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1

Laparoscopic vaginal vault closure with conventional straight instruments in single-port access total laparoscopic hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Objective Laparoscopic vaginal vault closure with conventional straight instruments is the final barrier to single-port access total laparoscopic hysterectomy (SPA-TLH). The aim of this study is to find out the safer, easier, simpler, faster, and even cheaper way to overcome it. Methods Vaginal vault suturing techniques of 152 consecutive single-port access total laparoscopic hysterectomy cases performed by the author in Gangnam CHA Hospital, CHA University from October 1, 2003 to June 30, 2012, were retrospectively analysed with medical records and DVDs. Results Of 152 patients who were attempted SPA-TLH, 119 patients (78%) were finished their operations without conversion to multi-port laparoscopy or laparotomy. Of women with successful SPA-TLH, 8 cases (7%) were closed their vaginal vaults vaginally (median, 20 minutes; range, 15-44 minutes), and 111 cases (93%) laparoscopically (median, 44 minutes; range, 13-56 minutes). Laparoscopic vault closure techniques were continuous suture (4 cases, 3%; median, 36 minutes; range, 30-45 minutes), interrupted sutures using knot-pusher (7 cases, 6%; median, 52 minutes; range, 48-56 minutes) Endo Stitch suture (2 cases, 2%; median, 32 minutes; range, 13-50 minutes), continuous vault closure using percutaneous sling sutures (PCSS) (92 cases, 77%; median, 40 minutes; range, 19-56 minutes), and continuous vault closure without PCSS (6 cases, 5%; median, 23 minutes; range, 16-31 minutes). Conclusion Laparoscopic vault closure using PCSS in SPA-TLH only with conventional straight instruments is the best way to overcome the barrier and the short-cut to shorten the learning curve to date. PMID:24396818

Park, Daehyun; Kim, Juyoung; Jun, Hye Sun; Jeong, Hyangjin

2013-01-01

2

Vaginitis.  

PubMed

Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis are the most common infectious causes of vaginitis. Bacterial vaginosis occurs when the normal lactobacilli of the vagina are replaced by mostly anaerobic bacteria. Diagnosis is commonly made using the Amsel criteria, which include vaginal pH greater than 4.5, positive whiff test, milky discharge, and the presence of clue cells on microscopic examination of vaginal fluid. Oral and topical clindamycin and metronidazole are equally effective at eradicating bacterial vaginosis. Symptoms and signs of trichomoniasis are not specific; diagnosis by microscopy is more reliable. Features of trichomoniasis are trichomonads seen microscopically in saline, more leukocytes than epithelial cells, positive whiff test, and vaginal pH greater than 5.4. Any nitroimidazole drug (e.g., metronidazole) given orally as a single dose or over a longer period resolves 90 percent of trichomoniasis cases. Sex partners should be treated simultaneously. Most patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis are diagnosed by the presence of vulvar inflammation plus vaginal discharge or with microscopic examination of vaginal secretions in 10 percent potassium hydroxide solution. Vaginal pH is usually normal (4.0 to 4.5). Vulvovaginal candidiasis should be treated with one of many topical or oral antifungals, which appear to be equally effective. Rapid point-of-care tests are available to aid in accurate diagnosis of infectious vaginitis. Atrophic vaginitis, a form of vaginitis caused by estrogen deficiency, produces symptoms of vaginal dryness, itching, irritation, discharge, and dyspareunia. Both systemic and topical estrogen treatments are effective. Allergic and irritant contact forms of vaginitis can also occur. PMID:21524046

Hainer, Barry L; Gibson, Maria V

2011-04-01

3

Sequential closure in the space of measures  

E-print Network

We show that there is a compact topological space carrying a measure which is not a weak* limit of finitely supported measures but is in the sequential closure of the set of such measures. We construct compact spaces with measures of arbitrarily high levels of complexity in this sequential hierarchy. It follows that there is a compact space in which the sequential closure cannot be obtained in countably many steps. However, we show that this is not the case for our spaces where the sequential closure is always obtained in countably many steps.

Borodulin-Nadzieja, Piotr

2012-01-01

4

50 CFR 648.24 - Fishery closures and accountability measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.24 Fishery closures and...in which the deductions will be made. (c) Butterfish AMs —(1) Butterfish EEZ closure. NMFS shall close the...

2012-10-01

5

50 CFR 648.24 - Fishery closures and accountability measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.24 Fishery closures and...in which the deductions will be made. (c) Butterfish AMs —(1) Butterfish three-phase management system. The...

2013-10-01

6

Zhang et al Effect of a collector bag for measurement of postpartum blood loss after vaginal1  

E-print Network

Zhang et al 1 Effect of a collector bag for measurement of postpartum blood loss after vaginal1: severe post-partum haemorrhage, collector bag, cluster-randomised controlled1 trial, Europe2 collector bag for measurement of postpartum blood loss after vaginal delivery in reducing the6 incidence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

7

Vaginal Pessary  

MedlinePLUS

... normal. Your vaginal discharge may also develop an odor. Certain vaginal gels can help with these side ... more often may also help with foul-smelling odor. Vaginal irritation is another possible side effect. Women ...

8

Optical instrument for measurement of vaginal coating thickness by drug delivery formulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical device has been developed for imaging the human vaginal epithelial surfaces, and quantitatively measuring distributions of coating thickness of drug delivery formulations—such as gels—applied for prophylaxis, contraception or therapy. The device consists of a rigid endoscope contained within a 27-mm-diam hollow, polished-transparent polycarbonate tube (150mm long) with a hemispherical cap. Illumination is from a xenon arc. The device is inserted into, and remains stationary within the vagina. A custom gearing mechanism moves the endoscope relative to the tube, so that it views epithelial surfaces immediately apposing its outer surface (i.e., 150mm long by 360° azimuthal angle). Thus, with the tube fixed relative to the vagina, the endoscope sites local regions at distinct and measurable locations that span the vaginal epithelium. The returning light path is split between a video camera and photomultiplier. Excitation and emission filters in the light path enable measurement of fluorescence of the sited region. Thus, the instrument captures video images simultaneously with photometric measurement of fluorescence of each video field [˜10mm diameter; formulations are labeled with 0.1%w/w United States Pharmacoepia (USP) injectable sodium fluorescein]. Position, time and fluorescence measurements are continuously displayed (on video) and recorded (to a computer database). The photomultiplier output is digitized to quantify fluorescence of the endoscope field of view. Quantification of the thickness of formulation coating of a surface sited by the device is achieved due to the linear relationship between thickness and fluorescence intensity for biologically relevant thin layers (of the order of 0.5mm). Summary measures of coating have been developed, focusing upon extent, location and uniformity. The device has begun to be applied in human studies of model formulations for prophylaxis against infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted pathogens.

Henderson, Marcus H.; Peters, Jennifer J.; Walmer, David K.; Couchman, Grace M.; Katz, David F.

2005-03-01

9

Clindamycin Vaginal  

MedlinePLUS

... an infection caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the vagina). Clindamycin is in a class ... works by slowing or stopping the growth of bacteria. Vaginal clindamycin cannot be used to treat vaginal ...

10

Measured and calculated closures of open and brine filled shafts and deep vertical boreholes in salt  

SciTech Connect

Shaft closure measurements are presented which are based on a rather unusual emplacement of very early time closure points. These data are in good agreement with calculations based on the prediction techniques developed for underground rooms in salt using a complete stratigraphy. However, a simplified calculational mesh also gives good agreement, which permits this mesh to be used for parametric studies of long term closures of open and brine filled shafts and boreholes.

Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeVries, K.L.; Schiermeister, D.M.; DeYonge, W.F. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Jones, R.L. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-01-01

11

Measured and calculated closures of open and brine filled shafts and deep vertical boreholes in salt  

SciTech Connect

Shaft closure measurements are presented which are based on a rather unusual emplacement of very early time closure points. These data are in good agreement with calculations based on the prediction technique developed for underground rooms in salt using a complete stratigraphy. However, a simplified calculational mesh also gives good agreement, which permits this mesh to be used for parametric studies of long term closures of open and brine filled shafts and boreholes.

Munson, D.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); DeVries, K.L.; Schiermeister, D.M.; DeYonge, W.F. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)); Jones, R.L. (Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

12

Closure measures for coarse-graining of the tent map  

SciTech Connect

We quantify the relationship between the dynamics of a time-discrete dynamical system, the tent map T and its iterations T{sup m}, and the induced dynamics at a symbolical level in information theoretical terms. The symbol dynamics, given by a binary string s of length m, is obtained by choosing a partition point ??[0,1] and lumping together the points x?[0,1] s.t. T{sup i}(x) concurs with the i ? 1th digit of s—i.e., we apply a so called threshold crossing technique. Interpreting the original dynamics and the symbolic one as different levels, this allows us to quantitatively evaluate and compare various closure measures that have been proposed for identifying emergent macro-levels of a dynamical system. In particular, we can see how these measures depend on the choice of the partition point ?. As main benefit of this new information theoretical approach, we get all Markov partitions with full support of the time-discrete dynamical system induced by the tent map. Furthermore, we could derive an example of a Markovian symbol dynamics whose underlying partition is not Markovian at all, and even a whole hierarchy of Markovian symbol dynamics.

Pfante, Oliver, E-mail: pfante@mis.mpg.de; Olbrich, Eckehard; Bertschinger, Nils [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstrasse 22, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)] [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstrasse 22, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Ay, Nihat; Jost, Jürgen [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstrasse 22, 04103 Leipzig (Germany) [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstrasse 22, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Leipzig University, PF 100920, 04009 Leipzig (Germany); Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 (United States)

2014-03-15

13

Calculated and measured drift closure during the spent-fuel test in Climax granite  

SciTech Connect

Horizontal and vertical measurements of drift closures have been made with a manually operated tape extensometer since about 6 weeks after the emplacement of the spent fuel at various locations along the length of the drifts. The averaged closures are less than 0.6 mm from the onset of measurements through about two years after the spent fuel emplacement. These results have been compared with thermo-elastic finite element calculations using measured medium properties. The comparisons show that most of the closure of the drifts occurred between the time the spent fuel was emplaced and the time of first measurement. The comparisons show that the results track each other, in that where closure followed by dilation is measured, the calculations also show this effect. The agreement is excellent, although where closures of less than 0.2 mm are measured the comparison with calculations is limited by measurement reproducability. Once measurements commenced the averaged measured closures remain to within 30% of the calculated total closure in each drift. 9 figures, 1 table.

Yow, J.L. Jr.; Butkovich, T.R.

1982-04-01

14

Vaginal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

15

Estrogen Vaginal  

MedlinePLUS

... estradiol vaginal ring is also used to treat hot flushes ('hot flashes'; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... mild soap and warm water. Do not use hot water or boil the applicator. Ask your pharmacist ...

16

Effect of a collector bag for measurement of postpartum blood loss after vaginal delivery: cluster randomised trial in 13 European countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the systematic use of a transparent plastic collector bag to measure postpartum blood loss after vaginal delivery in reducing the incidence of severe postpartum haemorrhage. Design Cluster randomised trial. Setting 13 European countries. Participants 78 maternity units and 25?381 women who had a vaginal delivery. Interventions Maternity units were randomly assigned to systematic use of a collector bag (intervention group) or to continue to visually assess postpartum blood loss after vaginal delivery (control group). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the incidence of severe postpartum haemorrhage in vaginal deliveries, defined as a composite of one or more of blood transfusion, intravenous plasma expansion, arterial embolisation, surgical procedure, admission to an intensive care unit, treatment with recombinant factor VII, and death. Results Severe postpartum haemorrhage occurred in 189 of 11?037 of vaginal deliveries (1.71%) in the intervention group compared with 295 of 14?344 in the control group (2.06%). The difference was not statistically significant either in individual level analysis (adjusted odds ratio 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.26 to 2.53) or in cluster level analysis (difference in weighted mean rate adjusted for baseline rate 0.16%, 95% confidence interval ?0.69% to 1.02%). Conclusion Compared with visual estimation of postpartum blood loss the use of a collector bag after vaginal delivery did not reduce the rate of severe postpartum haemorrhage. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN66197422. PMID:20123835

2010-01-01

17

Designing Preclinical Perceptibility Measures to Evaluate Topical Vaginal Gel Formulations: Relating User Sensory Perceptions and Experiences to Formulation Properties  

PubMed Central

Abstract The effectiveness of any biomedical prevention technology relies on both biological efficacy and behavioral adherence. Microbicide trials have been hampered by low adherence, limiting the ability to draw meaningful conclusions about product effectiveness. Central to this problem may be an inadequate conceptualization of how product properties themselves impact user experience and adherence. Our goal is to expand the current microbicide development framework to include product “perceptibility,” the objective measurement of user sensory perceptions (i.e., sensations) and experiences of formulation performance during use. For vaginal gels, a set of biophysical properties, including rheological properties and measures of spreading and retention, may critically impact user experiences. Project LINK sought to characterize the user experience in this regard, and to validate measures of user sensory perceptions and experiences (USPEs) using four prototype topical vaginal gel formulations designed for pericoital use. Perceptibility scales captured a range of USPEs during the product application process (five scales), ambulation after product insertion (six scales), and during sexual activity (eight scales). Comparative statistical analyses provided empirical support for hypothesized relationships between gel properties, spreading performance, and the user experience. Project LINK provides preliminary evidence for the utility of evaluating USPEs, introducing a paradigm shift in the field of microbicide formulation design. We propose that these user sensory perceptions and experiences initiate cognitive processes in users resulting in product choice and willingness-to-use. By understanding the impact of USPEs on that process, formulation development can optimize both drug delivery and adherence. PMID:24180360

Fava, Joseph L.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Vargas, Sara; Shaw, Julia G.; Kojic, E. Milu; Kiser, Patrick F.; Friend, David R.; Katz, David F.

2014-01-01

18

Search for an effect of shell closure on nuclear dissipation via a neutron-multiplicity measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prescission neutron multiplicity excitation function is measured for the first time for three isotopes across a major closed shell in order to investigate the shell effects on fission hindrance. Three isotopes of Fr (213,215,217Fr) are populated by fusion of 19F+194,196,198Pt in the excitation energy range of 46.6-91.8 MeV. While 213Fr has a major neutron shell closure at N=126, 215Fr and 217Fr are away from the closed shell. It is found from the statistical model analysis of the experimental data that the strengths of nuclear dissipation for nuclei away from shell closure are very similar. On the other hand, the dissipation is relatively weaker for a shell-closed nucleus in comparison to adjacent nuclei away from shell closure.

Singh, Varinderjit; Behera, B. R.; Kaur, Maninder; Sugathan, P.; Golda, K. S.; Jhingan, A.; Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Siwal, Davinder; Goyal, S.; Santra, S.; Kumar, A.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Chatterjee, M. B.; Saxena, A.; Pal, Santanu; Kailas, S.

2012-07-01

19

Closure measuring technique on the datum of an end-tooth indexing table  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The end-tooth indexing table (EIT) is widely used as angular reference in precision measurement or precision manufacturing fields. In order to improve the pitch accuracy of ultra-precision master gears, we designed an automatic end-tooth indexing system on a specific gear grinder. Theoretically, the indexing accuracy of an EIT can reach ±0.2? or even more, which can meet the machining requirements of ultra-precision gears with pitch deviation up to grade 0 (ISO1328-1:1995). However, the axial and radial misalignment of an EIT to the spindle will decrease the indexing accuracy of the gear grinder. In order to solve this difficulty, precision measurement and lapping on the datum face of an EIT will be necessary. How to measure the parallelism deviation correctly at the datum of the mating face of the EIT will be another difficulty. Using the closure measuring technique which allows error separation, in this paper the measurement platform is set up, the data acquisition and handling method are presented and an experimental measurement is carried out. The maximum parallelism deviation, which is between the target face of an EIT and its mating face, was reduced from about 4 to 0.29 µm by adopting the closure measuring technique and precision lapping. It confirms that the closure measuring technique can implement precision measurement of dimensional measurands for an axisymmetric part.

Ling, Siying; Lou, Zhifeng; Wang, Liding

2012-04-01

20

An interdisciplinary framework for measuring and supporting adherence in HIV prevention trials of ARV-based vaginal rings  

PubMed Central

Introduction Product adherence and its measurement have emerged as a critical challenge in the evaluation of new HIV prevention technologies. Long-acting ARV-based vaginal rings may simplify use instructions and require less user behaviour, thereby facilitating adherence. One ARV-based ring is in efficacy trials and others, including multipurpose rings, are in the pipeline. Participant motivations, counselling support and measurement challenges during ring trials must still be addressed. In previous HIV prevention trials, this has been done largely using descriptive and post-hoc methods that are highly variable and minimally evaluated. We outline an interdisciplinary framework for systematically investigating promising strategies to support product uptake and adherence, and to measure adherence in the context of randomized, blinded clinical trials. Discussion The interdisciplinary framework highlights the dual use of adherence measurement (i.e. to provide feedback during trial implementation and to inform interpretation of trial findings) and underscores the complex pathways that connect measurement, adherence support and enacted adherence behaviour. Three inter-related approaches are highlighted: 1) adherence support – sequential efforts to define motivators of study product adherence and to develop, test, refine and evaluate adherence support messages; 2) self-reported psychometric measures – creation of valid and generalizable measures based in easily administered scales that capture vaginal ring use with improved predictive ability at screening, baseline and follow-up that better engage participants in reporting adherence; and 3) more objective measurement of adherence – real-time adherence monitoring and cumulative measurement to correlate adherence with overall product effectiveness through innovative designs, models and prototypes using electronic and biometric technologies to detect ring insertion and/or removal or expulsion. Coordinating research along these three pathways will result in a comprehensive approach to product adherence within clinical trials. Conclusions Better measurement of adherence will not, by itself, ensure that future effectiveness trials will be able to address the most basic question: if the product is used per instructions, will it prevent HIV transmission? The challenges to adherence measurement must be addressed as one component of a more integrated system that has as its central focus adherence as a behaviour emerging from the social context of the user. PMID:25224617

MacQueen, Kathleen M; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Owen, Derek H; Amico, K Rivet; Morrow, Kathleen M; Moench, Thomas; Friend, David R; Friedland, Barbara

2014-01-01

21

Mechanics of fatigue crack closure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers are presented on plasticity induced crack closure, crack closure in fatigue crack growth, the dependence of crack closure on fatigue loading variables, and a procedure for standardizing crack closure levels. Also considered are a statistical approach to crack closure determination, the crack closure behavior of surface cracks under pure bending, closure measurements on short fatigue cracks, and crack closure under plane strain conditions. Other topics include fatigue crack closure behavior at high stress ratios, the use of acoustic waves for the characterization of closed fatigue cracks, and the influence of fatigue crack wake length and state of stress on crack closure.

Newman, J. C., Jr. (editor); Elber, Wolf (editor)

1988-01-01

22

Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you are unable to urinate. You have a discharge from your vagina that has a bad odor. ...

23

Vaginal hyperalgesia in a rat model of endometriosis Karen J. Berkley*, Angie Cason, Heather Jacobs,  

E-print Network

Vaginal hyperalgesia in a rat model of endometriosis Karen J. Berkley*, Angie Cason, Heather Jacobs-induced endometriosis that reduces fertility also evokes vaginal hyperalgesia along with changes in vaginal compliance of vaginal distention were measured for 2.5 months before and after endometriosis or sham surgery. Vaginal

Berkley, Karen J.

24

An Evaluation of the Plasticity-Induced Crack-Closure Concept and Measurement Methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the plasticity-induced crack-closure concept is made, in light of some of the questions that have been raised on the validity of the concept, and the assumptions that have been made concerning crack-dp damage below the crack-opening stress. The impact of using other crack-tip parameters, such as the cyclic crack-tip displacement, to model crack-growth rate behavior was studied. Crack-growth simulations, using a crack-closure model, showed a close relation between traditional Delta K eff, and the cyclic crack-tip displacement (Delta eff) for an aluminum alloy and a steel. Evaluations of the cyclic hysteresis energy demonstrated that the cyclic plastic damage below the crack-opening stress was negligible in the Paris crack-growth regime. Some of the standard and newly proposed remote measurement methods to determine the 'effective' crack-tip driving parameter were evaluated on middle-crack tension specimens. A potential source of the Kmax effect on crack-growth rates was studied on an aluminum alloy. Results showed that the ratio of Kmax to Kc had a strong effect on crack-growth rates at high stress ratios and at low stress ratios for very high stress levels. The crack-closure concept and the traditional crack-growth rate equations were able to correlate and predict crack-growth rates under these extreme conditions.

Newman, James C., Jr.

1998-01-01

25

Vaginitis: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Vaginitis is one of the most common ambulatory problems to occur in women. It is a disorder responsible for > 10% of visits made to providers of women's health care. Although vaginal infections are the most common cause, other considerations include cervicitis, a normal vaginal discharge, foreign-body vaginitis, contact vaginitis, atrophic vaginitis, and desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. The medical history and examination are an important source of clues to the underlying diagnosis. However, making a definitive diagnosis requires skillful performance of office laboratory procedures, including the vaginal pool wet mount examination, determination of the vaginal pH, and the whiff test. Vaginal and cervical cultures, nucleic acid tests, and point-of-care tests are available and may be required in selected patients. Once a specific diagnosis is made, effective therapy can be prescribed. Candida vaginitis is generally treated with either the vaginal administration of an imidazole or triazole antifungal agent or the prescription of oral fluconazole. Oral nitroimidazole agents, metronidazole or tinidazole, are the only effective treatments for trichomoniasis in the United States. Bacterial vaginosis, which has been linked to important gynecologic and pregnancy complications, can be treated with an available oral or topical agent containing either a nitroimidazole or clindamycin. PMID:21084788

Quan, Martin

2010-11-01

26

Pharmacokinetic fundamentals of vaginal treatment with clotrimazole.  

PubMed

Pharmacokinetic studies with clotrimazole in rats and in humans, following oral and intravenous administration, have shown that clotrimazole is rapidly metabolized. After vaginal treatment with clotrimazole, the small fraction absorbed into the systemic circulation--between 3% and 10% of the dose--is subjected to metabolism and excretion as after oral or intravenous administration. The vaginal availability of clotrimazole is largely dependent on the formulation applied. In contrast, up to 3 days after single application of a vaginal tablet containing 500 mg clotrimazole together with lactic acid, fungicidal amounts of clotrimazole were measured in vaginal fluid, i.e., the single dose serves as a depot in the vagina for at least 3 days. Thus the single-dose treatment of vaginal mycosis with clotrimazole offers the advantage of combining a high availability in the vagina with a low availability of systemic circulation and is a means of solving the problem of the patient's noncompliance. PMID:4025444

Ritter, W

1985-08-01

27

Do unplanned cystotomies during vaginal operative procedures lead to vesicovaginal fistulae or other complications?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urology has recently experienced a renewed interest in vaginal operative procedures such as bladderneck suspension, vesicovaginal fistula closure, fascial slings and artificial urinary sphincters. Because many vaginal operations are done on patients who have had previous bladder neck or urethral surgeries, considerable scar tissue may be encountered. With the absence of normal tissue planes unplanned cystotomy may occur. These patients

R. Hadley; R. C. Myers; H. C. Ruckle

1994-01-01

28

Syntactic Closures  

E-print Network

In this paper we describe {\\\\it syntactic closures}. Syntactic closures address the scoping problems that arise when writing macros. We discuss some issues raised by introducing syntactic closures into the macro ...

Bawden, Alan

1988-06-01

29

Closure study on measured and modeled optical properties for dry and hydrated laboratory inorganic aerosols with mixtures of dicarboxylic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory-based closure study was completed to compare measured and modeled optical properties and their dependence on controlled relative humidity (RH) for inorganic salts, dicarboxylic acids, and their mixtures. The closure between measured and modeled values of the light scattering coefficients were evaluated by calculating the average relative difference (ARD) values, which revealed agreement within 8.0% for the total scattering (?sp) and 14.8% for the back scattering (?bsp) values at dry RH conditions for all test aerosols. These ARD values were less than the total relative uncertainty based on the measurement and modeling approaches, indicating the achievement of closure for ?sp and ?bsp. Optical properties derived from ?sp including: (1) the hygroscopic growth factor, f?sp, (2) the backscatter ratio, b, and (3) the Ångström exponent, å, were also compared with measured values. The ARD values between corresponding measured and modeled results for these derived optical parameters ranged from 0.1% to 30.8%. The impact of particulate organic matter (POM) on optical and hygroscopic properties of the aerosols tested here was also compared to the aerosol optical and composition measurements that occurred during the New England Air Quality Study-Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation field campaign. Such comparison confirmed that a larger POM mass fraction resulted in less hygroscopicity for both the ambient and the laboratory aerosols. This study evaluated closure between laboratory measurements and model calculations and validated the reliability of the measured and modeled results with the closure analysis. Therefore, Mie-Lorentz model can be used to calculate the optical properties and their dependence on RH for other aerosols with more confidence.

Deng, Junjun; Du, Ke; Wang, Wei; Rood, Mark J.

2013-12-01

30

Prediction and measurement of direct-normal solar irradiance: A closure experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct-Normal Solar Irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident on a plane perpendicular to the Sun's direction on a unit area at the earth's surface in unit time, depends only on the atmospheric extinction of sunlight without regard to the details of extinction-whether absorption or scattering. Here the authors describe a set of closure experiments performed in north-central Oklahoma, wherein measured atmospheric composition is input to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN-3, to predict DNSI, which is then compared to measured values. Thirty six independent comparisons are presented; the agreement between predicted and measured values falls within the combined uncertainties in the prediction (2%) and measurement (0.2%) albeit with a slight bias ((approximately) 1% overprediction) that is independent of the solar zenith angle. Thus these results establish the adequacy of current knowledge of the solar spectrum and atmospheric extinction as embodied in MODTRAN-3 for use in climate models. An important consequence is the overwhelming likelihood that the atmospheric clear-sky absorption is accurately described to within comparable uncertainties.

Halthore, R. N.; Schwartz, S. E.; Michalsky, J. J.; Anderson, G. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Ten Brink, H. M.

1997-01-01

31

78 FR 72583 - Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; 2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Hogfish in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC981 Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; 2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Hogfish in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) for the 2013 fishing...

2013-12-03

32

A comparison of the effects of aspirin on bleeding time measured using the Simplate™ method and closure time measured using the PFA-100™, in healthy volunteers  

PubMed Central

Aims?The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aspirin on platelet function as measured by the ‘classical’ template bleeding time with a new ex vivo method measuring closure times using the PFA-100™ machine. Platelet aggregation in response to arachidonic acid was also measured ex vivo. Methods?The trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, with each volunteer taking 750?mg aspirin (BP) or placebo, three times a day for 5 days, with an 18 day wash-out period between treatments. Bleeding times and closure times were measured before the first dose on the first day and 0.5?h after the last dose on the fifth day of each treatment period. They were also measured 2 weeks after the last day of the trial. Results?Baseline bleeding times (pre-placebo) were 415?s using the Simplate, whilst baseline closure times were 115?s using the PFA-100™. Aspirin treatment caused an increase of both the template bleeding time (61%) and the closure time of the PFA-100™ (79%) when compared with the effects of placebo. The platelet aggregatory response to arachidonic acid was completely inhibited following aspirin treatment and was unaffected following placebo. Two weeks after the end of the trial, all values had returned to pre-treatment levels. The template bleeding time was unaltered in 1 of the 12 volunteers during aspirin treatment and was significantly prolonged in 3 of the 12 volunteers during placebo treatment. The PFA-100™ closure time was unaltered in 1 of the 12 volunteers during aspirin treatment and was prolonged in 1 subject during placebo treatment. Conclusions?The change in closure time using the PFA-100™ is as sensitive and reproducible to the effects of aspirin on platelet function as is the template bleeding time test. However, the PFA-100™ produced less variable effects with fewer false positive results. PMID:9278200

Marshall, P. W.; Williams, A. J.; Dixon, R. M.; Growcott, J. W.; Warburton, S.; Armstrong, J.; Moores, J.

1997-01-01

33

Airborne Sunphotometer Studies of Aerosol Properties and Effects, Including Closure Among Satellite, Suborbital Remote, and In situ Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne sunphotometry has been used to measure aerosols from North America, Europe, and Africa in coordination with satellite and in situ measurements in TARFOX (1996), ACE-2 (1997), PRIDE (2000), and SAFARI 2000. Similar coordinated measurements of Asian aerosols are being conducted this spring in ACE-Asia and are planned for North American aerosols this summer in CLAMS. This paper summarizes the approaches used, key results, and implications for aerosol properties and effects, such as single scattering albedo and regional radiative forcing. The approaches exploit the three-dimensional mobility of airborne sunphotometry to access satellite scenes over diverse surfaces (including open ocean with and without sunglint) and to match exactly the atmospheric layers sampled by airborne in situ measurements and other radiometers. These measurements permit tests of the consistency, or closure, among such diverse measurements as aerosol size-resolved chemical composition; number or mass concentration; light extinction, absorption, and scattering (total, hemispheric back and 180 deg.); and radiative fluxes. In this way the airborne sunphotometer measurements provide a key link between satellite and in situ measurements that helps to understand any discrepancies that are found. These comparisons have led to several characteristic results. Typically these include: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements than between remote and in situ measurements. (2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements. (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux radiometry than from in situ measurements. Aerosol intensive properties derived from these closure studies have been combined with satellite-retrieved fields of optical depth to produce fields of regional radiative forcing. We show results for the North Atlantic derived from AVHRR optical depths and aerosol intensive properties from TARFOX and ACE-2. Companion papers show analogous, preliminary results for Asian-Pacific aerosols and results of SAFARI-2000 closure studies on African aerosols.

Russlee, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

34

Vaginal repair of vaginal vault dehiscence after postpartum hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Vaginal vault dehiscence (VVD) may occur rarely after hysterectomy. Although mostly, a vaginal cuff dehiscence is seen after robotic or laparoscopic hysterectomy, it may also be observed as a complication of abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy. Vaginal repair is one of the techniques used for VVD. Here, we will describe a case of vaginally repaired VVD, associated with intra-abdominal hematoma after postpartum hysterectomy. PMID:24876366

Avc?o?lu, Sümeyra Nergiz; Alt?nkaya, Sündüz Özlem; Küçük, Mert; Yüksel, Hasan; Demircan-Sezer, Selda

2014-01-01

35

Large Vaginal and Bladder Calculi in a Woman With Previous Operation of Bladder Exstrophy: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

This is to report the case of a huge vaginal stone, and bladder calculi in a 26-year-old woman with previous operation of bladder exstrophy. It seems that the vaginal stone was secondary to the remaining wire used in her previous reconstructive surgery for pelvic closure 20 years ago and now surgery is performed to remove the vaginal and bladder stones. PMID:24719809

Tavakkoli, Mahmoud; Ghoreifi, Alireza

2013-01-01

36

Relationship among eye and muzzle temperatures measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle.  

PubMed

Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of these experiments was to compare the temperature of the eye (EYE) or muzzle (MUZ) measured using DITI to vaginal (VT) and rectal temperature (RT) as measures of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle. In Exp.1 EYE, VT and RT were measured in lactating, multiparous hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White, n = 10, and Dorper × St. Croix White, n = 10) in a non-febrile state 5 times over a 48-h period. Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.95), EYE and RT (r = 0.76) and EYE and VT (r = 0.77). In Exp. 2 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, lactating ewes (St. Croix White, n = 2, and Barbados Blackbelly, n = 12) at -12, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after being administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n = 7; 0.2 µg/kg BW, i.v.) or saline (n = 7; 0.5 mL, i.v.). Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. When data were combined across treatments (LPS and saline) there was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.96), EYE and RT (r = 0.82), MUZ and RT (r = 0.72), and EYE and VT (r = 0.93). In Exp. 3 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, non-lactating, pregnant Senepol cattle (n = 44) between 0900 and 1200 h on a single day. A digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure both VT and RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.78), a moderate correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and EYE (r = 0.52), RT and EYE (r = 0.58) and EYE and MUZ (r = 0.48). There was no correlation (P > 0.10) between RT or VT and MUZ. The findings of these three studies indicate that temperature of the eye, measured using DITI, can be used as an indicator of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle as an alternative to using vaginal or rectal temperature. PMID:25253816

George, W D; Godfrey, R W; Ketring, R C; Vinson, M C; Willard, S T

2014-11-01

37

Recurrent vaginal candidiasis.  

PubMed

Recurrent vaginal candidiasis is one of the most common reasons for patients visiting their primary care doctors. Majority of the cases are caused by Candida albicans. Controlling of risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, used of broad spectrum antibiotics, contraceptive pills and steroid therapy helps in managing recurrent vaginal candidiasis. Initial 14-day course of oral azoles and followed by 6 months maintenance are effective in treating majority of the cases. Failure to treat recurrent vaginal candidiasis can lead to various bio-psycho-social complications. PMID:15190674

Loh, K Y; Sivalingam, N

2003-12-01

38

Vaginal dryness alternative treatments  

MedlinePLUS

... it would seem that a diet rich in soy foods would improve symptoms of vaginal dryness. There continues ... the ideal sources or dose is still unknown. Soy foods include tofu, soy milk, and whole soybeans (also ...

39

Review of Vaginitis  

PubMed Central

Adisruption of the dynamic equilibrium of the healthy vagina may have significant sequelae, leading to chronic or serious conditions. Therefore, all cases of vaginitis should be accurately diagnosed and appropriately treated. PMID:18475337

1993-01-01

40

Management of vaginal prolapse.  

PubMed

Vaginal prolapse is a common health problem, and although severe morbidity is rare, it can have marked effects on quality of life. The treatment of vaginal vault prolapse can be a difficult and challenging problem. A detailed history and clinical evaluation is required in order to plan the appropriate choice of procedure. There are numerous surgical procedures that have been described using either abdominal or vaginal approaches. The choice of procedure is often dependent on the individual surgeon's choice and experience, and should be tailored to the individual patient. The ideal procedure should have a low risk of morbidity and mortality, but should also have long-term durability. There is a need for large, randomized trials to evaluate surgical techniques to correct vaginal prolapse and related urinary, bowel and sexual dysfunction. PMID:19803899

Chaliha, Charlotte; Khullar, Vik

2006-03-01

41

Measured and modeled radiometric quantities in coastal waters: toward a closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate radiative transfer modeling in the coupled atmosphere-sea system is increasing in importance for the development of advanced remote-sensing applications. Aiming to quantify the uncertainties in the modeling of coastal water radiometric quantities, we performed a closure experiment to intercompare theoretical and experimental data as a function of wavelength lambda and water depth z. Specifically, the study focused on above-water

Barbara Bulgarelli; Giuseppe Zibordi; Jean-François Berthon

2003-01-01

42

Women's Psychological Adjustment Following Emergency Cesarean versus Vaginal Delivery.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated psychological adjustment and satisfaction in women who had given birth vaginally or by cesarean section. Cesarean mothers reported significantly less satisfaction with the delivery than did vaginal mothers; however no differences were found in postpartum psychological adjustment as measured by depression, anxiety, and confidence in…

Padawer, Jill A.; And Others

1988-01-01

43

Can Vaginal Cancer Be Prevented?  

MedlinePLUS

... kidneys, and several other organs. Find and treat pre-cancerous conditions Most vaginal squamous cell cancers are believed to start out as pre-cancerous changes, called vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia or VAIN . ...

44

JAMA Patient Page: Vaginal Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... 20% of vaginal symptoms are caused by trichomoniasis. • Vaginal candidiasis —Also known as a yeast infection , this condition is caused by an overgrowth of fungus that occurs naturally in the vagina and accounts for about 20% to 25% of ...

45

Vaginitis in adolescents.  

PubMed

Vaginitis is a common complaint of adolescent females. It can cause extreme distress for some patients, especially those with recurrent symptoms. Thus, it is important to take care when evaluating these patients and to acknowledge their frustration when appropriate. A thoughtful and thorough history will determine most causes, with the most common being yeast, trichomoniasis, and BV. PMID:15449843

Syed, Tahniat S; Braverman, Paula K

2004-06-01

46

Vulvar and vaginal disorders.  

PubMed

Vulvovaginitis is the most common reason for a woman to see her gynecologist. The most common causes are bacterial vaginosis, Candida species, and Trichomonas vaginals, respectively. Human papillomavirus has become a major diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Human papillomavirus DNA testing suggests that exposure to human papillomavirus occurs frequently at birth and intermittently throughout a woman's life after the onset of sexual activity. Interferon has been shown to be effective in treating some forms of human papillomavirus. PMID:1333291

Hatch, K D

1992-12-01

47

[Vaginal injuries during coitus].  

PubMed

Based on a prospective study on a continuous series of women admitted on emergency for post-coitus hemorrhage. The authors present an epidemiology and prognosis of vaginal injuries in to coitus in the Dakar University Teaching Hospital. Over a period of 33 months (October 1991 to December 1994), 106 cases were recorded, giving an incidence rate of 32 cases per year. The average profile is that of young women (26 years), usually during the post-partum period (41.5%) or in the second phase of menstrual cycle (32%). The main influencing factors found included: chronic vaginal infection (74%), position during coitus (especially that dorsal decubitus with hyperflexion and abduction of the lower members (56%), sexual abstinence of 3 months on average (21 days to 2 years), and use of aggressive product "aphrodisiac" for vaginal mucus. The damage was most often located at the bottom of dead end of Douglas and could be estimated at 5 cm long and 5 mm deep. The immediate prognosis was favourable, after stitching with absorbable thread, healing was obtained within 8 to 15 days. Given a retrospective view about 2 to 5 years, morbidity was represented by 3 recurrent cases and 13% after effects of the deep dyspareunia type. PMID:10797947

Cisse, C T; Dionne, P; Cathy, A; Mendes, V; Diadhiou, F; Ndiaye, P D

1998-01-01

48

50 CFR 648.141 - Closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.141 Closure. EEZ closure. The Regional Administrator shall close the EEZ to fishing for black sea bass by commercial vessels issued a moratorium permit for the...

2010-10-01

49

Levator Trauma After Vaginal Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS: Fifty women (82%) were seen postpartum. Of the 39 women delivered vaginally, levator avulsion was diagnosed in 14 (36%, 95% confidence interval 21-51%). Among those delivered vaginally, there were associations with higher maternal age (P.10), vaginal operative delivery (P.07), and worsened stress incontinence postpartum (P.02). CONCLUSIONS: Avulsion of the inferomedial aspects of the levator ani from the pelvic sidewall

Hans Peter Dietz; Valeria Lanzarone

50

CLOSURE BETWEEN SEMI-CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF PM 2.5 MASS AND COMPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

This extended abstract reports the first successful attempt to quantitatively measure all the major species of PM2.5 on a semi-continuous basis. Comparisons are made between both PC-BOSS integrated species concentration measurements with semi-continuous species measur...

51

Closure for Jason Frank  

E-print Network

Closure for HPM Onno Bokhove & Jason Frank Introduction Hamiltonian Parcel Vlasov Dynamics Hamiltonian Particle FEM Numerical Results Eulerian Closure Lagrangian Closure? Outlook References On a Closure for Hamiltonian Particle Mesh Methods --Vlasov-Poisson Dynamics Onno Bokhove & Jason Frank School

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

52

Evaluation of the Effects of a New Intravaginal Gel, Containing Purified Bovine Colostrum, on Vaginal Blood Flow and Vaginal Atrophy in Ovariectomized Rat  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vaginal dryness due to vaginal atrophy is a common complaint of postmenopausal women, interfering with sexual function and quality of life. Hormone replacement therapy is the only effective therapy but with known risks that leave unmet medical needs. A new product, ZP-025 vaginal gel, containing purified (dialyzed lyophilized) bovine colostrum, has been developed for the treatment of vaginal dryness secondary to vaginal atrophy. Aim The study aims to investigate the effects of intravaginal application of ZP-025 on vaginal atrophy using an animal model. Methods Ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Three weeks after surgery, rats were divided into four groups and treated for 4 weeks (twice a day) with placebo or ZP-025 at low (0.5%) or high (2.3%) concentrations of colostrum; in the control group, rats did not receive any treatment. Changes in vaginal blood flow due to pelvic nerve stimulation were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry and vaginal tissue was collected for histological assay. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures were vaginal blood flow before and after pelvic nerve stimulation and histology of vaginal epithelium. Results Treatment with ZP-025 to ovariectomized rats induced an increase of vaginal blood flow parameters (vascular capacitance, amplitude and area under the curve of the response) in response to pelvic nerve stimulation compared with control group, statistically significant at 2.3%. Vaginal epithelium showed a physiological estrous cycle aspect in treated animals, with at least five cell layers vs. one or two cell layers in control rats. As expected from a topical formulation, systemic effects on body weights and uterine wet weights were not observed with application of ZP-025. Conclusions In this study, the new product ZP-025, containing purified colostrum, was shown to have beneficial effects on vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rats, improving vaginal hemodynamics and thickness of vaginal epithelium. Vailati S, Melloni E, Riscassi E, Behr Roussel D, and Sardina M. Evaluation of the effects of a new intravaginal gel, containing purified bovine colostrum, on vaginal blood flow and vaginal atrophy in ovariectomized rat. Sex Med 2013;1:35–43. PMID:25356286

Vailati, Silvia; Melloni, Elsa; Riscassi, Ermanno; Behr Roussel, Delphine; Sardina, Marco

2013-01-01

53

Red herring vaginal discharge.  

PubMed

Labial hair tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition that can be easily misdiagnosed and ultimately lead to irreversible damage. An 11-year-old premenarche girl presented with a 5-day history of pain and swelling in the labia with associated vaginal discharge. The general practitioner treated her with clotrimazole without improvement. On examination, there was an oedematous swelling of the right labia with a proximal hair tourniquet. Local anaesthetic was applied and the hair removed with forceps. There was instant relief of pain and the discharge stopped within 24 h. The patient was sent home with a course of antibiotics. PMID:24049092

Lee, Jun Hee; Pringle, Kirsty; Rajimwale, Ashok

2013-01-01

54

Predictors of the vaginal microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to define influences on the patterns of the vaginal microflora. Study Design: We enrolled 617 African American and Mexican American women in a 1-year longitudinal study of sexual behaviors and the vaginal microflora on the basis of the presence of gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, trichomoniasis, or syphilis at the initial visit. The patients were assigned randomly to

Edward R. Newton; Jeanna M. Piper; Rochelle N. Shain; Sondra T. Perdue; William Peairs

2001-01-01

55

Results of the Round Robin on opening-load measurement conducted by ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental Round Robin on the measurement of the opening load in fatigue crack growth tests was conducted on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis. The Round Robin evaluated the current level of consistency of opening load measurements among laboratories and to identify causes for observed inconsistency. Eleven laboratories participated in the testing of compact and middle-crack specimens. Opening-load measurements were made for crack growth at two stress-intensity factor levels, three crack lengths, and following an overload. All opening-load measurements were based on the analysis of specimen compliance data. When all of the results reported (from all participants, all measurement methods, and all data analysis methods) for a given test condition were pooled, the range of opening loads was very large--typically spanning the lower half of the fatigue loading cycle. Part of the large scatter in the reported opening-load results was ascribed to consistent differences in results produced by the various methods used to measure specimen compliance and to evaluate the opening load from the compliance data. Another significant portion of the scatter was ascribed to lab-to-lab differences in producing the compliance data when using nominally the same method of measurement.

Phillips, Edward P.

1989-01-01

56

Cadmium mass measurements between the neutron shell closures at N = 50 and 82  

SciTech Connect

The mass values of the neutron-deficient cadmium isotopes {sup 99-109}Cd and of the neutron-rich isotopes {sup 114,120,122-124,126,128}Cd have been measured using ISOLTRAP. The behavior of the separation energies of the cadmium isotopes from N = 50 to 82 is discussed.

Borgmann, Ch.; Blaum, K.; Boehm, Ch.; George, S.; Kreim, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Breitenfeldt, M. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Naimi, S. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay France (France); Baruah, S.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L. [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Beck, D.; Dworschak, M.; Herfurth, F.; Minaya-Ramirez, E.; Savreux, R.; Yazidjian, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Cakirli, R. B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey); Casten, R. F. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

2011-10-28

57

Duct closure  

DOEpatents

A closure for an inclined duct having an open upper end and defining downwardly extending passageway. The closure includes a cap for sealing engagement with the open upper end of the duct. Associated with the cap are an array of vertically aligned plug members, each of which has a cross-sectional area substantially conforming to the cross-sectional area of the passageway at least adjacent the upper end of the passageway. The plug members are interconnected in a manner to provide for free movement only in the plane in which the duct is inclined. The uppermost plug member is attached to the cap means and the cap means is in turn connected to a hoist means which is located directly over the open end of the duct.

Vowell, Kennison L. (Canoga Park, CA)

1987-01-01

58

Results of the second Round Robin on opening-load measurement conducted by ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on crack closure measurement and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A second experimental Round Robin on the measurement of the crack opening load in fatigue crack growth tests has been completed by the ASTM Task Group E24.04.04 on Crack Closure Measurement and Analysis. Fourteen laboratories participated in the testing of aluminum alloy compact tension specimens. Opening-load measurements were made at three crack lengths during constant Delta K, constant stress ratio tests by most of the participants. Four participants made opening-load measurements during threshold tests. All opening-load measurements were based on the analysis of specimens compliance behavior, where the displacement/strain was measured either at the crack mouth or the mid-height back face location. The Round Robin data were analyzed for opening load using two non-subjective analysis methods: the compliance offset and the correlation coefficient methods. The scatter in the opening load results was significantly reduced when some of the results were excluded from the analysis population based on an accept/reject criterion for raw data quality. The compliance offset and correlation coefficient opening load analysis methods produced similar results for data populations that had been screened to eliminate poor quality data.

Phillips, E. P.

1993-01-01

59

Using image processing to measure tree crown diameters and estimate percent crown closure  

E-print Network

Approved as to style and content by: Robert D. Baker (Chair of Committee) Robert C. a (Member) David N. A el (Member) chard F. Fish (Head of Department) December l994 Major Subject: Forestry ABSTRACT Using Image Processing to Measure Tree Crown... of heat, hornets and asps, or if we were just too old and ornery to give up. Finally, I wish to recognize Matt Falter. Thank you for your support and your friendship. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT Page DEDICATION AND ACKNQWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS...

Gabriel, Darren Kyle

1994-01-01

60

MIR Closures of Polyhedral Sets  

E-print Network

Feb 28, 2007 ... We study the mixed-integer rounding (MIR) closures of polyhedral ... variables to produce a linear MIP model that solves the separation ... By repeatedly ...... Another problem with both these measures is that adding integral ...

2007-02-28

61

Vulvar and vaginal cancer.  

PubMed

Vulvar cancer is becoming more common as the population ages and is primarily a disease of the elderly. Most vulvar cancers are diagnosed at a localized stage and can be cured with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. More conservative therapy has been the mainstay in vulvar cancer treatment, which has lessened short-term and long-term morbidity without sacrificing efficacy. Recent national and international studies continue to prove the value of sentinel lymph node technology, which is moving toward a new standard of care for women with early stage vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer is a rare cancer that also affects elderly women. Prognosis is poor; however, adequate treatment can be delivered with a combination of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy, and with surgical resection for a select group of patients. PMID:22640712

Carter, Jori S; Downs, Levi S

2012-06-01

62

Assessment of Bony Pelvis and Vaginally Assisted Deliveries  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate whether pelvic measurements have any association with operative vaginal deliveries and the duration of the second stage of the delivery. Study design. A retrospective study of pregnant women at an increased risk of fetal-pelvic disproportion during 2000–2008 in North-Carelian Central Hospital. The mode of the vaginal delivery was chosen to represent the reference standard. The target condition was spontaneous vaginal delivery. Patients were divided into subgroups according to the size of the fetus and also by the parity to evaluate the variability reflecting differences in patient groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were established. Results. A total of 226 participants with fetal cephalic presentation delivered vaginally; of these, 184 women delivered spontaneously, and 42 women required operative vaginal delivery with vacuum extraction. There were no clinically or statistically significant differences between the size of the maternal pelvic outlet and the different modes of delivery types within these subgroups. With respect to the pelvic inlet and outlet, the areas under the curve in ROC were 0.566 with the P value of 0.18 and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.465–0.667 and 0.573 (95% CI: 0.484–0.622; P = 0.14). Conclusions. The maternal bony pelvic dimensions exhibited virtually no correlation with the need for operative vaginal deliveries. PMID:23691343

Taipale, Pekka

2013-01-01

63

Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... can happen any time from conception (when the egg is fertilized) to the end of pregnancy. About 2 or 3 out of every 10 pregnant women have vaginal bleeding during their first 20 weeks of pregnancy.

64

Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

One out of 10 women will have vaginal bleeding during their third trimester. At times, it may ... few months of pregnancy, you should always report bleeding to your health care provider right away. You ...

65

Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

66

On the measurement of the crack tip stress field as a means of determining Delta K(sub eff) under conditions of fatigue crack closure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optical method of caustics has been successfully extended to enable stress intensity factors as low as 1MPa square root of m to be determined accurately for central fatigue cracks in 2024-T3 aluminium alloy test panels. The feasibility of using this technique to study crack closure, and to determine the effective stress intensity factor range, Delta K(sub eff), has been investigated. Comparisons have been made between the measured values of stress intensity factor, K(sub caus), and corresponding theoretical values, K(sub theo), for a range of fatigue cracks grown under different loading conditions. The values of K(sub caus) and K(sub theo) were in good agreement at maximum stress, where the cracks are fully open, while K(sub caus) exceeded K(sub theo) at minimum stress, due to crack closure. However, the levels of crack closure and values of Delta K(sub eff) obtained could not account for the variations of crack growth rate with loading conditions. It is concluded that the values of Delta K(sub eff), based on caustic measurements in a 1/square root of r stress field well outside the plastic zone, do not fully reflect local conditions which control crack tip behavior.

Wallhead, Ian R.; Edwards, Lyndon; Poole, Peter

1994-01-01

67

Borehole creep closure measurements and numerical calculations at the Big Hill Texas SPR (Strategic Petroleum Reserve) storage site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Big Hill Texas salt dome is being developed as an additional site for the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Ten deep (1433 m) boreholes were drilled in 1983 for leaching the first five storage caverns. Leaching has been delayed and the ten wells have been used to study the in-situ creep behavior of rock salt. Creep closure has been

D. S. Preece; R. R. Beasley; K. L. Goin

1986-01-01

68

MTN-001: Randomized Pharmacokinetic Cross-Over Study Comparing Tenofovir Vaginal Gel and Oral Tablets in Vaginal Tissue and Other Compartments  

PubMed Central

Background Oral and vaginal preparations of tenofovir as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have demonstrated variable efficacy in men and women prompting assessment of variation in drug concentration as an explanation. Knowledge of tenofovir concentration and its active form, tenofovir diphosphate, at the putative vaginal and rectal site of action and its relationship to concentrations at multiple other anatomic locations may provide key information for both interpreting PrEP study outcomes and planning future PrEP drug development. Objective MTN-001 was designed to directly compare oral to vaginal steady-state tenofovir pharmacokinetics in blood, vaginal tissue, and vaginal and rectal fluid in a paired cross-over design. Methods and Findings We enrolled 144 HIV-uninfected women at 4 US and 3 African clinical research sites in an open label, 3-period crossover study of three different daily tenofovir regimens, each for 6 weeks (oral 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, vaginal 1% tenofovir gel [40 mg], or both). Serum concentrations after vaginal dosing were 56-fold lower than after oral dosing (p<0.001). Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was quantifiable in ?90% of women with vaginal dosing and only 19% of women with oral dosing. Vaginal tissue tenofovir diphosphate was ?130-fold higher with vaginal compared to oral dosing (p<0.001). Rectal fluid tenofovir concentrations in vaginal dosing periods were higher than concentrations measured in the oral only dosing period (p<0.03). Conclusions Compared to oral dosing, vaginal dosing achieved much lower serum concentrations and much higher vaginal tissue concentrations. Even allowing for 100-fold concentration differences due to poor adherence or less frequent prescribed dosing, vaginal dosing of tenofovir should provide higher active site concentrations and theoretically greater PrEP efficacy than oral dosing; randomized topical dosing PrEP trials to the contrary indicates that factors beyond tenofovir’s antiviral effect substantially influence PrEP efficacy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00592124 PMID:23383037

Hendrix, Craig W.; Chen, Beatrice A.; Guddera, Vijayanand; Hoesley, Craig; Justman, Jessica; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Salata, Robert; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Patterson, Karen; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gandham, Sharavi; Gomez, Kailazarid; Richardson, Barbra A.; Bumpus, Namandje N.

2013-01-01

69

Vaginal pH: A marker for menopause  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Menopause is suspected with age, cessation of menstruation for more than a year and presence of symptoms. The diagnosis of menopause is confirmed by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels >40 IU/L. Few studies have focused on vaginal pH for menopausal diagnosis. It is a simple, non-invasive and inexpensive method for this purpose. Aim of the Study: The following study is to correlate the serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level with vaginal pH estimation in menopause. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in 173 women aged 31-60 years with menopausal symptoms who attended the Menopausal Clinic of our hospital from January 2012 to January 2013. Vaginal pH was measured using pH micro-meter strips and serum FSH levels were measured using immunoassay methods. The data obtained was then analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 17) and results were evaluated statistically by the Chi-square and Kappa tests. P ? 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: According to our study of the 173 women studied, mean FSH level was 46.5 IU/L and mean vaginal pH was 5.3. If the menopausal hallmark is considered to be vaginal pH >4.5 and serum FSH ?40 IU/L, the sensitivity of vaginal pH for menopausal diagnosis was 84.9% and of serum FSH is 77.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Vaginal pH is a simple, accurate and cost-effective tool that can be suggested as a suitable and better alternative to serum FSH estimation for the diagnosis of menopause. PMID:24672204

Panda, Subrat; Das, Ananya; Singh, Ahanthem Santa; Pala, Star

2014-01-01

70

Multidisciplinary Overview of Vaginal Atrophy and Associated Genitourinary Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vaginal atrophy, which may affect up to 45% of postmenopausal women, is often associated with one or more urinary symptoms, including urgency, increased frequency, nocturia, dysuria, incontinence, and recurrent urinary tract infection. Aims To provide an overview of the current literature regarding cellular and clinical aspects of vaginal atrophy and response to treatment with local vaginal estrogen therapy. Methods PubMed searches through February 2012 were conducted using the terms “vaginal atrophy,” “atrophic vaginitis,” and “vulvovaginal atrophy.” Expert opinion was based on review of the relevant scientific and medical literature. Main Outcome Measure Genitourinary symptoms and treatment of vaginal atrophy from peer-reviewed published literature. Results Typically, a diagnosis of vaginal atrophy is made based on patient-reported symptoms, including genitourinary symptoms, and an examination that reveals signs of the disorder; however, many women are hesitant to report vaginal-related symptoms, primarily because of embarrassment. Conclusions Physicians in various disciplines are encouraged to initiate open discussions about vulvovaginal health with postmenopausal women, including recommended treatment options. Goldstein I, Dicks B, Kim NN, and Hartzell R. Multidisciplinary overview of vaginal atrophy and associated genitourinary symptoms in postmenopausal women. Sex Med 2013;1:44–53. PMID:25356287

Goldstein, Irwin; Dicks, Brian; Kim, Noel N; Hartzell, Rose

2013-01-01

71

Clinical Characteristics of Aerobic Vaginitis and Its Association to Vaginal Candidiasis, Trichomonas Vaginitis and Bacterial Vaginosis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Aim of the work: Examine clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and mixed infection for the purpose of better diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficiency. Materials and methods: Prospective research has been conducted at Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department for Microbiology and Pathology at Polyclinic for laboratory diagnostic and Gynecology and Obstetrics Department at Health Center Sapna. Examination included 100 examinees with the signs of vaginitis. Examination consisted of: anamnesis, clinical, gynecological and microbiological examination of vaginal smear. Results: The average age of the examinees was 32,62±2,6. Examining vaginal smears of the examinees with signs of vaginitis in 96% (N-96) different microorganisms have been isolated, while in 4% (N-4) findings were normal. AV has been found in 51% (N-51) of the examinees, Candida albicans in 17% (N-17), BV in 15% (N-15), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13% (N-13). In 21% (N-21) AV was diagnosed alone while associated with other agents in 30% (N-30). Most common causes of AV are E. coli (N-55) and E. faecalis (N-52). AV and Candida albicanis have been found in (13/30, 43%), Trichomonas vaginalis in (9/30, 30%) and BV (8/30, 26%). Vaginal secretion is in 70,05% (N-36) yellow coloured, red vagina wall is recorded in 31,13% (N-16) and pruritus in 72,54% (N-37). Increased pH value of vagina found in 94,10% (N-48). The average pH value of vaginal environment was 5,15±0,54 and in associated presence of AV and VVC, TV and BV was 5,29±0,56 which is higher value considering presence of AV alone but that is not statistically significant difference (p>0,05). Amino-odor test was positive in 29,94% (N-15) of associated infections. Lactobacilli are absent, while leukocytes are increased in 100% (N-51) of the examinees with AV. Conclusion: AV is vaginal infection similar to other vaginal infections. It is important to be careful while diagnosing because the treatment of AV differentiates from treatment of other vaginitis.

Jahic, Mahira; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Nurkic, Jasmina; Jahic, Elmir; Nurkic, Midhat

2013-01-01

72

Vaginal itching and discharge - Adult and adolescent  

MedlinePLUS

Vaginal discharge refers to secretions from the vagina . The discharge may be: Thick, pasty, or thin Clear, cloudy, bloody, ... area (vulva) may be present along with vaginal discharge. It can also occur on its own.

73

Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders Relaxation Exercises The Flu Vaccine Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > For Girls > Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not Print A A A Text ...

74

Closure operators Jonathan Kirby  

E-print Network

Closure operators Jonathan Kirby November 2005 This is a collection of definitions and observations about closure opera- tors. Closure operators are used for at least three things: as combinatorial is called an inflator iff it is inflationary and monotone. A closure operator is an idempotent inflator

Kirby, Jonathan

75

The vaginal microbiome, vaginal anti-microbial defence mechanisms and the clinical challenge of reducing infection-related preterm birth.  

PubMed

Ascending bacterial infection is implicated in about 40-50% of preterm births. The human vaginal microbiota in most women is dominated by lactobacilli. In women whose vaginal microbiota is not lactobacilli-dominated anti-bacterial defence mechanisms are reduced. The enhanced proliferation of pathogenic bacteria plus degradation of the cervical barrier increase bacterial passage into the endometrium and amniotic cavity and trigger preterm myometrial contractions. Evaluation of protocols to detect the absence of lactobaciili dominance in pregnant women by self-measuring vaginal pH, coupled with measures to promote growth of lactobacilli are novel prevention strategies that may reduce the occurrence of preterm birth in low-resource areas. PMID:25316066

Witkin, Ss

2015-01-01

76

21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vaginal stent. 884.3900 Section 884.3900 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 884.3900 Vaginal stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina...

2011-04-01

77

21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vaginal stent. 884.3900 Section 884.3900 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 884.3900 Vaginal stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina...

2012-04-01

78

21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vaginal stent. 884.3900 Section 884.3900 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 884.3900 Vaginal stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina...

2010-04-01

79

21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vaginal stent. 884.3900 Section 884.3900 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 884.3900 Vaginal stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina...

2013-04-01

80

21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vaginal stent. 884.3900 Section 884.3900 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 884.3900 Vaginal stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina...

2014-04-01

81

[Cottonseed--a source of vaginal contraceptive (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The antifertility effect of the cottonseed oil, gossypol, had been first observed in China, where it was administered orally to over 40,000 healthy males, with an effectiveness of 99%. The authors of this study have tried gossypol as a vaginal contraceptive. Gossypol acetic acid was dissolved in 0.5 N NaOH, and then diluted. The solution obtained was added to a similar volume of seminal liquid, and sperm motility was carefully measured. The immobilization of spermatozoa was total. The same results were obtained with seminal liquid from rats. One added advantage of vaginal administration of gossypol would be its lubricating quality. PMID:12311573

Tso, W W; Lee, C S

1982-01-01

82

Pharmacokinetic fundamentals of vaginal treatment with clotrimazole.  

PubMed

Absorption of clotrimazole after vaginal application was estimated to be between 3 and 10%. In order to investigate the fate of clotrimazole reaching systemic circulation, pharmacokinetic studies following oral and intravenous administration were carried out. The concentrations of clotrimazole in vaginal fluid and in blood plasma after vaginal application of 200 and 500 mg were determined using a specific assay by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. Fungicidal concentrations of clotrimazole in vaginal fluid up to 3 days after application of one vaginal tablet containing 500 mg were found. In contrast, clotrimazole plasma levels were lower than 0.01 micrograms/ml, demonstrating that clotrimazole is rapidly metabolized. PMID:7160239

Ritter, W; Patzschke, K; Krause, U; Stettendorf, S

1982-01-01

83

Dermatologic causes of vaginitis: a clinical review.  

PubMed

The concept of vaginitis is widely accepted. Most physicians assume that vaginitis represents an infection, with nearly all vaginal complaints diagnosed as Candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, or trichomonas. However, like the mouth, the vagina is covered with squamous epithelium, and therefore affected by various dermatoses. Some dermatoses prominently affect mucous membranes, such as lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, cicatricial pemphigoid, and blistering forms of erythema multiforme. In addition, some dermatoses affect only the vagina, including desquamative inflammatory vaginitis and atrophic vaginitis. The diagnosis and management of these diseases are hampered by the difficulty of visualizing the vagina, and the lack of medications other than antimicrobials available for use in the vagina. PMID:20883916

Edwards, Libby

2010-10-01

84

Closure Operations on Ideals by  

E-print Network

Closure Operations on Ideals by Sara Faridi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * *. . . . . . . . 5 2.1Integral Closure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .* * . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2Integral Closure of Graded Rings and Rees Rings . . . . . . . . . * *. . . . . . 8

Faridi, Sara

85

Formulation of mucoadhesive vaginal hydrogels insensitive to dilution with vaginal fluids.  

PubMed

The main objective of this work was to design thermosensitive and mucoadhesive vaginal hydrogels able to keep their rheological and mucoadhesive properties after dilution with vaginal fluids. Formulations were composed of pluronic F127 or a mix of two pluronics F127 and F68. Both formulations contained hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) as a mucoadhesive polymer. The determination of gelling temperature (T(gel)) after dilution with simulated vaginal fluid (SVF) demonstrated that hydrogels were resistant to dilution and T(gel) values were close to 30°C. Ex vivo mucoadhesion experiments conducted on porcine vaginal mucosa founded on the technique of traction of the adhesive/adherent joint allowed the characterization of mucoadhesive properties of hydrogels by measuring work of adhesion (W) and maximum force of detachment (F(max)). In the case of F127-based hydrogels, W and F(max) were lowered after dilution with SVF. However, in the case of F127/F68-based hydrogels, W, F(max) and mucoadhesion profiles were weakly affected by dilution. These differences could be attributed to the higher elasticity of F127/F68/HPMC (22.5/2.5/1% w/w) hydrogel in comparison with F127/HPMC one (20/1% w/w). Indeed, rheological analyses of the formulations showed that both elastic (G') and viscous moduli (G'') were higher for F127/F68/HPMC (22.5/2.5/1% w/w) than for F127/HPMC hydrogel (20/1% w/w). However, we demonstrated that the higher elasticity of the hydrogel was due to the higher total pluronic concentration and not due to the presence of F68 in the formulation. PMID:20656027

Aka-Any-Grah, Armelle; Bouchemal, Kawthar; Koffi, Armand; Agnely, Florence; Zhang, Min; Djabourov, Madeleine; Ponchel, Gilles

2010-10-01

86

Concurrent Chemoradiation for Vaginal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background It is not known whether the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy improves outcomes in primary vaginal cancer. Here, we review clinical outcomes in patients with primary vaginal cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods Seventy-one patients with primary vaginal cancer treated with definitive RT with or without concurrent chemotherapy at a single institution were identified and their records reviewed. A total of 51 patients were treated with RT alone; 20 patients were treated with CRT. Recurrences were analyzed. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression analysis was performed. Results The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 18–92 years) and the median follow-up time among survivors was 3.0 years. Kaplan-Meier estimates for OS and DFS differed significantly between the RT and CRT groups (3-yr OS?=?56% vs. 79%, log-rank p?=?0.037; 3-yr DFS?=?43% vs. 73%, log-rank p?=?0.011). Twenty-three patients (45%) in the RT group had a relapse at any site compared to 3 (15%) in the CRT group (p?=?0.027). With regard to the sites of first relapse, 10 patients (14%) had local only, 4 (6%) had local and regional, 9 (13%) had regional only, 1 (1%) had regional and distant, and 2 (3%) had distant only relapse. On univariate analysis, the use of concurrent chemotherapy, FIGO stage, tumor size, and date of diagnosis were significant predictors of DFS. On multivariate analysis, the use of concurrent chemotherapy remained a significant predictor of DFS (hazard ratio 0.31 (95% CI, 0.10–0.97; p?=?0.04)). Conclusions Vaginal cancer results in poor outcomes. Adequate radiation dose is essential to ensure curative management. Concurrent chemotherapy should be considered for vaginal cancer patients. PMID:23762284

Miyamoto, David T.; Viswanathan, Akila N.

2013-01-01

87

A new vaginal speculum for pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to introduce a new vaginal speculum, describe the technique of using the new speculum in identifying and measuring the severity of pelvic organ prolapse (POP), and present results of a pilot study comparing the new speculum to the conventional instruments used in performing POP quantification (POPQ). The new speculum has retractable upper and lower

Ananias C. Diokno; German Borodulin

2005-01-01

88

Energy balance closure at FLUXNET sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive evaluation of energy balance closure is performed across 22 sites and 50 site-years in FLUXNET, a network of eddy covariance sites measuring long-term carbon and energy fluxes in contrasting ecosystems and climates. Energy balance closure was evaluated by statistical regression of turbulent energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat (LE)) against available energy (net radiation, less the energy stored)

Kell Wilson; Allen Goldstein; Eva Falge; Marc Aubinet; Dennis Baldocchi; Paul Berbigier; Christian Bernhofer; Reinhart Ceulemans; Han Dolman; Chris Field; Achim Grelle; Andreas Ibrom; B. E. Law; Andy Kowalski; Tilden Meyers; John Moncrieff; Russ Monson; Walter Oechel; John Tenhunen; Riccardo Valentini; Shashi Verma

2002-01-01

89

Effects of Pregnancy and Bacterial Vaginosis on Proinflammatory Cytokine and Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor Concentrations in Vaginal Secretions  

PubMed Central

We compared vaginal proinflammatory cytokine and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) concentrations among pregnant and nonpregnant women according to bacterial vaginosis (BV) status. One-hundred and twenty-two women at 12–20 weeks' gestation and 133 nonpregnant controls had vaginal concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and SLPI measured by enzyme immunoassay. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate factors independently associated with vaginal cytokine and SLPI response. Pregnancy and BV were both independently associated with increased vaginal concentrations of IL-1? and IL-8; pregnant women had increased concentrations of SLPI, while women with BV had decreased SLPI concentrations. PMID:21490741

Balkus, Jennifer; Agnew, Kathy; Lawler, Richard; Mitchell, Caroline; Hitti, Jane

2010-01-01

90

Congruence Closure Debapriyo Introduction  

E-print Network

Abstract Congruence Closure Debapriyo Majumdar 1 #12; 1 Introduction Consider the problems. These kind of problems reduce to the problem of constructing the \\congruence closure" of an equational theory. Congruence closure algorithm: provides a decision procedure for the quanti#12;er free theory of equality

Hillenbrand, Thomas

91

CLOSURE OPERATORS AND POLARITIES  

E-print Network

CLOSURE OPERATORS AND POLARITIES G. Castellini 1 , J. Koslowski, G. E. Strecker 2 ABSTRACT: Basic results are obtained concerning Galois connections between collec- tions of closure operators (of various . In effect, the "lattice" of closure opera- tors on M is shown to be equivalent to the fixed point lattice

Castellini, Gabriele

92

CLOSURE OPERATORS AND POLARITIES  

E-print Network

CLOSURE OPERATORS AND POLARITIES G. Castellini 1 , J. Koslowski, G. E. Strecker 2 ABSTRACT: Basic results are obtained concerning Galois connections between collec­ tions of closure operators (of various . In effect, the ``lattice'' of closure operators on M is shown to be equivalent to the fixed point lattice

Koslowski, Jürgen

93

Vaginal cuff dehiscence after vaginal cuff brachytherapy for uterine cancer. A case report  

PubMed Central

Vaginal cuff dehiscence is a rare, but potentially serious complication after total hysterectomy. We report a case of vaginal cuff dehiscence after vaginal cuff brachytherapy. A 62 year old female underwent a robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and was found to have International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2009 stage IB endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus. The patient was referred for adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy. During the radiation treatment simulation, a computerized tomography (CT) of the pelvis showed abnormal position of the vaginal cylinder. She was found to have vaginal cuff dehiscence that required immediate surgical repair. Vaginal cuff dehiscence triggered by vaginal cuff brachytherapy is very rare with only one case report in the literature. PMID:24143152

Cattaneo, Richard; Bellon, Maria

2013-01-01

94

Vaginal microbiome: rethinking health and disease.  

PubMed

Vaginal microbiota form a mutually beneficial relationship with their host and have a major impact on health and disease. In recent years our understanding of vaginal bacterial community composition and structure has significantly broadened as a result of investigators using cultivation-independent methods based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. In asymptomatic, otherwise healthy women, several kinds of vaginal microbiota exist, the majority often dominated by species of Lactobacillus, while others are composed of a diverse array of anaerobic microorganisms. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal condition and is vaguely characterized as the disruption of the equilibrium of the normal vaginal microbiota. A better understanding of normal and healthy vaginal ecosystems that is based on their true function and not simply on their composition would help better define health and further improve disease diagnostics as well as the development of more personalized regimens to promote health and treat diseases. PMID:22746335

Ma, Bing; Forney, Larry J; Ravel, Jacques

2012-01-01

95

Neutron multiplicity measurements for 19F+194,196,198Pt systems to investigate the effect of shell closure on nuclear dissipation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre- and post-scission neutron multiplicities are measured for the three isotopes of Fr (217Fr, 215Fr, and 213Fr) in the excitation energy range of 48-91.8 MeV. Out of these three isotopes, 213Fr has shell closure (NC=126) while the other two are non-closed-shell nuclei. Statistical model calculations using Kramers’ fission width are performed to investigate shell effects on the dissipation strength which fit the experimental data. It is observed that shell correction to the binding energies of the evaporated particles strongly affects the fitted values of the dissipation strength. However, the best-fit dissipation strength is only weakly influenced by the inclusion of shell correction in fission barrier.

Singh, Varinderjit; Behera, B. R.; Kaur, Maninder; Kumar, A.; Sugathan, P.; Golda, K. S.; Jhingan, A.; Chatterjee, M. B.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Siwal, Davinder; Goyal, S.; Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Pal, Santanu; Saxena, A.; Santra, S.; Kailas, S.

2013-06-01

96

Vaginal stenosis after toxic epidermal necrolysis.  

PubMed

A 17-year-old adolescent girl developed severe toxic epidermal necrolysis after inhalation of methamphetamine. Recovery was complicated by vaginal synechiae and occlusion necessitating surgery. PMID:20885170

Rowan, Darion M; Jones, Ronald W; Oakley, Amanda; de Silva, Hiromel

2010-10-01

97

Clinicomicrobiological profile of women with vaginal discharge.  

PubMed

One hundred and ten patients presenting with vaginal discharge were investigated for microbiological spectrum of vaginitis and outcome of treatment. Laboratory-documented disorder could be ascertained in 86 patients (78%). Bacterial vaginosis was the commonest aetiology (43.6%), followed by candidiasis (10%), trichomoniasis (9.1%), senile vaginitis (5.4%) and vaginitis of unknown origin (5.4%). Endocervicitis was seen in 13.6% patients and urinary tract infection in 1.8%. Complete relief of symptoms was seen in 77 patients (70%). PMID:19810384

Gupta, Vineeta; Gupta, Pratima; Chatterjee, Biswaroop; Bansal, Rani

2009-03-01

98

HPV-Associated Vaginal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer Home HPV-Associated Vaginal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Vaginal cancers are rare. It is ... women get vaginal cancer than women of other races and ethnicities, similar to cervical cancer. * Note: This ...

99

What Are the Key Statistics about Vaginal Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... factors for vaginal cancer? What are the key statistics about vaginal cancer? Vaginal cancer is rare. Only ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

100

Is a Vaginal Birth Possible After a Cesarean Delivery?  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources and Publications En Español Is a vaginal birth possible after a cesarean delivery? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) describes vaginal delivery by a ...

101

Guiding the vaginal microbicide trials with biomarkers of inflammation.  

PubMed

This article discusses cytokine patterns as potential biomarkers of vaginal inflammation, which are needed for the safety evaluation of topical microbicide products for the prevention of sexually transmitted HIV-1 infection. In order to be effective, the vaginal anti-HIV-1 microbicides should avoid proinflammatory responses that facilitate transepithelial viral penetration and replication. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines play bi-directional roles in HIV-1 pathogenesis, transmission, susceptibility and resistance. Previous research has shown that many of these key mediators of mucosal barrier function (e.g. IL-1, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, TNF-alpha, TNF-receptor II, transforming growth factor beta, IL-10, IL-12, IL-8, macrophage inhibitory protein 1, etc.) can be detected in the vaginal secretions of healthy or infected individuals using non-invasive sampling techniques. As part of two microbicide trials, we measured IL-lalpha, IL-1beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist, TNF-alpha and IL-8 in 291 cervicovaginal lavage samples obtained before product use and at the seventh and 14th day after product use. We showed that vaginal formulations, temperature and matrix-specific factors in the vaginal fluids may interfere with cytokine detection, and therefore specific protocols must be validated for various collection procedures and cytokine assays. Our results suggest that combined patterns of cytokine dynamics rather than individual measurements might distinguish proinflammatory product-related effects in microbicide safety trials. More research is needed to establish cytokine mucosal baselines and modulation by genetic factors, sexual intercourse, menstrual cycle, exercise, hormones, stress and infections before guidelines can be established for clinical trial enrollment criteria, the prediction of side/adverse events and ultimately microbicide benefit prognostication. PMID:16419271

Fichorova, Raina N

2004-10-01

102

Vaginal vault dehiscence and increased use of vaginal vault brachytherapy: what are the implications?  

PubMed

Literature reports describe the potential for increased incidence of vaginal vault dehiscence after minimally invasive surgery, and incidental reports of vaginal vault dehiscence with vaginal vault brachytherapy. This review explores the risk of increased vaginal complications in a setting of greater use of both minimally invasive surgical techniques and adjuvant vaginal vault brachytherapy in early endometrial cancer. The impact of associated patient-related and tumor-related risk factors on clinical decision making is evaluated in selecting therapy that provides optimal tumor control while minimizing treatment adverse effects. PMID:23095777

Wiebe, Ericka; Covens, Allan; Thomas, Gillian

2012-11-01

103

Temporal dynamics of the human vaginal microbiota.  

PubMed

Elucidating the factors that impinge on the stability of bacterial communities in the vagina may help in predicting the risk of diseases that affect women's health. Here, we describe the temporal dynamics of the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 32 reproductive-age women over a 16-week period. The analysis revealed the dynamics of five major classes of bacterial communities and showed that some communities change markedly over short time periods, whereas others are relatively stable. Modeling community stability using new quantitative measures indicates that deviation from stability correlates with time in the menstrual cycle, bacterial community composition, and sexual activity. The women studied are healthy; thus, it appears that neither variation in community composition per se nor higher levels of observed diversity (co-dominance) are necessarily indicative of dysbiosis. PMID:22553250

Gajer, Pawel; Brotman, Rebecca M; Bai, Guoyun; Sakamoto, Joyce; Schütte, Ursel M E; Zhong, Xue; Koenig, Sara S K; Fu, Li; Ma, Zhanshan Sam; Zhou, Xia; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J; Ravel, Jacques

2012-05-01

104

50 CFR 648.101 - Closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.101 Closures...Administrator shall close the EEZ to fishing for summer flounder by commercial vessels for the...commercial quota is available for landing summer flounder in that...

2010-10-01

105

IN DEFENCE OF CLOSURE IN DEFENCE OF CLOSURE  

E-print Network

IN DEFENCE OF CLOSURE IN DEFENCE OF CLOSURE By RICHARD FELDMAN Closure principles for epistemic, of things one justifiably believes. Unrestricted closure principles do not limit the principle to consequences having any particular property. Restricted closure principles say that only certain sorts of con

Fitelson, Branden

106

Vaginitis: Its Diagnosis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Ninety-nine patients with a variety of specific and non-specific vaginitis were treated initially with a broad spectrum anti-microbial agent (AVC cream) in an effort to alleviate the acute symptoms of these problems even before specific organisms could be isolated. Diagnostic methods are discussed for Candida albicans and trichomonas vaginalis which could be employed in routine office practice. This agents advantage in being effective against almost all known pathogens, is offset by its some-what limited effectiveness against trichomoniasis. It has been shown in this study to be well tolerated, and it offers an overall cure rate of 66 percent against the more common pathogens. PMID:20468509

O'Brien, John R.; Hayden, Peter D.

1970-01-01

107

Laparoscopically assisted vaginal resection of rectovaginal endometriosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We wanted to establish a technique of laparoscopically assisted radical vaginal surgery for deep endometriosis of the rectovaginal septum with extensive rectal involvement.Technique: The procedure is started by vaginally excising the involved area which is left on the rectum, followed by bilateral dissection of the pararectal and retrorectal spaces. Para- and retrosigmoido-rectal spaces are developed laparoscopically along the coccygeosacral

Marc Possover; Herbert Diebolder; Karin Plaul; Achim Schneider

2000-01-01

108

Adjuvant materials in anterior vaginal wall prolapse surgery: a systematic review of effectiveness and complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to assess the objective recurrence and complications of adjuvant materials in the treatment\\u000a of anterior vaginal wall prolapse. The inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using adjuvant materials\\u000a versus standard surgery for anterior vaginal wall prolapse. The main outcome measures were objective recurrence and complications.\\u000a Ten RCTs (1,087 patients) were included in the

Richard Foon; Philip Toozs-Hobson; P. M. Latthe

2008-01-01

109

Comparative analysis of methods for collection and measurement of cytokines and immunoglobulins in cervical and vaginal secretions of HIV and HPV infected women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of these studies was to distinguish which of two techniques [cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) and cervical wick (SS)] is the optimal collection method for the measurement of the local immunological response in human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV infected women. The following parameters were measured in 24 paired samples from 15 women (9 HIV+, 6 HIV?): total protein, immunoglobulin levels,

I. V. Snowhite; W. E. Jones; J. Dumestre; K. Dunlap; P. S. Braly; M. E. Hagensee

2002-01-01

110

Ultra-low-dose estriol and Lactobacillus acidophilus vaginal tablets (Gynoflor(®)) for vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal breast cancer patients on aromatase inhibitors: pharmacokinetic, safety, and efficacy phase I clinical study.  

PubMed

Phase I pharmacokinetic (PK) study assessed circulating estrogens in breast cancer (BC) patients on a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) with vaginal atrophy using vaginal ultra-low-dose 0.03 mg estriol (E3) and Lactobacillus combination vaginal tablets (Gynoflor(®)). 16 women on NSAI with severe vaginal atrophy applied a daily vaginal tablet of Gynoflor(®) for 28 days followed by a maintenance therapy of 3 tablets weekly for 8 weeks. Primary outcomes were serum concentrations and PK of E3, estradiol (E2), and estrone (E1) using highly sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Secondary outcomes were clinical measures for efficacy and side effects; microscopic changes in vaginal epithelium and microflora; and changes in serum FSH, LH, and sex hormone-binding globulin. Compared with baseline, serum E1 and E2 did not increase in any of the women at any time following vaginal application. Serum E3 transiently increased after the first application in 15 of 16 women, with a maximum of 168 pg/ml 2-3 h post-insertion. After 4 weeks, serum E3 was slightly increased in 8 women with a maximum of 44 pg/ml. The vaginal atrophy resolved or improved in all women. The product was well tolerated, and discontinuation of therapy was not observed. The low-dose 0.03 mg E3 and Lactobacillus acidophilus vaginal tablets application in postmenopausal BC patients during AI treatment suffering from vaginal atrophy lead to small and transient increases in serum E3, but not E1 or E2, and therefore can be considered as safe and efficacious for treatment of atrophic vaginitis in BC patients taking NSAIs. PMID:24718774

Donders, Gilbert; Neven, Patrick; Moegele, Maximilian; Lintermans, Anneleen; Bellen, Gert; Prasauskas, Valdas; Grob, Philipp; Ortmann, Olaf; Buchholz, Stefan

2014-06-01

111

Column Closure Studies of Lower Tropospheric Aerosol and Water Vapor During ACE-Asia Using Airborne Sunphotometer, Airborne In-Situ and Ship-Based Lidar Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We assess the consistency (closure) between solar beam attenuation by aerosols and water vapor measured by airborne sunphotometry and derived from airborne in-situ, and ship-based lidar measurements during the April 2001 Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia). The airborne data presented here were obtained aboard the Twin Otter aircraft. Comparing aerosol extinction o(550 nm) from four different techniques shows good agreement for the vertical distribution of aerosol layers. However, the level of agreement in absolute magnitude of the derived aerosol extinction varied among the aerosol layers sampled. The sigma(550 nm) computed from airborne in-situ size distribution and composition measurements shows good agreement with airborne sunphotometry in the marine boundary layer but is considerably lower in layers dominated by dust if the particles are assumed to be spherical. The sigma(550 nm) from airborne in-situ scattering and absorption measurements are about approx. 13% lower than those obtained from airborne sunphotometry during 14 vertical profiles. Combining lidar and the airborne sunphotometer measurements reveals the prevalence of dust layers at altitudes up to 10 km with layer aerosol optical depth (from 3.5 to 10 km altitude) of approx. 0.1 to 0.2 (500 nm) and extinction-to-backscatter ratios of 59-71 sr (523 nm). The airborne sunphotometer aboard the Twin Otter reveals a relatively dry atmosphere during ACE- Asia with all water vapor columns less than 1.5 cm and water vapor densities w less than 12 g/cu m. Comparing layer water vapor amounts and w from the airborne sunphotometer to the same quantities measured with aircraft in-situ sensors leads to a high correlation (r(sup 3)=0.96) but the sunphotometer tends to underestimate w by 7%.

Schmid, B.; Hegg, A.; Wang, J.; Bates, D.; Redemann, J.; Russells, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Jonsson, H. H.; Welton, E. J.; Seinfield, J. H.

2003-01-01

112

Early results of a novel technique for anterior vaginal wall prolapse repair: anterior vaginal wall darn  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to describe the results of a 1-year patient follow-up after anterior vaginal wall darn, a novel technique for the repair of anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Methods Fifty-five patients with anterior vaginal wall prolapse underwent anterior vaginal wall darn. The anterior vaginal wall was detached using sharp and blunt dissection via an incision beginning 1 cm proximal to the external meatus and extending to the vaginal apex. The space between the tissues that attach the lateral vaginal walls to the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis was then darned. Cough Stress Test, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification, seven-item Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, and six-item Urogenital Distress Inventory scores were performed 1-year postoperatively to evaluate recovery. Results One-year postoperatively, all patients were satisfied with the results of the procedure. No patient had vaginal mucosal erosion or any other complication. Conclusions One-year postoperative findings for patients in this series indicate that patients with stage II–III anterior vaginal wall prolapse were successfully treated with the anterior vaginal wall darn technique. PMID:24973955

2014-01-01

113

Closure Properties of Proof Systems  

E-print Network

Closure Properties of Proof Systems Olaf Beyersdorff Proof Systems Frege systems Simulations Closure Properties Intermezzo Arithmetic Theories A Translation Characterizing EF Reflection The Main Theorem Some Proofs Summary Logical Closure Properties of Propositional Proof Systems Olaf Beyersdorff

Vollmer, Heribert

114

Object Closure Conversion * Neal Glew  

E-print Network

Object Closure Conversion * Neal functional languages is closure conver* *sion_the process of converting code with free variables into closed code and auxiliary data* * structures. Closure conversion has been extensively studied

Glew, Neal

115

Pharmacokinetic profiles of controlled-release hydrogel polymer vaginal inserts containing misoprostol.  

PubMed

Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue, is commonly administered intravaginally for cervical ripening and induction of labor. There is uncertainty regarding the correct dose because of the need to divide the tablets, and there is difficulty in removing the product when there is an adverse event. A proprietary hydrogel polymer containing a removable controlled-release reservoir dose of misoprostol is being developed for vaginal administration (misoprostol vaginal insert) to address these drawbacks while maintaining efficacy. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic profiles of these vaginal inserts and orally administered misoprostol. Twelve nonpregnant women received 100-, 200-, and 400-microg misoprostol vaginal inserts and separately received an oral dose of 200 microg of misoprostol. Values for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, from time 0 to the last measurable concentration, were dose proportional with 481, 1026, and 2191 pg.h/mL for the 100-, 200-, and 400-microg misoprostol vaginal inserts, respectively. Maximum plasma concentrations were 33.1, 73.4, and 144 pg/mL for the 100-, 200-, and 400-microg misoprostol vaginal inserts, compared with 609 pg/mL for the 200 microg of oral misoprostol. After administration of the insert, plasma misoprostol acid levels increased gradually with time of the maximum measured plasma concentration at 5 to 9 hours. Following removal of the insert, misoprostol acid was eliminated rapidly from the systemic circulation with a mean half-life <1 hour. PMID:18071191

Powers, Barbara L; Wing, Deborah A; Carr, Denis; Ewert, Karine; Di Spirito, Mike

2008-01-01

116

Typed closure conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closure conversion is a program transformation used by compilers to separate code from data. Previous accounts of closure conversion use only untyped target languages. Recent studies show that translating to tgped target languages is a useful methodology for building compders, because a compder can use the types to implement efficient data representations, calling conventions, and tag-free garbage collection. Furthermore, type-based

Yasuhiko Minamidet; Greg Morrisett; Robert Harper

1996-01-01

117

Vaginitis  

MedlinePLUS

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118

Vaginitis  

MedlinePLUS

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119

Women's interest in vaginal microbicides.  

PubMed

Research is underway to develop safe, effective microbicides that women can use vaginally to prevent sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission. To estimate potential interest in microbicide use, interviews were conducted in 1998 with a nationally representative sample of 1000 sexually active US women 18-44 years of age. 20% of these women had either had an STD in the past or thought they might be infected. 93% of respondents indicated they would be interested in using a vaginal microbicide if they found themselves in a situation where they were at risk of STD transmission and 40% expressed current interest in such a product. Women who were not in a union were almost 3 times as likely as cohabiting women and 12 times as likely as married women to be both worried about contracting an STD and very interested in using a vaginal microbicide. Women who were 25-34 years of age, had a family income under US$20,000, did not have a college education, and were Black or Hispanic also were significantly more likely to express worry about their STD risk and interest in the product. The strongest independent predictor of whether a woman was worried about STDs and very interested in using a microbicide was whether she and her partner were already using condoms for STD prevention (odds ratio, 8.8). Two-thirds of respondents preferred a product that could be applied several hours before intercourse and was available without a prescription. 84% said they would use microbicide along with condoms rather than as a substitute for them. The findings of this survey suggest an estimated 12.6 million US women 15-44 years of age would be interested in current use of a microbicide. More than 7 million of these women would remain interested even if the product protected only against HIV, was just 70-80% effective, and cost $2 per application. Given this level of interest, the development, testing, and marketing of such products should be expedited. PMID:10029928

Darroch, J E; Frost, J J

1999-01-01

120

Vaginal Community Diversity p.1 of 34 11/12/03 Characterization of vaginal microbial communities in adult healthy women  

E-print Network

Vaginal Community Diversity p.1 of 34 11/12/03 Characterization of vaginal microbial communities;Vaginal Community Diversity p.2 of 34 11/12/03 Summary20 The normal microbial flora of the vagina plays to phylogenetic analyses. The diversity and kinds of organisms that comprise the vaginal microbial community

Forney, Larry J.

121

Angiomyofibroblastoma of the Vaginal Portion  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Angiomyofibroblastoma is a tumor which is consists of two components: blood vessels and stromal cells, with always prominent vascular component. Angiomyofibroblastoma is benign tumor, but in literature is reported a case of recurrence and one case with sarcomatous transformation, which shoved that these tumors may rarely be associated with malignant component. Case report: A 78-year-old multiparous housewife was hospitalized at University Clinical Center because of painless, asymptomatic tumor of vaginal portion (posterior side). Tumor size was 7 millimeters in diameter. Internal genital organs did not present abnormalities. The patient underwent operative removal of the tumor and went to home at some day. At the histological examination the tumor presented as a angiomyofibroblastoma cervices uteri. PMID:25648716

Fatusic, Jasenko; Hudic, Igor; Fatusic, Zlatan; Mustedanagic-Mujanovic, Jasminka

2014-01-01

122

Clinical evaluation of econazole nitrate in 1% vaginal cream for treatment of vaginal candidosis.  

PubMed

30 patients with mycologically confirmed vaginal candidosis on culture were treated with econazole vaginal cream (Gyno-Pevaryl) applied intravaginally once a day for 2 wk. 8 days after the end of treatment, mycological and clinical cures were demonstrated in 26 patients. Symptoms generally subsided rapidly, and the drug was well tolerated. This study confirms the efficacy of econazole in the treatment of vaginal candidosis. PMID:264069

Schuerwegh, W

1978-02-01

123

Persistence of miconazole in vaginal secretions after single applications. Implications for the treatment of vaginal candidosis.  

PubMed Central

In vaginal secretions from 16 healthy women aged between 20 and 27 years miconazole persisted in biodetectable concentrations for at least 48 hours after insertion of a single miconazole vaginal pessary. This finding casts doubt on cure rates in vaginal candidosis determined soon after the end of treatment and suggests that current treatment courses with imidazole antifungal agents may be longer than their nominal three or five days. PMID:7326555

Odds, F C; MacDonald, F

1981-01-01

124

Vaginal secretion levels after 6 days, 3 days and 1 day of treatment with 100, 200 and 500 mg vaginal tablets of clotrimazole and their therapeutic efficacy.  

PubMed

Patients with a mycologically confirmed vaginal mycosis were treated either with one 100-mg vaginal ovule of clotrimazole each for 6 days, or with one 200-mg vaginal ovule of clotrimazole each for 3 days, or with one 500-mg vaginal ovule of clotrimazole for 1 day, the ovule having been supplied in a novel, acid formulation. 24, 48 and 72 h after the last dose, samples of secretion were taken from the fornix vaginae. The intravaginal secretion levels were determined semiquantitatively on the basis of the measured inhibition zones obtained with Candida albicans growth on agar plates, and the levels obtained with the different treatment regimens were compared. The vaginal secretion levels after a single 500-mg dose of the new formulation were higher, even after 3 days, than those measured in the 6-day treatment, while administration of 200 mg clotrimazole on 3 days resulted in no increase of the secretion levels over those seen in 6-day treatment with 100 mg. PMID:7160240

Mendling, W; Plempel, M

1982-01-01

125

Aerosol Mass Closure Based On Particle Size Distribution and Aerosol Size Segregated Chemistry Measurements At Mte Cimone (i) (minatroc Project)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MINATROC project is aimed at quantifying the impact of mineral dust on tro- pospheric photochemical cycles and the specific direct effect of secondary aerosol in the presence of mineral dust. This requires a full knowledge of the aerosol physical and chemical properties. During the first MINATROC field experiment (01/06/00- 04/07/00, Mte Cimone, 4411'N, 1042'E, 2165 a.s.l.), a full physical and chemical characterization was performed. A differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) and an optical particle counter (OPC) were used to monitor the aerosol size distribution in the particle diameter range 6nm - 10 µm. Size segregated aerosol mass distribu- tion and chemical composition were determined from 12hr-integrated 5-stage Berner impactor samples. Gravimetric measurements in dry conditions (RH<20%), ion chro- matography, and a multi-step flash heating thermal method were used to determine aerosol mass, ionic and carbonaceous contents, respectively. Size-segregated aerosol dust content was estimated based on non sea salt calcium concentrations. Sub-micron aerosol ionic composition was also continuously measured using a sampling artifact free wet aerosol denuder - steam jet aerosol collector (WAD-SJAC) combination. The comparison between ammonium nitrate concentrations calculated from the impactor and WAD-SJAC measurements indicate that no significant loss of semi-volatile partic- ulate matter occurred in the impactor. Uncertainties associated with the various mea- surements were assessed. Aerosol mass concentrations derived from chemical analy- sis, and gravimetric and size distribution measurements generally agreed within ex- perimental uncertainties. This indicates that we were able to accurately describe the aerosol chemical composition. The period during which desert dust was observed will be particularly discussed. Variations in the aerosol chemical composition according to various air mass circulation patterns will also be compared to variations in ozone concentrations.

Putaud, J. P.; van Dingenen, R.; Raes, F.; Facchini, M. C.; Fuzzi, S.; Matta, E.; Decesari, S.

126

Functional vaginal rejuvenation with elastic silicone threads: A 4-year experience with 180 patients.  

PubMed

Abstract Recently, there has been growing interest in female genital plastic surgery. To the authors' knowledge, no studies have adopted elastic silicone thread for vaginal rejuvenation. This study introduces clinical experience over 4 years with vaginal rejuvenation using elastic silicone thread to specifically assess the overall patient satisfaction (sexual function and correction of the vaginal width). It is hypothesised that this novel surgical method can improve sexual function. Between 2007-2011, 180 patients underwent vaginal rejuvenation using elastic silicone thread performed by the authors at a single institution. Patients with persistent feeling of a wide vagina and/or a decreased ability to reach orgasm were included. Patients were excluded from the study if they were unavailable for follow-up, or if they had been diagnosed with any gynecologic diseases. To measure the 15 degree of improvement with regard to sexual function, this study adopted the validated system; Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). 92.8% (167/180) of the patients were satisfied with outcome with regard to feelings of correction of vaginal width. Vaginal rejuvenation using elastic silicone thread significantly improved postoperative outcomes, resulting in improved sexual function, with a focus on improving the FSFI score. This is especially prominent in FSFI orgasm subscore. However, a prospective multicentre study would be beneficial to provide patients with the best possible management. PMID:25141944

Park, Tae Hwan; Park, Hye June; Whang, Kwi Whan

2015-02-01

127

Primary Closure of the Skin after Stoma Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims: Whether or not the skin can be closed primarily after stoma closure is still debated in the existing literature. Therefore, this present study was undertaken to compare the complications and consequences between primary or delayed closure of the skin after stoma closure. Patients and Methods: All consecutive stoma closures between January 2001 and August 2004 were included.

N. Vermulst; J. Vermeulen; E. J. Hazebroek; P. P. L. O. Coene; E. van der Harst

2006-01-01

128

Attribute Closure . Calculating attribute closure is a more efficient  

E-print Network

1 19 Attribute Closure . Calculating attribute closure is a more efficient way of checking entailment . The attribute closure of a set of attributes, X, with respect to a set of functional the same as X + F2 if F1 ¹ F2 . Attribute closure and entailment: -- Given a set of FDs, F, then X ® Y

Liu, Yanhong Annie

129

Combining Closure Conversion with Closure Analysis using Algebraic Types  

E-print Network

Combining Closure Conversion with Closure Analysis using Algebraic Types Andrew Tolmach \\Lambda 2, 1997 Abstract We have developed a new approach to typed closure conversion of higher­order monomorphic languages which also provides a useful uniform framework for closure analysis and subsequent

Tolmach, Andrew

130

Vaginal disease. Venereal and nonvenereal types.  

PubMed

Vaginal diseases are, in many cases, sexually transmitted. However, most can also be non-venereal and can occur in any age-group. Special care should be taken in examining and treating young females with vaginal disease, and the possibility of sexual abuse should be considered in this age-group. Finally, special attention should be paid to girls and women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero, as these patients have an increased risk of anatomic and reproductive anomalies. PMID:6601795

Novotny, T

1983-05-01

131

Definition and classification of abnormal vaginal flora.  

PubMed

Studying the vaginal microflora is not only fascinating, with many discoveries to be made, it is also a very practical way to help women get rid of bothersome and sometimes dangerous infections. Gram-stained vaginal preparations, Pap smears, specific cultures, and nucleic acid detection techniques can be used to diagnose the constituents of the vaginal flora, but in trained hands office-based microscopy of a fresh vaginal smear, preferably using a x400 magnification phase-contrast microscope, allows almost every diagnosis and combination of diagnoses imaginable. In this chapter I will address the pros and cons of the tools that are in use to study vaginal flora, and discuss the different types of bacterial flora and the difficulties encountered in reaching the correct diagnosis of pathological conditions. The 'intermediate flora' is addressed separately, and a new entity--'aerobic vaginitis'--is discussed. Future research should focus on the interaction between infecting microorganisms and host defence mechanisms, as both together generate the pathogenicity of these conditions. PMID:17434799

Donders, Gilbert G G

2007-06-01

132

Typed Closure Conversion Yasuhiko Minamide  

E-print Network

Typed Closure Conversion Yasuhiko Minamide Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences Kyoto of closure conversion for simply-typed and polymorphic -calculi. Unlike most ac- counts of closure conversion- free garbage collection, and it facilitates correctness proofs. Our account of closure conversion

Harper, Robert

133

CLOSURE OPERATORS WITH PRESCRIBED PROPERTIES  

E-print Network

CLOSURE OPERATORS WITH PRESCRIBED PROPERTIES J¨ urgen Koslowski ABSTRACT: The notion of closure on the underlying factorization structure are given, which allow the construction of closure operators satisfying a variety of extra conditions. KEY WORDS: closure operator, factorization structure, separated object, sheaf

Koslowski, Jürgen

134

Complications of colostomy closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 126 colostomy closures was analyzed to evaluate factors contributing to morbidity. There were no deaths, but there\\u000a was a 33 percent complication rate. Patients with penetrating abdominal trauma and foreign-body rectal perforations had fewer\\u000a serious complications following colostomy closures than patients with diverticulitis or cancer. No significant difference\\u000a was found in the anastomotic leak rate, length of

Donna M. Pittman; Lee E. Smith

1985-01-01

135

A Side by Side Comparison of Filter-Based PM(sub 2.5) Measurements at a Suburban Site: A Closure Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliable determination of the effects of air quality on public health and the environment requires accurate measurement of PM(sub 2.5) mass and the individual chemical components of fine aerosols. This study seeks to evaluate PM(sub 2.5) measurements that are part of a newly established national network by comparing them with a more conventional sampling system. Experiments were carried out during 2002 at a suburban site in Maryland, United States, where two samplers from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Speciation Trends Network: Met One Speciation Air Sampling System STNS and Thermo Scientific Reference Ambient Air Sampler STNR, two Desert Research Institute Sequential Filter Samplers DRIF, and a continuous TEOM monitor (Thermo Scientific Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance) were sampling air in parallel. These monitors differ not only in sampling configuration but also in protocol-specific sample analysis procedures. Measurements of PM(sub 2.5) mass and major contributing species were well correlated among the different methods with r-values > 0.8. Despite the good correlations, daily concentrations of PM(sub 2.5) mass and major contributing species were significantly different at the 95% confidence level from 5 to 100% of the time. Larger values of PM(sub 2.5) mass and individual species were generally reported from STNR and STNS. The January STNR average PM(sub 2.5) mass (8.8 (micro)g/per cubic meter) was 1.5 (micro)g/per cubic meter larger than the DRIF average mass. The July STNS average PM(sub 2.5) mass (27.8 (micro)g/per cubic meter) was 3.8 (micro)g/per cubic meter larger than the DRIF average mass. These differences can only be partially accounted for by known random errors. Variations in flow control, face velocity, and sampling artifacts likely influence the measurement of PM(sub 2.5) speciation and mass closure. Simple statistical tests indicate that the current uncertainty estimates used in the STN network may underestimate the actual uncertainty.

Haines, Jennifer C.; Chen, Lung-Wen A.; Taubman, Brett F.; Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.

2007-01-01

136

Vaginal repair of neobladder-vaginal fistula: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Neobladder substitution after radical cystectomy for invasive cancer has become commonplace as it preserves normal volitional voiding through the native urethra and avoids urinary diversion. Neobladder-vaginal fistula (NVF) is a rare postoperative complication of this procedure that results in decreased quality of life. We describe a case of vaginal repair of a NVF and present a review of the literature. PMID:22237787

Gelber, Katherine; Bohrer, Justin; Kim, Charles O; Minaglia, Steven

2013-01-01

137

Moment Closures in One To connect theory of kinetic fluidmoment closures to statistical closure theories, the  

E-print Network

Chapter 2 Moment Closures in One Dimension To connect theory of kinetic fluid­moment closures to statistical closure theories, the main results of this chapter will be explained in terms of the stochastic to the linearized Vlasov equation. Several common statistical closures are reviewed here, including simple

Hammett, Greg

138

Semaphorin 4D induces vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis to control mouse postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling.  

PubMed

The opening of the mouse vaginal cavity to the skin is a postnatal tissue remodeling process that occurs at approximately five weeks of age for the completion of female genital tract maturation at puberty. The tissue remodeling process is primarily composed of a hormonally triggered apoptotic process predominantly occurring in the epithelium of the distal section of the vaginal cavity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the apoptotic induction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was observed that the majority of BALB/c mice lacking the class 4 semaphorin, semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), developed imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos resulting in a perpetually unopened vaginal cavity regardless of a normal estrogen level comparable with that in wild?type (WT) mice. Administration of ??estradiol to infant Sema4D?deficient (Sema4D?/?) mice did not induce precocious vaginal opening, which was observed in WT mice subjected to the same ??estradiol administration, excluding the possibility that the closed vaginal phenotype was due to insufficient estrogen secretion at the time of vaginal opening. In order to assess the role of Sema4D in the postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling process, the expression of Sema4D and its receptor, plexin?B1, was examined as well as the level of apoptosis in the vaginal epithelia of five?week?old WT and Sema4D?/? mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the localization of Sema4D and plexin?B1 in the mouse vaginal epithelia. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry detecting activated caspase?3 revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in situ in the vaginal mucosa of five?week?old Sema4D?/? mice compared with WT mice. The addition of recombinant Sema4D to Sema4D?/? vaginal epithelial cells in culture significantly enhanced apoptosis of the vaginal epithelial cells, demonstrating the apoptosis?inducing activity of Sema4D. The experimental reduction of plexin?B1 expression in vaginal epithelial cells demonstrated the integral role of plexin?B1 in Sema4D?induced apoptotic cell death. These results suggest a non?redundant role of Sema4D in the postnatal tissue remodeling process in five?week?old BALB/c mice, which involves the induction of vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis through Sema4D binding to plexin?B1. PMID:25351707

Ito, Takuji; Bai, Tao; Tanaka, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Kenji; Ueyama, Takashi; Miyajima, Masayasu; Negishi, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Takamatsu, Hyota; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Yukawa, Kazunori

2015-02-01

139

Semaphorin 4D induces vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis to control mouse postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling  

PubMed Central

The opening of the mouse vaginal cavity to the skin is a postnatal tissue remodeling process that occurs at approximately five weeks of age for the completion of female genital tract maturation at puberty. The tissue remodeling process is primarily composed of a hormonally triggered apoptotic process predominantly occurring in the epithelium of the distal section of the vaginal cavity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the apoptotic induction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was observed that the majority of BALB/c mice lacking the class 4 semaphorin, semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), developed imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos resulting in a perpetually unopened vaginal cavity regardless of a normal estrogen level comparable with that in wild-type (WT) mice. Administration of ?-estradiol to infant Sema4D-deficient (Sema4D?/?) mice did not induce precocious vaginal opening, which was observed in WT mice subjected to the same ?-estradiol administration, excluding the possibility that the closed vaginal phenotype was due to insufficient estrogen secretion at the time of vaginal opening. In order to assess the role of Sema4D in the postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling process, the expression of Sema4D and its receptor, plexin-B1, was examined as well as the level of apoptosis in the vaginal epithelia of five-week-old WT and Sema4D?/? mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the localization of Sema4D and plexin-B1 in the mouse vaginal epithelia. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry detecting activated caspase-3 revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in situ in the vaginal mucosa of five-week-old Sema4D?/? mice compared with WT mice. The addition of recombinant Sema4D to Sema4D?/? vaginal epithelial cells in culture significantly enhanced apoptosis of the vaginal epithelial cells, demonstrating the apoptosis-inducing activity of Sema4D. The experimental reduction of plexin-B1 expression in vaginal epithelial cells demonstrated the integral role of plexin-B1 in Sema4D-induced apoptotic cell death. These results suggest a non-redundant role of Sema4D in the postnatal tissue remodeling process in five-week-old BALB/c mice, which involves the induction of vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis through Sema4D binding to plexin-B1. PMID:25351707

ITO, TAKUJI; BAI, TAO; TANAKA, TETSUJI; YOSHIDA, KENJI; UEYAMA, TAKASHI; MIYAJIMA, MASAYASU; NEGISHI, TAKAYUKI; KAWASAKI, TAKAHIKO; TAKAMATSU, HYOTA; KIKUTANI, HITOSHI; KUMANOGOH, ATSUSHI; YUKAWA, KAZUNORI

2015-01-01

140

A CLOSURE STUDY OF AEROSOL MASS CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS: COMPARISON OF VALUES OBTAINED WITH FILTERS AND BY DIRECT MEASUREMENTS OF MASS DISTRIBUTIONS. (R826372)  

EPA Science Inventory

We compare measurements of aerosol mass concentrations obtained gravimetrically using Teflon coated glass fiber filters and by integrating mass distributions measured with the differential mobility analyzer–aerosol particle mass analyzer (DMA–APM) technique (Aero...

141

Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and HR-ToF-AMS measurements at a coastal site in Hong Kong: size-resolved CCN activity and closure analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties of atmospheric aerosols were measured on 1-30 May 2011 at a coastal site in Hong Kong. Size-resolved CCN activation curves, the ratio of number concentration of CCN (NCCN) to aerosol concentration (NCN) as a function of particle size, were obtained at supersaturation (SS) = 0.15%, 0.35%, 0.50%, and 0.70% using a DMT CCN counter (CCNc) and a TSI scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The mean bulk size-integrated NCCN ranged from ∼500 cm-3 at SS = 0.15% to ∼2100 cm-3 at SS = 0.70%, and the mean bulk NCCN / NCN ratio ranged from 0.16 at SS = 0.15% to 0.65 at SS = 0.70%. The average critical mobility diameters (D50) at SS = 0.15%, 0.35%, 0.50%, and 0.70% were 116 nm, 67 nm, 56 nm, and 46 nm, respectively. The corresponding average hygroscopic parameters (?CCN) were 0.39, 0.36, 0.31, and 0.28. The decrease in ?CCN can be attributed to the increase in organic to inorganic volume ratio as particle size decreases, as measured by an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The ?CCN correlates reasonably well with ?AMS based on size-resolved AMS measurements: ?AMS = ?org × forg + ?inorg × finorg, where forg and finorg are the organic and inorganic volume fractions, respectively, ?org = 0.1 and ?inorg = 0.6, with a R2 of 0.51. In closure analysis, NCCN was estimated by integrating the measured size-resolved NCN for particles larger than D50 derived from ? assuming internal mixing state. Estimates using ?AMS from size-resolved AMS measurements show that the measured and predicted NCCN were generally within 10% of each other at all four SS. The deviation increased to 26% when ?AMS was calculated from bulk PM1 AMS measurements of particles because PM1 was dominated by particles of 200 nm to 500 nm in diameter, which had a larger inorganic fraction than those of D50 (particle diameter < 200 nm). A constant ? = 0.33 (the average value of size-resolved ?AMS over the course of campaign) was found to give an NCCN prediction within 12% of the actual measured values. We also compared NCCN estimates based on the measured average D50 and the average size-resolved CCN activation ratio to examine the relative importance of hygroscopicity and mixing state. NCCN was found to be relatively more sensitive to the mixing state and hygroscopicity at a high SS = 0.70% and a low SS = 0.15%, respectively.

Meng, J. W.; Yeung, M. C.; Li, Y. J.; Lee, B. Y. L.; Chan, C. K.

2014-04-01

142

Comparison of vaginal flora after treatment with a clotrimazole 500 mg vaginal pessary or a fluconazole 150 mg capsule for vaginal candidosis.  

PubMed Central

The effect of antifungal therapy on the vaginal microbial flora was studied in 23 patients suffering from culture-positive, symptomatic vaginal candidosis. They were randomly allocated to receive either a 500 mg clotrimazole vaginal pessary or a 150 mg fluconazole capsule. Quantitative microbiological examination was carried out on samples of vaginal secretions obtained prior, and at intervals up to 10 days after, treatment. No significant difference was found in the vaginal flora before or after therapy in individual patients or between the treatment groups. In patients with C glabrata or C krusei, the yeasts persisted longer in the vagina with poorer response to either of the medications. PMID:2071126

Boag, F C; Houang, E T; Westrom, R; McCormack, S M; Lawrence, A G

1991-01-01

143

A comprehensive review of vaginitis phytotherapy.  

PubMed

To overview phytotherapy of vaginitis in order to identify new approaches for new pharmacological treatments. All related literature databases were searched for herbal medicinal treatment in vaginitis. The search terms were plant, herb, herbal therapy, phytotherapy, vaginitis, vaginal, anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas. All of the human, animal and in vitro studies were included. Anti-candida, anti-bacterial and anti-trichomonas effects were the key outcomes. The plants including carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, menthol, terpinen-4-ol and thymol exhibited anti-candida effects. A very low concentration of geranium oil and geraniol blocked mycelial growth, but not yeast. Tea tree oil including terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpineol showed anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-protozoal properties against trichomonas. Allium hirtifolium (persian shallot) comparable to metronidazole exhibited anti-trichomonas activity due to its components such as allicin, ajoene and other organosulfides. The plants having beneficial effects on vaginitis encompass essential oils that clear the pathway that future studies should be focused to standardize theses herbs. PMID:22514885

Azimi, Hanieh; Fallah-Tafti, Mehrnaz; Karimi-Darmiyan, Maliheh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2011-11-01

144

Effect of Vaginal Lubricants on Natural Fertility  

PubMed Central

Objective Over-the-counter vaginal lubricants have been shown to negatively affect in vitro sperm motility. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of vaginal lubricant use during procreative intercourse on natural fertility. Methods Women aged 30–44 years with no history of infertility who had been trying to conceive for less than 3 months completed a baseline questionnaire on vaginal lubricant use. Subsequently, women kept a diary to record menstrual bleeding, intercourse, and vaginal lubricant use and conducted standardized pregnancy testing for up to 6 months. Diary data were used to determine the fertile window and delineate lubricant use during the fertile window. A proportional hazards model was used to estimate fecundability ratios with any lubricant use in the fertile window considered as a time-varying exposure. Results Of the 296 participants, 75 (25%) stated in their baseline questionnaire that they use vaginal lubricants while attempting to conceive. Based on daily diary data, 57% of women never used a lubricant, 29% occasionally used a lubricant, and 14% used a lubricant frequently. Women who used lubricants during the fertile window had similar fecundability to those women who did not use lubricants (fecundability ratio 1.05, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.85) after adjusting for age, partner race, and intercourse frequency in the fertile window. Conclusion Lubricants are commonly used by couples during procreative intercourse. Lubricant use during procreative intercourse does not appear to reduce the probability of conceiving. PMID:22914390

Steiner, Anne Z.; Long, D. Leann; Tanner, Catherine; Herring, Amy H.

2012-01-01

145

Evaluation of Rapidly Disintegrating Vaginal Tablets of Tenofovir, Emtricitabine and Their Combination for HIV-1 Prevention  

PubMed Central

Vaginal tablets are being developed as an alternative to gels as an inexpensive, discreet dosage form for the administration of microbicides. This work describes the pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluation of rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets containing tenofovir (TFV, 10 mg), emtricitabine (FTC, 10 mg), and the combination of TFV and FTC (10 mg each) under in vitro and in vivo conditions, and in direct comparison to the clinical TFV 1% gel, a microbicide product in Phase III clinical testing. The PK of TFV and FTC from tablets were also evaluated in female rabbits following intravaginal administration. Direct comparison of a single dose of TFV tablets (intact or predissolved at 10 mg/mL) and TFV 1% gel showed no differences in the vaginal PK of TFV between groups; however systemic bioavailability of TFV was significantly higher from the gel. When rabbits were dosed either once or daily for seven days with intact tablets of TFV, FTC, or the combination of TFV/FTC, vaginal and systemic concentrations of TFV and FTC were unaffected by co-formulation. Moreover, plasma PK parameters were similar following a single dose or seven once-daily doses. Tissue concentrations of TFV and FTC in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration ranged between 104 and 105 ng/g. Concentrations of TFV-diphospate (TFV-DP, the active metabolite) were also high (over 103 ng/g or about 3000 to 6000 fmol/mg) in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration and similar to those measured following administration of TFV 1% gel. These data demonstrate that rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets may be a suitable topical microbicide dosage form providing similar vaginal TFV PK to that of TFV 1% gel. The data also support co-administration of FTC with TFV in a single vaginal tablet to create a combination microbicide in a simple and inexpensive dosage form. PMID:25494201

Clark, Meredith R.; Peet, M. Melissa; Davis, Sarah; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Friend, David R.

2014-01-01

146

Evaluation of Rapidly Disintegrating Vaginal Tablets of Tenofovir, Emtricitabine and Their Combination for HIV-1 Prevention.  

PubMed

Vaginal tablets are being developed as an alternative to gels as an inexpensive, discreet dosage form for the administration of microbicides. This work describes the pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluation of rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets containing tenofovir (TFV, 10 mg), emtricitabine (FTC, 10 mg), and the combination of TFV and FTC (10 mg each) under in vitro and in vivo conditions, and in direct comparison to the clinical TFV 1% gel, a microbicide product in Phase III clinical testing. The PK of TFV and FTC from tablets were also evaluated in female rabbits following intravaginal administration. Direct comparison of a single dose of TFV tablets (intact or predissolved at 10 mg/mL) and TFV 1% gel showed no differences in the vaginal PK of TFV between groups; however systemic bioavailability of TFV was significantly higher from the gel. When rabbits were dosed either once or daily for seven days with intact tablets of TFV, FTC, or the combination of TFV/FTC, vaginal and systemic concentrations of TFV and FTC were unaffected by co-formulation. Moreover, plasma PK parameters were similar following a single dose or seven once-daily doses. Tissue concentrations of TFV and FTC in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration ranged between 104 and 105 ng/g. Concentrations of TFV-diphospate (TFV-DP, the active metabolite) were also high (over 103 ng/g or about 3000 to 6000 fmol/mg) in the cranial vagina 4 h after administration and similar to those measured following administration of TFV 1% gel. These data demonstrate that rapidly disintegrating vaginal tablets may be a suitable topical microbicide dosage form providing similar vaginal TFV PK to that of TFV 1% gel. The data also support co-administration of FTC with TFV in a single vaginal tablet to create a combination microbicide in a simple and inexpensive dosage form. PMID:25494201

Clark, Meredith R; Peet, M Melissa; Davis, Sarah; Doncel, Gustavo F; Friend, David R

2014-01-01

147

Outcomes following vaginal Prolapse repair and mid Urethral Sling (OPUS) trial  

PubMed Central

Background Many women without preexisting stress urinary incontinence (SUI) who undergo vaginal surgery to correct pelvic organ prolapse will develop symptoms of SUI. A concomitant prophylactic anti-incontinence procedure may prevent SUI symptom development in women undergoing vaginal prolapse surgery. Purpose To present the rationale, design and methodology of a randomized controlled surgical trial (RCT), the Outcomes Following Vaginal Prolapse Repair and Mid Urethral Sling (OPUS) Trial. The primary aims of this RCT are to determine (1) whether the prevalence of post-operative urinary incontinence (UI) differs between stress continent women receiving vaginal prolapse repair with concomitant tension-free vaginal tape (TVT®; a sling procedure commonly used to treat SUI) and those with only sham incisions at 3 months post surgery (2) whether it is more cost-effective to place a TVT prophylactically than to treat the SUI symptoms postoperatively as they occur over a 12 month period after the index surgery.. The study also incorporates a patient preference trial (PPT). Methods Primary outcome, defined as signs (positive cough stress test), symptoms (per validated questionnaire) and/or need for treatment of SUI and its associated cost, at 3 and 12 months post-operatively. Secondary outcomes consist of group differences in lower urinary tract and prolapse symptoms, health related quality of life, measures of vaginal anatomy, and surgical complications. Limitations Given the invasive nature of surgical intervention trials, some individuals may be reluctant to agree with random assignment, potentially impacting result generalizability. To evaluate the magnitude and direction of non-participation bias, the PPT will enroll a sample of those who decline participation in the RCT but are otherwise eligible. Conclusion This sham-controlled RCT will provide important information for patients and surgeons regarding both the short- and long-term optimal treatment approach for stress continent women undergoing a vaginal surgery for prolapse. Non-participation bias will be estimated. PMID:19342469

Wei, John T.; Nygaard, Ingrid; Richter, Holly E.; Brown, Morton B; Barber, Matthew D.; Xu, Xiao; Kenton, Kim; Nager, Charles W.; Schaffer, Joseph; Visco, Anthony; Weber, Anne

2010-01-01

148

Vaginal pH: Home-Use Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Hepatitis C Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Menopause Fecal Occult Blood Ovulation (Saliva Test) Ovulation (Urine Test) Pregnancy Prothrombin Vaginal pH Vaginal pH What does this test do? This ...

149

Necrotizing ruptured vaginal leiomyoma mimicking a malignant neoplasm  

PubMed Central

Leiomyomas are common benign uterine tumors. However, the incidence of vaginal myoma is very rare and may be confused with a variety of vaginal tumors. We report a case of 43-year-old nulligravida who presented with a protruding painful vaginal mass for 7 days. The mass had initially appeared 3 years prior, as 2 to 3 cm that had not subsequently increased. However suddenly, there was rapid severe enlargement over the course of 7 days. Physical exam revealed a monstrous shaped, black color with focal necrosis, odorous protruding vaginal mass about 7 cm in size. The vaginal mass was infected and degenerated. And vaginal wall was also destroyed by the enlarged mass. Because of the clinical features and radiologic findings, the preoperative diagnosis was a vaginal malignancy. We reported an extremely rare case of vaginal myoma that had several characteristics of malignancy, with a brief review of the literature. PMID:25469351

Sim, Chae Hee; Lee, Jin Hee; Kwak, Jyung Sik

2014-01-01

150

Vaginal bleeding and early pregnancy outcome in an infertile population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to determine the prognostic value of vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy outcome as well as to analyze the role of cardiac activity in predicting pregnancy viability in the presence of vaginal bleeding.

Zoetania N. Dantas; Anita P. Singh; Panagiotis Karachalios; Ricardo H. Asch; Jose P. Balmaceda; Sergio C. Stone

1996-01-01

151

6. Launch closure, close up of closure motor, view towards ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Launch closure, close up of closure motor, view towards north - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

152

Retained uterine fundus after vaginal hysterectomy.  

PubMed

We report a case of retained uterine fundus after vaginal hysterectomy that was subsequently removed at laparoscopy. The patient had undergone vaginal hysterectomy 8 years previously and came to our hospital with abdominal pain. Examination revealed a supravesical mass. Laparoscopy was performed and showed the uterine fundus with its cornual attachments. The mass was excised and sent for histopathologic analysis, which confirmed that it was uterine tissue. Retained uterine tissue or myoma tissue has been reported, usually after morcellation. However, to our knowledge, our case is only the second reported case of retained fundus after complete vaginal hysterectomy. Because of adhesions, it is possible that the uterus was not completely removed. In such cases, laparoscopic assistance is extremely useful. PMID:20129338

Sinha, Rakesh; Lakhotia, Smita; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Manaktala, Gayatri; Shah, Parul; Mahajan, Chaitali

2010-01-01

153

Intermittent local prophylaxis against recurrent vaginal candidosis.  

PubMed Central

Women with recurrent vaginal candidosis were treated until the infection cleared and were then given one clotrimazole 500 mg vaginal tablet a month or an identical placebo as prophylaxis. Of 21 women who received placebo, 16 developed symptoms or signs within three months, compared with nine of 17 women given active treatment. Women who relapsed were treated and then given active prophylaxis once a month. Of 30 women given such treatment, 13 relapsed within three months. Women who relapsed were treated and then given two clotrimazole 500 mg vaginal tablets a month. Of 17 women given prophylaxis twice a month, four developed symptoms or signs within three months, but 10 remained clear for 12 months. No appreciable difference was seen in the incidence of mycological recurrence between the different regimens; within three months over half the women in all treatment groups had become recolonised. PMID:3060424

Bushell, T E; Evans, E G; Meaden, J D; Milne, J D; Warnock, D W

1988-01-01

154

Intermittent local prophylaxis against recurrent vaginal candidosis.  

PubMed

Women with recurrent vaginal candidosis were treated until the infection cleared and were then given one clotrimazole 500 mg vaginal tablet a month or an identical placebo as prophylaxis. Of 21 women who received placebo, 16 developed symptoms or signs within three months, compared with nine of 17 women given active treatment. Women who relapsed were treated and then given active prophylaxis once a month. Of 30 women given such treatment, 13 relapsed within three months. Women who relapsed were treated and then given two clotrimazole 500 mg vaginal tablets a month. Of 17 women given prophylaxis twice a month, four developed symptoms or signs within three months, but 10 remained clear for 12 months. No appreciable difference was seen in the incidence of mycological recurrence between the different regimens; within three months over half the women in all treatment groups had become recolonised. PMID:3060424

Bushell, T E; Evans, E G; Meaden, J D; Milne, J D; Warnock, D W

1988-10-01

155

Tank closure reducing grout  

SciTech Connect

A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

Caldwell, T.B.

1997-04-18

156

Group A streptococcal vaginitis: an unrecognized cause of vaginal symptoms in adult women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Vaginal infection with group A streptococci (GAS) is an established cause of vaginitis amongst prepubescent girls, but largely\\u000a unrecognized in adult women and therefore often misdiagnosed as vulvovaginal candidosis. We sought to give an overview of\\u000a the epidemiology, risk factors, symptoms, signs, and treatment of GAS vaginitis in adult women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Systematic literature search.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We identified nine case reports covering 12

Hans Verstraelen; Rita Verhelst; Mario Vaneechoutte; Marleen Temmerman

2011-01-01

157

Radiographic study of distal radial physeal closure in thoroughbred horses.  

PubMed

Monthly radiography was performed to study distal radial physeal closure in ten male and ten female Thoroughbred horses. The height, thoracic circumference and metacarpus circumference were also measured. Distal radial physeal closure time was sooner in females than males, and took 701 +/- 37 and 748 +/- 55 days respectively. PMID:9335091

Vulcano, L C; Mamprim, M J; Muniz, L M; Moreira, A F; Luna, S P

1997-01-01

158

Coping with the Grasping Uncertainties in Force-closure Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction uncertainty and contact position uncertainty may have a disastrous effect on the closure properties of grasps. This paper re- flects our approach to handling these uncertainties in force-closure analysis. The former uncertainty is measured by the possible re- duction rate ? of friction coefficients, while the radius? of contact regions is used to quantify the latter uncertainty. The actual

Wen-han Qian

2005-01-01

159

Changes in the Vaginal Microenvironment with Metronidazole Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis in Early Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with preterm delivery, but there is little evidence that treatment improves pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether oral or vaginal metronidazole treatment for BV in early pregnancy was more effective in restoring the normal vaginal environment. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial comparing oral and intravaginal metronidazole for treatment of BV in early pregnancy (<20 weeks). Vaginal samples collected at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment were evaluated using gram stain, culture, colorimetric detection of sialidase, and immunoassay for measurement of proinflammatory cytokines interleukins-1?, -6, -8 (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). We compared the effect of treatment between groups (using chi-square and t test) and within individuals (McNemar's test). Results Of 126 subjects, 108 (86%) completed follow-up (55 oral, 53 intravaginal). Of the study population, 34% achieved therapeutic cure, and this was not different between treatment groups. BV-associated bacteria were significantly reduced in both groups, but few subjects regained colonization with protective lactobacilli. Among women who achieved therapeutic cure, the level of IL-1? dropped significantly (p?vaginal treatment group had undetectable sialidase after treatment (p?=?0.013). Conclusions Treatment with oral or intravaginal metronidazole in early pregnancy reduced colonization with BV-associated bacteria but was not effective in achieving therapeutic cure or in restoring healthy vaginal lactobacilli. PMID:19951217

Balkus, Jennifer; Agnew, Kathy; Lawler, Richard; Hitti, Jane

2009-01-01

160

Clear-Sky Closure Studies of Tropospheric Aerosol and Water Vapor During ACE-2 Using Airborne Sunphotometer, Airborne In-Situ, Space-Borne, and Ground-Based Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on clear-sky column closure experiments (CLEARCOLUMN) performed in the Canary Islands during the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) in June/July 1997. We present CLEARCOLUMN results obtained by combining airborne sunphotometer and in-situ (a differential mobility analyzer, three optical particle counters, three nephelometers, and one absorption photometer) measurements taken aboard the Pelican aircraft, space-borne NOAA/AVHRR data and ground-based lidars. A wide range of aerosol types was encountered throughout the ACE-2 area, including background Atlantic marine, European pollution-derived, and (although less frequently than expected) African mineral dust. During the two days discussed here, vertical profiles flown in cloud free air masses revealed three distinctly different layers: a marine boundary layer (MBL) with varying pollution levels, an elevated dust layer, and a very clean layer between the MBL and the dust layer. Based on size-resolved composition information we have established an aerosol model that allows us to compute optical properties of the ambient aerosol using the optical particle counter results. In the dust, the agreement in layer AOD (lambda=380-1060 nm) is 3-8%. In the MBL there is a tendency for the in-situ results to be slightly lower than the sunphotometer measurements (10-17% at lambda=525 nm), but these differences are within the combined error bars of the measurements and computations. Aerosol size-distribudon closure based on in-situ size distributions and inverted sunphotometer extinction spectra has been achieved in the MBL (total surface area and volume agree within 0.2, and 7%, respectively) but not in the dust layer. The fact that the three nephelometers operated at three different relative humidities (RH) allowed to parameterize hygroscopic growth and to therefore estimate optical properties at ambient RH. The parameters derived for different aerosol types are themselves useful for the aerosol modeling community. The fact that the nephelometers and the absorption photometer sampled the aerosol through a cyclone make those measurements less useful for thee closure study carried out here. Large corrections (especially in the dust) had to be applied. Therefore, it is not surprising that closure with the sunphotometer was not always achieved. Agreement within 0.02 in AOD was achieved in the dust layer when the airorne sunphotometer extinction or AOD was compared to ground-based lidar measurements. We found that the presence of the elevated dust layers removes the good agreement between satellite and sunphotometer AOD usually found in the absence of the dust layer. We still compare the scattering phase functions used in the satellite retrieval with those obtained from the aerosol or the sunphotometer measurements.

Schmid, Beat; Collins, Donald R.; Gasso, Santiago; Oestroem, Elisabeth; Powell, Donna M.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Durkee, Philip A.; Livingston, John M.; Russell, Philip B.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Hegg, Dean A.; Noone, Kevin J.; Voss, Kenneth J.; Gordon, Howard R.; Reagan, John A.; Spinhirne, James D.

2000-01-01

161

27 CFR 26.136 - Affixing closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Affixing closures. 26.136 Section 26.136 ...PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.136 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices...

2012-04-01

162

27 CFR 26.136 - Affixing closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Affixing closures. 26.136 Section 26.136 ...PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.136 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices...

2013-04-01

163

27 CFR 27.62 - Affixing closures.  

... 2014-04-01 false Affixing closures. 27.62 Section 27.62 Alcohol...AND BEER General Requirements Closures for Containers of Distilled Spirits § 27.62 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices...

2014-04-01

164

36 CFR 13.50 - Closure procedures.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure procedures. 13.50 Section 13...ALASKA General Provisions § 13.50 Closure procedures. (a) Authority. ...area was established. (c) Emergency Closures. (1) Emergency closures or...

2014-07-01

165

40 CFR 258.60 - Closure criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Closure criteria. 258.60 Section 258.60 Protection... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.60 Closure criteria....

2012-07-01

166

27 CFR 27.62 - Affixing closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Affixing closures. 27.62 Section 27.62 Alcohol...AND BEER General Requirements Closures for Containers of Distilled Spirits § 27.62 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices...

2013-04-01

167

36 CFR 13.50 - Closure procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure procedures. 13.50 Section 13...ALASKA General Provisions § 13.50 Closure procedures. (a) Authority. ...area was established. (c) Emergency Closures. (1) Emergency closures or...

2012-07-01

168

27 CFR 27.62 - Affixing closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Affixing closures. 27.62 Section 27.62 Alcohol...AND BEER General Requirements Closures for Containers of Distilled Spirits § 27.62 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices...

2012-04-01

169

27 CFR 26.136 - Affixing closures.  

... 2014-04-01 false Affixing closures. 26.136 Section 26.136 ...PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.136 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices...

2014-04-01

170

36 CFR 13.50 - Closure procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure procedures. 13.50 Section 13...ALASKA General Provisions § 13.50 Closure procedures. (a) Authority. ...area was established. (c) Emergency Closures. (1) Emergency closures or...

2013-07-01

171

Clear-Sky Closure Studies of Lower Tropospheric Aerosol and Water Vapor During ACE-2 Using Airborne Sunphotometer, Airborne In-Situ, Space-Borne, and Ground-Based Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on clear-sky column closure experiments (CLEARCOLUMN) performed in the Canary Islands during the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) in June/July 1997. We present CLEARCOLUMN results obtained by combining airborne sunphotometer and in-situ (optical particle counter, nephelometer, and absorption photometer) measurements taken aboard the Pelican aircraft, space-borne NOAA/AVHRR data and ground-based lidar and sunphotometer measurements. During both days discussed here, vertical profiles flown in cloud-free air masses revealed 3 distinctly different layers: a marine boundary layer (MBL) with varying pollution levels, an elevated dust layer, and a very clean layer between the MBL and the dust layer. A key result of this study is the achievement of closure between extinction or layer aerosol optical depth (AOD) computed from continuous in-situ aerosol size-distributions and composition and those measured with the airborne sunphotometer. In the dust, the agreement in layer AOD (lambda = 380-1060 nm) is 3-8%. In the MBL there is a tendency for the in-situ results to be slightly lower than the sunphotometer measurements (10-17% at lambda = 525 nm), but these differences are within the combined error bars of the measurements and computations.

Schmid, Beat; Livingston, John M.; Russell, Philip B.; Durkee, Philip A.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Collins, Donald R.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean A.; Oestroem, Elisabeth; Voss, Kenneth J.; Gordon, Howard R.; Formenti, Paolo; Andreae, Meinrat O.

2000-01-01

172

Critical parameters and measurement methods for post closure monitoring: A review of the state of the art and recommendations for further studies  

SciTech Connect

Both NRC and EPA regulations require programs of post closure monitoring to detect substantial and detrimental deviations from expected performance. The unexpected in this case would involve anomalous stress changes that might rupture the canisters or changes in the hydrologic regime that might accelerate corrosion. In the event of leakage brought about by any means transport of radionuclides to the accessible environment could occur through unexpected changes in the hydrologic flow regime caused either by the long term effects of the thermal loading by the waste or by changes in regional stress or hydrology. Studies of performance confirmation have identified six parameters or conditions that should be monitored that are associated with the thermal, mechanical and hydrologic phenomena introduced by the waste heat: temperature, stress, displacement, pore pressure, groundwater velocity and permeability. Since it is the thermal load that continues to increase after decommissioning, and which continues to alter the stress field and the hydrological regime, these same six parameters remain the critical ones in post closure monitoring. At two of the repository sites fractures have been clearly shown to be critical in modelling and performance confirmation; at the tuff site fluid saturation is also a critical parameter and for all the sites estimates of the groundwater velocity through the site are very important. Changes in fracture properties, saturation and fluid flow are thus of continuing importance in post closure monitoring. 14 refs., 19 figs.

Morrison, H.F.; Majer, E.L.; Tsang, C.F.

1987-05-01

173

Efficient Transitive Closure Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed some efficient algorithms for computing the transitive closure of a directed graph. This paper presents the algorithms for the problem of reachability. The algorithms, however, can be adapted to deal with path computations and a signitkantJy broader class of queries based on onesided recursions. We analyze these algorithms and compare them to algorithms in the literature. The

Yannis E. Ioannidis; Raghu Ramakrishnan

1988-01-01

174

Panel Closure Redesign: August 2011  

E-print Network

Panel Closure Redesign: Update August 2011 Thomas Klein-URS, Regulatory and Environmental Services aspects: ·Major Design Criteria ·Research Activities ·Interim Closure ·Gas Monitoring ·Current Research changes needed to the panel closure design after initial investigations. These changes were: 1. Replace

175

SOLID CLOSURE by Melvin Hochster  

E-print Network

SOLID CLOSURE by Melvin Hochster In memory of my father, Lothar Hochster, April 20, 1906 and algebras 4. Generic forcing algebras 5. Solid closure 6. Minimal solid algebras 7. S­regular rings 8. Comparison with tight closure in characteristic p 9. A formal power series criterion 10. Shadow homology 11

Hochster, Melvin

176

Object Closure Conversion Cornell University  

E-print Network

Object Closure Conversion Neal Glew Cornell University 24 August 1999 Abstract An integral part of implementing functional languages is closure conversion--the process of converting code with free variables into closed code and auxiliary data structures. Closure conversion has been extensively studied

Glew, Neal

177

Constructing Force-Closure Grasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents fast and simple algorithms for directly constructing force-closure grasps based on the shape of the grasped object. The synthesis of force-closure grasps finds in dependent regions of contact for the fingertips, such that the motion of the grasped object is totally constrained. A force- closure grasp implies equilibrium grasps exist. In the reverse direction, we show that

Van-duc Nguyen

1988-01-01

178

COUNTER-CLOSURE Federico Luzzi  

E-print Network

COUNTER-CLOSURE Federico Luzzi The focus of this paper is the prima facie plausible view, expressed by the principle of Counter-Closure, that knowledge-yielding competent deductive inference must issue from known of response that might help retain Counter-Closure. I argue that three are problematic. Of the two remaining

Fitelson, Branden

179

Comparison of miconazole-coated tampons with clotrimazole vaginal tablets in the treatment of vaginal candidosis.  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness and acceptability of miconazole-coated tampons were compared with those clotrimazole vaginal tablets in the treatment of vaginal candidosis in 100 women. Both treatments were highly effective in reducing the signs and symptoms of infection; 95% of the group treated with miconazole had negative culture results for Candida species immediately after treatment compared with 86% of those treated with clotrimazole. A 17.6% recurrence rate of positive culture results was found four weeks later in the miconazole-treated group compared with that of 30% in the clotrimazole-treated group. The miconazole tampons were highly acceptable to patients. Vaginal pH values did not differ significantly between those patients with candidosis and those treated and cured. Corynebacterium vaginale (Gardnerella vaginalis) vaginitis and nonspecific genital infection were common complicating factors during follow up. PMID:7272707

Balsdon, M J

1981-01-01

180

Comparison of miconazole-coated tampons with clotrimazole vaginal tablets in the treatment of vaginal candidosis.  

PubMed

The effectiveness and acceptability of miconazole-coated tampons were compared with those clotrimazole vaginal tablets in the treatment of vaginal candidosis in 100 women. Both treatments were highly effective in reducing the signs and symptoms of infection; 95% of the group treated with miconazole had negative culture results for Candida species immediately after treatment compared with 86% of those treated with clotrimazole. A 17.6% recurrence rate of positive culture results was found four weeks later in the miconazole-treated group compared with that of 30% in the clotrimazole-treated group. The miconazole tampons were highly acceptable to patients. Vaginal pH values did not differ significantly between those patients with candidosis and those treated and cured. Corynebacterium vaginale (Gardnerella vaginalis) vaginitis and nonspecific genital infection were common complicating factors during follow up. PMID:7272707

Balsdon, M J

1981-08-01

181

Development and in vitro evaluation of an acid buffering bioadhesive vaginal gel for mixed vaginal infections.  

PubMed

An acid buffering bioadhesive vaginal (ABBV) gel was developed for the treatment of mixed vaginal infections. Different bioadhesive polymers were evaluated on the basis of their bioadhesive strength, stability and drug release properties. Bioadhesion and release studies showed that guar gum, xanthan gum and hydroxypropyl methylcelullose K4M formed a good combination of bioadhesive polymers to develop the ABBV gel. Monosodium citrate was used as an acid buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4). The drugs clotrimazole (antifungal) and metronidazole (antiprotozoal as well as antibacterial) were used in the formulation along with Lactobacillus spores to treat mixed vaginal infections. The ex vivo retention study showed that the bioadhesive polymers hold the gel for 12-13 hours inside the vaginal tube. Results of the in vitro antimicrobial study indicated that the ABBV gel had better antimicrobial action than the commercial intravaginal drug delivery systems and retention was prolonged in an ex vivo retention experiment. PMID:19103575

Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Alam, Mohd Aftab; Khan, Zeenat Iqbal; Khar, Roop Krishen; Ali, Mushir

2008-12-01

182

Clinical Evaluation of a Wireless Intra-Vaginal Pressure Transducer  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the development, feasibility and validity of a wireless intra-vaginal pressure transducer (IVT) which can be used to measure intra-abdominal pressure in real-world settings. Study Design A feasibility study was conducted in sixteen physically active women to determine retention and comfort of various IVT prototype designs during activity. A criterion validity study was conducted among women undergoing urodynamic testing to determine the accuracy of the IVT prototypes when compared to accepted clinical standards. Results A final prototype wireless IVT was developed after four design revisions of the second generation model. The feasibility study found that women reported the final prototype comfortable to wear and easily retained during physical activity. Intra-abdominal pressure measurements from the final prototype IVT compared favorably to standard urodynamic transducers, thus confirming evidence of its utility. Conclusion We have successfully advanced the design of a wireless, intra-vaginal pressure transducer which provides accurate measures of intra-abdominal pressure. The final wireless IVT is better tolerated by patients and overcomes limitations of traditional urodynamic testing while laying the foundations for intra-abdominal pressure monitoring outside of the clinic environment. PMID:22618208

Hsu, Yvonne; Coleman, Tanner J; Hitchcock, Robert W; Heintz, Kristina; Shaw, Janet M; Nygaard, Ingrid E

2013-01-01

183

[Damage to condoms caused by vaginally administered drug].  

PubMed

A 28-year-old woman who was treated for vaginal candidiasis with Gyno-Daktarin vaginal capsules (miconazole nitrate) became pregnant because a condom used during intercourse had ruptured. Incubation in vitro with 400 and 1200 mg miconazole nitrate vaginal capsules (Gyno-Daktarin 3 and Gyno-Daktarin I), but not miconazole nitrate vaginal cream (20 mg/g), was shown to damage rubber condoms. Patients using vaginal medicines should be aware of a possible adverse effect on rubber condoms or contraceptive diaphragms and a subsequent increased risk of pregnancy or contagious diseases such as AIDS. Fatty excipients such as glycerin, paraffin, petrolatum or Witepsol may be involved. PMID:7675146

Meyboom, R H; Havinga, J S; Lastdrager, C J; de Koning, G H

1995-08-01

184

Fatigue Crack Closure Analysis Using Digital Image Correlation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fatigue crack closure during crack growth testing is analyzed in order to evaluate the critieria of ASTM Standard E647 for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates. Of specific concern is remote closure, which occurs away from the crack tip and is a product of the load history during crack-driving-force-reduction fatigue crack growth testing. Crack closure behavior is characterized using relative displacements determined from a series of high-magnification digital images acquired as the crack is loaded. Changes in the relative displacements of features on opposite sides of the crack are used to generate crack closure data as a function of crack wake position. For the results presented in this paper, remote closure did not affect fatigue crack growth rate measurements when ASTM Standard E647 was strictly followed and only became a problem when testing parameters (e.g., load shed rate, initial crack driving force, etc.) greatly exceeded the guidelines of the accepted standard.

Leser, William P.; Newman, John A.; Johnston, William M.

2010-01-01

185

Vaginal perforation due to jet ski accident.  

PubMed

A case of full thickness vaginal perforation into the peritoneal cavity resulting from a jet-skiing accident is presented. Attention is drawn to the previously reported cases of similar injuries due to high speed water sports, and the need for adequate protective clothing in all people undertaking such sports. PMID:2082899

Wein, P; Thompson, D J

1990-11-01

186

Vaginal mesh erosion after abdominal sacral colpopexy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our goal was to compare the prevalence of vaginal mesh erosion between abdominal sacral colpopexy and various sacral colpoperineopexy procedures. Study Design: We undertook a retrospective analysis of all sacral colpopexies and colpoperineopexies performed between March 1, 1992, and February 28, 1999. The patients were divided into the following 4 groups: abdominal sacral colpopexy, abdominal sacral colpoperineopexy, and 2

Anthony G. Visco; Alison C. Weidner; Matthew D. Barber; Evan R. Myers; Geoffrey W. Cundiff; Richard C. Bump; W. Allen Addison

2001-01-01

187

Vaginal Lacerations from Consensual Intercourse in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: (1) To describe lacerations of the vaginal fornices, an injury known to be associated with consensual sexual intercourse, including known complications and treatment course, (2) to contrast these injuries with injuries sustained during sexual assault, and (3) to discuss the assessment of adolescent patients for sexual injuries. Methods:…

Frioux, Sarah M.; Blinman, Thane; Christian, Cindy W.

2011-01-01

188

AMBER closure and differential phases: accuracy and calibration with a Beam Commutation  

E-print Network

AMBER closure and differential phases: accuracy and calibration with a Beam Commutation Florentin of the differential and closure phase measures, which are supposed to be much less sensitive to atmospheric as on the Closure Phase. Keywords: Instrumentation: interferometers - Techniques: image processing - Methods: data

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

Breast Cancer, Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy, and Sexual Functioning: A Pilot Study of the Effects of Vaginal Testosterone Therapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Women with breast cancer have better cancer-related outcomes with the use of aromatase inhibitors (AIs), but the physiological suppression of estradiol can negatively affect sexual functioning because of unpleasant urogenital and vaginal symptoms. Local health care practitioners have observed that the benefits of vaginal testosterone in allaying these unpleasant symptoms in women with breast cancer are similar to the benefits of vaginal estrogen in women without breast cancer. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of using a daily vaginal testosterone cream on the reported sexual health quality of life in women with breast cancer taking AI therapy. Methods Thirteen postmenopausal women with breast cancer on AI therapy and experiencing symptoms of sexual dysfunction were recruited from an oncology practice. The women were prescribed a 300 ?g testosterone vaginal cream daily for 4 weeks. During the first study visit, a vaginal swab was obtained to rule out the presence of Candida species or Gardnerella vaginalis in participants. Women with positive vaginal swabs were treated prior to starting the vaginal testosterone therapy. Main Outcome Measure ?The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) survey, measuring female sexual health quality of life, was administered during the first study visit and at the final study visit, after completing testosterone therapy. Results Twelve patients completed 4 weeks of daily vaginal testosterone therapy. When compared with baseline FSFI scores, there was a statistically significant improvement for individual domain scores of desire (P = 0.000), arousal (P = 0.002), lubrication (P = 0.018), orgasm (P = 0.005), satisfaction (P = 0.001), and pain (P = 0.000). Total domain scores reflecting sexual health quality of life also improved when compared with baseline (P = 0.000). Conclusions The use of a compounded testosterone vaginal cream applied daily for 4 weeks improves reported sexual health quality of life in women with breast cancer taking AIs. Dahir M and Travers-Gustafson D. Breast cancer, aromatase inhibitor therapy, and sexual functioning: A pilot study of the effects of vaginal testosterone therapy. Sex Med 2014;2:8–15. PMID:25356296

Dahir, Melissa; Travers-Gustafson, Dianne

2014-01-01

190

Characterisation of protein stability in rod-insert vaginal rings.  

PubMed

A major goal in vaccine development is elimination of the 'cold chain', the transport and storage system for maintenance and distribution of the vaccine product. This is particularly pertinent to liquid formulation of vaccines. We have previously described the rod-insert vaginal ring (RiR) device, comprising an elastomeric body into which are inserted lyophilised, rod-shaped, solid drug dosage forms, and having potential for sustained mucosal delivery of biomacromolecules, such as HIV envelope protein-based vaccine candidates. Given the solid, lyophilised nature of these insert dosage forms, we hypothesised that antigen stability may be significantly increased compared with more conventional solubilised vaginal gel format. In this study, we prepared and tested vaginal ring devices fitted with lyophilised rod inserts containing the model antigen bovine serum albumin (BSA). Both the RiRs and the gels that were freeze-dried to prepare the inserts were evaluated for BSA stability using PAGE, turbidimetry, microbial load, MALDI-TOF and qualitative precipitate solubility measurements. When stored at 4 °C, but not when stored at 40 °C/75% RH, the RiR formulation offered protection against structural and conformational changes to BSA. The insert also retained matrix integrity and release characteristics. The results demonstrate that lypophilised gels can provide relative protection against degradation at lower temperatures compared to semi-solid gels. The major mechanism of degradation at 40 °C/75% RH was shown to be protein aggregation. Finally, in a preliminary study, we found that addition of trehalose to the formulation significantly reduces the rate of BSA degradation compared to the original formulation when stored at 40 °C/75% RH. Establishing the mechanism of degradation, and finding that degradation is decelerated in the presence of trehalose, will help inform further development of RiRs specifically and polymer based freeze-dried systems in general. PMID:22486955

Pattani, Aditya; Lowry, Deborah; Curran, Rhonda M; McGrath, Stephanie; Kett, Vicky L; Andrews, Gavin P; Malcolm, R Karl

2012-07-01

191

VAGINAL DEGENERATION FOLLOWING IMPLANTATION OF SYNTHETIC MESH WITH INCREASED STIFFNESS  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the impact of the prototype prolapse mesh Gynemesh PS to that of two new generation lower stiffness meshes, UltraPro and SmartMesh, on vaginal morphology and structural composition. Design A mechanistic study employing a non-human primate (NHP) model. Setting Magee-Womens Research Institute at the University of Pittsburgh. Population Parous rhesus macaques, with similar age, weight, parity and POP-Q scores. Methods Following IACUC approval, 50 rhesus macaques were implanted with Gynemesh PS (n=12), UltraPro with its blue line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of vagina (n=10), UltraPro with its blue line parallel to the longitudinal axis of vagina (n=8) and SmartMesh (n=8) via sacrocolpopexy following hysterectomy. Sham operated animals (n=12) served as controls. Main Outcome Measures The mesh-vagina complex (MVC) was removed after 12 weeks and analyzed for histomorphology, in situ cell apoptosis, total collagen, elastin, glycosaminoglycan content and total collagenase activity. Appropriate statistics and correlation analyses were performed accordingly. Results Relative to sham and the two lower stiffness meshes, Gynemesh PS had the greatest negative impact on vaginal histomorphology and composition. Compared to sham, implantation with Gynemesh PS caused substantial thinning of the smooth muscle layer (1557 ± 499?m vs 866 ± 210 ?m, P=0.02), increased apoptosis particularly in the area of the mesh fibers (P=0.01), decreased collagen and elastin content (20% (P=0.03) and 43% (P=0.02), respectively) and increased total collagenase activity (135% (P=0.01)). GAG (glycosaminoglycan), a marker of tissue injury, was the highest with Gynemesh PS compared to sham and other meshes (P=0.01). Conclusion Mesh implantation with the stiffer mesh Gynemesh PS induced a maladaptive remodeling response consistent with vaginal degeneration. PMID:23240802

Liang, Rui; Abramowitch, Steven; Knight, Katrina; Palcsey, Stacy; Nolfi, Alexis; Feola, Andrew; Stein, Susan; Moalli, Pamela A.

2012-01-01

192

Heart rate change as evidence for vaginally elicited orgasm and orgasm intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were a) to further replicate previous findings on vaginal eroticism, using heart rate change as corroborative evidence for the subjective perception of sexual arousal and orgasm; and b) to investigate the correlation between heart rate change and subjective intensity of female orgasm. Heart rate measurements were obtained from ECG tracings. Eleven coitally experienced volunteers were

Heli Alzate; Bernardo Useche; Magdalena Villegas

1989-01-01

193

A Transitive Closure Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is given for computing the transitive closure of a directed graph in a time no greater thana1N1n+a2n2 for largen wherea1 anda2 are constants depending on the computer used to execute the algorithm,n is the number of nodes in the graph andN1 is the number of arcs (not counting those arcs which are part of a cycle and not

Paul Walton Purdom Jr.

1970-01-01

194

Hexokinase mediates stomatal closure.  

PubMed

Stomata, composed of two guard cells, are the gates whose controlled movement allows the plant to balance the demand for CO2 for photosynthesis with the loss of water through transpiration. Increased guard-cell osmolarity leads to the opening of the stomata and decreased osmolarity causes the stomata to close. The role of sugars in the regulation of stomata is not yet clear. In this study, we examined the role of hexokinase (HXK), a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing, in guard cells and its effect on stomatal aperture. We show here that increased expression of HXK in guard cells accelerates stomatal closure. We further show that this closure is induced by sugar and is mediated by abscisic acid. These findings support the existence of a feedback-inhibition mechanism that is mediated by a product of photosynthesis, namely sucrose. When the rate of sucrose production exceeds the rate at which sucrose is loaded into the phloem, the surplus sucrose is carried toward the stomata by the transpiration stream and stimulates stomatal closure via HXK, thereby preventing the loss of precious water. PMID:23738737

Kelly, Gilor; Moshelion, Menachem; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Halperin, Ofer; Wallach, Rony; Attia, Ziv; Belausov, Eduard; Granot, David

2013-09-01

195

Once daily bioadhesive vaginal clotrimazole tablets: design and evaluation.  

PubMed

In this study, a bioadhesive dosage form of clotrimazole was designed using a combination of bioadhesive polymers Carbopol 934P, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate in different ratios. The bioadhesive strength was evaluated by measuring the force required to detach the tablets from porcine vaginal mucosal membrane. The strong interaction between polymer and mucus lining of the tissue helps increase the contact time and permits localization of activity. Carbopol 934P showed maximum bioadhesion and required maximum force for detachment; the force required for detachment was directly proportional to its content. The formulations were tested for their swelling behavior using the agar gel plate method. The swelling index was a function of the concentration of the hydrophilic polymer and the formulations containing Carbopol 934P and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose were found to swell to a greater extent than those containing Carbopol and sodium alginate. In vitro release studies showed that the batch consisting of 2:1 ratio of Carbopol 934P/sodium alginate (batch C3) released clotrimazole over 24 h. The similarity factor showed that the dissolution profiles of fresh and aged tablets were similar, suggesting good stability of vaginal tablets prepared using a combination of Carbopol 934P and sodium alginate. PMID:19831282

Sharma, Garima; Jain, S; Tiwary, A K; Kaur, Gurpreet

2006-09-01

196

A new vaginal speculum for pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ).  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to introduce a new vaginal speculum, describe the technique of using the new speculum in identifying and measuring the severity of pelvic organ prolapse (POP), and present results of a pilot study comparing the new speculum to the conventional instruments used in performing POP quantification (POPQ). The new speculum has retractable upper and lower blades marked in centimeters. POPQ was performed with one instrument using the new speculum and multiple instruments performing the conventional technique. Twenty-two patients underwent POPQ-11 using the new speculum and 11 using conventional instruments. The duration of the procedure and the level of discomfort were assessed. The POPQ method using the new speculum is described. Preliminary experience with the new speculum showed that the length of examination is significantly shorter (p<0.001) and the comfort level is better than with the conventional technique (p=0.088). A new vaginal speculum with adjustable blades simplifies POPQ. Preliminary testing suggests potential savings in procedure time and reduction in patient discomfort. PMID:15662489

Diokno, Ananias C; Borodulin, German

2005-01-01

197

50 CFR 654.23 - Southwest Florida seasonal trawl closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.23 Southwest Florida seasonal trawl closure. From January 1 to 1 hour...

2010-10-01

198

50 CFR 654.23 - Southwest Florida seasonal trawl closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.23 Southwest Florida seasonal trawl closure. From January 1 to 1 hour...

2011-10-01

199

Relationship among vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of female pelvic floor muscles.  

PubMed

Background: The proper evaluation of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) is essential for choosing the correct treatment. Currently, there is no gold standard for the assessment of female PFM function. Objective: To determine the correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the female PFM. Method: This cross-sectional study evaluated 80 women between 18 and 35 years of age who were nulliparous and had no pelvic floor dysfunction. PFM function was assessed based on digital palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic activity, bilateral diameter of the bulbocavernosus muscles and the amount of bladder neck movement during voluntary PFM contraction using transperineal bi-dimensional ultrasound. The Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05). Results: There was a strong positive correlation between PFM function and PFM contraction pressure (0.90). In addition, there was a moderate positive correlation between these two variables and PFM electromyographic activity (0.59 and 0.63, respectively) and movement of the bladder neck in relation to the pubic symphysis (0.51 and 0.60, respectively). Conclusions: This study showed that there was a correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the PFM in nulliparous women. The strong correlation between digital palpation and PFM contraction pressure indicated that perineometry could easily be replaced by PFM digital palpation in the absence of equipment. PMID:25317769

Pereira, Vanessa S; Hirakawa, Humberto S; Oliveira, Ana B; Driusso, Patricia

2014-10-10

200

Development and evaluation of acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet for mixed vaginal infections.  

PubMed

An acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was developed for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections. From the bioadhesion experiment and release studies it was found that polycarbophil and sodium carboxymethylcellulose is a good combination for an acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet. Sodium monocitrate was used as a buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4), which is an attribute of a healthy vagina. The effervescent mixture (citric acid and sodium bicarbonate) along with a superdisintegrant (Ac-Di-sol) was used to enhance the swellability of the bioadhesive tablet. The drugs clotrimazole (antifungal) and metronidazole (antiprotozoal as well as an antibacterial) were used in the formulation along with Lactobacillus acidophilus spores to treat mixed vaginal infections. From the ex vivo retention study it was found that the bioadhesive polymers hold the tablet for more than 24 hours inside the vaginal tube. The hardness of the acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was optimized, at 4 to 5 kg hardness the swelling was found to be good and the cumulative release profile of the developed tablet was matched with a marketed conventional tablet (Infa-V). The in vitro spreadability of the swelled tablet was comparable to the marketed gel. In the in vitro antimicrobial study it was found that the acid-buffering bioadhesive tablet produces better antimicrobial action than marketed intravaginal drug delivery systems (Infa-V, Candid-V and Canesten 1). PMID:18181530

Alam, Mohd Aftab; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Khan, Zeenat Iqbal; Khar, Roop Krishen; Ali, Mushir

2007-01-01

201

Murine models of vaginal trichomonad infections.  

PubMed

Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus cause common sexually transmitted infections in humans and cattle, respectively. Mouse models of trichomoniasis are important for pathogenic and therapeutic studies. Here, we compared murine genital infections with T. vaginalis and T. foetus. Persistent vaginal infection with T. foetus was established with 100 parasites but T. vaginalis infection required doses of 10(6), perhaps because of greater susceptibility to killing by mouse vaginal polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Infection with T. vaginalis persisted longest after combined treatment of mice with estrogen and dexamethasone, whereas infection was only short-lived when mice were given estrogen or dexamethasone alone, co-infected with Lactobacillus acidophilus, and/or pretreated with antibiotics. Infection rates were similar with metronidazole-resistant (MR) and metronidazole-sensitive (MS) T. vaginalis. High dose but not low dose metronidazole treatment controlled infection with MS better than MR T. vaginalis. These murine models will be valuable for investigating the pathogenesis and treatment of trichomoniasis. PMID:21976570

Cobo, Eduardo R; Eckmann, Lars; Corbeil, Lynette B

2011-10-01

202

Suture Closure versus Non-Closure of Subcutaneous Fat and Cosmetic Outcome after Cesarean Section: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction To investigate the effect of subcutaneous fat suture closure versus non-closure at cesarean section (CS) on long-term cosmetic outcome. Material and Methods Women undergoing planned or unplanned CS were randomized to either subcutaneous fat suture closure or non-closure using a 1?1 allocation algorithm. Participants and outcome assessors were blinded to group allocation. Scar evaluation was performed after two and six months. Primary outcome measures were Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) summary scores six months after surgery. Secondary outcome measures were Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) summary scores, retraction of the scar below the level of the surrounding skin, duration of surgery, and development of hematoma, seroma, surgical site infection (SSI) or wound disruption. Data were analyzed according to the intention to treat principle. Results A total of 116 women were randomized and 91 participants, 47 in the closure and 44 in the non-closure group, completed the trial and were analyzed. There were no differences in patient morphometrics or surgery indications between groups. At two and six months no significant differences were found with respect to POSAS or VSS scores between groups. After two months significantly more women in the non-closure group described their scar as being retracted below the level of the skin (36% vs. 15%, p?=?0.02) whereas no difference was observed at six months. There were significantly more hematomas in the non-closure (25%) compared to the closure group (4%) (p?=?0.005). There was no difference in duration of surgery, SSI, seroma formation or wound disruption between groups. Conclusions Suture closure of the subcutaneous fat at CS does not affect long-term cosmetic outcome. (Level I evidence). Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01542346. PMID:25494177

Husslein, Heinrich; Gutschi, Martina; Leipold, Heinz; Herbst, Christoph; Franz, Maximilian; Worda, Christof

2014-01-01

203

Nevada Test Site closure program  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use.

Shenk, D.P.

1994-08-01

204

Vaginal vault prolapse: choice of operation.  

PubMed

The surgeon who faces a patient with vaginal vault prolapse is dealing with a complex and intriguing challenge. Part of the complexity is due to the lack of standardization and routine application of tools to assess pre- and postoperative anatomical and functional outcomes. Patient satisfaction is a major endpoint for surgical success; thus all aspects of the prolapse pathology and the patient's lifestyle should be considered. The surgeon needs to be well versed and flexible in order to choose the most appropriate operative approach to achieve optimal results for an individual patient. In this chapter we present the vaginal and abdominal approaches for the correction of vaginal vault prolapse, with discussion of the surgical outcomes and complications for each technique. A comprehensive comparison of the various techniques is offered on the basis of current published literature. In addition, we focus on various controversies, including the prevention of vault prolapse at the time of hysterectomy, issues regarding uterine preservation, the management of overt or occult concomitant stress incontinence, and the place-if any-for combined anti-incontinence procedures at the time of prolapse surgery. New minimally invasive techniques for vault prolapse are also reviewed. We emphasize areas that call for further research and for standardized outcome criteria. PMID:16221573

Arbel, Revital; Lavy, Yuval

2005-12-01

205

Vaginal retention of locally administered clindamycin.  

PubMed

Since bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a lack of, or very few, lactobacilli and high numbers of small, mostly anaerobic bacteria, an obvious treatment modality would be eradication of the BV-associated bacterial flora followed by reintroduction of lactobacilli vaginally. As probiotic treatment with lactobacilli is one tool for improving the cure rate when treating BV, it is necessary to know the length of time after treatment that clindamycin can be found in the vagina and if this could interfere with the growth of the probiotic lactobacilli. We evaluated the vaginal concentration of clindamycin in 12 women for 8 days to obtain data on the concentration of clindamycin in the vagina after intravaginal treatment with the drug. The participants were examined five times between two menstrual periods: before treatment, the day after treatment was finished, and 3, 5 and 8 days post-treatment. The first day post-treatment clindamycin 0.46 × 10(-3) to 8.4 × 10(-3) g/g vaginal fluid (median 2.87 × 10(-3)) was found. Thereafter, the concentration of clindamycin decreased rapidly. In 10 patients clindamycin was found after 3 days. A very low concentration was still present 5 days after treatment in four patients. After 8 days no clindamycin was found. Clindamycin is rapidly eliminated from the vagina, within 3-8 days, after local administration. Our results indicate that treatment with probiotic lactobacilli could be problematic if carried out within 5 days after cessation of clindamycin treatment. PMID:21569095

Eriksson, Katarina; Larsson, Per-Göran; Nilsson, Maud; Forsum, Urban

2011-06-01

206

Vaginitis: Making Sense of Over-the-Counter Treatment Options  

PubMed Central

Background. The FDA approved over-the-counter (OTC) use of vaginal antifungals in 1990. Subsequently, a plethora of OTC products have become available to women on drugstore shelves. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the availability of OTC products marketed for the treatment of vaginitis and to determine if their efficacy had been confirmed by published prospective randomized control trials (RCTs). Materials and methods. The authors chose four retail locations frequented by women seeking vaginitis treatment. All products deemed a viable treatment option were purchased. Results. All intravaginal imidazoles purchased, regardless of treatment duration or active ingredient, were found to be of proven efficacy. We were unable to find an RCT confirming the effectiveness of vaginal anti-itch creams and homeopathic treatments for vaginitis. Conclusion. 45% of products available to women in the feminine hygiene section of the stores surveyed could not be confirmed to be effective for treating infectious vaginitis. PMID:18253469

B. Angotti, Lauren; C. Lambert, Lara; E. Soper, David

2007-01-01

207

REGULAR CLOSURE Moira A. McDermott  

E-print Network

REGULAR CLOSURE Moira A. McDermott October 4, 1997 Abstract. Regular closure is an operation performed on submodules of arbitrary modules over a commutative Noetherian ring. The regular closure contains the tight closure when both are defined, but in general, the regular closure is strictly larger

McDermott, Moira A.

208

System for closure of a physical anomaly  

DOEpatents

Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

2014-11-11

209

Delayed Macular Hole Closure  

PubMed Central

Purpose The presented case raises questions regarding the favorable scheduling of planned postoperative care and the ideal observation interval to decide for reoperations in macular hole surgery. Furthermore a discussion about the use of short- and long-acting gas tamponades in macular hole surgery is encouraged. Methods We present an interventional case report and a short review of the pertinent literature. Results We report a case of spontaneous delayed macular hole closure after vitreoretinal surgery had been performed initially without the expected success. A 73-year-old male Caucasian patient presented at our clinic with a stage 2 macular hole in his left eye. He underwent 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling with a 20% C2F6-gas tamponade. Sixteen days after the procedure, an OCT scan revealed a persistent stage 2 macular hole, and the patient was scheduled for reoperation. Surprisingly, at the date of planned surgery, which was another 11 days later, the macular hole had resolved spontaneously without any further intervention. Conclusions So far no common opinion exists regarding the use of short- or long-acting gas in macular hole surgery. Our case of delayed macular hole closure after complete resorption of the gas tamponade raises questions about the need and duration of strict prone positioning after surgery. Furthermore short-acting gas might be as efficient as long-acting gas. We suggest to wait with a second intervention at least 4 weeks after the initial surgery, since a delayed macular hole closure is possible. PMID:24847257

Distelmaier, Peter; Meyer, Linda M.; Fischer, Marie T.; Philipp, Sebastian; Paquet, Patrick; Mammen, Antje; Haller, Katharina; Schönfeld, Carl-Ludwig

2014-01-01

210

Relationship between lactobacilli and opportunistic bacterial pathogens associated with vaginitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Vaginitis, is an infectious inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, which sometimes involves the vulva. The balance of the vaginal flora is maintained by the Lactobacilli and its protective and probiotic role in treating and preventing vaginal infection by producing antagonizing compounds which are regarded as safe for humans. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of Lactobacilli against common bacterial opportunistic pathogens in vaginitis and study the effects of some antibiotics on Lactobacilli isolates. Materials and Methods: In this study (110) vaginal swabs were obtained from women suffering from vaginitis who admitted to Babylon Hospital of Maternity and Paediatrics in Babylon province, Iraq. The study involved the role of intrauterine device among married women with vaginitis and also involved isolation of opportunistic bacterial isolates among pregnant and non pregnant women. This study also involved studying probiotic role of Lactobacilli by production of some defense factors like hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocin, and lactic acid. Results: Results revealed that a total of 130 bacterial isolates were obtained. Intrauterine device was a predisposing factor for vaginitis. The most common opportunistic bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All Lactobacilli were hydrogen peroxide producers while some isolates were bacteriocin producers that inhibited some of opportunistic pathogens (S. aureus, E. coli). Lactobacilli were sensitive to erythromycin while 93.3% of them were resistant to ciprofloxacin and (40%, 53.3%) of them were resistant to amoxicillin and gentamycin respectively. Results revealed that there was an inverse relationship between Lactobacilli presence and organisms causing vaginitis. This may be attributed to the production of defense factors by Lactobacilli. Conclusion: The types of antibiotics used to treat vaginitis must be very selective in order not to kill the beneficial bacteria (Lactobacilli) that help in preservation of vaginal health and ecosystem as being one of the probiotic bacteria. PMID:22540089

Razzak, Mohammad Sabri A.; Al-Charrakh, Alaa H.; AL-Greitty, Bara Hamid

2011-01-01

211

Mechanics of blastopore closure during amphibian gastrulation.  

PubMed

Blastopore closure in the amphibian embryo involves large scale tissue reorganization driven by physical forces. These forces are tuned to generate sustained blastopore closure throughout the course of gastrulation. We describe the mechanics of blastopore closure at multiple scales and in different regions around the blastopore by characterizing large scale tissue deformations, cell level shape change and subcellular F-actin organization and by measuring tissue force production and structural stiffness of the blastopore during gastrulation. We find that the embryo generates a ramping magnitude of force until it reaches a peak force on the order of 0.5?N. During this time course, the embryo also stiffens 1.5 fold. Strain rate mapping of the dorsal, ventral and lateral epithelial cells proximal to the blastopore reveals changing patterns of strain rate throughout closure. Cells dorsal to the blastopore, which are fated to become neural plate ectoderm, are polarized and have straight boundaries. In contrast, cells lateral and ventral to the blastopore are less polarized and have tortuous cell boundaries. The F-actin network is organized differently in each region with the highest percentage of alignment occurring in the lateral region. Interestingly F-actin was consistently oriented toward the blastopore lip in dorsal and lateral cells, but oriented parallel to the lip in ventral regions. Cell shape and F-actin alignment analyses reveal different local mechanical environments in regions around the blastopore, which was reflected by the strain rate maps. PMID:25448691

Feroze, Rafey; Shawky, Joseph H; von Dassow, Michelangelo; Davidson, Lance A

2015-02-01

212

The propeller flap concept used in vaginal wall reconstruction.  

PubMed

Most posterior vaginal wall defects are due to abdominoperineal resection for colorectal carcinoma involving the posterior vaginal wall or resection of local malignancies. The rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap, the modified Singapore flap and the gracilis myocutaneous flap remain workhorse solutions for this type of vaginal reconstruction. The introduction of the perforator concept has introduced new therapeutic options using the gluteal donor site region. Recently, perforator-based gluteal flaps have been described as a reliable solution for reconstruction of posterior vaginal wall defects, with low donor site morbidity. Here, we present a new technique to optimise results and minimise morbidity to the patient. PMID:22133384

Smeets, L; Hendrickx, B; Teo, T C

2012-05-01

213

8. Launch closure, closure track apron, tracks and track beam, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Launch closure, closure track apron, tracks and track beam, view towards west - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility D-6, 4 miles north of Badlands National Park Headquarters, 4.5 miles east of Jackson County line on county road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

214

21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic...use. (a) Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an...

2013-04-01

215

21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic...use. (a) Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an...

2010-04-01

216

21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic...use. (a) Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an...

2011-04-01

217

21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic...use. (a) Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an...

2012-04-01

218

21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic...use. (a) Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an...

2014-04-01

219

75 FR 3745 - NIH Consensus Development Conference on Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: New Insights; Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Consensus Development Conference on Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: New Insights; Notice...Consensus Development Conference on Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: New Insights'' to be...it will be open to the public. Vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) is the...

2010-01-22

220

[Case of rectal migratin of mesh after TVM (tension-free vaginal mesh) operation].  

PubMed

A 64-year-old woman presented with recto-cutaneous fistula after tension-free vaginal mesh reconstruction using polypropylene mesh for pelvic organ prolapse. Eleven months after the operation, an ulcerative lesion with stools smell secretion developed in the left hip. Magnetic resonance imaging and colonoscopy revealed a migration of the left arm of the mesh and a recto-cutaneous fistula. The patient underwent excision of the infected mesh and rectal wall closure together with transient colostomy. After 8 months, colonoscopy revealed a new migration of the mesh in the rectum, which was also removed. The colostomy was closed one year later and rectal erosion has not reccurred since then. The possibility of developing a rare but severe mesh-related complication as presented here should always be kept in mind. PMID:22390087

Taoka, Rikiya; Mizuno, Kei; Matsuoka, Takashi; Kita, Yuki; Nakanishi, Shotaro; Asai, Seiji; Soda, Takeshi; Inoue, Koji; Terai, Akito

2011-11-01

221

Effect of semen and seminal amyloid on vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus  

PubMed Central

Background Semen and semen-derived amyloid fibrils boost HIV infection in vitro but their impact on sexual virus transmission in vivo is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of seminal plasma (SP) and semen-derived enhancer of virus infection (SEVI) on vaginal virus transmission in the SIV/rhesus macaque (Macacca mulatta) model. Results A total of 18 non-synchronized female rhesus macaques (six per group) were exposed intra-vaginally to increasing doses of the pathogenic SIVmac239 molecular clone in the presence or absence of SEVI and SP. Establishment of productive virus infection was assessed by measuring plasma viral RNA loads at weekly intervals. We found that the first infections occurred at lower viral doses in the presence of SP and SEVI compared to the control group. Furthermore, the average peak viral loads during acute infection were about 6-fold higher after exposure to SP- and SEVI-treated virus. Overall infection rates after a total of 27 intra-vaginal exposures to increasing doses of SIV, however, were similar in the absence (4 of 6 animals) and presence of SP (5 of 6), or SEVI (4 of 6). Furthermore, the infectious viral doses required for infection varied considerably and did not differ significantly between these three groups. Conclusions Semen and SEVI did not have drastic effects on vaginal SIV transmission in the present experimental setting but may facilitate spreading of virus infection after exposure to low viral doses that most closely approximate the in vivo situation. PMID:24308721

2013-01-01

222

Treatment of vaginal candidosis: a comparative study of the efficacy and acceptability of itraconazole and clotrimazole.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To compare the clinical and mycological efficacy and patient acceptability of the oral antifungal itraconazole with vaginal clotrimazole in the treatment of vaginal candidosis. DESIGN--A multicentre, single-blind, randomised, parallel group comparison of itraconazole and clotrimazole. SETTING--17 Genito Urinary Medicine clinics in UK hospitals. SUBJECTS--Women with symptomatic, culture positive vaginal candidosis. METHODS--Patients were randomly allocated 2 x 100 mg itraconazole capsules to be taken twice in a 24 hour period, or a 500 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablet. Clinical and mycological assessments were made at entry and after approximately seven and 35 days. OUTCOME MEASURES--Cure rate was defined in terms of mycological results, and patients were questioned on their opinion of treatment. RESULTS--Of 214 patients, 109 received itraconazole and 105 clotrimazole with similar improvement in clinical signs and symptoms. Mycological cure rates one week after treatment were obtained in 72 of 97 patients (74%) in the itraconazole group and 64 of 89 patients (72%) in the clotrimazole group. Identical mycological cure rates six weeks after treatment were obtained with 40 of 79 patients (51%) receiving itraconazole and 39 of 78 patients (50%) receiving clotrimazole. CONCLUSION--Clotrimazole and itraconazole were found to be equally effective. A majority of patients receiving the latter preferred it to previous treatments. PMID:1312506

Tobin, J M; Loo, P; Granger, S E

1992-01-01

223

27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Affixing closures. 19.523 Section 19.523 Alcohol, Tobacco...DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing...

2013-04-01

224

33 CFR 52.32 - Administrative closure.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Administrative closure. 52.32 Section 52.32 Navigation and...Consideration of Application and Administrative Closure § 52.32 Administrative closure. (a) The Chair may administratively...

2014-07-01

225

27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Affixing closures. 19.523 Section 19.523 Alcohol, Tobacco...DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing...

2014-04-01

226

Closure Operations on Ideals Sara Faridi  

E-print Network

Closure Operations on Ideals by Sara Faridi A dissertation submitted in partial ful#12;llment Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1 Integral Closure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Integral Closure of Graded Rings and Rees Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.3 Tight

Faridi, Sara

227

27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Affixing closures. 19.523 Section 19.523 Alcohol, Tobacco...DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing...

2012-04-01

228

33 CFR 52.32 - Administrative closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Administrative closure. 52.32 Section 52.32 Navigation and...Consideration of Application and Administrative Closure § 52.32 Administrative closure. (a) The Chair may administratively...

2012-07-01

229

33 CFR 52.32 - Administrative closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Administrative closure. 52.32 Section 52.32 Navigation and...Consideration of Application and Administrative Closure § 52.32 Administrative closure. (a) The Chair may administratively...

2013-07-01

230

Evaluation of Two Energy Balance Closure Parametrizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general lack of energy balance closure indicates that tower-based eddy-covariance (EC) measurements underestimate turbulent heat fluxes, which calls for robust correction schemes. Two parametrization approaches that can be found in the literature were tested using data from the Canadian Twin Otter research aircraft and from tower-based measurements of the German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) programme. Our analysis shows that the approach of Huang et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 127:273-292, 2008), based on large-eddy simulation, is not applicable to typical near-surface flux measurements because it was developed for heights above the surface layer and over homogeneous terrain. The biggest shortcoming of this parametrization is that the grid resolution of the model was too coarse so that the surface layer, where EC measurements are usually made, is not properly resolved. The empirical approach of Panin and Bernhofer (Izvestiya Atmos Oceanic Phys 44:701-716, 2008) considers landscape-level roughness heterogeneities that induce secondary circulations and at least gives a qualitative estimate of the energy balance closure. However, it does not consider any feature of landscape-scale heterogeneity other than surface roughness, such as surface temperature, surface moisture or topography. The failures of both approaches might indicate that the influence of mesoscale structures is not a sufficient explanation for the energy balance closure problem. However, our analysis of different wind-direction sectors shows that the upwind landscape-scale heterogeneity indeed influences the energy balance closure determined from tower flux data. We also analyzed the aircraft measurements with respect to the partitioning of the "missing energy" between sensible and latent heat fluxes and we could confirm the assumption of scalar similarity only for Bowen ratios 1.

Eder, Fabian; De Roo, Frederik; Kohnert, Katrin; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Mauder, Matthias

2014-05-01

231

Single dose therapy of vaginal candidiasis: a comparative trial of fenticonazole vaginal ovules versus clotrimazole vaginal tablets.  

PubMed

An open, randomized comparative clinical trial was performed in 153 patients suffering from symptomatic vaginal candidiasis confirmed by mycological tests. Patients were allocated at random into two groups: the first group (consisting of 75 subjects) was treated with a single vaginal ovule of fenticonazole (600 mg) and the second group (consisting of 78 subjects) was treated with a single vaginal tablet of clotrimazole (500 mg). Therapeutic efficacy was assessed by microbiological and clinical criteria 7 days and 1 month (when possible) after the single dose treatment. At the first follow-up visit, complete disappearance of the signs and symptoms or a highly significant reduction of their intensity was observed in both treatment groups. No significant difference was evident between the two drugs. At 7 days, the mycological tests gave negative results in 92% of the patients in the fenticonazole group and in 88.5% of the patients in the clotrimazole group. The difference between the two treatment groups was again not statistically significant. The second follow-up visit was performed in 55 (73.3%) patients of the fenticonazole group and in 52 (66.7%) patients of the clotrimazole group. The results indicate that 83.6% of patients in the fenticonazole group and 69.2% of patients in the clotrimazole group were still disease free at the time of this visit. Both drugs were well tolerated. Mild, local and short lasting side-effects were reported in only 5 cases of the group treated with fenticonazole.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2202548

Lawrence, A G; Houang, E T; Hiscock, E; Wells, M B; Colli, E; Scatigna, M

1990-01-01

232

A new iridium applicator for vaginal vault irradiation.  

PubMed

A new disposable gynecologic applicator designed for postoperative vaginal vault brachytherapy is presented. The applicator is afterloading manually with iridium 192 wire. We have used this new applicator in more than thirty patients and recorded the following advantages: 1) There is no need to install expensive and complicated equipment; 2) Single use applicators are in sterile packages and are ready to use; 3) Applicator is easily and comfortably carried by patient; 4) There is no need for specific training to use the system; 5) There is no need for general anesthesia during application; 6) There is no need for patient immobilization during treatment; 7) There is no need for urinary catheterization during treatment; 8) Dose distribution is homogeneous; 9) Bladder and rectum doses are at acceptable levels; 10) Radioprotective measures needed to be taken are inexpensive. We believe that this new system could easily be used in every radiation oncology unit. PMID:7957330

Töre, G; Aslay, I; Dinçer, M; Kemikler, G

1994-01-01

233

A New Wireless Biosensor for Intra-Vaginal Temperature Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Wireless Body Sensors for medical purposes offer valuable contributions to improve patients’ healthcare, including diagnosis and/or therapeutics monitoring. Body temperature is a crucial parameter in healthcare diagnosis. In gynecology and obstetrics it is measured at the skin’s surface, which is very influenced by the environment. This paper proposes a new intra-body sensor for long-term intra-vaginal temperature collection. The embedded IEEE 802.15.4 communication module allows the integration of this sensor in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for remote data access and monitoring. We present the sensor architecture, the construction of the corresponding testbed, and its performance evaluation. This sensor may be used in different medical applications, including preterm labor prevention and fertility and ovulation period detection. The features of the constructed testbed were validated in laboratory tests verifying its accuracy and performance. PMID:22163471

Caldeira, João M. L. P.; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Garcia, João F. R.; de la Torre, Isabel

2010-01-01

234

Vaginal vault brachytherapy in endometrial cancer: verifying target coverage with image-guided applicator placement  

PubMed Central

Objective: This quality assurance study assesses whether CT image-guided verification has led to improvements in the technique when compared with previous studies. Methods: The CT images were studied from a cohort of 105 consecutive patients with endometrial cancer having adjuvant brachytherapy to the vaginal vault in 2010. Images were taken at first insertion, checked for air gaps and treatment delivered. Images were later transferred to the planning system and air gaps between vaginal mucosa and vaginal cylinder were measured. Comparisons were made with the 2008 results from this centre and the literature series. Results: Images from two patients were not assessable owing to artefacts from hip replacements. Air gaps >2?mm were seen in 11/103 patients. Repositioning or use of a larger cylinder reduced air gaps to 7/103 patients. In total, 96/103 patients (over 93%) were able to achieve good vaginal contact throughout the treatment volume. This shows a significant improvement in applicator positioning in our centre since 2008 and also a significant improvement over the total data published in 2010 (Pearson ?2 test=46.19; p<0.0001). Conclusion: The vaginal cylinder technique with CT imaging was proven to be effective for 96/103 patients. It is necessary to consider whether there is a better technique for the few patients with air gaps >2?mm. Advances in knowledge: For the vast majority of patients, this technique is well tolerated, without the need for analgesia, and will continue to be the first choice technique in this centre. PMID:23407428

Cornes, P; Al-Booz, H

2013-01-01

235

Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women  

PubMed Central

The means by which vaginal microbiomes help prevent urogenital diseases in women and maintain health are poorly understood. To gain insight into this, the vaginal bacterial communities of 396 asymptomatic North American women who represented four ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian) were sampled and the species composition characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. The communities clustered into five groups: four were dominated by Lactobacillus iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, or L. jensenii, whereas the fifth had lower proportions of lactic acid bacteria and higher proportions of strictly anaerobic organisms, indicating that a potential key ecological function, the production of lactic acid, seems to be conserved in all communities. The proportions of each community group varied among the four ethnic groups, and these differences were statistically significant [?2(10) = 36.8, P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the vaginal pH of women in different ethnic groups also differed and was higher in Hispanic (pH 5.0 ± 0.59) and black (pH 4.7 ± 1.04) women as compared with Asian (pH 4.4 ± 0.59) and white (pH 4.2 ± 0.3) women. Phylotypes with correlated relative abundances were found in all communities, and these patterns were associated with either high or low Nugent scores, which are used as a factor for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The inherent differences within and between women in different ethnic groups strongly argues for a more refined definition of the kinds of bacterial communities normally found in healthy women and the need to appreciate differences between individuals so they can be taken into account in risk assessment and disease diagnosis. PMID:20534435

Ravel, Jacques; Gajer, Pawel; Abdo, Zaid; Schneider, G. Maria; Koenig, Sara S. K.; McCulle, Stacey L.; Karlebach, Shara; Gorle, Reshma; Russell, Jennifer; Tacket, Carol O.; Brotman, Rebecca M.; Davis, Catherine C.; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J.

2011-01-01

236

Vaginal microbiome of reproductive-age women.  

PubMed

The means by which vaginal microbiomes help prevent urogenital diseases in women and maintain health are poorly understood. To gain insight into this, the vaginal bacterial communities of 396 asymptomatic North American women who represented four ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Asian) were sampled and the species composition characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. The communities clustered into five groups: four were dominated by Lactobacillus iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, or L. jensenii, whereas the fifth had lower proportions of lactic acid bacteria and higher proportions of strictly anaerobic organisms, indicating that a potential key ecological function, the production of lactic acid, seems to be conserved in all communities. The proportions of each community group varied among the four ethnic groups, and these differences were statistically significant [?(2)(10) = 36.8, P < 0.0001]. Moreover, the vaginal pH of women in different ethnic groups also differed and was higher in Hispanic (pH 5.0 ± 0.59) and black (pH 4.7 ± 1.04) women as compared with Asian (pH 4.4 ± 0.59) and white (pH 4.2 ± 0.3) women. Phylotypes with correlated relative abundances were found in all communities, and these patterns were associated with either high or low Nugent scores, which are used as a factor for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The inherent differences within and between women in different ethnic groups strongly argues for a more refined definition of the kinds of bacterial communities normally found in healthy women and the need to appreciate differences between individuals so they can be taken into account in risk assessment and disease diagnosis. PMID:20534435

Ravel, Jacques; Gajer, Pawel; Abdo, Zaid; Schneider, G Maria; Koenig, Sara S K; McCulle, Stacey L; Karlebach, Shara; Gorle, Reshma; Russell, Jennifer; Tacket, Carol O; Brotman, Rebecca M; Davis, Catherine C; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J

2011-03-15

237

CPT-hole closure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The long-term stability of deep holes 1.75 inches. (4.4 cm) in diameter by 98.4 feet (30 m) created by cone penetration testing (CPT) was monitored at a site in California underlain by Holocene and Pleistocene age alluvial fan deposits. Portions of the holes remained open both below and above the 28.6-foot (8.7 m)-deep water table for approximately three years, when the experiment was terminated. Hole closure appears to be a very slow process that may take decades in the stiff soils studied here. Other experience suggests holes in softer soils may also remain open. Thus, despite their small diameter, CPT holes may remain open for years and provide paths for rapid migration of contaminants. The observations confirm the need to grout holes created by CPT soundings as well as other direct-push techniques in areas where protection of shallow ground water is important.

Noce, T.E.; Holzer, T.L.

2003-01-01

238

Laparoscopic port closure.  

PubMed

Formation of a post-operative trocar site hernia (TSH) is a serious complication of laparoscopic surgery with an incidence of 1.5%-1.8%, and may necessitate emergent surgical correction in the case of bowel strangulation. Many contributing factors increase the risk of this complication, and various surgical devices have been developed to help prevent post-operative TSH formation. Bladeless trocars with radially expanding technology have been shown to decrease the incidence of post-operative TSH. Various port site closure devices are also available on the market, which assist in closing the fascia, thus decreasing the risk of this complication. In this article, we will review the use of these devices and their potential to reduce post-operative TSH formation. PMID:24700212

Mikhail, Emad; Hart, Stuart

2014-03-01

239

How to increase the proportion of hysterectomies performed vaginally  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The main purpose of our study was to identify the patient characteristics of women undergoing hysterectomy and to estimate the proportion of hysterectomies that could be done vaginally by recognized surgical techniques. Study Design: The records of 500 women who underwent hysterectomy were reviewed. The characteristics of patients without an absolute contraindication to vaginal hysterectomy were analyzed. Results: Overall,

Anthony Davies; Enrico Vizza; Nikolaos Bournas; Hugh O’Connor; Adam Magos

1998-01-01

240

Monitoring Vaginal Epithelial Thickness Changes Noninvasively in Sheep Using Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Objective High-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT), can be used noninvasively to evaluate vaginal morphologic features, including epithelial thickness, to assess this protective barrier in transmission of sexually transmitted infections and to monitor tissue response to topical medications and hormonal fluctuations. We examined the utility of OCT to measure epithelial thickness noninvasively before and after topical treatment with a drug that causes epithelial thinning. Study Design Twelve female sheep were treated with intravaginal placebo (n=4) or nonoxynol-9 (n=8). Vaginal OCT images were obtained before and 24 hours after treatment. Four sheep in the nonoxynol-9 group were also examined on days 3 and 7. Vaginal biopsies were obtained on the last exam day. Epithelial thickness was measured in OCT images and in H&E-stained histological sections from biopsies. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA (significance p<0.05). Results Baseline OCT epithelial thickness measurements were similar (85±19 ?m placebo, 78±20 ?m nonoxynol-9; p=0.52). Epithelial thinning was significant after nonoxynol-9 (32±22 ?m) compared to placebo (80±15 ?m) 24 hours after treatment (p<0.0001). In the four nonoxynol-9-treated sheep followed for 7 days, epithelial thickness returned to baseline by day 3, and increased significantly on day 7. Epithelial thickness measurements from histology were not significantly different than OCT (p=0.98 N-9, p=0.93 HEC). Conclusion Drug-induced changes in the epithelium were clearly detectable using OCT imaging. OCT and histology epithelial thickness measurements were similar, validating OCT as a noninvasive method for epithelial thickness measurement, providing an important tool for quantitative and longitudinal monitoring of vaginal epithelial changes. PMID:23333551

VINCENT, Kathleen L.; VARGAS, Gracie; WEI, Jingna; BOURNE, Nigel; MOTAMEDI, Massoud

2013-01-01

241

Progesterone implants enhance SIV vaginal transmission and early virus load.  

PubMed

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) can cross the intact vaginal epithelium to establish a systemic infection in macaques (mac). Using this SIVmac model, we found that subcutaneous progesterone implants, which could mimic hormonally based contraceptives, thinned the vaginal epithelium and enhanced SIV vaginal transmission 7.7-fold over that observed in macaques treated with placebo implants and exposed to SIV in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone treatment also increased the number of SIV DNA-positive cells in the vaginal lamina propria as detected by in situ polymerase chain reaction analysis. Moreover, plasma viral RNA was elevated for the first three months in macaques with progesterone implants, and three of the progesterone-treated macaques developed relatively rapid disease courses. This study shows that SIV genital infection and disease course are enhanced by subcutaneous implants containing progesterone when compared with the rate of vaginal transmission in the follicular phase. PMID:8837605

Marx, P A; Spira, A I; Gettie, A; Dailey, P J; Veazey, R S; Lackner, A A; Mahoney, C J; Miller, C J; Claypool, L E; Ho, D D; Alexander, N J

1996-10-01

242

Angle closure in younger patients.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: Angle-closure glaucoma is rare in children and young adults. Only scattered cases associated with specific clinical entities have been reported. We evaluated the findings in patients in our database aged 40 or younger with angle closure. METHODS: Our database was searched for patients with angle closure who were 40 years old or younger. Data recorded included age at initial consultation; age at the time of diagnosis; gender; results of slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (from 1993 onward); clinical diagnosis; and therapy. Patients with previous incisional surgery were excluded, as were patients with anterior chamber proliferative mechanisms leading to angle closure. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients (49 females, 18 males) met entry criteria. Mean age (+/- SD) at the time of consultation was 34.4 +/- 9.4 years (range, 3-68 years). Diagnoses included plateau iris syndrome (35 patients), iridociliary cysts (8 patients), retinopathy of prematurity (7 patients), uveitis (5 patients), isolated nanophthalmos (3 patients), relative pupillary block (2 patients), Weill-Marchesani syndrome (3 patients), and 1 patient each with Marfan syndrome, miotic-induced angle closure, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, and idiopathic lens subluxation. CONCLUSION: The etiology of angle closure in young persons is different from that in the older population and is typically associated with structural or developmental ocular anomalies rather than relative pupillary block. Following laser iridotomy, these eyes should be monitored for recurrent angle closure and the need for additional laser or incisional surgical intervention. PMID:12545694

Chang, Brian M; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert

2002-01-01

243

A framework for the evaluation of turbulence closures used in mesoscale ocean large-eddy simulations  

E-print Network

We present a methodology to determine the best turbulence closure for an eddy-permitting ocean model through measurement of the error-landscape of the closure's subgrid spectral transfers and flux. We apply this method to 6 different closures for forced-dissipative simulations of the barotropic vorticity equation on a f-plane (2D Navier-Stokes equation). Using a high-resolution benchmark, we compare each closure's model of energy and enstrophy transfer to the actual transfer observed in the benchmark run. The error-landscape norms enable us to both make objective comparisons between the closures and to optimize each closure's free parameter for a fair comparison. The hyper-viscous closure most closely reproduces the enstrophy cascade, especially at larger scales due to the concentration of its dissipative effects to the very smallest scales. The viscous and Leith closures perform nearly as well, especially at smaller scales where all three models were dissipative. The Smagorinsky closure dissipates enstrophy at the wrong scales. The anticipated potential vorticity closure was the only model to reproduce the upscale transfer of kinetic energy from the unresolved scales, but would require high-order Laplacian corrections in order to concentrate dissipation at the smallest scales. The Lagrangian-averaged alpha-model closure did not perform successfully for forced 2D isotropic Navier-Stokes: small-scale filamentation is only slightly reduced by the model while small-scale roll-up is prevented. Together, this reduces the effects of diffusion.

Jonathan Pietarila Graham; Todd Ringler

2012-11-26

244

Validation of a questionnaire for self-assessment of sexual function and vaginal changes after gynaecological cancer.  

PubMed

The Sexual function-Vaginal changes Questionnaire (SVQ), was developed to investigate sexual and vaginal problems in gynaecological cancer patients. The instrument consists of 20 core items, measuring sexual interest, lubrication, orgasm, dyspareunia, vaginal dimensions, intimacy, sexual problems of partner, sexual activity, sexual satisfaction, and body image. Seven additional items assessing current levels of sexual and vaginal problems compared to pre-diagnosis are intended to be used only once in longitudinal studies. The SVQ was validated in two ways: first, the comprehensibility of each item was investigated through combined quantitative and qualitative assessment of patient-observer agreement in 75 gynaecological cancer patients, second, multitrait analyses and principal component analyses were applied to responses from 257 patients with cervical cancer to investigate the scale properties. The level of agreement between the patients' and the observer's ratings was high (median overall agreement 0.84, range 0.46-1.00; median kappa: 0.80, range 0.52-1.00). From the 10 items applicable to all patients, three scales were hypothesized: intimacy, sexual interest and global sexual satisfaction. For sexually active respondents an additional two scales were hypothesized: vaginal changes and sexual functioning. The psychometric analyses confirmed these scales. The internal consistency of the scales ranged 0.76-0.83 (Cronbach's alpha). The study supports the validity and reliability of the SVQ. PMID:15295778

Jensen, Pernille T; Klee, Marianne C; Thranov, Ingrid; Groenvold, Mogens

2004-08-01

245

CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been\\u000a no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional\\u000a radiology.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total\\u000a of

Jim A. ReekersStefan; Stefan Müller-Hülsbeck; Martin Libicher; Eli Atar; Jens Trentmann; Pierre Goffette; Jan Borggrefe; Kamil Zele?ák; Pieter Hooijboer; Anna-Maria Belli

2011-01-01

246

Closure report for N Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to satisfy Section 3156(b) of Public Law 101-189 (Reports in Connection with Permanent Closures of Department of Energy Defense Nuclear Facilities), which requires submittal of a Closure Report to Congress by the Secretary of Energy upon the permanent cessation of production operations at a US Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facility (Watkins 1991). This closure report provides: (1) A complete survey of the environmental problems at the facility; (2) Budget quality data indicating the cost of environmental restoration and other remediation and cleanup efforts at the facility; (3) A proposed cleanup schedule.

Not Available

1994-01-01

247

Bacterial vaginosis, vaginal flora patterns and vaginal hygiene practices in patients presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome in The Gambia, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) – a syndrome characterised by a shift in vaginal flora – appears to be particularly common in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known of the pattern of vaginal flora associated with BV in Africa. We conducted a study aimed at determining the prevalence of BV and patterns of BV-associated vaginal micro-flora among women with vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS) in The Gambia, West Africa. Methods We enrolled 227 women with VDS from a large genito-urinary medicine clinic in Fajara, The Gambia. BV was diagnosed by the Nugent's score and Amsel's clinical criteria. Vaginal swabs were collected for T vaginalis and vaginal flora microscopy, and for Lactobacillus spp, aerobic organisms, Candida spp and BV-associated bacteria (Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobic bacteria, and Mycoplasma spp) cultures; and cervical swabs were collected for N gonorrhoeae culture and C trachomatis PCR. Sera were tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. Sexual health history including details on sexual hygiene were obtained by standardised questionnaire. Results BV prevalence was 47.6% by Nugent's score and 30.8% by Amsel's clinical criteria. Lactobacillus spp were isolated in 37.8% of women, and 70% of the isolates were hydrogen-peroxide (H202)-producing strains. Prevalence of BV-associated bacteria were: G vaginalis 44.4%; Bacteroides 16.7%; Prevotella 15.2%; Peptostretococcus 1.5%; Mobiluncus 0%; other anaerobes 3.1%; and Mycoplasma hominis 21.4%. BV was positively associated with isolation of G vaginalis (odds-ratio [OR] 19.42, 95%CI 7.91 – 47.6) and anaerobes (P = 0.001 [OR] could not be calculated), but not with M hominis. BV was negatively associated with presence of Lactobacillus (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.03 – 0.15), and H2O2-producing lactobacilli (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.05 – 0.28). Presence of H2O2-producing lactobacilli was associated with significantly lower prevalence of G vaginalis, anaerobes and C trachomatis. HIV prevalence was 12.8%. Overall, there was no association between BV and HIV, and among micro-organisms associated with BV, only Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp. were associated with HIV. BV or vaginal flora patterns were not associated with any of the factors relating to sexual hygiene practices (vaginal douching, menstrual hygiene, female genital cutting). Conclusion In this population, BV prevalence was higher than in corresponding populations in industrialised countries, but the pattern of vaginal micro-flora associated with BV was similar. BV or vaginal flora patterns were not associated with HIV nor with any of the vaginal hygiene characteristics. PMID:15757510

Demba, Edward; Morison, Linda; van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Awasana, Akum A; Gooding, Euphemia; Bailey, Robin; Mayaud, Philippe; West, Beryl

2005-01-01

248

Closure of fatigue cracks at high strains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were conducted on smooth specimens to study the closure behavior of short cracks at high cyclic strains under completely reversed cycling. Testing procedures and methodology, and closure measurement techniques, are described in detail. The strain levels chosen for the study cover from predominantly elastic to grossly plastic strains. Crack closure measurements are made at different crack lengths. The study reveals that, at high strains, cracks close only as the lowest stress level in the cycle is approached. The crack opening is observed to occur in the compressive part of the loading cycle. The applied stress needed to open a short crack under high strain is found to be less than for cracks under small scale yielding. For increased plastic deformations, the value of sigma sub op/sigma sub max is observed to decrease and approaches the value of R. Comparison of the experimental results with existing analysis is made and indicates the limitations of the small scale yielding approach where gross plastic deformation behavior occurs.

Iyyer, N. S.; Dowling, N. E.

1985-01-01

249

Using closures for code generation Marc Feeley  

E-print Network

Using closures for code generation Marc Feeley Guy Lapalme D´epartement d'informatique et de on the extensive use of closures. In this method, a compiled expression is embodied by a closure whose application to compile, a closure is generated. As a whole, the compiled expression consists of a network

Feeley, Marc

250

27 CFR 26.231 - Affixing closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Affixing closures. 26.231 Section 26.231 Alcohol...FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From the Virgin Islands General § 26.231 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices...

2012-04-01

251

27 CFR 26.231 - Affixing closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Affixing closures. 26.231 Section 26.231 Alcohol...FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From the Virgin Islands General § 26.231 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices...

2013-04-01

252

27 CFR 26.231 - Affixing closures.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Affixing closures. 26.231 Section 26.231 Alcohol...FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From the Virgin Islands General § 26.231 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices...

2014-04-01

253

-closure, -closure and generalized closed sets J. Cao, M. Ganster, I. Reilly and M. Steiner  

E-print Network

-closure, -closure and generalized closed sets J. Cao, M. Ganster, I. Reilly and M. Steiner space via the associated -closure and -closure. The relationships among these new classes and existing and Preliminaries Let (X, ) be a topological space. Recall that a point x X is said to be in the -closure (resp

Ganster, Maximilian

254

Closure and Sealing Design Calculation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not be addressed in this calculation.

T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

2005-08-26

255

How Accurate Is Preoperative Evaluation of Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Women Undergoing Vaginal Reconstruction Surgery?  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the differences between the in-office and intraoperative techniques used to evaluate pelvic organ prolapse. Materials and Methods A prospective study included 25 women undergoing vaginal reconstruction surgery including vaginal hysterectomy for pelvic organ prolapse. The outpatient pelvic and site-specific vaginal examination was performed in the lithotomy position with the Valsalva maneuver. Repeated intraoperative examination was performed under general anesthesia with standard mild cervical traction. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system (POPQ) was used for both measurements and staging. The values found under the two conditions were compared. Results The intraoperative POPQ-measurements values were significantly higher than the outpatient values for apical wall prolapse in 17/25 (68%) women and for anterior wall prolapse in 8/25 (32%) women. There was not a significant difference in the posterior wall where increase in staging was shown in 3/25 (12%) patients. Conclusions Clinicians and patients should be alert to the possibility that pelvic organ measurements performed under general anesthesia with mild traction may be different from preoperative evaluation. PMID:23056566

Krissi, Haim; Eitan, Ram; Ram, Edward; Peled, Yoav

2012-01-01

256

Are Vaginal Symptoms Ever Normal? A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Purpose Vaginal symptoms such as discharge, odor, and itch are among the most common presenting complaints in primary care. We undertook to determine if the symptoms associated with vaginitis (discharge, odor, irritation) occur in normal women. Methods To answer this question, we performed a literature review. We conducted a Medline search using the following terms: "vagina," "vaginal discharge," "secretion," "odors," discharge," "pruritus," "normal," "irritation," "itch," "physical examination," "healthy," "asymptomatic," "quantity," and "physiology." To find additional references we reviewed textbooks in gynecology, primary care, and physical diagnosis and contacted authors. Results There are few primary studies, and most are not of high quality. Existing data show that the quantity and quality of vaginal discharge in healthy women vary considerably both across individuals and in the same individual during the menstrual cycle. Most studies indicate that discharge is greatest at midcycle. Vaginal fluid contains malodorants, and one study of intact vaginal fluid found it to be malodorous. Two studies found that normal women reported irritative symptoms in the course of their menstrual cycle. Conclusions The primary literature indicates that there is a wide variation in the normal vagina and that some of the symptoms associated with vaginal abnormality are found in well women. Both clinicians and their patients would benefit from a better understanding of the range of normal as well as what constitutes a meaningful departure from that range. PMID:15775876

Anderson, Matthew; Karasz, Alison; Friedland, Sarah

2004-01-01

257

Double-blind evaluation of miconazole tampons, compared with clotrimazole vaginal tablets, in vaginal candidiasis.  

PubMed

Fifty-one patients with vaginal candidiasis and positive cultures in Nickerson medium were treated either with two miconazole tampons daily for five days (26 patients, median age 28 years) or with one clotrimazole vaginal tablet daily for six days (25 patients, median age 36 years) in a randomized double-blind trial. Seven days after the end of the treatment, 24 (92%) patients in the miconazole group and 19 (76%) in the clotrimazole group had negative cultures. One month after the end of the treatment, the relapse rate was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in the clotrimazole group. Symptoms subsided rapidly in both groups. No unwanted effects were reported. PMID:7307036

Lolis, D; Kanellopoulos, N; Liappas, I; Xyngakis, A; Zissis, N P

1981-01-01

258

Turbulence processes and simple closure schemes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The closure problem in turbulence is reviewed, and some simple closure schemes are introduced. Processes occurring in turbulent flow are discussed on the basis of solutions for some elementary flows such as homogeneous turbulence with and without uniform shear. Closure by specification of initial conditions, and finally practical closure schemes for more complicated flows are considered. The latter include Reynolds stress, eddy viscosity, and mixing-length closures.

Deissler, R. G.

1975-01-01

259

Magnitude of Interfractional Vaginal Cuff Movement: Implications for External Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To quantify the extent of interfractional vaginal cuff movement in patients receiving postoperative irradiation for cervical or endometrial cancer in the absence of bowel/bladder instruction. Methods and Materials: Eleven consecutive patients with cervical or endometrial cancer underwent placement of three gold seed fiducial markers in the vaginal cuff apex as part of standard of care before simulation. Patients subsequently underwent external irradiation and brachytherapy treatment based on institutional guidelines. Daily megavoltage CT imaging was performed during each external radiation treatment fraction. The daily positions of the vaginal apex fiducial markers were subsequently compared with the original position of the fiducial markers on the simulation CT. Composite dose-volume histograms were also created by summing daily target positions. Results: The average ({+-} standard deviation) vaginal cuff movement throughout daily pelvic external radiotherapy when referenced to the simulation position was 16.2 {+-} 8.3 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff movement for any patient during treatment was 34.5 mm. In the axial plane the mean vaginal cuff movement was 12.9 {+-} 6.7 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff axial movement was 30.7 mm. In the craniocaudal axis the mean movement was 10.3 {+-} 7.6 mm, with a maximum movement of 27.0 mm. Probability of cuff excursion outside of the clinical target volume steadily dropped as margin size increased (53%, 26%, 4.2%, and 1.4% for 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm, respectively.) However, rectal and bladder doses steadily increased with larger margin sizes. Conclusions: The magnitude of vaginal cuff movement is highly patient specific and can impact target coverage in patients without bowel/bladder instructions at simulation. The use of vaginal cuff fiducials can help identify patients at risk for target volume excursion.

Ma, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Michaletz-Lorenz, Martha [Department of Education and Training, Elekta, Maryland Heights, MO (United States); Goddu, S. Murty [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Grigsby, Perry W., E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

2012-03-15

260

Effects of estroprogestins containing natural estrogen on vaginal flora.  

PubMed

Estroprogestins with "natural oestrogen" has represented a new option in terms of combined hormonal contraception. So, the aim of this study is to investigate how estroprogestins with natural estrogen may modify the vaginal niche. In literature, very few studies focused on the interaction between hormonal contraception and vaginal milieu. This is a prospective comparative study. We enrolled 60 women from January 2013 to September 2013, 30 of them were administered estradiol valerate dienogest (E2V+DNG - Klaira®) in a quadriphasic regimen, while the other 30 women were administered 17-? estradiol with nomestrol acetate (EV+NOMAC - Zoely®) in a monophasic regimen. After a baseline study of vaginal milieu at recruitment of patients (Gram stain with Nugent score, vaginal pH, vaginal wet mount for the quantification of leukocytes, Lactobacilli and/or presence of Candida), we performed the same follow-up after six months of estroprogestin therapy. Our results showed that the women treated with E2V+DNG had a trend of an improvement of vaginal health in terms of increase of lactobacillar flora and reduction of vaginal pH in place of women treated with EV+NOMAC that showed a reduction of cervical mucus. Finally, our data about the effects on vaginal flora exerted by two estroprogestin pills (EPs) containing a natural estrogen suggest slight, but interesting differences in terms of vaginal ecology. These differences could be related to the type of estrogen, type of progestin, regimen of administration and, after all, to the net balance between estrogenic and progestin component of the EPs. PMID:24993504

De Seta, Francesco; Restaino, Stefano; Banco, Rubina; Conversano, Ester; De Leo, Rossella; Tonon, Maddalena; Maso, Gianpaolo; Barbati, Giulia; Lello, Stefano

2014-11-01

261

The energy balance closure problem: an overview.  

PubMed

This paper gives an overview of 20 years of research on the energy balance closure problem. It will be shown that former assumptions that measuring errors or storage terms are the reason for the unclosed energy balance do not stand up because even turbulent fluxes derived from documented methods and calibrated sensors, net radiation, and ground heat fluxes cannot close the energy balance. Instead, exchange processes on larger scales of the heterogeneous landscape have a significant influence. By including these fluxes, the energy balance can be approximately closed. Therefore, the problem is a scale problem and has important consequences to the measurement and modeling of turbulent fluxes. PMID:18767615

Foken, Thomas

2008-09-01

262

Results of single-dose treatment of vaginal mycoses with 500 mg Canesten vaginal tablets.  

PubMed

212 patients with cultural evidence of yeast-induced vaginal mycosis were treated with a single vaginal tablet of 500 mg clotrimazole. A diagnosis of infection due to a Candida species had been established before therapy in 95% of the patients studied. From the total group of 212 patients a further group was formed who had appeared at the check-ups as scheduled in the trial protocol and whose data were complete. This group included 83 cases. There was no therapeutic difference between the two patient groups. 89% of the patients of the total patient group evaluable were found to be mycologically cured at both check-ups. In the reduced patient group the rates of mycological cure at the times of examination were 87 and 89%, respectively. The clinical results obtained in the total patient group indicated a therapeutic success of 90% at both check-ups. In the reduced patient group the rate of therapeutic success was 93% at the first and 88% at the second check-up. The local tolerability of the Canesten vaginal tablet was good. The side effects observed were rare and mild. PMID:7160245

Krause, U

1982-01-01

263

Treating dyspareunia caused by vaginal atrophy: a review of treatment options using vaginal estrogen therapy  

PubMed Central

Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) and dryness are common symptoms of the decline in endogenous production of estrogen at menopause and often result in dyspareunia. Yet while 10% to 40% of women experience discomfort due to VVA, it is estimated that only 25% seek medical help. The main goals of treatment for vaginal atrophy are to improve symptoms and to restore vaginal and vulvar anatomic changes. Treatment choices for postmenopausal dyspareunia resulting from vulvovaginal atrophy will depend on the underlying etiology and might include individualized treatment. A number of forms of vaginal estrogen and manner of delivery are currently available to treat moderate to severe dyspareunia caused by VVA. They all have been shown to be effective and are often the preferred treatment due to the targeted efficacy for urogenital tissues while resulting in only minimal systemic absorption. Both healthcare professionals and patients often find it difficult to broach the subject of sexual problems associated with VVA. However, with minimal effort to initiate a conversation about these problems, healthcare providers can provide useful information to their postmenopausal patients in order to help them each choose the optimal treatment for their needs and symptoms. PMID:21072280

Kingsberg, SA; Kellogg, S; Krychman, M

2010-01-01

264

[Clinical experiences with clotrimazole in treating vaginal candidiasis].  

PubMed

The results of a clinical trial using Clotrimazole (Canesten) vaginal pessaries in the treatment of mycologically confirmed cases of vaginal candidiasis are presented. Treatment schedule consisted in the application of vaginal pessaries each containing 100 mg Clotramizole at bedtime on 6 successive days. In 68 patients who adhered to the treatment schedule and completed the observation and follow-up periods an overall cure-rate of 78.4% was recorded. There were no adverse reactions. Treatment schedules would vary from case to case and in instances of reinfection a repeated course of treatment is recommended. PMID:392965

Emokpare, N A

1979-08-15

265

Imperforate hymen and vaginal atresia and their associated anomalies.  

PubMed Central

The presenting features and associated abnormalities of imperforate hymen and vaginal atresia were studied in 24 girls under the age of 16 years. Hydrocolpos or hydrometrocolpos occurred in 8 infants, 13 older girls developed haematocolpos, but 3 of the girls had no distension of the genital tract. Seven of the older girls were diagnosed as having appendicitis. Anorectal anomalies were present in 9 of the children. Intravenous pyelography was performed on 16 girls and was normal in only one. Urinary tract investigations are indicated in all girls with vaginal outlet obstruction, and the vaginal orifice should be inspected in all girls with anorectal abnormalities. PMID:6876046

Shaw, L M; Jones, W A; Brereton, R J

1983-01-01

266

Duration of colposcopic changes associated with trichomonas vaginitis.  

PubMed

The possibility that an abnormal Papanicolaou smear of the uterine cervix may be associated with vaginitis due to trichomonas vaginalis has been known for some time. Since colposcopy is being used with increased frequency to evaluate patients with cytologic abnormalities noted on the cervical smear and the colposcopic changes produced by trichomonal vaginitis are quite typical, a study was designed to evaluate the duration of these changes after effective eradication of the parasite. Among 12 patients in whom the infection was successfully treated, none showed evidence of colposcopically detected abnormalities due to the trichomonal vaginitis at 2 weeks and again at 4 weeks after initiation of therapy. PMID:619328

Borten, M; Friedman, E A

1978-01-01

267

Policy for Prevention of a Retained Sponge after Vaginal Delivery  

PubMed Central

Background. Policies for sponge count are not routine practice in most labor and delivery rooms. Ignored or hidden retained vaginal foreign bodies has potentially significant health care morbidity. Case. This was a case of a retained vaginal sponge following an uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery. Delivery room policy resulted in the discovery of the sponge on X-ray when an incorrect sponge count occurred and physical exam did not find the sponge. Conclusion. This emphasizes the use of protocols to enhance patient safety and prevent medical error. PMID:22312370

Garry, David J.; Asanjarani, Sandra; Geiss, Donna M.

2012-01-01

268

Vaginal microbiome and sexually transmitted infections: an epidemiologic perspective  

PubMed Central

Vaginal bacterial communities are thought to help prevent sexually transmitted infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome in which the protective lactic acid–producing bacteria (mainly species of the Lactobacillus genus) are supplanted by a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria. Epidemiologically, BV has been shown to be an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes including preterm birth, development of pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Longitudinal studies of the vaginal microbiome using molecular techniques such as 16S ribosomal DNA analysis may lead to interventions that shift the vaginal microbiota toward more protective states. PMID:22133886

Brotman, Rebecca M.

2011-01-01

269

Vaginal Septoplasty in Septate Uterus with Double Cervix  

PubMed Central

Fusion defects of the Müllerian ducts occur frequently and they have been described by the American Fertility Society. However, septate uterus with cervical duplication and longitudinal vaginal septum is not described by this classification and has suggested a change in the classical theory of fusion of the Müllerian ducts. This paper describes a rare case report of a patient with complete septate uterus with double cervix and longitudinal vaginal septum, submitted to the vaginal septoplasty for dyspareunia, progressing to clinical improvement. The description of this case is to contribute with all uncommon cases of Müllerian anomalies reports and clinical treatment protocols, which is not yet established. PMID:25136464

Chiamulera, Nara; Botelho, Beatriz

2014-01-01

270

Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose Resembling Vaginal Cuff Abscess  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Application of oxidized regenerated cellulose is commonly performed in laparoscopy to achieve hemostasis during surgery. The appearance of an abscess resembles oxidized regenerated cellulose, causing imaging studies to be difficult to interpret. Case Description: We describe the cases of 3 patients who underwent oxidized regenerated cellulose placement during laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. They subsequently presented with signs and symptoms resembling an abscess. Computed tomographic imaging can be challenging to interpret in such cases; radiologic findings can be used to differentiate between the characteristics of oxidized regenerated cellulose and those of abscess formation on the vaginal cuff. Discussion: Oxidized regenerated cellulose has an appearance that often mimics postsurgical abscess formation. There are distinct characteristics that distinguish both findings. It is essential that patients' records accurately describe the presence and location of regenerated oxidized cellulose when placed intraoperatively, and this information must be relayed to the interpreting radiologist to facilitate medical diagnosis and guide clinical management. PMID:24960506

Harkins, Gerald; Dykes, Thomas; Gockley, Allison; Davies, Matthew

2014-01-01

271

Characterization of Human Vaginal Mucosa Cells for Autologous In Vitro Cultured Vaginal Tissue Transplantation in Patients with MRKH Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) is a rare syndrome characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and vagina. The most common procedure used for surgical reconstruction of the neovagina is the McIndoe vaginoplasty, which consists in creation of a vaginal canal covered with a full-thickness skin graft. Here we characterized the autologous in vitro cultured vaginal tissue proposed as alternative material in our developed modified McIndoe vaginoplasty in order to underlie its importance in autologous total vaginal replacement. To this aim human vaginal mucosa cells (HVMs) were isolated from vaginal mucosa of patients affected by MRKH syndrome and characterized with respect to growth kinetics, morphology, PAS staining, and expression of specific epithelial markers by immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR analyses. The presence of specific epithelial markers along with the morphology and the presence of mucified cells demonstrated the epithelial nature of HMVs, important for an efficient epithelialization of the neovagina walls and for creating a functional vaginal cavity. Moreover, these cells presented characteristics of effective proliferation as demonstrated by growth kinetics assay. Therefore, the autologous in vitro cultured vaginal tissue might represent a highly promising and valid material for McIndoe vaginoplasty. PMID:25162002

Nodale, Cristina; D'Amici, Sirio; Maffucci, Diana; Ceccarelli, Simona; Monti, Marco; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Romano, Ferdinando; Angeloni, Antonio; Marchese, Cinzia

2014-01-01

272

Characterization of human vaginal mucosa cells for autologous in vitro cultured vaginal tissue transplantation in patients with MRKH syndrome.  

PubMed

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) is a rare syndrome characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and vagina. The most common procedure used for surgical reconstruction of the neovagina is the McIndoe vaginoplasty, which consists in creation of a vaginal canal covered with a full-thickness skin graft. Here we characterized the autologous in vitro cultured vaginal tissue proposed as alternative material in our developed modified McIndoe vaginoplasty in order to underlie its importance in autologous total vaginal replacement. To this aim human vaginal mucosa cells (HVMs) were isolated from vaginal mucosa of patients affected by MRKH syndrome and characterized with respect to growth kinetics, morphology, PAS staining, and expression of specific epithelial markers by immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR analyses. The presence of specific epithelial markers along with the morphology and the presence of mucified cells demonstrated the epithelial nature of HMVs, important for an efficient epithelialization of the neovagina walls and for creating a functional vaginal cavity. Moreover, these cells presented characteristics of effective proliferation as demonstrated by growth kinetics assay. Therefore, the autologous in vitro cultured vaginal tissue might represent a highly promising and valid material for McIndoe vaginoplasty. PMID:25162002

Nodale, Cristina; Vescarelli, Enrica; D'Amici, Sirio; Maffucci, Diana; Ceccarelli, Simona; Monti, Marco; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Romano, Ferdinando; Angeloni, Antonio; Marchese, Cinzia

2014-01-01

273

Mouse estrous cycle regulation of vaginal versus uterine cytokines, chemokines, ?-/?-defensins and TLRs  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the cyclic changes in innate immunity in the female reproductive tract (FRT) of mice during the estrous cycle. By examining uterine and vaginal tissues and secretions we show that innate immunity varies with the stage of the estrous cycle and site in the FRT. Secretions from the uterine lumen contained cytokines and chemokines that were significantly higher at proestrus and estrus relative to that measured at diestrus. In contrast, analysis of vaginal secretions indicated that only IL-1? and CXCL1/mouse KC changed during the cycle, with highest levels measured at diestrus and estrus. In contrast, vaginal ?-defensin 2 and ?-defensins 1–4 mRNA levels peaked at proestrus and estrus and are expressed 1–4 logs greater than that seen in the uterus. These studies further indicate that TLR5 and TLR12 in the uterus, and TLR1, TLR2, TLR5 and TLR13 in the vagina varies with stage of the estrous cycle, with some peaking at proestrus/estrus and others at diestrus. Overall, these studies indicate that innate immune parameters in the uterus and vagina are separate and discrete, and regulated precisely during the estrous cycle. PMID:22855555

Hickey, Danica K; Fahey, John V; Wira, Charles R

2015-01-01

274

Comparison of Abdominal Muscle Thickness with Vaginal Pressure Changes in Healthy Women  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the efficacy of a pelvic floor muscle exercise program by comparing subjects’ muscle thickness with changes in vaginal pressure. [Subjects] Two groups of female participants without a medical history of pelvic floor muscle dysfunction were evaluated. The mean age of Group I was 33.5?years and that of Group II was 49.69?years. [Methods] The participants were instructed to perform a pelvic floor muscle contraction. While measuring the vaginal pressure of the pelvic floor muscle, biofeedback was given on five levels, and the thicknesses of the transversus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique muscles were measured with ultrasound. [Results] The thickness of the transversus abdominis muscle was significantly increased at 30 cmH2O in Group I, and at 20 cmH2O in Group II. The thickness of the internal oblique abdominal muscle significantly increased at maximum contraction in Group II. [Conclusion] Different abdominal muscles contracted depending on vaginal pressure. The result may be used to create and implement an exercise program that effectively strengthens the pelvic floor muscles. PMID:24707099

Kim, Bo-In; Hwang-Bo, Gak; Kim, Ha-Roo

2014-01-01

275

Human epididymis protein 4 and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in vaginal fluid: relation to vaginal components and bacterial composition.  

PubMed

Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a protease inhibitor and a recently identified serum biomarker for ovarian cancer. Properties of HE4 in the genital tract of healthy women have not been evaluated. We evaluated associations between HE4 and a second vaginal protease inhibitor, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), with vaginal concentrations of innate immune mediators or proteases and with the types of vaginal bacterial communities. Vaginal secretions were collected from 18 healthy reproductive age women and assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for concentrations of HE4, SLPI, kallikrein 5, cathepsin B, interleukin 1? (IL-1), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 ra), mannose-binding lectin (MBL), the inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8. The species composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 16 women was characterized by sequencing amplicons derived from 16S bacterial ribosomal RNA genes. Correlations between any 2 assays were analyzed by the Spearman rank correlation tests. Differences in the concentrations of HE4 and SLPI, and between soluble components and vaginal community types, were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U tests. Vaginal HE4 concentrations, but not SLPI levels, were positively correlated with levels of IL-1? (P = .0152), IL-1ra (P = .0061), MBL (P = .0100), and MMP-8 (P = .0315). The median vaginal HE4 level, as well as concentrations of MBL, IL-1?, IL-1ra, and MMP-8, was highest when Gardnerella vaginalis dominated a vaginal community. The association between HE4, elevated levels of proteases, immune mediators and high proportions of G vaginalis strongly suggests that HE4 is a component of the proinflammatory immune response in the female genital tract. PMID:24023032

Orfanelli, Theofano; Jayaram, Aswathi; Doulaveris, Georgios; Forney, Larry J; Ledger, William J; Witkin, Steven S

2014-04-01

276

Analysis of variation in charges and prices paid for vaginal and caesarean section births: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the between-hospital variation of charges and discounted prices for uncomplicated vaginal and caesarean section deliveries, and to determine the institutional and market-level characteristics that influence adjusted charges. Design, setting and participants Using data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD), we conducted a cross-sectional study of all privately insured patients admitted to California hospitals in 2011 for uncomplicated vaginal delivery (diagnosis-related group (DRG) 775) or uncomplicated caesarean section (DRG 766). Outcome measures Hospital charges and discounted prices adjusted for each patient's clinical and demographic characteristics. Results We analysed 76?766 vaginal deliveries and 32?660 caesarean sections in California in 2011. After adjusting for patient demographic and clinical characteristics, we found that the average California woman could be charged as little as US$3296 or as much as US$37?227 for a vaginal delivery, and US$8312–US$70?908 for a caesarean section depending on which hospital she was admitted to. The discounted prices were, on an average, 37% of the charges. We found that hospitals in markets with middling competition had significantly lower adjusted charges for vaginal deliveries, while hospitals with higher wage indices and casemixes, as well as for-profit hospitals, had higher adjusted charges. Hospitals in markets with higher uninsurance rates charged significantly less for caesarean sections, while for-profit hospitals and hospitals with higher wage indices charged more. However, the institutional and market-level factors included in our models explained only 35–36% of the between-hospital variation in charges. Conclusions These results indicate that charges and discounted prices for two common, relatively homogeneous diagnosis groups—uncomplicated vaginal delivery and caesarean section—vary widely between hospitals and are not well explained by observable patient or hospital characteristics. PMID:24435892

Hsia, Renee Y; Akosa Antwi, Yaa; Weber, Ellerie

2014-01-01

277

Comparison of Blood Loss in Induced vs. Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery Using Specialized Blood Collection Bag  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare third stage blood loss in induced vs. spontaneous vaginal deliveries and to correlate the amount of blood loss with the decrease in haemoglobin following deliveries. Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Hospital Manipal, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Blood loss following placental deliveries was measured by using special collection bags in 150 pregnant ladies who delivered vaginally by labour induction and it was compared with that of another 50 women who had spontaneous vaginal deliveries. Haemoglobin values were recorded for each patient prior to labour and after delivery of child. Results: The mean blood loss in induced group was 30 mL more than that in spontaneous group (202 ± 117 mL vs. 172 ± 114 mL), but this was not statistically significant (p=0.12). However, when different methods of induction were compared, oxytocin group was found to have significantly higher blood loss (327 ± 140 mL) as compared to that in other types of labour inductions as well as spontaneous deliveries. Labour induction using prostaglandins did not produce more blood loss as compared that produced by spontaneous deliveries. Both induced and spontaneous delivery groups showed statistically significant drops in post-delivery haemoglobin values, but the drop was relatively more in induced group as compared to that in spontaneous vaginal delivery group (0.96gm/dL vs. 0.56gm/dL), which appeared to be statistically significant (p=0.002). Conclusion: Labour induction using prostaglandins is safe as compared to oxytocin usage. Accurate estimation of blood loss is important in all types of deliveries, in order to detect postpartum haemorrhage early, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken. PMID:24959480

Rai, Lavanya; Mohan, Akshara

2014-01-01

278

Clear Sky Column Closure Studies of Urban-Marine and Mineral-Dust Aerosols Using Aircraft, Ship, Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements in ACE-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2), European urban-marine and African mineral-dust aerosols were measured aboard the Pelican aircraft, the Research Vessel Vodyanitskiy from the ground and from satellites.

Schmid, Beat; Russell, Philip B.; Livingston, John M.; Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean A.; Collins, Donald R.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Oestroem, Elisabeth; Noone, Kevin J.; Durkee, Philip A.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Voss, Kenneth J.; Gordon, Howard R.; Formenti, Paola; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kapustin, Vladimir N.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

2000-01-01

279

A side-by-side comparison of filter-based PM 2.5 measurements at a suburban site: A closure study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the effects of air quality on public health and the environment requires reliable measurement of PM2.5 mass and its chemical components. This study seeks to evaluate PM2.5 measurements that are part of a newly established national network by comparing them with more versatile sampling systems. Experiments were carried out during 2002 at a suburban site in Maryland, United States,

J. C. Hains; L.-W. A. Chen; B. F. Taubman; B. G. Doddridge; R. R. Dickersone

2007-01-01

280

Postpartum Prolapsed Leiomyoma with Uterine Inversion Managed by Vaginal Hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Background. Uterine inversion is a rare, but life threatening, obstetrical emergency which occurs when the uterine fundus collapses into the endometrial cavity. Various conservative and surgical therapies have been outlined in the literature for the management of uterine inversions. Case. We present a case of a chronic, recurrent uterine inversion, which was diagnosed following spontaneous vaginal delivery and recurred seven weeks later. The uterine inversion was likely due to a leiomyoma. This late-presenting, chronic, recurring uterine inversion was treated with a vaginal hysterectomy. Conclusion. Uterine inversions can occur in both acute and chronic phases. Persistent vaginal bleeding with the appearance of a prolapsing fibroid should prompt further investigation for uterine inversion and may require surgical therapy. A vaginal hysterectomy may be an appropriate management option in select populations and may be considered in women who do not desire to maintain reproductive function. PMID:25379314

Pieh-Holder, Kelly L.; DeVente, James E.

2014-01-01

281

Diversity of the Vaginal Microbiome Correlates With Preterm Birth  

PubMed Central

Reproductive tract infection is a major initiator of preterm birth (PTB). The objective of this prospective cohort study of 88 participants was to determine whether PTB correlates with the vaginal microbiome during pregnancy. Total DNA was purified from posterior vaginal fornix swabs during gestation. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction primers, followed by chain-termination sequencing. Bacteria were identified by comparing contig consensus sequences with the Ribosomal Database Project. Dichotomous responses were summarized via proportions and continuous variables via means ± standard deviation. Mean Shannon Diversity index differed by Welch t test (P = .00016) between caucasians with PTB and term gestation. Species diversity was greatest among African Americans (P = .0045). Change in microbiome/Lactobacillus content and presence of putative novel/noxious bacteria did not correlate with PTB. We conclude that uncultured vaginal bacteria play an important role in PTB and race/ethnicity and sampling location are important determinants of the vaginal microbiome. PMID:23715799

Hyman, Richard W.; Fukushima, Marilyn; Jiang, Hui; Fung, Eula; Rand, Larry; Johnson, Brittni; Vo, Kim Chi; Caughey, Aaron B.; Hilton, Joan F.; Davis, Ronald W.; Giudice, Linda C.

2014-01-01

282

Trichomoniasis as Seen in a Chronic Vaginitis Clinic  

PubMed Central

Objective: We sought to determine the clinical and laboratory features of trichomonas vaginitis (TV) in a chronic vaginitis clinic. Methods: We studied 45 women with symptomatic TV attending a specialty chronic vaginitis clinic. These patients were older than the usual symptomatic patients with TV. They frequently described unusual chronicity of symptoms, half being referred because of clinical resistance and the other half referred because of chronic vaginitis of unknown etiology. Results: In spite of the chronicity of infection, the signs and symptoms of florid inflammation were still evident and high numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and parasitic load were present. Conclusions: A longstanding infection, especially if previously untreated, invariably responded to conventional nitroimidazole therapy. In addition, the majority of patients seen with clinical resistance to the conventional doses of metronidazole responded to high-dose oral metronidazole therapy. Unsuspected TV should always be considered in low-risk patients with chronic vulvovaginal symptoms. PMID:18476071

Dan, Michael

1996-01-01

283

Vaginal Estrogen Therapy for Patients with Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

On account of the good prognosis for patients with breast cancer, improving or maintaining the quality of life in the aftercare period is becoming more and more important. In particular, the increasing usage of aromatase inhibitors in the past few years has led to an increased incidence of vaginal atrophy with symptoms such as vaginal dryness, petechial bleeding, dyspareunia and recurrent cystitis. And just these symptoms have a detrimental impact on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. Application of a topical estrogen therapy represents the most effective means to treat vaginal atrophy. The use of a systemic or, respectively, topical hormone therapy is, however, contraindicated for breast cancer patients. Further clinical trials are needed in order to assess the safety of vaginal estrogen therapy. PMID:24771890

Moegele, M.; Buchholz, S.; Seitz, S.; Lattrich, C.; Ortmann, O.

2013-01-01

284

Management of Vaginal Atrophy: Implications from the REVIVE Survey  

PubMed Central

Vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) is a chronic and progressive medical condition common in postmenopausal women. Symptoms of VVA such as dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, irritation, and itching can negatively impact sexual function and quality of life. The REVIVE (REal Women’s VIews of Treatment Options for Menopausal Vaginal ChangEs) survey assessed knowledge about VVA and recorded attitudes about interactions with healthcare providers (HCPs) and available treatment options for VVA. The REVIVE survey identified unmet needs of women with VVA symptoms such as poor understanding of the condition, poor communication with HCPs despite the presence of vaginal symptoms, and concerns about the safety, convenience, and efficacy of available VVA treatments. HCPs can address these unmet needs by proactively identifying patients with VVA and educating them about the condition as well as discussing treatment preferences and available therapies for VVA. PMID:24987271

Wysocki, Susan; Kingsberg, Sheryl; Krychman, Michael

2014-01-01

285

Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations failed to reach. However, hypotonic formulations caused free drugs to be drawn through the epithelium, reducing vaginal retention. In contrast, hypotonic formulations caused MPP to accumulate rapidly and uniformly on vaginal surfaces, ideally positioned for sustained drug delivery. Using a mouse model of vaginal genital herpes (HSV-2) infection, we found that hypotonic delivery of free drug led to improved immediate protection, but diminished longer-term protection. Minimally hypotonic formulations provided rapid and uniform delivery of MPP to the entire vaginal surface, thus enabling formulations with minimal risk of epithelial toxicity. We then describe an ex vivo method for characterizing particle transport on freshly excised mucosal tissues. By directly observing MPP transport on vaginal, gastrointestinal, and respiratory tissue, we were able to determine an innate difference in mucus mesh size at different anatomical locations. In addition, we were able to optimize particle size for gastrointestinal delivery in mice. As described here, there are numerous barriers to effective drug delivery in the gastrointestinal tract, including the mucus barrier. We go on to demonstrate that MPP can improve delivery in the gastrointestinal tract, both by rectal and oral administration. Finally, we describe the use of MPP for improving vaginal drug delivery. Incomplete drug coverage and short duration of action limit the effectiveness of vaginally administered drugs, including microbicides for preventing sexually transmitted infections. We show that MPP provide uniform distribution over the vaginal epithelium, whereas CP are aggregated by mouse vaginal mucus, leading to poor distribution. By penetrating into the deepest mucus layers in the rugae, more MPP were retained in the vaginal tract compared to CP. After 24 h, when delivered in a conventional vaginal gel, patches of a model drug remained on the vaginal epithelium, whereas the epithelium was coated with drug delivered by MPP. We then demonstrate that when administered 30 min prior to inoculum, anti-HSV-2 MPP protected

Ensign-Hodges, Laura

286

Management of Vaginal Erosion of Polypropylene Mesh Slings  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe SPARC (American Medical Systems, Minneapolis, Minnesota) polypropylene sling has recently been introduced as an alternative delivery system to TVT (Ethicon, New Brunswick, New Jersey) tension-free vaginal tape for placement of a tension-free mid urethral sling. Erosion must always be considered a risk of synthetic materials. We present 4 cases of vaginal erosion of polypropylene mesh placed with this system

KATHLEEN C. KOBASHI; FRED E. GOVIER

2003-01-01

287

A classification system and reconstructive algorithm for acquired vaginal defects.  

PubMed

Although multiple flaps have been used for vaginal reconstruction, a logical approach to reconstruction of these often complex defects has not been described. The objective of this study was to establish a classification system for acquired vaginal defects and to develop a reconstructive algorithm derived from this system. This study is a retrospective review of a 7-year experience with 51 flaps in 37 consecutive vaginal reconstructions. Twenty-two partial defects and 15 circumferential defects were reconstructed in 35 patients. Average patient age was 48 years (range, 19 to 69 years). Of the 22 patients with partial vaginal defects, six involved primarily the anterior and lateral wall and 16 the posterior vaginal wall. Among the 15 patients with circumferential defects, four included only the upper two-thirds of the vagina and 11 encompassed the entire vagina. On the basis of these defects, a classification system was developed. Partial defects involving the anterior or lateral vaginal wall were classified as type IA defects and were reconstructed primarily with pedicled Singapore fasciocutaneous flaps. Partial defects involving the posterior wall were classified as type IB and were reconstructed with pedicled rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps. Circumferential defects involving the upper two-thirds of the vagina were classified as type IIA defects and were reconstructed with a rolled rectus flap or, less commonly, sigmoid colon (one patient). Total circumferential defects, type IIB, were reconstructed largely with bilateral gracilis flaps. Six patients had major complications, including one perioperative death, one complete flap loss, one partial flap loss, and three pelvic abscesses. Three patients had minor complications that included delayed wound healing and donor-site infection. Vaginal defects can be categorized into one of four types on the basis of the location and extent of resection. Flap selection is determined on the basis of the type of defect. Using this algorithm, immediate vaginal reconstruction with pedicled regional flaps can be performed with minimal patient morbidity and few surgical complications. PMID:12198418

Cordeiro, Peter G; Pusic, Andrea L; Disa, Joseph J

2002-09-15

288

[Vaginal candidiasis--treatment protocols using miconazole and fluconazole].  

PubMed

The incidence of fungal infections is growing in the last 20 years. The epidemiological studies show that 45% of all vaginal infections are caused by Candida albicans or other Candida species. 7 out of 10 women suffer from yeast infection at least once in a lifetime and 4 out of 10 have multiple recurrences. 20-55% of women have asyptomatic vaginal colonization with Candida species. It is strongly believed that fungal infection is not sexually transmitted disease. The route of transmission is oral and it is estrogene dependant. The diagnosis is based on macroscopic, microscopic examination (KOH preparation), culture and rarely Pap test. Treatment of vaginal candidiosis is based on two principles: elimination of predisposing factors antifungal treatment Local treatment is the first line of choice in cases of acute vaginal yeast infection with 84-90% success rate. There are a variety of local preparations on our market including Nizoral, Clotrimazole, Canesten, Gyno-Daktarine, Gyno-Pevaryl, Miconazole. Different groups of broad spectrum oral antimycotics are also used including Nystatine, Ketoconazole (Nizoral), Fluconazole (Diflucan, Fungolon, Mycosyst), itraconazole (Orungal). The treatment of chronic, recurrent and resistant forms of vaginal candidosis is carried out with prolonged local and/or systemic therapy for a period of at least 6 months. Different regimes of therapy are proposed. Fluconazole is an oral drug of choice for continuous treatment of vaginal yeast infection with the least toxicity. PMID:14619753

Mazne?kova, V

2003-01-01

289

Bioadhesive mini-tablets for vaginal drug delivery.  

PubMed

Different non-ionic cellulose ethers (methyl cellulose, MC; hydroxyethyl cellulose, HEC; hydroxypropyl cellulose, HPC; hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, HPMC) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were investigated as matrix formers for preparation of mini-tablets targeting vaginal drug delivery. Hexyl aminolevulinat hydrochloridum (HAL) was used as a model drug. The mini-tablets were characterized with respect to their mechanical strength, bioadhesion towards cow vaginal tissue in two independent tests (rotating cylinder test, detachment test using texture analyzer), and dissolution rate in two media mimicking the pH levels of fertile, healthy and post-menopausal women (vaginal fluid simulant pH 4.5, phosphate buffer pH 6.8). Mini-tablets with a matrix of either HPMC or HPC were found to possess adequate mechanical strength, superior bioadhesive behavior towards vaginal tissue, and pH independent controlled release of the model drug, suggesting that both systems would be suited for the treatment of women regardless of age, i.e., respective of their vaginal pH levels. Bioadhesive mini-tablets offer a potential for improved residence time in the vaginal cavity targeting contact with mucosal tissue and prolonged release of the drug. PMID:25166286

Hiorth, Marianne; Nilsen, Susanne; Tho, Ingunn

2014-01-01

290

Liposomes containing drugs for treatment of vaginal infections.  

PubMed

To develop a novel vaginal delivery system, able to effectively deliver entrapped drugs during an extended period of time at the site of action, liposomes made of phosphatidylcholine were prepared by two different methods, namely the polyol dilution method and the proliposome method. Liposomes containing three commonly applied drugs in the treatment of vaginal infections: clotrimazole, metronidazole and chloramphenicol were tested for in vitro stability (in buffers at pH 4.5 and 5.9 representing pre- and postmenopausal vaginal pH). In situ stability (in the presence of cow vaginal mucosa) showed that after 6 h incubation (at 37 degrees C), liposomes retained more than 40% of originally entrapped clotrimazole, 28% of entrapped metronidazole or 37% of entrapped chloramphenicol. In vitro and in situ stability studies confirmed the applicability of liposomes as a carrier system for vaginal delivery. Even after 24 h of incubation in the presence of vaginal mucosa liposomes retained sufficient amounts of entrapped drugs. PMID:10425385

Paveli?, Z; Skalko-Basnet, N; Jalsenjak, I

1999-08-01

291

Humid site stabilization and closure  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the work described here is to identify and evaluate the importance of factors that are expected to dictate the nature of site stabilization and closure requirements. Subsequent efforts will plan for implementation of such requirements. Two principal areas of site stabilization and closure effort will be pursued initially - geological management and vegetation management. The geological effort will focus on chemical weathering and surficial erosion. Such catastrophic geologic events as landslides, flooding, earthquakes, volcanos, etc. are already considered in site selection and operation and these factors will not be emphasized initially. Vegetation management will be designed to control erosion, to minimize nuclide mobilization by roots and to be compatible with natural successional pressures. It is anticipated that the results of this work will be important both to site selection and operation as well as the actual stabilization and closure procedure.

Cutshall, N.H.

1981-01-01

292

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, James A. (Thornton, CO); Stoddard, Lawrence M. (Arvada, CO)

1986-01-01

293

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

1984-01-31

294

Preparation and Characterisation of Fluconazole Vaginal Films for the Treatment of Vaginal Candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate vaginal films with essential in vitro studies. Films were developed using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as a polymer and formulations were coded. The developed films were evaluated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, drug content, viscosity, surface pH, thickness, mechanical characterisation and in vitro drug release study. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results confirmed that there is no chemical interaction between drug and stabilisers/excipients. The batch variation was not more than 5% for average thickness and weight of the films. The drug content for the prepared formulation was in the range of 72.32±0.18% to 94.48±0.54%. Viscosity of the formulations increased with the increase in concentration of polymer. Mechanical characterisation revealed that tensile strength and percentage elongation of the films improved as there is increase in degree of substitution of the polymer, but the values of modulus decreased which confirmed that all the prepared films are soft in nature. The in vitro study indicated that 1 and 2% concentrations of polymer are the least concentrations to control the release of drug whereas the 4% concentration of polymer is a good and more effective concentration to control the release. Only one prepared formulation released the drug by following anomalous transport whereas other film formulations released the fluconazole by following Fickian diffusion mechanism. Prepared vaginal films may be an important alternative for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, because these prepared films suggest the benefits of controlled release of fluconazole at the site of absorption. PMID:24403660

Kumar, L.; Reddy, M. S.; Shirodkar, R. K.; Pai, G. K.; Krishna, V. T.; Verma, R.

2013-01-01

295

MAE Seminar Series Boundary Closures for  

E-print Network

MAE Seminar Series Boundary Closures for ESWENO Schemes Mark H. Carpenter, Ph.D. Computational Aero-order, finite-domain ESWENO formulation is developed, featuring new boundary closures that maintain design

Krovi, Venkat

296

50 CFR 622.246 - Area closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Area closures. 622.246 Section 622.246 Wildlife and Fisheries...MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic...246 Area closures. (a) Golden crab trap closed areas. In the golden crab northern zone, a...

2013-10-01

297

40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 265.112 Section...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.112 Closure plan; amendment of...

2013-07-01

298

40 CFR 264.115 - Certification of closure.  

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2014-07-01

299

40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264.112 Section...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of...

2013-07-01

300

40 CFR 264.119 - Post-closure notices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Post-closure notices. 264.119 Section 264.119 Protection...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 264.119 Post-closure notices....

2013-07-01

301

40 CFR 265.119 - Post-closure notices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Post-closure notices. 265.119 Section 265.119 Protection...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.119 Post-closure notices....

2012-07-01

302

40 CFR 264.119 - Post-closure notices.  

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Post-closure notices. 264.119 Section 264.119 Protection...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 264.119 Post-closure notices....

2014-07-01

303

40 CFR 265.115 - Certification of closure.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certification of closure. 265.115 Section 265.115 Protection of...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.115 Certification of closure....

2014-07-01

304

40 CFR 264.115 - Certification of closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certification of closure. 264.115 Section 264.115 Protection of...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 264.115 Certification of closure....

2012-07-01

305

40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.  

... 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264.112 Section...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of...

2014-07-01

306

40 CFR 265.115 - Certification of closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certification of closure. 265.115 Section 265.115 Protection of...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.115 Certification of closure....

2012-07-01

307

40 CFR 265.119 - Post-closure notices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Post-closure notices. 265.119 Section 265.119 Protection...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.119 Post-closure notices....

2013-07-01

308

40 CFR 265.119 - Post-closure notices.  

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Post-closure notices. 265.119 Section 265.119 Protection...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.119 Post-closure notices....

2014-07-01

309

40 CFR 265.115 - Certification of closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certification of closure. 265.115 Section 265.115 Protection of...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.115 Certification of closure....

2013-07-01

310

40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.  

... 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 265.112 Section...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.112 Closure plan; amendment of...

2014-07-01

311

40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264.112 Section...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of...

2012-07-01

312

40 CFR 264.119 - Post-closure notices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Post-closure notices. 264.119 Section 264.119 Protection...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 264.119 Post-closure notices....

2012-07-01

313

40 CFR 264.115 - Certification of closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certification of closure. 264.115 Section 264.115 Protection of...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 264.115 Certification of closure....

2013-07-01

314

40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 265.112 Section...WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.112 Closure plan; amendment of...

2012-07-01

315

Microcrack closure in rocks under stress: direct observation  

SciTech Connect

Microcrack closure in rocks under increasing stress was observed directly with a scanning electron microscope. Uniaxial stresses to 300 bars were applied with a small hydraulic press to specimens of Westerly (RI) granite, both unheated and previously heat cycled to 500/sup 0/C, and of Frederick (MD) diabase, heat cycled to 700/sup 0/C. Closure characteristics (rate, final closure pressure, etc.) depend on crack orientation, shape, surface roughness, and on the nature of fracture intersections and interactions. Cracks perpendicular to the applied stress closed while those parallel to the stress tended to open. Long, narrow cracks (low aspect ratio) closed at relatively low pressures. At some intersections, one fracture would open while another simultaneously closed, depending upon their orientations. Many fractures closed uniformly even though offset by other fractures. Local stress concentrations often caused new fracturing at low applied stress. Some fractures were propped open until material lodged inside was crushed. Significant irreversible damage occurred during the first stress cycle. Closure characteristics varied significantly among the samples. The unheated granite has cracks with rough, pitted, and mismatched walls. Only partial closure occurred under stress with many sections remaining open. Crack porosity is reduced but continues to be interconnected. Fractures in the preheated granite and diabase are also irregular, but the walls are well-matched and closure is nearly complete. The cracks in the heated granite closed at lower stresses than in the diabase. As the maximum stress was approached for the heated granite, new transgranular cracks formed and preexisting cracks were enlarged. The variations in closure rate and character were also observed in strain measurements.

Batzle, M.L.; Simmons, G.; Siegfried, R.W.

1980-12-10

316

Evaluation of left ventricular function by tissue Doppler and speckle-derived strain rate echocardiography after percutaneous ductus closure.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the left ventricular systolic and diastolic function before and after transcatheter percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure. 21 children (age >6 months old) diagnosed with hemodynamically significant PDA underwent percutaneous PDA closure. Conventional, Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging and speckled-derived strain rate echocardiography were done at pre-closure, 1 day (early) and 1 month (late) post-closure. Mean age of the patients (female/male: 1.3) was 17.54 ± 24.7 months with the mean PDA diameter of 3.6 ± 0.8 mm. Systolic measures (ejection fraction, shortening fraction) reduced significantly early after PDA closure (P < 0.05). After 1 month, both improved significantly; ultimately, after 1 month no change was observed in systolic function measures compared with the pre-closure status. Early and late diastolic flow velocities of mitral (E M and A M) reduced considerably in early and late post-closure time (P < 0.05). Both early tissue Doppler early velocity of lateral mitral annulus (E'M) and early to late velocity ratio (E'M/A'M) of lateral mitral annulus decreased significantly (P = 0.02) in early post-closure. After 1 month, E'M increased considerably. (P = 0.01) but E'M/A'M had an insignificant rise (P > 0.05). E M/E'M ratio did not change in early post-closure but it had a considerable reduction in the subsequent month compared with the pre- and early post-closure (P < 0.001 for both occasions). Global and segmental longitudinal strain measures reduced significantly early after PDA closure (P < 0.05) but it improved remarkably in the subsequent month. Transcatheter PDA closure causes a significant decrease in left ventricular performance early after PDA closure which recovers completely within 1 month. Also PDA size can affect post-closure left ventricular function. PMID:25107547

Amoogzar, Hamid; Shakiba, Ali Mohammad; Derakhshan, Dorna; Ajami, Gholamhossein; Cheriki, Sirous; Borzouee, Mohammad; Edraki, Mohammad Reza; Mehdizadegan, Nima

2015-01-01

317

Mechanisms of premature closure of cranial sutures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Craniosynostosis is defined as premature closure of the sutures of the skull, resulting in cranial deformity. Since Virchow’s\\u000a original paper describing the relationship between premature suture closure and skull morphology, we have learned much about\\u000a the underlying mechanisms and consequences of premature suture closure. In this paper we will describe the biology of suture\\u000a closure, the rules governing the resulting

Tord D. Alden; Kant Y. Lin; John A. Jane

1999-01-01

318

The blowup closure of a set of ideals with applications to T I closure  

E-print Network

The blowup closure of a set of ideals with applications to T I closure Sara Faridi #3; October 1, 2001 Abstract We introduce a new closure operation on sets of ideals in a commutative Noetherian ring of characteristic p, called the blowup closure. We develop the theory of this operation and prove that given a set

Faridi, Sara

319

ACHIEVING CLOSURE Good practice in supporting older people during residential care closures  

E-print Network

ACHIEVING CLOSURE Good practice in supporting older people during residential care closures A joint Birmingham's size, the care home closure programme is believed to be one of the biggest in the UK Association (2011) on Managing Care Home Closure and guidance by the Welsh Assembly Government (2009). Much

Birmingham, University of

320

A quadrature closure for the reaction-source term in conditional-moment closure  

E-print Network

A quadrature closure for the reaction-source term in conditional-moment closure S.T. Smith a,*, R-0235, USA Abstract A Gaussian-quadrature closure is introduced for the conditional reaction-source term in conditional- moment closure, motivated by the desire to accurately model the dynamics of homogeneous

Raman, Venkat

321

The idea behind the 48-hour weekend closures (as opposed to multiple lane closures  

E-print Network

#12;#12;The idea behind the 48-hour weekend closures (as opposed to multiple lane closures with multiple traffic impacts it was decided that the area would further benefit from two weekend closures closures allowed for a greater number of crews to work in coordination with one another while reducing

Minnesota, University of

322

Plot procedure finds closure pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure has been developed for using a log-log plot of pressure decline to identify different flow regimes following microfrac or minifrac. Coupled with the square of time plot, it is possible to verify that the straight line used for determining closure pressure is a correct one. A log-log plot has been used as a diagnostic tool for identifying various

Sookprasong

1986-01-01

323

Closure constraints for hyperbolic tetrahedra  

E-print Network

We investigate the generalization of loop gravity's twisted geometries to a q-deformed gauge group. In the standard undeformed case, loop gravity is a formulation of general relativity as a diffeomorphism-invariant SU(2) gauge theory. Its classical states are graphs provided with algebraic data. In particular closure constraints at every node of the graph ensure their interpretation as twisted geometries. Dual to each node, one has a polyhedron embedded in flat space R^3. One then glues them allowing for both curvature and torsion. It was recently conjectured that q-deforming the gauge group SU(2) would allow to account for a non-vanishing cosmological constant Lambda, and in particular that deforming the loop gravity phase space with real parameter q>0 would lead to a generalization of twisted geometries to a hyperbolic curvature. Following this insight, we look for generalization of the closure constraints to the hyperbolic case. In particular, we introduce two new closure constraints for hyperbolic tetrahedra. One is compact and expressed in terms of normal rotations (group elements in SU(2) associated to the triangles) and the second is non-compact and expressed in terms of triangular matrices (group elements in SB(2,C)). We show that these closure constraints both define a unique dual tetrahedron (up to global translations on the three-dimensional one-sheet hyperboloid) and are thus ultimately equivalent.

Christoph Charles; Etera R. Livine

2015-01-05

324

Abstract Congruence Closure Leo Bachmair  

E-print Network

of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-4400, U.S.A. (leo@cs.sunysb.edu) Ashish Tiwari SRI International, 333Abstract Congruence Closure #3; Leo Bachmair Department of Computer Science, State University Ravenswood Ave, Menlo Park, CA 94025, U.S.A. (tiwari@csl.sri.com) Laurent Vigneron LORIA { Universit#19;e

Vigneron, Laurent

325

Fourier's Law from Closure Equations  

E-print Network

We give a rigorous derivation of Fourier's law from a system of closure equations for a nonequilibrium stationary state of a Hamiltonian system of coupled oscillators subjected to heat baths on the boundary. The local heat flux is proportional to the temperature gradient with a temperature dependent heat conductivity and the stationary temperature exhibits a nonlinear profile.

Jean Bricmont; Antti Kupiainen

2006-09-01

326

CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0-14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only <0.5% of patients. Postdeployment bleeding occurred in 6.4%, and most these (51.5%) could be managed with light manual compression. During follow-up, other device-related complications were reported in 1.3%: seven false aneurysms, three hematoma >5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan [Academic Hospitals, Department of Radiology (Germany); Libicher, Martin [University Clinics, Department of Radiology (Germany); Atar, Eli [Hasharon Hospital, Department of Radiology (Israel); Trentmann, Jens [University Clinics Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Radiology (Germany); Goffette, Pierre [University Clinics St. Luc, Department of Radiology (Belgium); Borggrefe, Jan [University Clinics Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Radiology (Germany); Zelenak, Kamil [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia); Hooijboer, Pieter [Scheper Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Belli, Anna-Maria [St. Georges Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2011-02-15

327

Vaginal suppositories containing Lactobacillus acidophilus: development and characterization.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and characterize suppositories for vaginal delivery of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Methods: Formulations were performed in order to select suitable excipients based on suppository formation feasibility and cytotoxicity. Solid body and hollow-type suppositories were prepared by melting and molding using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 400 and 4000 or Witepsol (WIT) H12 as excipients. L. acidophilus was incorporated in the molten mass before molding solid body suppositories or added as suspension into the cavity of hollow-type suppositories and sealed molten excipients. Cytotoxicity of the selected excipients was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium and lactate dehydrogenase assays against VK2/E6E7, HEC-1-A and HeLa cells. Suppositories were characterized regarding organoleptic characteristics, mass uniformity, disintegration, breaking strength and L. acidophilus in vitro release. Results: PEG 400, PEG 4000 and WIT H12 showed the absence of toxicity when tested using three different vaginal cell lines. Obtained vaginal suppositories presented uniform and mild texture, a content of about 1?×?10(8) colony-forming units, completely disintegrated in simulated vaginal environment in less than 60?min and provided sustained in vitro release of L. acidophilus. Release studies further demonstrated that incorporation of freeze-dried bacteria did not result in significant loss of viable bacteria, thus supporting that vaginal suppositories may possess good properties to promote the replacement of the vaginal flora in situations of urinary tract infection. Conclusion: Hollow-type suppositories showed to be promising delivery vehicles for vaginal delivery of probiotics. PMID:25265366

Rodrigues, Francisca; Maia, Maria João; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno; Amaral, Maria Helena; P P Oliveira, Maria Beatriz

2014-09-29

328

CATEGORICAL CLOSURE OPERATORS VIA GALOIS CONNECTIONS  

E-print Network

CATEGORICAL CLOSURE OPERATORS VIA GALOIS CONNECTIONS G. Castellini 1 , J. Koslowski 2 , G. E. Strecker 3 0. INTRODUCTION Closure operators are well-known in topology and order theory. In the setting of an E, M - category for sinks we show that the categorical abstraction of the notion of closure operator

Castellini, Gabriele

329

Higher-order closures and cloud parameterizations  

E-print Network

Higher-order closures and cloud parameterizations Jean-Christophe Golaz National Research Council Sciences University of Wisconsin --- Milwaukee #12;Outline · What is higher-order closure? · Historical we prognose cloud fraction? · Sample results · Conclusions #12;What is higher-order closure

330

CATEGORICAL CLOSURE OPERATORS VIA GALOIS CONNECTIONS  

E-print Network

CATEGORICAL CLOSURE OPERATORS VIA GALOIS CONNECTIONS G. Castellini 1 , J. Koslowski 2 , G. E. Strecker 3 0. INTRODUCTION Closure operators are well­known in topology and order theory. In the setting of an hE; Mi ­ category for sinks we show that the categorical abstraction of the notion of closure

Koslowski, Jürgen

331

Closure Approximations for Passive Scalar Turbulence  

E-print Network

Closure Approximations for Passive Scalar Turbulence: A Comparative Study on an Exactly Solvable running head: "Closure approximations: A Comparative Study" Corresponding author: Peter Kramer 301 Amos Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 1 #12;Abstract Some standard closure approximations used

Kramer, Peter

332

Categorical Closure Operators G. Castellini1  

E-print Network

Categorical Closure Operators G. Castellini1 Dedicated to George Strecker on his sixtieth birthday ABSTRACT: A brief survey of the development of the theory of closure operators is presented. Results are also included together with a number of supporting examples. KEY WORDS: Closure operator, Galois

Castellini, Gabriele

333

ANNOUNCES CLOSURE ALERT ON SEARSVILLE ROAD  

E-print Network

ANNOUNCES CLOSURE ALERT ON SEARSVILLE ROAD AUGUST 29 ­ OCTOBER 3, 2014 The Department of Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) would like to alert the Stanford community and public to a road closure not be available on Searsville Road due to this closure. To reach EH&S during this period when traveling on campus

334

Polynomial Closure Paul-Jean Cahen  

E-print Network

Polynomial Closure Paul-Jean Cahen December 15, 2005 Abstract. Let D be a domain with quotient field K. The polynomial closure of a subset E of K is the largest subset F of K such that each that the closure of a fractional ideal is a fractional ideal, that divisorial ideals are closed and that conversely

Cahen, Paul-Jean

335

Closure Approximations for Passive Scalar Turbulence  

E-print Network

Closure Approximations for Passive Scalar Turbulence: A Comparative Study on an Exactly Solvable Suggested running head: "Closure approximations: A Comparative Study" Corresponding author: Peter Kramer 301 Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 1 #12;Abstract Some standard closure approximations used

Van Den Eijnden, Eric

336

Typed Closure Conversion Yasuhiko Minamide y  

E-print Network

Typed Closure Conversion Yasuhiko Minamide y Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences Kyoto Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213{3891 rwh@cs.cmu.edu Abstract Closure conversion is a program transformation used by compilers to separate code from data. Previous accounts of closure

Minamide, Yasuhiko

337

REGULAR CLOSURE OPERATORS G. Castellini 1  

E-print Network

REGULAR CLOSURE OPERATORS G. Castellini 1 , J. Koslowski, G. E. Strecker Dedicated to Professor in M to factor through the "lattice" of all closure operators on M , and to factor through certain sublattices. This leads to the notion of regular closure operator. As one byproduct of these results we

Castellini, Gabriele

338

CLOSURE OPERATORS, FUZZY LOGIC AND CONSTRAINTS  

E-print Network

CLOSURE OPERATORS, FUZZY LOGIC AND CONSTRAINTS.unina.it March 8, 2001 1 Introduction The notion of closure operator is very useful in several areas. In particular, the theory of closure operator gives a powerful tool for (crisp) logics and this since

Gerla, Giangiacomo

339

Typed Closure Conversion Yasuhiko Minamide 1  

E-print Network

Typed Closure Conversion Yasuhiko Minamide 1 Greg Morrisett Robert Harper July 1995 CMU{CS{95 Science Foundation. #12;Keywords: closure conversion, type theory, polymorphism #12;Abstract We study the typing properties of closure conversion for simply-typed and polymorphic -calculi. Unlike most accounts

Minamide, Yasuhiko

340

Nonlinear Tests of OneDimensional Closures  

E-print Network

Chapter 4 Nonlinear Tests of One­Dimensional Closures The linear theory of Landau­fluid equations. There is an exact kinetic solution for this problem. The problem is solved using a finite moment system with closure and will die away due to 65 #12; 66 CHAPTER 4. NONLINEAR TESTS OF ONE­DIMENSIONAL CLOSURES v z Initial

Hammett, Greg

341

Typed Closure Conversion \\Lambda Yasuhiko Minamide y  

E-print Network

Typed Closure Conversion \\Lambda Yasuhiko Minamide y Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213--3891 rwh@cs.cmu.edu Abstract Closure conversion is a program transformation used by compilers to separate code from data. Previous accounts of closure

Morrisett, Greg

342

Typed Closure Conversion Yasuhiko Minamide \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Typed Closure Conversion Yasuhiko Minamide \\Lambda Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences properties of closure conversion for simply­typed and polymorphic â??­calculi. Unlike most ac­ counts of closure conversion, which only treat the untyped â??­calculus, we translate well­typed source programs

Harper, Robert

343

Biomechanical Porcine Model of Median Sternotomy Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Healing complications following median sternotomy commonly include instability, nonunion, and infection. They are associated with a high mortality rate if mediastinitis supervenes. Closure complications are best avoided by improving stability at the union, but there has thus far been no widespread agreement among surgeons about relative superiority among the available closure techniques.Materials and methods. A biological sternotomy closure model

Julian E. Losanoff; Jason R. Foerst; Harold Huff; Bruce W. Richman; Andrea D. Collier; Fu-hung Hsieh; Sunggyu Lee; James W. Jones

2002-01-01

344

Higher Separation Axioms in Generalized Closure Spaces  

E-print Network

Higher Separation Axioms in Generalized Closure Spaces B¨arbel M.R. Stadler1, and Peter F. Stadler1://www.tbi.univie.ac.at/~{baer,studla} corresponding author Abstract The hierarchy of separation axioms that is familiar from topological spaces of the closure function must be assumed. Keywords: extended topologies, closure spaces, separation axioms

Stadler, Peter F.

345

Regional differences in rat vaginal smooth muscle contractility and morphology.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to define the regional differences in rat vaginal smooth muscle contractility and morphology. We evaluated circumferential segments from the proximal, middle, and distal rat vagina (n = 21) in vitro. Contractile responses to carbachol, phenylephrine, potassium chloride, and electrical field stimulation (EFS) were measured. Immunohistochemical analyses were also performed. The dose-response curves for carbachol- and phenylephrine-dependent contractions were different in the distal (P = .05, P = .04) compared to the proximal/middle regions. Adjusted for region-dependent changes in contractility, the distal vagina generated lower force in response to carbachol and higher force in response to phenylephrine. There was less force with increasing EFS frequency in the distal (P = .03), compared to the proximal/middle regions. Cholinergic versus adrenergic nerves were more frequent in the proximal region (P = .03). In summary, the results indicate that functional and morphological differences in smooth muscle and nerve fibers of the distal versus proximal/middle regions of the vagina exist. PMID:23298869

Skoczylas, Laura C; Jallah, Zegbeh; Sugino, Yoshio; Stein, Suzan E; Feola, Andrew; Yoshimura, Naoki; Moalli, Pamela

2013-04-01

346

Regional Differences in Rat Vaginal Smooth Muscle Contractility and Morphology  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to define the regional differences in rat vaginal smooth muscle contractility and morphology. We evaluated circumferential segments from the proximal, middle, and distal rat vagina (n = 21) in vitro. Contractile responses to carbachol, phenylephrine, potassium chloride, and electrical field stimulation (EFS) were measured. Immunohistochemical analyses were also performed. The dose–response curves for carbachol- and phenylephrine-dependent contractions were different in the distal (P = .05, P = .04) compared to the proximal/middle regions. Adjusted for region-dependent changes in contractility, the distal vagina generated lower force in response to carbachol and higher force in response to phenylephrine. There was less force with increasing EFS frequency in the distal (P = .03), compared to the proximal/middle regions. Cholinergic versus adrenergic nerves were more frequent in the proximal region (P = .03). In summary, the results indicate that functional and morphological differences in smooth muscle and nerve fibers of the distal versus proximal/middle regions of the vagina exist. PMID:23298869

Skoczylas, Laura C.; Jallah, Zegbeh; Sugino, Yoshio; Stein, Suzan E.; Feola, Andrew; Yoshimura, Naoki

2013-01-01

347

Acid Production by Vaginal Flora In Vitro Is Consistent with the Rate and Extent of Vaginal Acidification  

PubMed Central

Perinatally, and between menarche and menopause, increased levels of estrogen cause large amounts of glycogen to be deposited in the vaginal epithelium. During these times, the anaerobic metabolism of the glycogen, by the epithelial cells themselves and/or by vaginal flora, causes the vagina to become acidic (pH ?4). This study was designed to test whether the characteristics of acid production by vaginal flora in vitro can account for vaginal acidity. Eight vaginal Lactobacillus isolates from four species—L. gasseri, L. vaginalis, L. crispatus, and L. jensenii—acidified their growth medium to an asymptotic pH (3.2 to 4.8) that matches the range seen in the Lactobacillus-dominated human vagina (pH 3.6 to 4.5 in most women) (B. Andersch, L. Forssman, K. Lincoln, and P. Torstensson, Gynecol. Obstet. Investig. 21:19–25, 1986; L. Cohen, Br. J. Vener. Dis. 45:241–246, 1969; J. Paavonen, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. Suppl. 40:31–35, 1983; C. Tevi-Bénissan, L. Bélec, M. Lévy, V. Schneider-Fauveau, A. Si Mohamed, M.-C. Hallouin, M. Matta, and G. Grésenguet, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 4:367–374, 1997). During exponential growth, all of these Lactobacillus species acidified their growth medium at rates on the order of 106 protons/bacterium/s. Such rates, combined with an estimate of the total number of lactobacilli in the vagina, suggest that vaginal lactobacilli could reacidify the vagina at the rate observed postcoitally following neutralization by the male ejaculate (W. H. Masters and V. E. Johnson, Human sexual response, p. 93, 1966). During bacterial vaginosis (BV), there is a loss of vaginal acidity, and the vaginal pH rises to >4.5. This correlates with a loss of lactobacilli and an overgrowth of diverse bacteria. Three BV-associated bacteria, Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella bivia, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, acidified their growth medium to an asymptotic pH (4.7 to 6.0) consistent with the characteristic elevated vaginal pH associated with BV. Together, these observations are consistent with vaginal flora, rather than epithelial cells, playing a primary role in creating the acidity of the vagina. PMID:10496892

Boskey, E. R.; Telsch, K. M.; Whaley, K. J.; Moench, T. R.; Cone, R. A.

1999-01-01

348

Clinical evaluation of three-day treatment of vaginal mycosis with clotrimazole vaginal tablets.  

PubMed

A double-blind study was conducted comparing a 3-day (200 mg once a day for 3 consecutive days) treatment with a 6-day (100 mg once a day for 6 consecutive days) treatment of clotrimazole in patients with vaginal mycoses. Two days after therapy, fungal eradication was achieved in 87.7% of the patients who received 3-day therapy and 89.1% of patients who received 6-day therapy. With regard to the clinical assessment, 2 days after therapy the symptoms had disappeared in 54.4%, improvement in 42.1%, were unchanged in 1.8%, and aggravated in 1.8% of the 3-day therapy group. The corresponding values in the 6-day group were 63.6%, 34.5%, 1.8% and 0%. Reappearance of fungi was found 2 weeks after therapy in 15.6% of the 3-day treatment group and 8.7% of the 6-day treatment group. No adverse reactions were seen in either group which necessitated the discontinuation of therapy. There were no statistical differences between any of the above results and it is therefore concluded that 3-day clotrimazole therapy is an effective treatment for primary vaginal mycosis. PMID:6347750

Mizuno, S; Cho, N

1983-01-01

349

Converting Potential Abdominal Hysterectomy to Vaginal One: Laparoscopic Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

Background. The idea of laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) is to convert a potential abdominal hysterectomy to a vaginal one, thus decreasing associated morbidity and hastening recovery. We compared intraoperative and postoperative outcomes between LAVH and abdominal hysterectomy, to find out if LAVH achieves better clinical results compared with abdominal hysterectomy. Material and methods. A total of 48 women were enrolled in the study. Finally 17 patients underwent LAVH (cases) and 20 underwent abdominal hysterectomy (controls). All surgeries were performed by a set of gynecologists with more or less same level of surgical experience and expertise. Results.None of the patients in LAVH required conversion to laparotomy. Mean operating time was 30 minutes longer in LAVH group as compared to abdominal hysterectomy group (167.06 + 31.97?min versus 135.25 + 31.72 min; P < 0.05). However, the mean blood loss in LAVH was 100?mL lesser than that in abdominal hysterectomy and the difference was found to be statistically significant (248.24 + 117.79?mL versus 340.00 + 119.86?mL; P < 0.05). Another advantage of LAVH was significantly lower pain scores on second and third postoperative days. Overall complications and postoperative hospital stay were not significantly different between the two groups. PMID:24729873

Shetty, Jyothi; Shanbhag, Asha

2014-01-01

350

Novel multimodality endoscopic closure of postoperative esophageal fistula  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Esophageal fistula following esophagectomy is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present the case of a 71-year-old man who underwent salvage Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy, following definitive chemoradiotherapy 1 year previously. On postoperative day 9 the patient complained of chest pain, and a CT scan demonstrated extravasation of oral contrast from the gastric conduit into the right chest. A right chest drain and fully covered esophageal stent were placed at this time. Despite these measures, after 8 weeks, the esophageal fistula persisted. Ultimately, fistula closure was achieved using an interventional radiology-guided, endoscopically placed over-the-scope clip (OTSC). The patient had no further complications and was well at 3 months follow-up. DISCUSSION The case reported herein describes this novel, combined-modality approach to esophageal fistula closure. CONCLUSION This case report demonstrates a novel, minimally invasive, multidisciplinary approach to the closure of a post-esophagectomy anastamotic leak. PMID:22943885

Markar, Sheraz R.; Koehler, Richard; Low, Donald E.; Ross, Andrew

2012-01-01

351

Chitosan gel containing polymeric nanocapsules: a new formulation for vaginal drug delivery  

PubMed Central

The vaginal route of administration is an alternative for several treatments for either local or systemic pharmacological effects. However, the permanence of a drug in this route represents a challenge for formulation development that can be overcome by using nanoencapsulation and chitosan gel. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the performance of chitosan hydrogels containing cationic and anionic acrylic-based nanocapsules (Eudragit® RS 100 and Eudragit® S 100, respectively) with Nile red as a model of lipophilic substance in the vaginal route of administration, as measured by increases in the residence time and the penetration of these formulations. Several formulations were prepared with increasing chitosan concentrations, and were analyzed in terms of pH and rheological behavior so that the most suitable formulation could be selected. The enhancement of the adhesion (tensile stress test and washability profile) and penetration (confocal laser scanning microscopy and extraction followed by quantification) properties of the formulations, when applied to porcine vaginal mucosa, were evaluated. The nanocapsule suspensions produced presented adequate properties: size of approximately 200 nm (polydispersity index of ?v0.2); zeta potential around +10 mV for the cationic formulation and -10 mV for the anionic formulation; and pH values of 6.1±0.1 (Eudragit RS 100), 5.3±0.2 (Eudragit S 100), 6.2±0.1 (Nile red loaded Eudragit RS 100), and 5.1±0.1 (Nile red loaded Eudragit S 100). The chitosan formulation presented suitable viscosity for vaginal application and acidic pH (approximately 4.5). The tensile stress test showed that both formulations containing polymeric nanocapsules presented higher mucoadhesion when compared with the formulation without nanocapsules. In the washability experiment, no significant differences were found between formulations. Confocal microscopy and fluorescence quantification after extraction from the mucosa showed higher penetration of Nile red when it was nanoencapsulated, particularly in cationic nanocapsules. The formulations developed based on chitosan gel vehicle at 2.5% weight/weight containing polymeric nanocapsules, especially the cationic nanocapsules, demonstrated applicability for the vaginal delivery of hydrophobic substances. PMID:25061292

Frank, Luiza A; Sandri, Giuseppina; D’Autilia, Francesca; Contri, Renata V; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Caramella, Carla; Frank, Alejandro G; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S

2014-01-01

352

Collectivity-induced quenching of signatures for shell closures  

E-print Network

Mass differences are an often used as signature and measure for shell closure. Using the angular-momentum projected Generator Coordinate Method and the Skyrme interaction SLy4, we analyze the modification of mass differences due to static deformation and dynamic fluctuations around the mean-field ground state.

M. Bender; G. F. Bertsch; P. -H. Heenen

2008-08-27

353

Vaginal yeasts in the era of "over the counter" antifungals  

PubMed Central

Objective: To establish whether there has been any rise in the prevalence of non-albicans Candida species isolated from vaginal swabs since the introduction of "over the counter" antifungal treatments. Method: A retrospective review looking at all positive vaginal yeast isolates collected from women attending one genitourinary medicine clinic during the 6 year period from 1993 to 1998 inclusive. All positive vaginal yeast isolates were included, regardless of whether or not the patients were symptomatic. Isolates from HIV positive women were excluded from the analysis. Result: No increase in non-albicans vaginal yeast isolates was shown during the period studied. The proportion of non-albicans yeasts remained constant at approximately 5% of the total yeasts isolated. The most common non-albicans yeast isolated was C glabrata. Conclusion: There is no evidence from this study to suggest that the increasing use of "over the counter" antifungal treatment has selected for atypical, possibly inherently azole resistant, strains of vaginal yeasts in HIV seronegative women. Key Words: vulvovaginal candidiasis; non-albicans species; antifungal drug resistance PMID:11221124

Walker, P; Reynolds, M; Ashbee, H; Brown, C; Evans, E

2000-01-01

354

Vaginal microbiota of women with frequent vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

PubMed

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an insidious infection that afflicts a large proportion of women of all ages, and 5 to 8% of affected women experience recurrent VVC (RVVC). The aim of this study was to explore the possible importance of vaginal bacterial communities in reducing the risk of RVVC. The species composition and diversity of microbial communities were evaluated for 42 women with and without frequent VVC based on profiles of terminal restriction fragment polymorphisms of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences from the numerically dominant microbial populations. The data showed that there were no significant differences between the vaginal microbial communities of women in the two groups (likelihood score, 5.948; bootstrap P value, 0.26). Moreover, no novel bacteria were found in the communities of women with frequent VVC. The vaginal communities of most women in both groups (38/42; 90%) were dominated by species of Lactobacillus. The results of this study failed to provide evidence for the existence of altered or unusual vaginal bacterial communities in women who have frequent VVC compared to women who do not have frequent VVC. The findings suggest that commensal vaginal bacterial species may not be able to prevent VVC. PMID:19528218

Zhou, Xia; Westman, Rachel; Hickey, Roxana; Hansmann, Melanie A; Kennedy, Colleen; Osborn, Thomas W; Forney, Larry J

2009-09-01

355

Computing Contour Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Existing methods for grouping edges on the basis of localsmoothness measures fail to compute complete contours in natural images:it appears that a stronger global constraint is required. Motivatedby growing evidence that the human visual system exploits contour closurefor the purposes of perceptual grouping [6, 7, 14, 15, 25], we presentan algorithm for computing highly closed bounding contours from images.Unlike

James H. Elder; Steven W. Zucker

1996-01-01

356

Current status of contraceptive vaginal rings.  

PubMed

Contraceptive vaginal rings (CVR) offer a new, effective contraceptive option, expanding the available choices of hormonal contraception. Various ring prototypes have been evaluated: progestin-only rings and combined progestin-estrogen rings, as well as different combination of progestins and estrogens. The progestin-only ring is intended for continuous use, whereas the combined ring has been designed for cyclic 3-week in/1-week out use, although several studies have explored alternative schemes of extended use. However, only two ring designs have reached the market: NuvaRing, a 1-month combined ring that releases etonogestrel and ethinylestradiol, and Progering, a 3-month progesterone-releasing ring for use in lactating women. A one year Nestorone/ethinyl estradiol CVR is approaching the final stages of development, as the Population Council is preparing to submit a new drug application to the Food and Drug Administration. The main advantages of CVRs are their effectiveness (similar or slightly better than the pill), ease of use without the need of remembering a daily routine, user ability to control initiation and discontinuation, nearly constant release rate allowing for lower doses, greater bioavailability and good cycle control with the combined ring, in comparison with oral contraceptives. Current prototypes in development include rings releasing progesterone receptor modulators, which would provide estrogen-free contraception, as well as combined rings releasing estradiol, instead of ethinyl-estradiol, providing a safer profile. Furthermore, intensive efforts towards developing dual protection rings, providing both contraception and protection against reproductive tract infections, offer hope that this greatly needed technology will soon undergo clinical testing and will be in the hands of women worldwide in the near future. PMID:23040125

Brache, Vivian; Payán, Luis José; Faundes, Aníbal

2013-03-01

357

77 FR 8900 - Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Termination of the Investigation Based on Withdrawal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-768] Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Termination of the Investigation Based on...within the United States after importation of certain vaginal birth control devices by reason of infringement of certain...

2012-02-15

358

Three-day therapy of vaginal candidiasis with clotrimazole vaginal tablets and econazole ovules: a multicenter comparative study.  

PubMed

The activity and tolerance of 200 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablets and 150 mg econazole vaginal ovules were compared in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis in a controlled multicenter (3 centers) study. Treatment was allocated according to a randomized list and each investigator treated 20 patients per group. Duration of therapy was 3 days. Follow-up investigations were carried out approximately 1 and 4 weeks after commencement of treatment. The results were analyzed for 54 patients treated with clotrimazole and 57 with econazole; 9 patients were excluded from the analysis because of insufficient data. At the first follow-up examination, 1 week after starting therapy, 93.7% of patients on clotrimazole and 83.7% of patients on econazole had negative cultures. The success of therapy, as judged by the clinicians, was 95.8% for clotrimazole and 88.0% for econazole. For the first and fourth week combined reviews, 86.0% of clotrimazole patients and 77.8% of econazole patients had negative cultures and the success of therapy was 88.4% for clotrimazole and 80.0% for econazole. These differences were not statistically significant but there was a clear numerical superiority for clotrimazole. Tolerance was good in all the patients and no side-effects were observed. One can conclude that the treatment of vaginal candidiasis with a 200-mg vaginal tablet of clotrimazole over 3 days is highly effective and comparable with other established treatment regimes. PMID:6761088

Stettendorf, S; Benijts, G; Vignali, M; Kreysing, W

1982-01-01

359

The treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy with Ovestin vaginal cream or suppositories: clinical, endocrinological and safety aspects.  

PubMed

Seventy-four postmenopausal women presenting with vaginal atrophy were treated with either Ovestin vaginal cream (Group A, 23 women: 1 mg/day E3; Group B, 30 women: 0.5 mg/day E3) or vaginal suppositories (Group C, 21 women: 0.5 mg/day E3), applied daily for 3 wk (A and B) or 2 wk (C) before retiring. Ten women from A and 10 from B applied a maintenance dose (1 application twice weekly) during wk 4-16. Effects on vaginal cytology, cervical mucus and clinical and colposcopic findings were studied. Endometrial biopsies were done in 16 patients (A) before and after 3 wk of treatment, and, in 8 of the cases, at 16 wk. A routine laboratory screening program was performed before and after 16 wk of treatment in 10 patients (A). Plasma samples for hormone level determinations were obtained in 32 patients. Clinical and colposcopic findings showed a beneficial effect of treatments, confirmed by vaginal smears, and persisting during maintenance therapy. Effect on cervical mucus was slight to moderate. No side effects occurred and tolerance was very good. Endometrium remained atrophic under treatment. Screening program revealed no abnormalities. Treatments induced a sharp rise in plasma E3, followed by a gradual decline. Gonadotropins were slightly suppressed. E1, E2, PRL and SHBG capacity remained unchanged. PMID:6785553

Kicovic, P M; Cortes-Prieto, J; Milojevi?, S; Haspels, A A; Aljinovic, A

1980-12-01

360

Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy Compared With Abdominal, Vaginal, and Laparoscopic Vaginal Hysterectomy in a Primary Care Hospital Setting  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study compares the operative parameters of laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy, laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy, total vaginal hysterectomy, and total abdominal hysterectomy in patients in a small suburban medical center. Methods: This investigation is a Canadian Classification II-2. It was performed in a 238 bed not-for-profit community general hospital. Charts of 117 patients were reviewed. These patients had undergone the following procedures: laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy, laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy, total vaginal hysterectomy, total abdominal hysterectomy; questionnaires completed by the patients were reviewed. All patients had hysterectomies performed by members of the Ob/Gyn department of Alamance Regional Medical Center. Comparisons of intraoperative and postoperative events were made in those patients who consented to the study and who returned their questionnaires. Parameters compared were patient age, weight, preoperative diagnosis, operative time, operative complications, blood loss, uterine weight, length of stay, postoperative complications, return to hospital, return to work, resumption of intercourse, dyspareunia, and bowel or bladder problems. Results: Patient demographics and outcomes are similar. Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy showed lower morbidity and quicker return to normal function, but most findings did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The results support the conclusion that the patients in each arm of the study are similar. The operative parameters show a longer operating time for the laparoscopic procedures than for total abdominal hysterectomy and total vaginal hysterectomy, respectively. The other indicators of morbidity show slight advantages of laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy in blood loss, length of stay, and resumption of normal activities. PMID:16121874

2005-01-01

361

Etiology of vaginal infections in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).  

PubMed

to determine the specific antimicrobial activity of the drugs proposed in the national algorithm for treatment of vaginal infections. Over a three-month period, the bacteriological laboratory of the Yalgado-Ouédraogo University Hospital in Ouagadougou analyzed vaginal swabs from women seen at 5 health-care facilities in that city. The study included 404 women with a mean age of 29 years. The microbes with the highest incidence rates were various species of Candida (20%), Gardnerella and/or Mobiluncus (18.8%), and Ureaplasma/Mycoplasma (10.9%). The agents isolated were highly susceptible to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, fluconazole, miconazole, and nystatin. This study demonstrated the continuing efficacy of the drugs in the national algorithm for treatment of vaginal infections, which is associated with compliance with the recommended diagnostic procedure and therapeutic protocol. PMID:24919210

Sanou, I; Millogo-Traoré, F; Bicaba, I; Touré, B; Soudré, F

2014-06-11

362

A vaginal cyst causing dysuria and dyschezia in a bitch.  

PubMed

A 9-year-old female dog was referred to Azabu University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for dysuria and dyschezia after ovariohysterectomy. After a series of diagnostic imaging, vaginal obstruction was suspected by vaginal fluid retention. Surgical repair was attempted three times to establish patency through the vagina and the vestibule by episiotomy and laparotomy. Another laparotomy was performed to remove the entire vaginal mucosal layer to prevent recurrence, which resulted in favorable outcome. Histopathological examination revealed that the resected tissue was a cyst originated from mesonephric duct remnant. In the present case, the cyst was curable by the entire resection of the cyst lining membrane, which could eradicate all the secretory cells with least damage to the urethral vasculature and innervation. PMID:24646603

Watanabe, Toshifumi; Mishina, Mika; Sakurai, Yohei

2014-07-01

363

Morbidity associated with failed vaginal birth after cesarean section.  

PubMed

We investigated morbidity and factors associated with failed vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC). In a retrospective cohort study maternal and neonatal outcomes of women who underwent VBAC in three Nigerian University Teaching Hospitals were reviewed. Univariate, followed by multivariate analyses, were conducted. VBAC was successful in 683 of 1,013 women (67.4%), whereas 330 (32.6%) had failed VBAC. Failed VBAC was associated with higher incidence of chorioamnionitis, postpartum hemorrhage, blood transfusion, uterine rupture, hysterectomy, and composite major neonatal morbidities. Younger age, lack of previous vaginal delivery, induction of labor and fetal weight >4,000 g were risk factors for failed VBAC. A majority of women who try VBAC achieve a vaginal delivery. Failed VBAC is associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and is somewhat predictable. PMID:20804350

Oboro, Victor; Adewunmi, Adeniyi; Ande, Anibaba; Olagbuji, Biodun; Ezeanochie, Michael; Oyeniran, Ayodeji

2010-09-01

364

Sustained release of proteins from a modified vaginal ring device  

PubMed Central

A new vaginal ring technology, the insert vaginal ring (InVR), is presented. The InVR overcomes the current shortfall of conventional vaginal rings (VRs) that are generally ineffectual for the delivery of hydrophilic and/or macromolecular actives, including peptides, proteins and antibodies, due to their poor permeation characteristics in the hydrophobic polymeric elastomers from which VRs are usually fabricated. Release of the model protein BSA from a variety of insert matrices for the InVR is demonstrated, including modified silicone rods, directly compressed tablets and lyophilised gels, which collectively provided controlled release profiles from several hours to beyond 4 weeks. Furthermore, the InVR was shown to deliver over 1 mg of the monoclonal antibody 2F5 from a single device, offering a potential means of protecting women against the transmission of HIV. PMID:21055465

Morrow, Ryan J.; Woolfson, A. David; Donnelly, Louise; Curran, Rhonda; Andrews, Gavin; Katinger, Dietmar; Malcolm, R. Karl

2013-01-01

365

A Case of Vaginal Cancer with Uterine Prolapse  

PubMed Central

Primary vaginal cancer combined with uterine prolapse is very rare. We present a case of 80-year-old postmenopausal women complaints of something coming out per vagina for the past 20 years, along with blood stained discharge, foul odor leukorrhea, and severe pelvic pain for the last 3 months. A 4 × 5 cm ulcer was present on middle third of vaginal wall with marked edema and ulceration of surrounding tissue. The prolapse was reduced under intravenous sedation in operating room. On gynecologic examination, uterus was normal in size, no adnexal mass was examined, and both parametrium were thickened. Papanicolaou smear was normal. Biopsy of the ulcer at vaginal wall revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma of vagina. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of abdomen and pelvis showed left hydronephrosis and liver metastasis. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) revealed metastasis to lung, liver and iliac bone. She died from progression of disease one month after diagnosis. PMID:25371880

Kim, Hwi-Gon; Song, Yong Jung; Na, Yong Jin

2013-01-01

366

Large vesico-vaginal fistula caused by a foreign body.  

PubMed

Foreign body is a rare cause of vesico-vaginal fistula most often reported in developed countries. In developing countries obstructed labor is the commonest cause of fistula. A nulliparous 19-year-old female presented with a 3-week history of a foreign body in the vagina causing urinary incontinence and offensive vaginal discharge. Her guardian allegedly inserted the foreign body after she refused a pre-arranged marriage. A plastic container was removed from the vagina under general anesthesia. A large vesico-vaginal fistula was discovered, which was successfully surgically repaired. We recommend urgent removal of the foreign body, preferably under general anesthesia. However, if the history or physical examination reveals prolonged exposure, repair of the fistula should be delayed to allow for adequate debridement in order to prevent any life-threatening complications. PMID:24116334

Massinde, An; Kihunrwa, A

2013-07-01

367

A functional ectopic vaginal anus: a rare clinical entity.  

PubMed

A case of functional ectopic vaginal anus is presented in a 20 years old girl. Patient complained of passage of stool through her vagina. She was continent and had no complaint of constipation. Her examination revealed imperforated anus with functional ectopic vaginal anus. Her surgery was performed in two stages. In first stage, anoplasty was performed at midpoint between the vulval and anal opening. The posterior vaginal wall was repaired in two layers and protective loop colostomy was made. In the second stage, after a period of 3 months loop colostomy was closed. Patient's recovery was smooth, she is not constipated and continent with Wexner score of 3. She was advised pelvic floor rehabilitation exercises.She improved within a month with Wexner score of zero. PMID:23058153

Mehboob, Mukhtar; Naz, Samina; Tabassum, Shahina; Khan, Jamil Ahmed

2012-10-01

368

Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome  

PubMed Central

Background Over-the-counter (OTC) feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil), personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9) known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU). Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these products before they are placed on the market. PMID:24009546

Fashemi, Bisiayo; Delaney, Mary L.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Fichorova, Raina N.

2013-01-01

369

Assessment of Sexual Functioning, Mental Health, and Life Goals in Women with Vaginal Agenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal agenesis is a congenital disorder defined by the incomplete formation of the vagina and other reproductive organs, often including the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes. For the patient, this frequently means infertility and an underdeveloped vagina with the subsequent difficulty to have vaginal intercourse. The patient with vaginal agenesis and her family then encounter a variety of psychological concerns

Elizabeth M. Morgan; Elisabeth H. Quint

2006-01-01

370

Efficacy of a new ketoconazole bioadhesive vaginal tablet on Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop more effective treatment for vaginal candidasis, ketoconazole (KTZ) was formulated in bioadhesive tablet formulations that increase the time of contact of drug with the vaginal mucosa. The bioadhesive vaginal tablets delivery of KTZ was prepared by direct compression of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose or polyvinylpyrrolidone or hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC-E50). Dissolution studies of bioadhesive tablets and commercial ovules were carried

H. Ye?im Karasulu; Süleyha Hilmio?lu; Dilek Y Metin; Tamer Güneri

2004-01-01

371

76 FR 17444 - In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...In the Matter of Certain Vaginal Ring Birth Control Devices; Notice of Investigation...after importation of certain vaginal ring birth control devices by reason of infringement...after importation of certain vaginal ring birth control devices that infringe claim 1...

2011-03-29

372

Laser surgery in the treatment of vaginal cysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors described the results of treatment of vaginal cysts with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in 12 women. In five of them the recurrent Bartholin's, in another five the Gartner's and in tow the endometrial cysts were diagnosed. All laser surgeries were done in the Department of Reproduction, Institute of Gynecology, Karol Marcinkowski School of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland between September 1995 and September 1996. In the authors' opinion the use of CO2 laser is the efficient method of treatment of vaginal cysts. The most of laser procedures are doing as the one-day surgery. There are no serious postoperative complications after laser surgery.

Wozniak, Jakub; Dydowicz, Piotr; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

1997-10-01

373

Vaginal dilator therapy for women receiving pelvic radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Many vaginal dilator therapy guidelines advocate routine vaginal dilation during and after pelvic radiotherapy to prevent stenosis (abnormal narrowing of the vagina). The UK Gynaecological Oncology Nurse Forum recommend dilation “three times weekly for an indefinite time period”. The UK patient charity Cancer Backup advises using vaginal dilators from two to eight weeks after the end of radiotherapy treatment. Australian guidelines recommend dilation after brachytherapy “as soon as is comfortably possible” and “certainly within four weeks and to continue for three years or indefinitely if possible”. However, dilation is intrusive, uses health resources and can be psychologically distressing. It has also caused rare but very serious damage to the rectum. Objectives To review the benefits and harms of vaginal dilation therapy associated with pelvic radiotherapy for cancer. Search methods Searches included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to 2008), EMBASE (1980 to 2008) and CINAHL (1982 to 2008). Selection criteria Any comparative randomised controlled trials (RCT) or data of any type which compared dilation or penetration of the vagina after pelvic radiotherapy treatment for cancer. Data collection and analysis The review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. We analysed the mean difference in sexual function scores and the risk ratio for non-compliance at six weeks and three months in single trial analyses. No trials met the inclusion criteria. Main results Dilation during or immediately after radiotherapy can, in rare cases, cause damage and there is no persuasive evidence from any study to demonstrate that it prevents stenosis. Data from one RCT showed no improvement in sexual scores in women who were encouraged to practice dilation. Two case series and one comparative study using historical controls suggest that dilation might be associated with a longer vaginal length but these data cannot reasonably be interpreted to show that dilation caused the change in the vagina. Authors’ conclusions Routine dilation during or soon after cancer treatment may be harmful. There is no reliable evidence to show that routine regular vaginal dilation during or after radiotherapy prevents the late effects of radiotherapy or improves quality of life. Gentle vaginal exploration might separate the vaginal walls before they can stick together and some women may benefit from dilation therapy once inflammation has settled but there are no good comparative supporting data. PMID:20824858

Miles, Tracie; Johnson, Nick

2014-01-01

374

Closure constraints for hyperbolic tetrahedra  

E-print Network

We investigate the generalization of loop gravity's twisted geometries to a q-deformed gauge group. In the standard undeformed case, loop gravity is a formulation of general relativity as a diffeomorphism-invariant SU(2) gauge theory. Its classical states are graphs provided with algebraic data. In particular closure constraints at every node of the graph ensure their interpretation as twisted geometries. Dual to each node, one has a polyhedron embedded in flat space R^3. One then glues them allowing for both curvature and torsion. It was recently conjectured that q-deforming the gauge group SU(2) would allow to account for a non-vanishing cosmological constant Lambda, and in particular that deforming the loop gravity phase space with real parameter q>0 would lead to a generalization of twisted geometries to a hyperbolic curvature. Following this insight, we look for generalization of the closure constraints to the hyperbolic case. In particular, we introduce two new closure constraints for hyperbolic tetrahe...

Charles, Christoph

2015-01-01

375

Sampling and monitoring for closure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Metals Mining Sector of the Acid Drainage Technology Initiative (ADTI-MMS) addresses technical drainage-quality issues related to metal mining and related metallurgical operations, for future and active mines, as well as, for historical mines and mining districts. One of the first projects of ADTI-MMS is to develop a handbook describing the best sampling, monitoring, predicting, mitigating, and modeling of drainage from metal mines, pit lakes and related metallurgical facilities based upon current scientific and engineering practices. One of the important aspects of planning a new mine in today's regulatory environment is the philosophy of designing a new or existing mine or expansion of operations for ultimate closure. The holistic philosophy taken in the ADTI-MMS handbook maintains that sampling and monitoring programs should be designed to take into account all aspects of the mine-life cycle. Data required for the closure of the operation are obtained throughout the mine-life cycle, from exploration through post-closure.

McLemore, V.T.; Russell, C.C.; Smith, K.S.

2004-01-01

376

Vagifem is superior to vaginal Premarin in induction of endometrial thickness in the frozen-thawed cycle patients with refractory endometria: A randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Embryo transfer to a developed endometrium is an important prognostic factor in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycle outcome. Vaginal estrogen, such as Vagifem vaginal tablets and Premarin vaginal cream, is a regimen used for the patients with refractive endometria. Objective: Our objective was to compare the effects of Vagifem and Premarin on the endometrial thickness of the patients with refractive endometria. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 30 patients with refractive endometria in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles received Vagifem vaginal tablets and 30 women received Premarin vaginal cream. Endometrial thickness was measured on the 14th day of drug administration. Results: Comparing the endometrial thicknesses of the two groups showed that the endometria of the Vagifem group was significantly thicker than that of the Premarin group (5.93±0.38 vs. 6.74±0.32; p<0.001). Conclusion: Vagifem is superior to Premarin in induction of endometrial thickness in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles in the patients with refractive endometria. PMID:25071850

Zolghadri, Jaleh; Haghbin, Hossein; Dadras, Nasrin; Behdin, Shabnam

2014-01-01

377

Orgasm in women in the laboratory--quantitative studies on duration, intensity, latency, and vaginal blood flow.  

PubMed

Sexual arousal by clitoral self-stimulation was used by healthy, young adult women volunteers (n = 28) to induce orgasm in the laboratory. The duration of the orgasm was obtained using the subject's verbal indication of its start and finish. The estimated duration and the subjective experience of the orgasm self-graded on a 5-point scale were also obtained in a number of subjects. Vaginal blood flow was assessed by the power consumption needed to keep a heated oxygen electrode, held on the vaginal wall by suction, at a constant temperature. The mean measured orgasm duration was 19.9 seconds (SD, +/- 12, n = 26). For 14 subjects, their estimate of the duration of their orgasms (12.2 +/- 9.8 seconds, mean +/- SD) was greatly underestimated compared with the measured duration (26 +/- 14.6 seconds). This result indicates that data obtained on the duration of orgasm from questionnaires or interviews have suspect validity. The measured duration of the orgasms was not significantly correlated with the subjective grading. The increase in vaginal blood flow at orgasm was not significantly correlated with the subjective gradings of orgasm (n = 18), the orgasm latency (time taken to induce orgasm, n = 18), or the measured duration of orgasm (n = 14). PMID:4062540

Levin, R J; Wagner, G

1985-10-01

378

How Do Clinicians Manage Vaginal Complaints? An Internet Survey  

PubMed Central

Abstract and Introduction Abstract Introduction Although vaginal symptoms are among the most common presentations in primary care, little is known about how clinicians manage them. Question We undertook an Internet survey to determine how clinicians decided what was normal, how they evaluated vaginal complaints, and what happened when a diagnosis could not be reached. Methods A 27-question anonymous survey was conducted using the Medscape Internet publication platform and Medscape General Medicine, an online, peer-reviewed, open-access general medical journal. The study was targeted at physicians and nurse practitioners. Results There were 556 nurse practitioner and 608 physician respondents. Clinicians generally agreed that a midcycle increase in discharge and discharge seen at the introitus were normal; itching/irritation, odor, and a green discharge were not. There was less agreement concerning the value of a yellow discharge and “self-diagnosis” of abnormality. Eighty-two percent of MDs and 77% of NPs reported examining patients prior to treatment always or often. Only about 30% performed pH testing always or often. Ninety percent of NPs and 92% of MDs reported not making a diagnosis rarely or sometimes. When offered 4 different management strategies for patients in whom no diagnosis was made (watch and wait, symptomatic therapy, empiric antibiotics, referral), there was no clear preference. There was a weak correlation between performance of a wet mount and reports of less non-diagnosis. There was no correlation between pH and whiff testing and reports of less non-diagnosis. Conclusions Clinicians do not always agree about what constitutes a vaginal symptom. Although most providers usually examine patients with vaginal complaints, pH and whiff testing are performed less frequently. Our data suggest the latter 2 maneuvers are not diagnostically helpful. There is no consensus regarding what to do when no diagnosis is made. Our findings suggest that the traditional approach to the evaluation of vaginal symptoms may have limited relevance for clinicians. Introduction The “classic approach” to evaluating vaginal symptoms[1] focuses on the diagnosis of vaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis. The evaluation is based on discharge characteristics, pH testing, the whiff test, and microscopy with both normal saline and KOH.[2,3] The classic approach has been promoted by professional organizations[4] and a clinical literature that emphasizes the importance of making a precise diagnosis before treating the patient.[5,6] Unfortunately, the classic approach presents a number of problems. The diagnostic value of its components is limited.[1,7] Microscopy, the traditional test for trichomoniasis, has a sensitivity of only about two thirds, meaning that one third of patients with this condition will be missed.[7] Not surprisingly, the classic approach often results in no diagnosis. Even after an evaluation far more extensive than that suggested by the classic approach, no cause for vaginal symptoms will be found in about one third of women.[8–10] Problems with the classic approach are compounded by the relatively thin evidence base upon which to determine whether vaginal symptoms are normal.[11] Finally, the classic approach does not include emphasis on the important social dimensions of vaginal symptoms.[12] There is very limited evidence about how clinicians actually manage these symptoms. In 2001, Wiesenfeld and Macio[13] reported on a group of patients referred to a specialty clinic for vaginal symptoms. Using a chart review, they determined that the whiff test and pH testing had been performed only 3% of the time by the referring physician, suggesting that the classic approach is seldom followed. We do not know the reasons for this. Patients may wish to avoid pelvic examination. Providers who perform the wet mount must be certified in accordance with the Clinical Laboratories Improvement Act (CLIA),[14] and this may represent a barrier in some practices. How do clinicians

Anderson, Matthew R.; Karasz, Alison

2005-01-01

379

Air quality impacts of a scheduled 36-h closure of a major highway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs, <0.1 ?m) are commonly found near roadways. On the July 16-17, 2011 weekend, a section of a major Los Angeles freeway, the I-405, was closed for 36 h. We measured UFPs and other pollutants at two fixed locations, one upwind and one downwind, and at various distances from I-405 using a mobile measurement platform (MMP) on Fridays, Saturdays, and Sundays before, during, and after closure. On the closure Saturday on July 16, I-405 traffic flow was reduced by ˜90% relative to non-closure Saturday observations. Downwind of I-405, fixed-site measurements showed the following reductions: 83% of particle number concentration (PNC), 36% of PM2.5, and 62% of black carbon. Fixed-site measurements showed daily average UFP size distributions were bimodal for non-closure conditions (nucleation modes ˜20 nm, accumulation modes ˜60 nm), but only showed an accumulation mode ˜50 nm during closure. Spatial measurements from the MMP confirmed no nucleation mode was detected at any location 0-300 m downwind during closure. In 2011, non-closure particle emission factors were 5.0, 2.7, and 3.4 × 1013 particles vehicle-1 km-1 for Friday through Sunday respectively. After accounting for instrumental and traffic flow differences, weekday PNC in 2011 was 60% lower than 2001 at the same study location. During the closure event, regional freeway traffic was reduced compared to four selected control Saturdays. Eight stationary monitoring stations throughout the South Coast Air Basin showed PM2.5 was reduced between 18 and 36% relative to the same control days. The outcome of this natural experiment during the I-405 closure confirms that substantial traffic reduction can improve local and regional air quality in sprawled urban regions such as Los Angeles, CA.

Quiros, David C.; Zhang, Qunfang; Choi, Wonsik; He, Meilu; Paulson, Suzanne E.; Winer, Arthur M.; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Yifang

2013-03-01

380

Homeostatic properties of Lactobacillus jensenii engineered as a live vaginal anti-HIV microbicide  

PubMed Central

Background Vaginal probiotics are investigated as a binary strategy for prevention of bacterial vaginosis and HIV. We applied an innovative experimental model using primary and immortalized human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells to assess the functional properties of Lactobacillus jensenii, a predominant constituent of the healthy vaginal microbiome, engineered to express the HIV-1 entry inhibitor modified cyanovirin-N (mCV-N). In this model bacteria colonize the epithelial cells over a period of 24-72 h. Staurosporine and the Toll-like receptor 2/6 ligand macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2) serve as positive controls for apoptosis and proinflammatory activation, respectively. In 24-hour intervals, the colonized epithelium is assessed microscopically, supernatants are collected for measurement of soluble immunoinflammatory mediators and production of CV-N, and cells are lysed for assessment of: 1) apoptosis by cleaved versus total caspase-3 assay; 2) NF-?B activation by a luciferase reporter assay; or 3) epithelia-associated colony forming units (CFU) in Brucella agar. Results Wild type (WT) L. jensenii 1153 consistently colonized cervical and vaginal cells in the absence of epithelial damage and apoptosis. The bioengineered derivatives expressing mCV-N or control plasmids showed the same stable colonization pattern, which was reproducible between technologists and bacterial batches (CFU coefficient of variation <10% within and between experiments and epithelial cell types). MALP-2 activated NF-?B and caused fold-increased levels of proinflammatory mediators with clinically established significance in the cervicovaginal environment (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, IL-8, RANTES, MIP-3?, and ICAM-1), measured by a multiplex electrochemiluminescence assay. At the same time levels of protective anti-inflammatory mediators interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), both measured by ELISA, remained constant (IL-1RA) or moderately increased (SLPI). Similarly to MALP-2, colonization by L. jensenii WT activated NF-?B; however, unlike the synthetic TLR2/6 ligand, the live microorganisms did not induce significant changes in the secreted levels across all inflammation-associated proteins. The mCV-N production and function were confirmed by western blot and a HIV-1 gp120 binding assay, respectively. The bioengineered lactobacilli expressed mCV-N with anti-HIV activity preserved in the epithelial cell context and caused no significant immunoinflammatory changes as compared to the WT L. jensenii. Conclusions These results highlight the translational value of the colonization model and justify further clinical investigation of the homeostatic and anti-HIV effectiveness of the L. jensenii derivates. PMID:23298379

2013-01-01

381

Degree-of-polarization and eye-closure penalty associated with optical signals with orthogonal polarizations  

E-print Network

We perform a systematic measurement of the degree-of-polarization (DOP) and eye-closure penalty for optical signals with orthogonal polarizations. We find that the symmetry of DOP is maintained for the orthogonal polarizations under both first...

Shieh, W.; Hui, Rongqing; Yi, X.

2006-05-01

382

Sexual function and vaginal anatomy in women before and after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to describe sexual function in women before and after surgery for either prolapse or urinary incontinence, or both. Study Design: Women completed questionnaires, and vaginal dimensions were measured before and at least 6 months after surgery for prolapse or incontinence. Comparisons were made with signed-rank tests or the McNemar test. Results: Eighty-one (49%) of 165 women were

Anne M Weber; Mark D Walters; Marion R Piedmonte

2000-01-01

383

Adhesion of Tritrichomonas foetus to bovine vaginal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

An in vitro culture system of bovine vaginal epithelial cells (BVECs) was developed to study the cytopathogenic effects of Tritrichomonas foetus and the role of lipophosphoglycan (LPG)-like cell surface glycoconjugates in adhesion of parasites to host cells. Exposure of BVEC monolayers to T. foetus resulted in extensive damage of monolayers. Host cell disruption was measured quantitatively by a trypan blue exclusion assay and by release of (3)H from [(3)H]thymidine-labeled host cells. Results indicated contact-dependent cytotoxicity of host cells by T. foetus. The cytopathogenic effect was a function of T. foetus density. Metronidazole- or periodate-treated T. foetus showed no damage to BVEC monolayers. A related human trichomonad, Trichomonas vaginalis, showed no cytotoxic effects, indicating species-specific host-parasite interactions. A direct binding assay was developed and used to investigate the role of a major cell surface LPG-like molecule in host-parasite adhesion. The results of competition experiments showed that the binding to BVECs was displaceable, was saturable, and yielded a typical binding curve, suggesting that specific receptor-ligand interactions mediate the attachment of T. foetus to BVECs. Progesterone-treated BVECs showed enhanced parasite binding. T. foetus LPG inhibited the binding of T. foetus to BVECs; the LPG from T. vaginalis and a variety of other glycoconjugates did not. These data imply specificity of LPG on host-parasite adhesion. Periodate-treated parasites showed no adherence to host cells, indicating the involvement of carbohydrate containing molecules in the adhesion process. PMID:10417148

Singh, B N; Lucas, J J; Beach, D H; Shin, S T; Gilbert, R O

1999-08-01

384

Oral and Vaginal Epithelial Cell Lines Bind and Transfer Cell-Free Infectious HIV-1 to Permissive Cells but Are Not Productively Infected  

PubMed Central

The majority of HIV-1 infections worldwide are acquired via mucosal surfaces. However, unlike the vaginal mucosa, the issue of whether the oral mucosa can act as a portal of entry for HIV-1 infection remains controversial. To address potential differences with regard to the fate of HIV-1 after exposure to oral and vaginal epithelium, we utilized two epithelial cell lines representative of buccal (TR146) and pharyngeal (FaDu) sites of the oral cavity and compared them with a cell line derived from vaginal epithelium (A431) in order to determine (i) HIV-1 receptor gene and protein expression, (ii) whether HIV-1 genome integration into epithelial cells occurs, (iii) whether productive viral infection ensues, and (iv) whether infectious virus can be transferred to permissive cells. Using flow cytometry to measure captured virus by HIV-1 gp120 protein detection and western blot to detect HIV-1 p24 gag protein, we demonstrate that buccal, pharyngeal and vaginal epithelial cells capture CXCR4- and CCR5-utilising virus, probably via non-canonical receptors. Both oral and vaginal epithelial cells are able to transfer infectious virus to permissive cells either directly through cell-cell attachment or via transcytosis of HIV-1 across epithelial cells. However, HIV-1 integration, as measured by real-time PCR and presence of early gene mRNA transcripts and de novo protein production were not detected in either epithelial cell type. Importantly, both oral and vaginal epithelial cells were able to support integration and productive infection if HIV-1 entered via the endocytic pathway driven by VSV-G. Our data demonstrate that under normal conditions productive HIV-1 infection of epithelial cells leading to progeny virion production is unlikely, but that epithelial cells can act as mediators of systemic viral dissemination through attachment and transfer of HIV-1 to permissive cells. PMID:24857971

Moyes, David L.; Murciano, Celia; Shen, Chengguo; Challacombe, Stephen J.; Naglik, Julian R.

2014-01-01

385

Conceival, a novel noncontraceptive vaginal vehicle for lipophilic microbicides.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop a nontoxic and noncontraceptive vaginal drug delivery vehicle for lipophilic anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) microbicides. Three representative poorly water-soluble novel broad-spectrum anti-HIV microbicides, PHI-113, PHI-346, and PHI-443, were evaluated in 11 different solvent systems. Based on their solubility profiles, a novel nonspermicidal self-emulsifying gel (viz Conceival) composed of pharmaceutical excipients, sorbitol, polyethylene glycol 400, polysorbate 80, microcrystalline cellulose, xanthan gum, and water was optimized. Conceival enhanced the solubility of these poorly water-soluble (<0.001 mg/mL) anti-HIV drugs by at least 150- to 270-fold. Conceival was evaluated in vivo in the New Zealand white rabbit model for the preservation of sperm function based on pregnancy outcome and the potential for vaginal irritation following single and multiple intravaginal applications, respectively. Conceival administered intravaginally immediately prior to artificial insemination with semen had no adverse effects on subsequent reproductive performance, neonatal survival, or pup development when compared with untreated control group. Histologic evaluation of vaginal tissues of rabbits exposed intravaginally to Conceival for 14 consecutive days revealed lack of epithelial, submucosal, and vascular changes at the gel application site (total irritation score <3 out of a possible 16). These findings indicate that Conceival has potential to become a clinically useful, safe noncontraceptive vaginal vehicle for lipophilic microbicides. PMID:16353964

D'Cruz, Osmond J; Samuel, Peter; Uckun, Fatih M

2005-01-01

386

Vaginal and Oral Microbes, Host Genotype and Preterm Birth  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity in the U.S. and across the globe. Infection and associated inflammation are important initiators for PTB pathways; an estimated 40% of PTBs are attributed to amniochorionic-decidual or systemic inflammation. Historically, intrauterine infections have been implicated in PTB; recent evidence suggests that infections remote from the fetal site may also be causative. There is strong epidemiological evidence that bacterial vaginosis and periodontitis -- two syndromes characterized by perturbations in the normal vaginal and oral bacterial microflora respectively-- are linked to infection-associated PTB. Oral and vaginal environments are similar in their bacterial microbiology; identical bacterial species have been independently isolated in periodontitis and bacterial vaginosis. Periodontitis and bacterial vaginosis also share many behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors suggesting a possible common pathophysiology. Genetic polymorphisms in host inflammatory responses to infection are shared between bacterial vaginosis, periodontitis and PTB, suggesting common mechanisms through which host genotype modify the effect of abnormal bacterial colonization on preterm birth. We review the state of knowledge regarding the risk of PTB attributable to perturbations in bacterial flora in oral and vaginal sites and the role of host genetics in modifying the risk of infection-related PTB. We posit that bacterial species that are common in perturbed vaginal and oral sites are associated with PTB through their interaction with the host immune system. PMID:19942083

Srinivasan, Usha; Misra, Dawn; Marazita, Mary L.; Foxman, Betsy

2014-01-01

387

Local Production of Chemokines during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused by Candida albicans, is a significant problem in women of child- bearing age. Although cell-mediated immunity (CMI) due to T cells and cytokines is the predominant host defense mechanism against C. albicans at mucosal tissue sites, host defense mechanisms against C. albicans at the vaginal mucosa are poorly understood. Based on an estrogen-dependent murine model of

MICHAEL SAAVEDRA; BRAD TAYLOR; NICHOLAS LUKACS; PAUL L. FIDEL

1999-01-01

388

Characteristics of women with continued use of vaginal pessaries.  

PubMed

Vaginal pessaries have been shown to be a safe, effective treatment for pelvic organ prolapse, and in some cases, female urinary incontinence. There are limited data that predict long-term pessary use; therefore, the aim of this retrospective, exploratory study was to describe selected characteristics of women using a pessary for 12 months or longer in a nurse-run clinic. PMID:24079114

Lewthwaite, Barbara J; Staley, Doug; Girouard, Lise; Maslow, Ken

2013-01-01

389

Vaginal and oral microbes, host genotype and preterm birth.  

PubMed

Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity in the US and across the globe. Infection and associated inflammation are important initiators for PTB pathways; an estimated 40% of PTBs are attributed to amniochorionic-decidual or systemic inflammation. Historically, intrauterine infections have been implicated in PTB; recent evidence suggests that infections remote from the fetal site may also be causative. There is strong epidemiological evidence that bacterial vaginosis and periodontitis--two syndromes characterized by perturbations in the normal vaginal and oral bacterial microflora, respectively--are linked to infection-associated PTB. Oral and vaginal environments are similar in their bacterial microbiology; identical bacterial species have been independently isolated in periodontitis and bacterial vaginosis. Periodontitis and bacterial vaginosis also share many behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors suggesting a possible common pathophysiology. Genetic polymorphisms in host inflammatory responses to infection are shared between bacterial vaginosis, periodontitis and PTB, suggesting common mechanisms through which host genotype modify the effect of abnormal bacterial colonization on preterm birth. We review the state of knowledge regarding the risk of PTB attributable to perturbations in bacterial flora in oral and vaginal sites and the role of host genetics in modifying the risk of infection-related PTB. We posit that bacterial species that are common in perturbed vaginal and oral sites are associated with PTB through their interaction with the host immune system. PMID:19942083

Srinivasan, Usha; Misra, Dawn; Marazita, Mary L; Foxman, Betsy

2009-12-01

390

Vaginal infections. How to identify and treat them.  

PubMed

Vaginal infection occurs at some time in the majority of women. Most such infections are caused by Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Gardnerella (Hemophilus) vaginalis. Some less common--but in many cases increasingly prevalent--causes include herpes-virus type 2, papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma T strains, and toxic shock syndrome. PMID:6681672

Schneider, G T

1983-02-01

391

Antifungal activity of lectins against yeast of vaginal secretion  

PubMed Central

Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-imune origin. This group of proteins is distributed widely in nature and they have been found in viruses, microorganisms, plants and animals. Lectins of plants have been isolated and characterized according to their chemical, physical-chemical, structural and biological properties. Among their biological activities, we can stress its fungicidal action. It has been previously described the effect of the lectins Dviol, DRL, ConBr and LSL obtained from the seeds of leguminous plants on the growth of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretions. In the present work the experiments were carried out in microtiter plates and the results interpreted by both methods: visual observations and a microplate reader at 530nm. The lectin concentrations varied from 0.5 to 256?g/mL, and the inoculum was established between 65-70% of trammitance. All yeast samples isolated from vaginal secretion were evaluated taxonomically, where were observed macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to each species. The LSL lectin did not demonstrate any antifungal activity to any isolate studied. The other lectins DRL, ConBr and DvioL, showed antifungal potential against yeast isolated from vaginal secretion. These findings offering offer a promising field of investigation to develop new therapeutic strategies against vaginal yeast infections, collaborating to improve women's health. PMID:24031889

Gomes, Bruno Severo; Siqueira, Ana Beatriz Sotero; de Cássia Carvalho Maia, Rita; Giampaoli, Viviana; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; de Lima, Adriana Nunes; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

2012-01-01

392

Binding of type 1-piliated Escherichia coli to vaginal mucus.  

PubMed Central

To better understand the interactions involved in bacterial adherence and the role of mucus in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infections, we developed a system to study the binding of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain, HB101/pWRS1-17, expressing type 1 pili, to vaginal mucus collected from 28 women. Bacteria bound to differing extents to all specimens examined, and preincubation of bacteria with mannose inhibited binding by 50 to 89%. Additionally, all mucus samples showed reactivity with anti-mannose antibody, and the levels of reactivity correlated with the levels of bacterial binding, suggesting that the mannose-terminal saccharides present on these glycoproteins are the receptors for the binding of type 1-piliated bacteria. Mucus specimens collected over periods of 5 days and 12 weeks exhibited significant variation in bacterial binding, indicating temporal differences in the ability of vaginal mucus to act as a receptor for type 1-piliated E. coli. The results show that vaginal mucus can bind bacteria and may thus influence the initial attachment and subsequent colonization of the vaginal and urinary tract epithelium by E. coli. PMID:7822005

Venegas, M F; Navas, E L; Gaffney, R A; Duncan, J L; Anderson, B E; Schaeffer, A J

1995-01-01

393

Labial Adhesion with Acute Urinary Retention Secondary to Vaginitis  

PubMed Central

Labial adhesion occurs most often in infants and girls and is usually associated with low estrogen levels. Labial adhesion in the reproductive age group is extremely rare due to abundance of estrogen. Herein we present a case of almost complete labial adhesion with acute urinary retention in a 21-year-old virgin woman secondary to a probable untreated severe vaginitis. PMID:25105038

?entürk, ?enol; Üstüner, Pelin; Bal?k, Gül?ah; Ka??tc?, Mehmet; Ural, Ülkü Mete; ?ahin, Figen K?r

2014-01-01

394

A retrospective comparison of water births and conventional vaginal deliveries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to document the practice of water births and compare their outcome and safety with normal vaginal deliveries. A retrospective case-control study was conducted over a five year period from 1989 to 1994 at the Maternity Unit, Rochford Hospital, Southend, UK. Three hundred and one women electing for water births were compared with the same

Chineze M. Otigbah; Mandish K. Dhanjal; Gloria Harmsworth; Tim Chard

2000-01-01

395

Incidence of Postpartum Infection after Vaginal Delivery in Viet Nam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the incidence of postpartum infection which is rarely clinically evaluated and is probably underestimated in developing countries. This prospective study identified infection after vaginal delivery by clinical and laboratory examinations prior to discharge from hospital and again at six weeks postpartum in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam. Textbook definitions, physicians' diagnoses, symptomatic and verbal autopsy definitions

Nguyen T. N. Ngoc; Nancy L. Sloan; Tran S. Thach; K. B. Liem; Beverly Winikoff

2005-01-01

396

Conservative Management of Placenta Accreta/Increta after Vaginal Birth  

PubMed Central

Aim: Aim of the study was to show that conservative management with preservation of the uterus and of fertility is possible in patients with placenta accreta/increta after vaginal delivery. Method: A retrospective analysis of patients with placental attachment disorders after vaginal delivery was done in a perinatal centre between November 2009 and April 2011. The patient collective was identified using the ICD-10 codes for placenta accreta/increta/percreta, and patient records were analysed for risk factors, maternal morbidity, preservation of the uterus and of fertility, and neonatal outcome. Results: Three cases of placenta increta were identified in the last 1.5 years out of a total of 1457 vaginal deliveries, and all 3 cases were treated conservatively. Mean maternal age was 35.3 years; gestational age ranged from 39 to 41 weeks, and mean duration between delivery of the child and delivery of the placenta was 44.67 days (range: 14–100 days). Two patients developed symptoms of endomyometritis, including fever, leukocytosis and increased CRP levels. All 3 women were successfully managed with preservation of the uterus. Conclusion: In selected cases with placenta accreta/increta after vaginal delivery, it is possible to avoid surgical procedures, particularly hysterectomy procedures, and successfully manage these patients conservatively with preservation of the uterus. PMID:25308979

Peiffer, S.; Reinhard, J.; Reitter, A.; Louwen, F.

2012-01-01

397

[Acute urinary retention in primary vaginal carcinoma: therapeutic approach].  

PubMed

Carcinoma of the vagina is a very rare disease. Primary vaginal carcinoma tends to spread by local invasion of the adjacent pelvic organs (without any kind of metastases) and secondarily through lymphatic channels. The aim of this report is to add observations concerning the surgical treatment of this rare occurrence of carcinoma. The 33-year old patient's history began with an acute urinary retention which imposed bladder catheterization. Local examination revealed a hard 3/3 cm large mass on the middle third of the anterior vaginal wall, invasive in the urinary bladder. Cystoscopic examination confirmed the tumor invasion in the trigone. Biopsy specimens of the tumor and histological examination showed carcinoma. Anterior pelvic exenteration with pelvic lymph nodes dissection and total colpectomy was performed and the patient received a continent urinary diversion to the skin (modified Indiana pouch), ovary transposition, vaginal reconstruction with gracilis myocutaneous flaps. Postoperative evolution was uneventful. Organ reconstruction surgery including continent urinary diversion, vaginal reconstruction will significantly improve the quality of life and don't change the body image of the patients after pelvic major surgical procedures such pelvic exenteration. PMID:17687867

Glück, G; Mitulescu, G; Ungureanu, D; Stîngu, C

2007-01-01

398

Cervical and Vaginal Cancer Screening (Pap Test and Pelvic Exam)  

MedlinePLUS

... service covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Cervical & vaginal cancer screenings How often is it covered? Medicare Part ... pay for them. Related resources National Cancer Institute—cervical cancer information CDC—cervical cancer information U.S. Preventive Services ...

399

Quantitation of Secretory Immonoglobulin A in Vaginal Secretions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to attempt to correlate vaginal levels of SIgA with variables including age, day of menstrual cycle, use of oral contraceptives, length of time oral contraceptives had been used, and presence of Candida albicans infection. (Author)

Grant, Tamara Dawn; Mace, Kenneth D.

1977-01-01

400

Human neutrophil peptides in vaginitis/cervicitis of different etiology.  

PubMed

Development of female genito-urinary infections depends on many factors, such as immune system activity, virulence of microorganism and production of factors inhibiting the growth of microorganisms. Taking into account the possibility of relapses or severe complications, it is very important to appropriately diagnose and treat infections. Because of recently observed increase of microbial resistance to antibiotics, researchers are looking for alternatives. In our study we evaluated and compared the concentration of human neutrophil peptides (HNP 1-3) in cervico-vaginal lavages (CVL), obtained from women with vaginitis/cervicitis. Swabs from the posterior vaginal fornix and from the endocervical canal as well as CVL samples were obtained from 32 patients with vaginitis/cervicitis and 29 healthy women (control group). Supernatants of CVL were used for determination of concentration of HNP by ELISA. The difference between concentrations of HNP 1-3 in studied and control groups was statistically significant (p = 0.018). The maximal concentration was determined in patients with mixed infections (28.41 ng/ml), and Group B Streptococci, GBS, (28.06 ng/ml), the minimal concentrations in cases of C. trachomatis (mean concentrations did not differ from those in the control group: 16.93 ng/ml and 16.39 ng/ml, respectively). Maximal correlation was determined for control-studied group with isolation of GBS (r = 0.79), and very high negative correlation for group of GBS - C. trachomatis (r = -0.98). PMID:18062652

Wiechu?a, Barbara E; Friedek, Daniela A; Ekiel, Alicja M; Romanik, Ma?gorzata K; Martirosian, Gayane

2007-01-01

401

Vaginal Practices of HIV-Negative Zimbabwean Women  

PubMed Central

Background. Vaginal practices (VPs) may increase HIV risk by injuring vaginal epithelium or by increasing risk of bacterial vaginosis, an established risk factor for HIV. Methods. HIV-negative Zimbabwean women (n = 2,185) participating in a prospective study on hormonal contraception and HIV risk completed an ancillary questionnaire capturing detailed VP data at quarterly followup visits for two years. Results. Most participants (84%) reported ever cleansing inside the vagina, and at 40% of visits women reported drying the vagina using cloth or paper. Vaginal tightening using cloth/cotton wool, lemon juice, traditional herbs/powders, or other products was reported at 4% of visits. Women with ?15 unprotected sex acts monthly had higher odds of cleansing (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04–1.32). Women with sexually transmitted infections had higher odds of tightening (aOR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.08–1.86). Conclusion. Because certain vaginal practices were associated with other HIV risk factors, synergism between VPs and other risk factors should be explored. PMID:20871844

Turner, Abigail Norris; Morrison, Charles S.; Munjoma, Marshall W.; Moyo, Precious; Chipato, Tsungai; van de Wijgert, Janneke H.

2010-01-01

402

On the Closure Properties of Robotic Grasping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The form--closure and force--closure properties of robotic grasping are investigated. Looselyspeaking, these properties are related to the capability of the robot to inhibit motions ofthe workpiece in spite of externally applied forces. In this paper, form--closure is consideredas a purely geometric property of a set of unilateral (contact) constraints, suchas those applied on a workpiece by a mechanical fixture, while

Antonio Bicchi

1995-01-01

403

Earth Remote Sensing: A Column Closure Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Entering the new millennium, there is no doubt that scientists expand greatly their scientific knowledge of the Earth system by utilizing unique capabilities from the vantage points of space. These global satellite observations include the NASA/NOAA Pathfinder and other ongoing data analysis projects, the Earth Observing System (EOS) program, the Earth System Science Pathfinders (ESSP) small research satellite missions, multi-agency planning for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (NPOESS), and other international satellite missions. However, using satellite remotely sensed data alone cannot explore fully the physical processes and energetic balance involved in our changing climate. To close the loop, the ground-based remote sensing and airborne in situ measurements are required. This talk provides an overview of the general strategy of Earth remote sensing for a column closure approach and discusses necessary instrumentation.

Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

404

Closure Phase Signatures of Planet Transit Events  

E-print Network

Planet transit events present as attractive targets for the ultra-high-resolution capabilities afforded by optical interferometers. Herein is presented an evaluation of the possibility of detection of such events through measurement of high-precision closure phases with the MIRC instrument on the CHARA Array. Recovery of the transit position angle upon the sky appears readily achievable with the existing capabilities of the instrument, along with characterization of other system parameters, such as stellar radius, planet radius, and other parameters of the transit event. This technique is the only one presently available that can provide a transiting planet's orbital plane position angle, and can directly determine the planet's radius independent of any outside observations, appearing able to improve substantially upon other determinations of that radius. Additional directly observed parameters - also not dependent upon transit photometry or spectroscopy - include impact parameter, transit ingress time, transit velocity and stellar radius.

G. T. van Belle

2008-04-16

405

Aftbody Closure Model Design: Lessons Learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Aftbody Closure Test Program is necessary in order to provide aftbody drag increments that can be added to the drag polars produced by testing the performance models (models 2a and 2b). These models had a truncated fuselage, thus, drag was measured for an incomplete configuration. In addition, trim characteristics cannot be determined with a model with a truncated fuselage. The stability and control tests were conducted with a model (model 20) having a flared aftbody. This type aftbody was needed in order to provide additional clearance between the base of the model and the sting. This was necessary because the high loads imposed on the model for stability and control tests result in large model deflections. For this case, the aftbody model will be used to validate stability and control performance.

Capone, Francis J.

1999-01-01

406

Mucus-Penetrating Nanoparticles for Vaginal Drug Delivery Protect Against Herpes Simplex Virus  

PubMed Central

Incomplete coverage and short duration of action limit the effectiveness of vaginally administered drugs, including microbicides for preventing sexually transmitted infections. We investigated vaginal distribution, retention, and safety of nanoparticles with surfaces modified to enhance transport through mucus. We show that mucus-penetrating particles (MPPs) provide uniform distribution over the vaginal epithelium, whereas conventional nanoparticles (CPs) that are mucoadhesive are aggregated by mouse vaginal mucus, leading to poor distribution. Moreover, when delivered hypotonically, MPPs were transported advectively (versus diffusively) through mucus deep into vaginal folds (rugae) within minutes. By penetrating into the deepest mucus layers, more MPPs were retained in the vaginal tract after 6 h compared to CPs. After 24 h, when delivered in a conventional vaginal gel, patches of a model drug remained on the vaginal epithelium, whereas the epithelium was coated with drug delivered by MPP. We then developed MPPs composed of acyclovir monophosphate (ACVp). When administered prior to vaginal herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) challenge, ACVp-MPPs protected 53% of mice, compared to only 16% protected by soluble drug. Overall, MPPs improved vaginal drug distribution and retention, provided more effective protection against vaginal viral challenge than soluble drug, and were non-toxic when administered daily for one week. PMID:22700955

Ensign, Laura M.; Tang, Benjamin C.; Wang, Ying-Ying; Tse, Terence A.; Hoen, Timothy; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

2013-01-01

407

Application of the low-level laser therapy for the treatment of vaginitis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vaginitis is the most common female infectious disease. Females suffering from this disorder are annually increasing in number. There are a lot of modalities of treatment of vaginitis, but because of drug allergy and microbe's stability to drug the treatment of vaginitis is difficult. Our study compares the efficacy of laser-therapy with drug therapy in the treatment of non-specific vaginitis and vaginal candidiasis. Thirty women reci4eed the LLLT by local action with antiseptic liquid daily during ten days, 20 women received metronidazole and fluconozole and vaginal application of metronidazole. The results suggest that local laser-therapy is able to remove sights of vaginitis more efficiently and faster than drug therapy. Repair of normal vaginal microflora, which is the best indicator of recovery, was significantly at a faster rate in laser-therapy group. There were no report of adverse reaction with vaginal laser- therapy, whereas there were women on drug therapy who reported side effects. In conclusion, vaginal aser-therapy with antiseptic liquid is a suitable, effective, safe and chip alternative to drug therapy in the treatment of vaginitis.

Passeniouk, A. N.; Mikhailov, V. A.

2000-06-01

408

100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

Petersen, S.W.

1997-09-01

409

Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

2012-06-08

410

Laboratory testing of closure cap repair techniques  

SciTech Connect

Landfill design requires a low permeability closure cap as well as a low permeability liner. The Savannah River Site, in South Carolina, has approximately 85 acres of mixed waste landfills covered with compacted kaolin clay. Maintaining low permeability of the clay cap requires both that the permeability of the compacted clay itself remain low and that the integrity of the barrier be maintained. Barrier breaches typically result from penetration by roots or animals, and especially cracks caused by uneven settling or desiccation. In this study, clay layers, 0.81 m in diameter and 7.6 cm thick, were compacted in 7 lysimeters to simulate closure caps. The hydraulic conductivity of each layer was measured, and the compacted clay layers (CCL`s) were cracked by drying. Then various repair techniques were applied and the effectiveness of each repair was assessed by remeasuring the hydraulic conductivity. Finally the repaired CCL was again dried and measured to determine how the repair responded to the conditions that caused the original failure. For a full report of this investigation see Persoff et al. Six repair techniques have been tested, four of which involve the use of injectable barrier liquids colloidal silica (CS) and polysiloxane (PSX) described below: (I) covering the crack with a bentonite geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), (ii) recompaction of new kaolinite at STD+3 moisture content joined to existing kaolinite that had dried and shrunk, (iii) direct injection of colloidal silica to a crack, (iv) injection of colloidal silica (CS) to wells in an overlying sand layer, (v) direct injection of polysiloxane to a crack, and (vi), injection of polysiloxane (PSX) to wells in an overlying soil layer.

Persoff, P.; Moridis, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Tuck, D.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

411

Ex vivo comparison of microbicide efficacies for preventing HIV-1 genomic integration in intraepithelial vaginal cells.  

PubMed

Vaginally applied microbicides hold promise as a strategy to prevent sexual HIV transmission. Several nonspecific microbicides, including the polyanion cellulose sulfate, have been evaluated in large-scale clinical trials but have failed to show significant efficacy. These findings have prompted a renewed search for preclinical testing systems that can predict negative outcomes of microbicide trials. Moreover, the pipeline of potential topical microbicides has been expanded to include antiretroviral agents, such as reverse transcriptase, fusion, and integrase inhibitors. Using a novel ex vivo model of vaginal HIV-1 infection, we compared the prophylactic potentials of two forms of the fusion inhibitor T-20, the CCR5 antagonist TAK-778, the integrase inhibitor 118-D-24, and cellulose sulfate (Ushercell). The T-20 peptide with free N- and C-terminal amino acids was the most efficacious compound, causing significantly greater inhibition of viral genomic integration in intraepithelial vaginal leukocytes, measured by an optimized real-time PCR assay, than the more water-soluble N-acetylated T-20 peptide (Fuzeon) (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.153 microM versus 51.2 microM [0.687 ng/ml versus 230 ng/ml]; P<0.0001). In contrast, no significant difference in IC50s was noted in peripheral blood cells (IC50, 13.58 microM versus 7.57 microM [61 ng/ml versus 34 ng/ml]; P=0.0614). Cellulose sulfate was the least effective of all the compounds tested (IC50, 1.8 microg/ml). These results highlight the merit of our model for screening the mucosal efficacies of novel microbicides and their formulations and potentially rank ordering candidates for clinical evaluation. PMID:19949052

McElrath, M Juliana; Ballweber, Lamar; Terker, Andrew; Kreger, Allison; Sakchalathorn, Polachai; Robinson, Barry; Fialkow, Michael; Lentz, Gretchen; Hladik, Florian

2010-02-01

412

Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota.  

PubMed

Antibiotics may induce alterations in the commensal microbiota of the birth canal in pregnant women. Therefore, we studied the effect of antibiotic administration during pregnancy on commensal vaginal bacterial colonization at gestational week 36. Six hundred and sixty-eight pregnant women from the novel unselected Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2010 ) pregnancy cohort participated in this analysis. Detailed information on oral antibiotic prescriptions during pregnancy filled at the pharmacy was obtained and verified prospectively. Vaginal samples were obtained at pregnancy week 36 and cultured for bacteria. Women who received oral antibiotics during any pregnancy trimester had an increased rate of colonization by Staphylococcus species in the vaginal samples as compared with samples obtained from women without any antibiotic treatment during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.06-2.52, p 0.028). Oral antibiotic administration in the third trimester were also associated with increased colonization by Staphylococcus species (adjusted OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.04-3.76, p 0.037). These bacteriological changes were associated with urinary tract infection antibiotics. Women treated in the third trimester of pregnancy were more often colonized by Escherichia coli than women without antibiotic treatment in the third trimester (adjusted OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.04-3.52, p 0.038). This change was associated with respiratory tract infection (RTI) antibiotics. We did not observe any significant changes in vaginal Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptoccocus) or Staphylococcus aureus colonization following antibiotic treatment in pregnancy. Antibiotic administration during pregnancy leads to alterations in the vaginal microbiological ecology prior to birth, with potential morbidity, and long-term effects on the early microbial colonization of the neonate. PMID:24118384

Stokholm, J; Schjørring, S; Eskildsen, C E; Pedersen, L; Bischoff, A L; Følsgaard, N; Carson, C G; Chawes, B L K; Bønnelykke, K; Mølgaard, A; Jacobsson, B; Krogfelt, K A; Bisgaard, H

2014-07-01

413

Nanoparticle Incorporation of Melittin Reduces Sperm and Vaginal Epithelium Cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 µM inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (p<0.001). However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p?=?0.42) or vaginal epithelium (p?=?0.48) at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 µM. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ?20 µM (p<0.001) and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ?40 µM (p<0.001). Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy. PMID:24748389

Jallouk, Andrew P.; Moley, Kelle H.; Omurtag, Kenan; Hu, Grace; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Hood, Joshua L.

2014-01-01

414

Nanoparticle incorporation of melittin reduces sperm and vaginal epithelium cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 µM inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (p<0.001). However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p?=?0.42) or vaginal epithelium (p?=?0.48) at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 µM. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicity fivefold and prevented melittin toxicity at concentrations previously shown to inhibit HIV infectivity. Melittin nanoparticles were toxic to vaginal epithelium at equivalent melittin concentrations ?20 µM (p<0.001) and were toxic to sperm at equivalent melittin concentrations ?40 µM (p<0.001). Sperm cytotoxicity was enhanced by targeting of the nanoparticles to the sperm surface antigen sperm adhesion molecule 1. While further testing is needed to determine the extent of cytotoxicity in a more physiologically relevant model system, these results suggest that melittin-containing nanoparticles could form the basis of a virucide that is not toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium. This virucide would be beneficial for HIV serodiscordant couples seeking to achieve natural pregnancy. PMID:24748389

Jallouk, Andrew P; Moley, Kelle H; Omurtag, Kenan; Hu, Grace; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A; Hood, Joshua L

2014-01-01

415

Clamshell closure for metal drum  

DOEpatents

Closure ring to retain a lid in contact with a metal drum in central C-section conforming to the contact area between a lid and the rim of a drum and further having a radially inwardly directed flange and a vertically downwardly directed flange attached to the opposite ends of the C-section. The additional flanges reinforce the top of the drum by reducing deformation when the drum is dropped and maintain the lid in contact with the drum. The invention is particularly valuable in transportation and storage of fissile material.

Blanton, Paul S

2014-09-30

416

Management of angle closure glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is equally prevalent in Indian in Asian population as the primary open angle glaucoma. Eighty-six percent of people with PACG are in Asia, with approximately 48.0% in China, 23.9% in India and 14.1% in southeast Asia. To understand PACG, it is mandatory to understand its classification and type of presentation with the underlying pathophysiology. The treatment options are medical, laser and/or surgical. The present article provides an overview of PACG. PMID:21150039

See, Jovina L S; Aquino, Maria Cecilia D; Aduan, Joel; Chew, Paul T K

2011-01-01

417

Identification of Selected Child-Resistant Closures (Continuous Thread, Lug-Bayonet, and Snap Closures).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes a selected group of child-resistant closures used in packaging five categories of medicine and household products. The material in the document was collected to train survey personnel to identify closures for a planned household study of the effectiveness of child-resistant packaging. The 39 closures described are of…

Gross, Rosalind L.; White, Harry E.

418

Vaginal chitosan tablets with clotrimazole-design and evaluation of mucoadhesive properties using porcine vaginal mucosa, mucin and gelatine.  

PubMed

Topical administration of clotrimazole represents the common use therapy in the antimycotic genitourinary tract treatment. Due to the fast self-cleaning action of the vagina, commercially available vaginal dosage forms with clotrimazole cannot assure prolonged contact time with mucosa, therefore the main objective of this study was to develop a dosage form for vaginal administration of clotrimazole using chitosan-a biodegradable and biocompatible derivative of chitin. Tablets mucoadhesive properties were examined using texture analyser under the presence of porcine vaginal mucosa and two different models of adhesive layers- mucin gel and gelatine discs. In addition, friability, hardness, swelling behaviour, residence time, surface morphology of the performed tablets, the in vitro release profile of clotrimazole and clotrimazole release kinetics were determined. The release of clotrimazole from formulations with 25 or 40% of chitosan (F2 and F3) followed non Fickian diffusion through chitosan-gel layer and was retarded up to 6 h. Additionally, tablets F2 showed the best results in terms of mucoadhesive properties and appeared to be a good alternative to commercially available antimycotic vaginal dosage forms. PMID:24492586

Szyma?ska, Emilia; Winnicka, Katarzyna; Amelian, Aleksandra; Cwalina, Urszula

2014-01-01

419

Single-dose 500-mg clotrimazole vaginal tablets compared with placebo in the treatment of Candida vaginitis.  

PubMed

In a double-blind controlled clinical trial, 29 practitioners randomized 55 women with culture-proven Candida vaginitis to treatment with single-dose 500-mg clotrimazole vaginal tablets, and 40 to placebo. At a follow-up visit 7 to 10 days after treatment, Candida was present in 21 (38%) of those treated with clotrimazole and in 30 (75%) in the placebo group (P less than .05). Symptoms had improved or disappeared in 38 (69%) treated with clotrimazole, compared with 22 (55%) in the placebo group (P greater than .05). In 10 (23%) of the mycologically cured women, symptoms were unchanged or worse, whereas symptoms had improved or disappeared in 26 (51%) in whom Candida was isolated at the follow-up visit (P = .015). Questionnaires sent to the 95 women 4 weeks after the follow-up visit were returned by 62. Vaginal symptoms were reported by 50% in both groups. Further clinical trials including placebo are needed in general practice in the evaluation of the treatment of Candida vaginitis. PMID:2199599

Bro, F

1990-08-01

420

Limited Relationship between Cervico-Vaginal Fluid Cytokine Profiles and Cervical Shortening in Women at High Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the relationship between high vaginal pro-inflammatory cytokines and cervical shortening in women at high risk of spontaneous preterm labor and to assess the influence of cervical cerclage and vaginal progesterone on this relationship. Methods This prospective longitudinal observational study assessed 112 women with at least one previous preterm delivery between 16 and 34 weeks’ gestation. Transvaginal cervical length was measured and cervico-vaginal fluid sampled every two weeks until 28 weeks. If the cervix shortened (<25 mm) before 24 weeks’ gestation, women (cases) were randomly assigned to cerclage or progesterone and sampled weekly. Cytokine concentrations were measured in a subset of cervico-vaginal fluid samples (n?=?477 from 78 women) by 11-plex fluid-phase immunoassay. Results All 11 inflammatory cytokines investigated were detected in cervico-vaginal fluid from women at high risk of preterm birth, irrespective of later cervical shortening. At less than 24 weeks’ gestation and prior to intervention, women destined to develop a short cervix (n?=?36) exhibited higher cervico-vaginal concentrations than controls (n?=?42) of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [(GM-CSF) 16.2 fold increase, confidence interval (CI) 1.8–147; p?=?0.01] and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [(MCP-1) 4.8, CI 1.0–23.0; p?=?0.05]. Other cytokines were similar between cases and controls. Progesterone treatment did not suppress cytokine concentrations. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon (IFN)-? and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? concentrations were higher following randomization to cerclage versus progesterone (p<0.05). Cerclage, but not progesterone treatment, was followed by a significant increase in cervical length [mean 11.4 mm, CI 5.0–17.7; p<0.001]. Conclusions Although GM-CSF and MCP-1 cervico-vaginal fluid concentrations were raised, the majority of cervico-vaginal cytokines did not increase in association with cervical shortening. Progesterone treatment showed no significant anti-inflammation action on cytokine concentrations. Cerclage insertion was associated with an increase in the majority of inflammatory markers and cervical length. PMID:23300664

Chandiramani, Manju; Seed, Paul T.; Orsi, Nicolas M.; Ekbote, Uma V.; Bennett, Phillip R.; Shennan, Andrew H.; Tribe, Rachel M.

2012-01-01

421

Evaluation of the angled Episcissors-60® episiotomy scissors in spontaneous vaginal deliveries  

PubMed Central

Background Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIs) are the leading cause of anal incontinence in women. Episiotomies with a postdelivery suture angle of less than 30° to the midline are more likely to injure the anal sphincter directly, while those with a suture angle of more than 60° are associated with increased incidence of OASIs, as they do not relieve the pressure on the perineum. A safe zone of 40°–60° has been proposed. Recently, two new types of episiotomy scissors (Episcissors-60® Straight version and angled version) were introduced to ensure a standardized cutting angle of 60° to the midline. We audited our results with the angled Episcissors-60 in spontaneous vaginal deliveries. Materials and methods Consecutive patients delivering in two private maternity hospitals in Thane, India undergoing clinically indicated episiotomies were included. Only patients delivering spontaneously were included. The scissors were introduced vaginally at crowning, and aligned to orient the guide limb vertically from the posterior fourchette to the anus. While a single cut was preferred, a stagger cut was needed for some women. Postdelivery angles were measured by placing a protractor transparency on the perineum after delivery and marking the angle with an indelible ink pen. Per rectal examination was performed prior to suturing to detect OASIs. Results A total of 25 women underwent clinically indicated episiotomies. Of these, 16 women were nulliparous, eight women were para 1, and one woman was a para 2. One woman had a vaginal breech delivery (para 2), and the rest were cephalic vertex deliveries. The average age was 27 (range 20–35) years. The median birth weight was 2,800 g (standard deviation 312 g, interquartile range 2,500–3,000 g). The median postdelivery suture angle of the episiotomy was 50° (standard deviation 3.5°, interquartile range 48°–54°, range 45°–55°). No cases of OASI were detected in this series. Conclusion The Episcissors-60 angled version demonstrated a postdelivery suture angle of 50° in a cohort of Indian women undergoing spontaneous vaginal deliveries. PMID:25114598

Patel, Rajnish P; Ubale, Sunita M

2014-01-01

422

Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure  

SciTech Connect

This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE`s national strategy, the Richland Operations Office`s Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established.

Edwards, C.

1998-06-30

423

Predictive value of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels in vaginal fluid for the diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes  

PubMed Central

Background: Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) occurs in 3% of pregnancies and 30-40% of preterm labors are related to this problem. Early diagnosis of PPROM is very important due to its impact on pregnancy outcomes. Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in vaginal fluid for the diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes as a non-invasive and available test. Materials and Methods: A total of 148 pregnant women between the 26th-36th gestational weeks were enrolled in the study. 74 patients were in PROM group and 74 in control group. AST and ALT levels in vaginal fluid were measured in each group. Mann Whitney U-test was used to compare AST and ALT levels in each group. Results: The mean of AST level in vaginal fluid was 12.77±10.06 in PROM group vs. 6.91±10.92 in control group (p<0.001), while there were no significant difference between ALT levels in PROM group 1.51±3.17 and control group 0.89±1.15 (p=0.49). Optimal cut point of AST for the diagnosis of PROM was 4.5 IU/L in this study. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 82.4%, 63.5%, 69.32% and 78.33% respectively. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, measurement of AST level in vaginal fluid can be used as a reliable test for diagnosis of PROM, but there is no good cut point for ALT level that can be practically used. PMID:24976822

Asgharnia, Maryam; Mirblouk, Fariba; Salamat, Fatemeh; Ashrafkhani, Babak; Dirbaz, Zahra

2014-01-01

424

Bioadhesive vaginal tablets containing spray dried microspheres loaded with clotrimazole for treatment of vaginal candidiasis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate novel bioadhesive vaginal tablets containing clotrimazole loaded microspheres in order to provide long-term therapeutic activity at the site of infection. Tablets were prepared by incorporating drug loaded microspheres and using bioadhesive polymers hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and Carbopol. Microspheres were prepared by the spray drying technique using Eudragit RS-100 and Eudragit RL-100. Microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, FTIR, particle size analysis and evaluated for percentage yield, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. To achieve bioadhesion to the mucosal tissue, optimized microspheres were incorporated into bioadhesive tablets and were evaluated for in vitro drug release, in vitro and in vivo mucoadhesion. FTIR and DSC studies showed that no chemical interaction occurred between the drug and polymers. The sphericity factor indicated that the prepared microspheres were spherical. Formulation Mt6 indicated a controlled in vitro drug release and good bioadhesive strength. The in vivo images confirmed the bioadhesion and retention property of tablets up to 24 h. The results indicated that this drug delivery system can be explored for controlled intravaginal drug release. PMID:24152896

Gupta, Naresh Vishal; Natasha, Shirodker; Getyala, Anil; Bhat, Ramnath Sudeendra

2013-09-01

425

10 CFR 60.51 - License amendment for permanent closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false License amendment for permanent closure. 60.51 Section 60.51 Energy...GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Permanent Closure § 60.51 License amendment for permanent closure. (a) DOE shall submit an...

2012-01-01

426

25 CFR 573.6 - Order of temporary closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Order of temporary closure. 573.6 Section 573.6 Indians...ENFORCEMENT § 573.6 Order of temporary closure. (a) When an order of temporary closure may issue. Simultaneously with or...

2012-04-01

427

40 CFR 267.143 - Financial assurance for closure.  

...2014-07-01 false Financial assurance for closure. 267.143 Section 267.143 ...267.143 Financial assurance for closure. The owner or operator must establish financial assurance for closure of each storage or treatment unit...

2014-07-01

428

43 CFR 8364.1 - Closure and restriction orders.  

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closure and restriction orders. 8364.1 Section...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Closures and Restrictions § 8364.1 Closure and restriction orders. (a) To...

2014-10-01

429

36 CFR 1.5 - Closures and public use limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closures and public use limits. 1.5 Section...INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.5 Closures and public use limits. ...3) Terminate a restriction, limit, closure, designation, condition, or...

2013-07-01

430

10 CFR 60.51 - License amendment for permanent closure.  

... false License amendment for permanent closure. 60.51 Section 60.51 Energy...GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Permanent Closure § 60.51 License amendment for permanent closure. (a) DOE shall submit an...

2014-01-01

431

40 CFR 267.143 - Financial assurance for closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Financial assurance for closure. 267.143 Section 267.143 ...267.143 Financial assurance for closure. The owner or operator must establish financial assurance for closure of each storage or treatment unit...

2012-07-01

432

9 CFR 381.301 - Containers and closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Containers and closures. 381.301 Section 381.301 ...Products § 381.301 Containers and closures. (a) Examination and cleaning of...containers. (1) Empty containers, closures, and flexible pouch roll stock...

2012-01-01

433

21 CFR 211.94 - Drug product containers and closures.  

...2014-04-01 false Drug product containers and closures. 211.94 Section 211.94 Food and...Components and Drug Product Containers and Closures § 211.94 Drug product containers and closures. (a) Drug product containers...

2014-04-01

434

9 CFR 318.301 - Containers and closures.  

...2014-01-01 false Containers and closures. 318.301 Section 318.301 ...Products § 318.301 Containers and closures. (a) Examination and cleaning of...containers. (1) Empty containers, closures, and flexible pouch roll stock...

2014-01-01

435

10 CFR 60.51 - License amendment for permanent closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false License amendment for permanent closure. 60.51 Section 60.51 Energy...GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Permanent Closure § 60.51 License amendment for permanent closure. (a) DOE shall submit an...

2013-01-01

436

9 CFR 318.301 - Containers and closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Containers and closures. 318.301 Section 318.301 ...Products § 318.301 Containers and closures. (a) Examination and cleaning of...containers. (1) Empty containers, closures, and flexible pouch roll stock...

2013-01-01

437

32 CFR 989.25 - Base closure and realignment.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Base closure and realignment. 989.25 Section 989.25...IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.25 Base closure and realignment. Base closure or realignment may entail special...

2014-07-01

438

36 CFR 1.5 - Closures and public use limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closures and public use limits. 1.5 Section...INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.5 Closures and public use limits. ...3) Terminate a restriction, limit, closure, designation, condition, or...

2012-07-01

439

9 CFR 381.301 - Containers and closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Containers and closures. 381.301 Section 381.301 ...Products § 381.301 Containers and closures. (a) Examination and cleaning of...containers. (1) Empty containers, closures, and flexible pouch roll stock...

2013-01-01

440

Fuzzy closure operators II: induced relations, representation, and examples  

E-print Network

Fuzzy closure operators II: induced relations, representation, and examples RADIM B LOHL VEK, Czech Republic, belohlav@osu.cz Abstract. Closure operators (and related structures) are investigated study relations induced by fuzzy closure operators (fuzzy qua- siorders and similarities); factorization

Belohlavek, Radim

441

50 CFR 36.42 - Public participation and closure procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Public participation and closure procedures. 36.42 Section 36.42... Permits and Public Participation and Closure Procedures § 36.42 Public participation and closure procedures. (a) Authority....

2012-10-01

442

36 CFR 1001.5 - Closures and public use limits.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closures and public use limits. 1001.5 ...TRUST GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1001.5 Closures and public use limits. ...3) Terminate a restriction, limit, closure, designation, condition, or...

2014-07-01

443

50 CFR 36.42 - Public participation and closure procedures.  

...2014-10-01 false Public participation and closure procedures. 36.42 Section 36.42... Permits and Public Participation and Closure Procedures § 36.42 Public participation and closure procedures. (a) Authority....

2014-10-01

444

9 CFR 318.301 - Containers and closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Containers and closures. 318.301 Section 318.301 ...Products § 318.301 Containers and closures. (a) Examination and cleaning of...containers. (1) Empty containers, closures, and flexible pouch roll stock...

2012-01-01

445

43 CFR 8364.1 - Closure and restriction orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Closure and restriction orders. 8364.1 Section...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Closures and Restrictions § 8364.1 Closure and restriction orders. (a) To...

2012-10-01

446

43 CFR 8364.1 - Closure and restriction orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closure and restriction orders. 8364.1 Section...INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Closures and Restrictions § 8364.1 Closure and restriction orders. (a) To...

2013-10-01

447

36 CFR 1001.5 - Closures and public use limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Closures and public use limits. 1001.5 ...TRUST GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1001.5 Closures and public use limits. ...3) Terminate a restriction, limit, closure, designation, condition, or...

2013-07-01

448

40 CFR 267.143 - Financial assurance for closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Financial assurance for closure. 267.143 Section 267.143 ...267.143 Financial assurance for closure. The owner or operator must establish financial assurance for closure of each storage or treatment unit...

2013-07-01

449

36 CFR 1001.5 - Closures and public use limits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closures and public use limits. 1001.5 ...TRUST GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1001.5 Closures and public use limits. ...3) Terminate a restriction, limit, closure, designation, condition, or...

2012-07-01

450

50 CFR 622.183 - Area and seasonal closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Area and seasonal closures. 622.183 Section 622.183 Wildlife and...Atlantic Region § 622.183 Area and seasonal closures. (a) Area closures —(1) Marine protected areas...

2013-10-01

451

36 CFR 1.5 - Closures and public use limits.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closures and public use limits. 1.5 Section...INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.5 Closures and public use limits. ...3) Terminate a restriction, limit, closure, designation, condition, or...

2014-07-01

452

21 CFR 211.94 - Drug product containers and closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Drug product containers and closures. 211.94 Section 211.94 Food and...Components and Drug Product Containers and Closures § 211.94 Drug product containers and closures. (a) Drug product containers...

2013-04-01

453

50 CFR 36.42 - Public participation and closure procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Public participation and closure procedures. 36.42 Section 36.42... Permits and Public Participation and Closure Procedures § 36.42 Public participation and closure procedures. (a) Authority....

2013-10-01

454

21 CFR 211.94 - Drug product containers and closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Drug product containers and closures. 211.94 Section 211.94 Food and...Components and Drug Product Containers and Closures § 211.94 Drug product containers and closures. (a) Drug product containers...

2012-04-01

455

9 CFR 381.301 - Containers and closures.  

...2014-01-01 false Containers and closures. 381.301 Section 381.301 ...Products § 381.301 Containers and closures. (a) Examination and cleaning of...containers. (1) Empty containers, closures, and flexible pouch roll stock...

2014-01-01

456

Comparison of cost-effectiveness and postoperative outcome of device closure and open surgery closure techniques for treatment of patent ductus arteriosus  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Various devices have been recently employed for percutaneous closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Although the high effectiveness of device closure techniques has been clearly determined, a few studies have focused on the cost-effectiveness and also postoperative complications of these procedures in comparison with open surgery. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness of PDA occlusion by Amplatzer and coil device in comparisong with open surgery. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, a randomized sample of 201 patients aged 1 month to 16 years (105 patients with device closure and 96 patients with surgical closure) was selected. The ratio of total pulmonary blood flow to total systemic blood flow, the Qp/Qs ratio, was measured using a pulmonary artery catheter. The cost analysis included direct medical care costs associated with device implantation and open surgery, as well as professional fees. All costs were calculated in Iranian Rials and then converted to US dollars. RESULTS There was no statistical difference in mean Qp/Qs ratio before the procedure between the device closure group and the open surgery group (2.1 ± 0.7 versus 1.7 ± 0.6, P = 0.090). The mean measured costs were overall higher in the device closure group than in open closure group (948.87 ± 548.76 US$ versus 743.70 ± 696.91 US$, P < 0.001). This difference remained significant after adjustment for age and gender (Standardized Beta = 0.160, P = 0.031). PDA closure with the Amplatzer ductal occluder (1053.05 ± 525.73 US$) or with Nit-Occlud coils (PFM) (912.73 ± 565.94 US$, P < 0.001) was more expensive than that via open surgery. However, the Cook detachable spring coils device closure (605.65 ± 194.62 US$, P = 0.650) had a non-significant cost difference with open surgery. No event was observed in the device closure group regarding in-hospital mortality or morbidity; however, in another group, 2 in-hospital deaths occurred, two patients experienced pneumonia and seizure, and one suffered electrolyte abnormalities including hyponatremia and hypocalcemia. CONCLUSION Although open surgery seems to be less expensive than device closure technique, because of lower mortality and morbidity, the latter group is more preferable. PMID:24963312

Ahmadi, Alireza; Sabri, Mohammadreza; Bigdelian, Hamid; Dehghan, Bahar; Gharipour, Mojgan

2014-01-01

457

Boolean Matrix Multiplication and Transitive Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arithmetic operations on matrices are applied to the problem of finding the transitive closure of a Boolean matrix. The best transitive closure algorithm known, due to Munro, is based on the matrix multiplication method of Strassen. We show that his method requires at most O(n? ¿ P(n)) bitwise operations, where ? = log27 and P(n) bounds the number of bitwise

Michael J. Fischer; Albert R. Meyer

1971-01-01

458

Fast Decision Procedures Based on Congruence Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of the congruence closure of a relation on a graph is defined and several algorithms for computing it are surveyed. A simple proof is given that the congruence closure algorithm provides a decision procedure for the quantifier-free theory of equality. A decision procedure is then given for the quantifier-free theory of LISP list structure based on the congruence

Greg Nelson; Derek C. Oppen

1980-01-01

459

Estimating the Size of Generalized Transitive Closures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for the estimation of the size of binary recursively defined relations. We show how the framework can be used to provide estimating algo rithms for the size of the transitive closure and gener- alizations of the transitive closure, and also show that for bounded degree relations, the algorithm runs in linear time. Such estimating algorithms are

Richard J. Lipton; Jeffrey F. Naughton

1989-01-01

460

Higher Separation Axioms in Generalized Closure Spaces  

E-print Network

Higher Separation Axioms in Generalized Closure Spaces BË? arbel M.R. Stadler 1,# and Peter F of separation axioms that is familiar from topological spaces generalizes to spaces with an isotone. Keywords: extended topologies, closure spaces, separation axioms, Urysohn functions, regularity, normality

Stadler, Peter F.

461

Computational experiences with some transitive closure algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper contains results of computational experiences with the following algorithms for finding the transitive closure of a digraph: (i) Warshall's algorithm [17], (ii) Purdom's algorithm [13], (iii) the modification of Yen's algorithm [14], and (iv) the new algorithms for finding the transitive closure [3, 4]. The tested digraphs were generated at random. The enclosed references contain all papers known

Maciej M. Syslo; J. Dzikiewicz

1975-01-01

462

HOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion  

E-print Network

to be closure converted, and the transformation for converting these inner classes into Java Virtual Machine conversion---the process of converting code with free variables into closed code and auxiliary data is to compile functions to closures, which are data structures that pair closed 1 This paper is based on work

Glew, Neal

463

Microcrack closure in rocks under stress - Direct observation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Direct observations of the closure of microcracks in rocks under increasing stress are reported. Uniaxial stresses up to 300 bars were applied to untreated and previously heated samples of Westerly granite and Frederick diabase by a small hydraulic press which fit entirely within a scanning electron microscope. Crack closure characteristics are found to depend on crack orientation, with cracks perpendicular to the applied stress closing and those parallel tending to open, as well as crack aspect ratio, crack intersection properties, stress concentrations and surface roughness. Uniaxial and hydrostatic stress measurements are found to be strongly dependent on fracture content as observed by SEM, and the observed hysteresis in strain measurements in the first stress cycles is also related to microscopic processes

Batzle, M. L.; Simmons, G.; Siegfried, R. W.

1980-01-01

464

Essential Closures and AC Spectra for Reflectionless CMV, Jacobi, and Schrödinger Operators Revisited  

E-print Network

We provide a concise, yet fairly complete discussion of the concept of essential closures of subsets of the real axis and their intimate connection with the topological support of absolutely continuous measures. As an elementary application of the notion of the essential closure of subsets of $\\bbR$ we revisit the fact that CMV, Jacobi, and Schr\\"odinger operators, reflectionless on a set E of positive Lebesgue measure, have absolutely continuous spectrum on the essential closure of the set E (with uniform multiplicity two on E). Though this result in the case of Schr\\"odinger and Jacobi operators is known to experts, we feel it nicely illustrates the concept and usefulness of essential closures in the spectral theory of classes of reflectionless differential and difference operators.

Fritz Gesztesy; Konstantin A. Makarov; Maxim Zinchenko

2008-03-21

465

PLAN FOR CLOSURE OF HANFORDS CENTRAL PLATEAU  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes an approach to reduce risk to the public and environment through accelerated closure of Hanford's Central Plateau, based on a plan developed by Fluor Hanford and submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE)-Richland Office, for consideration, in September, 2004. This plan provides a framework and starting point for discussions with regulators and further planning for closure activities on the Plateau. The closure strategy and approach required developing a full inventory of items needing closure as well as identifying and defining technical and regulatory approaches that were compatible with current regulatory processes, reduce risks, and met DOE objectives. This effort, and the paper that follows, integrates closure activities among several contractors and two DOE field offices.

AUSTIN, B.A.

2004-12-15

466

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2015-01-30

467

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2014-12-19

468

The influence of applicator angle on dosimetry in vaginal vault brachytherapy.  

PubMed

In vaginal vault brachytherapy, the critical normal tissues are bladder and rectum; doses to these tissues may be affected by the position of a single line applicator placed in the vagina. Dosimetry with the applicator lying at its "natural" angle in the vagina with the patient in the lithotomy position has been compared with the applicator held horizontal as defined by a spirit level in 30 consecutive patients. A mean change in angle of 19.7 degrees was found. This resulted in a mean decrease in ICRU (International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements) rectal point dose when the applicator is horizontal of 12.9%, equivalent to a mean absolute dose reduction of 1.3 Gy for a prescription dose of 5.5 Gy at 5 mm depth. An increase in mean dose to the ICRU bladder point when the applicator is horizontal of 13.3%, equivalent to an absolute mean dose increase of 0.5 Gy per fraction for the same prescription dose, was also found. On the basis of these findings, it is recommended that vaginal vault brachytherapy is performed with a single line source held in the "corrected" horizontal position to reduce bowel dose as this is the most sensitive critical normal tissue. PMID:11932216

Hoskin, P J; Bownes, P; Summers, A

2002-03-01

469

Local treatment of urogenital atrophy with an estradiol-releasing vaginal ring: a comparative and a placebo-controlled multicenter study. Vaginal Ring Study Group.  

PubMed

Local estrogen substitution has been shown to be more appropriate than any systemic application for the treatment of urogenital symptoms of hormone deficiency. The efficacy, safety and acceptability of a new low-dose drug delivery system consisting of an estradiol-releasing silicone vaginal ring was studied in two multicenter trials. In an open-label comparative trial a total of 219 postmenopausal women were randomized to the estradiol-releasing vaginal ring or to estriol suppositories. In terms of efficacy both treatment arms were shown to be equivalent; however, significantly higher rates of acceptability were found for the vaginal ring. In a double-blinded placebo-controlled study a total of 84 patients were randomized to either treatment arm for a period of 24 weeks. The statistically significant improvement of the vaginal epithelial pH and maturation values demonstrated the efficacy of the estradiol-releasing vaginal ring compared to the placebo ring. PMID:10430010

Casper, F; Petri, E

1999-01-01

470

Custom fabricated acrylic vaginal stent as an adjunct to surgical creation of neovagina for a young female with isolated vaginal agenesis  

PubMed Central

Vaginal agenesis is one of the major congenital anomalies of the female genital tract. It may present either as an isolated developmental defect or within a complex of more extensive anomalies. Most commonly it is associated with Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. The correction of vaginal agenesis requires the creation of a neovaginal cavity that is dissected between the bladder and the rectum. After reconstruction of space for vagina surgically, a long-term vaginal stent use is required to maintain vaginal width and depth and to prevent contraction. In this article is presented a case of nonsyndromic agenesis of vagina in a 14-year-old girl and its surgical management using custom fabricated acrylic vaginal stent.

Rathee, Manu; Boora, Priyanka; Kundu, Renu

2014-01-01

471

Unilateral acute angle closure glaucoma.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old gentleman presented with 1-week history of severe right-sided headache associated with reduced vision in his right, amblyopic eye. Examination revealed raised intraocular pressure at 64 mm Hg. The anterior chamber (AC) was shallow and there was a dense cataract with no red reflex or fundal view. The contralateral eye had a deep anterior chamber with normal pressure and a clear lens. He was treated initially for acute angle closure glaucoma. The anterior chamber remained shallow and the intraocular pressure uncontrolled, despite maximum medical therapy. Owing to the absent fundal view and unilateral AC shallowing, further imaging was performed and a choroidal mass was found to be responsible for anterior displacement of the lens and shallowing of the angle. He went on to have an enucleation of the right eye, and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of choroidal melanoma. PMID:23440984

Tan, Shi Zhuan; Sampat, Keerthika; Rasool, Sana; Nolan, Daniel

2013-01-01

472

Closure for milliliter scale bioreactor  

DOEpatents

A closure for a microreactor includes a cap that is configured to be inserted into a well of the microreactor. The cap, or at least a portion of the cap, is compliant so as to form a seal with the well when the cap is inserted. The cap includes an aperture that provides an airway between the inside of the well to the external environment when the cap is inserted into the well. A porous plug is inserted in the aperture, e.g., either directly or in tube that extends through the aperture. The porous plug permits gas within the well to pass through the aperture while preventing liquids from passing through to reduce evaporation and preventing microbes from passing through to provide a sterile environment. A one-way valve may also be used to help control the environment in the well.

Klein, David L. (Palo Alto, CA); Laidlaw, Robert D. (Albany, CA); Andronaco, Gregory (Palo Alto, CA); Boyer, Stephen G. (Moss Beach, CA)

2010-12-14

473