages about “overdouching”. About half indicated previous discussion about douching with health care providers; some had reduced frequency in response to counseling. A number of previously unreported vaginal hygiene practices and products were described, including use of a range of traditional hygiene practices, and products imported from outside the US. Conclusions Respondents expressed a range of commitment to douching. Counseling messages acknowledging benefits women perceive as well as health risks should be developed and delivered tailored to individual beliefs. Further research is needed to assess prevalence and safety of previously unreported practices. PMID:18297379

  11. The vaginal microflora in relation to gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Gingivitis has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with APO. We assessed if bacterial counts in BV is associated with gingivitis suggesting a systemic infectious susceptibilty. Methods Vaginal samples were collected from 180 women (mean age 29.4 years, SD ± 6.8, range: 18 to 46), and at least six months after delivery, and assessed by semi-quantitative DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization assay (74 bacterial species). BV was defined by Gram stain (Nugent criteria). Gingivitis was defined as bleeding on probing at ? 20% of tooth sites. Results A Nugent score of 0–3 (normal vaginal microflora) was found in 83 women (46.1%), and a score of > 7 (BV) in 49 women (27.2%). Gingivitis was diagnosed in 114 women (63.3%). Women with a diagnosis of BV were more likely to have gingivitis (p = 0.01). Independent of gingival conditions, vaginal bacterial counts were higher (p < 0.001) for 38/74 species in BV+ in comparison to BV- women. Counts of four lactobacilli species were higher in BV- women (p < 0.001). Independent of BV diagnosis, women with gingivitis had higher counts of Prevotella bivia (p < 0.001), and Prevotella disiens (p < 0.001). P. bivia, P. disiens, M. curtisii and M. mulieris (all at the p < 0.01 level) were found at higher levels in the BV+/G+ group than in the BV+/G- group. The sum of bacterial load (74 species) was higher in the BV+/G+ group than in the BV+/G- group (p < 0.05). The highest odds ratio for the presence of bacteria in vaginal samples (> 1.0 × 104 cells) and a diagnosis of gingivitis was 3.9 for P. bivia (95% CI 1.5–5.7, p < 0.001) and 3.6 for P. disiens (95%CI: 1.8–7.5, p < 0.001), and a diagnosis of BV for P. bivia (odds ratio: 5.3, 95%CI: 2.6 to 10.4, p < 0.001) and P. disiens (odds ratio: 4.4, 95% CI: 2.2 to 8.8, p < 0.001). Conclusion Higher vaginal bacterial counts can be found in women with BV and gingivitis in comparison to women with BV but not gingivitis. P. bivia and P. disiens may be of specific significance in a relationship between vaginal and gingival infections. PMID:19161595

  12. Improvements of vaginal atrophy without systemic side effects after topical application of Pueraria mirifica, a phytoestrogen-rich herb, in postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Jaroenporn, Sukanya; Urasopon, Nontakorn; Watanabe, Gen; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2014-01-01

    The estrogenic efficacy of topical vaginal application of Pueraria mirifica extract (PM) on the restoration of vaginal atrophy, and the presence of any systemic side effects, were investigated in postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques. Twelve postmenopausal cynomolgus macaques, with complete cessation of menstruation for at least 5 years before start of this experiment, were divided into three groups. They received a topical vaginal application daily of 0.1 or 1% (w/w) PM cream or a conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) cream (a mixture of estrone, equilin, 17?-dihydroequilin, 17?-estradiol and 17?-dihydroequilin at 0.625 mg total estrogen/g cream) for 28 days. Estrogenic efficacy was assessed weekly by vaginal cytology assay and vaginal pH measurement, whilst the plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and sex skin coloration levels were determined at the end of each treatment period to evaluate the systemic side effects. PM significantly increased the proportion of superficial cells in a dose-dependent manner, with a similar efficacy between 1% (w/w) PM and CEE. Together with increased vaginal maturation, PM decreased the vaginal pH to acidic levels, as observed in the CEE group. PM induced no detected systemic side effects, whilst CEE decreased the plasma LH level and increased the reddish color of the sex skin during the posttreatment period. Topical vaginal treatment with PM stimulated the maturation of the vaginal epithelium without causing systemic side effects in postmenopausal monkeys. The implication is that PM could be a safer alternative to treat vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. PMID:24748397

  13. The Effect of Arthroscopic Rotator Interval Closure on Glenohumeral Volume.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Brent A; Rosenzweig, Seth D; Sheppard, Evan D; Jennings, Jonathan K; Thompson, Kevin J

    2015-06-01

    The role of rotator interval in shoulder pathology and the effect of its closure are not well understood. In addition, the effect of rotator interval closure on intra-articular glenohumeral volume (GHV) remains unknown. We conducted a study to quantify the GHV reduction obtained with an arthroscopic rotator interval closure and to determine whether medial and lateral interval closures resulted in different degrees of volume reduction. We dissected 8 fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders (mean age, 64.4 years) to the level of the rotator cuff. Volumetric measurements were taken before and after medial and lateral rotator interval closure incorporating the superior glenohumeral ligament and the upper portion of the subscapularis. Arthroscopic closure of the rotator interval with 2 sutures reduced GHV by a mean of 45%. More volume reduction resulted with use of a single lateral interval closure stitch than with use of a single medial stitch (35% vs 24%; P < .02). Arthroscopic rotator interval closure with 2 plication stitches is a powerful tool in reducing intracapsular volume of the shoulder and may be a useful adjunct in restoring glenohumeral stability. If a single plication stitch is preferred, a lateral stitch (vs a medial stitch) can be used for a significantly larger reduction in shoulder volume. PMID:26047004

  14. X-231B oil biodegradation plot: Closure Options Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    The purpose of this Closure Option Study (COS) is to satisfy the environmental documentation requirements for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA). The documentation is required to proceed with closure of the X-231B Oil Biodegradation Plot (X-231B), at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Piketon, Ohio. The concept for performance of a COS was set forth in the closure plan for the site. The Closure Plan states that the final closure action at X-231B shall be determined by the Closure Option Study. This closure Option Study is not intended to be a Feasibility Study as defined in the National Contingency Plan, nor is it a Corrective Measures Study as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. Performance of this study fulfills the requirements mandated by OEPA for completion of the closure plan for X-231B. This study was conducted prior to the initiation of the RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) for Quadrant I of the site. Information generated during the RFI could modify the analysis and recommendations presented in this report.

  15. 50 CFR 654.23 - Southwest Florida seasonal trawl closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.23 Southwest Florida seasonal trawl closure. From January 1 to 1 hour...

  16. 50 CFR 654.23 - Southwest Florida seasonal trawl closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.23 Southwest Florida seasonal trawl closure. From January 1 to 1 hour...

  17. Correlation between premature ejaculation and female vaginal penetration difficulties.

    PubMed

    Bronner, G; Kitrey, N D; Uziel, N; Eli, I; Raviv, G; Ramon, J; Elran, E

    2015-07-01

    Male and female sexual dysfunctions encompass biological, psychological and interpersonal aspects. Premature ejaculation (PE) and female vaginal penetration difficulties (VPD) are problems that may concurrently impair the couple's sexual relationship. We have studied the correlation between PE and VPD in the female partner, in a cross-sectional study of 125 heterosexual couples (male age 35.01±10.63; female age 32.36±10.07). VPD included tampon insertion, gynecological examination, inserting self-finger or partner-finger and penile-vaginal intercourse. Female sexual function index (FSFI) and a validated PE questionnaire were used to measure the female sexual function and PE in their male partners. We found that female partners of men with anteportal ejaculation were found to experience significantly more VPDs, especially with regard to difficulties in penile penetration and tampon use. The intensity of pain in VPD was higher in females whose male partners presented anteportal ejaculation. No significant correlation was found between total male PE score and the total FSFI or separate domains of female sexual function. The results suggest that female VPD and male anteportal ejaculation are interrelated. Such severe couple sexual problems should be addressed in parallel. Further research is required to study the causation of PE and VPD. PMID:25716748

  18. Relationship among vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of female pelvic floor muscles.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Vanessa S; Hirakawa, Humberto S; Oliveira, Ana B; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-10-10

    Background: The proper evaluation of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) is essential for choosing the correct treatment. Currently, there is no gold standard for the assessment of female PFM function. Objective: To determine the correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the female PFM. Method: This cross-sectional study evaluated 80 women between 18 and 35 years of age who were nulliparous and had no pelvic floor dysfunction. PFM function was assessed based on digital palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic activity, bilateral diameter of the bulbocavernosus muscles and the amount of bladder neck movement during voluntary PFM contraction using transperineal bi-dimensional ultrasound. The Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05). Results: There was a strong positive correlation between PFM function and PFM contraction pressure (0.90). In addition, there was a moderate positive correlation between these two variables and PFM electromyographic activity (0.59 and 0.63, respectively) and movement of the bladder neck in relation to the pubic symphysis (0.51 and 0.60, respectively). Conclusions: This study showed that there was a correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the PFM in nulliparous women. The strong correlation between digital palpation and PFM contraction pressure indicated that perineometry could easily be replaced by PFM digital palpation in the absence of equipment. PMID:25317769

  19. Ultra-low-dose vaginal estrogen tablets for the treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Simon, J A; Maamari, R V

    2013-08-01

    Vaginal atrophy is a common chronic condition affecting up to 57% of postmenopausal women. The decrease in estrogen following cessation of menses can lead to bothersome symptoms that include vaginal dryness and irritation, pain and burning during urination (dysuria), urinary tract infections, and pain (dyspareunia) and bleeding during sexual activities. These symptoms can be safely and effectively managed with the use of local estrogen therapy, which reduces the risks associated with long-term systemic hormone therapy. The ultra-low-dose 10 ?g estradiol vaginal tablet is the lowest approved dose available and has an annual estradiol exposure of only 1.14 mg. Its development addresses recommendations from regulatory agencies and women's health societies regarding the use of the lowest hormonal dose. The 10 ?g vaginal tablet displays minimal estradiol absorption, causes no increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma, and provides significant symptom relief. The clinical evidence presented here may offer greater reassurance to health-care professionals and postmenopausal women that vaginal atrophy can be treated safely and effectively. PMID:23848490

  20. Development and evaluation of acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet for mixed vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohd Aftab; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Khan, Zeenat Iqbal; Khar, Roop Krishen; Ali, Mushir

    2007-01-01

    An acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was developed for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections. From the bioadhesion experiment and release studies it was found that polycarbophil and sodium carboxymethylcellulose is a good combination for an acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet. Sodium monocitrate was used as a buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4), which is an attribute of a healthy vagina. The effervescent mixture (citric acid and sodium bicarbonate) along with a superdisintegrant (Ac-Di-sol) was used to enhance the swellability of the bioadhesive tablet. The drugs clotrimazole (antifungal) and metronidazole (antiprotozoal as well as an antibacterial) were used in the formulation along with Lactobacillus acidophilus spores to treat mixed vaginal infections. From the ex vivo retention study it was found that the bioadhesive polymers hold the tablet for more than 24 hours inside the vaginal tube. The hardness of the acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was optimized, at 4 to 5 kg hardness the swelling was found to be good and the cumulative release profile of the developed tablet was matched with a marketed conventional tablet (Infa-V). The in vitro spreadability of the swelled tablet was comparable to the marketed gel. In the in vitro antimicrobial study it was found that the acid-buffering bioadhesive tablet produces better antimicrobial action than marketed intravaginal drug delivery systems (Infa-V, Candid-V and Canesten 1). PMID:18181530

  1. Vaginal Evisceration: An Unexpected Complication of Conization

    PubMed Central

    Ghassani, Ali; Andre, Benoit; Simon-Toulza, Caroline; Tanguy le Gac, Yann; Martinez, Alejandra; Vidal, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Background. Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) is routinely performed for the management of high grade intracervical neoplasia (CIN). Several uncommon complications have been described, including postoperative peritonitis, pseudoaneurysm of uterine artery, and bowel fistula. We report a unique case of postoperative vaginal evisceration and the subsequent management. Case. A 73-years-old woman underwent LLETZ for high grade CIN. On postoperative day 3, she was admitted for small bowel evisceration through the vagina. Surgical management was based on combined laparoscopic and transvaginal approach and consisted in bowel inspection and reinstatement, peritoneal washing, and dehiscence repair. Conclusions. Vaginal evisceration is a rare but potentially serious complication of pelvic surgery. This case report is to make clinicians aware of such complication following LLETZ and its management. PMID:25506010

  2. Suture Closure versus Non-Closure of Subcutaneous Fat and Cosmetic Outcome after Cesarean Section: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Husslein, Heinrich; Gutschi, Martina; Leipold, Heinz; Herbst, Christoph; Franz, Maximilian; Worda, Christof

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To investigate the effect of subcutaneous fat suture closure versus non-closure at cesarean section (CS) on long-term cosmetic outcome. Material and Methods Women undergoing planned or unplanned CS were randomized to either subcutaneous fat suture closure or non-closure using a 1?1 allocation algorithm. Participants and outcome assessors were blinded to group allocation. Scar evaluation was performed after two and six months. Primary outcome measures were Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) summary scores six months after surgery. Secondary outcome measures were Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) summary scores, retraction of the scar below the level of the surrounding skin, duration of surgery, and development of hematoma, seroma, surgical site infection (SSI) or wound disruption. Data were analyzed according to the intention to treat principle. Results A total of 116 women were randomized and 91 participants, 47 in the closure and 44 in the non-closure group, completed the trial and were analyzed. There were no differences in patient morphometrics or surgery indications between groups. At two and six months no significant differences were found with respect to POSAS or VSS scores between groups. After two months significantly more women in the non-closure group described their scar as being retracted below the level of the skin (36% vs. 15%, p?=?0.02) whereas no difference was observed at six months. There were significantly more hematomas in the non-closure (25%) compared to the closure group (4%) (p?=?0.005). There was no difference in duration of surgery, SSI, seroma formation or wound disruption between groups. Conclusions Suture closure of the subcutaneous fat at CS does not affect long-term cosmetic outcome. (Level I evidence). Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01542346. PMID:25494177

  3. Sacrospinous ligament fixation for vaginal vault prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Lantzsch; C. Goepel; M. Wolters; H. Koelbl; H. D. Methfessel

    2001-01-01

    Introduction. To assess intra- and postoperative complications and to look for long term follow-up results in women with sacrospinous ligament\\u000a fixation. Methods. Between 1988 and 1999, 200 women (mean age 59.8 years, range 33 to 83 years) underwent vaginal unilateral sacrospinous ligament\\u000a fixation. 172 patients had had prior hysterectomy. In 28 patients concomitant hysterectomy and sacrospinous ligament fixation\\u000a was performed.

  4. Complications of anterior compartment vaginal surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric S. Rovner

    2007-01-01

    Many complications can be associated with anterior compartment surgery of the vagina. With the integration of synthetic materials\\u000a into the surgical armamentarium for the repair of stress urinary incontinence in the form of midurethral slings, and for the\\u000a repair of vaginal prolapse as a primary procedure or to augment an existing repair, the spectrum of complications related\\u000a to this type

  5. Vaginitis: Making Sense of Over-the-Counter Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    B. Angotti, Lauren; C. Lambert, Lara; E. Soper, David

    2007-01-01

    Background. The FDA approved over-the-counter (OTC) use of vaginal antifungals in 1990. Subsequently, a plethora of OTC products have become available to women on drugstore shelves. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the availability of OTC products marketed for the treatment of vaginitis and to determine if their efficacy had been confirmed by published prospective randomized control trials (RCTs). Materials and methods. The authors chose four retail locations frequented by women seeking vaginitis treatment. All products deemed a viable treatment option were purchased. Results. All intravaginal imidazoles purchased, regardless of treatment duration or active ingredient, were found to be of proven efficacy. We were unable to find an RCT confirming the effectiveness of vaginal anti-itch creams and homeopathic treatments for vaginitis. Conclusion. 45% of products available to women in the feminine hygiene section of the stores surveyed could not be confirmed to be effective for treating infectious vaginitis. PMID:18253469

  6. Vaginal retention of locally administered clindamycin.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Katarina; Larsson, Per-Göran; Nilsson, Maud; Forsum, Urban

    2011-06-01

    Since bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a lack of, or very few, lactobacilli and high numbers of small, mostly anaerobic bacteria, an obvious treatment modality would be eradication of the BV-associated bacterial flora followed by reintroduction of lactobacilli vaginally. As probiotic treatment with lactobacilli is one tool for improving the cure rate when treating BV, it is necessary to know the length of time after treatment that clindamycin can be found in the vagina and if this could interfere with the growth of the probiotic lactobacilli. We evaluated the vaginal concentration of clindamycin in 12 women for 8 days to obtain data on the concentration of clindamycin in the vagina after intravaginal treatment with the drug. The participants were examined five times between two menstrual periods: before treatment, the day after treatment was finished, and 3, 5 and 8 days post-treatment. The first day post-treatment clindamycin 0.46 × 10(-3) to 8.4 × 10(-3) g/g vaginal fluid (median 2.87 × 10(-3)) was found. Thereafter, the concentration of clindamycin decreased rapidly. In 10 patients clindamycin was found after 3 days. A very low concentration was still present 5 days after treatment in four patients. After 8 days no clindamycin was found. Clindamycin is rapidly eliminated from the vagina, within 3-8 days, after local administration. Our results indicate that treatment with probiotic lactobacilli could be problematic if carried out within 5 days after cessation of clindamycin treatment. PMID:21569095

  7. Nevada Test Site closure program

    SciTech Connect

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use.

  8. The treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy with ovestin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Kicovic; J. Cortesprieto; S. Milojevic; A. A. Haspels; A. Aljinovic

    1980-01-01

    Seventy-four postmenopausal women presenting with vaginal atrophy were treated with either Ovestin® vaginal cream (Group A, 23 women: 1 mg\\/day E3; Group B, 30 women: 0.5 mg\\/day E3) or vaginal suppositories (Group C, 21 women: 0.5 mg\\/day E3), applied daily for 3 wk (A and B) or 2 wk (C) before retiring. Ten women from A and 10 from B

  9. 21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. 884...Devices § 884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. (a) Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an electrically...

  10. 21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. 884...Devices § 884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. (a) Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an electrically...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. 884...Devices § 884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. (a) Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an electrically...

  12. 21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. 884...Devices § 884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. (a) Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an electrically...

  13. 21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. 884...Devices § 884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use. (a) Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an electrically...

  14. 76 FR 17444 - In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ...Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice of Investigation...importation of certain vaginal ring birth control devices by reason of infringement...importation of certain vaginal ring birth control devices that infringe claim...

  15. Tissue alterations in urethral and vaginal walls related to multiparity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Xelhuantzi, Nicte; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás, Leticia; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita

    2014-10-01

    In rodents, vaginal distention after delivery or experimental manipulation affects innervations as well as the amount of striated/smooth musculature or collagen in both the urethra and vagina. These changes are associated with modifications in excretory and reproductive processes. Although successive and consecutive vaginal deliveries (multiparity) affect the contractile and functional properties of the female lower urogenital tract (LUT), its impact on LUT morphometry, including persistency, has been barely studied. The caudal urethra (CU) and cranial (V1) and caudal (V2) pelvic vaginal regions were excised from young and adult nulliparous (YN and AN, respectively) and multiparous (YM and AM, respectively) rabbits. Tissues were histologically processed and stained with Masson's trichrome. The thickness of the tissue layers and areas covered by tissue components were measured and compared using two-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newmann-Keuls tests to determine statistical differences (P???0.05). Compared to YN, YM, and AN tissues showed a reduction in the thickness of the epithelium, as well as in areas covered by striated musculature, collagen, and blood vessels of the LUT. In comparison with YM, only some morphometric changes were recovered in the AM group. Our study shows that multiparity and age can be associated with epithelial and muscular atrophy of urethral and vaginal walls. The morphometry of the LUT between young and adult female rabbits varies with multiparity. These findings may help to better understand the effects of multiparity on young and adult females and its correlation with the development of pelvic dysfunctions. PMID:25111579

  16. Mycoplasma genitalium infection among HIV-positive women: prevalence, risk factors and association with vaginal shedding.

    PubMed

    Gatski, M; Martin, D H; Theall, K; Amedee, A; Clark, R A; Dumestre, J; Chhabra, P; Schmidt, N; Kissinger, P

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) infection among HIV-positive women and the association between MG and vaginal HIV-1 RNA shedding. HIV-positive women attending an outpatient clinic in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, from 2002 to 2005 were examined for a battery of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and underwent a behavioural survey. A selected subset had a measurement of vaginal shedding analysed. Of the 324 HIV-positive women, 32 (9.9%) were infected with MG. HIV-positive women with MG were more likely to be co-infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis and to have had ?1 male sexual partners in the last month. In the subset (n = 164), no differences were found in the presence of detectable vaginal HIV-1 RNA between women infected and not infected with MG (30.8% versus 34.8% shedding; P = 0.69). While MG was a common co-STI in this sample of HIV-positive women, it was not associated with vaginal HIV shedding. PMID:21464453

  17. FINAL CLOSURE PLAN SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS CLOSURE, SITE 300

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J E; Scott, J E; Mathews, S E

    2004-09-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of the University of California (LLNL) operates two Class II surface impoundments that store wastewater that is discharged from a number of buildings located on the Site 300 Facility (Site 300). The wastewater is the by-product of explosives processing. Reduction in the volume of water discharged from these buildings over the past several years has significantly reduced the wastewater storage needs. In addition, the impoundments were constructed in 1984, and the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane liners are nearing the end of their service life. The purpose of this project is to clean close the surface impoundments and provide new wastewater storage using portable, above ground storage tanks at six locations. The tanks will be installed prior to closure of the impoundments and will include heaters for allowing evaporation during relatively cool weather. Golder Associates (Golder) has prepared this Final Closure Plan (Closure Plan) on behalf of LLNL to address construction associated with the clean closure of the impoundments. This Closure Plan complies with State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Section 21400 of the California Code of Regulations Title 27 (27 CCR {section}21400). As required by these regulations and guidance, this Plan provides the following information: (1) A site characterization, including the site location, history, current operations, and geology and hydrogeology; (2) The regulatory requirements relevant to clean closure of the impoundments; (3) The closure procedures; and, (4) The procedures for validation and documentation of clean closure.

  18. Random loading fatigue crack growth: Crack closure considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, Keith

    1987-01-01

    The prediction of fatigue crack growth is an important element of effective fracture control for metallic structures and mechanical components, especially in the aerospace industry. The prediction techniques available and applied today are mostly based on fatigue crack growth measurements determined in constant amplitude testing. However, while many service loadings are constant amplitude, many more loadings are random amplitude. An investigation to determine which statistics of random loadings are relevant to fatigue crack closure was conducted. The fundamentals of random processes and crack closure are briefly reviewed, then the relevance of certain random process parameters to the crack closure calculation are discussed qualitatively. A course for further research is outlined.

  19. Vault Prolapse II: Restoration of Dynamic Vaginal Supports by Infracoccygeal Sacropexy, an Axial Day-Case Vaginal Procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Papa Petros

    2001-01-01

    :   Our objective was to present and critically analyze the first 75 infracoccygeal sacropexy (ICS) operations for cure of vault\\u000a prolapse. Level 1 reconstruction was achieved by the insertion of a tension-free vaginal tape (nylon) via the ischiorectal\\u000a fossa into a transversely incised posterior vaginal fornix. Level 2 defects were repaired by cutting a central ‘bridge’ in\\u000a the posterior vaginal

  20. HOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion

    E-print Network

    Glew, Neal

    HOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion closure conversion is i* *n- teresting and gives further insight into general closure conversion it correct. The translation and proof generalise to other object-oriented langu* *ages, and the paper gives

  1. Evaluation of Two Energy Balance Closure Parametrizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Fabian; De Roo, Frederik; Kohnert, Katrin; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Mauder, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    A general lack of energy balance closure indicates that tower-based eddy-covariance (EC) measurements underestimate turbulent heat fluxes, which calls for robust correction schemes. Two parametrization approaches that can be found in the literature were tested using data from the Canadian Twin Otter research aircraft and from tower-based measurements of the German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) programme. Our analysis shows that the approach of Huang et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 127:273-292, 2008), based on large-eddy simulation, is not applicable to typical near-surface flux measurements because it was developed for heights above the surface layer and over homogeneous terrain. The biggest shortcoming of this parametrization is that the grid resolution of the model was too coarse so that the surface layer, where EC measurements are usually made, is not properly resolved. The empirical approach of Panin and Bernhofer (Izvestiya Atmos Oceanic Phys 44:701-716, 2008) considers landscape-level roughness heterogeneities that induce secondary circulations and at least gives a qualitative estimate of the energy balance closure. However, it does not consider any feature of landscape-scale heterogeneity other than surface roughness, such as surface temperature, surface moisture or topography. The failures of both approaches might indicate that the influence of mesoscale structures is not a sufficient explanation for the energy balance closure problem. However, our analysis of different wind-direction sectors shows that the upwind landscape-scale heterogeneity indeed influences the energy balance closure determined from tower flux data. We also analyzed the aircraft measurements with respect to the partitioning of the "missing energy" between sensible and latent heat fluxes and we could confirm the assumption of scalar similarity only for Bowen ratios 1.

  2. Resultants and loop closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutsias, Evangelos A.; Seok, Chaok; Wester, Michael J.; Dill, Ken A.

    The problem of tripeptide loop closure is formulated in terms of the angles {?i} 3i=1 describing the orientation of each peptide unit about the virtual axis joining the C? atoms. Imposing the constraint that at the junction of two such units the bond angle between the bonds C??N and C??C is fixed at some prescribed value ? results in a system of three bivariate polynomials in ui ? tan ?i/2 of degree 2 in each variable. The system is analyzed for the existence of common solutions by making use of resultants, determinants of matrices composed of the coefficients of two (or more) polynomials, whose vanishing is a necessary and sufficient condition for the polynomials to have a common root. Two resultants are compared: the classical Sylvester resultant and the Dixon resultant. It is shown that when two of the variables are eliminated in favor of the third, a polynomial of degree 16 results. To each one of its real roots, there is a corresponding common zero of the system. To each such zero, there corresponds a consistent conformation of the chain. The Sylvester method can find these zeros among the eigenvalues of a 24 × 24 matrix. For the Dixon approach, after removing extraneous factors, an optimally sized eigenvalue problem of size 16 × 16 results. Finally, the easy extension to the more general problem of triaxial loop closure is presented and an algorithm for implementing the method on arbitrary chains is given.

  3. Vaginal fold histology reduces the variability introduced by vaginal exfoliative cytology in the classification of mouse estrous cycle stages

    PubMed Central

    Arnon, Gal; Po-Ching, Lin; Anne M, Barger; Amy L, MacNeill; CheMyong, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal exfoliative cytology is commonly used in biomedical and toxicological research to classify the stages of the rodent estrous cycle. However, mouse vaginal exfoliative cytology is commonly used as a stand-alone tool and has not been evaluated in reference to vaginal histology and serum sex hormone levels. In this study, the direct and Giemsa-stained methods of vaginal exfoliative cytology were compared in reference to vaginal fold histology and serum sex hormone levels. Both methods predicted the estrous stages similarly with mean discordance rates of 55%, 77%, 46% and 31%, for diestrus, proestrus, estrus and metestrus, respectively. From these results we conclude that vaginal exfoliative cytology may be used as a general guide to determine the desired estrous stage endpoint, and that a definitive confirmation of the estrous stage should obtained from evaluation of vaginal fold histology. Confirmation of the stage of the estrous cycle by vaginal fold histology will decrease the variability otherwise introduced by misclassification of estrous cycle stages with vaginal exfoliative cytology. PMID:24705880

  4. SOLID CLOSURE by Melvin Hochster

    E-print Network

    Hochster, Melvin

    SOLID CLOSURE by Melvin Hochster In memory of my father, Lothar Hochster, April 20, 1906 -- February 17, 1991 Contents 1. Introduction 2. Solid modules and solid algebras 3. Formally solid modules and algebras 4. Generic forcing algebras 5. Solid closure 6. Minimal solid algebras 7. S­regular rings 8

  5. Technique for Closure of Myelomeningocele

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. McLone

    1980-01-01

    Closure of a myelomeningocele should be based on an understanding of the altered anatomy. Reconstruction of the defect, including the form of the spinal cord, is dependent on this understanding. Assuming the exposed neural plaque is potentially functional tissue is the principle reason for preserving all neural tissue and for anatomical reconstruction of the spinal cord. Closure of the central

  6. Vaginal Cuff Dehiscence in Robotic-Assisted Total Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kashani, Shabnam; Gallo, Taryn; Sargent, Anita; ElSahwi, Karim; Silasi, Dan-Arin

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the cumulative incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence in robotic-assisted total hysterectomies in our patients and to provide recommendations to decrease the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence. Methods: This was an observational case series, Canadian Task Force Classification II-3 conducted at an academic and community teaching hospital. A total of 654 patients underwent robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy for both malignant and benign reasons from September 1, 2006 to March 1, 2011 performed by a single surgeon. The da Vinci Surgical System was used for robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Results: There were 3 cases of vaginal cuff dehiscence among 654 robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomies, making our cumulative incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence 0.4%. The mean time between the procedures and vaginal cuff dehiscence was 44.3 d (6.3 wk). All patients were followed up twice after surgery, at 3 to 4 wk and 12 to 16 wk. Conclusion: In our study, the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence after robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy compares favorably to that of total abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy. Our study suggests that the incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscence is more likely related to the technique of colpotomy and vaginal cuff suturing than to robotic-assisted total hysterectomy per se. With proper technique and patient education, our vaginal dehiscence rate has been 0.4%, which is 2.5 to 10 times less than the previously reported vaginal cuff dehiscence rate in the literature. PMID:23484559

  7. A New Wireless Biosensor for Intra-Vaginal Temperature Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, João M. L. P.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Garcia, João F. R.; de la Torre, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Body Sensors for medical purposes offer valuable contributions to improve patients’ healthcare, including diagnosis and/or therapeutics monitoring. Body temperature is a crucial parameter in healthcare diagnosis. In gynecology and obstetrics it is measured at the skin’s surface, which is very influenced by the environment. This paper proposes a new intra-body sensor for long-term intra-vaginal temperature collection. The embedded IEEE 802.15.4 communication module allows the integration of this sensor in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for remote data access and monitoring. We present the sensor architecture, the construction of the corresponding testbed, and its performance evaluation. This sensor may be used in different medical applications, including preterm labor prevention and fertility and ovulation period detection. The features of the constructed testbed were validated in laboratory tests verifying its accuracy and performance. PMID:22163471

  8. Closedure - Mine Closure Technologies Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Päivi; Kauppila, Tommi; Pasanen, Antti; Backnäs, Soile; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Turunen, Kaisa; Karlsson, Teemu; Solismaa, Lauri; Hentinen, Kimmo

    2015-04-01

    Closure of mining operations is an essential part of the development of eco-efficient mining and the Green Mining concept in Finland to reduce the environmental footprint of mining. Closedure is a 2-year joint research project between Geological Survey of Finland and Technical Research Centre of Finland that aims at developing accessible tools and resources for planning, executing and monitoring mine closure. The main outcome of the Closedure project is an updatable wiki technology-based internet platform (http://mineclosure.gtk.fi) in which comprehensive guidance on the mine closure is provided and main methods and technologies related to mine closure are evaluated. Closedure also provides new data on the key issues of mine closure, such as performance of passive water treatment in Finland, applicability of test methods for evaluating cover structures for mining wastes, prediction of water effluents from mine wastes, and isotopic and geophysical methods to recognize contaminant transport paths in crystalline bedrock.

  9. A study of fatigue crack closure using electric potential and compliance techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, C. K.; Cassatt, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare closure data obtained on the same specimen with crack tip compliance gage and electric potential techniques. Equivalent results on closure using the two techniques were obtained on 7075-T651 aluminum center cracked panels. The results also indicated that closure was a function of stress ratio, specimen thickness and maximum applied stress intensity. Maximum stress intensity had a particularly strong effect on closure in the range of applied stresses used. This observed dependence of closure on specimen thickness and maximum stress intensity should account for many of the discrepancies in closure behavior found in the literature. Observations on potential system behavior during closure measurements are also reported.

  10. Global Expression of Molecular Transporters in the Human Vaginal Tract: Implications for HIV Chemoprophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardana, Manjula; Mullen, Madeline; Moss, John A.; Pyles, Richard B.; Nusbaum, Rebecca J.; Patel, Jignesh; Vincent, Kathleen L.; Wang, Charles; Guo, Chao; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Warden, Charles D.; Baum, Marc M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrECP) using antiretroviral agents is a promising strategy for the prevention of sexual HIV transmission in women. Molecular transporters in the human vaginal tract (VT) may play a pivotal role in determining drug disposition and, consequently, pharmacodynamic outcomes in these efforts. Little is known, however, on the expression of these transporters in vaginal tissues, representing a critical knowledge gap. Methodology/Principal Findings Our study analyzed the genome-wide transcriptome in 44 vaginal tissue samples from 6 reproductive-age women undergoing gynecologic surgeries. The analysis revealed that, unexpectedly, a large number (43%) of gene isoforms corresponding to membrane transporters were over-expressed (above the median expression level) in all samples. A subset of 12 highly expressed membrane transporters was identified and contained 10 members (83%) of the solute carrier superfamily. The largest difference in membrane transporter gene expression was observed across subjects, but more subtle differential expression also was found along the anterior-posterior axis of the VT. Cross-validation of the microarray analyses with measurements RT-qPCR demonstrated high concordance between these data sets. Immunofluorescence labeling of membrane transporter proteins in vaginal tissues was highly dependent on tissue/cell types. Conclusions/Significance Antiretroviral PrECP drugs currently under evaluation are substrates for molecular transporters that were commonly expressed, but fell into both over- or under-expressed categories in all samples, suggesting a complex role for carrier-mediated processes in determining the disposition of these xenobiotics in vaginal tissues. These findings hold important implications for the successful development of products, either oral or intravaginal, for female-controlled HIV PrECP. PMID:24143220

  11. Vaginal vault brachytherapy in endometrial cancer: verifying target coverage with image-guided applicator placement

    PubMed Central

    Cornes, P; Al-Booz, H

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This quality assurance study assesses whether CT image-guided verification has led to improvements in the technique when compared with previous studies. Methods: The CT images were studied from a cohort of 105 consecutive patients with endometrial cancer having adjuvant brachytherapy to the vaginal vault in 2010. Images were taken at first insertion, checked for air gaps and treatment delivered. Images were later transferred to the planning system and air gaps between vaginal mucosa and vaginal cylinder were measured. Comparisons were made with the 2008 results from this centre and the literature series. Results: Images from two patients were not assessable owing to artefacts from hip replacements. Air gaps >2?mm were seen in 11/103 patients. Repositioning or use of a larger cylinder reduced air gaps to 7/103 patients. In total, 96/103 patients (over 93%) were able to achieve good vaginal contact throughout the treatment volume. This shows a significant improvement in applicator positioning in our centre since 2008 and also a significant improvement over the total data published in 2010 (Pearson ?2 test=46.19; p<0.0001). Conclusion: The vaginal cylinder technique with CT imaging was proven to be effective for 96/103 patients. It is necessary to consider whether there is a better technique for the few patients with air gaps >2?mm. Advances in knowledge: For the vast majority of patients, this technique is well tolerated, without the need for analgesia, and will continue to be the first choice technique in this centre. PMID:23407428

  12. Diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes by assessment of urea and creatinine in vaginal washing fluid

    PubMed Central

    Kariman, Nourossadat; Afrakhte, Maryam; Hedayati, Mehdi; Fallahian, Masoumeh; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rupture of fetal membranes can occur at any gestational age. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) means rupture of fetal membranes before the onset of labor. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the reliability of the vaginal washing fluid urea and creatinine for the diagnosis of PROM and to determine cut-off values. Materials and Methods: A total of 179 pregnant women were recruited. All patients underwent different examinations. These included nitrazine paper test, fern test, amniotic fluid pooling, vaginal washing fluid urea and creatinine sampling. The one group consisted of 126 pregnant women between 14 and 41 weeks of gestation with the complaint of vaginal fluid leakage. Patients who had positive pooling, nitrazine paper test and fern test were considered as confirmed PROM group (group 1). On the other side, patients with pooling (-) and/or nitrazine paper test (-) and/or fern test (-) were taken as suspected unconfirmed PROM cases (group 2). The control group consisted of 53 pregnant women between 14 and 41 weeks of gestation without any complaint or complication. Weconducted one-way ANOVA test on the urea and creatinine measures and post-hoc comparison test. Cut-off value was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Vaginal fluid concentrations of urea and creatinine were significantly different between the three groups (p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy were all 100% in detecting premature rupture of membranes by evaluation of vaginal fluid creatinine concentration with a cut-off value of 0.45 mg/dl, respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that of two markers investigated creatinine has the higher diagnostic power. PMID:24639733

  13. Antibodies and Antibody-Secreting Cells in the Female Genital Tract after Vaginal or Intranasal Immunization with Cholera Toxin B Subunit or Conjugates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EVA-LIZ JOHANSSON; CAROLA RASK; MARGARETA FREDRIKSSON; KRISTINA ERIKSSON; CECIL CZERKINSKY; JAN HOLMGREN

    1998-01-01

    We studied the antibody response including antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in the female genital tract of mice after mucosal immunizations with the recombinant B subunit of cholera toxin (rCTB) perorally, intraperito- neally, vaginally, and intranasally (i.n.). The strongest genital antibody responses as measured with a novel perfusion-extraction method were induced after vaginal and i.n. immunizations, and these routes also gave rise

  14. Human papillomavirus in vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Chao, Angel; Chen, Tse-Ching; Hsueh, Chuen; Huang, Chu-Chun; Yang, Jung-Erh; Hsueh, Swei; Huang, Huei-Jean; Lin, Cheng-Tao; Tang, Yun-Hsin; Liou, Jui-Der; Chang, Chee-Jen; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Lai, Chyong-Huey

    2012-08-01

    There are limited data on the prevalence and distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN). We sought to clarify this issue in a series of 450 VAIN cases with a confirmed diagnosis between 1990 and 2006. HPV genotyping was performed using paraffin-embedded specimens and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Multiple HPV types were validated by E6 type-specific PCR and direct sequencing. The HPV genotypes of the vaginal and cervical neoplasms were compared for those with incident VAIN and a history of previous/concomitant cervical neoplasms. Ki-67 was performed for supporting diagnosis of VAIN. Of these 450 VAIN cases (median age, 59 years; range, 19-93), two with missing paraffin blocks and 54 with poor DNA quality were excluded. HPV was detected in 273/394 (69.3%) VAIN, and multiple infections were found in 17.9% of HPV-positive samples. The leading types were HPV16 (35.5%), HPV58 (9.9%), HPV52 (9.9%), HPV39 (8.4%), HPV33 (7.3%) and HPV53 (7.0%). Among the 156 cases with a history of previous cervical neoplasia, 29.0% had concordant HPV genotypes, while synchronous VAIN samples (n = 49) were more likely to harbor concordant genotypes (58.7%) with the concomitant cervical neoplasm (p = 0.0003). Whether those HPV types in the incident VAIN lesions had existed in the vaginal epithelium at the time of the previous cervical neoplasia or a new acquisition needs to be clarified in prospective follow-up studies. PMID:22095387

  15. Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women.

    PubMed

    Ravel, Jacques; Gajer, Pawel; Abdo, Zaid; Schneider, G Maria; Koenig, Sara S K; McCulle, Stacey L; Karlebach, Shara; Gorle, Reshma; Russell, Jennifer; Tacket, Carol O; Brotman, Rebecca M; Davis, Catherine C; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J

    2011-03-15

    The means by which vaginal microbiomes help prevent urogenital diseases in women and maintain health are poorly understood. To gain insight into this, the vaginal bacterial communities of 396 asymptomatic North American women who represented four ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian) were sampled and the species composition characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. The communities clustered into five groups: four were dominated by Lactobacillus iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, or L. jensenii, whereas the fifth had lower proportions of lactic acid bacteria and higher proportions of strictly anaerobic organisms, indicating that a potential key ecological function, the production of lactic acid, seems to be conserved in all communities. The proportions of each community group varied among the four ethnic groups, and these differences were statistically significant [?(2)(10) = 36.8, P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the vaginal pH of women in different ethnic groups also differed and was higher in Hispanic (pH 5.0 ± 0.59) and black (pH 4.7 ± 1.04) women as compared with Asian (pH 4.4 ± 0.59) and white (pH 4.2 ± 0.3) women. Phylotypes with correlated relative abundances were found in all communities, and these patterns were associated with either high or low Nugent scores, which are used as a factor for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The inherent differences within and between women in different ethnic groups strongly argues for a more refined definition of the kinds of bacterial communities normally found in healthy women and the need to appreciate differences between individuals so they can be taken into account in risk assessment and disease diagnosis. PMID:20534435

  16. Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women

    PubMed Central

    Ravel, Jacques; Gajer, Pawel; Abdo, Zaid; Schneider, G. Maria; Koenig, Sara S. K.; McCulle, Stacey L.; Karlebach, Shara; Gorle, Reshma; Russell, Jennifer; Tacket, Carol O.; Brotman, Rebecca M.; Davis, Catherine C.; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J.

    2011-01-01

    The means by which vaginal microbiomes help prevent urogenital diseases in women and maintain health are poorly understood. To gain insight into this, the vaginal bacterial communities of 396 asymptomatic North American women who represented four ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian) were sampled and the species composition characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. The communities clustered into five groups: four were dominated by Lactobacillus iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, or L. jensenii, whereas the fifth had lower proportions of lactic acid bacteria and higher proportions of strictly anaerobic organisms, indicating that a potential key ecological function, the production of lactic acid, seems to be conserved in all communities. The proportions of each community group varied among the four ethnic groups, and these differences were statistically significant [?2(10) = 36.8, P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the vaginal pH of women in different ethnic groups also differed and was higher in Hispanic (pH 5.0 ± 0.59) and black (pH 4.7 ± 1.04) women as compared with Asian (pH 4.4 ± 0.59) and white (pH 4.2 ± 0.3) women. Phylotypes with correlated relative abundances were found in all communities, and these patterns were associated with either high or low Nugent scores, which are used as a factor for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The inherent differences within and between women in different ethnic groups strongly argues for a more refined definition of the kinds of bacterial communities normally found in healthy women and the need to appreciate differences between individuals so they can be taken into account in risk assessment and disease diagnosis. PMID:20534435

  17. Quantitation of vaginally administered nonoxynol-9 in premenopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Barditch-Crovo; Frank Witter; Fayez Hamzeh; Jason McPherson; Pamela Stratton; Nancy J. Alexander; Carol Braun Trapnell

    1997-01-01

    A feasibility study was performed in 11 healthy nonpregnant premenopausal women to determine a method for collection and recovery of vaginally administered nonoxynol-9. We also determined if nonoxynol-9 could be quantitated in vaginal lavage fluid obtained 2 h after instillation of a standard precoital dose of a foam formulation of nonoxynol-9. Samples were analyzed in batch using a validated normal

  18. Liposomes containing drugs for treatment of vaginal infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Željka Paveli?; Nataša Škalko-Basnet; Ivan Jalšenjak

    1999-01-01

    To develop a novel vaginal delivery system, able to effectively deliver entrapped drugs during an extended period of time at the site of action, liposomes made of phosphatidylcholine were prepared by two different methods, namely the polyol dilution method and the proliposome method. Liposomes containing three commonly applied drugs in the treatment of vaginal infections: clotrimazole, metronidazole and chloramphenicol were

  19. Vaginal Eroticism and Female Orgasm: A Current Appraisal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heli Alzate

    1985-01-01

    In the light of very recent studies, this paper reviews two controversial issues in the area of female sexuality: vaginal eroticism and female orgasm. From the available evidence, it is concluded that most (and probably all) women possess vaginal zones, mainly located on the anterior wall, whose tactile stimulation can lead to orgasm. The apparent contradiction between this finding and

  20. Efficacy and tolerability of fitostimoline (vaginal cream, ovules, and vaginal washing) and of benzydamine hydrochloride (tantum rosa vaginal cream and vaginal washing) in the topical treatment of symptoms of bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Boselli, F; Petrella, E; Campedelli, A; Muzi, M; Rullo, V; Ascione, L; Papa, R; Saponati, G

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and 91 patients showing signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis (BV) were randomized to receive topical treatment with Fitostimoline (vaginal cream and vaginal ovules + vaginal washing) or benzydamine hydrochloride (vaginal cream + vaginal washing) for 7 days. Signs (leucorrhoea, erythema, oedema, and erosion) and symptoms (burning, pain, itching, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and dysuria) (scored 0-3) were evaluated at baseline and at the end of treatment; the total symptoms score (TSS) was also calculated. In 125 patients, a bacterial vaginosis was confirmed by vaginal swab test. The primary efficacy variable analysis, that is, the percentage of patients with therapeutic success (almost complete disappearance of signs and symptoms), demonstrated that Fitostimoline ovules and vaginal cream were therapeutically equivalent and that pooled Fitostimoline treatment was not inferior to benzydamine hydrochloride. All the treatments were well tolerated, with only minor local adverse events infrequently reported. The results of this study confirmed that gynaecological Fitostimoline is a safe and effective topical treatment for BV. PMID:23209922

  1. Efficacy and Tolerability of Fitostimoline (Vaginal Cream, Ovules, and Vaginal Washing) and of Benzydamine Hydrochloride (Tantum Rosa Vaginal Cream and Vaginal Washing) in the Topical Treatment of Symptoms of Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Boselli, F.; Petrella, E.; Campedelli, A.; Muzi, M.; Rullo, V.; Ascione, L.; Papa, R.; Saponati, G.

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and 91 patients showing signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis (BV) were randomized to receive topical treatment with Fitostimoline (vaginal cream and vaginal ovules + vaginal washing) or benzydamine hydrochloride (vaginal cream + vaginal washing) for 7 days. Signs (leucorrhoea, erythema, oedema, and erosion) and symptoms (burning, pain, itching, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and dysuria) (scored 0–3) were evaluated at baseline and at the end of treatment; the total symptoms score (TSS) was also calculated. In 125 patients, a bacterial vaginosis was confirmed by vaginal swab test. The primary efficacy variable analysis, that is, the percentage of patients with therapeutic success (almost complete disappearance of signs and symptoms), demonstrated that Fitostimoline ovules and vaginal cream were therapeutically equivalent and that pooled Fitostimoline treatment was not inferior to benzydamine hydrochloride. All the treatments were well tolerated, with only minor local adverse events infrequently reported. The results of this study confirmed that gynaecological Fitostimoline is a safe and effective topical treatment for BV. PMID:23209922

  2. 2005 Nature Publishing Group Protection of macaques from vaginal SHIV

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    © 2005 Nature Publishing Group Protection of macaques from vaginal SHIV challenge by vaginally delivered inhibitors of virus­cell fusion Ronald S. Veazey1 , Per Johan Klasse2 , Susan M. Schader2 , Qinxue. Shattock3 , Martin S. Springer6 & John P. Moore2 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continues

  3. Pathology Case Study: Bloody Vaginal Discharge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dickson, H.

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which an elderly woman experienced bloody vaginal discharge long after menopause. Visitors are given both the microscopic pap smear and biopsy findings, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.

  4. CPT-hole closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noce, T.E.; Holzer, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The long-term stability of deep holes 1.75 inches. (4.4 cm) in diameter by 98.4 feet (30 m) created by cone penetration testing (CPT) was monitored at a site in California underlain by Holocene and Pleistocene age alluvial fan deposits. Portions of the holes remained open both below and above the 28.6-foot (8.7 m)-deep water table for approximately three years, when the experiment was terminated. Hole closure appears to be a very slow process that may take decades in the stiff soils studied here. Other experience suggests holes in softer soils may also remain open. Thus, despite their small diameter, CPT holes may remain open for years and provide paths for rapid migration of contaminants. The observations confirm the need to grout holes created by CPT soundings as well as other direct-push techniques in areas where protection of shallow ground water is important.

  5. Economic impact of hospital closure on small rural counties, 1984 to 1988: demonstration of a comparative analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Probst, J C; Samuels, M E; Hussey, J R; Berry, D E; Ricketts, T C

    1999-01-01

    Hospital closure in a rural community may affect the locale's economic prospects as well as the health of its residents. Studies of economic effects have primarily relied on modeling techniques rather than observation of actual change. This study demonstrates the use of a comparative analysis approach for estimating the economic effects of hospital closure on small rural counties. The experiences of 103 small rural counties at which a hospital closed between 1984 and 1988 was compared with a matched group of counties at which no closure took place. "Comparable" counties were selected based on seven scales measuring the similarity between a closure county and potential comparisons. Three scales examined population and economic characteristics in the year before closure; two scales measured change throughout a three-year period preceding closure; and two scales measured change throughout a five-year period preceding closure. Closure effects were measured through a multivariate analysis of the post-closure economic history of closure and comparison counties. The key assumption is that similar counties should have similar experiences over time. If an event occurs within some of these counties but not others, this event should have visible effects. Comparative analysis suggested that earned income in closure counties (excluding farming and mining income) was lower than in comparison counties subsequent to closure and that labor force growth was similarly affected. A comparative analysis approach produces results that parallel those obtained from economic modeling and should be considered for further research. PMID:10808632

  6. Hydrodynamic and geologic influence of event-dependent depth of closure along the South Florida Atlantic Coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Robertson V; Keqi Zhang; Charles W. Finkl; Dean Whitman

    2008-01-01

    This study develops a method to identify the depth of closure using airborne laser bathymetric data, and compares the measured depth of closure to calculated depth of closures and subaqueous geomorphic units. Airborne laser data sets were collected before and after the 2004 hurricane season along 100 km of beaches in Palm Beach, Broward, and Miami-Dade Counties in southeast Florida. Wave

  7. Vaginal Primary Malignant Melanoma: A Rare and Aggressive Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Terzakis, Emmanouil; Ioannidou, Georgia; Tsamandas, Athanasios; Decavalas, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal primary malignant melanoma is a rare and very aggressive tumor. It most commonly occurs in postmenopausal women, with a mean age of 57 years. Our patient is an 80-year-old, postmenopausal Greek woman presented with a complaint of abnormal vaginal bleeding. On gynecologic examination there was a pigmented, raised, ulcerated, and irregular lesion 5 × 4.5?cm in the upper third of anterior vaginal wall. She underwent a wide local excision of the lesion. The histopathology revealed vaginal primary malignant melanoma with ulceration and no clear surgical margins. She denied any additional surgical interventions and underwent to postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. Follow up 5 months after initial diagnosis revealed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. The prognosis of vaginal primary malignant melanoma is very poor despite treatment modality, because most of the cases are diagnosed at advanced stage. Particularly patients with no clear surgical margins and tumor size >3?cm needed postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:23970985

  8. Vaginal primary malignant melanoma: a rare and aggressive tumor.

    PubMed

    Androutsopoulos, Georgios; Terzakis, Emmanouil; Ioannidou, Georgia; Tsamandas, Athanasios; Decavalas, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal primary malignant melanoma is a rare and very aggressive tumor. It most commonly occurs in postmenopausal women, with a mean age of 57 years. Our patient is an 80-year-old, postmenopausal Greek woman presented with a complaint of abnormal vaginal bleeding. On gynecologic examination there was a pigmented, raised, ulcerated, and irregular lesion 5 × 4.5?cm in the upper third of anterior vaginal wall. She underwent a wide local excision of the lesion. The histopathology revealed vaginal primary malignant melanoma with ulceration and no clear surgical margins. She denied any additional surgical interventions and underwent to postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. Follow up 5 months after initial diagnosis revealed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. The prognosis of vaginal primary malignant melanoma is very poor despite treatment modality, because most of the cases are diagnosed at advanced stage. Particularly patients with no clear surgical margins and tumor size >3?cm needed postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:23970985

  9. Autocracy bias in informal groups under need for closure.

    PubMed

    Pierro, Antonio; Mannetti, Lucia; De Grada, Eraldo; Livi, Stefano; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2003-03-01

    Two experiments investigated the tendency of groups with members under high (vs. low) need for cognitive closure to develop an autocratic leadership structure in which some members dominate the discussion, constitute the "hubs" of communication, and influence the group more than other members. The first experiment found that high (vs. low) need for closure groups, as assessed via dispositional measure of the need for closure, manifested greater asymmetry of conversational floor control, such that members with autocratic interactional style were more conversationally dominant and influential than less autocratic members. The second experiment manipulated the need for closure via time pressure and utilized a social network analysis. Consistent with expectation, groups under time pressure (vs. no pressure) showed a greater asymmetry of participation, of centrality, and of prestige among the group members, such that the more focal members were perceived to exert the greater influence over the groups' decisions. PMID:15273017

  10. Closure of fatigue cracks at high strains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyyer, N. S.; Dowling, N. E.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on smooth specimens to study the closure behavior of short cracks at high cyclic strains under completely reversed cycling. Testing procedures and methodology, and closure measurement techniques, are described in detail. The strain levels chosen for the study cover from predominantly elastic to grossly plastic strains. Crack closure measurements are made at different crack lengths. The study reveals that, at high strains, cracks close only as the lowest stress level in the cycle is approached. The crack opening is observed to occur in the compressive part of the loading cycle. The applied stress needed to open a short crack under high strain is found to be less than for cracks under small scale yielding. For increased plastic deformations, the value of sigma sub op/sigma sub max is observed to decrease and approaches the value of R. Comparison of the experimental results with existing analysis is made and indicates the limitations of the small scale yielding approach where gross plastic deformation behavior occurs.

  11. IN DEFENCE OF CLOSURE IN DEFENCE OF CLOSURE

    E-print Network

    Fitelson, Branden

    . Indeed, the idea that no version of this principle is true strikes me, and many other philosophers), pp. 305-20. 3 'Are there Counter-examples to the Closure Principle?', in M. Roth and G. Ross (eds

  12. Are vaginal fluid concentrations of prolactin, alpha-fetoprotein and human placental lactogen useful for diagnosing ruptured membranes?

    PubMed

    Huber, J F; Bischof, P; Extermann, P; Beguin, F; Herrmann, W L

    1983-12-01

    Vaginal fluid levels of prolactin (Prl), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human placental lactogen (hPL) were assayed to investigate their usefulness in the diagnosis of ruptured membranes. Fifty-two patients at term were divided into those with intact membranes, and those with ruptured membranes. In patients with intact membranes the concentration of all three substances was low with few exceptions. The mean vaginal concentrations of the three proteins were significantly higher in patients with ruptured membranes, but low values were also found in this group. It is concluded, that because of the overlap between the values, Prl, AFP and hPL measurements in vaginal fluid do not represent a useful advance in the assessment of rupture of the membranes. PMID:6197083

  13. The role of crack closure in fatigue crack propagation behavior of a TiAl-based alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Henaff, G.; Cohen, S.A.; Mabru, C.; Petit, J. [ENSMA, Futuroscope (France). Lab. de Mecanique et de Physique des Materiaux] [ENSMA, Futuroscope (France). Lab. de Mecanique et de Physique des Materiaux

    1996-05-01

    The fatigue crack growth rates measured in the case of the TiAl-based alloy investigated in the present study are highly sensitive to the {Delta}K value. The fatigue crack propagation is deeply affected by the crack closure phenomenon. As a consequence the crack growth rates are severely lessened as soon as closure develops. The role of crack closure is confirmed by the influence of the R load ratio: indeed the crack growth rate measured under closure-free conditions at high R ratios is equal to that obtained at low R values after crack closure correction for a given {Delta}K{sub eff} value.

  14. Development of an in vitro alternative assay method for vaginal irritation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seyoum Ayehunie; Chris Cannon; Karen LaRosa; Jeffrey Pudney; Deborah J. Anderson; Mitchell Klausner

    2011-01-01

    The vaginal mucosa is commonly exposed to chemicals and therapeutic agents that may result in irritation and\\/or inflammation. In addition to acute effects, vaginal irritation and inflammation can make women more susceptible to infections such as HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Hence, the vaginal irritation potential of feminine care formulations and vaginally administered therapeutic agents is a significant

  15. Need for cognitive closure and politics: Voting, political attitudes and attributional style

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Chirumbolo; Alessandra Areni; Gilda Sensales

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of dispositional Need for Cognitive Closure (NFC) on different political attitudes and on the “person blame” and the “system blame” dimensions. Two hundred and thirty-four psychology students completed a questionnaire containing the Italian version of the Need for Closure scale, a measure of political and ideological attitudes, a measure of the person-system blame dimensions, and

  16. The Conditional Moment Closure Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kronenburg; E. Mastorakos

    \\u000a The relatively recent Conditional Moment Closure methods for turbulent reacting flows have advanced from application to relatively\\u000a well behaved, simple laboratory flames to complex flow geometries and flame conditions with intense turbulence-chemistry interactions.\\u000a The progress on second order closures, double conditioning approaches, two-phase and premixed CMC is reviewed in the first\\u000a part of this chapter, while the second part is

  17. Dynamics of Resource Closure Operators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alva L. Couch; Marc Chiarini

    2009-01-01

    We propose a framework for managing resources via convergent operators. Operators represent their need for a resource to a\\u000a designated resource closure operator that manages the resource. We evaluate a specific design for a resource closure operator by simulation and demonstrate that\\u000a the operator achieves a near-optimal balance between cost and value without using any model of the relationship between

  18. Local Probiotic Therapy for Vaginal Candida albicans Infections.

    PubMed

    Kovachev, Stefan Miladinov; Vatcheva-Dobrevska, Rossitza Stefanova

    2015-03-01

    The high rate of vaginal Candida albicans recurrence is attributed to azole resistance rates as high as 15 %. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and microbiological efficacy of standard azole therapy for treatment of vaginal C. albicans infection alone and in combination with local probiotic as well as the effects on vaginal microbiota. This study included 436 women with vaginal candidiasis randomly assigned to two treatment groups. The first group, with 207 patients (12 dropouts), was administered 150 mg fluconazole and a single vaginal globule of fenticonazole (600 mg) on the same day. The second group of 209 patients (8 dropouts) followed the same treatment schedule; however, ten applications of a vaginal probiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were also administered beginning the fifth day after azole treatment. Microbiological analysis of the therapy efficacy in the first treatment group showed C. albicans resistance in over 30 % of patients. Clinical complaints persisted after treatment administration in 79.7 % (n = 165) of women in this group. Clinical complaints in the second group decreased to 31.1 % (n = 65) and microbiological efficacy also improved among investigated parameters, from 93.7 % (n = 193) to 95.2 % (n = 198). The local application of probiotics after administration of combined azoles for treatment of vaginal C. albicans infections increases therapy efficacy and could prevent relapse. PMID:25362524

  19. Effects of estroprogestins containing natural estrogen on vaginal flora.

    PubMed

    De Seta, Francesco; Restaino, Stefano; Banco, Rubina; Conversano, Ester; De Leo, Rossella; Tonon, Maddalena; Maso, Gianpaolo; Barbati, Giulia; Lello, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    Estroprogestins with "natural oestrogen" has represented a new option in terms of combined hormonal contraception. So, the aim of this study is to investigate how estroprogestins with natural estrogen may modify the vaginal niche. In literature, very few studies focused on the interaction between hormonal contraception and vaginal milieu. This is a prospective comparative study. We enrolled 60 women from January 2013 to September 2013, 30 of them were administered estradiol valerate dienogest (E2V+DNG - Klaira®) in a quadriphasic regimen, while the other 30 women were administered 17-? estradiol with nomestrol acetate (EV+NOMAC - Zoely®) in a monophasic regimen. After a baseline study of vaginal milieu at recruitment of patients (Gram stain with Nugent score, vaginal pH, vaginal wet mount for the quantification of leukocytes, Lactobacilli and/or presence of Candida), we performed the same follow-up after six months of estroprogestin therapy. Our results showed that the women treated with E2V+DNG had a trend of an improvement of vaginal health in terms of increase of lactobacillar flora and reduction of vaginal pH in place of women treated with EV+NOMAC that showed a reduction of cervical mucus. Finally, our data about the effects on vaginal flora exerted by two estroprogestin pills (EPs) containing a natural estrogen suggest slight, but interesting differences in terms of vaginal ecology. These differences could be related to the type of estrogen, type of progestin, regimen of administration and, after all, to the net balance between estrogenic and progestin component of the EPs. PMID:24993504

  20. Magnitude of Interfractional Vaginal Cuff Movement: Implications for External Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Michaletz-Lorenz, Martha [Department of Education and Training, Elekta, Maryland Heights, MO (United States); Goddu, S. Murty [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Grigsby, Perry W., E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To quantify the extent of interfractional vaginal cuff movement in patients receiving postoperative irradiation for cervical or endometrial cancer in the absence of bowel/bladder instruction. Methods and Materials: Eleven consecutive patients with cervical or endometrial cancer underwent placement of three gold seed fiducial markers in the vaginal cuff apex as part of standard of care before simulation. Patients subsequently underwent external irradiation and brachytherapy treatment based on institutional guidelines. Daily megavoltage CT imaging was performed during each external radiation treatment fraction. The daily positions of the vaginal apex fiducial markers were subsequently compared with the original position of the fiducial markers on the simulation CT. Composite dose-volume histograms were also created by summing daily target positions. Results: The average ({+-} standard deviation) vaginal cuff movement throughout daily pelvic external radiotherapy when referenced to the simulation position was 16.2 {+-} 8.3 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff movement for any patient during treatment was 34.5 mm. In the axial plane the mean vaginal cuff movement was 12.9 {+-} 6.7 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff axial movement was 30.7 mm. In the craniocaudal axis the mean movement was 10.3 {+-} 7.6 mm, with a maximum movement of 27.0 mm. Probability of cuff excursion outside of the clinical target volume steadily dropped as margin size increased (53%, 26%, 4.2%, and 1.4% for 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm, respectively.) However, rectal and bladder doses steadily increased with larger margin sizes. Conclusions: The magnitude of vaginal cuff movement is highly patient specific and can impact target coverage in patients without bowel/bladder instructions at simulation. The use of vaginal cuff fiducials can help identify patients at risk for target volume excursion.

  1. Performing vaginal lavage, crystal violet staining, and vaginal cytological evaluation for mouse estrous cycle staging identification.

    PubMed

    McLean, Ashleigh C; Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A L

    2012-01-01

    A rapid means of assessing reproductive status in rodents is useful not only in the study of reproductive dysfunction but is also required for the production of new mouse models of disease and investigations into the hormonal regulation of tissue degeneration (or regeneration) following pathological challenge. The murine reproductive (or estrous) cycle is divided into 4 stages: proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. Defined fluctuations in circulating levels of the ovarian steroids 17-?-estradiol and progesterone, the gonadotropins luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, and the luteotropic hormone prolactin signal transition through these reproductive stages. Changes in cell typology within the murine vaginal canal reflect these underlying endocrine events. Daily assessment of the relative ratio of nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells, and leukocytes present in vaginal smears can be used to identify murine estrous stages. The degree of invasiveness, however, employed in collecting these samples can alter reproductive status and elicit an inflammatory response that can confound cytological assessment of smears. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive protocol that can be used to determine the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse without altering her reproductive cycle. We detail how to differentiate between the four stages of the estrous cycle by collection and analysis of predominant cell typology in vaginal smears and we show how these changes can be interpreted with respect to endocrine status. PMID:23007862

  2. Treating dyspareunia caused by vaginal atrophy: a review of treatment options using vaginal estrogen therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kingsberg, SA; Kellogg, S; Krychman, M

    2010-01-01

    Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and dryness are common symptoms of the decline in endogenous production of estrogen at menopause and often result in dyspareunia. Yet while 10% to 40% of women experience discomfort due to VVA, it is estimated that only 25% seek medical help. The main goals of treatment for vaginal atrophy are to improve symptoms and to restore vaginal and vulvar anatomic changes. Treatment choices for postmenopausal dyspareunia resulting from vulvovaginal atrophy will depend on the underlying etiology and might include individualized treatment. A number of forms of vaginal estrogen and manner of delivery are currently available to treat moderate to severe dyspareunia caused by VVA. They all have been shown to be effective and are often the preferred treatment due to the targeted efficacy for urogenital tissues while resulting in only minimal systemic absorption. Both healthcare professionals and patients often find it difficult to broach the subject of sexual problems associated with VVA. However, with minimal effort to initiate a conversation about these problems, healthcare providers can provide useful information to their postmenopausal patients in order to help them each choose the optimal treatment for their needs and symptoms. PMID:21072280

  3. Vaginal microbiome and sexually transmitted infections: an epidemiologic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brotman, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    Vaginal bacterial communities are thought to help prevent sexually transmitted infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome in which the protective lactic acid–producing bacteria (mainly species of the Lactobacillus genus) are supplanted by a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria. Epidemiologically, BV has been shown to be an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes including preterm birth, development of pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Longitudinal studies of the vaginal microbiome using molecular techniques such as 16S ribosomal DNA analysis may lead to interventions that shift the vaginal microbiota toward more protective states. PMID:22133886

  4. Norepinephrine Potentiates Proinflammatory Responses of Human Vaginal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Vulchanova, Lucy; Witta, Samantha R.; Dai, Yuying; Jones, Bryan J.; Brown, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The vaginal epithelium provides a barrier to pathogens and recruits immune defenses through the secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Several studies have shown that mucosal sites are innervated by norepinephrine-containing nerve fibers. Here we report that norepinephrine potentiates the proinflammatory response of human vaginal epithelial cells to products produced by Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen that causes menstrual toxic shock syndrome. The cells exhibit immunoreactivity for catecholamine synthesis enzymes and the norepinephrine transporter. Moreover, the cells secrete norepinephrine and dopamine at low concentrations. These results indicate that norepinephrine may serve as an autocrine modulator of proinflammatory responses in the vaginal epithelium. PMID:23571017

  5. Policy for Prevention of a Retained Sponge after Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Garry, David J.; Asanjarani, Sandra; Geiss, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Policies for sponge count are not routine practice in most labor and delivery rooms. Ignored or hidden retained vaginal foreign bodies has potentially significant health care morbidity. Case. This was a case of a retained vaginal sponge following an uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery. Delivery room policy resulted in the discovery of the sponge on X-ray when an incorrect sponge count occurred and physical exam did not find the sponge. Conclusion. This emphasizes the use of protocols to enhance patient safety and prevent medical error. PMID:22312370

  6. Pelviscopic Compared to Laparotomic and Vaginal Intrafascial Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lutzewitsch, N.

    1997-01-01

    Between 1993 and 1994, 368 women underwent hysterectomies for benign disorders at the University of Kiel. Of these, 58.7% were performed either by pelviscopic or by laparotomy Classic Intrafascial Supracervical Hysterectomy (CISH). Of the remaining, 14.8% were performed by abdominal hysterectomy, 13.6% by Intrafascial Vaginal Hysterectomy (IVH), 12.2% by Vaginal Hysterectomy (VH), and only 0.05% by Laparoscopic Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy (LAVH). Comparative data of these six surgical techniques concerning patients characteristics, indications for operation, histological features, blood loss, operating time, hospital stay, uterine weights and postoperatively used analgesics are described. PMID:18493441

  7. Hallazgo de una leucorrea vaginal de carácter no inflamatoria en hembras bovinas. II. Pesquisaje microbiológico vaginal y uterino (Finding of a vaginal leucorrhea of non-inflammatory character in bovine females. II. Microbiological examination)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis O. Alba Gómez; Edgar Segredo Cañizare; Enrique A. Silveira Prado; Eduardo Cruz Muñoz; Luis O. Maroto Martín

    With the objective of demonstrating that the bovine vaginal leucorrhea was not produced by the aggressive action of the microbial agents, 660 genital organs of cows and heifers of different races and ages, slaughtered were examined. In 120 of those organs were found exudates, for a relative frequency of 18% of vaginal leucorrhea. In 40 of the vaginal samples (33.3%)

  8. Analysis of variation in charges and prices paid for vaginal and caesarean section births: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Renee Y; Akosa Antwi, Yaa; Weber, Ellerie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the between-hospital variation of charges and discounted prices for uncomplicated vaginal and caesarean section deliveries, and to determine the institutional and market-level characteristics that influence adjusted charges. Design, setting and participants Using data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD), we conducted a cross-sectional study of all privately insured patients admitted to California hospitals in 2011 for uncomplicated vaginal delivery (diagnosis-related group (DRG) 775) or uncomplicated caesarean section (DRG 766). Outcome measures Hospital charges and discounted prices adjusted for each patient's clinical and demographic characteristics. Results We analysed 76?766 vaginal deliveries and 32?660 caesarean sections in California in 2011. After adjusting for patient demographic and clinical characteristics, we found that the average California woman could be charged as little as US$3296 or as much as US$37?227 for a vaginal delivery, and US$8312–US$70?908 for a caesarean section depending on which hospital she was admitted to. The discounted prices were, on an average, 37% of the charges. We found that hospitals in markets with middling competition had significantly lower adjusted charges for vaginal deliveries, while hospitals with higher wage indices and casemixes, as well as for-profit hospitals, had higher adjusted charges. Hospitals in markets with higher uninsurance rates charged significantly less for caesarean sections, while for-profit hospitals and hospitals with higher wage indices charged more. However, the institutional and market-level factors included in our models explained only 35–36% of the between-hospital variation in charges. Conclusions These results indicate that charges and discounted prices for two common, relatively homogeneous diagnosis groups—uncomplicated vaginal delivery and caesarean section—vary widely between hospitals and are not well explained by observable patient or hospital characteristics. PMID:24435892

  9. Mesh repair of vaginal wall prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Krishan; Dalal, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, mesh augmented surgical repair is being increasingly used in pelvic organ prolapse. Perigee and Apogee are comprehensive, single-use needle suspension kits that provide a standardized delivery method for mesh or graft-augmented repairs. This study has been carried out to study the safety and efficacy of the Perigee and Apogee mesh repair systems. Methods 10 cases of posterior vaginal wall prolapse with or without Apical prolapse underwent Apogee mesh repair surgery and 10 cases of anterior vaginal wall prolapse underwent Perigee mesh repair surgery. Depending on the findings either Apogee or Perigee or both were used. Patients were followed up for complications of the surgery if any, and for the relief of the symptoms related to prolapse and associated symptoms of bowel/bladder dysfunction. Objective cure rate was prolapse < stage 1 as per the POPQ system. Data collected was statistically analyzed. Results The objective and subjective cure rates were 100%. Postoperative complications were minor. No patient developed de novo urinary urge symptoms, stress urinary incontinence or UTI postoperatively. There were no operative complications like bladder injuries, hematoma and rectal injuries. The mean blood loss was 180 ml and the mean duration of surgery during the Apogee and Perigee mesh repair was 51.5 ± 2.99 min and 60.9 ± 4.65 min respectively. Conclusion In the present study there was a significant improvement in the degree of prolapse after the mesh repair surgeries and the results were consistent even at 12 months follow up. PMID:24843196

  10. Human epididymis protein 4 and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in vaginal fluid: relation to vaginal components and bacterial composition.

    PubMed

    Orfanelli, Theofano; Jayaram, Aswathi; Doulaveris, Georgios; Forney, Larry J; Ledger, William J; Witkin, Steven S

    2014-04-01

    Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a protease inhibitor and a recently identified serum biomarker for ovarian cancer. Properties of HE4 in the genital tract of healthy women have not been evaluated. We evaluated associations between HE4 and a second vaginal protease inhibitor, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), with vaginal concentrations of innate immune mediators or proteases and with the types of vaginal bacterial communities. Vaginal secretions were collected from 18 healthy reproductive age women and assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for concentrations of HE4, SLPI, kallikrein 5, cathepsin B, interleukin 1? (IL-1), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 ra), mannose-binding lectin (MBL), the inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8. The species composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 16 women was characterized by sequencing amplicons derived from 16S bacterial ribosomal RNA genes. Correlations between any 2 assays were analyzed by the Spearman rank correlation tests. Differences in the concentrations of HE4 and SLPI, and between soluble components and vaginal community types, were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U tests. Vaginal HE4 concentrations, but not SLPI levels, were positively correlated with levels of IL-1? (P = .0152), IL-1ra (P = .0061), MBL (P = .0100), and MMP-8 (P = .0315). The median vaginal HE4 level, as well as concentrations of MBL, IL-1?, IL-1ra, and MMP-8, was highest when Gardnerella vaginalis dominated a vaginal community. The association between HE4, elevated levels of proteases, immune mediators and high proportions of G vaginalis strongly suggests that HE4 is a component of the proinflammatory immune response in the female genital tract. PMID:24023032

  11. Mitigation of infectious disease at school: targeted class closure vs school closure

    E-print Network

    Gemmetto, Valerio; Cattuto, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    School environments are thought to play an important role in the community spread of airborne infections (e.g., influenza) because of the high mixing rates of school children. The closure of schools has therefore been proposed as efficient mitigation strategy, with however high social and economic costs: alternative, less disruptive interventions are highly desirable. The recent availability of high-resolution contact networks in school environments provides an opportunity to design micro-interventions and compare the outcomes of alternative mitigation measures. We consider mitigation measures that involve the targeted closure of school classes or grades based on readily available information such as the number of symptomatic infectious children in a class. We focus on the case of a primary school for which we have high-resolution data on the close-range interactions of children and teachers. We simulate the spread of an influenza-like illness in this population by using an SEIR model with asymptomatics and c...

  12. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D. [Department of Physics, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322 (United States); Jhang, Hogun [National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Yeoeun-dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)] [National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Yeoeun-dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients)

  13. DISCUSSIONS AND CLOSURES Discussion of "Accuracy of Digital Image

    E-print Network

    Bolton, Malcolm

    techniques to the measurement of deformations in transparent media, and comment upon its accuracy in imageDISCUSSIONS AND CLOSURES Discussion of "Accuracy of Digital Image Correlation for Measuring Deformations in Transparent Media" by Samer Sadek, Magued G. Iskander, and Jinyuan Liu April 2003, Vol. 17, No

  14. Diversity of the vaginal microbiome correlates with preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Richard W; Fukushima, Marilyn; Jiang, Hui; Fung, Eula; Rand, Larry; Johnson, Brittni; Vo, Kim Chi; Caughey, Aaron B; Hilton, Joan F; Davis, Ronald W; Giudice, Linda C

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive tract infection is a major initiator of preterm birth (PTB). The objective of this prospective cohort study of 88 participants was to determine whether PTB correlates with the vaginal microbiome during pregnancy. Total DNA was purified from posterior vaginal fornix swabs during gestation. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction primers, followed by chain-termination sequencing. Bacteria were identified by comparing contig consensus sequences with the Ribosomal Database Project. Dichotomous responses were summarized via proportions and continuous variables via means ± standard deviation. Mean Shannon Diversity index differed by Welch t test (P = .00016) between caucasians with PTB and term gestation. Species diversity was greatest among African Americans (P = .0045). Change in microbiome/Lactobacillus content and presence of putative novel/noxious bacteria did not correlate with PTB. We conclude that uncultured vaginal bacteria play an important role in PTB and race/ethnicity and sampling location are important determinants of the vaginal microbiome. PMID:23715799

  15. Diversity of the Vaginal Microbiome Correlates With Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Richard W.; Fukushima, Marilyn; Jiang, Hui; Fung, Eula; Rand, Larry; Johnson, Brittni; Vo, Kim Chi; Caughey, Aaron B.; Hilton, Joan F.; Davis, Ronald W.; Giudice, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive tract infection is a major initiator of preterm birth (PTB). The objective of this prospective cohort study of 88 participants was to determine whether PTB correlates with the vaginal microbiome during pregnancy. Total DNA was purified from posterior vaginal fornix swabs during gestation. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction primers, followed by chain-termination sequencing. Bacteria were identified by comparing contig consensus sequences with the Ribosomal Database Project. Dichotomous responses were summarized via proportions and continuous variables via means ± standard deviation. Mean Shannon Diversity index differed by Welch t test (P = .00016) between caucasians with PTB and term gestation. Species diversity was greatest among African Americans (P = .0045). Change in microbiome/Lactobacillus content and presence of putative novel/noxious bacteria did not correlate with PTB. We conclude that uncultured vaginal bacteria play an important role in PTB and race/ethnicity and sampling location are important determinants of the vaginal microbiome. PMID:23715799

  16. Management of Vaginal Atrophy: Implications from the REVIVE Survey.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Susan; Kingsberg, Sheryl; Krychman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) is a chronic and progressive medical condition common in postmenopausal women. Symptoms of VVA such as dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, irritation, and itching can negatively impact sexual function and quality of life. The REVIVE (REal Women's VIews of Treatment Options for Menopausal Vaginal ChangEs) survey assessed knowledge about VVA and recorded attitudes about interactions with healthcare providers (HCPs) and available treatment options for VVA. The REVIVE survey identified unmet needs of women with VVA symptoms such as poor understanding of the condition, poor communication with HCPs despite the presence of vaginal symptoms, and concerns about the safety, convenience, and efficacy of available VVA treatments. HCPs can address these unmet needs by proactively identifying patients with VVA and educating them about the condition as well as discussing treatment preferences and available therapies for VVA. PMID:24987271

  17. Vaginal Estrogen Therapy for Patients with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moegele, M; Buchholz, S; Seitz, S; Lattrich, C; Ortmann, O

    2013-10-01

    On account of the good prognosis for patients with breast cancer, improving or maintaining the quality of life in the aftercare period is becoming more and more important. In particular, the increasing usage of aromatase inhibitors in the past few years has led to an increased incidence of vaginal atrophy with symptoms such as vaginal dryness, petechial bleeding, dyspareunia and recurrent cystitis. And just these symptoms have a detrimental impact on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. Application of a topical estrogen therapy represents the most effective means to treat vaginal atrophy. The use of a systemic or, respectively, topical hormone therapy is, however, contraindicated for breast cancer patients. Further clinical trials are needed in order to assess the safety of vaginal estrogen therapy. PMID:24771890

  18. Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensign-Hodges, Laura

    A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations failed to reach. However, hypotonic formulations caused free drugs to be drawn through the epithelium, reducing vaginal retention. In contrast, hypotonic formulations caused MPP to accumulate rapidly and uniformly on vaginal surfaces, ideally positioned for sustained drug delivery. Using a mouse model of vaginal genital herpes (HSV-2) infection, we found that hypotonic delivery of free drug led to improved immediate protection, but diminished longer-term protection. Minimally hypotonic formulations provided rapid and uniform delivery of MPP to the entire vaginal surface, thus enabling formulations with minimal risk of epithelial toxicity. We then describe an ex vivo method for characterizing particle transport on freshly excised mucosal tissues. By directly observing MPP transport on vaginal, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tissue, we were able to determine an innate difference in mucus mesh size at different anatomical locations. In addition, we were able to optimize particle size for gastrointestinal delivery in mice. As described here, there are numerous barriers to effective drug delivery in the gastrointestinal tract, including the mucus barrier. We go on to demonstrate that MPP can improve delivery in the gastrointestinal tract, both by rectal and oral administration. Finally, we describe the use of MPP for improving vaginal drug delivery. Incomplete drug coverage and short duration of action limit the effectiveness of vaginally administered drugs, including microbicides for preventing sexually transmitted infections. We show that MPP provide uniform distribution over the vaginal epithelium, whereas CP are aggregated by mouse vaginal mucus, leading to poor distribution. By penetrating into the deepest mucus layers in the rugae, more MPP were retained in the vaginal tract compared to CP. After 24 h, when delivered in a conventional vaginal gel, patches of a model drug remained on the vaginal epithelium, whereas the epithelium was coated with drug delivered by MPP. We then demonstrate that when administered 30 min prior to inoculum, anti-HSV-2 MPP protected

  19. HPV-Associated Vaginal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All ... Cancer Home HPV-Associated Vaginal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ...

  20. Management of Recurrent Stricture Formation after Transverse Vaginal Septum Excision

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ridhima; Bozzay, Joseph D.; Williams, David L.; DePond, Robert T.; Gantt, Pickens A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. A transverse vaginal septum (TVS) is a rare obstructing anomaly, caused due to improper fusion of Müllerian ducts and urogenital sinus during embryogenesis. Case. A 15-year-old girl presented with primary amenorrhea. She had multiple congenital anomalies. Initial examination and imaging investigation revealed the presence of a unicornuate uterus and a TVS. The TVS was excised; however the patient was unable to perform vaginal dilation postoperatively leading to recurrent stricture formation. She underwent multiple surgeries for excision of the stricture. The patient was eventually evaluated every day in the clinic until she was able to demonstrate successful vaginal dilatation in the presence of a clinician. Summary and Conclusion. Properly guided regular and intensive vaginal dilation after TVS excision may decrease the need of reoperations due to recurrent stricture formation. PMID:26078895

  1. Iliococcygeus or sacrospinous fixation for vaginal vault prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher F Maher; Christine J Murray; Marcus P Carey; Peter L Dwyer; Antony M Ugoni

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To compare iliococcygeus (prespinous) and sacrospinous fixation for vaginal vault prolapse.Methods:Between 1994 and 1998, 78 women underwent sacrospinous colpopexy and 50 underwent iliococcygeus fixation for the management of symptomatic vaginal vault prolapse. A matched case-control study was designed to compare the two approaches. The matched variables included age, parity, body mass index, degree of vault prolapse, menopause, sexual activity, constipation,

  2. The Sacrospinous Vaginal Vault Suspension: Critical Analysis of Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Meschia; F. Bruschi; F. Amicarelli; P. Pifarotti; M. Marchini; P. G. Crosignani

    1999-01-01

    :   One hundred and three women with a preoperative diagnosis of a pelvic support defect underwent right sacrospinous fixation\\u000a of the vaginal apex. The procedure was performed either therapeutically (in 63 subjects with vaginal vault eversion) or prophylactically\\u000a (40 patients with severe uterovaginal prolapse), and was associated with other reconstructive procedures to repair the coexisting\\u000a cystocele, enterocele or rectocele. Preoperative

  3. Vaginal laceration and perforation resulting from first coitus.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, R J; Ganti, S

    2001-04-01

    Vaginal laceration resulting from coitus is not uncommon and is well described. Perforation of the vagina during coitus is a very rare occurrence, and there is scant literature reporting it. This is a case of a 14-year-old female who suffered both laceration and perforation of the vagina as a result of her first coitus, which was consensual. The characteristics of vaginal laceration and perforation, presentation, treatment, complications, as well as predisposing factors, are discussed. PMID:11334091

  4. Preclinical evaluation of UC781 microbicide vaginal drug delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith R. Clark; Timothy J. McCormick; Gustavo F. Doncel; David R. Friend

    2011-01-01

    UC781 is a potent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor being investigated as a potential microbicide to prevent transmission\\u000a of HIV-1 both vaginally and rectally. This study was designed to investigate the in vitro drug release, in vitro permeability\\/safety,\\u000a and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rabbits of a vaginal gel prepared with micronized or nonmicronized UC781 (UC781m and UC781nm, respectively). Gels prepared with

  5. Robotic removal of eroded vaginal mesh into the bladder.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Francisco Igor B; O'Connor, Jeffrey; Mittal, Vijay K; Hurley, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Vaginal mesh erosion into the bladder after midurethral sling procedure or cystocele repair is uncommon, with only a few cases having been reported in the literature. The ideal surgical management is still controversial. Current options for removal of eroded mesh include: endoscopic, transvaginal or abdominal (either open or laparoscopic) approaches. We, herein, present the first case of robotic removal of a large eroded vaginal mesh into the bladder and discuss potential benefits and limitations of the technique. PMID:23600850

  6. Obstetric and gynecological diseases and complications resulting from vaginal dysbacteriosis.

    PubMed

    Kovachev, Stefan Miladinov

    2014-08-01

    Accurate knowledge of the composition and ecology of vaginal microbial environment of a healthy woman is necessary for the understanding of normal flora and how to reduce the risk for diseases. Vagina and its microflora form a balanced ecosystem in which dominated bacteria are vaginal lactobacilli. There are dynamic changes in this ecosystem having structure and composition depending on many factors. The term dysbacteriosis defines any movement outside the normal range for the given biotope of obligate and/or facultative microflora. Such a change in the quantity and quality of the respective microbial balance is fraught with danger and requires correction and recovery. The purpose of this overview is to examine obstetric and gynecological diseases that can cause vaginal impaired microbial balance. Vaginal dysbacteriosis is a cause, predecessor, and often also consequence of vaginal infections. In essence, any vaginal infection can be seen as dysbacteriosis, developed to the most severe extent. Here, there is a dominant microorganism other than lactic acid bacteria in the vagina (clinically manifested or not, respectively), depletion of defense mechanisms of the vagina associated with the shift of lactobacilli from their dominant role in the vaginal balance, decrease in their number and species diversity, and a resulting change in the healthy status of the vagina. Vaginal dysbacteriosis can be found in pathogenetic mechanism, whereby many obstetric and gynecological diseases develop. Most of these diseases lead directly to increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality, so it is important to understand the reasons for them and the arrangements for their prevention. PMID:24711012

  7. Management of Vaginal Erosion of Polypropylene Mesh Slings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KATHLEEN C. KOBASHI; FRED E. GOVIER

    2003-01-01

    PurposeThe SPARC (American Medical Systems, Minneapolis, Minnesota) polypropylene sling has recently been introduced as an alternative delivery system to TVT (Ethicon, New Brunswick, New Jersey) tension-free vaginal tape for placement of a tension-free mid urethral sling. Erosion must always be considered a risk of synthetic materials. We present 4 cases of vaginal erosion of polypropylene mesh placed with this system

  8. Towards a mesoscale eddy closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Carsten; Greatbatch, Richard J.

    A turbulence closure for the effect of mesoscale eddies in non-eddy-resolving ocean models is proposed. The closure consists of a prognostic equation for the eddy kinetic energy (EKE) that is integrated as an additional model equation, and a diagnostic relation for an eddy length scale ( L), which is given by the minimum of Rhines scale and Rossby radius. Combining EKE and L using a standard mixing length assumption gives a diffusivity ( K), corresponding to the thickness diffusivity in the [Gent, P.R., McWilliams, J.C. 1990. Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 20, 150-155] parameterisation. Assuming downgradient mixing of potential vorticity with identical diffusivity shows how K is related to horizontal and vertical mixing processes in the horizontal momentum equation, and also enables us to parameterise the source of EKE related to eddy momentum fluxes. The mesoscale eddy closure is evaluated using synthetic data from two different eddy-resolving models covering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean, respectively. The diagnosis shows that the mixing length assumption together with the definition of eddy length scales is valid within certain limitations. Furthermore, implementation of the closure in non-eddy-resolving models of the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean shows consistently that the closure has skill at reproducing the results of the eddy-resolving model versions in terms of EKE and K.

  9. Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance -A Closure Experiment, Halthore et al. 1 Comparison of Model Estimated and Measured Direct-Normal

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN-3, to estimate DNSI, which is then compared with measured values obtained as a function of wavelength as represented in MODTRAN-3. An important consequence is that atmospheric absorption

  10. Supplementary Health Benefits of Linoleic Acid by Improvement of Vaginal Cornification of Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Parhizkar, Saadat; Latiff, Latiffah A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the possible estrogenic activity of some ingredients of Nigella sativa including Linoleic acid and Gama-Linolenic acid by vaginal cornification assay. Methods: Forty ovariectomized (OVX) rats, aged 16 weeks were allotted randomly to five groups: negative control (taking 1 ml olive oil/ day); positive control (taking 0.2 mg/kg/day Conjucated Equine Estrogen-CEE); experimental groups (taking 50 mg/kg/day Linoleic acid or 10 mg/kg/day Gamma Linolenic acid or 15mg/kg/day Thymoquinone ). All of supplements administered via intragastric gavage for 21 consecutive days. To assess estrogen like activity, vaginal smear was examined daily and serum estradiol was measured at baseline, after 10 days and at the end of experiment. Results: The significant occurrence of vaginal cornification cell (p<0.05) after Linoleic acid supplementation indicated estrogenic activity of Linoleic acid which was in consistency with serum estradiol level, but this effect was not as much as CEE. Gama-Linolenic acid also exist a few cornified cell in smear which was not significantly differ from those control group. Conclusion: Linoleic acid showed the beneficial effects on OVX rats’ reproductive performance, thereby indicating its beneficial role in the treatment of the postmenopausal symptoms. PMID:24312809

  11. Ovulation prediction by monitoring salivary and vaginal electrical resistance with the PEAK Ovulation Predictor.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M H; Blasco, L; Sondheimer, S J

    1989-05-01

    We investigated the ability of the PEAK Ovulation Predictor to predict the expected date of ovulation in 21 infertile, spontaneously ovulating women. A nonsignificant correlation (R = 0.15; P = .51) existed between the predicted date of ovulation and the day of the serum LH peak. A moderately strong correlation (R = 0.61; P less than .01) was observed between the day of the salivary electrical resistance peak and that of the serum LH peak. However, the serum LH peak occurred between 4-9 days after an identified peak in salivary electrical resistance. Twice-daily urine LH testing correlated strongly with both the serum LH peak (R = 0.93; P = .0001) and the ultrasound-detected day of ovulation (R = 0.81; P = .0001). A statistically significant peak in the mean salivary or vaginal electrical resistance on a particular day relative to the day of the serum LH peak could not be demonstrated. When identified, the nadir in vaginal electrical resistance occurred no earlier than 2 days before the serum LH peak and thus may mark the endpoint of the fertile period for natural family planning methods. We conclude that, whereas the PEAK Ovulation Predictor is of little value in accurately predicting ovulation, measurements of salivary and vaginal electrical resistance may be helpful in timing inseminations. However, for detection of the serum LH surge, twice-daily urine LH testing demonstrated a stronger correlation and narrower frequency distribution than did those determinations based on electrical resistance. PMID:2649824

  12. Endogenous or exogenous origin of vaginal candidiasis in Polish women?

    PubMed

    Mnichowska-Polanowskai, Magdalena; Wojciechowska-Koszko, Iwona; Klimowicz, Bogumia; Szymaniak, Ludmia; Krasnodebska-Szponder, Barbara; Szych, Zbigniew; Giedrys-Kalemba, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal candidiasis is a common problem of clinical practice. Many studies have been conducted to explain its origin but only a few have included Polish women. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and similarity of oral, anal and vaginal Candida albicans strains isolated from Polish women with vaginal candidiasis. The study involved 20 from 37 recruited women. Swab samples were collected from their vagina, anus, and oral cavity at two-month intervals. All the women were treated with nystatin. Yeast were recovered and identified by the germ-tube test, API /Vitek system, typed by API ZYM and RAPD-PCR. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. A total of 170 Candida albicans isolates were recovered from 180 samples collected 3 times from 3 sites of 20 women. Positive yeast vaginal cultures were found in all patients before administration of nystatin. Vaginal yeast recovery rate was decreased statistically significant in both follow-up visits (p= 0.001; p= 0.003). The same and different genotypes/biotypes were found concomitantly in a few body sites and/ or repeatedly at time interval from the same body site. The results support the concept of dynamic exchange of yeast within one woman and endogenous or exogenous origin of vaginal candidiasis. PMID:24459839

  13. Vaginitis in pregnancy is related to adverse perinatal outcome

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fengqiu; Du, Xiaodong; Xie, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether education level and occupation are risk factors of vaginitis in pregnant women and to investigate relationship between vaginitis occurrence during pregnancy and perinatal mortality rates. Methods: A total of 319 women of early pregnancy or mid-pregnancy were enrolled. Six specimens were collected from posterior fornix of each pregnant woman and then cultured for identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, intestinal bacteria, general bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, and chlamydia, respectively. Results: The pregnant women in the “elementary school or below” group and the “middle school” group had significantly higher incidences of vaginitis compared with the pregnant women in the groups of “high school”, “skill education”, and “college or above”. The pregnant women in the groups of “Worker”, “Government employee”, “Company employee”, and “Professionals” had significantly lower vaginitis incidences. The women with infections of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, intestinal bacteria, and general bacteria had higher perinatal mortalities (0.063 ± 0.011, 0.052 ± 0.012, and 0.017 ± 0.008, respectively) than women with infections of fungi, mycoplasma, and Chlamydia (0.002 ± 0.007, 0.003 ± 0.004, and 0.001 ± 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Education level and occupation are risk factors related to incidences of vaginitis in pregnant women. The bacteria-related vaginitis is a major reason of perinatal mortality.

  14. Bioadhesive Mini-Tablets for Vaginal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hiorth, Marianne; Nilsen, Susanne; Tho, Ingunn

    2014-01-01

    Different non-ionic cellulose ethers (methyl cellulose, MC; hydroxyethyl cellulose, HEC; hydroxypropyl cellulose, HPC; hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, HPMC) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were investigated as matrix formers for preparation of mini-tablets targeting vaginal drug delivery. Hexyl aminolevulinat hydrochloridum (HAL) was used as a model drug. The mini-tablets were characterized with respect to their mechanical strength, bioadhesion towards cow vaginal tissue in two independent tests (rotating cylinder test, detachment test using texture analyzer), and dissolution rate in two media mimicking the pH levels of fertile, healthy and post-menopausal women (vaginal fluid simulant pH 4.5, phosphate buffer pH 6.8). Mini-tablets with a matrix of either HPMC or HPC were found to possess adequate mechanical strength, superior bioadhesive behavior towards vaginal tissue, and pH independent controlled release of the model drug, suggesting that both systems would be suited for the treatment of women regardless of age, i.e., respective of their vaginal pH levels. Bioadhesive mini-tablets offer a potential for improved residence time in the vaginal cavity targeting contact with mucosal tissue and prolonged release of the drug. PMID:25166286

  15. Efficacy and safety of non-hormonal remedies for vaginal dryness: open, prospective, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Stute, P; May, T W; Masur, C; Schmidts-Winkler, I M

    2015-08-01

    Objectives To prove non-inferiority of the first non-hormonal vaginal cream in Germany, Vagisan(®) Moisturising Cream (CREAM), compared to a non-hormonal vaginal gel (GEL) for vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) symptom relief. Method This was a 12-week multicenter, open-label, prospective, randomized, two-period, cross-over phase-III trial. The primary endpoint was the cumulative VVA subjective symptom score of the respective treatment period. Secondary endpoints were assessment of single VVA subjective and objective symptoms, VVA objective symptom score, vaginal pH, safety parameters, overall assessment of efficacy, tolerability and evaluation of product properties. In total, 117 women were randomly allocated to either one of the two treatments, each administered for 4 weeks; 92 women were included in the per-protocol analysis (primary analysis). The main outcome measure was cumulative VVA subjective symptom score. Results Regarding VVA symptom relief, results confirmed non-inferiority of CREAM compared to GEL and even indicated superiority of CREAM. Frequency and intensity of subjective symptoms and objective findings were clearly reduced, with CREAM showing better results compared to GEL. Mean VVA objective symptom score significantly decreased; improvement was significantly greater with CREAM. Vaginal pH decreased only following CREAM treatment. Tolerability was superior for CREAM: burning and itching, mostly rated as mild, occurred markedly less often with CREAM than with GEL. Overall satisfaction with treatment efficacy, tolerability and most product properties were rated significantly superior for CREAM. Conclusions Subjective and objective VVA symptoms were reliably and safely reduced by both non-hormonal topical products. However, efficacy and tolerability of CREAM were shown to be superior to GEL. PMID:25845406

  16. Definitive radiotherapy in the management of isolated vaginal recurrences of endometrial cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lilie L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States); Grigsby, Perry W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States) and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)]. E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu; Powell, Matthew A. [Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Division Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States); Mutch, David G. [Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Division Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to assess prognostic factors and overall survival after salvage radiotherapy for patients who had endometrial carcinoma and who experienced an isolated vaginal recurrence. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 50 patients treated at our institution between 1967 and 2003 for an isolated vaginal recurrence of endometrial carcinoma. Initial treatment for endometrial carcinoma was definitive surgery in 49 patients and definitive radiotherapy in 1 patient. The median time from initial diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma to recurrence was 25 months (range, 4-179 months). Three patients (6%) received external-beam radiotherapy alone, 8 patients (16%) received brachytherapy only, and 39 patients (78%) received combined external-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. Median dose of radiation to the recurrence was 60 Gy (range, 16-85 Gy). Overall survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Endpoints were measured from the date of diagnosis of the vaginal recurrence. Median follow-up of survivors after recurrence was 53 months (range, 8-159 months). Results: The 5-year and 10-year disease-free and overall survivals were 68% and 55%, and 53% and 40%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, age (p = 0.0242), Grade 1 or 2 vs. Grade 3 tumor (p = 0.002), and size of recurrence (p < 0.001) were significant predictors of overall survival. All patients who had Grade 3 disease were dead by 3.6 years from the time of recurrence. Five patients experienced a Grade 3 or 4 complication. Conclusions: Patients treated with radiotherapy for an isolated vaginal recurrence can be cured in over 50% the cases. Radiotherapy is well tolerated, with a low risk of complications. Factors predictive of overall survival include tumor grade, patient age at recurrence, and tumor size.

  17. Preliminary Outcomes of a New, Safe, Tension-free Vaginal Tape Trocar.

    PubMed

    Aksakal, Orhan Seyfi; Kokanali, Mahmut Kuntay; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Doganay, Melike

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce a new, safe, tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) trocar. Twenty-eight women with stress urinary incontinence who underwent a TVT procedure with a new trocar during a 6-month period were prospectively enrolled in this study. All the operations were performed by the same surgeon who developed the trocar. The trocar has two buttons, which make the tip of the device sharp or blunt. Median age of the study population was 52 years (range, 30-76 years), median number of vaginal deliveries was 3 (range, 1-10). And 57.1% of women were at menopause. Median body mass index was 30.0 kg/m² (range, 23.8-35.2 kg/m²). Preoperative median Valsalva leak point pressure was 78 cmH2O (range, 50-94 cmH2O), while the median maximum urethral closure pressure was 50 cmH2O (range, 14-74 cmH2O). Concomitant prolapse surgery was present in 23 women (82.1%). At the 6-month postoperative visit, objective and subjective cure rates were 89.3% for each. No serious intraopeartive or postoperative complication such as bladder, intestine, or major vessel injury occured. Only 3 women (10.7%) needed blood transfusion, and 2 women (7.1%) had postoperative voiding difficulty. Due to the modifiable tip, this new sling trocar seems safer than the conventional trocars. But large studies are necessary to prove this assumption. Due to the modifiable tip, this new sling trocar seems safer than the conventional trocars. But large studies are necessary to prove this assumption. PMID:26055007

  18. Vaginal fluid prolactin: a reliable marker for the diagnosis of prematurely ruptured membranes. Comparison with vaginal fluid alpha-fetoprotein and placental lactogen.

    PubMed

    Phocas, I; Sarandakou, A; Kontoravdis, A; Chryssicopoulos, A; Zourlas, P A

    1989-05-01

    The aim of this study is the evaluation of the reliability of vaginal fluid (VF) prolactin (PRL) for detecting prematurely ruptured membranes (PROM) and the comparison of this marker with vaginal fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and placental lactogen (HPL). In 21 pregnant women with recent or prolonged PROM from 20 to 41 weeks' gestation, in whom intact membranes were never found subsequently VF- and MS-PRL, -AFP and -HPL were measured by enzyme immunoassays, which are sensitive and very rapid. The same markers were also measured in MS, VF and urine samples (U) in 12 pregnant women of the same gestational age, without PROM, in whom the membranes were ruptured later during labor. In PROM, independently of prematurity and duration of PROM VF-PRL levels were significantly higher (2-10-fold) than the paired MS-PRL (p less than 0.0001) and ranged from 130 to 2315 ng/ml. In contrast, VF-PRL and urine PRL concentrations in pregnancies without PROM were very low or undetectable (range: 0-5 ng/ml and 0.15-1 ng/ml, respectively). Vaginal fluid AFP values in PROM from 20th to the 33rd week of pregnancy were significantly higher (5-50-fold) than the paired MS-AFP (p less than 0.01) and ranged from 103 to 5500 ng/ml. In PROM after the 33rd week of pregnancy, VF-AFP values were either lower (1/3), or equal to, or even higher (up to 2-fold) than MS-PRL. On the contrary in pregnancies with intact membranes, VF-AFP were always less than 9 ng/ml and urine AFP was undetectable (range: 0.2-1.1 ng/ml).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2474464

  19. Effect of vaginal ph on efficacy of the dinoprostone vaginal insert for cervical ripening\\/labor induction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Connie S. DiMarco; Patrick S. Ramsey; Paul L. Ogburn; Denise Y. Harris; Robert H. Heise; Kirk D. Ramin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether vaginal pH has an effect on the relative efficacy of the dinoprostone vaginal insert (Cervidil) for cervical ripening\\/labor induction.Methods: Thirty-four gravidas, with an unfavorable cervix and indication for labor induction, were enrolled in this prospective, double-blinded clinical evaluation. Baseline assessment of cervicovaginal pH and Bishop score were made at the time of enrollment by an independent

  20. In situ high resolution synchrotron x-ray tomography of fatigue crack closure micromechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Khor; J.-Y. Buffiére; W. Ludwig; H. Toda; H. S. Ubhi; P. J. Gregson; I. Sinclair

    2004-01-01

    Fatigue crack closure has been identified as an important factor in determining crack growth rates. However, the methods of measurement of crack closure remain the subject of ongoing controversy. To date, computed finite element models, analytical models and widely established compliance-based experimental methods have offered limited micromechanical insight and\\/or direct information on the active crack tip region within bulk material.

  1. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A. (Thornton, CO); Stoddard, Lawrence M. (Arvada, CO)

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  2. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  3. Preparation and Characterisation of Fluconazole Vaginal Films for the Treatment of Vaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, L.; Reddy, M. S.; Shirodkar, R. K.; Pai, G. K.; Krishna, V. T.; Verma, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate vaginal films with essential in vitro studies. Films were developed using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as a polymer and formulations were coded. The developed films were evaluated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, drug content, viscosity, surface pH, thickness, mechanical characterisation and in vitro drug release study. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results confirmed that there is no chemical interaction between drug and stabilisers/excipients. The batch variation was not more than 5% for average thickness and weight of the films. The drug content for the prepared formulation was in the range of 72.32±0.18% to 94.48±0.54%. Viscosity of the formulations increased with the increase in concentration of polymer. Mechanical characterisation revealed that tensile strength and percentage elongation of the films improved as there is increase in degree of substitution of the polymer, but the values of modulus decreased which confirmed that all the prepared films are soft in nature. The in vitro study indicated that 1 and 2% concentrations of polymer are the least concentrations to control the release of drug whereas the 4% concentration of polymer is a good and more effective concentration to control the release. Only one prepared formulation released the drug by following anomalous transport whereas other film formulations released the fluconazole by following Fickian diffusion mechanism. Prepared vaginal films may be an important alternative for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, because these prepared films suggest the benefits of controlled release of fluconazole at the site of absorption. PMID:24403660

  4. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain crops. (b) The owner or operator must consider...its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies with § 265.276; and (4)...

  5. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain crops. (b) The owner or operator must consider...its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies with § 265.276; and (4)...

  6. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain crops. (b) The owner or operator must consider...its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies with § 265.276; and (4)...

  7. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain crops. (b) The owner or operator must consider...its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies with § 265.276; and (4)...

  8. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain crops. (b) The owner or operator must consider...its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies with § 265.276; and (4)...

  9. Microcrack closure in rocks under stress: direct observation

    SciTech Connect

    Batzle, M.L.; Simmons, G.; Siegfried, R.W.

    1980-12-10

    Microcrack closure in rocks under increasing stress was observed directly with a scanning electron microscope. Uniaxial stresses to 300 bars were applied with a small hydraulic press to specimens of Westerly (RI) granite, both unheated and previously heat cycled to 500/sup 0/C, and of Frederick (MD) diabase, heat cycled to 700/sup 0/C. Closure characteristics (rate, final closure pressure, etc.) depend on crack orientation, shape, surface roughness, and on the nature of fracture intersections and interactions. Cracks perpendicular to the applied stress closed while those parallel to the stress tended to open. Long, narrow cracks (low aspect ratio) closed at relatively low pressures. At some intersections, one fracture would open while another simultaneously closed, depending upon their orientations. Many fractures closed uniformly even though offset by other fractures. Local stress concentrations often caused new fracturing at low applied stress. Some fractures were propped open until material lodged inside was crushed. Significant irreversible damage occurred during the first stress cycle. Closure characteristics varied significantly among the samples. The unheated granite has cracks with rough, pitted, and mismatched walls. Only partial closure occurred under stress with many sections remaining open. Crack porosity is reduced but continues to be interconnected. Fractures in the preheated granite and diabase are also irregular, but the walls are well-matched and closure is nearly complete. The cracks in the heated granite closed at lower stresses than in the diabase. As the maximum stress was approached for the heated granite, new transgranular cracks formed and preexisting cracks were enlarged. The variations in closure rate and character were also observed in strain measurements.

  10. Delayed vaginal reconstruction in the fibrotic pelvis following radiation or previous reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Berek, J.S.; Hacker, N.F.; Lagasse, L.D.; Smith, M.L.

    1983-06-01

    Vaginal reconstruction was performed in 14 patients who had developed vaginal stenosis secondary to extensive pelvic fibrosis after pelvic radiation therapy (12 patients) or prior vaginal reconstruction (2 patients). Sixteen procedures were performed using a split-thickness skin graft. All patients had satisfactory vaginal restoration, and 12 patients reported good vaginal function. No fistula developed as a result of the operative procedure, but one patient later developed a rectovaginal fistula resulting from tumor recurrence. Successful vaginal reconstruction can be achieved even years after initial therapy in patients who develop an obliterated vagina from previous radiation or surgery.

  11. HOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion

    E-print Network

    Glew, Neal

    HOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion Neal Glew 1 Department of Computer Science is in- teresting and gives further insight into general closure conversion. It presents a formal closure to other object-oriented languages, and the paper gives some examples to support this statement. Finally

  12. Fourier's Law from Closure Equations

    E-print Network

    Jean Bricmont; Antti Kupiainen

    2006-09-01

    We give a rigorous derivation of Fourier's law from a system of closure equations for a nonequilibrium stationary state of a Hamiltonian system of coupled oscillators subjected to heat baths on the boundary. The local heat flux is proportional to the temperature gradient with a temperature dependent heat conductivity and the stationary temperature exhibits a nonlinear profile.

  13. Real-time visual loop-closure detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrien Angeli; Stéphane Doncieux; Jean-arcady Meyer; David Filliat

    2008-01-01

    In robotic applications of visual simultaneous localization and mapping, loop-closure detection and global localization are two issues that require the capacity to recognize a previously visited place from current camera measurements. We present an online method that makes it possible to detect when an image comes from an already perceived scene using local shape information. Our approach extends the bag

  14. 50 CFR 648.201 - Closures and TAC controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.201 Closures and TAC...2,000 lb (907.2 kg) of Atlantic herring per trip and/or >2,000 lb (907.2 kg) of Atlantic herring per day in such area pursuant to...

  15. Open magnetic flux and magnetic flux closure during sawtooth events

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hubert; S. E. Milan; A. Grocott; S. W. H. Cowley; J. C. Gérard

    2008-01-01

    We use IMAGE-FUV observations of the polar aurora and measurements of the ionospheric convection from the SuperDARN radar network to study several sawtooth events previously reported in the literature. We estimate the amount of open magnetic flux in the Earth magnetosphere during a significant part of these sawtooth intervals as well as the magnetic flux opening and closure rates, that

  16. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-28

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  17. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  18. Anterior vaginal wall repair (surgical treatment of urinary incontinence) - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    This procedure is used to repair the vaginal wall herniation that occurs with urethrocele, cystocele, or rectocele. ... release a portion of the anterior (front) vaginal wall that is attached to the base of the ...

  19. 77 FR 8900 - Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Termination of the Investigation Based on Withdrawal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...Investigation No. 337-TA-768] Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Termination of the Investigation Based on...the United States after importation of certain vaginal birth control devices by reason of infringement of certain...

  20. Closures and Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiming, Liu; Gaowa, Naren; Shu, Wang

    2013-01-01

    With the advancements of nine years of universal compulsory education, the development of China's basic education has resulted in new demands aimed at improving the overall quality of basic education in rural areas. Closings and consolidation are important measures in this regard. In the process of merging and consolidation, the construction…

  1. Study of the vaginal tolerance to acidform, an acid-buffering, bioadhesive gel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliana Amaral; Anibal Faúndes; Lourens Zaneveld; Donald Waller; Sanjay Garg

    1999-01-01

    Vaginal tolerance tests were performed with a new potential microbicidal and spermicidal product, an acid-buffering vaginal gel (Acidform) without or with nonoxynol-9 (N-9). The potential advantages over other vaginal products include keeping a low pH, decrease of the irritating effect of N-9 on the cervix or vaginal mucosa associated with greater retention of the product after application, and decreasing “messiness”

  2. The effect of vaginally administered genistein in comparison with hyaluronic acid on atrophic epithelium in postmenopause

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Le Donne; Carmela Caruso; Alfredo Mancuso; Gregorio Costa; Raffaella Iemmo; Giovanni Pizzimenti; Vittorio Cavallari

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  The quality of life in postmenopause is seriously affected by the symptoms related to vaginal atrophy. To evaluate in a 3-month,\\u000a prospective, randomized, double blind, study whether vaginal suppositories containing genistein might improve genital symptoms,\\u000a colposcopical and cytologic findings or modify DNA cytometric features in postmenopausal women affected by vaginal atrophy,\\u000a in comparison with vaginal suppositories containing hyaluronic acid (HA).

  3. BLT Humanized Mice as Model to Study HIV Vaginal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Deruaz, Maud; Luster, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections occur by sexual exposure, and vaginal transmission accounts for more than half of all newly acquired infections. Studies of vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus to nonhuman primates (NHPs) have suggested an important role for immune cell trafficking in the establishment of infection as well is in the process of viral dissemination. However, NHP models do not permit the study of HIV transmission and dissemination. The improvement of humanized mouse models with robust human immune cell reconstitution of the female genital tract renders these mice susceptible to intravaginal HIV infection. Thus humanized mouse models of HIV vaginal infection will allow the study of the mechanisms involved in HIV transmission and dissemination in vivo. PMID:24151319

  4. The Human Vaginal Bacterial Biota and Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sujatha; Fredricks, David N.

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new insights regarding bacterial diversity in this important niche, particularly in women with the common condition bacterial vaginosis (BV). PCR methods have shown that women with BV have complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include many fastidious species, particularly from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Healthy women are mostly colonized with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners, though a variety of other bacteria may be present. The microbiology of BV is heterogeneous. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae coating the vaginal epithelium in some subjects with BV suggests that biofilms may contribute to this condition. PMID:19282975

  5. [Vaginal delivery safe for twins starting at 32 weeks?].

    PubMed

    Goossens, Simone M T A; Mol, Ben W J; Nijhuis, Jan G; Roumen, Frans J M E

    2014-01-01

    Compared with other countries, the elective caesarean section rate for twins is relatively low in the Netherlands. Worldwide, there is an increasing trend toward performing more elective caesarean sections for women with a twin pregnancy at term, be it for twins with the first child in breech or in cephalic presentation. The results of the 'Twin Birth Study' indicate that a planned caesarean section does not improve outcome as compared with planned vaginal birth for twins with the first child in cephalic position beyond 32 weeks gestation. During the study, an experienced obstetrician was present during planned vaginal delivery and there was a possibility of performing a secondary caesarean section within 30 minutes. This study provides an additional argument to guarantee the aforementioned conditions in all hospitals where women plan to deliver their twins vaginally. However, the definition of an experienced obstetrician is subject to debate. PMID:24735810

  6. Large Vesico-Vaginal Fistula Caused by a Foreign Body

    PubMed Central

    Massinde, AN; Kihunrwa, A

    2013-01-01

    Foreign body is a rare cause of vesico-vaginal fistula most often reported in developed countries. In developing countries obstructed labor is the commonest cause of fistula. A nulliparous 19-year-old female presented with a 3-week history of a foreign body in the vagina causing urinary incontinence and offensive vaginal discharge. Her guardian allegedly inserted the foreign body after she refused a pre-arranged marriage. A plastic container was removed from the vagina under general anesthesia. A large vesico-vaginal fistula was discovered, which was successfully surgically repaired. We recommend urgent removal of the foreign body, preferably under general anesthesia. However, if the history or physical examination reveals prolonged exposure, repair of the fistula should be delayed to allow for adequate debridement in order to prevent any life-threatening complications. PMID:24116334

  7. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

    PubMed Central

    Fashemi, Bisiayo; Delaney, Mary L.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Fichorova, Raina N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Over-the-counter (OTC) feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil), personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9) known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU). Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these products before they are placed on the market. PMID:24009546

  8. Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy: evaluation of treatment with local estrogen therapy.

    PubMed

    Minkin, Mary Jane; Maamari, Ricardo; Reiter, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy, resulting from decreased estrogen production, frequently requires treatment. Estrogen preparations provide the most effective treatment; local application is preferred to systemic drugs when treating only vaginal symptoms. As local estrogen therapies have comparable efficacy, this study aimed to understand treatment practices, assess experiences with different forms of local estrogen-delivering applicators, and evaluate satisfaction. Women who were US residents aged ?18 years, menopausal (no spontaneous menstrual period for ?1 year or with a double oophorectomy), and receiving local estrogen therapy for 1-6 months (vaginal cream [supplied with a reusable applicator] or vaginal tablets [supplied with a single-use/disposable applicator]), completed an online questionnaire. Data from 200 women (100 cream users and 100 tablet users; mean therapy duration 3.48 months) showed that most stored medication in the room in which it was applied (88%) and applied it at bedtime (71%), a procedure for which cream users required, on average, more than twice the time of tablet users (5.08 minutes versus 2.48 minutes). Many cream users applied larger-than-prescribed amounts of cream, attempting to achieve greater efficacy (42%), or lower-than-recommended doses (45%), most frequently to avoid messiness (33%) or leakage (30%). More tablet users (69%) than cream users (14%) were "extremely satisfied" with their applicator. Postmenopausal women using local estrogen therapy were generally more satisfied with the application of vaginal tablets than cream. Patient satisfaction may help to facilitate accurate dosing. Positive perceptions of medication will help to optimize treatment, which, although not assessed in this study, is likely, in turn, to improve vaginal health. PMID:24648772

  9. Evaluation of risk factors of vaginal cuff dehiscence after hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung Ji; Kim, Seongmin; Bae, Hyo Sook; Lee, Jae Kwan; Lee, Nak Woo

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors of vaginal cuff dehiscence or evisceration according to the type of operation. Methods Medical records of 604 women who underwent hysterectomies at Korea University Anam Hospital between June 2007 and June 2011 were reviewed. They were allocated to six groups. The six types of hysterectomies included robotic hysterectomy (n = 7), robotic radical hysterectomy and node dissection (RRHND, n = 9), total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH, n = 274), laparoscopy assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH, n = 238), laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and node dissection (n = 11), and abdominal radical hysterectomy (ARH, n = 63). The characteristics and outcomes of each groups were compared. Results There was no difference in the characteristics of patients between 6 groups. In total of 604 hysterectomies, 3 evisceration (0.49%) and 21 dehiscences (3.47%) occurred. Evisceration were found in RRHND (1/9, 11.1%), TLH (1/276, 0.36%), and ARH (1/63, 1.56%). Dehiscences occurred in TLH (15/274, 5.42%), LAVH (4/238, 1.68%), and ARH (2/63, 3.17%). In 169 cases of TLH with intra-corporeal continuous suture, 1 evisceration and 4 dehiscences occurred, whereas 11 dehiscences occurred in 105 TLH cases with vaginal continuous locking suture (2.96% vs. 10.47%, P = 0.02). Conclusion The incidence of vaginal cuff dehiscenceand eviscerationwas significantly higher in TLH than LAVH. The intra-corporeal cuff suture was superior to the vaginal suture to prevent the vaginal cuff complications in TLH. PMID:24678487

  10. Evaluating the potential impact of vaginal microbicides to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV in

    E-print Network

    Blower, Sally

    Evaluating the potential impact of vaginal microbicides to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV: The following questions were addressed: would the introduction of vaginal microbicides substantially reduce) is low. ß 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins AIDS 2005, 19:413­421 Keywords: vaginal microbicides, HIV

  11. Quantity and distribution of levator ani stretch during simulated vaginal childbirth

    E-print Network

    Majumdar, Amit

    Quantity and distribution of levator ani stretch during simulated vaginal childbirth Lennox Hoyte of levator ani stretch during simulated vaginal childbirth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;199:198.e1-198.e5, Lien et al11 performed computer simulations of vaginal childbirth and demonstrated

  12. A multicenter randomized comparison of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy and abdominal hysterectomy in abdominal hysterectomy candidates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L Summitt; Thomas G Stovall; John F Steege; Gary H Lipscomb

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To compare intraoperative and postoperative outcomes between laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy and abdominal hysterectomy among patients who are not eligible for vaginal hysterectomy.Methods: Study subjects were randomly assigned to undergo laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy or standard abdominal hysterectomy. Intraoperative and postoperative management was similar for each group. Surgical characteristics, complications, length of hospital stay, charges, and convalescence were analyzed.Results:

  13. Resistance to vaginal or systemic infection with herpes simplex virus type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary C. Breinig; L. L. Wright; Margaret B. McGeorge; P. S. MORAItAN

    1978-01-01

    Summary Mortality due to vaginal or intravenous infection of female BALB\\/c mice with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was significantly reduced by treatment of mice with the immunomodulator pyran. Following intravaginal inoculation with virus, the incidence of vaginal infection and titers of virus present in the vaginal secretions were significantly reduced in pyran treated as compared with control mice.

  14. Molecular analysis of the vaginal response to estrogens in the ovariectomized rat and postmenopausal woman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A Jelinsky; Sung E Choe; Judy S Crabtree; Monette M Cotreau; Ewa Wilson; Kathryn Saraf; Andrew J Dorner; Eugene L Brown; Bryan J Peano; Xiaochun Zhang; Richard C Winneker; Heather A Harris

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaginal atrophy (VA) is the thinning of the vaginal epithelial lining, typically the result of lowered estrogen levels during menopause. Some of the consequences of VA include increased susceptibility to bacterial infection, pain during sexual intercourse, and vaginal burning or itching. Although estrogen treatment is highly effective, alternative therapies are also desired for women who are not candidates for

  15. Maturitas 41 (2002) 157165 Estrogen replacement reverses ovariectomy-induced vaginal

    E-print Network

    Berkley, Karen J.

    2002-01-01

    of the mechanism is vaginal atrophy associated with the loss of ovarian hormones, particularly estrogen, because both vaginal atrophy and dyspareunia can be reversed by hormone or estrogen replacement therapy [3 and because vaginal atrophy and dyspareunia do not always vary to- gether [3]. Although there are studies

  16. Aetiology & risk factors of recurrent vaginitis & its association with various contraceptive methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyoti Thulkar; Alka Kriplani; Nutan Agarwal; Sreenivas Vishnubhatla

    Background & objectives: Women who do not seek treatment for recurrent vaginitis have risk to acquire other sexually transmitted infections. Besides proper antibiotic treatment, male condom acts as a barrier to various infections. Present study was done to assess type of vaginitis, its association with various contraceptive methods and need of male condom in prevention of recurrent vaginitis. Methods: Prospective

  17. Molecular analysis of the diversity of vaginal microbiota associated with bacterial vaginosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zongxin Ling; Jianming Kong; Fang Liu; Haibin Zhu; Xiaoyi Chen; Yuezhu Wang; Lanjuan Li; Karen E Nelson; Yaxian Xia; Charlie Xiang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an ecological disorder of the vaginal microbiota that affects millions of women annually, and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including pre-term birth and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. However, little is known about the overall structure and composition of vaginal microbial communities; most of the earlier studies focused on predominant vaginal bacteria

  18. Vagifem is superior to vaginal Premarin in induction of endometrial thickness in the frozen-thawed cycle patients with refractory endometria: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Zolghadri, Jaleh; Haghbin, Hossein; Dadras, Nasrin; Behdin, Shabnam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Embryo transfer to a developed endometrium is an important prognostic factor in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycle outcome. Vaginal estrogen, such as Vagifem vaginal tablets and Premarin vaginal cream, is a regimen used for the patients with refractive endometria. Objective: Our objective was to compare the effects of Vagifem and Premarin on the endometrial thickness of the patients with refractive endometria. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with refractive endometria in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles received Vagifem vaginal tablets and 30 women received Premarin vaginal cream. Endometrial thickness was measured on the 14th day of drug administration. Results: Comparing the endometrial thicknesses of the two groups showed that the endometria of the Vagifem group was significantly thicker than that of the Premarin group (5.93±0.38 vs. 6.74±0.32; p<0.001). Conclusion: Vagifem is superior to Premarin in induction of endometrial thickness in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles in the patients with refractive endometria. PMID:25071850

  19. PFO Closure for Cryptogenic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Gillow, Sabreena J; Lee, Vivien H

    2015-08-01

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common finding in the general population and has been theorized to be a mechanism for ischemic stroke primarily due to a deep venous thrombus embolizing through the shunt into the arterial circulation. There has been much debate regarding the association between PFO and stroke, especially in the case of a cryptogenic stroke (i.e., stroke of unknown etiology) in a younger patient without other risk factors. Traditionally, when a PFO is detected, antithrombotic therapy to mitigate risk of a future ischemic event has been the mainstay of treatment. More recently, both surgical and transcatheter closure of a PFO have been widely utilized. However, there are only few randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of PFO closure for stroke prevention. PMID:26076907

  20. Evaluation of the effect of crack closure on fatigue crack growth of simulated short cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, J.; Fisher, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A test program was performed to determine the influence of crack closure on fatigue crack growth (FCG) rates of short cracks. By use of the standard compact tension specimen, test procedures were devised to evaluate closure loads in the wake of the crack behind its tip. The first procedure determined the magnitude of crack closure as a function of the fatigued crack wave by incrementally removing the contacting wake surfaces and measuring closure load at each increment. The second procedure used a low-high loading sequence to simulate short crack behavior. Based on the results, it was concluded that crack closure is not the major reason for the more rapid growth of short cracks as compared to long crack growth.

  1. Laparoscopic Management of Congenital Cervico-Vaginal Agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nutan; Sircar, Reema

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of cervical agenesis or lack of uterine cervix. It is a rare mullerian anomaly and occurs in 1 in 80,000-100,000 births. The patient presented to us with primary amenorrhea and cyclical left lower abdominal pain. She was diagnosed to have cervical agenesis associated with vaginal agenesis and left endometriotic cyst. Neovagina was created laparoscopically. Utero-vaginal anastomosis was tried but it was not technically feasible. Subsequently, laparoscopic hysterectomy was done due to recurrent endometriotic cyst formation.

  2. Per-Catheter ASD Closure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Latson

    1998-01-01

    .   Per-catheter devices for atrial septal defect (ASD) closure have been evolving since 1974. The four major devices available\\u000a for use on a limited basis in early 1997 are reviewed. These include (in alphabetical order) the Angel Wing device, the ASDOS\\u000a device, the Buttoned device, and the CardioSeal device (successor to the Clamshell). Sufficient data have been collected to\\u000a indicate

  3. Repository Closure and Sealing Approach

    SciTech Connect

    A.T. Watkins

    2000-06-28

    The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion.

  4. Closure constraints for hyperbolic tetrahedra

    E-print Network

    Charles, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the generalization of loop gravity's twisted geometries to a q-deformed gauge group. In the standard undeformed case, loop gravity is a formulation of general relativity as a diffeomorphism-invariant SU(2) gauge theory. Its classical states are graphs provided with algebraic data. In particular closure constraints at every node of the graph ensure their interpretation as twisted geometries. Dual to each node, one has a polyhedron embedded in flat space R^3. One then glues them allowing for both curvature and torsion. It was recently conjectured that q-deforming the gauge group SU(2) would allow to account for a non-vanishing cosmological constant Lambda, and in particular that deforming the loop gravity phase space with real parameter q>0 would lead to a generalization of twisted geometries to a hyperbolic curvature. Following this insight, we look for generalization of the closure constraints to the hyperbolic case. In particular, we introduce two new closure constraints for hyperbolic tetrahe...

  5. Vaginal colonization and activity of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum L23 in a murine model of vaginal tract infection.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Liliana; Ruiz, Francisco; Giordano, Walter; Barberis, Isabel Lucila

    2010-03-01

    A strain of Lactobacillus, identified as Lactobacillus fermentum L23, was selected from among 100 strains isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy, non-pregnant, pre-menopausal women. L. fermentum L23 was chosen on the basis of its bacteriocinogenic ability and its properties relevant to colonization, i.e. self-aggregation, adherence to vaginal epithelial cells and co-aggregation with bacterial pathogens. The antimicrobial preventative and curative effects produced by the probiotic L. fermentum L23 administered locally against Escherichia coli in a murine vaginal tract infection model were studied. One dose of the human strain L23 containing 10(8) c.f.u. ml(-1) colonized and persisted in the vaginal tract of the female BALB/c mice for 5 days. Infection with the pathogen at 10(6) c.f.u. ml(-1) in the vaginal tract was maintained for more than 7 days. A single dose of L23 administered 24 h pre-infection inhibited E. coli growth on day 3 post-infection, showing the preventative effect displayed by this Lactobacillus strain. Treatment with L. fermentum L23 during the post-infection period showed complete inhibition of pathogen growth from day 5. Thus, this in vivo study indicated that the probiotic bacterium L. fermentum L23 produced both preventative and curative effects on E. coli growth. The beneficial properties and the production of antimicrobial metabolites may act in situ to inhibit a pathogenic micro-organism within the vaginal environment. Strain L23 could be a good natural alternative to other therapies used for genital infections. PMID:19926731

  6. Vaginal micronized progesterone capsule versus vaginal progesterone gel for lutheal support in normoresponder IVF/ICSI-ET cycles

    PubMed Central

    Sofuoglu, Kenan; Gun, Ismet; Sahin, Sadik; Ozden, Okan; Tosun, Oktay; Eroglu, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcomes of luteal phase support by micronized progesteron vaginal capsule 600mg/day and progesterone vaginal gel 180mg/day in the normoresponder IVF/ICSI-ET cycles of the patients down-regulated via GnRH agonist long protocol or fixed antagonist protocol below 40 years of age. Methods: A total of 463 normoresponder cycles between January 2013 and December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Those with a BMI>28 kg/m2, any kind of uterine, ovarian or adnexial pathology, any significant systemic, endocrine or metabolic disease or who were reported as azoospermia, were excluded from the study. The patients were grouped according to the usage of micronized progesterone vaginal capsule 600mg/day (Group 1) or progesterone vaginal gel 180mg/day (Group 2) as luteal phase support. Treatment cycle characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were compared between groups. Results: Group-I included 220 cycles and group 2 included 243 cycles. Although the MII oocyte percentage among the total number of MII oocytes was significantly higher in Group-II (77.5% and 80.2%; p=0.034), positive ß-hCG (32.3% and 21.8%; p=0.015) and clinical pregnancy (27.3% and 17.7%; p=0.018) rates were significantly higher in Group-I. No difference was observed between groups regarding the ongoing pregnancy rates (23.2% and 17.3%; p=0.143). Conclusion: Micronized progesterone vaginal capsule 600mg daily used for luteal support in the IVF/ICSI-ET cycles was observed to significantly increase the biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates compared to progesterone vaginal gel 180mg daily. However, no difference was observed between two groups regarding ongoing pregnancy rates.

  7. Sexual function and vaginal anatomy in women before and after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M Weber; Mark D Walters; Marion R Piedmonte

    2000-01-01

    Objective: We sought to describe sexual function in women before and after surgery for either prolapse or urinary incontinence, or both. Study Design: Women completed questionnaires, and vaginal dimensions were measured before and at least 6 months after surgery for prolapse or incontinence. Comparisons were made with signed-rank tests or the McNemar test. Results: Eighty-one (49%) of 165 women were

  8. A Rare Case of Foreign Body Causing Recurrent Vaginal Discharge in Prepubertal Child

    PubMed Central

    Gobbur, Raghavendra.H.; Patil, Ashwini.G; Endigeri, Preetish

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in prepubertal children is mainly due to hypoestrogenic state of vaginal mucosa making it thin and alkaline leading to mucosal invasion by pathogen. In a paediatric case with persistent foul smelling , blood stained vaginal discharge not responding to medical therapy, vaginal foreign body should always be ruled out. Here, we report a 3 -year -old girl with complaint of recurrent vaginal discharge occasionally blood stained not relieved despite few antibiotics courses. On X -ray pelvis, a radioopaque foreign body hair clip was seen. Under sedation foreign body was removed by forceps following which child became asymptomatic. PMID:25738041

  9. A rare case of foreign body causing recurrent vaginal discharge in prepubertal child.

    PubMed

    Gobbur, Vijayalakshmi R; Gobbur, Raghavendra H; Patil, Ashwini G; Endigeri, Preetish

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in prepubertal children is mainly due to hypoestrogenic state of vaginal mucosa making it thin and alkaline leading to mucosal invasion by pathogen. In a paediatric case with persistent foul smelling , blood stained vaginal discharge not responding to medical therapy, vaginal foreign body should always be ruled out. Here, we report a 3 -year -old girl with complaint of recurrent vaginal discharge occasionally blood stained not relieved despite few antibiotics courses. On X -ray pelvis, a radioopaque foreign body hair clip was seen. Under sedation foreign body was removed by forceps following which child became asymptomatic. PMID:25738041

  10. Considerations to improve the evidence-based use of vaginal hysterectomy in benign gynecology.

    PubMed

    Moen, Michael; Walter, Andrew; Harmanli, Oz; Cornella, Jeffrey; Nihira, Mikio; Gala, Rajiv; Zimmerman, Carl; Richter, Holly E

    2014-09-01

    Vaginal hysterectomy fulfills the evidence-based requirements as the preferred route of hysterectomy for benign gynecologic disease. Despite proven safety and effectiveness, the vaginal approach for hysterectomy has been and remains underused in surgical practice. Factors associated with underuse of vaginal hysterectomy include challenges during residency training, decreasing case numbers among practicing gynecologists, and lack of awareness of evidence supporting vaginal hysterectomy. Strategies to improve resident training and promote collaboration and referral among practicing physicians and increasing awareness of evidence supporting vaginal hysterectomy can improve the primary use of this hysterectomy approach. PMID:25162260

  11. Sacrospinous hysteropexy versus vaginal hysterectomy with suspension of the uterosacral ligaments in women with uterine prolapse stage 2 or higher: multicentre randomised non-inferiority trial

    PubMed Central

    den Boon, Jan; Stekelenburg, Jelle; IntHout, Joanna; Vierhout, Mark E; Kluivers, Kirsten B; van Eijndhoven, Hugo W F

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether uterus preserving vaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy is non-inferior to vaginal hysterectomy with suspension of the uterosacral ligaments in the surgical treatment of uterine prolapse. Design Multicentre randomised controlled non-blinded non-inferiority trial. Setting 4 non-university teaching hospitals, the Netherlands. Participants 208 healthy women with uterine prolapse stage 2 or higher requiring surgery and no history of pelvic floor surgery. Interventions Treatment with sacrospinous hysteropexy or vaginal hysterectomy with suspension of the uterosacral ligaments. The predefined non-inferiority margin was an increase in surgical failure rate of 7%. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was recurrent prolapse stage 2 or higher of the uterus or vaginal vault (apical compartment) evaluated by the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system in combination with bothersome bulge symptoms or repeat surgery for recurrent apical prolapse at 12 months’ follow-up. Secondary outcomes were overall anatomical recurrences, including recurrent anterior compartment (bladder) and/or posterior compartment (bowel) prolapse, functional outcome, complications, hospital stay, postoperative recovery, and sexual functioning. Results Sacrospinous hysteropexy was non-inferior for anatomical recurrence of the apical compartment with bothersome bulge symptoms or repeat surgery (n=0, 0%) compared with vaginal hysterectomy with suspension of the uterosacral ligaments (n=4, 4.0%, difference ?3.9%, 95% confidence interval for difference ?8.6% to 0.7%). At 12 months, overall anatomical recurrences, functional outcome, quality of life, complications, hospital stay, measures on postoperative recovery, and sexual functioning did not differ between the two groups. Five serious adverse events were reported during hospital stay. None was considered to be related to the type of surgery. Conclusions Uterus preservation by sacrospinous hysteropexy was non-inferior to vaginal hysterectomy with suspension of the uterosacral ligaments for surgical failure of the apical compartment at 12 months’ follow-up. Trial registration trialregister.nl NTR1866. PMID:26206451

  12. Oral and Vaginal Epithelial Cell Lines Bind and Transfer Cell-Free Infectious HIV-1 to Permissive Cells but Are Not Productively Infected

    PubMed Central

    Moyes, David L.; Murciano, Celia; Shen, Chengguo; Challacombe, Stephen J.; Naglik, Julian R.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of HIV-1 infections worldwide are acquired via mucosal surfaces. However, unlike the vaginal mucosa, the issue of whether the oral mucosa can act as a portal of entry for HIV-1 infection remains controversial. To address potential differences with regard to the fate of HIV-1 after exposure to oral and vaginal epithelium, we utilized two epithelial cell lines representative of buccal (TR146) and pharyngeal (FaDu) sites of the oral cavity and compared them with a cell line derived from vaginal epithelium (A431) in order to determine (i) HIV-1 receptor gene and protein expression, (ii) whether HIV-1 genome integration into epithelial cells occurs, (iii) whether productive viral infection ensues, and (iv) whether infectious virus can be transferred to permissive cells. Using flow cytometry to measure captured virus by HIV-1 gp120 protein detection and western blot to detect HIV-1 p24 gag protein, we demonstrate that buccal, pharyngeal and vaginal epithelial cells capture CXCR4- and CCR5-utilising virus, probably via non-canonical receptors. Both oral and vaginal epithelial cells are able to transfer infectious virus to permissive cells either directly through cell-cell attachment or via transcytosis of HIV-1 across epithelial cells. However, HIV-1 integration, as measured by real-time PCR and presence of early gene mRNA transcripts and de novo protein production were not detected in either epithelial cell type. Importantly, both oral and vaginal epithelial cells were able to support integration and productive infection if HIV-1 entered via the endocytic pathway driven by VSV-G. Our data demonstrate that under normal conditions productive HIV-1 infection of epithelial cells leading to progeny virion production is unlikely, but that epithelial cells can act as mediators of systemic viral dissemination through attachment and transfer of HIV-1 to permissive cells. PMID:24857971

  13. The effect of Replens® on vaginal cytology in the treatment of postmenopausal atrophy: cytomorphology versus computerised cytometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J A W M van der Laak; L M T de Bie; H de Leeuw; P C M de Wilde; A G J M Hanselaar

    2002-01-01

    Background: After the menopause decreased concentrations of oestrogen may result in insufficient maturation of the vaginal epithelium, which can lead to a range of vaginal discomforts. This state of vaginal atrophy may be treated with oestrogen replacement treatment. Replens™, a non-hormonal alternative to oestrogen replacement treatment has been shown to be effective in relieving symptoms related to vaginal atrophy in

  14. Lotus petal flaps in vulvo-vaginal reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. W. Yii; N. S. Niranjan

    1996-01-01

    The perineum is an area of rich blood supply with multiple arterial anastomoses. Flaps raised on perforators around the perineum resemble the petals of the lotus and can be used to reconstruct a variety of vulvo-vaginal defects. Thirteen such flaps have been used successfully without any loss of flaps in eight patients. Eight flaps in four patients were used for

  15. Protection Against Vaginal SIV Transmission with Microencapsulated Vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preston A. Marx; Richard W. Compans; Agegnehu Gettie; Jay K. Staas; Richard M. Gilley; Mark J. Mulligan; Galina V. Yamshchikov; Dexiang Chen; John H. Eldridge

    1993-01-01

    Although protection in animal models against intravenous challenges with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has been reported, no previous vaccines have protected against a heterosexual route of infection. In this study, five of six macaques were protected against vaginal challenge when immunized with formalin-treated SIV in biodegradable microspheres by the intramuscular plus oral or plus intratracheal route. Oral immunization alone did

  16. Vaginal molds for intracavitary curietherapy: a new method of preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoni, F.; Bertoni, G.; Bignardi, M.

    1983-10-01

    A new method of preparing vaginal molds for afterloading intracavitary brachytherapy is described. Our technique makes it possible to obtain the most accurate individualization of therapy as far as dose distribution is concerned by taking into account the patient's anatomy and target volume.

  17. Vaginal Douching among University Women in the Southeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Barbara Hansen; Close, Fran T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the knowledge, beliefs about, and practices of vaginal douching among women attending 2 universities in the southeastern United States. Participants: There were 416 participants in this study; 46.9% were black and 44.5% were white. Methods: The authors administered a 30-item questionnaire to women enrolled in…

  18. New strategies for treatment of Candida vaginal infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Magliani; Stefania Conti; Antonella Salati; Simona Arseni; Raffaele Frazzi; Lara Ravanetti; Luciano Polonelli

    2002-01-01

    New strategies for treatment of vaginal candidiasis have been recently exploited, due to widespread occurrence of this disease, in particular as recurrent infec- tions, limitations of safe and efficacious antifungals as well as the lack of reliable preventative approaches. In this review new chemotherapeutic and immunothe- rapeutic strategies, based on the improved understanding of the immunopatho- genesis of this prevalent

  19. Hydrogen peroxide producing lactobacilli in women with vaginal infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vera D. Mija?; Slobodanka V. ?uki?; Nataša Z. Opavski; Milan K. ?uki?; Lazar T. Ranin

    2006-01-01

    ObjectiveHydrogen peroxide producing lactobacilli are isolated from the vaginas of a majority of healthy reproductive age women. Their toxic and inhibitory effect against the overgrowth of pathogens in the vagina is documented by in vitro studies. Clinical studies concerning the role of hydrogen peroxide producing lactobacilli in vaginal infections are controversial.

  20. Local Production of Chemokines during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL SAAVEDRA; BRAD TAYLOR; NICHOLAS LUKACS; PAUL L. FIDEL

    1999-01-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused by Candida albicans, is a significant problem in women of child- bearing age. Although cell-mediated immunity (CMI) due to T cells and cytokines is the predominant host defense mechanism against C. albicans at mucosal tissue sites, host defense mechanisms against C. albicans at the vaginal mucosa are poorly understood. Based on an estrogen-dependent murine model of

  1. Vaginal and rectal infection of cats with feline immunodeficiency virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah A. Bishop; Christopher R. Stokes; Timothy J. Gruffydd-Jones; Christine V. Whiting; David A. Harbour

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of vaginal and rectal mucosal routes for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) uptake and infection, as a model of mucosal HIV infection, and to determine the fate of virus at these mucosal sites following transmission of infection. SPF cats were exposed to FIV isolates (PET, GL-8, T637), administered as either cell-associated

  2. Benefits of Laser Therapy in Postmenopausal Vaginal Atrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Brînzan; Lucian Paiusan; Voicu Dascau; Gheorghe Furau

    2011-01-01

    Maybe the worst aspect of menopause is the decline of the quality of the sexual life. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser therapy in comparison with topical application of estrogen preparations, for the treatment of vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunctions induced by menopause. A total of 50 menopausal patients were examined during a

  3. Nanotechnological strategies for vaginal administration of drugs--a review.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Patricia Bento; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido dos Santos; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; Negri, Kamila Maria Silveira; Sato, Mariana Rillo; Bauab, Tais Maria; Chorilli, Marlus

    2014-09-01

    Women frequently develop disorders related to the vaginal area, including problems with the immune system, hygiene, genetic aspects and sexually transmitted diseases. Compared with other mucosal application sites, the vagina represents local effect as well as systemic drug delivery and is able to avoid the first-pass effect due to its large surface area, high blood supply and permeability to many active ingredients. It has been widely proposed that the use of drugs to treat vaginal disorders be combined with nanotechnology because nanosystems often potentiate the action of most active constituents, reducing the required dosage and side effects and improving the resulting activity in comparison with conventional treatments. Following the trend of using drug delivery systems based on nanotechology, many studies have encouraged the scientific community to turn to the development of new strategies for the vaginal administration of drugs. This study proposes to review the most common nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems that have been used to improve the effectiveness of active compounds administrated to treat vaginal disorders. PMID:25992455

  4. Conservative Management of Placenta Accreta/Increta after Vaginal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, S.; Reinhard, J.; Reitter, A.; Louwen, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Aim of the study was to show that conservative management with preservation of the uterus and of fertility is possible in patients with placenta accreta/increta after vaginal delivery. Method: A retrospective analysis of patients with placental attachment disorders after vaginal delivery was done in a perinatal centre between November 2009 and April 2011. The patient collective was identified using the ICD-10 codes for placenta accreta/increta/percreta, and patient records were analysed for risk factors, maternal morbidity, preservation of the uterus and of fertility, and neonatal outcome. Results: Three cases of placenta increta were identified in the last 1.5 years out of a total of 1457 vaginal deliveries, and all 3 cases were treated conservatively. Mean maternal age was 35.3 years; gestational age ranged from 39 to 41 weeks, and mean duration between delivery of the child and delivery of the placenta was 44.67 days (range: 14–100 days). Two patients developed symptoms of endomyometritis, including fever, leukocytosis and increased CRP levels. All 3 women were successfully managed with preservation of the uterus. Conclusion: In selected cases with placenta accreta/increta after vaginal delivery, it is possible to avoid surgical procedures, particularly hysterectomy procedures, and successfully manage these patients conservatively with preservation of the uterus. PMID:25308979

  5. Antifungal activity of lectins against yeast of vaginal secretion

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Bruno Severo; Siqueira, Ana Beatriz Sotero; de Cássia Carvalho Maia, Rita; Giampaoli, Viviana; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; de Lima, Adriana Nunes; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-imune origin. This group of proteins is distributed widely in nature and they have been found in viruses, microorganisms, plants and animals. Lectins of plants have been isolated and characterized according to their chemical, physical-chemical, structural and biological properties. Among their biological activities, we can stress its fungicidal action. It has been previously described the effect of the lectins Dviol, DRL, ConBr and LSL obtained from the seeds of leguminous plants on the growth of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretions. In the present work the experiments were carried out in microtiter plates and the results interpreted by both methods: visual observations and a microplate reader at 530nm. The lectin concentrations varied from 0.5 to 256?g/mL, and the inoculum was established between 65-70% of trammitance. All yeast samples isolated from vaginal secretion were evaluated taxonomically, where were observed macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to each species. The LSL lectin did not demonstrate any antifungal activity to any isolate studied. The other lectins DRL, ConBr and DvioL, showed antifungal potential against yeast isolated from vaginal secretion. These findings offering offer a promising field of investigation to develop new therapeutic strategies against vaginal yeast infections, collaborating to improve women's health. PMID:24031889

  6. Radiation Recall Reaction to Idarubicin Resulting in Vaginal Necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Gabel; Patricia J. Eifel; Carmen Tornos; Thomas W. Burke

    1995-01-01

    Radiation recall reactions are uncommon delayed tissue reactions seen in previously irradiated sites following treatment with cytotoxic agents. We evaluated a 64-year-old who developed two episodes of acute vulvitis and vaginal necrosis after receiving idarubicin therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia. Three years earlier she had undergone successful radiotherapeutic treatment of a stage I squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina. Her

  7. The effect of antifungal treatment on the vaginal flora of women with vulvo-vaginal yeast infection with or without bacterial vaginosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Donders; G. Bellen; J. Ausma; L. Verguts; J. Vaneldere; P. Hinoul; M. Borgers; D. Janssens

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial therapy may enhance the risk of symptomatic vulvo-vaginal candidosis in susceptible women. We addressed the\\u000a question whether oral antifungal treatment for vulvo-vaginal candidosis also influences the bacterial vaginal microflora.\\u000a One hundred and forty-two patients with a culture-proven acute episode of recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis (RVC) were treated\\u000a with fuconazole according to the ReCiDiF regimen (induction dose of 600 mg orally per

  8. 40 CFR 265.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...containment system components (liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste and leachate, and manage them as hazardous waste unless § 261.3(d) of this chapter applies. The closure plan, closure...

  9. 40 CFR 264.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...containment system components (liners, etc.) contaminated subsoils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste and leachate, and manage them as hazardous waste unless § 261.3(d) of this chapter applies. The closure plan, closure...

  10. 40 CFR 265.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...containment system components (liners, etc.), contaminated subsoils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste and leachate, and manage them as hazardous waste unless § 261.3(d) of this chapter applies. The closure plan, closure...

  11. 40 CFR 264.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...containment system components (liners, etc.) contaminated subsoils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste and leachate, and manage them as hazardous waste unless § 261.3(d) of this chapter applies. The closure plan, closure...

  12. Application of the low-level laser therapy for the treatment of vaginitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passeniouk, A. N.; Mikhailov, V. A.

    2000-06-01

    Vaginitis is the most common female infectious disease. Females suffering from this disorder are annually increasing in number. There are a lot of modalities of treatment of vaginitis, but because of drug allergy and microbe's stability to drug the treatment of vaginitis is difficult. Our study compares the efficacy of laser-therapy with drug therapy in the treatment of non-specific vaginitis and vaginal candidiasis. Thirty women reci4eed the LLLT by local action with antiseptic liquid daily during ten days, 20 women received metronidazole and fluconozole and vaginal application of metronidazole. The results suggest that local laser-therapy is able to remove sights of vaginitis more efficiently and faster than drug therapy. Repair of normal vaginal microflora, which is the best indicator of recovery, was significantly at a faster rate in laser-therapy group. There were no report of adverse reaction with vaginal laser- therapy, whereas there were women on drug therapy who reported side effects. In conclusion, vaginal aser-therapy with antiseptic liquid is a suitable, effective, safe and chip alternative to drug therapy in the treatment of vaginitis.

  13. Mucus-Penetrating Nanoparticles for Vaginal Drug Delivery Protect Against Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ensign, Laura M.; Tang, Benjamin C.; Wang, Ying-Ying; Tse, Terence A.; Hoen, Timothy; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Incomplete coverage and short duration of action limit the effectiveness of vaginally administered drugs, including microbicides for preventing sexually transmitted infections. We investigated vaginal distribution, retention, and safety of nanoparticles with surfaces modified to enhance transport through mucus. We show that mucus-penetrating particles (MPPs) provide uniform distribution over the vaginal epithelium, whereas conventional nanoparticles (CPs) that are mucoadhesive are aggregated by mouse vaginal mucus, leading to poor distribution. Moreover, when delivered hypotonically, MPPs were transported advectively (versus diffusively) through mucus deep into vaginal folds (rugae) within minutes. By penetrating into the deepest mucus layers, more MPPs were retained in the vaginal tract after 6 h compared to CPs. After 24 h, when delivered in a conventional vaginal gel, patches of a model drug remained on the vaginal epithelium, whereas the epithelium was coated with drug delivered by MPP. We then developed MPPs composed of acyclovir monophosphate (ACVp). When administered prior to vaginal herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) challenge, ACVp-MPPs protected 53% of mice, compared to only 16% protected by soluble drug. Overall, MPPs improved vaginal drug distribution and retention, provided more effective protection against vaginal viral challenge than soluble drug, and were non-toxic when administered daily for one week. PMID:22700955

  14. Pose-Graph SLAM Loop closure

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Hong

    spatial constraints From E. Olsen, ICRA 2006 Implementation details (As3) ·Odometric constraints/edges · 2 radius=1) Implementation details (As3) ·Loop closure constraints/edges · xi = xj or xij = 0 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Robot pose Loop closure #12;2 Implementation details (As3) ·Loop closure constraints · xi = xj

  15. Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-06-08

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  16. Forensic interlaboratory evaluation of the ForFLUID kit for vaginal fluids identification.

    PubMed

    Giampaoli, Saverio; Alessandrini, Federica; Berti, Andrea; Ripani, Luigi; Choi, Ajin; Crab, Roselien; De Vittori, Elisabetta; Egyed, Balazs; Haas, Cordula; Lee, Hwan Young; Korabecná, Marie; Noel, Fabrice; Podini, Daniele; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Valentini, Alessio; Romano Spica, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Identification of vaginal fluids is an important step in the process of sexual assaults confirmation. Advances in both microbiology and molecular biology defined technical approaches allowing the discrimination of body fluids. These protocols are based on the identification of specific bacterial communities by microfloraDNA (mfDNA) amplification. A multiplex real time-PCR assay (ForFLUID kit) has been developed for identifying biological fluids and for discrimination among vaginal, oral and fecal samples. In order to test its efficacy and reliability of the assay in the identification of vaginal fluids, an interlaboratory evaluation has been performed on homogeneous vaginal swabs. All the involved laboratories were able to correctly recognize all the vaginal swabs, and no false positives were identified when the assay was applied on non-vaginal samples. The assay represents an useful molecular tool that can be easily adopted by forensic geneticists involved in vaginal fluid identification. PMID:24365693

  17. Quantitative assessment of microbicide-induced injury in the ovine vaginal epithelium using confocal microendoscopy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of safe topical microbicides that can preserve the integrity of cervicovaginal tract epithelial barrier is of great interest as this may minimize the potential for increased susceptibility to STI infections. High resolution imaging to assess epithelial integrity in a noninvasive manner could be a valuable tool for preclinical testing of candidate topical agents. Methods A quantitative approach using confocal fluorescence microendoscopy (CFM) for assessment of microbicide-induced injury to the vaginal epithelium was developed. Sheep were treated intravaginally with one of five agents in solution (PBS; 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BZK); 0.2% BZK) or gel formulation (hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC); Gynol II nonoxynol-9 gel (N-9)). After 24 hours the vaginal tract was removed, labeled with propidium iodide (PI), imaged, then fixed for histology. An automated image scoring algorithm was developed for quantitative assessment of injury and applied to the data set. Image-based findings were validated with histological visual gradings that describe degree of injury and measurement of epithelial thickness. Results Distinct differences in PI staining were detected following BZK and N-9 treatment. Images from controls had uniformly distributed nuclei with defined borders, while those after BZK or N-9 showed heavily stained and disrupted nuclei, which increased in proportion to injury detected on histology. The confocal scoring system revealed statistically significant scores for each agent versus PBS controls with the exception of HEC and were consistent with histology scores of injury. Conclusions Confocal microendoscopy provides a sensitive, objective, and quantitative approach for non-invasive assessment of vaginal epithelial integrity and could serve as a tool for real-time safety evaluation of emerging intravaginal topical agents. PMID:22375797

  18. Ex Vivo Comparison of Microbicide Efficacies for Preventing HIV-1 Genomic Integration in Intraepithelial Vaginal Cells ? †

    PubMed Central

    McElrath, M. Juliana; Ballweber, Lamar; Terker, Andrew; Kreger, Allison; Sakchalathorn, Polachai; Robinson, Barry; Fialkow, Michael; Lentz, Gretchen; Hladik, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Vaginally applied microbicides hold promise as a strategy to prevent sexual HIV transmission. Several nonspecific microbicides, including the polyanion cellulose sulfate, have been evaluated in large-scale clinical trials but have failed to show significant efficacy. These findings have prompted a renewed search for preclinical testing systems that can predict negative outcomes of microbicide trials. Moreover, the pipeline of potential topical microbicides has been expanded to include antiretroviral agents, such as reverse transcriptase, fusion, and integrase inhibitors. Using a novel ex vivo model of vaginal HIV-1 infection, we compared the prophylactic potentials of two forms of the fusion inhibitor T-20, the CCR5 antagonist TAK-778, the integrase inhibitor 118-D-24, and cellulose sulfate (Ushercell). The T-20 peptide with free N- and C-terminal amino acids was the most efficacious compound, causing significantly greater inhibition of viral genomic integration in intraepithelial vaginal leukocytes, measured by an optimized real-time PCR assay, than the more water-soluble N-acetylated T-20 peptide (Fuzeon) (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.153 ?M versus 51.2 ?M [0.687 ng/ml versus 230 ng/ml]; P < 0.0001). In contrast, no significant difference in IC50s was noted in peripheral blood cells (IC50, 13.58 ?M versus 7.57 ?M [61 ng/ml versus 34 ng/ml]; P = 0.0614). Cellulose sulfate was the least effective of all the compounds tested (IC50, 1.8 ?g/ml). These results highlight the merit of our model for screening the mucosal efficacies of novel microbicides and their formulations and potentially rank ordering candidates for clinical evaluation. PMID:19949052

  19. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

  20. Laboratory testing of closure cap repair techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Persoff, P.; Moridis, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Tuck, D.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Landfill design requires a low permeability closure cap as well as a low permeability liner. The Savannah River Site, in South Carolina, has approximately 85 acres of mixed waste landfills covered with compacted kaolin clay. Maintaining low permeability of the clay cap requires both that the permeability of the compacted clay itself remain low and that the integrity of the barrier be maintained. Barrier breaches typically result from penetration by roots or animals, and especially cracks caused by uneven settling or desiccation. In this study, clay layers, 0.81 m in diameter and 7.6 cm thick, were compacted in 7 lysimeters to simulate closure caps. The hydraulic conductivity of each layer was measured, and the compacted clay layers (CCL`s) were cracked by drying. Then various repair techniques were applied and the effectiveness of each repair was assessed by remeasuring the hydraulic conductivity. Finally the repaired CCL was again dried and measured to determine how the repair responded to the conditions that caused the original failure. For a full report of this investigation see Persoff et al. Six repair techniques have been tested, four of which involve the use of injectable barrier liquids colloidal silica (CS) and polysiloxane (PSX) described below: (I) covering the crack with a bentonite geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), (ii) recompaction of new kaolinite at STD+3 moisture content joined to existing kaolinite that had dried and shrunk, (iii) direct injection of colloidal silica to a crack, (iv) injection of colloidal silica (CS) to wells in an overlying sand layer, (v) direct injection of polysiloxane to a crack, and (vi), injection of polysiloxane (PSX) to wells in an overlying soil layer.

  1. Comparison of Storage Conditions for Human Vaginal Microbiome Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Guoyun; Gajer, Pawel; Nandy, Melissa; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Sakamoto, Joyce; Blanchard, May H.; Ravel, Jacques; Brotman, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of storage conditions on the microbiome and metabolite composition of human biological samples has not been thoroughly investigated as a potential source of bias. We evaluated the effect of two common storage conditions used in clinical trials on the bacterial and metabolite composition of the vaginal microbiota using pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 1H-NMR analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight women were enrolled and four mid-vaginal swabs were collected by a physician from each woman. The samples were either processed immediately, stored at ?80°C for 4 weeks or at ?20°C for 1 week followed by transfer to ?80°C for another 4 weeks prior to analysis. Statistical methods, including Kolmogorovo-Smirnov and Wilcoxon tests, were performed to evaluate the differences in vaginal bacterial community composition and metabolites between samples stored under different conditions. The results showed that there were no significant differences between samples processed immediately after collection or stored for varying durations. 1H-NMR analysis of the small molecule metabolites in vaginal secretions indicated that high levels of lactic acid were associated with Lactobacillus-dominated communities. Relative abundance of lactic acid did not appear to correlate with relative abundance of individual Lactobacillus sp. in this limited sample, although lower levels of lactic acid were observed when L. gasseri was dominant, indicating differences in metabolic output of seemingly similar communities. Conclusions/Significance These findings benefit large-scale, field-based microbiome and metabolomic studies of the vaginal microbiota. PMID:22655031

  2. Preclinical evaluation of UC781 microbicide vaginal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Clark, Meredith R; McCormick, Timothy J; Doncel, Gustavo F; Friend, David R

    2011-04-01

    UC781 is a potent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor being investigated as a potential microbicide to prevent transmission of HIV-1 both vaginally and rectally. This study was designed to investigate the in vitro drug release, in vitro permeability/safety, and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rabbits of a vaginal gel prepared with micronized or nonmicronized UC781 (UC781m and UC781nm, respectively). Gels prepared with UC781m had greater in vitro release rates (Franz cells) and permeability/tissue-associated UC781 concentrations than gels prepared with UC781nm (EpiVaginal tissues). Both gels were well tolerated under in vitro conditions compared with controls using EpiVaginal tissues. Following intravaginal administration of both gels to rabbits, tissue concentrations typically ranged from 1,000 to over 10,000 ng/g regardless of dosing regimen (single dose or 7 days once daily dosing) and sampling times (2 and 24 h post-dose). Tissue-associated concentrations were highly variable, and no statistically significant differences were found between test conditions. Plasma levels were generally low after vaginal administration: following a single dose, the concentrations were between 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL. After 7 days repeated once daily dosing, UC781 concentrations were slightly higher ranging from below 1.0 to about 2 ng/mL, although none of the differences were statistically significant. Based on these results, gels prepared with either form of UC781 led to tissue concentrations well in excess of UC781's EC50 under in vitro conditions (~3 ng/mL). PMID:25788115

  3. Intra-abdominal pressures during activity in women using an intra-vaginal pressure transducer

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Janet M.; Hamad, Nadia M.; Coleman, Tanner J.; Egger, Marlene J.; Hsu, Yvonne; Hitchcock, Robert; Nygaard, Ingrid E.

    2014-01-01

    Strenuous physical activity has been linked to pelvic floor disorders in women. Using a novel wireless intra-vaginal pressure transducer, intra-abdominal pressure was measured during diverse activities in a laboratory. Fifty-seven women performed a prescribed protocol using the intra-vaginal pressure transducer. We calculated maximal, area under the curve and first moment of the area intra-abdominal pressure for each activity. Planned comparisons of pressure were made between levels of walking and cycling and between activities with reported high pressure in the literature. Findings indicate variability in intra-abdominal pressure amongst individuals doing the same activity, especially in activities that required regulation of effort. There were statistically significant differences in maximal pressure between levels of walking, cycling and high pressure activities. Results for area under the curve and first moment of the area were not always consistent with maximal pressure. Coughing had the highest maximal pressure, but had lower area under the curve and first moment of the area compared to most activities. Our data reflect novel findings of maximal, area under the curve and first moment of the area measures of intra-abdominal pressure, which may have clinical relevance for how physical activity relates to pelvic floor dysfunction. PMID:24575741

  4. Identification of Selected Child-Resistant Closures (Continuous Thread, Lug-Bayonet, and Snap Closures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Rosalind L.; White, Harry E.

    This publication describes a selected group of child-resistant closures used in packaging five categories of medicine and household products. The material in the document was collected to train survey personnel to identify closures for a planned household study of the effectiveness of child-resistant packaging. The 39 closures described are of…

  5. Nasal and Vaginal Vaccinations Have Differential Effects on Antibody Responses in Vaginal and Cervical Secretions in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EVA-LIZ JOHANSSON; LOTTA WASSEN; JAN HOLMGREN; MARIANNE JERTBORN; ANNA RUDIN

    2001-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are a major health problem worldwide, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how to induce an optimal immune response in the genital tract of humans. In this study we vaccinated 21 volunteers nasally or vaginally with the model mucosal antigen cholera toxin B subunit and determined the level of specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and

  6. Closure constraints for hyperbolic tetrahedra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Christoph; Livine, Etera R.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the generalization of loop gravity's twisted geometries to a q-deformed gauge group. In the standard undeformed case, loop gravity is a formulation of general relativity as a diffeomorphism-invariant SU(2) gauge theory. Its classical states are graphs provided with algebraic data. In particular, closure constraints at every node of the graph ensure their interpretation as twisted geometries. Dual to each node, one has a polyhedron embedded in flat space {{{R}}3}. One then glues them, allowing for both curvature and torsion. It was recently conjectured that q-deforming the gauge group SU(2) would allow us to account for a non-vanishing cosmological constant ? \

  7. Management of angle closure glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    See, Jovina L S; Aquino, Maria Cecilia D; Aduan, Joel; Chew, Paul T K

    2011-01-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is equally prevalent in Indian in Asian population as the primary open angle glaucoma. Eighty-six percent of people with PACG are in Asia, with approximately 48.0% in China, 23.9% in India and 14.1% in southeast Asia. To understand PACG, it is mandatory to understand its classification and type of presentation with the underlying pathophysiology. The treatment options are medical, laser and/or surgical. The present article provides an overview of PACG. PMID:21150039

  8. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and C31G as Microbicidal Alternatives to Nonoxynol 9: Comparative Sensitivity of Primary Human Vaginal Keratinocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRED C. KREBS; SHENDRA R. MILLER; BRADLEY J. CATALONE; PATRICIA A. WELSH; DANIEL MALAMUD; MARY K. HOWETT; BRIAN WIGDAHL

    2000-01-01

    Received 16 November 1999\\/Returned for modification 19 January 2000\\/Accepted 25 April 2000 A broad-spectrum vaginal microbicide must be effective against a variety of sexually transmitted disease pathogens and be minimally toxic to the cell types found within the vaginal epithelium, including vaginal keratinocytes. We assessed the sensitivity of primary human vaginal keratinocytes to potential topical vaginal microbicides nonoxynol-9 (N-9), C31G,

  9. Protective Role of Antimannan and Anti-Aspartyl Proteinase Antibodies in an Experimental Model of Candida albicans Vaginitis in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FLAVIA DE BERNARDIS; MARIA BOCCANERA; DANIELA ADRIANI; ELISABETTA SPREGHINI; GIORGIO SANTONI; ANTONIO CASSONE

    1997-01-01

    The role of antibodies (Abs) in the resistance to vaginal infection by Candida albicans was investigated by using a rat vaginitis model. Animals receiving antimannoprotein (anti-MP) and anti-aspartyl proteinase (Sap) Ab-containing vaginal fluids from rats clearing a primary C. albicans infection showed a highly significant level of protection against vaginitis compared to animals given Ab-free vaginal fluid from noninfected rats.

  10. Assessing the Multidimensionality of a Unidimensional Scale: The Problems and Potential of the Need for Closure Scale for Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowson, H. Michael

    The dispositional motivation of individuals to engage in information processing was studied through an instrument, the Need for Closure Scale (NFCS) (A. Kruglanski and others, 1996), developed to measure differences in the need for structure and closure. One goal of the two studies reported was to address criticisms related to the dimensionality…

  11. Higher order turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

  12. Criticality assessment of LLRWDF closure

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrack, A.G.; Weber, J.H.; Woody, N.D.

    1992-10-06

    During the operation of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF), large amounts (greater than 100 kg) of enriched uranium (EU) were buried. This EU came primarily from the closing and decontamination of the Naval Fuels Facility in the time period from 1987--1989. Waste Management Operations (WMO) procedures were used to keep the EU boxes separated to prevent possible criticality during normal operation. Closure of the LLRWDF is currently being planned, and waste stabilization by Dynamic Compaction (DC) is proposed. Dynamic compaction will crush the containers in the LLRWDF and result in changes in their geometry. Research of the LLRWDF operations and record keeping practices have shown that the EU contents of trenches are known, but details of the arrangement of the contents cannot be proven. Reviews of the trench contents, combined with analysis of potential critical configurations, revealed that some portions of the LLRWDF can be expected to be free of criticality concerns while other sections have credible probabilities for the assembly of a critical mass, even in the uncompacted configuration. This will have an impact on the closure options and which trenches can be compacted.

  13. Fiber optic interferometry: Statistics of visibility and closure phase

    E-print Network

    Chelli, E T A

    2005-01-01

    Interferometric observations with three telescopes or more provide two observables: closure phase information together with visibilities measurements. When using single-mode interferometers, both observables have to be redefined in the light of the coupling phenomenon betwe en the incoming wavefront and the fiber. We introduce in this paper the estimator of both so-called modal visibility and modal closure phase. Then, we compute the statistics of the two observables in presence of partial correction by Adaptive Optics. From this theoretical analysis, data reduction process using classical least square minimization is investigated. In the framework of the AMBER instrument, the three beams recombiner of the VLTI, we simulate the observation of a single Gaussian source and we study the performances of the interferometer in terms of diameter measurements. We show that the observation is optimized, i.e. that the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the diameter is maximal, when the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the...

  14. Microcrack closure in rocks under stress - Direct observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batzle, M. L.; Simmons, G.; Siegfried, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Direct observations of the closure of microcracks in rocks under increasing stress are reported. Uniaxial stresses up to 300 bars were applied to untreated and previously heated samples of Westerly granite and Frederick diabase by a small hydraulic press which fit entirely within a scanning electron microscope. Crack closure characteristics are found to depend on crack orientation, with cracks perpendicular to the applied stress closing and those parallel tending to open, as well as crack aspect ratio, crack intersection properties, stress concentrations and surface roughness. Uniaxial and hydrostatic stress measurements are found to be strongly dependent on fracture content as observed by SEM, and the observed hysteresis in strain measurements in the first stress cycles is also related to microscopic processes

  15. Energy balance closure for the LITFASS-2003 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foken, Thomas; Mauder, Matthias; Liebethal, Claudia; Wimmer, Florian; Beyrich, Frank; Leps, Jens-Peter; Raasch, Siegfried; Debruin, Henk A. R.; Meijninger, Wouter M. L.; Bange, Jens

    2010-07-01

    In the first part, this paper synthesises the main results from a series of previous studies on the closure of the local energy balance at low-vegetation sites during the LITFASS-2003 experiment. A residual of up to 25% of the available energy has been found which cannot be fully explained either by the measurement uncertainty of the single components of the surface energy balance or by the length of the flux-averaging period. In the second part, secondary circulations due to heterogeneities in the surface characteristics (roughness, thermal and moisture properties) are discussed as a possible cause for the observed energy balance non-closure. This hypothesis seems to be supported from the fluxes derived from area-averaging measurement techniques (scintillometers, aircraft).

  16. A new device for paravalvular leak closure

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Ertugrul; Tengiz, Istemihan; Turk, Ugur; Ozyurtlu, Ferhat; Alioglu, Emin

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous closure of a prosthetic paravalvular leak (PVL) is a challenging procedure. Operators must use devices constructed for other applications. We present the use of a device which is specifically designed for PVL closure. To the best of our knowledge, there is no publication in MEDLINE reporting the use of the device. PMID:25870623

  17. HOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion

    E-print Network

    Glew, Neal

    HOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion Neal Glew 1 Department of Computer Science conversion is in­ teresting and gives further insight into general closure conversion. It presents a formal and proof generalise to other object­oriented languages, and the paper gives some examples to support

  18. Remote controlled vacuum joint closure mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Doll; E. R. Hager

    1984-01-01

    A remotely operable and maintainable vacuum joint closure mechanism for a noncircular aperture is disclosed. The closure mechanism includes an extendible bellows coupled at one end to a noncircular duct and at its other end to a flange assembly having sealed grooves for establishing a high vacuum seal with the abutting surface of a facing flange which includes an aperture

  19. Remote controlled vacuum joint closure mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Doll; E. Randolph Hager

    1986-01-01

    A remotely operable and maintainable vacuum joint closure mechanism for a noncircular aperture is disclosed. The closure mechanism includes an extendible bellows coupled at one end to a noncircular duct and at its other end to a flange assembly having sealed grooves for establishing a high vacuum seal with the abutting surface of a facing flange which includes an aperture

  20. Role of perioperative low dose vaginal oestrogens in improving the outcomes of pelvic organ prolapse surgery.

    PubMed

    Rachaneni, S; Latthe, P

    2013-12-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is the most common gynaecological disorder requiring surgical treatment in postmenopausal women. Surgical treatment of POP might include anterior or posterior vaginal repair, vaginal hysterectomy, vault fixation procedures like sacrocolpopexy and sacrospinous fixation. Complications of POP surgery include excessive bleeding, visceral injuries, postoperative wound infection, urinary tract infection (UTI), sexual dysfunction secondary to vaginal scarring and recurrence. Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy may increase the risk of visceral injuries due to thinning of vaginal wall and also increases the risk of surgical site wound infections due to alteration of vaginal flora and urinary tract infections (UTI). Use of vaginal low dose oestrogens to treat atrophy of the vagina may improve the subjective cure rates and minimise surgical site wound infections by altering the vaginal flora to premenopausal levels. To date there has not been any data on the outcomes of POP surgery when low dose vaginal oestrogens are used perioperatively. Hence we want to study the effectiveness of vaginal low dose oestrogen on the outcome of POP surgery in postmenopausal women. PMID:24094982

  1. Selecting anti-microbial treatment of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Ruban, Katerina; Bellen, Gert

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a vaginal infectious condition which is often confused with bacterial vaginosis (BV) or with the intermediate microflora as diagnosed by Nugent's method to detect BV on Gram-stained specimens. However, although both conditions reflect a state of lactobacillary disruption in the vagina, leading to an increase in pH, BV and AV differ profoundly. While BV is a noninflammatory condition composed of a multiplex array of different anaerobic bacteria in high quantities, AV is rather sparely populated by one or two enteric commensal flora bacteria, like Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylocuccus aureus, or Escherichia coli. AV is typically marked by either an increased inflammatory response or by prominent signs of epithelial atrophy or both. The latter condition, if severe, is also called desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. As AV is per exclusionem diagnosed by wet mount microscopy, it is a mistake to treat just vaginal culture results. Vaginal cultures only serve as follow-up data in clinical research projects and are at most used in clinical practice to confirm the diagnosis or exclude Candida infection. AV requires treatment based on microscopy findings and a combined local treatment with any of the following which may yield the best results: antibiotic (infectious component), steroids (inflammatory component), and/or estrogen (atrophy component). In cases with Candida present on microscopy or culture, antifungals must be tried first in order to see if other treatment is still needed. Vaginal rinsing with povidone iodine can provide rapid relief of symptoms but does not provide long-term reduction of bacterial loads. Local antibiotics most suitable are preferably non-absorbed and broad spectrum, especially those covering enteric gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes, like kanamycin. To achieve rapid and short-term improvement of severe symptoms, oral therapy with amoxyclav or moxifloxacin can be used, especially in deep dermal vulvitis and colpitis infections with group B streptococci or (methicillin resistant) Staphylococcus aureus. Since the latter colonizations are frequent, but seldom inflammatory infections, we in general discourage the use of oral antibiotics in women with AV. In cases with a severe atrophy component (more than 10 % of epithelial cells are of the parabasal type), local estrogens can be used; and in postmenopausal or breast cancer patients with a contraindication for estrogens, even a combination of probiotics with an ultra-low dose of local estriol may be considered. PMID:25896749

  2. Effectiveness and safety of vaginal suppositories for the treatment of the vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: an open, non-controlled clinical trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. COSTANTINO; C. GUARALDI

    2008-01-01

    Menopause, due to the physi- ological decrease in the estrogens levels, is of- ten associated with many symptoms related to vaginal atrophy such vaginal dryness, dyspare- unia, burning, itching, decreasing in libido and therefore a worsening of the quality of life and in particular of the sexual activity. There are many pharmacological remedies to solve these events, first of all

  3. Statistical closure and the logistic map

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, J.D.; Graziani, F.R. (University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

    1994-01-01

    We consider the chaotic logistic map with stochastic initial conditions. All initial conditions assume a Gaussian distribution centered in the unit interval with a small dispersion. We show that the system exhibits behavior characterized by three different regimes (called initial, transient, and final). The initial interval is characterized by the Gaussian closure being accurate and the evolution of the system dominated by the evolution of the mean. The transient interval is characterized by rapid growth of all cumulants and a breakdown of Gaussian closure. We identify this period as the Suzuki scaling regime. An alternative closure scheme based on the beta distribution is also introduced. We find that the evolution equations for the mean and dispersion based on a beta distribution closure give accurate predictions over all iterations. This type of closure assumes nothing about the vanishing of higher-order cumulants (in fact, cumulants of all order are nonvanishing). The possible relevance of these results to clump kinetics is also addressed.

  4. PLAN FOR CLOSURE OF HANFORDS CENTRAL PLATEAU

    SciTech Connect

    AUSTIN, B.A.

    2004-12-15

    This paper summarizes an approach to reduce risk to the public and environment through accelerated closure of Hanford's Central Plateau, based on a plan developed by Fluor Hanford and submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE)-Richland Office, for consideration, in September, 2004. This plan provides a framework and starting point for discussions with regulators and further planning for closure activities on the Plateau. The closure strategy and approach required developing a full inventory of items needing closure as well as identifying and defining technical and regulatory approaches that were compatible with current regulatory processes, reduce risks, and met DOE objectives. This effort, and the paper that follows, integrates closure activities among several contractors and two DOE field offices.

  5. Glycerol Monolaurate Microbicide Protection against Repeat High-Dose SIV Vaginal Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Ashley T.; Rakasz, Eva; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Nephew, Karla; Weisgrau, Kimberly L.; Reilly, Cavan S.; Li, Qingsheng; Southern, Peter J.; Rothenberger, Meghan; Peterson, Marnie L.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Measures to prevent sexual mucosal transmission are critically needed, particularly to prevent transmission to young women at high risk in the microepidemics in South Africa that disproportionally contribute to the continued pandemic. To that end, microbicides containing anti-retroviral (ARV) agents have been shown to prevent transmission, but with efficacy limited both by adherence and pre-existing innate immune and inflammatory conditions in the female reproductive tract (FRT). Glycerol monolaurate (GML) has been proposed as a microbicide component to enhance efficacy by blocking these transmission-facilitating innate immune response to vaginal exposure. We show here in an especially rigorous test of protection in the SIV-rhesus macaque model of HIV-1 transmission to women, that GML used daily and before vaginal challenge protects against repeat high doses of SIV by criteria that include virological and immunological assays to detect occult infection. We also provide evidence for indirect mechanisms of action in GML-mediated protection. Developing a sustained formulation for GML delivery could contribute an independent, complementary protective component to an ARV-containing microbicide. PMID:26057743

  6. Aspects of psychosocial problems of patients with vesico-vaginal fistula.

    PubMed

    Gharoro, E P; Agholor, K N

    2009-10-01

    Our objective was to evaluate psychosocial problems among patients presenting with vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF), and their close relatives. All patients presenting with VVF and their spouses or attendant close relatives were administered a structured questionnaire followed by an in-depth interview. A total of 20 patients and 10 attendant relatives were interviewed. The average age of patients was 24.7 years, range 16-38 years. A total of 11 patients (55%) had their first marriage between the ages of 15-20 years, with one nulliparous, unmarried patient, who acquired VVF following infertility treatment with herbs. Of the interviewed respondents, 19 affirmed that prolonged labour was the cause of VVF, while four patients developed VVF sequel to unsupervised vaginal birth after a previous caesarean section. Reported medical problems were dermatitis (20%), foul smell of urine (15%), recurrent UTI (10%), infertility (5%), amenorrhoea (5%), in that order. Socially, 45% felt ostracised and 50% were economically impoverished by job loss. The divorce rate was 25%, with one case of remarriage and childbirth with an unrepaired VVF. Some 56.6% respondents suggested hospital delivery was a preventive measure, while 33.3% felt avoidance of premarital sex and early marriage would prevent VVF. VVF is still a major social and reproductive health problem and most patients and relatives understand the place of difficult childbirth in VVF formation. The need to empower patients to timely access standard maternity and emergency obstetric care is recommended. PMID:19757273

  7. Treating vaginal and external anogenital condylomas with electrosurgery vs CO2 laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Ferenczy, A; Behelak, Y; Haber, G; Wright, T C; Richart, R M

    1995-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the technical characteristics, side effects, complications, and effectiveness of electrosurgery vs continuous wave CO2 laser in the treatment of genital warts. This open clinical trial was made up of 208 evaluable patients (135 women and 73 men) with vaginal and external anogenital condylomas. To avoid selection bias, in each patient half of the lesions measuring 2 cm2 or greater total linear area were treated with loop electroexcision and ball electrofulguration, and the other half were treated with CO2 laser excision and vaporization in a continuous wave mode spot welding. All patients were followed for at least 6 months (maximum 18 months, mean 8 months) after the last treatment received. The average operative time was 6 min for electrosurgery and 8 min for laser. Healing was completed in 95% of patients with a lesional area of 5 cm2 or less and 100% of patients with 5 cm2 or larger by the third and sixth postoperative week, respectively. Severe discomfort occurred in 12% of patients, and 4% of patients developed delayed complications, including vitiligo and scarring, irrespective of treatment modalities used. Complete clearance of warts in women and men after a single (51% and 38%) and multiple (75% and 64%) treatments were similar in areas treated with electrosurgery and CO2 laser. Electrosurgery appears to be as effective as continuous wave CO2 laser for treating vaginal and external anogenital condylomas, particularly those limited to a 5 cm2 or less area. PMID:10150437

  8. Temporal relation of ovulation to salivary and vaginal electrical resistance patterns: implications for natural family planning.

    PubMed

    Moreno, J E; Weitzman, G A; Doody, M C; Gibbons, W E; Besch, P; Goldzieher, J W

    1988-10-01

    An independent assessment of the CUE Monitor (Zetek, Aurora, Colorado) as an ovulation predictor was made with emphasis on its potential role in "natural family planning". The device provides a digital measurement of the electrical resistance of saliva and vaginal secretions. Twenty-nine menstrual cycles from 11 regularly cycling women were monitored with basal temperatures, urinary LH, pelvic ultrasound and the CUE monitor. Patterns of peak salivary electrical resistance were able to predict ovulation on average 5.3 (+/- 1.9 SD) days in advance. Despite variations in total length of the follicular phase from cycle to cycle, the within-subject variation of this predictive interval was quite small. Nadirs in the electrical resistance of vaginal secretions occurred within 2 days of ovulation in all but one patient. Variation in this interval from cycle-to-cycle was small as well. We propose an algorithm for the use of these intervals in "natural family planning" that could safely reduce the monthly abstinence period of present methods. The simplicity, objectivity and consistency of this device could result in their greater general acceptance. PMID:3208515

  9. A quantitative assessment of group delay methods for identifying glottal closures in voiced speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Brookes; Patrick A. Naylor; Jon Gudnason

    2006-01-01

    Measures based on the group delay of the LPC residual have been used by a number of authors to identify the time instants of glottal closure in voiced speech. In this paper, we discuss the theoretical properties of three such measures and we also present a new measure having useful properties. We give a quantitative assessment of each measure's ability

  10. Need for closure and anxiety in delusions: A longitudinal investigation in early psychosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susannah M. Colbert; Emmanuelle R. Peters; Philippa A. Garety

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of need for closure (NFC) and anxiety in delusions. The Need For Closure Scale (NFCS) and measures of trait and state anxiety were administered to an early psychosis group with current delusions, a clinical (generalised anxiety disorder—GAD) control group and a non-clinical control group. The battery of questionnaires was repeated at follow-up one year later.

  11. Chitosan/alginate complexes for vaginal delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate.

    PubMed

    Abruzzo, A; Bigucci, F; Cerchiara, T; Saladini, B; Gallucci, M C; Cruciani, F; Vitali, B; Luppi, B

    2013-01-16

    Chitosan/alginate complexes were prepared at different polycation/polyanion molar ratios and freeze-dried vaginal inserts were obtained for chlorhexidine digluconate local delivery in genital infections. Complex yield, FT-IR spectra, and TGA thermograms were studied to confirm the interaction between the two polyions. The influence of different complexes on physical handling, morphology, and drug distribution in the samples were evaluated by friability test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. In vitro water-uptake, mucoadhesion and release tests were performed as well as microbiological tests toward pathogenic vaginal microorganisms. The results showed that the selection of suitable chitosan/alginate molar ratio and drug loading allowed modulate insert ability to hydrate, adhere to the mucosa, and release chlorhexidine digluconate. The insert containing an excess of alginate was found to be the best performing formulation and showed good antimicrobial activity toward the pathogens Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. PMID:23121960

  12. Urinary Incontinence after Vaginal Delivery or Cesarean Section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guri Rortveit; Anne Kjersti Daltveit; Yngvild S. Hannestad; Steinar Hunskaar

    2003-01-01

    background It is uncertain whether women who deliver by cesarean section have an increased risk of urinary incontinence as compared with nulliparous women and whether women who deliver vaginally have an even higher risk. methods We studied 15,307 women enrolled in the Epidemiology of Incontinence in the County of Nord-Trøndelag (EPINCONT) study, which involved a community-based cohort. The data base

  13. Ovarian function with a novel combined contraceptive vaginal ring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Titia M. T. Mulders; Thom O. M. Dieben; Herjan J. T. Coelingh Bennink

    BACKGROUND: NuvaRing® is a combined contraceptive vaginal ring designed for 3 weeks continuous use followed by a 1 week ring-free period. The present study evaluated ovarian function in women who were instructed to either adhere to, or deviate from, the recommended regimen of use. METHODS: In this open-label, randomized study, 45 women aged between 18 and 35 years used NuvaRing

  14. Posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse: primary repair in 693 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice J. Webb; Michael P. Aronson; Linda K. Ferguson; Raymond A. Lee

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine the results of primary repair of posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse in a current, large series of patients with long-term follow-up.Methods: From January 1976 to December 1987, 693 patients underwent primary repair of vault prolapse at the Mayo Clinic. The Mayo culdoplasty technique was used in 95% of these patients. Patients were followed up by reference to their

  15. Vaginal infections in human immunodeficiency virus–infected women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Helfgott; Nancy Eriksen; C. Michael Bundrick; Ronald Lorimor; Barbara Van Eckhout

    2000-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the frequencies of vaginal infections among human immunodeficiency virus–infected women with those among human immunodeficiency virus–seronegative women. Study Design: Human immunodeficiency virus–seropositive women attending a comprehensive care center for human immunodeficiency virus disease at the outpatient department of an inner-city hospital in Houston underwent rigorous gynecologic evaluation for sexually transmitted diseases, including evidence

  16. Midurethral sling outcomes: tension-free vaginal tape versus Pelvilace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart H. Shippey; Isabel C. Green; Lieschen H. Quiroz; Victoria L. Handa; Robert E. Gutman

    2008-01-01

    We sought to compare the complications and efficacy of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and Pelvilace. Chart reviews and telephone\\u000a questionnaires documented complications, urinary symptoms [Urogenital Distress Inventory short form (UDI-6) and Patient Global\\u000a Impression of Improvement (PGII)], and re-operations. Failure was defined as PGII???4 (no change or worse) or reoperation\\u000a for urinary incontinence. There were 91 TVT and 22 Pelvilace

  17. Voiding dysfunction after the tension-free vaginal tape procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Courtenay Moore; Marie Fidela R. Paraiso

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the past decade, pubovaginal slings have become the most widely used surgical procedure for the treatment of stress\\u000a urinary incontinence. However, despite its widespread use and success rates, it is associated with a significant complication\\u000a rate. In response to the high complication rate, the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) was introduced. Based on the integral\\u000a theory that stress urinary incontinence

  18. Closure Evaluation of Laboratory Aerosols Optical and Hygroscopic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Rood, M.

    2006-12-01

    Closure analysis of the optical and hygroscopic properties of selected pure inorganic aerosol (e.g., ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride), pure organic aerosol (e.g., glutaric acid and succinic acid), and two inorganic and organic aerosol mixtures will be evaluated. Focus will be on the effect of particulate organic matter (POM) content on an aerosol's optical hygroscopicity. The Mie-Lorentz light scattering ("BHMIE") code is used to predict the total light scattering and backscattering coefficients (?sp and ?bsp, respectively) at given RH values. The "BHMIE" code uses measured aerosol particle number size distributions by Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA), and refractive indices as major model inputs. As a subset of the optical closure study, another closure on the real refractive indices of the aerosols will also be completed by comparing results from the partial molar refraction (PMR) approach to the experimentally determined values using two independent optical devices - ellipsometer and refractometer at different sub-saturated solute mass concentrations. Meanwhile, a scanning relative humidity (RH) nephelometry system, humidograph, is used to measure ?bsp and ?bsp at controlled RH values between 35% and 85%. Comparisons of the extensive aerosol optical properties, ?sp and ?bsp, and intensive derived ones, such as hygroscopic response in ?sp (f?sp), single scattering albedo ( ?), Ångström exponent (å), and hemispheric backscatter fraction (b) at select RH values will be made to accomplish the closure evaluations. In addition, particle growth (g(RH)), effect of temperature (T) and RH uncertainties and sample heating on measurements of aerosol optical properties will also be quantified.

  19. A Novel Intra-body Sensor for Vaginal Temperature Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Caldeira, João; Vaidya, Binod

    2009-01-01

    Over the years some medical studies have tried to better understand the internal behavior of human beings. Many researchers in this domain have been striving to find relationships between intra-vaginal temperature and certain female health conditions, such as ovulation and fertile period since woman’s intra-vaginal temperature is one of the body parameters most preferred in such studies. However, due to lack of a appropriate technology, medical research devoted to studying correlations of such body parameters with certain womans’ body phenomena could not obtain better results. This article presents the design and implementation of a novel intra-body sensor for acquisition and monitoring of intra-vaginal temperatures. This novel intra-body sensor provides data collection that is used for studying the relation between temperature variations and female health conditions, such as anticipation and monitoring of the ovulation period, detection of pregnancy contractions, preterm labor prevention, etc.. The motivation for this work focuses on the development of this new intra-body sensor that will represent a major step in medical technology. The novel sensor was tested and validated on hospitalized women as well as normal healthy women. Finally our medical team has attested to the accuracy, usability and performance of this novel intra-body sensor. PMID:22574046

  20. Vaginal microbicides and the prevention of HIV transmission

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Blayne; Justman, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, nearly half of all individuals living with HIV are now women, who acquire the virus largely by heterosexual exposure. With an HIV vaccine likely to be years away, topical microbicide formulations applied vaginally or rectally are being investigated as another strategy for HIV prevention. A review of preclinical and clinical research on the development of microbicides formulated to prevent vaginal HIV transmission yielded 118 studies: 73 preclinical and 45 clinical. Preclinical research included in-vitro assays and cervical explant models, as well as animal models. Clinical research included phase I and II/IIb safety studies, and phase III efficacy studies. Whereas most phase I and phase II clinical trials have found microbicide compounds to be safe and well tolerated, phase III trials completed to date have not demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV transmission. Topical microbicides are grouped into five classes of agents, based on where they disrupt the pathway of sexual transmission of HIV. These classes include surfactants/membrane disruptors, vaginal milieu protectors, viral entry inhibitors, reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and a fifth group whose mechanism is unknown. The trajectory of microbicide development has been toward agents that block more specific virus—host cell interactions. Microbicide clinical trials face scientifically and ethically complex issues, such as the choice of placebo gel, the potential for viral resistance, and the inclusion of HIV-infected participants. Assessment of combination agents will most likely advance this field of research. PMID:18992405

  1. Embryotoxicity of benzalkonium chloride in vaginally treated rats.

    PubMed

    Buttar, H S

    1985-12-01

    The effects of the spermicide benzalkonium chloride (BKC) were studied on the conceptus of rat. Single doses (0, 25, 50, 100 or 200 mg kg-1) of aqueous solutions of BKC were administered intravaginally (1 ml kg-1) on gestational day 1. The vulval metallic clips, used to prevent leakage of the solution, were removed 24 h post-treatment. Fetuses were obtained and examined for malformations on day 21 of gestation. slight to copious amounts of vaginal discharge and vaginitis were noticed in rats treated with the two largest doses of BKC. A dose-related increase in resorptions and fetal death, reduction in litter size and weight were observed in BKC-treated dams. The conceptus loss seemed to occur both before and after implantation. BKC did not cause any discernible visceral malformations, although minor sternal defects occurred in fetuses exposed to 100 and 200 mg kg-1 of the spermicide. These results suggest that single vaginal application of BKC is embryo- and fetocidal in the rat at a dose about 143 times higher than that recommended for controlling conception in women. PMID:4078221

  2. Pelvic prolapse: diagnosing and treating uterine and vaginal vault prolapse.

    PubMed

    Cespedes, R D; Cross, C A; McGuire, E J

    1998-07-01

    Uterine prolapse is often associated with a concomitant rectocele, cystocele, and/or an enterocele. Moderate degrees of prolapse are often associated with a feeling of pelvic heaviness or fullness or low back pain. The symptoms usually worsen with exertion and ease with bed rest. In severe prolapse, the cervix may descend outside the vaginal introitus, and patients may complain that a "mass" is protruding from the vagina. Bleeding from mucosal ulcerations or from the cervical os may occur due to rubbing of the prolapsed tissue against the patient's clothing. The commonly associated problems of cystoceles and rectoceles may lead the patient to complain of difficulty voiding, recurrent urinary infections, and/or "splinting" to defecate. Mild cases of uterine prolapse do not require therapy unless the patient is symptomatic; in most cases of second- or third-degree prolapse, however, patients may be quite uncomfortable and desire therapy. Nonsurgical options, such as a pessary, are usually tried first if the patient desires conservative therapy. Operative repair for uterine prolapse is usually approached vaginally if the uterus is small. An abdominal approach may be preferred if the uterus is large or if the woman has had multiple previous pelvic procedures or has extensive endometriosis or other processes that may obliterate the cul-de-sac. In either approach, the uterosacral and cardinal ligaments must be carefully ligated and tied together, and the cul-de-sac must be obliterated to reduce the risk of subsequent enterocele and to properly suspend the vaginal vault. PMID:9732100

  3. Mucoadhesive liposomes as new formulation for vaginal delivery of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Berginc, Katja; Suljakovi?, Sabina; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša; Kristl, Albin

    2014-05-01

    Local delivery to the affected area represents the optimal means by which advantageous pharmacological properties of curcumin may be fully exploited as currently, due to the biopharmaceutical limitations associated with this polyphenol, its full beneficial effects remain limited. Curcumin-containing liposomes coated with bioadhesive polymers of natural and synthetic origin (chitosan and Carbopol) were evaluated in vitro. For these purposes, an in vitro model of vaginal mucus was developed allowing the monitoring of curcumin permeability in the conditions mimicking vaginal environment. The model was optimized by varying the amounts of glycoproteins, as compared to the permeabilities determined through isolated bovine mucus. The strength of bioadhesion was evaluated using the isolated bovine mucosa. Both curcumin solution and non-coated curcumin liposomes served as controls. Bioadhesive polymers enabled significantly higher (p<0.05) curcumin permeability through the artificial and isolated bovine mucus compared to the controls. Polymer coating of liposomes resulted in an increase in their bioadhesiveness. Mucoadhesive liposomes can be considered as potential novel drug delivery systems intended for vaginal administration of curcumin. PMID:24534774

  4. Vasculogenic female sexual dysfunction: The hemodynamic basis for vaginal engorgement insufficiency and clitoral erectile insufficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Goldstein; C Andry; MB Siroky; RJ Krane; KM Azadzoi

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Organic female sexual dysfunction may be related in part to vasculogenic impairment of the hypogastric-vaginal\\/clitoral arterial bed. The aim was to develop an animal model of vaginal engorgement insufficiency and clitoral erectile insufficiency. Methods: Pelvic nerve stimulated vaginal engorgement and clitoral erection were achieved in control (normal diet, n=8) and atherosclerotic (balloon injury of aorto-iliac arteries and 0.5% cholesterol

  5. Nitric oxide and HSV vaginal infection in BALB\\/c mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabián Benencia; Gisela Gamba; Hernan Cavalieri; Maria Cecilia Courreges; Ruben Benedetti; Soledad Maria Villamil; Ernesto Jorge Massouh

    2003-01-01

    Here we study the role of nitric oxide in the vaginal infection of Balb\\/c mice with herpes simplex virus type 2. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in vaginal tissue and inguinal lymph nodes early postinfection. iNOS was also found to be activated in cells recovered from vaginal washings of infected animals. Animals treated with aminoguanidine

  6. Clinical and Microscopic Diagnosis of Vaginal Yeast Infection: A Prospective Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Abbott

    1995-01-01

    Study objectives: To evaluate the accuracy of clinical findings and direct microscopy in the diagnosis of yeast vaginitis.Design: Prospective.Setting: Urban teaching hospital emergency department and walk-in clinic.Participants: Seventy-one consecutive nonmenstruating women with a presenting complaint of vaginal discharge, itching, or pain.Interventions: Trained emergency physicians and nurse practitioners, blinded to culture results, collected clinical information, examined vaginal secretions, and obtained yeast

  7. Vaginal Douches and Other Feminine Hygiene Products: Women's Practices and Perceptions of Product Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane M. Grimley; Lucy Annang; Herman R. Foushee; F. Carol Bruce; Juliette S. Kendrick

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Objective: Use of vaginal douche products has been linked with a variety of reproductive health problems; nonetheless, the practice\\u000a of douching persists. The goals of this study were to 1) determine the use of vaginal douches and other feminine hygiene products,\\u000a 2) ascertain how safe women think vaginal douche products are, and 3) evaluate women's readiness to stop douching. Methods:

  8. Factors affecting vaginal pH levels among female adolescents attending genitourinary medicine clinics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Brabin; S A Roberts; E Fairbrother; D Mandal; S P Higgins; S Chandiok; P Wood; G Barnard; H C Kitchener

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Vaginal pH is related to hormonal status, and adolescents experience disturbed hormonal patterns following menarche. We assessed hormonal factors and risk of abnormal vaginal pH and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among adolescents attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics.Methods: In a cross sectional study adolescents within 5 years of menarche, ?17 years, or with oligo-amenorrhoea were recruited. Vaginal pH and BV were

  9. {alpha}-nucleus potentials, {alpha}-decay half-lives, and shell closures for superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, Peter [Diakoniekrankenhaus Schwaebisch Hall, D-74523 Schwaebisch Hall (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Systematic {alpha}-nucleus folding potentials are used to analyze {alpha}-decay half-lives of superheavy nuclei. Preformation factors of about several percent are found for all nuclei under study. The systematic behavior of the preformation factors and the volume integrals of the potentials allows predictions of {alpha}-decay energies and half-lives for unknown nuclei. Shell closures can be determined from measured {alpha}-decay energies using the discontinuity of the volume integral at shell closures. For the first time a double shell closure is predicted for Z{sub magic}=132,N{sub magic}=194, and A{sub magic}=326 from the systematics of folding potentials. The calculated {alpha}-decay half-lives remain far below 1 ns for superheavy nuclei with double shell closure and masses A>300 independent of the precise knowledge of the magic proton and neutron numbers.

  10. Case-based approach to managing angle closure glaucoma with anterior segment imaging.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Hannah; Radcliffe, Nathan

    2014-12-01

    This is a case-based approach to the diagnosis and management of angle closure glaucoma of a variety of causative factors, with a special emphasis on the use of advanced anterior segment imaging including ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Although all angle closure is caused by iridotrabecular contact, the cause of angle closure glaucoma is classified based on the site of primary blockage of aqueous movement from anterior to posterior: pupillary block, plateau iris, lens-related, and posterior causative factors. Although gonioscopy is traditionally used to visualize the angle structures and estimate the angle width, objective and reproducible measurement of the anterior chamber angle can best be obtained with advanced anterior segment imaging. In this review article, we demonstrate the utility of anterior advanced imaging to identify underlying mechanisms in cases of angle closure glaucoma in guiding directed management. PMID:25433740

  11. A note on contact stress and closure in models of rock joints and faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Hickman, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    We have re-examined asperity deformation predicted by joint closure models based on Greenwood and Williamson [1966] which use a statistical representation of loaded, rough surfaces. Although such models assume small elastic strains within contacting asperities (Hertzian contact) and well predict the observed dependence of closure on normal stress, large elastic normal strains measured in experiments violate the model assumptions. This inconsistency between observations and models can be resolved. The model dependence of closure on macroscopic normal stress results primarily from the statistics of the surface topography, and the functional dependence of closure on normal stress can be independent of assumed contact-scale elastic interactions. Thus, a joint model of the Greenwood and Williamson kind, modified to allow a portion of the elastic deformation to occur outside of the asperity contact region, predicts macroscopic behavior consistent with Hertzian models. Contact stresses derived from previously published models of this kind may be in error.

  12. Effect of forest canopy closure on incoming solar radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dottavio, C. L. (principal investigator)

    1981-01-01

    In order to better understand the physical processes involved in defoliation assessment from remotely sensed data, a field study was designed to investigate the effect of forest canopy closure and other environmental variables on incoming solar radiation. Diffuse radiation measurements were recorded in red, infrared, and middle infrared wavelengths using the Mark 2 three band field radiometer. Results to date indicate that the percent canopy closure is the single most important variable affecting incoming solar radiation. In the visible and near infrared regions, interaction between time of day and date (defined later as solar zenith angle) also affect radiometric response. Aspect has only limited influence on radiance response. These same variables do not influence middle infrared response, however. Uniformity of the forest canopy appears to be more important. These results are compared to LANDSAT MSS classification results of gypsy moth defoliation.

  13. Effect of forest canopy closure on incoming solar radiance

    SciTech Connect

    Dottavio, C.L.

    1981-04-01

    In order to better understand the physical processes involved in defoliation assessment from remotely sensed data, a field study was designed to investigate the effect of forest canopy closure and other environmental variables on incoming solar radiation. Diffuse radiation measurements were recorded in red, infrared, and middle infrared wavelengths using the Mark 2 three band field radiometer. Results to date indicate that the percent canopy closure is the single most important variable affecting incoming solar radiation. In the visible and near infrared regions, interaction between time of day and date (defined later as solar zenith angle) also affect radiometric response. Aspect has only limited influence on radiance response. These same variables do not influence middle infrared response, however. Uniformity of the forest canopy appears to be more important. These results are compared to LANDSAT MSS classification results of gypsy moth defoliation.

  14. Development and evaluation of an in vitro vaginal model for assessment of drug's biopharmaceutical properties: curcumin.

    PubMed

    Berginc, Katja; Skalko-Basnet, Nataša; Basnet, Purusotam; Kristl, Albin

    2012-12-01

    Vaginal administration is a promising alternative to the per-oral route in achieving systemic or local therapeutic effects, when intestinal drug absorption is hindered by problematic biopharmaceutical drug properties. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro vaginal model and use it to characterize biopharmaceutical properties of liposomally associated curcumin destined for vaginal delivery. The in vitro permeability, metabolism, and tissue retention of high/low permeable compounds were assessed on cow vaginal mucosa and compared to the permeabilities determined through Caco-2 cells and rat jejunum in vitro. The results showed that the intestinal mucosa was superior to the vaginal one in categorizing drugs based on their permeabilities in high/low permeable classes. Passive diffusion was found to be the main mechanism of drug penetration through vaginal mucosa and it was not affected by transporter-enzyme alliance, as their expression/activity was significantly reduced compared to the intestinal tract. Curcumin permeability from the solution form was the lowest of all tested substances due to its significant tissue retention and curcumin-mucus interactions. The permeability of liposomally associated curcumin was even lower but the binding of liposomally associated curcumin to the vaginal tissue was significantly higher. The permeability and tissue retention of liposomal curcumin were vesicle size dependent. Vaginal application of liposomally associated curcumin provides relatively high levels of curcumin in vaginal tissue, with limited systemic absorption. PMID:22899381

  15. An unusual presentation of a vaginal leiomyoma in a postmenopausal hysterectomised woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Leiomyomas are benign tumours commonly occurring in the uterine wall. They are rarely seen in the vaginal wall leading to pressure symptoms on urinary tract. Indentation of leiomyoma from anterior vaginal wall into the bladder is rare and hence we report one such case. A 55 year old Caucasian woman presented to urology clinic with recurrent Urinary tract infection and pressure symptoms. After the diagnosis of a vaginal mass, she was referred to Gynaecology clinic. During the excision of the vaginal mass its indentation into the bladder was noted. Histology report confirmed the diagnosis of benign leiomyoma. PMID:20181160

  16. Bardet-Biedl syndrome associated with vaginal atresia: a case report.

    PubMed

    U?uralp, Sema; Demircan, Mehmet; Cetin, Selma; Si?irci, Ahmet

    2003-01-01

    This is a case report of Bardet-Biedl syndrome associated with vaginal atresia diagnosed in a 15-year-old girl. She had mild mental retardation; obesity; nistagmus, retinitis pigmentosa and optic atrophy in both eyes; accessory digit on the left hand; polydactyly in lower extremities; a mobile, painful, nonfixed mass of 6 cm in diameter in the pelvic region; a palpable cystic mass in front of the rectal wall; and no vaginal opening. Secondary sex characteristics were determined. The vaginal atresia was distinguished from vaginal agenesis by the presence of proximal vagina in radiological examination. PMID:14696812

  17. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

    2006-04-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  18. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

    2005-10-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  19. Stress-induced, time-dependent fracture closure at hydrothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Hickman, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    Time-dependent closure of fractures in quartz was measured in situ at 22-530??C temperature and 0.1-150 MPa water pressure. Unlike previous crack healing and rock permeability studies, in this study, fracture aperture is monitored directly and continuously using a windowed pressure vessel, a long-working-distance microscope, and reflected-light interferometry. Thus the fracture volume and geometry can be measured as a function of time, temperature, and water pressure. Relatively uniform closure occurs rapidly at temperatures and pressures where quartz becomes significantly soluble in water. During closure the aperture is reduced by as much as 80% in a few hours. We infer that this closure results from the dissolution of small particles or asperities that prop the fracture open. The driving force for closure via dissolution of the prop is the sum of three chemical potential terms: (1) the dissolution potential, proportional to the logarithm of the degree of undersaturation of the solution; (2) the coarsening potential, proportional to the radius of curvature of the prop; and (3) the pressure solution potential, proportional to the effective normal stress at the contact between propping particles and the fracture wall. Our observations suggest that closure is controlled by a pressure solution-like process. The aperture of dilatant fractures and microcracks in the Earth that are similar to those in our experiments, such as ones generated from thermal stressing or brittle failure during earthquake rupture and slip, will decrease rapidly with time, especially if the macroscopic stress is nonhydrostatic.

  20. DIAMOND CLOSURE by Melvin Hochster and Juan D. V' elez

    E-print Network

    Hochster, Melvin

    DIAMOND CLOSURE by Melvin Hochster and Juan D. V' elez Section 1. INTRODUCTION Throughout, all closure theory and related topics. The theory that is obtained from the notion of diamond closure The notion of diamond closure is based on defining certain ``powers'' of ideals I hni (a fixed choice

  1. Hydraulic fracture closure in a pressure-sensitive elastoplastic medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panos Papanastasiou

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines fracture closure in a Mohr-Coulomb pressure-sensitive dilatant material. The analysis is based on fracture propagation and closure of a plane strain geometry using a fully coupled elastoplastic hydraulic fracturing model. It is shown that the closure pattern of a fracture which has first been propagated is completely different from the closure pattern of a pressurized stationary fracture.

  2. 50 CFR 665.666 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Pacific Remote Island Area Fisheries § 665.666 Closures. (a) If the Regional Administrator determines that the...

  3. 40 CFR 265.381 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.381 Closure. ...including, but not limited to, ash) from the thermal treatment process or equipment. [Comment...that any solid waste removed from his thermal treatment process or equipment is not...

  4. 40 CFR 265.381 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.381 Closure. ...including, but not limited to, ash) from the thermal treatment process or equipment. [Comment...that any solid waste removed from his thermal treatment process or equipment is not...

  5. 40 CFR 265.381 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.381 Closure. ...including, but not limited to, ash) from the thermal treatment process or equipment. [Comment...that any solid waste removed from his thermal treatment process or equipment is not...

  6. 40 CFR 265.381 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.381 Closure. ...including, but not limited to, ash) from the thermal treatment process or equipment. [Comment...that any solid waste removed from his thermal treatment process or equipment is not...

  7. Extension closure of relative syzygy modules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaoyong Huang

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of relative syzygy modules. We then study the extension closure of the category of modules\\u000a consisting of relative syzygy modules (resp. relative ?-torsionfree modules).

  8. 40 CFR 265.381 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.381 Closure. ...including, but not limited to, ash) from the thermal treatment process or equipment. [Comment...that any solid waste removed from his thermal treatment process or equipment is not...

  9. TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK CLOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the study was to develop a deeper understanding of UST residuals at closure: their quantities, origins, physical/chemical properties, ease of removal by various cleaning methods, and their environmental mobility and persistence. The investigation covered ...

  10. Conditional Moment Closure for Large Eddy Simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Navarro-Martinez; A. Kronenburg; F. Di Mare

    2005-01-01

    A conditional moment closure (CMC) based combustion model for large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent reacting flow is proposed\\u000a and evaluated. Transport equations for the conditionally filtered species are derived that are consistent with the LES formulation\\u000a and closures are suggested for the modelling of the conditional velocity, conditional scalar dissipation and the fluctuations\\u000a around the conditional mean. A conventional ?-probability

  11. Closure of pinholes under intense laser radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay S. Pearlman; John P. Anthes

    1977-01-01

    The closure of pinholes due to plasma created by intense laser radiation interacting with the pinhole perimeter is studied. Pinholes with 100--300-..mu..m initial diam close in 3--14 nsec, respectively, for a 10-nsec FWHA, 10-J incident laser pulse. For a constant focal spot size and pulse duration, the closure time and rate are found to be a function of laser energy;

  12. Pharmacokinetic and Safety Analyses of Tenofovir and Tenofovir-Emtricitabine Vaginal Tablets in Pigtailed Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Lara E.; Friend, David R.; Garber, David A.; McNicholl, Janet M.; Hendry, R. Michael; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) containing tenofovir (TFV) or TFV and emtricitabine (FTC) were evaluated for safety and pharmacokinetics in pigtailed macaques. Two separate animal groups (n = 4) received TFV (10 mg) or TFV-FTC (10 mg each) RDTs, administered near the cervix. A third group (n = 4) received 1 ml TFV gel. Blood plasma, vaginal tissue biopsy specimens, and vaginal fluids were collected before and after product application at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, and 24 h. A disintegration time of <30 min following vaginal application of the RDTs was noted, with negligible effects on local inflammatory cytokines, vaginal pH, and microflora. TFV pharmacokinetics were generally similar for both RDTs and gel, with peak median concentrations in vaginal tissues and vaginal secretions being on the order of 104 to 105 ng/g (147 to 571 ?M) and 106 ng/g (12 to 34 mM), respectively, at 1 to 4 h postdose. At 24 h, however, TFV vaginal tissue levels were more sustained after RDT dosing, with median TFV concentrations being approximately 1 log higher than those with gel dosing. FTC pharmacokinetics after combination RDT dosing were similar to those of TFV, with peak median vaginal tissue and fluid levels being on the order of 104 ng/g (374 ?M) and 106 ng/g (32 mM), respectively, at 1 h postdose with levels in fluid remaining high at 24 h. RDTs are a promising alternative vaginal dosage form, delivering TFV and/or FTC at levels that would be considered inhibitory to simian-human immunodeficiency virus in the macaque vaginal microenvironment over a 24-h period. PMID:24566178

  13. The Determinants of Care Home Closure

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Stephen; Forder, Julien

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the causes of full closure of care homes in the English care home/nursing home market. We develop theoretical arguments about two causes for closure that are triggered by errors or external shocks: poor economic sustainability and regulatory action. Homes aiming to operate with lower quality in the market are argued for a number of reasons to be more susceptible to errors/shocks in setting quality, especially negative errors, leading to an empirical hypothesis that observed quality should negatively affect closure chance. In addition, given quality, homes facing relatively high levels of local competition should also have an increased chance of closure. We use a panel of care homes from 2008 and 2010 to examine factors affecting their closure status in subsequent years. We allow for the potential endogeneity of home quality and use multiple imputation to replace missing data. Results suggest that homes with comparatively higher quality and/or lower levels of competition have less chance of closure than other homes. We discuss that the results provide some support for the policy of regulators providing quality information to potential purchasers in the market. © 2015 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25760588

  14. Evaluation of salivary and vaginal electrical resistance for determination of the time of ovulation.

    PubMed

    Fazleabas, A T; Segraves, M M; Khan-Dawood, F S

    1990-01-01

    The usefulness of changes in salivary and vaginal electrical resistance (SER and VER) measurements for timing ovulation was evaluated in 15 cycles. A peak in mean SER was observed seven to eight days before the LH peak (five to nine days before the thermal nadir). The nadir of mean VER coincided with the day of maximum LH and was significantly correlated with the day of the thermal nadir. Use of SER peak and the rise of VER from its nadir in a protocol for timing insemination yielded correct timing in 93.3% (14/15) of cycles. These findings substantiate earlier reports indicating that there is a useful relationship between SER and VER trends and ovulation, which may be employed for accurate scheduling of inseminations and other procedures. PMID:1970978

  15. Unconfounded Evidence of Sex-Biased, Postnatal Maternal

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    . not by the sex of litters that dams reared and (2) both frequency of nursing and duration of vaginal closure were of postpartum vaginal closure (vaginal closure prevents intromission and vaginal reopening is correlated

  16. Factors associated with postpartum hemorrhage severity 1 Postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony after vaginal delivery:1

    E-print Network

    to uterine atony after vaginal delivery:1 Factors associated with severity2 3 Marine Driessen MD MPH1 , Marie with PPH due to uterine atony after36 vaginal delivery in 106 French hospitals between November 2004

  17. Appended health and safety plan for task order 1 for the RCRA Facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) and base closure environmental study for the Lexington-Blue Grass Army Depot. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1991-10-24

    Metcalf Eddy, Inc. (ME), under contract to the United States Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA), contract number DAAA15-90-D-0016, Task Order number 4, has appended the plans prepared for the RFI/CMS base closure at Lexington-Blue Grass Army Depot, Kentucky. This document is one of these appendices -- the appendix to the Health and Safety Plan. The appended document Task Order 1, Health and Safety Plan Lexington-Blue Grass Army Depot, Kentucky (USATHAMA, 1991) is henceforth called the `original document`. USEPA review comments of July 31, 1991, on the original document were incorporated into this appended document unless the comment requested work outside the Task Order Number 4 scope of work. Work outside the scope will be conducted at a later date, as deemed necessary by the COR.

  18. The Effects of School Closures on Influenza Outbreaks and Pandemics: Systematic Review of Simulation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Charlotte; Mangtani, Punam; Hawker, Jeremy; Olowokure, Babatunde; Vynnycky, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Background School closure is a potential intervention during an influenza pandemic and has been investigated in many modelling studies. Objectives To systematically review the effects of school closure on influenza outbreaks as predicted by simulation studies. Methods We searched Medline and Embase for relevant modelling studies published by the end of October 2012, and handsearched key journals. We summarised the predicted effects of school closure on the peak and cumulative attack rates and the duration of the epidemic. We investigated how these predictions depended on the basic reproduction number, the timing and duration of closure and the assumed effects of school closures on contact patterns. Results School closures were usually predicted to be most effective if they caused large reductions in contact, if transmissibility was low (e.g. a basic reproduction number <2), and if attack rates were higher in children than in adults. The cumulative attack rate was expected to change less than the peak, but quantitative predictions varied (e.g. reductions in the peak were frequently 20–60% but some studies predicted >90% reductions or even increases under certain assumptions). This partly reflected differences in model assumptions, such as those regarding population contact patterns. Conclusions Simulation studies suggest that school closure can be a useful control measure during an influenza pandemic, particularly for reducing peak demand on health services. However, it is difficult to accurately quantify the likely benefits. Further studies of the effects of reactive school closures on contact patterns are needed to improve the accuracy of model predictions. PMID:24830407

  19. SHIV162P3 Infection of Rhesus Macaques Given Maraviroc Gel Vaginally Does Not Involve Resistant Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athe M. N. Tsibris; Urboshi Pal; Allison L. Schure; Ronald S. Veazey; Kevin J. Kunstman; Timothy J. Henrich; P. J. Klasse; Steven M. Wolinsky; Daniel R. Kuritzkes; John P. Moore

    2011-01-01

    Maraviroc (MVC) gels are effective at protecting rhesus macaques from vaginal SHIV transmission, but breakthrough infections can occur. To determine the effects of a vaginal MVC gel on infecting SHIV populations in a macaque model, we analyzed plasma samples from three rhesus macaques that received a MVC vaginal gel (day 0) but became infected after high-dose SHIV-162P3 vaginal challenge. Two

  20. GM-144, a novel lipophilic vaginal contraceptive gel-microemulsion.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, O J; Yiv, S H; Uckun, F M

    2001-01-01

    In a systematic effort to develop a dual-function intravaginal spermicide as well as a drug delivery vehicle against sexually transmitted pathogens, a submicron particle size (30-80 nm), lipophilic and spermicidal gel-microemulsion (viz GM-144) containing the pharmaceutical excipients propylene glycol, Captex 300, Cremophor EL, Phospholipon 90G, Rhodigel, Pluronic F-68, and sodium benzoate was formulated. GM-144 completely immobilized sperm in human or rabbit semen in less than 30 seconds. Therefore, the in vivo contraceptive potency of intravaginally applied GM-144 was compared in the standard rabbit model to those of the detergent spermicide, nonoxynol-9 (N-9)-containing formulation. Eighty-four ovulated New Zealand White rabbits in subgroups of 28 were artificially inseminated with and without intravaginal administration of GM-144 or 2% N-9 (Gynol II) formulation and allowed to complete term pregnancy. GM-144 showed remarkable contraceptive activity in the rigorous rabbit model. When compared with control, intravaginal administration of GM-144 and Gynol II resulted in 75% and 70.8% inhibition of fertility (P <.0001 versus control, Fisher's exact test), respectively. Thus, GM-144 as a vaginal contraceptive was as effective as the commercially available N-9 gel. In the rabbit vaginal irritation test, none of the 6 rabbits given daily intravaginal application of spermicidal GM-144 for 10 days developed epithelial ulceration, edema, leukocyte influx, or vascular congestion characteristic of inflammation (total score = 5). Therefore, GM-144 has the potential to become a clinically useful safe vaginal contraceptive and a vehicle for formulating lipophilic drugs used in reducing the risk of heterosexual transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:14727880

  1. Estradiol-progesterone interaction during the preparation of vaginal rings.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Saleh I; Khidr, Sayed H; Ahmed, Sayed M; Jackanicz, Theodore M; Nash, Harold A

    2003-02-01

    An unexpected enhanced release, in vitro, of estradiol (E2) was observed on the preparation of vaginal rings containing E2 and progesterone (P) in a silicone elastomer. The present work deals with exploring the reason(s) behind this enhanced E2 release. The effect of the ring design (i.e., putting P and E2 in the same compartment or in adjacent or separate compartments) was studied. The effects of the curing temperature as well as the curing time were also investigated. The possible interaction(s) between P and E2 on simple heating of their mixtures was investigated using infrared (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Also, the dissolution behavior of P, E2, and their mixture before and after heating was studied. The ring design, with respect to the position of the steroid layer(s), affected the release of P and E2 from the vaginal rings. Curing the rings at higher temperatures (>/=140 degrees C) for >/=30 min resulted in an enhanced release of the steroids, especially E2. The IR, DSC, phase diagram, and NMR results indicate that an interaction between P and E2, leading to the formation of a molecular complex, took place. It was concluded that putting P and E2 in the same compartment and curing by heating at a high temperature and for an extended time promoted this kind of interaction. The greater hydrophobicity of the interaction product, relative to that of E2, was considered the main reason behind the enhanced in vitro release of E2 from the vaginal rings. PMID:12532375

  2. Multicompartmental Pharmacokinetic Model of Tenofovir Delivery by a Vaginal Gel

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yajing; Katz, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Trials of a vaginal Tenofovir gel for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV have given conflicting results. Knowledge of concentrations of Tenofovir and its active form Tenofovir diphosphate, at putative sites of anti-HIV functioning, is central to understanding trial outcomes and design of products and dosage regimens. Topical Tenofovir delivery to the vaginal environment is complex, multivariate and non-linear; determinants relate to drug, vehicle, dosage regimen, and environment. Experimental PK methods cannot yield mechanistic understanding of this process, and have uncontrolled variability in drug sampling. Mechanistic modeling of the process could help delineate its determinants, and be a tool in design and interpretation of products and trials. Methods and Findings We created a four-compartment mass transport model for Tenofovir delivery by a gel: gel, epithelium, stroma, blood. Transport was diffusion-driven in vaginal compartments; blood concentration was time-varying but homogeneous. Parameters for the model derived from in vitro and in vivo PK data, to which model predictions gave good agreement. Steep concentration gradients occurred in stroma ?8 hours after gel release. Increasing epithelial thickness delayed initial TFV delivery to stroma and its decline: tmax increased but AUC at 24 hours was not significantly altered. At 24 and 48 hours, stromal concentrations were 6.3% and 0.2% of Cmax. Concentrations in simulated biopsies overestimated stromal concentrations, as much as ?5X, depending upon time of sampling, biopsy thickness and epithelial thickness. Conclusions There was reasonably good agreement of model predictions with clinical PK data. Conversion of TFV to TFV-DP was not included, but PK data suggest a linear relationship between them. Thus contrasts predicted by this model can inform design of gels and dosage regimens in clinical trials, and interpretation of PK data. This mass transport based approach can be extended to TFV conversion to TFV-DP, and to other drugs and dosage forms. PMID:24040241

  3. Vaginal microbicides: detecting toxicities in vivo that paradoxically increase pathogen transmission

    PubMed Central

    Cone, Richard A; Hoen, Timothy; Wong, XiXi; Abusuwwa, Raed; Anderson, Deborah J; Moench, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    Background Microbicides must protect against STD pathogens without causing unacceptable toxic effects. Microbicides based on nonoxynol-9 (N9) and other detergents disrupt sperm, HSV and HIV membranes, and these agents are effective contraceptives. But paradoxically N9 fails to protect women against HIV and other STD pathogens, most likely because it causes toxic effects that increase susceptibility. The mouse HSV-2 vaginal transmission model reported here: (a) Directly tests for toxic effects that increase susceptibility to HSV-2, (b) Determines in vivo whether a microbicide can protect against HSV-2 transmission without causing toxicities that increase susceptibility, and (c) Identifies those toxic effects that best correlate with the increased HSV susceptibility. Methods Susceptibility was evaluated in progestin-treated mice by delivering a low-dose viral inoculum (0.1 ID50) at various times after delivering the candidate microbicide to detect whether the candidate increased the fraction of mice infected. Ten agents were tested – five detergents: nonionic (N9), cationic (benzalkonium chloride, BZK), anionic (sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS), the pair of detergents in C31G (C14AO and C16B); one surface active agent (chlorhexidine); two non-detergents (BufferGel®, and sulfonated polystyrene, SPS); and HEC placebo gel (hydroxyethylcellulose). Toxic effects were evaluated by histology, uptake of a 'dead cell' dye, colposcopy, enumeration of vaginal macrophages, and measurement of inflammatory cytokines. Results A single dose of N9 protected against HSV-2 for a few minutes but then rapidly increased susceptibility, which reached maximum at 12 hours. When applied at the minimal concentration needed for brief partial protection, all five detergents caused a subsequent increase in susceptibility at 12 hours of ~20–30-fold. Surprisingly, colposcopy failed to detect visible signs of the N9 toxic effect that increased susceptibility at 12 hours. Toxic effects that occurred contemporaneously with increased susceptibility were rapid exfoliation and re-growth of epithelial cell layers, entry of macrophages into the vaginal lumen, and release of one or more inflammatory cytokines (Il-1?, KC, MIP 1?, RANTES). The non-detergent microbicides and HEC placebo caused no significant increase in susceptibility or toxic effects. Conclusion This mouse HSV-2 model provides a sensitive method to detect microbicide-induced toxicities that increase susceptibility to infection. In this model, there was no concentration at which detergents provided protection without significantly increasing susceptibility. PMID:16740164

  4. Do not have any sex (oral, vaginal, anal or using sex

    E-print Network

    Talbot, James P.

    Do not have any sex (oral, vaginal, anal or using sex toys) with a partner until their treatment has also been completed Prevention Preventing Chlamydia · Use condoms every time you have sex sex (oral, vaginal, anal or using sex toys) with a partner until their treatment has also been

  5. Management of Recurrent VulvoVaginal Candidosis as a Chronic Illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert G. G. Donders; Gert Bellen; Werner Mendling

    2010-01-01

    For sporadic acute Candida vaginitis, any oral or local antifungal therapy can be used. For women with recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis (RVC), on the other hand, such simple approaches are insufficient, regardless of the product chosen. Instead, RVC should be managed as any other chronic disease and requires long-term, prophylactic, suppressive antifungal treatment. A regimen using individualized, decreasing doses of oral

  6. Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy versus total abdominal hysterectomy: A prospective, randomized, multicenter study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo Marana; Mauro Busacca; Errico Zupi; Nicola Garcea; Pierluigi Paparella; Giovan Fiore Catalano

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate short-term results of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy with those of total abdominal hysterectomy in a prospective, randomized, multicenter study. Study Design: One hundred sixteen patients referred for abdominal hysterectomy were randomized to either laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (58 patients) or abdominal hysterectomy (58 patients). Inclusion criteria were one or more of

  7. Combined topical flucytosine and amphotericin B for refractory vaginal Candida glabrata infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D J White; A R Habib; A Vanthuyne; S Langford; M Symonds

    2001-01-01

    Patients with vaginitis due to highly azole resistant Candida glabrata can be particularly difficult to treat. We describe three cases of longstanding vaginal candidiasis due to C glabrata. These had failed to respond to local and systemic antifungals. Flucytosine (1 g) and amphotericin B (100 mg) formulated in lubricating jelly base in a total 8 g delivered dose, was used

  8. Fetal fibronectin in vaginal specimens predicts preterm delivery and very-low-birth-weight infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janusz Bartnicki; David Casal; Usha Seshadri Kreaden; Erich Saling; Klaus Vetter

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of vaginal fetal fibronectin expression to risk of preterm delivery and delivery of very-low-birth-weight infants. STUDY DESIGN: Vaginal secretions were obtained from women between 22 and 35 weeks' pregnant with minimal cervical dilatation (?2 cm) and threatened preterm delivery. The secretions were analyzed for the presence of fetal fibronectin.

  9. Vaginal antibody of patients with trichomoniasis is to a prominent surface immunogen of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J F Alderete; E Newton; C Dennis; J Engbring; K A Neale

    1991-01-01

    Twenty vaginal washes (VWs) and ten vaginal mucus (VM) samples from patients with trichomoniasis were examined for the presence of antibody to surface protein immunogens of Trichomonas vaginalis. Fourteen of 20 VWs (70%) and 8 of 10 VM (80%) had immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody (Ab) that reacted in an immunoprecipitation (IP) assay with one iodinated Trichomonas vaginalis surface protein immunogen

  10. Vaginal delivery and pelvic floor dysfunction: current evidence and implications for future research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. T. Bortolini; H. P. Drutz; D. Lovatsis; M. Alarab

    2010-01-01

    Vaginal delivery is the major risk factor for the development of pelvic organ prolapse and urinary and fecal incontinence,\\u000a resulting from damage to the pelvic floor muscles, nerves and connective tissue. This article reviews the perineal trauma\\u000a mechanism during vaginal delivery and discusses implications of current and future research projects.

  11. Vaginal thread formation in the healthy offspring of untreated Long-Evans rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vaginal threads are characterized as cords of mesenchymal tissue that cross the vaginal opening. They are sometimes apparent in rats after weaning, and typically disappear within 1-2 days as the female reaches puberty. If persistent, they can increase uncertainty in assessing rep...

  12. A cross cultural study of vaginal practices and sexuality: Implications for sexual health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriane Martin Hilber; Terence H. Hull; Eleanor Preston-Whyte; Brigitte Bagnol; Jenni Smit; Chintana Wacharasin; Ninuk Widyantoro

    2010-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2006, we investigated vaginal practices in Yogyakarta, Indonesia; Tete, Mozambique; KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; and Bangkok and Chonburi, Thailand. We sought to understand women's practices, their motivations for use and the role vaginal practices play in women's health, sexuality and sense of wellbeing. The study was carried out among adult women and men who were identified as using,

  13. Rehospitalizations and outpatient contacts of mothers and neonates after hospital discharge after vaginal delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan F. Meikle; Ella Lyons; Peter Hulac; Miriam Orleans

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether length of hospital stay after vaginal delivery as determined by the discharging physician is associated with rehospitalizations or increased outpatient contacts by mothers and neonates and to assess the impact of home health care visits.STUDY DESIGN: An inception cohort study of all rehospitalizations and outpatient contacts of mothers and neonates after vaginal delivery

  14. Psychosocial function in women treated for vaginal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Hecker, B R; McGuire, L S

    1977-11-01

    The psychosocial functioning of 23 women treated both surgically and nonsurgically for vaginal agenesis was assessed by means of a retrospective questionnaire. Subjects were also physically examined to evaluate anatomic outcome. It was concluded that the patients psychological adjustment before treatment and the sensitivity of her family and medical advisors during treatment took precedence over anatomic results in the eventual resolution of this disorder. Sexual function, emotional stability, self-image, and choice of marital partner in these women are described in some detail and are, in general, far healthier than had been depicted in earlier psychological reports. PMID:910843

  15. Pathology Case Study: Post Coital Bleeding and Vaginal Discharge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christakos, Peter

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 33-year-old woman has a two-month history of post coital bleeding and vaginal discharge. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in gynecologic pathology.

  16. Development of controlled release sildenafil formulations for vaginal administration.

    PubMed

    De?im, I Tuncer; Tu?cu-Demiröz, Fatmanur; Tamer-Ilbasmis, Sibel; Acartürk, Füsun

    2008-05-01

    Sildenafil is an active substance that has already been approved by FDA for human use. It is known to be an active compound for the treatment of sexual dysfunction in men. Some encouraging results have been published concerning the treatment of infertility with sildenafil in women, but there is no pharmaceutical preparation available. Therefore, various formulations were prepared and the most suitable sildenafil release was found to be with the sildenafil-containing suppositories prepared using Eudragit RS100 and Witepsol H15. The vaginal insert with EVAC 210 polymer containing sildenafil has also provided sildenafil release for a longer period. PMID:18446572

  17. Plateau iris in Japanese patients with primary angle closure and primary angle closure glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mizoguchi, Takanori; Ozaki, Mineo; Wakiyama, Harumi; Ogino, Nobuchika

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of plateau iris in Japanese patients with primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and analyze the biometric parameters in patients with plateau iris using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Methods In this cross-sectional observational study, subjects aged >50 years with PAC and PACG who had previously undergone a patent laser peripheral iridotomy underwent UBM in one eye. UBM images were qualitatively analyzed using standardized criteria. Plateau iris in a quadrant was defined by anteriorly directed ciliary body, absent ciliary sulcus, steep iris root from its point of insertion followed by a downward angulation, flat iris plane, and irido-angle contact. At least two quadrants had to fulfill these UBM criteria for an eye to be classified as having plateau iris. A-scan biometry was used to measure anterior segment parameters. Results Ninety-one subjects with PAC (58 subjects) or PACG (33 subjects) and 68 normal controls were recruited. The mean (standard deviation) ages of PAC and PACG patients and normal controls were 73.5 (6.2) and 72.6 (7.3), respectively. Based on UBM criteria, plateau iris was found in 16 eyes (17.6%) of 91 eyes. In these 16 eyes, quadrant-wise analysis showed ten eyes (62.5%) had plateau iris in two quadrants; four eyes (25%) had plateau iris in three quadrants; and two eyes (12.5%) had plateau iris in four quadrants. Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, axial length, lens position, and relative lens position were not statistically significant between the group having plateau iris and that not having plateau iris, respectively. Conclusion Approximately 20% of Japanese subjects with PAC and PACG with a patent laser peripheral iridotomy were found to have plateau iris on UBM. No morphological difference was noted in the anterior segment of the eye between those with or without plateau iris. PMID:26170608

  18. Gynecologic use of robotically assisted laparoscopy: Sacrocolpopexy for the treatment of high-grade vaginal vault prolapse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel S. Elliott; Igor Frank; David S. DiMarco; George K. Chow

    2004-01-01

    Transabdominal sacrocolpopexy is an excellent treatment option for patients with high-grade vaginal vault prolapse, with long-term success rates ranging from 93% to 99%. However, it is associated with increased morbidity compared with vaginal repairs. In this article, we describe a novel minimally invasive technique of vaginal vault prolapse repair and present our initial experience. The surgical technique involves placement of

  19. Neurourol Urodyn. Author manuscript Re: First vaginal delivery at an older age: does it carry an extra risk for the

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Neurourol Urodyn. Author manuscript Page /1 2 Re: First vaginal delivery at an older age: does of delivery and to analyse, in a randomised trial (elective cesarean versus vaginal delivery) the effect and colleagues, who state that a first vaginal delivery after the age of 37 years is associated with a higher

  20. Setting of Methods for Analysis of Mucosal Antibodies in Seminal and Vaginal Fluids of HIV Seropositive Subjects

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Setting of Methods for Analysis of Mucosal Antibodies in Seminal and Vaginal Fluids of HIV processing of genital fluids, with the addition of antibiotics and EDTA, improved recovery of vaginal Ig Antibodies in Seminal and Vaginal Fluids of HIV Seropositive Subjects from Cambodian and Italian Cohorts. PLo

  1. Effects of Ovariectomy and Estrogen Replacement on Basal and Pelvic Nerve Stimulated Vaginal Lubrication in an Animal Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KWEONSIK MIN; RICHARDO MUNARRIZ; NOEL M. KIM; SEONG CHOI; LUKE O CONNELL; IRWIN GOLDSTEIN; ABDULMAGED M. TRAIS

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of ovariectomy and estrogen replacement on vaginal tissue integrity and vaginal lubrication in basal conditions and in response to pelvic nerve stimulation (PNS). Two weeks after ovariectomy, female New Zealand White rabbits were administered vehicle or estradiol (200 g\\/day) for an additional 2 weeks. Ovariectomy caused significant vaginal atrophy and

  2. The efficacy of Marlex mesh in the repair of severe, recurrent vaginal prolapse of the anterior midvaginal wall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Julian

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study assesses the efficacy and complications of Marlex mesh in repairing severe recurrent anterior vaginal wall prolapse. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-four patients with two or more postsurgical recurrences of severe anterior vaginal wall prolapse were divided into control and treatment groups. Transvaginal repair was similar between groups except for reinforcement of the anterior vaginal wall with synthetic mesh. Two

  3. The syndromic management of vaginal discharge using only single-dose treatments: a randomized controlled trial in West Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Pepin; François Sobela; Nzambi Khonde; Thomas Agyarko-Poku; Soumaila Diakité; Sylvie Deslandes; Annie-Claude Labbé; Mohamed Sylla; Comfort Asamoah-Adu; Eric Frost

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether single-dose treatments are as effective as standard therapy in the syndromic management of vaginal discharge. Methods A randomized controlled effectiveness trial compared single-dose tinidazole plus fluconazole (TF) with treatment for 7 days with metronidazole plus 3 days of treatment with vaginal clotrimazole (MC) among 1570 women presenting with vaginal discharge at primary health care institutions in

  4. Site-specific prolapse surgery. II. Vaginal paravaginal repair augmented with either synthetic mesh or remodelling xenograft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard I. Reid; Kehui Luo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis  This study aims to answer the question, “Does tissue augmentation improve the mechanical repair of displacement cystourethrocoele?”\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective cohort study comparing 108 bridging graft vaginal paravaginal repairs (89 tissue-inductive xenografts and\\u000a 19 polypropylene mesh) to 59 native tissue historical controls was conducted. Main outcome measures were same-site prolapse\\u000a recurrence and time to failure. Initial reliability was evaluated

  5. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE`s 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM`s accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document.

  6. Single vaginal metastasis from cancer of the right colon: case report Metástase vaginal isolada de câncer de cólon direito: relato de um caso

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Renato; Pais Costa; Ricardo César; Pinto Antunes; Ademir Torres Abraão; Roberto Marcos da Silva; Raphael Paulo de Paula; Renato Arioni Lupinacci

    Vaginal metastases of colonic origin are exceedingly rare. When present, the prognosis is poor, and most individuals do not survive past 40 months. Surgical excision and radiotherapy have been used to treat this type of lesion. case: A 67-year-old woman went to the Oncology Surgery Service with complaints of vaginal discharge and local pain. On physical examination, a 2.5 cm

  7. ACOG Practice Bulletin. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists, Number 72, May 2006: Vaginitis.

    PubMed

    2006-05-01

    Vaginal symptoms are common in the general population and are one of the most frequent reasons for patient visits to obstetrician-gynecologists. Vaginitis may have important consequences in terms of discomfort and pain, days lost from school or work, and sexual functioning and self image. Vaginitis is associated with sexually transmitted diseases and other infections of the female genital tract, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as well as adverse reproductive outcomes in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Treatment usually is directed to the specific cause of vaginal symptoms, which most commonly include bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. The purpose of this document is to provide information about the diagnosis and treatment of vaginitis. PMID:16648432

  8. Perceptions of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy: findings from the REVIVE survey.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Murray A

    2014-07-01

    Symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA), including dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, have a distinct negative impact on a woman's quality of life. The REVIVE survey highlighted the lack of awareness of VVA symptoms among postmenopausal women with vaginal symptoms, with many women reluctant to initiate discussions with their healthcare professionals despite the presence of vaginal symptoms. The REVIVE survey also provided insights into women's views of VVA treatments. Women reported displeasure with the vaginal administration route, lack of symptom relief with over-the-counter products, and concerns about the safety of estrogen therapies. With the high prevalence of VVA, obstetricians/gynecologists should become vigilant in identifying women with VVA by implementing screening and discussion of symptoms during routine office visits - providing patients with information about appropriate therapies based on the severity and impact of symptoms, keeping in mind individual preferences and perceptions. PMID:25259904

  9. Design and characterization of an intracavitary ultrasound hyperthermia applicator for recurrent or residual lesions in the vaginal cuff.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Suh, H

    2003-01-01

    For evaluating the feasibility of treating recurrent lesions in the vaginal cuff by hyperthermia, a 2-element ultrasound applicator was designed, constructed and characterized. A half-cylindrical transducer (d=1 cm, length=1 cm) was used to construct the 2-element ultrasound applicator. Each element of this applicator was operated at 1.5 MHz and characterized by measuring transducer efficiency and acoustic power distribution. Thermocouple probes were used to measure the temperature rise in the phantom. The element sizes used in this study were selected to be comparable to a high dose rate brachytherapy colpostat applicator. Each element was powered separately to achieve a desired temperature pattern in a target. The acoustic output power as a function of applied electric power of elements 1 and 2 were linear over this 1-40 W range and efficiencies were 32.2 +/- 3.4% and 46.2 +/- 0.8%, respectively. The temperature measurements in the phantom showed that a 6 degrees C temperature rise was achieved 2 cm from the applicator surface. As a conclusion, the ability of the ultrasound colpostat applicator to be used for hyperthermia was demonstrated by measuring acoustic output power, ultrasound field distribution and temperature rise in the phantom. Based on the characteristics of this applicator, it has the potential to be useful for inducing hyperthermia to the vaginal cuff in the clinic. PMID:12944170

  10. Now You Hear Me, Now You Don't: Eyelid Closures as an Indicator of Auditory Task Disengagement

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Ju Lynn; Asplund, Christopher L.; Chia, Tiffany T. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Eyelid closures in fatigued individuals signify task disengagement in attention-demanding visual tasks. Here, we studied how varying degrees of eyelid closure predict responses to auditory stimuli depending on whether a participant is well rested or sleep deprived. We also examined time-on-task effects and how more and less vulnerable individuals differed in frequency of eye closures and lapses. Design: Six repetitions of an auditory vigilance task were performed in each of two sessions: rested wakefulness (RW) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) (order counterbalanced). Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Nineteen healthy young adults (mean age: 22 ± 2.8 y; 11 males). Intervention: Approximately 24 h of TSD. Measurements and Results: Eyelid closure was rated on a 9-point scale (1 = fully closed to 9 = fully opened) using video segments time-locked to the auditory event. Eyes-open trials predominated during RW, but different degrees of eye closure were uniformly distributed during TSD. The frequency of lapses (response time > 800 ms or nonresponses) to auditory stimuli increased dramatically with greater degrees of eye closure, but the association was strong only during TSD. There were significant within-run time-on-task effects on eye closure and auditory lapses that were exacerbated by TSD. Participants who had more auditory lapses during TSD (more vulnerable) had greater variability in their eyelid closures. Conclusions: Eyelid closures are a strong predictor of auditory task disengagement in the sleep-deprived state but are less relevant during rested wakefulness. Individuals relatively more impaired in this auditory vigilance task during total sleep deprivation display oculomotor evidence for greater state instability. Citation: Ong JL; Asplund CL; Chia TTY; Chee MWL. Now you hear me, now you don't: eyelid closures as an indicator of auditory task disengagement. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1867-1874. PMID:24293761

  11. Vaginal myofibroblastoma with glands expressing mammary and prostatic antigens.

    PubMed

    Wallenfels, I; Chlumská, A

    2012-01-01

    A case of unusual vaginal myofibroblastoma containing glands which expressed mammary and prostatic markers is described. The tumor occurred in 70-year-old woman in the proximal third of the vagina. It showed morphology and immunophenotype typical of so-called cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma. The peripheral zone of the lesion contained a few groups of glands suggesting vaginal adenosis or prostatic-type glands on initial examination. The glands showed a surprising simultaneous expression of mammary markers mammaglobin and GCDFP-15 and prostatic markers prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP). Immunostains for alpha-smooth muscle actin, p63 and CD10 highlighted the myoepithelial cell layer of the glands. The finding indicates that simultaneous use of both mammary and prostatic markers for examination of unusual glandular lesions in the vulvovaginal location can be helpful for an exact diagnosis, and can contribute to better understanding of prostatic and mammary differentiations in the female lower genital tract. PMID:22716011

  12. Vaginal ring delivery of selective progesterone receptor modulators for contraception.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2013-03-01

    Vaginal ring delivery of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) is under development to address the limitations of current hormonal methods that affect use and effectiveness. This method would be appropriate for use in women with contraindications to, or preferences to avoid, estrogens. A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) also eliminates the need for daily dosing and therefore might improve the effectiveness of contraception. The principal contraceptive effect of SPRMs is the suppression of ovulation. One limiting factor of chronic SPRM administration is the development of benign endometrial thickening characterized as PRM-associated endometrial changes. Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is approved for use as an emergency contraceptive pill, but no SPRM is approved for regular contraception. The Population Council is developing an ulipristal acetate CVR for regular contraception. The CVR studied is of a matrix design composed of micronized UPA mixed in a silicone rubber matrix The target product is a ring designed for continuous use over 3 months delivering near steady-state drug levels that will suppress ovulation. Results from Phase 1 and 2 studies demonstrate that suppression of ovulation occurs with UPA levels above 6-7 ng/mL. PMID:23040126

  13. Vaginal ring delivery of selective progesterone receptor modulators for contraception

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal ring delivery of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) are under development to address limitations of current hormonal methods that affect use and effectiveness. This method would be appropriate for use in women with contraindications to, or preferences to avoid, estrogens. A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) also eliminates the need for daily dosing, and therefore might improve the effectiveness of contraception. The principle contraceptive effect of SPRMs is the suppression of ovulation. One limiting factor of chronic SPRM administration is the development of benign endometrial thickening characterized as PRM-associated endometrial changes. Ulipristal acetate is approved for use as an emergency contraceptive pill, but no SPRM is approved for regular contraception. The Population Council is developing an ulipristal acetate CVR for regular contraception. The CVR studied is of a matrix design composed of micronized UPA mixed in a silicone rubber matrix The target product is a ring designed for continuous use over 3 months delivering near steady-state drug levels that will suppress ovulation. Results from Phase 1–2 studies demonstrate that suppression of ovulation occurs with UPA levels above 6–7 ng/mL. PMID:23040126

  14. Chitosan in mucoadhesive drug delivery: focus on local vaginal therapy.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Toril; Bleher, Stefan; Eide Flaten, Gøril; Tho, Ingunn; Mattsson, Sofia; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug therapy destined for localized drug treatment is gaining increasing importance in today's drug development. Chitosan, due to its known biodegradability, bioadhesiveness and excellent safety profile offers means to improve mucosal drug therapy. We have used chitosan as mucoadhesive polymer to develop liposomes able to ensure prolonged residence time at vaginal site. Two types of mucoadhesive liposomes, namely the chitosan-coated liposomes and chitosan-containing liposomes, where chitosan is both embedded and surface-available, were made of soy phosphatidylcholine with entrapped fluorescence markers of two molecular weights, FITC-dextran 4000 and 20,000, respectively. Both liposomal types were characterized for their size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and the in vitro release profile, and compared to plain liposomes. The proof of chitosan being both surface-available as well as embedded into the liposomes in the chitosan-containing liposomes was found. The capability of the surface-available chitosan to interact with the model porcine mucin was confirmed for both chitosan-containing and chitosan-coated liposomes implying potential mucoadhesive behavior. Chitosan-containing liposomes were shown to be superior in respect to the simplicity of preparation, FITC-dextran load, mucoadhesiveness and in vitro release and are expected to ensure prolonged residence time on the vaginal mucosa providing localized sustained release of entrapped model substances. PMID:25574737

  15. Chitosan in Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery: Focus on Local Vaginal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Toril; Bleher, Stefan; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Tho, Ingunn; Mattsson, Sofia; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug therapy destined for localized drug treatment is gaining increasing importance in today’s drug development. Chitosan, due to its known biodegradability, bioadhesiveness and excellent safety profile offers means to improve mucosal drug therapy. We have used chitosan as mucoadhesive polymer to develop liposomes able to ensure prolonged residence time at vaginal site. Two types of mucoadhesive liposomes, namely the chitosan-coated liposomes and chitosan-containing liposomes, where chitosan is both embedded and surface-available, were made of soy phosphatidylcholine with entrapped fluorescence markers of two molecular weights, FITC-dextran 4000 and 20,000, respectively. Both liposomal types were characterized for their size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and the in vitro release profile, and compared to plain liposomes. The proof of chitosan being both surface-available as well as embedded into the liposomes in the chitosan-containing liposomes was found. The capability of the surface-available chitosan to interact with the model porcine mucin was confirmed for both chitosan-containing and chitosan-coated liposomes implying potential mucoadhesive behavior. Chitosan-containing liposomes were shown to be superior in respect to the simplicity of preparation, FITC-dextran load, mucoadhesiveness and in vitro release and are expected to ensure prolonged residence time on the vaginal mucosa providing localized sustained release of entrapped model substances. PMID:25574737

  16. Taking Closure to the Next Level - 13030

    SciTech Connect

    Feist, E.T. [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi Avenue, Richland, WA, 99354 (United States)] [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi Avenue, Richland, WA, 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The River Corridor Closure Project (RCCP) is the Hanford Site's first closure project and when it is complete, in 2015, it will have cleaned up 220 mi{sup 2} of contaminated land adjacent to the Columbia River. Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) was selected by the DOE to manage the removal and cleanup of Hanford's nuclear legacy along the River Corridor. Work began in 2005 and is now more than 85% complete with more than 2 years left in the contract. A Closure Team was commissioned in December 2009 and has since issued a closure strategy and a disciplined three-phase approach to transition land parcels to DOE, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) as cleanup is completed. This process supports DOE-RL objectives for progressive footprint reduction based on the division of the River Corridor into geographical land parcels. It also allows for incremental area-by-area transition and turnover to the Long-Term Stewardship program. Several important milestones stand between now and the successful end of the RCCP. They include overall funding impacts, working with DOE-RL on new scope additions, meeting regulatory milestones, and maintaining a strong safety performance. (authors)

  17. Shell Closure N = 16 in {sup 24}O

    SciTech Connect

    Nociforo, C.; Aumann, T.; Geissel, H.; Gerl, J.; Kindler, B.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Lommel, B.; Mahata, K.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sun, B.; Weick, H.; Winkler, M. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Kanungo, R. [Saint Mary's University, Halifax (Canada); Prochazka, A.; Farinon, F.; Knoebel, R. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Justus-Liebig Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Boutin, D.; Lenske, H. [Justus-Liebig Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Cortina-Gil, D. [Universidad de Satiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Davids, B. [TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada)] (and others)

    2009-08-26

    Advanced nuclear structure models predict the presence of the shell closures N = 14, 16 in neutron-rich O isotopes rather than N = 20. Spectroscopic investigations performed at the neutron drip line have recently confirmed such predictions showing that the {sup 24}O is a doubly magic nucleus (Z = 8, N = 16). Predictions within the shell model calculation for the {sup 23,24}O ground state have been confirmed measuring their spectroscopic factors. Results obtained in one-neutron removal reactions performed by using in-flight radioactive ion beams produced at the Fragment Separator FRS of GSI are reported.

  18. Adapting MARSSIM for FUSRAP site closure.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert; Durham, L; Rieman, C

    2003-06-01

    The Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) provides a coherent, technically defensible process for establishing that exposed surfaces satisfy site cleanup requirements. Unfortunately, many sites have complications that challenge a direct application of MARSSIM. Example complications include Record of Decision (ROD) requirements that are not MARSSIM-friendly, the potential for subsurface contamination, and incomplete characterization information. These types of complications are typically the rule, rather than the exception, for sites undergoing radiologically-driven remediation and closure. One such site is the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Linde site in Tonawanda, New York. Cleanup of the site is currently underway. The Linde site presented a number of challenges to designing and implementing a closure strategy consistent with MARSSIM. This paper discusses some of the closure issues confronted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District at the Linde site and describes how MARSSIM protocols were adapted to address these issues. PMID:12792400

  19. Adapting MARSSIM for FUSRAP site closure.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Durham, L.; Rieman, C.; Hoover, R.

    2001-12-21

    The Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) provides a coherent, technically defensible process for establishing that exposed surfaces satisfy site cleanup requirements. Unfortunately, many sites have complications that challenge a direct application of MARSSIM. Example complications include Record of Decision (ROD) requirements that are not MARSSIM-friendly, the potential for subsurface contamination, and incomplete characterization information. These types of complications are typically the rule, rather than the exception, for sites undergoing radiologically-driven remediation and closure. One such site is the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Linde site in Tonawanda, New York. Cleanup of the site is currently underway. The Linde site presented a number of challenges to designing and implementing a closure strategy consistent with MARSSIM. This paper discusses some of the closure issues confronted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District at the Linde site, and describes how MARSSIM protocols were adapted to address these issues.

  20. Biological organisation as closure of constraints.

    PubMed

    Montévil, Maël; Mossio, Matteo

    2015-05-01

    We propose a conceptual and formal characterisation of biological organisation as a closure of constraints. We first establish a distinction between two causal regimes at work in biological systems: processes, which refer to the whole set of changes occurring in non-equilibrium open thermodynamic conditions; and constraints, those entities which, while acting upon the processes, exhibit some form of conservation (symmetry) at the relevant time scales. We then argue that, in biological systems, constraints realise closure, i.e. mutual dependence such that they both depend on and contribute to maintaining each other. With this characterisation in hand, we discuss how organisational closure can provide an operational tool for marking the boundaries between interacting biological systems. We conclude by focusing on the original conception of the relationship between stability and variation which emerges from this framework. PMID:25752259