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1

Test-Retest Reliability of an Instrumented Speculum For Measuring Vaginal Closure Force  

PubMed Central

Aims The study aimed to a) determine reliability of an instrumented speculum designed for measuring intravaginal closure pressure, and b) compare findings with a comparable device reported in the literature. The goal of these new devices is to reduce subjectivity, improve precision, and acknowledge reliability issues in quantifying levator ani closure force acting on the vagina. Methods The instrumented speculum consisted of two parallel aluminum bills, similar in size to a Peterson speculum. Strain gages located near the root of each bill measure the magnitude of force exerted in the distal vagina. A contraction of the “U-shaped” levator ani muscle closes the levator hiatus with resultant reaction force measured by the speculum in the mid-sagittal plane. We tested the device in twelve nulliparous women making repeated measures within and across 3 different visit days. All measures were made by the same investigator. Results Same day measures were repeatable within ±3.8 N by the third visit, with lesser repeatability on the 1st and 2nd visit days. Across days, repeatability was improved by Visits 2 and 3 with a coefficient of repeatability between those days of ±5.5 N. Better repeatability was obtained using averaged scores rather than `best effort'; but average scores can underestimate best effort. Conclusion Reasonable within-visit repeatability was found. Across-visit repeatability is consistent with the known difficulty that women have in maximally isolating and activating their levator ani muscles. The results corroborate the repeatability results of Dumoulin et al. [2004] using a similar type of dynamometer.

Miller, Janis M.; Ashton-Miller, James A; Perruchicni, D.; DeLancey, John O.L.

2009-01-01

2

Effects of Electrosurgery and Vaginal Closure Technique on Postoperative Vaginal Cuff Dehiscence  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: The aim of our study is to evaluate the role of electrosurgery and vaginal closure technique in the development of postoperative vaginal cuff dehiscence. Methods: From prospective surgical databases, we identified 463 patients who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) for benign disease and 147 patients who underwent laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) for cancer. All TLHs and LAVHs were performed entirely by use of electrosurgery, including colpotomy. Colpotomy in the TLH group was performed with Harmonic Ace Curved Shears (Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Cincinnati, OH, USA), and in the LAVH group, it was performed with a monopolar electrosurgical pencil. The main surgical difference was vaginal cuff closure—laparoscopically in the TLH group and vaginally in the LAVH group. Results: Although patients in the LAVH group were at increased risk for poor healing (significantly older, higher body mass index, more medical comorbidities, higher blood loss, and longer operative time), there were no vaginal cuff dehiscences in the LAVH group compared with 17 vaginal cuff dehiscences (4%) in the TLH group (P = .02). Conclusion: It does not appear that the increased vaginal cuff dehiscence rate associated with TLH is due to electrosurgery; rather, it is due to the vaginal closure technique.

Kesterson, Joshua; Davies, Matthew; Green, Janis; Penezic, Lindsey; Vargas, Roberto; Harkins, Gerald

2013-01-01

3

Comparative Assessment of Pelvic Floor Function Using Vaginal Cones, Vaginal Digital Palpation and Vaginal Pressure Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group-comparative study to assess pelvic floor muscle function using vaginal cones, vaginal digital palpation, and vaginal pressure measurements in 30 women suffering from genuine stress urinary incontinence and in an age-matched group of continent women was undertaken. Vaginal digital palpation score and vaginal pressure during active contraction were greater (p < 0.001) in continent women (1.9 ± 0.1 and

Inger Hahn; Ian Milsom; Bo L. Ohlssor; Peter Ekelund; Christer Uhlemann; Magnus Fall

1996-01-01

4

Vaginitis  

MedlinePLUS

... diagnosed? • How is vaginitis treated? • What is a yeast infection? • What causes yeast infections? • What factors increase the risk of getting a yeast infection? • What are the symptoms of a yeast ...

5

Acoustic emission measurement of fatigue crack closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The COD and BFS methods show relatively good agreement with each other and measure the through-thickness mean value of crack closure loads. In the plane strain condition, the crack closure levels obtained by the COD and BFS methods were lower than those by the AE and surface strain gage methods. The data obtained by the surface strain gage method must

C. S. Lee; Y. M. Rhyim; D. Kwon; K. Ono

1995-01-01

6

50 CFR 648.24 - Fishery closures and accountability measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Fishery closures and accountability measures. 648.24 Section 648.24 Wildlife...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and... Fishery closures and accountability measures. (a) Fishery closure procedures...

2012-10-01

7

50 CFR 660.509 - Accountability measures (season closures).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accountability measures (season closures). 660.509 Section 660.509 Wildlife... Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.509 Accountability measures (season closures). (a) General rule. When...

2012-10-01

8

Acoustic emission measurement of fatigue crack closure  

SciTech Connect

In this study the acoustic emission (AE) technique has been applied to measure the crack closure loads precisely and the results have been compared with those measured by the conventional techniques such as the crack opening displacement (COD) method, back face strain gage (BFS) method, and surface strain gage method. In addition, fatigue tests at high stress ratio (R=0.8) have also been conducted to compared the results with those of the above methods at R=0.1 and to verify the accuracy of each method. The material used in the present investigation was an Al-Li 8090 alloy which was supplied as a 44.5mm thick rolled plate in the solution heat treated, 6% stretched and naturally aged condition. The COD and BFS methods show relatively good agreement with each other and measure the through-thickness mean value of crack closure loads. In the plane strain condition, the crack closure levels obtained by the COD and BFS methods were lower than those by the AE and surface train gage methods. The data obtained by the surface strain gage method must be interpreted carefully, because the shape of the compliance curves is affected by the location relative to the crack tip. The intrinsic fatigue life curve (da/dN vs. [Delta]K[sub eff]) obtained by the AE technique fitted well with the curve of high stress ratio (R=0.8) test at high [Delta]K, suggesting that the AE technique is sensitive to local crack-tip behavior on a microscopic scale and can be considered as a reliable measurement method for crack closure phenomena under repetitive loads.

Lee, C.S.; Rhyim, Y.M. (Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of). Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials); Kwon, D. (Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering); Ono, K. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

1995-03-01

9

Validating a turbulence closure against estuarine microstructure measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple k–? turbulence closure is introduced which has no stability functions but instead a Richardson number-dependent turbulent Prandtl number. Its free parameters are determined in a comparison with microstructure observations from a stratified and sheared tidal estuary and laboratory measurements. The closure is able to simulate observed turbulent dissipation rates (?) and turbulent length scales (lth) in regions of

Hartmut Peters; Helmut Z. Baumert

2007-01-01

10

Measuring Need for Closure in Classroom Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Need for closure, as formulated by Kruglanski and colleagues [Kruglanski, A. W. (1990). Lay epistemic theory in social-cognitive psychology. "Psychological Inquiry," 1(3), 181-197; Kruglanski, A. W., & Webster, D. M. (1996). Motivated closing of the mind: Seizing and freezing. "Psychological Review," 103, 263-283; Webster, D. M., & Kruglanski, A.…

DeBacker, Teresa K.; Crowson, H. Michael

2008-01-01

11

Development and Testing of a Vaginal Pressure Sensor to Measure Intra-abdominal Pressure in Women  

PubMed Central

Aims Elevated intra-abdominal pressure may be a potentially modifiable risk factor for pelvic floor disorders. However, limited evidence exists due to the lack of instruments suitable to measure abdominal pressures in real world settings. The aim of this study was to develop and test a vaginal sensor prototype to measure intra-abdominal pressure in women. Methods We developed a non-directional vaginal sensor by housing pressure-sensing circuit boards in 1.2 × 3cm radially symmetric silicon capsules. We characterized the response in a standardized pressure chamber. Eight women wore a sensor intra-vaginally while undergoing filling cystometry. We compared peak pressures during coughing, valsalva, squatting, and jumping to those obtained using a #10 french rectal balloon urodynamics catheter. We calculated Pearson’s correlation coefficients between rectal and vaginal sensors for each event. Results The vaginal sensors exhibited linear responses during initial bench testing. Each transducer correlated well with the rectal balloon catheter during coughing, valsalva, and squatting (r= 0.97, 0.94, and 0.97, respectively). However, the rectal balloon catheter recorded higher peak and lower, often negative, trough pressures during jumping. The vaginal sensor showed no such artifact. Conclusions This vaginal pressure sensor can be used as a surrogate for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in women without advanced prolapse. By measuring pressure at the physiological source, the vaginal sensor is less prone to extraneous noise and error than current transducers. Using this prototype, we will next develop a remote wireless version to capture a range of abdominal pressures experienced outside of the laboratory setting.

Rosenbluth, Evan M; Johnson, Paul J; Hitchcock, Robert W; Nygaard, Ingrid E

2013-01-01

12

Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least an easier task than I have carried out the previous hour when we discussed the preliminary conclusions and recommendations has, as a compensation I guess, been given to me as well. To say a few words as a closure of this symposium. The beginning of such a series of closing statements is most difficult. Because I have never

C. J. Stigter

1988-01-01

13

Association between first trimester vaginal bleeding and uterine artery Doppler measured at second and third trimesters of pregnancy.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of first trimester vaginal bleeding among patients with abnormal second and third trimester uterine artery Doppler. Methods: A prospective study of patients with a uterine artery Doppler measurement between 27 and 42 weeks' gestation was undertaken. A comparison was made between two groups: patients with and without first trimester vaginal bleeding. Abnormal uterine artery Doppler was defined as PI >95th% or the presence of a diastolic notch. Results: Of the 277 patients that were included in the study, 65 (23%) had first trimester vaginal bleeding. No differences were noted in uterine artery Doppler waveforms among patients with and without first trimester vaginal bleeding. Among patients with first trimester vaginal bleeding, 9 (14%) had a bilateral uterine artery notch and 56 (86%) did not, compared with 51 (24%) and 161 (76%), in the control group, respectively. Patients with first trimester vaginal bleeding, and a bilateral uterine artery notch had significantly higher rates of small for gestational age neonates, low-Apgar scores (<7) at one minute and cesarean deliveries compared to patients with first trimester vaginal bleeding who did not have bilateral uterine artery notch. Conclusion: First trimester vaginal bleeding was not associated with a higher incidence of abnormal uterine artery waveforms or with placental related conditions. However, adverse perinatal outcomes were found when first trimester vaginal bleeding was associated with second and third trimester bilateral uterine artery notchs. PMID:23617256

Pariente, Gali; Shwarzman, Paulina; Aricha-Tamir, Barak; Weintraub, Adi Y; Hershkovitz, Reli

2013-05-17

14

Vaginal itching  

MedlinePLUS

... and make you more susceptible to infections. Vaginal yeast infection Vaginitis . Vaginitis in girls before puberty is ... If you are sure that you have a yeast infection, try over-the-counter creams or vaginal ...

15

Vaginal discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... infections and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) Trichomoniasis Vaginal yeast infection ... is never recommended. Use an over-the-counter yeast infection treatment cream or vaginal suppository, if you ...

16

Measured and calculated closures of open and brine filled shafts and deep vertical boreholes in salt  

SciTech Connect

Shaft closure measurements are presented which are based on a rather unusual emplacement of very early time closure points. These data are in good agreement with calculations based on the prediction techniques developed for underground rooms in salt using a complete stratigraphy. However, a simplified calculational mesh also gives good agreement, which permits this mesh to be used for parametric studies of long term closures of open and brine filled shafts and boreholes.

Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeVries, K.L.; Schiermeister, D.M.; DeYonge, W.F. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Jones, R.L. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-01-01

17

Measured and calculated closures of open and brine filled shafts and deep vertical boreholes in salt  

SciTech Connect

Shaft closure measurements are presented which are based on a rather unusual emplacement of very early time closure points. These data are in good agreement with calculations based on the prediction technique developed for underground rooms in salt using a complete stratigraphy. However, a simplified calculational mesh also gives good agreement, which permits this mesh to be used for parametric studies of long term closures of open and brine filled shafts and boreholes.

Munson, D.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); DeVries, K.L.; Schiermeister, D.M.; DeYonge, W.F. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)); Jones, R.L. (Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1991-01-01

18

Optical instrument for measurement of vaginal coating thickness by drug delivery formulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical device has been developed for imaging the human vaginal epithelial surfaces, and quantitatively measuring distributions of coating thickness of drug delivery formulations-such as gels-applied for prophylaxis, contraception or therapy. The device consists of a rigid endoscope contained within a 27-mm-diam hollow, polished-transparent polycarbonate tube (150 mm long) with a hemispherical cap. Illumination is from a xenon arc. The device is inserted into, and remains stationary within the vagina. A custom gearing mechanism moves the endoscope relative to the tube, so that it views epithelial surfaces immediately apposing its outer surface (i.e., 150 mm long by 360° azimuthal angle). Thus, with the tube fixed relative to the vagina, the endoscope sites local regions at distinct and measurable locations that span the vaginal epithelium. The returning light path is split between a video camera and photomultiplier. Excitation and emission filters in the light path enable measurement of fluorescence of the sited region. Thus, the instrument captures video images simultaneously with photometric measurement of fluorescence of each video field [~10 mm diameter; formulations are labeled with 0.1% w/w United States Pharmacoepia (USP) injectable sodium fluorescein]. Position, time and fluorescence measurements are continuously displayed (on video) and recorded (to a computer database). The photomultiplier output is digitized to quantify fluorescence of the endoscope field of view. Quantification of the thickness of formulation coating of a surface sited by the device is achieved due to the linear relationship between thickness and fluorescence intensity for biologically relevant thin layers (of the order of 0.5 mm). Summary measures of coating have been developed, focusing upon extent, location and uniformity. The device has begun to be applied in human studies of model formulations for prophylaxis against infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted pathogens.

Henderson, Marcus H.; Peters, Jennifer J.; Walmer, David K.; Couchman, Grace M.; Katz, David F.

2005-03-01

19

Tracking the Ovarian Cycle in Black-and-Gold Howlers ( Alouatta caraya ) by Measuring Fecal Steroids and Observing Vaginal Bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A better understanding of a species’ reproductive physiology can help conservation programs to manage primates in the wild\\u000a and develop assisted reproductive technologies in captivity. We investigated whether measurements of fecal progestin and estrogen\\u000a metabolites obtained by a radioimmunoassay could be used to monitor the ovarian cycle of Alouatta caraya. We also compared the occurrence of vaginal bleeding with the

Tatiana Kugelmeier; Rodrigo del Rio do Valle; Marcelo Alcindo de Barros Vaz Guimarães; José Augusto Pereira Carneiro Muniz; Frederico Ozanan Barros Monteiro; Cláudio Alvarenga de Oliveira

2011-01-01

20

Vaginal Yeast Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... HIV/AIDS Sexually transmitted infections fact sheet Vaginal yeast infections fact sheet What is a vaginal yeast ... on vaginal yeast infections What is a vaginal yeast infection? A vaginal yeast infection is irritation of ...

21

Rapid fluctuation of the vaginal microbiota measured by Gram stain analysis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES The etiology of bacterial vaginosis (BV) remains unknown. We sought to describe longitudinal changes in vaginal microbiota. METHODS Thirty-nine women self-collected vaginal specimens twice-weekly for 16 weeks as part of a vaginal douching cessation study. In an analysis where each woman serves as her own control, we used Conditional Logistic Regression to evaluate daily, time-varying factors associated with a woman’s incident BV episode(s) as compared to her persistently BV-negative sample(s). BV was defined by Nugent’s Gram stain score ?7. RESULTS The mean age was 36.8 years; 56.4% were African-American. 46.2% of participants had BV in the first four weeks of observation. Rapid fluctuation of vaginal microbiota was observed in 226 transitions to BV or spontaneous remission. Duration of BV was often short: 51% of the episodes lasted only one sample interval (three days). Among women who had at least one BV episode, the median number of episodes per woman was 8.7 (SD=7.4, range: 1–22). Lubricant use one day prior to specimen collection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 11.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.96–70.27) and rectal sex two days prior (aOR: 4.48, 95% CI: 2.79–7.17) were associated with BV onset. CONCLUSION Rapid fluctuation of the vaginal microbiota was observed. Longitudinal studies with long intervals between sampling are likely to miss episodes of BV. Recent report of lubricant use and rectal sex were associated with incident BV.

Brotman, Rebecca M.; Ravel, Jacques; Cone, Richard A.; Zenilman, Jonathan M.

2012-01-01

22

Influence of heat flow on drift closure during Climax granite spent-fuel test: measurements and calculations  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of drift closure caused by the thermal load have been made routinely during the Spent Fuel Test in Climax granite since about six weeks after emplacement of the fuel. Horizontal and vertical closure was measured with a manually operated tape extensometer at various locations along the lengths of the drifts. Average closures ranged from 0 to 0.6 mm, horizontal and vertical, out to about 2.2 years since the start of the test. At the same time, displacements from the thermal loads were measured with rod extensometers emplaced to measure relative displacements between hole collars and anchor points in holes drilled from two parallel heater drifts. These data are compared with thermo-elastic finite element calculations which utilized measured properties of the Climax granite. The calculations show that more than half of the closures occur between fuel installation and the first closure measurement. The comparisons show that the results track each other, in that where closure followed by dilation is measured, the calculations also show this effect. The agreement is excellent, considering the averaged measured closures remain within 30% of the total calculated drift closures and the extremely small magnitude of the relative displacements (0.5 mm), measured or calculated.

Butkovich, T.R.; Yow, J.L. Jr.; Montan, D.N.

1982-09-08

23

Vaginal Discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... also be on the lookout for symptoms of yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis, 3 infections that ... cause changes in your vaginal discharge. Signs of yeast infections White, cottage cheese-like discharge Swelling and ...

24

Estrogen Vaginal  

MedlinePLUS

... estradiol vaginal ring is also used to treat hot flushes ('hot flashes'; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... mild soap and warm water. Do not use hot water or boil the applicator. Ask your pharmacist ...

25

Vaginal leiomyoma in pregnancy presenting as a prolapsed vaginal mass.  

PubMed

Vaginal leiomyomas are rare benign solid tumours of the vagina. They can cause mechanical dystocia, which is a common problem in obstetrics leading to serious maternal and perinatal complications. Here we describe a patient with a vaginal leiomyoma diagnosed during the mid-trimester that could have caused dystocia. This 22-year-old woman presented with a vaginal mass and leaking vaginal fluid during pregnancy. On examination, a prolapsed, pedunculated mass, measuring 5 × 3 × 4 cm was detected in the anterior vaginal wall. Via a midline incision, the mass was easily enucleated and removed. Transvaginal surgical enucleation of the vaginal leiomyoma is usually curative and recommended as the initial treatment of choice to prevent for dystocia. Such treatment is indicated when the tumour is a potential obstacle to normal labour. PMID:23223657

Dane, Cem; Rustemoglu, Yaprak; Kiray, Murat; Ozkuvanci, Unsal; Tatar, Zeynep; Dane, Banu

2012-12-01

26

Effect of a collector bag for measurement of postpartum blood loss after vaginal delivery: cluster randomised trial in 13 European countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the systematic use of a transparent plastic collector bag to measure postpartum blood loss after vaginal delivery in reducing the incidence of severe postpartum haemorrhage. Design Cluster randomised trial. Setting 13 European countries. Participants 78 maternity units and 25?381 women who had a vaginal delivery. Interventions Maternity units were randomly assigned to systematic use of a collector bag (intervention group) or to continue to visually assess postpartum blood loss after vaginal delivery (control group). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the incidence of severe postpartum haemorrhage in vaginal deliveries, defined as a composite of one or more of blood transfusion, intravenous plasma expansion, arterial embolisation, surgical procedure, admission to an intensive care unit, treatment with recombinant factor VII, and death. Results Severe postpartum haemorrhage occurred in 189 of 11?037 of vaginal deliveries (1.71%) in the intervention group compared with 295 of 14?344 in the control group (2.06%). The difference was not statistically significant either in individual level analysis (adjusted odds ratio 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.26 to 2.53) or in cluster level analysis (difference in weighted mean rate adjusted for baseline rate 0.16%, 95% confidence interval ?0.69% to 1.02%). Conclusion Compared with visual estimation of postpartum blood loss the use of a collector bag after vaginal delivery did not reduce the rate of severe postpartum haemorrhage. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN66197422.

2010-01-01

27

Posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver: A clinical test to diagnose intrinsic sphincter deficiency in women suffering from genuine urinary stress incontinence.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: To assess the predictive value of a simple clinical test (posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver) in the diagnosis of intrinsic sphincter deficiency. METHODS: The present prospective study included 62 women suffering from stress urinary incontinence. Every patient underwent a urogynecological examination including multichannel urodynamic testing (cystometry, urethral pressure profile, Valsalva Leak Point Pressure measurement) and a clinical examination including posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver. Posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver was carried out with the bladder filled with 400?mL of saline in a supine position, and was obtained by means of a split speculum allowing gentle pull down traction of the posterior vaginal wall. Posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver was considered as positive when a urine leak was observed during the manoeuvre. Intrinsic sphincter deficiency was urodynamically defined by maximum urethral closure pressure ?20?cmH2 O. Correlations between positive/negative posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver and urodynamic intrinsic sphincter deficiency were calculated. RESULTS: There was a statistical correlation between age and low maximum urethral closure pressure (P?closure pressure and positive posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver (P?vaginal wall pull down maneuver positive predictive value was 94.67% and the negative predictive value was 95.4%, with a specificity of 97.6% and sensitivity of 90%. CONCLUSION: Posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver is a reliable clinical test, easy to carry out, inexpensive and without significant risk. This test allows the diagnosis of intrinsic sphincter deficiency in women suffering from stress urinary incontinence, thus avoiding further invasive urodynamic testing (urethral pressure profile, Valsalva Leak Point Pressure measurement) in women with genuine stress urinary incontinence. Furthermore, it is helpful when choosing the type of sling procedure (retropubic vs transobturator) when a surgery is planned. PMID:23600798

Thubert, Thibault; Deffieux, Xavier; Jousse, Marylène; Guinet-Lacoste, Amandine; Ismael, Samer Sheikh; Amarenco, Gerard

2013-04-21

28

Vaginal cuff dehiscence with adnexal mass evisceration after abdominal hysterectomy  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION More commonly, a vaginal cuff dehiscence is a complication of robotic or laparoscopic hysterectomy while dehiscence is less commonly observed following total abdominal or vaginal hysterectomies. PRESENTATION OF CASE Three years after an uncomplicated total abdominal hysterectomy for fibroid uterus, a 50 year old female with a known, large adnexal mass presented with vaginal cuff dehiscence and prolapse of the adnexal mass through the vaginal cuff. DISCUSSION We discuss surgical risk factors including route of hysterectomy, method of colpotomy and vaginal cuff closure as contributing factors for vaginal cuff dehiscence in our patient. CONCLUSION Any large pelvic mass that may potentially exert pressure necrosis on the vaginal cuff, even remote from hysterectomy may result a vaginal cuff dehiscence. Emergent surgical intervention is warranted.

Nguyen, My-Linh T.; Anyikam, Adanna L.; Paolucci, Michele

2013-01-01

29

Vaginal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaginal cancer treatments are likely to cause side effects that make sexual intimacy more difficult for you and your partner. If treatment makes sex painful or temporarily impossible, try to find new ways of maintaining intimacy. Spending quality time together and having ...

30

Vaginal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... body). There are four types of vaginal cancer: Squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the cells lining the vagina, most often in the area closest to the cervix. Squamous cell cancer makes up 85% to 90% of ...

31

On the Measurement of Soil Heat Flux to Improve Estimates of Energy Balance Closure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of soil heat flux (G) are required to test for energy balance closure at many fluxnet locations. Data quality is often evaluated by comparing total available energy, composed of net radiation (Rn) and G, to the sum of latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat fluxes as measured by eddy covariance. Unfortunately, G often receives minimal attention during an experiment because other flux terms (e.g., Rn and LE) are larger or require more complex instrumentation. However, G at certain time periods can account for 10 to 30 percent of Rn, especially beneath short vegetation. Thus, errors in G can confound energy closure tests and lead to erroneous conclusions about of eddy covariance performance. Research was conducted to evaluate difference methods for automating and improving measurements of G. Automated soil heat capacity sensors were combined with heat flux plates to measure conduction and changes in heat storage at different position in the soil profile. The heat capacity sensors were also used to measure soil water content and soil temperature. Data were collected beneath turfgrass, a tallgrass prairie and a juniperous forest. Field results and numerical models were used to study the best sensor configuration and data analysis algorithms. Practical guidelines for measuring and calculating soil heat flux will be presented.

Ham, J. M.

2001-12-01

32

Vaginal agenesis.  

PubMed

Vaginal agenesis is not rare. Many ingenious procedures have been devised for its correction; some are simple, and some are complicated. Not enough emphasis has been placed on the emotional aspects when patients with this problem are treated. Proper timing of the operation and selection of the best procedure are discussed. We feel that procedure of choice is the simplest, least dangerous one which will give good results in the individual patient. Rather than using the same routine procedure in each patient, we fitted the treatment to each patient. Our experience, particularly with the simple vulvovaginoplasty technique, is given. Postoperative support and encouragement are needed to have a successful outcome. PMID:1244753

Capraro, V J; Gallego, M B

1976-01-01

33

78 FR 61827 - Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and Closure for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Accountability Measure and Closure for Gray Triggerfish in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY...accountability measure (AM) for recreational gray triggerfish in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf...recreational annual catch target (ACT) for Gulf gray triggerfish was reached in August...

2013-10-04

34

77 FR 37330 - Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; 2012 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Measure and Closure for Gulf of Mexico Gray Triggerfish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...measures (AMs) for the commercial sector of gray triggerfish in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf...commercial annual catch target (ACT) for Gulf gray triggerfish will be met by July 1,...

2012-06-21

35

Prediction and measurement of direct-normal solar irradiance: A closure experiment  

SciTech Connect

Direct-normal solar irradiance (DNSI), the total energy in the solar spectrum incident on a plane perpendicular to the Sun`s direction on a unit area at the earth`s surface in unit time, depends only on the atmospheric extinction of sunlight without regard to the details of extinction--whether absorption or scattering. Here the authors describe a set of closure experiments performed in north-central Oklahoma, wherein measured atmospheric composition is input to a radiative transfer model, MODTRAN-3, to predict DNSI, which is then compared to measured values. Thirty six independent comparisons are presented; the agreement between predicted and measured values falls within the combined uncertainties in the prediction (2%) and measurement (0.2%) albeit with a slight bias ({approximately} 1% overprediction) that is independent of the solar zenith angle. Thus these results establish the adequacy of current knowledge of the solar spectrum and atmospheric extinction as embodied in MODTRAN-3 for use in climate models. An important consequence is the overwhelming likelihood that the atmospheric clear-sky absorption is accurately described to within comparable uncertainties.

Halthore, R.N.; Schwartz, S.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Michalsky, J.J. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Anderson, G.P. [Hanscomb AFB (United States); Ferrare, R.A. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Ten Brink, H.M. [Energy Research Inst. (Netherlands)

1997-03-01

36

[Bacterial vaginitis: general overview].  

PubMed

Bacteria are the most frequently detected agents in women, clinically complaining of vaginal discharge. The studies have shown that the vaginal microflora of women with bacterial vaginitis have altered from Lactobacillus spp. to various anaerobic bacteria. Gardnerella vaginalis is found in vaginal flora of women with bacterial vaginitis as well as in healthy women, while anaerobic bacteria such as Mobiluncus and Prevotella are the causative agents for bacterial vaginosis. For the laboratory diagnosis of bacterial vaginitis, direct microscopy is one of the most commonly used methods, and for this purpose cervicovaginal smears are examined by staining Papanicolaou and Gram stains. Because of the demonstration of bacterial vaginitis in association with the obstetric diseases such as preterm labor and postpartum endometritis, is a risk factor, its importance has increased recently. In this review article, the microorganisms that cause bacterial vaginitis, their biological characteristics, and the diagnostic laboratory methods of infection, have been discussed. PMID:12838684

Demirezen, Sayeste

2003-01-01

37

What Is Vaginal Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer There are several types of vaginal cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma About 70 of every 100 cases of vaginal cancer are squamous cell carcinomas . These cancers begin in the squamous cells that ...

38

Measuring and modeling the effect of time and temperature on removal torque and sealing force of a continuous thread closure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique for measuring the sealing force of a container-closure system was developed by employing a strain gage based transducer. The sealing force is considered a direct indicator for monitoring the mechanical seal integrity of the container-closure systems. A sealing force measuring device and a torque meter were used to investigate the effect of environmental conditions on the relaxation behavior of a 28--400 closure system. The responses from both devices during storage over time were transformed to the percent (%) force retention (FRT) and percent (%) torque retention (TRT) and used to analyze the effect. The high temperature and relative humidity of tropical conditions showed significant effect on the relaxation of the systems studied. It was found that the % TRT over time data were less consistent than the % FRT due to the nature of torque measurement and effect of environmental conditions. The % TRT data were higher than the % FRT indicating less relaxation of torque than of force. Therefore, using the removal torque or % TRT may be misleading in the interpretation of the seal integrity of the container-closure systems. The apparent seal integrity is less when measured by force retention. Mathematical modeling of the relaxation behavior of the systems revealed that the theoretical models derived from spring and dashpot are not applicable. Empirical models using the curve fitting techniques were then applied and excellent agreement with the experimental data was found. The mathematical models developed were extended to long-term prediction for 3 years; the predicted values of the % FRT and % TRT were in the acceptable range for agreement among the models.

Pisuchpen, Supachai

39

Evaluation of the Plasticity-Induced Crack-Closure Concept and Measurement Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An assessment of the plasticity-induced crack-closure concept is made, in light of some of the questions that have been raised on the validity of the concept, and the assumptions that have been made concerning crack-dp damage below the crack-opening stres...

J. C. Newman

1998-01-01

40

Borehole creep closure measurements and numerical calculations at the Big Hill Texas SPR (Strategic Petroleum Reserve) storage site  

SciTech Connect

The Big Hill Texas salt dome is being developed as an additional site for the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Ten deep (1433 m) boreholes were drilled in 1983 for leaching the first five storage caverns. Leaching has been delayed and the ten wells have been used to study the in-situ creep behavior of rock salt. Creep closure has been quantified by measuring wellhead pressure rise, volume of brine on pressure bleed-down and by performing caliper logs several years apart. Finite element calculations of borehole creep closure have also been performed. The calculated creep displacement of the borehole wall was used to compute volume change which could be used to compute wellhead pressure rise. The calculated volume change and wellhead pressure rise were found to underpredict the field data by a factor of 2.5. The calculated displacements underpredicted measured borehole closures by a factor of 4. This exercise has resulted in a better understanding of the in-situ behavior of rock salt and our ability to predict that behavior with finite element computer programs. 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Preece, D.S.; Beasley, R.R.; Goin, K.L.

1986-01-01

41

Quantitative and mechanistic measurements of container/closure integrity. Bubble, liquid, and microbial leakage tests.  

PubMed

The parenteral vial/closure seal interface is tested for leakage of gas, liquids, and microorganisms. Gas leakage is determined using a bubble test, liquid leakage is detected by atomic absorption of a copper ion tracer solution, and microbial leakage is verified using a liquid-borne microbial suspension challenge test. Leakage performance by these methods is compared to gaseous leakage rates quantitatively determined for the same package systems. The establishment of leakage rate specifications based on these results is discussed. PMID:2732847

Morton, D K; Lordi, N G; Troutman, L H; Ambrosio, T J

42

Vaginal mechanical contraceptive devices.  

PubMed Central

The alleged adverse effects of oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices have led to increased consumer and physician demand for vaginal contraceptive devices. The efficacy and the advantages and disadvantages of vaginal sponges, cervical caps and diaphragms are discussed and compared in this article.

Smith, M.; Barwin, B. N.

1983-01-01

43

Vaginal Redox Potential in Bacterial Vaginosis (Nonspecific Vaginitis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore of the association of bacterial vaginosis with anaerobic bacterial growth in the vagina, we measured the redox potential ($E_{h}$) at the vaginal epithelial surface of women with this syndrome. Among normal women, the value for $E_{h}$ in the vagina ranged from +322 mV to +137 mV (mean, +170 mV); whereas among women with bacterial vaginosis, the $E_{h}$ ranged

King K. Holmes; Kirk C. S. Chen; Carolyn M. Lipinski; David A. Eschenbach

1985-01-01

44

High-precision mass measurements of nickel, copper, and gallium isotopes and the purported shell closure at N=40  

SciTech Connect

High-precision mass measurements of more than 30 neutron-rich nuclides around the Z=28 closed proton shell were performed with the triple-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN to address the question of a possible neutron shell closure at N=40. The results for {sup 57,60,64-69}Ni (Z=28), {sup 65-74,76}Cu (Z=29), and {sup 63-65,68-78}Ga (Z=31) have a relative uncertainty of the order of 10{sup -8}. In particular, the mass of {sup 76}Cu was measured for the first time. We analyze the resulting mass surface for signs of magicity, comparing the behavior of N=40 with that of known magic numbers and with midshell behavior. While the classic indications from the mass surface show no evidence for a shell closure at N=40, there is evidence for a weak--and very localized--effect for Z=28, consistent with findings from nuclear spectroscopy studies.

Guenaut, C.; Audi, G.; Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, F-91405 Orsay-Campus (France); Beck, D.; Herfurth, F.; Yazidjian, C. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Blaum, K. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S. [NSCL, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Delahaye, P.; Kellerbauer, A. [CERN, Physics Department, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Kluge, H.-J. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Libert, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay-Campus (France); Schweikhard, L. [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, D-17487 Greifswald (Germany)

2007-04-15

45

Effects of Coordinate Rotation and Averaging Period on Energy Closure Characteristics of Eddy Covariance Measurements over Mountainous Terrain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coordinate rotation is typically applied to align measured turbulence data along the stream wise direction before calculating turbulent fluxes. A standard averaging period (30 min) is commonly used when estimating these fluxes. Different rotation approaches with various averaging periods can cause systemic bias and significant variations in flux estimations. Thus, measuring surface fluxes over a non-flat terrain requires that an appropriate rotation technique and optimal averaging period are applied. In this study, two coordinate rotation approaches (double and planar-fit rotations) and no-rotation, in associated with averaging periods of 15-240 min, were applied to compute heat and water vapor fluxes over a mountainous terrain using the eddy covariance method. Measurements were conducted in an experimental watershed, the Lien-Hua-Chih (LHC) watershed, located in the central Taiwan. This watershed has considerable meso-scale circulation and mountainous terrain. Vegetation type is a mixture of natural deciduous forest and shrubs; canopy height is about 17 m. A 22 m tall observation tower was built inside the canopy. The prevailing wind direction is NW during daytime and ES during the night time at the LHC site in both the dry and wet seasons. Turbulence data above the canopy were measured with an eddy covariance system comprising a 3-D sonic anemometer (Young 81000) and a krypton hygrometer (Campbell KH20). Raw data of 10 Hz were recorded simultaneously with a data logger (CR1000) and a CF card. Air temperature/humidity profiles were measured to calculate the heat/moisture storage inside the canopy layer. Air pressure data were used to correct the effect of air density fluctuations on surface fluxes. The effects of coordinate rotation approaches with various averaging periods on the average daily energy closure fraction are presented. The criteria of the best energy closure fraction and minimum uncertainty indicate that planar-fit rotation with an averaging period of 60 min should be applied for the site. The lack of an energy closure fraction can be explained by the Ogive method for seasonal sensible heat fluxes, indicating that an averaging period of 30 min may be insufficient to capture the low-frequency transport for certain hours in a diurnal cycle at the LHC site.

Li, M.; Chen, Y.

2009-12-01

46

[Vaginitis and vaginosis].  

PubMed

Recently, within the wide subject on vaginal phlogosis a new pathology has been included. Owing to its peculiar characteristics, as it is not to be regarded as a vaginitis in the strict sense of the word, it has been identified as anaerobic bacterial vaginosis. The latter proves to be different from most common vaginitis related pathologies as a result of a series of microbiological and clinical patterns that are widely dealt with in this research. Moreover, the author place special emphasis on the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of vaginosis. PMID:2284037

Cerza, S; Cerza, G; Custo, G M

1990-09-01

47

Serum estradiol-17beta, vaginal cytology and vulval appearance as predictors of estrus cyclicity in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the eastern Amazon region.  

PubMed

This report describes the characteristics of estrus in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the eastern Amazon. Two consecutive experiments were performed. The objective of the first experiment was to assess the efficacy of estrus diagnosis by serum estradiol-17beta measurements, vaginal cytology and vulval appearance. The second experiment was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of these features for predicting the period of mating acceptance. In Experiment 1, we monitored 56 presumptive estruses in 14 captive females. Estrus was characterized by the reddish and tumescent appearance of the vulva, the presence of vaginal mucus and vaginal opening, which persisted for 4, 4, 2, and 2 days, respectively. In vaginal smears, superficial plus intermediate cells became predominant (accounting for 60% of all cells) for a 4-day period, from 2 days before the estradiol-17beta peak. Superficial cells did not attain their maximum density (45% of all cells) until approximately 1 day before the serum estradiol-17beta peak. Following estrus, superficial and intermediate cells were notably reduced and the appearance of the vulval appearance was characterized by a pale, non-tumescent vulva and vaginal closure. A complete concordance in estrus diagnosis by the 3 methodologies was observed in 35 (62.5%) of the total 56 estrus predictions. In Experiment 2, mating was confirmed in 10 out of the 14 cyclic females. Sexual receptivity was observed in the last third of the period during which secondary estrus signs were shown. In conclusion, examining the vulval appearance and taking a vaginal smear constitutes a useful method of detecting estrus and predicting the period of male acceptance of the collared peccary female. Estrus was indicated by a predominance of superficial cells, and a proportion of superficial plus intermediate cells higher than 60% in the vaginal smear. PMID:16500049

Mayor, Pedro; Galvez, Hugo; Guimaraes, Diva Anelie; Lopez-Gatius, Fernando; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

2006-02-24

48

Review of Vaginitis  

PubMed Central

Adisruption of the dynamic equilibrium of the healthy vagina may have significant sequelae, leading to chronic or serious conditions. Therefore, all cases of vaginitis should be accurately diagnosed and appropriately treated.

1993-01-01

49

Yeast Infection (Vaginal)  

MedlinePLUS

... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Yeast infection (vaginal) By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/yeast-infection/DS01182 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Preparing ...

50

Vaginitis - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... of all ages. It can be caused by: Yeast, bacteria, viruses, and parasites Bubble baths, soaps, vaginal ... Creams or suppositories are used to treat yeast infections in the ... some grocery stores, and other stores. Treating yourself ...

51

Intercomparison and closure calculations using measurements of aerosol species and optical properties during the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and optical properties of inorganic aerosols have been extensively studied, but less is known about carbonaceous aerosols, especially as they relate to the non-urban settings such as our nation's national parks and wilderness areas. Therefore an aerosol characterization study was conceived and implemented at one national park that is highly impacted by carbonaceous aerosols, Yosemite. The primary objective of the study was to characterize the physical, chemical, and optical properties of a carbon-dominated aerosol, including the ratio of total organic matter weight to organic carbon, organic mass scattering efficiencies, and the hygroscopic characteristics of a carbon-laden ambient aerosol, while a secondary objective was to evaluate a variety of semi-continuous monitoring systems. Inorganic ions were characterized using 24-hour samples that were collected using the URG and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) monitoring systems, the micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) cascade impactor, as well as the semi-continuous particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) technology. Likewise, carbonaceous material was collected over 24-hour periods using IMPROVE technology along with the thermal optical reflectance (TOR) analysis, while semi-continuous total carbon concentrations were measured using the Rupprecht and Patashnick (R&P) instrument. Dry aerosol number size distributions were measured using a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and optical particle counter, scattering coefficients at near-ambient conditions were measured with nephelometers fitted with PM10 and PM2.5 inlets, and "dry" PM2.5 scattering was measured after passing ambient air through Perma Pure Nafion® dryers. In general, the 24-hour "bulk" measurements of various aerosol species compared more favorably with each other than with the semi-continuous data. Semi-continuous sulfate measurements correlated well with the 24-hour measurements, but were biased low by about 0.15 ?g/m3. Semi-continuous carbon concentrations did not compare favorably with 24-hour measurements. Fine mass closure calculations suggested that the factor for estimating organic mass from measurements of carbon was approximately 1.8. Furthermore, fine scattering closure calculations showed that the use of 4.0 m2/g for the fine organic mass scattering coefficient was an underestimate by at least 30% for periods with high organic mass concentrations.

Malm, William C.; Day, Derek E.; Carrico, Christian; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; McMeeking, Gavin; Lee, Taehyoung; Carrillo, Jacqueline; Schichtel, Bret

2005-07-01

52

Value of vaginal culture in management of acute vaginitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the relative contribution of clinical assessment and vaginal discharge cultures in the treatment of acute vaginitis.\\u000a Methods: A prospective observational study of 75 consecutive sexually active women with acute vaginal symptoms was undertaken. Each\\u000a patient underwent an evaluation that included a standardized history, interview a thorough pelvic examination and vaginal\\u000a culture. The treatment was administered based upon

S. Lurie; I. Woliovitch; S. Rotmensch; O. Sadan; M. Glezerman

2001-01-01

53

Management of vaginal agenesis.  

PubMed

Rokitansky syndrome and complete androgen insensitivity syndrome are the most common causes of vaginal agenesis. Treatment should be deferred until adolescence to allow informed consent and compliance. The best treatment for vaginal agenesis remains controversial although vaginal dilation therapy is still widely considered the first line treatment because success rates are high and associated risks are low. A variety of surgical options are also available, each with enthusiastic proponents. Long-term outcome studies on most surgical techniques, however, are still lacking and until recently most studies have reported on success rate in terms of anatomical success only, without including sexual function. Moreover, the medical literature lacks prospective comparative outcome studies, meaning that current choice of surgical procedure relies greatly on the surgeon's preference and experience. PMID:21872517

Nakhal, Rola S; Creighton, Sarah M

2011-08-27

54

50 CFR 648.141 - Closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.141 Closure. EEZ closure...Regional Administrator shall close the EEZ to fishing for black sea bass by commercial vessels issued a moratorium...

2010-10-01

55

Vaginal polyp in a newborn.  

PubMed

Vaginal fibroepithelial polyp is a rare lesion, and although benign, it can be confused with malignant connective tissue lesions. Treatment is simple excision, and recurrence is extremely uncommon. We report a case of a newborn with vaginal fibroepithelial polyp. The authors suggest that vaginal polyp must be considered in the evaluation of interlabial masses in prepubertal girls. PMID:17619202

Jallouli, Mohamed; Trigui, Lilia; Gargouri, Abdellatif; Mhiri, Riadh

2007-07-07

56

Randomized controlled trial of a prenatal vaginal birth after cesarean section education and support program  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess whether, for women with previous cesarean section, a prenatal education and support program promoting vaginal birth after cesarean delivery increases the probability of vaginal delivery.STUDY DESIGN: Women with a single previous cesarean were recruited before 28 weeks' gestation. Women's self-assessed motivation to attempt vaginal birth after a previous cesarean delivery was measured on a

William Fraser; Elizabeth Maunsell; Ellen Hodnett; Jean-Marie Moutquin

1997-01-01

57

Lack of closure between dry and wet aerosol measurements: Results from ACE-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using data from the ACE-2 field experiment we examine observed and predicted particle size spectra at relative humidities that are representative of the region immediately below the base of marine stratocumulus clouds. The comparison consists of airborne particle size distribution measurements made with an FSSP-300, at ambient relative humidities and north of Tenerife, Spain, and inferred wet aerosol spectra derived using Kohler theory. The theory was initialized with both aerosol size distribution (measured at RH=20%) and aerosol composition measurements made at the Punto del Hidalgo (PDH) site, located on the north coast of Tenerife. The comparison shows that the FSSP-300 reported substantially lower concentrations in the tail of the wet size distribution (wet diameter greater than 0.38 ?m) compared to that inferred using the PDH data and Kohler theory. .

Snider, J. R.; Guibert, S.; Brenguier, J. L.

2000-08-01

58

Effect of crack closure on the experimentally measured characteristics of cyclic crack-growth resistance of steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of the proposed approach and an original procedure for determination of the current value of crack tip opening\\u000a displacement, we obtain new characteristics of cyclic crack-growth resistance for which the effect of crack closure disappears.\\u000a We experimentally discovered a phenomenon of natural pulsations of crack closure with constantly decreasing amplitude and\\u000a duration of pulses to the minimum

I. S. Pinyak

1998-01-01

59

Cadmium mass measurements between the neutron shell closures at N = 50 and 82  

SciTech Connect

The mass values of the neutron-deficient cadmium isotopes {sup 99-109}Cd and of the neutron-rich isotopes {sup 114,120,122-124,126,128}Cd have been measured using ISOLTRAP. The behavior of the separation energies of the cadmium isotopes from N = 50 to 82 is discussed.

Borgmann, Ch.; Blaum, K.; Boehm, Ch.; George, S.; Kreim, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Breitenfeldt, M. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Naimi, S. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay France (France); Baruah, S.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L. [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Beck, D.; Dworschak, M.; Herfurth, F.; Minaya-Ramirez, E.; Savreux, R.; Yazidjian, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Cakirli, R. B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey); Casten, R. F. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

2011-10-28

60

Vulvar and vaginal HPV disease.  

PubMed

Human papilloma virus is associated with a multitude of lower genital tract diseases in women in addition to cervical cancer, including genital warts, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, and some vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancers that are associated with oncogenic subtypes. The degree to which HPV manifests pathology depends on viral type, host immune response, and local environmental factors. This article reviews the evaluation and management of the following vulvar and vaginal human papilloma virus diseases: condyloma, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Included is a brief discussion of the association with vulvar and vaginal cancer. PMID:23732036

Nelson, Erin L; Stockdale, Colleen K

2013-06-01

61

Failed Operative Vaginal Delivery  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in women undergoing a second stage cesarean after a trial of operative vaginal delivery with women undergoing a second stage cesarean without such an attempt. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of the women who underwent second stage cesarean. .The maternal outcomes examined included blood transfusion, endometritis, wound complication, anesthesia use, and maternal death. Infant outcomes examined included umbilical artery pH < 7.0, Apgar of 3 or less at 5 minutes, seizures within 24 hours of birth, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), stillbirth, skull fracture, and neonatal death. Results Of 3189 women who underwent second stage cesarean, operative vaginal delivery was attempted in 640. Labor characteristics were similar in the two groups with the exception of the admission to delivery time and cesarean indication. Those with an attempted operative vaginal delivery were more likely to undergo cesarean delivery for a non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing (18.0% vs 13.9%, p=.01), have a wound complication (2.7% vs 1.0%; OR 2.65 95% CI 1.43–4.91), and require general anesthesia (8.0% vs 4.1%, OR 2.05 95% CI 1.44–2.91). Neonatal outcomes including umbilical artery pH less than 7.0, Apgar at or below 3 at 5 minutes, and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were more common for those with an attempted operative vaginal delivery. This was not significant when cases with a non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing were removed. Conclusion Cesarean delivery after an attempt at operative vaginal delivery was not associated with adverse neonatal outcomes in the absence of a non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing.

Alexander, James M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Hauth, John C.; Landon, Mark B.; Gilbert, Sharon; Spong, Catherine Y.; Varner, Michael W.; Caritis, Steve N.; Meis, Paul; Wapner, Ronald J.; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; O'Sullivan, Mary J.; Sibai, Baha M.; Langer, Oded; Gabbe, Steven G.

2010-01-01

62

Adhesion of Tritrichomonas foetus to Bovine Vaginal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro culture system of bovine vaginal epithelial cells (BVECs) was developed to study the cytopatho- genic effects of Tritrichomonas foetus and the role of lipophosphoglycan (LPG)-like cell surface glycoconjugates in adhesion of parasites to host cells. Exposure of BVEC monolayers to T. foetus resulted in extensive damage of monolayers. Host cell disruption was measured quantitatively by a trypan

Epithelial Cells; B. N. SINGH; J. J. LUCAS; D. H. BEACH; S. T. SHIN; R. O. GILBERT

1999-01-01

63

Abnormal vaginal bleeding in the nonpregnant patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal vaginal bleeding is a common presenting complaint to most emergency departments. This article focuses on vaginal bleeding in the nonpregnant patient; pregnancy-related vaginal bleeding is reviewed elsewhere in this issue. Vaginal bleeding can be the cause of significant morbidity and mortality in nonpregnant patients. Vaginal bleeding can also herald serious underlying problems related to malignancy, chronic illness, and sexual

Richard V. Daniels; Charles McCuskey

64

Vaginal birth and de novo stress incontinence: Relative contributions of urethral dysfunction and mobility  

PubMed Central

Background Vaginal birth increases the chance a woman will develop stress incontinence. This study evaluates the relative contributions of urethral mobility and urethral function to stress incontinence. Methods This is a case-control study with group matching. Eighty primiparous women with self-reported new stress incontinence 9–12 months postpartum were compared to 80 primiparous continent controls to identify impairments specific to stress incontinence. Eighty nulliparous continent controls were evaluated as a comparison group to allow us to determine birth-related changes not associated with stress incontinence. Urethral function was measured with urethral profilometry, and vesical neck mobility was assessed with ultrasound and Q-tip test. Urethral sphincter anatomy and mobility were evaluated using MRI. The association between urethral closure pressure, vesical neck movement, and incontinence were explored using logistic regression. Results Urethral closure pressure in primiparous incontinent women (62.9 +/? 25.2 s.d. cm H20) was lower than in primiparous continent women (83.0 +/? 21.0, p<0.001; effect size d= 0.91) who were similar to nulliparous women (90.3 +/? 25.0, p=0.09). Vesical neck movement measured during cough with ultrasound was the mobility parameter most associated with stress incontinence; 15.6 +/? 6.2 mm in incontinent women versus 10.9 +/? 6.2 in primiparous continent women (p < 0.0001, d = 0.75) or nulliparas (9.9 +/? 5.0, p=0.33). Logistic regression disclosed the two-variable model (max-rescaled R2 =0.37, p < 0.0001) was more strongly associated with stress incontinence than either single variable models, urethral closure pressure (R2 = 0.25, p <0.0001) or vesical neck movement (R2 = 0.16 p < 0.0001). Conclusions Lower maximal urethral closure pressure is the parameter most associated with de novo stress incontinence after first vaginal birth followed by vesical neck mobility.

DeLancey, John O. L.; Miller, Janis M.; Kearney, Rohna; Howard, Denise; Reddy, Pranathi; Umek, Wolfgang; Guire, Kenneth E.; Margulies, Rebecca U.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

2009-01-01

65

Borehole creep closure measurements and numerical calculations at the Big Hill Texas SPR (Strategic Petroleum Reserve) storage site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Big Hill Texas salt dome is being developed as an additional site for the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Ten deep (1433 m) boreholes were drilled in 1983 for leaching the first five storage caverns. Leaching has been delayed and the ten wells have been used to study the in-situ creep behavior of rock salt. Creep closure has been

D. S. Preece; R. R. Beasley; K. L. Goin

1986-01-01

66

Closure Times Measured by the Platelet Function Analyzer PFA100® Are Longer in Neonatal Blood Compared to Cord Blood Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although neonatal platelets have been shown to be hyporesponsive to most agonists in vitro, several groups have reported shorter closure times (CT) in term cord blood samples than in children and adults. It is unknown whether this is also true for preterm neonates, or for neonates of any gestational age (GA) during the 1st week of life, since limited

Matthew A. Saxonhouse; Rachel Garner; Lauren Mammel; Qin Li; Keith E. Muller; Jewel Greywoode; Cindy Miller; Martha Sola-Visner

2010-01-01

67

Assisted closure of fasciotomy wounds  

PubMed Central

Introduction Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and vessel loop assisted closure are two common methods used to assist with the closure of fasciotomy wounds. This retrospective review compares these two methods using a primary outcome measurement of skin graft requirement. Methods A retrospective search was performed to identify patients who underwent fasciotomy at our institution. Patient demographics, location of the fasciotomy, type of assisted closure, injury characteristics, need for skin graft, length of stay and evidence of infection within 90 days were recorded. Results A total of 56 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 49 underwent vessel loop closure and seven underwent NPWT assisted closure. Patients who underwent NPWT assisted closure were at higher risk for requiring skin grafting than patients who underwent vessel loop closure, with an odds ratio of 5.9 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 31.24). There was no difference in the rate of infection or length of stay between the two groups. Demographic factors such as age, gender, fracture mechanism, location of fasciotomy and presence of open fracture were not predictive of the need for skin grafting. Conclusion This retrospective descriptive case series demonstrates an increased risk of skin grafting in patients who underwent fasciotomy and were treated with NPWT assisted wound closure. In our series, vessel loop closure was protective against the need for skin grafting. Due to the small sample size in the NPWT group, caution should be taken when generalising these results. Further research is needed to determine if NPWT assisted closure of fasciotomy wounds truly leads to an increased requirement for skin grafting, or if the vascular injury is the main risk factor.

Fowler, J. R.; Kleiner, M. T.; Das, R.; Gaughan, J. P.; Rehman, S.

2012-01-01

68

Temperature dependence of the intrinsic small fatigue crack growth behavior in Ni-base superalloys based on measurement of crack closure  

SciTech Connect

The effect of temperature on the small fatigue crack growth behavior of a single crystal and directionally solidified Ni-base superalloys was investigated at temperatures between 873 to 1,123 K by measuring the crack closure. The results were also compared with those of the physically long crack. It was found that the propagation resistance and the fatigue threshold of the long cracks increased with temperature in all the materials. The long crack growth rates at three temperatures were approximately represented by an unique curve, after taking account of crack closure level and elastic modulus. In contrast, the small crack growth resistance decreased with temperature even when the crack closure phenomenon was taken into consideration. Furthermore, the small fatigue cracks exhibited considerably higher growth rates than the long cracks at a given effective stress intensity factor range and also grew under effective stress intensity factor ranges below the long crack threshold. The factors responsible for the lack of similitude in propagation rates between small and long cracks were also discussed, based on these observations and the chemical analysis near the crack tip using the electron probe microanalyzer.

Okazaki, M.; Yamada, H. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Nohmi, S. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Akashi (Japan)

1996-04-01

69

Temperature dependence of the intrinsic small fatigue crack growth behavior in ni-base superalloys based on measurement of crack closure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of temperature on the small fatigue crack growth behavior of a single crystal and directionally solidified Ni-base superalloys was investigated at temperatures between 873 to 1123 K by measuring the crack closure. The results were also compared with those of the physically long crack. It was found that the propagation resistance and the fatigue threshold of the long cracks increased with temperature in all the materials. The long crack growth rates at three temperatures were approximately represented by an unique curve, after taking account of crack closure level and elastic modulus. In contrast, the small crack growth resistance decreased with temperature even when the crack closure phenomenon was taken into consideration. Furthermore, the small fatigue cracks exhibited considerably higher growth rates than the long cracks at a given effective stress intensity factor range and also grew under effective stress intensity factor ranges below the long crack threshold. The factors responsible for the lack of similitude in propagation rates between small and long cracks were also discussed, based on these observations and the chemical analysis near the crack tip using the electron probe microanalyzer.

Okazaki, M.; Yamada, H.; Nohmi, S.

1996-04-01

70

Vaginal Mucormycosis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Although Zygomycetes cause life-threatening, opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts, the first case of vaginitis caused by Mucor species in a healthy woman is reported. Mucor vaginitis, which caused mild symptoms only, was refractory to conventional azole therapy and resistant to flucytosine. Cure was achieved with topical amphotericin B.

2001-01-01

71

Heterogeneity of Vaginal Microbial Communities within Individuals? #  

PubMed Central

Recent culture-independent studies have revealed that a healthy vaginal ecosystem harbors a surprisingly complex assemblage of microorganisms. However, the spatial distribution and composition of vaginal microbial populations have not been investigated using molecular methods. Here, we evaluated site-specific microbial composition within the vaginal ecosystem and examined the influence of sampling technique in detection of the vaginal microbiota. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were prepared from samples obtained from different locations (cervix, fornix, outer vaginal canal) and by different methods (swabbing, scraping, lavaging) from the vaginal tracts of eight clinically healthy, asymptomatic women. The data reveal that the vaginal microbiota is not homogenous throughout the vaginal tract but differs significantly within an individual with regard to anatomical site and sampling method used. Thus, this study illuminates the complex structure of the vaginal ecosystem and calls for the consideration of microenvironments when sampling vaginal microbiota as a clinical predictor of vaginal health.

Kim, Tae Kyung; Thomas, Susan M.; Ho, Mengfei; Sharma, Shobha; Reich, Claudia I.; Frank, Jeremy A.; Yeater, Kathleen M.; Biggs, Diana R.; Nakamura, Noriko; Stumpf, Rebecca; Leigh, Steven R.; Tapping, Richard I.; Blanke, Steven R.; Slauch, James M.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Weisbaum, Jon S.; Olsen, Gary J.; Hoyer, Lois L.; Wilson, Brenda A.

2009-01-01

72

Bilateral uterosacral ligament vaginal vault suspension with site-specific endopelvic fascia defect repair for treatment of pelvic organ prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The anatomic and functional success of suspension of the vaginal cuff to the proximal uterosacral ligaments is described. Study Design: Forty-six women underwent vaginal site-specific repair of endopelvic fascia defects with suspension of the vaginal cuff to the proximal uterosacral ligaments for pelvic organ prolapse. Outcome measures included operative complications, pelvic organ prolapse quantitation, and assessment of pelvic floor

Matthew D. Barber; Anthony G. Visco; Alison C. Weidner; Cindy L. Amundsen; Richard C. Bump

2000-01-01

73

A multicenter study of levonorgestrel-estradiol contraceptive vaginal rings. II-Subjective and objective measures of effects. An international comparative trial.  

PubMed

Comparative clinical trials of 2 sizes of contraceptive vaginal rings and of an oral contraceptive were undertaken at 8 investigational sites (9 clinics). More than 500 women enrolled on each of the 3 study regimens. Side effects of the rings and of Nordette, the oral contraceptive, were evaluated by noting spontaneous complaints, by recording medications taken and by physical examination. Inquiries about changes in the frequency of specific conditions were made at the end of the subjects participation in the first year of the study. The incidence of spontaneous complaints was similar among users of the 2 different-sized rings and of the pill. PMID:6797782

Sivin, I; Mishell, D R; Victor, A; Diaz, S; Alvarez-Sanchez, F; Nielsen, N C; Akinla, O; Pyorala, T; Coutinho, E; Faundes, A; Roy, S; Brenner, P F; Ahren, T; Pavez, M; Brache, V; Giwa-Osagie, O F; Fasan, M O; Zausner-Guelman, B; Darze, E; Gama daSilva, J C; Diaz, J; Jackanicz, T M; Stern, J; Nash, H A

1981-10-01

74

The excision of uterine fibroids by vaginal myomectomy: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of the excision of uterine fibroids by vaginal myomectomy.Design: Prospective study.Setting: A gynecology department of a university teaching hospital.Patient(s): Women with menorrhagia, pelvic pain, symptoms of pressure, or subfertility attributable to moderate-sized uterine fibroids who otherwise would have required abdominal or laparoscopic myomectomy.Intervention(s): Vaginal myomectomy.Main Outcome Measure(s): The feasibility of vaginal surgery,

Anthony Davies; Roger Hart; Adam L Magos

1999-01-01

75

Vaginal oxytetracycline concentrations.  

PubMed

Although tetracycline preparations are widely used in departments of genitourinary medicine, or sexually transmitted diseases clinics, little is known of the concentrations of these preparations in genital secretions. For this reason a microbiological method was used for estimating oxytetracycline concentrations in vaginal secretions. These concentrations varied from 0.6 to 6.5 microgram/ml in 19 women who had had sexual contact with a man with non-specific urethritis and who were taking oxytetracycline dihydrate 250 mg four times daily. They were well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline (0.2 microgram/ml) for the strains of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from the patients with positive culture results. Thus, oxytetracycline 250 mg four times daily appears to be a satisfactory regimen for the treatment of chlamydial genital infection in women. PMID:509190

Thin, R N; Al Rawi, Z H; Simmons, P D; Treharne, J; Tabaqchali, S

1979-10-01

76

Association between atopy and recurrent vaginal candidiasis  

PubMed Central

To determine whether there is an association between atopy and recurrent vaginal candidiasis (RVC) and to evaluate the type-2 immune response in patients with RVC. Evaluation of immediate hypersensitivity skin tests to aeroallergens, measurement of total IgE and Candida albicans specific IgE and levels of IL-5 in 44 women with RVC and 26 with sporadic vaginal candidiasis (SVC). Statistical analyses were performed by Mann–Whitney test and ?2 test with Yates correction. History of atopy (68%) and positive skin test (42%) were higher (P < 0·05) in RVC than in patients with SVC. No significant difference was found in total IgE, C. albicans specific IgE and IL-5 levels. There was a strong association between atopy and RVC, but type-2 immune response to C. albicans antigen was absent or similar in the two groups of patients.

Neves, NA; Carvalho, LP; De Oliveira, MAM; Giraldo, PC; Bacellar, O; Cruz, AA; Carvalho, EM

2005-01-01

77

Cytolytic vaginosis: misdiagnosed as candidal vaginitis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: In this study, 210 women with vaginal discharge and other symptoms/signs of genital pathology suggestive of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) were involved in order to distinguish true WC and cytolytic vaginosis (CV) cases. METHODS: Fungal cultures, 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and Gram stained preparations and pH measurements were performed on the vaginal discharge material of each patient. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (7.1%) were diagnosed with cytolytic vaginosis according to their clinical and microbiological findings, including abundant lactobacilli, fragmented epithelial cells and/or free nuclei due to cytolysis, seen in their discharge materials on microscopic examination, but no fungal growth. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study may contribute to the reports in the literature indicating the importance of such disorders, which are generally misdiagnosed as candidiasis.

Cerikcioglu, Nilgun; Beksac, M Sinan

2004-01-01

78

Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... infection is simple and painless. What Is a Yeast Infection? A yeast infection, also known as candidiasis ( ... you can be treated appropriately. Do Guys Get Yeast Infections? Guys don't get vaginal yeast infections, ...

79

Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. A review.  

PubMed Central

Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis is an uncommon cause of an intractable vaginitis often accompanied by serious dyspareunia, which can occur at any stage of reproductive life and after the menopause. The cytological changes are identical with those seen in atrophic vaginitis yet the disorder often occurs in the presence of apparently normal ovarian function. Vaginal synechiae and stenosis develop in an appreciable number of patients. Treatment is unsatisfactory though there is some response to either local or systemic steroid therapy. The literature is reviewed and the association of some cases with lichen planus of the mouth and genitals discussed. Its causation and natural history remain largely unknown and there is as yet, insufficient evidence to regard it as a single entity. It is likely that the incidence of the disorder is underestimated.

Oates, J K; Rowen, D

1990-01-01

80

VARIATION AND PREDICTORS OF VAGINAL DOUCHING BEHAVIOR  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vaginal douching is a widespread practice among American women. Little research has been done examining variation in the practice or identifying risk factors. Methods We collected data on douching, as well as hypothesized predictors of vaginal douching, as part of a cohort study on preterm birth. African-American women residing in Baltimore City, Maryland, were enrolled if they received prenatal care or delivered at The Johns Hopkins Medical Institution. Interview data were collected on 872 women between March 2001 and July 2004, with a response rate of 68%. Logistic regression analysis was selected to identify factors associated with douching in the 6 months prior to pregnancy. Results Almost two thirds of women reported ever douching and more than two thirds of those women reported douching in the 6 months prior to pregnancy. Variation was seen in the practice of douching with regard to frequency as well as technique. After adjusting for several confounders, prenatal enrollment (odds ratio [OR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29, 2.53), more unmet needs for time for “nonessentials” (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.27, 2.63), smoking in the year prior to the birth (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.22, 2.60), and age > 19 years (OR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.36, 4.97) were significant predictors of douching in the 6 months prior to pregnancy. Discussion We identified considerable heterogeneity in the practice of vaginal douching in a cohort of low income African-American women. Conclusions Future studies should incorporate measures of the predictors of douching and detailed exposure information to determine the independent contribution of vaginal douching to health outcomes.

Misra, Dawn P.; Trabert, Britton; Atherly-Trim, Shelly

2007-01-01

81

Energy balance closure at FLUXNET sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive evaluation of energy balance closure is performed across 22 sites and 50 site-years in FLUXNET, a network of eddy covariance sites measuring long-term carbon and energy fluxes in contrasting ecosystems and climates. Energy balance closure was evaluated by statistical regression of turbulent energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat (LE)) against available energy (net radiation, less the energy stored)

Kell Wilson; Allen Goldstein; Eva Falge; Marc Aubinet; Dennis Baldocchi; Paul Berbigier; Christian Bernhofer; Reinhart Ceulemans; Han Dolman; Chris Field; Achim Grelle; Andreas Ibrom; B. E. Law; Andy Kowalski; Tilden Meyers; John Moncrieff; Russ Monson; Walter Oechel; John Tenhunen; Riccardo Valentini; Shashi Verma

2002-01-01

82

Impact of vaginal ascorbic acid on abnormal vaginal microflora.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of vaginal ascorbic acid (vitamin C) as a treatment/maintenance regimen on increased vaginal pH and abnormal microflora on wet mounts in premenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized study of 140 asymptomatic, low-risk pregnant and non-pregnant premenopausal women with vaginal pH ? 4.5 and a variety of partly/completely disrupted Lactobacillus microflora patterns on wet mounts in five outpatient clinics was carried out. Participants were randomized to the intervention group [250 mg vitamin C tablets vaginally at bedtime once a day for 6 days (treatment phase), followed by a one tablet per week, for 12 weeks (maintenance phase)] or the control group (no treatment). Outcomes were evaluated 4 months after randomizing, i.e., 2-3 weeks after the last vitamin C tablet insertion. RESULTS: Normalization to normal flora was observed in 51.4 % of all ascorbic acid and in 24.3 % of control group patients (difference 27.1 %, 95 % CI 11.7-42.6, p < 0.05, ITT population). In the per protocol population, normalization was confirmed in 53.5 % of the intervention and 22.4 % of the control group (difference 31 %, 95 % CI 14.3-47.8, p < 0.05). Results of pregnant subgroup analysis showed better outcomes for the subgroup: difference of normalization rate between ascorbic acid and control group was 41.2 % (95 % CI 21.8-60.1, p < 0.05). Itching occurred in 19 %; 23 % of women reported irritation and 10 % stopped the treatment because of side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal ascorbic acid improves abnormal vaginal pH and microflora, especially in pregnant women, but is not well tolerated by all women. PMID:23677418

Zodzika, Jana; Rezeberga, Dace; Donders, Gilbert; Vedmedovska, Natalija; Vasina, Olga; Pundure, Inara; Bite, Ruta; Silberga, Ingrida; Socenova, Julija; Melngaile, Olita

2013-05-16

83

[Multipurpose treatment of vaginal infections].  

PubMed

Untreated bacterial vaginosis is related with many complications for non-pregnant women in reproductive age, most common from them are vaginal discharge and postoperative infections. The aim of our investigation was to compare the effectiveness of two therapeutic regimes which consist in Macmiror/Macmiror Complex alone and in combination with Feminella Vagi C for treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and/or mycotic infection. 117 non-pregnant women with symptoms of vaginal infection were prospectively enrolled into two groups according their treatment. First group consist 66 women treated with Macmiror tablets and vaginal capsules followed with local application of Feminella Vagi C, the second group consist 54 women treated with Macmiror tablets and vaginal capsules only. The impact of treatment on clinical symptoms was observed at the end of medication and 20 days after it. Microbiological testing was repeated 20 days after treatment. Over than 80% (78.6 divided by 86.7%) of the cases with vaginal infection (BV and mycotic one) were successfully treated with Macmiror/Macmiror Complex. Supplement treatment with Feminella Vagi C lead to higher percentage of clinically recovery (86.7% vs 84.6%), better microbiological cleaning (86.7% vs 82.1%) and longer effect of treatment. Used medication showed higher efficacy against BV than to fungal infection. According obtained results we may conclude that bacterial vaginosis was better treated with multipurpose treatment (Nifuratel, Nistatin and vit. C) than with Macmiror alone. PMID:23234030

Nikolov, A; Masseva, A; Shopova, E; Georgiev, S

2012-01-01

84

Neutron multiplicity measurements for 19F+194,196,198Pt systems to investigate the effect of shell closure on nuclear dissipation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre- and post-scission neutron multiplicities are measured for the three isotopes of Fr (217Fr, 215Fr, and 213Fr) in the excitation energy range of 48-91.8 MeV. Out of these three isotopes, 213Fr has shell closure (NC=126) while the other two are non-closed-shell nuclei. Statistical model calculations using Kramers’ fission width are performed to investigate shell effects on the dissipation strength which fit the experimental data. It is observed that shell correction to the binding energies of the evaporated particles strongly affects the fitted values of the dissipation strength. However, the best-fit dissipation strength is only weakly influenced by the inclusion of shell correction in fission barrier.

Singh, Varinderjit; Behera, B. R.; Kaur, Maninder; Kumar, A.; Sugathan, P.; Golda, K. S.; Jhingan, A.; Chatterjee, M. B.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Siwal, Davinder; Goyal, S.; Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Pal, Santanu; Saxena, A.; Santra, S.; Kailas, S.

2013-06-01

85

21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3900 Vaginal stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or to support the vagina and to hold a skin graft after reconstructive surgery. (b) Classification. Class II...

2010-04-01

86

21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices § 884.3900 Vaginal stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the...

2013-04-01

87

Do We Know What Causes Vaginal Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... section " What are the risk factors for vaginal cancer? " Research is now being done to learn more about ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Vaginal Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

88

Leukocyte Esterase Activity in Vaginal Fluid of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women With Vaginitis/Vaginosis and in Controls  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the leukocyte esterase (LE) activity in vaginal lavage fluid of women with acute and recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC and RVVC respectively), bacterial vaginosis (BV), and in pregnant and non-pregnant women without evidence of the three conditions. Also to compare the result of LE tests in women consulting at different weeks in the cycle and trimesters of pregnancy.The LE activity was correlated to vaginal pH, number of inflammatory cells in stained vaginal smears, type of predominating vaginal bacteria and presence of yeast morphotypes. Methods: One hundred and thirteen women with a history of RVVC, i.e. with at least four attacks of the condition during the previous year and who had consulted with an assumed new attack of the condition, were studied. Furthermore, we studied 16 women with VVC, 15 women with BV, and 27 women attending for control of cytological abnormalities, who all presented without evidence of either vaginitis or vaginosis. Finally, 73 pregnant women were investigated. The LE activity in vaginal fluid during different weeks in the cycle of 53 of the women was measured. Results: In the non-pregnant women, an increased LE activity was found in 96, 88, 73 and 56% of those with RVVC, VVC and BV and in the non-VVC/BV cases, respectively. In 73% of pregnant women in the second trimester, and 76% of those in the third, the LE test was positive. In all groups of non-pregnant women tested, the LE activity correlated with the number of leukocytes in vaginal smears, but it did not in those who were pregnant. There was no correlation between LE activity and week in cycle. The vaginal pH showed no correlation to LE activity in any of the groups studied. Conclusions: The use of commercial LE dipsticks has a limited value in the differential diagnosis of RVVC, VVCand BV. There is no correlation between the LE activity in vaginal secretion on one hand and vaginal pH, week in the menstrual cycle and trimester in pregnancy on the other. Women with BV often have signs of inflammation as evidenced by a positive LE test and inflammatory cells in genital smears.

Novikova, Natalia; Niklasson, Ola; Bekassy, Zoltan; Skude, Lennart

2003-01-01

89

Nursing home closures and quality of care.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between quality of care in nursing homes and their likelihood of closure. We hypothesize that lower-quality facilities will be more likely to close than higher-quality facilities. Using the rates of physical restraint use, urethral catheterization, contractures, pressure ulcers, and psychotropic medication use as quality measures from approximately 12,000 facilities from 1992 to 1998, the author examine cross-sectional and change score relationships between these measures and a nursing home's likelihood of closure. The descriptive analysis shows that 621 nursing homes closed in this time period, and the results for physical restraint use were robust in their positive association with closures in most analyses lending some support for this study's hypothesis. However, overall, the author concludes that nursing facility closures are relatively rare events. And the likelihood of closure, even for poor-quality facilities, is low. PMID:15643031

Castle, Nicholas G

2005-02-01

90

Evaluation and management of vaginitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate recent advances in our understanding of the clinical relevance, diagnosis, and treatment of vaginal infections,\\u000a and to determine an efficient and effective method of evaluating this clinical problem in the outpatient setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DATA SOURCES: Relevant papers on vaginitis limited to the English language obtained through a MEDLINE search for the years 1985 to 1997\\u000a were reviewed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DATA

Phyllis L. Carr; Donna Felsenstein; Robert H. Friedman

1998-01-01

91

21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Vaginal stent. 884.3900 Section 884.3900 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 884.3900 Vaginal stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina...

2009-04-01

92

Vaginal douching practices and beliefs in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify women's motivations for vaginal douching, vaginal douching practices, and women's reactions to situations that discourage vaginal douching. Research took place in the outskirts of Antalya, a city located on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. A total of 776 women participated in the study. Age, religious affiliation, place of residence, and poverty were

Kamile Kukulu

2006-01-01

93

Closure between measured and modeled cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) using size-resolved aerosol compositions in downtown Toronto  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) were made in downtown Toronto during August and September, 2003. CCN measurements were performed at 0.58% supersaturation using a thermal-gradient diffusion chamber, whereas the aerosol size distribution and compo- sition were simultaneously measured with a TSI SMPS and APS system and an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), respectively. Aerosol composition data shows that the

K. Broekhuizen; R. Y.-W. Chang; W. R. Leaitch; S.-M. Li; J. P. D. Abbatt

2006-01-01

94

Current Concepts of Treating Vaginitis  

PubMed Central

Vaginitis can be a frustrating entity to treat, since the incidence of recurrence is high. This paper examines evidence from the literature concerning diagnosis and treatment of Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, Corynebacterium vaginale, herpes simplex type 2 and gonorrhea. A protocol based on these readings is outlined.

Robinson, Theresa

1977-01-01

95

Operative vaginal delivery - Year 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature review was performed to analyze and define the current state of operative vaginal delivery. On the basis of published data, it is concluded that outlet and low forceps deliveries with ?45 degrees of rotation are effective and safe for both mother and baby. The greatest risk to mother or fetus occurs with operations performed at the 0 or +1

Gary D. V. Hankins; Thomas F. Rowe

1996-01-01

96

Vaginal birth after cesarean section  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) is safe, cost effective, and the preferred obstetrical option for most parturients in health care settings which are equipped to manage intrapartum emergencies. Since 1981, cesarean sections have been the most frequently performed major surgical procedure in the United States. Approximately 1,000,000 cesarean deliveries are performed in the United States per year. The rate

Jordan Pritzker

1996-01-01

97

Superiority of newly developed vaginal suppositories over vaginal use of commercial bromocriptine tablets: a randomized controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to verify the safety and efficacy of new vaginal bioadhesive suppositories as compared with vaginal use of commercial bromocriptine tablets in hyperprolactinemic patients. This study is a randomized, double-blind, active comparator clinical trial in which a subset of patients had some pharmacokinetic measurements. The setting was an outpatient private infertility clinic in a developing country, and the subjects were 171 patients with hyperprolactinemia. A pilot phase comprised 32 patients who were divided into 2 groups. Group A comprised 16 patients who used vaginal suppositories containing 2.5 mg bromocriptine mesthylate with pluronics and bioadhesive agents once daily for 1 month, while group B included 16 patients who used commercial 2.5-mg bromocriptine mesthylate tablets inserted vaginally once daily for 1 month. The clinical phase comprised 139 patients who were again divided into 2 groups in the same way (group A, 68 patients; group B, 71 patients). Serum prolactin (SP) was measured before and after therapy in all cases. The main outcome measure was the decline of SP level after 1 month of therapy. In both groups, there was a significant decline of the SP. However, it was more significant in group A. Patient convenience was more evident, and local side effects were less in group A than group B in the clinical phase. The introduction of bioadhesive technology for bromocriptine mesylate/pluronic F-126 administration is valuable in achieving prominent serum prolactin reduction in hyperprolactinemic patients in a relatively short duration of therapy. The formulated vaginal suppositories expressed better convenience with minimal local side effects when compared with vaginally administered commercial bromocriptine tablets. PMID:17636242

Darwish, Atef M; Farah, Emad; Gadallah, Wafaa A; Mohammad, Ibraheem I

2007-04-01

98

Optimisation techniques in vaginal cuff brachytherapy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore whether an in-house dosimetry protocol and optimisation method are able to produce a homogeneous dose distribution in the target volume, and how often optimisation is required in vaginal cuff brachytherapy. Treatment planning was carried out for 109 fractions in 33 patients who underwent high dose rate iridium-192 (Ir(192)) brachytherapy using Fletcher ovoids. Dose prescription and normalisation were performed to catheter-oriented lateral dose points (dps) within a range of 90-110% of the prescribed dose. The in-house vaginal apex point (Vk), alternative vaginal apex point (Vk'), International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) rectal point (Rg) and bladder point (Bl) doses were calculated. Time-position optimisations were made considering dps, Vk and Rg doses. Keeping the Vk dose higher than 95% and the Rg dose less than 85% of the prescribed dose was intended. Target dose homogeneity, optimisation frequency and the relationship between prescribed dose, Vk, Vk', Rg and ovoid diameter were investigated. The mean target dose was 99+/-7.4% of the prescription dose. Optimisation was required in 92 out of 109 (83%) fractions. Ovoid diameter had a significant effect on Rg (p = 0.002), Vk (p = 0.018), Vk' (p = 0.034), minimum dps (p = 0.021) and maximum dps (p<0.001). Rg, Vk and Vk' doses with 2.5 cm diameter ovoids were significantly higher than with 2 cm and 1.5 cm ovoids. Catheter-oriented dose point normalisation provided a homogeneous dose distribution with a 99+/-7.4% mean dose within the target volume, requiring time-position optimisation. PMID:19470571

Tuncel, N; Garipagaoglu, M; Kizildag, A U; Andic, F; Toy, A

2009-05-26

99

Vaginal allergic response in women with vulvovaginal candidiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the concentration of certain cytokines and immunoglobulin (Ig) E in the vaginal lavage fluid (VLF) of women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Method: Cytokin and IgE concentrations were measured in the VLF of women with VVC; women free of any genital infections acted as controls. Result: The VLF concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-8, and interferon (INF)-? were higher

S. R. Fan; Q. P. Liao; X. P. Liu; Z. H. Liu; D. Zhang

2008-01-01

100

Voluntary vaginal musculature contractions as an enhancer of sexual arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of the effects of vaginal musculature contractions (Kegel's exercises) on both subjective and physiological measures of sexual arousal, 30 normal females were randomly assigned to one of three groups. The first group was informed about these exercises and was asked to practice them both during lab sessions and during the week intervening between sessions. The second group

Madelyn Renée Messé; James H. Geer

1985-01-01

101

Crack closure and healing studies in WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) salt using compressional wave velocity and attenuation measurements: Test methods and results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Compressional wave ultrasonic data were used to qualitatively assess the extent of crack closure during hydrostatic compression of damaged specimens of WIPP salt. Cracks were introduced during constant strain-rate triaxial tests at low confining pressure ...

N. S. Brodsky

1990-01-01

102

Antigonococcal effects of vaginal tampons.  

PubMed Central

Different brands of vaginal tampons varied significantly (p less than 0.0001) in their anti-bacterial effects when tested with 46 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal strains recovered from patients with disseminated infections were substantially more sensitive to the anti-bacterial effects of tampons than were strains from patients with uncomplicated genital infections. Strains from patients with pelvic inflammatory disease were moderately sensitive. Tampons showing strong in-vitro antigonococcal effects were also generally effective in vivo in eliminating gonococcal infections from subcutaneous chambers in mice. Extracts of the Rely tampon showed no in-vitro antigonococcal effect, however, but did induce antibacterial activity when injected into subcutaneous chambers in mice. These results emphasise the importance of both in-vitro as well as in-vivo testing of tampon materials to elucidate more fully the nature of their antibacterial effects and their potential for affecting vaginal pathogens and disease processes.

Arko, R J; Wong, K H; Smith, S J; Finley-Price, K G

1983-01-01

103

Vacuum-Assisted Vaginal Delivery  

PubMed Central

Approximately 5% (1 in 20) of all deliveries in the United States are operative vaginal deliveries. The past 20 years have seen a progressive shift away from the use of forceps in favor of the vacuum extractor as the instrument of choice. This article reviews in detail the indications, contraindications, patient selection criteria, choice of instrument, and technique for vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery. The use of vacuum extraction at the time of cesarean delivery will also be discussed. With vacuum extraction becoming increasingly popular, it is important that obstetric care providers are aware of the maternal and neonatal risks associated with such deliveries and of the options available to effect a safe and expedient delivery.

Ali, Unzila A; Norwitz, Errol R

2009-01-01

104

Fast Action Optic Closure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the project is to develop an optic closure with a function time of less than one mirror period for high speed cameras. This closure will prevent rewrite or bleed-through from a light source in excess of 300 million candle power. (ERA citati...

L. L. Wooten

1979-01-01

105

Typed closure conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closure conversion is a program transformation used by compilers to separate code from data. Previous accounts of closure conversion use only untyped target languages. Recent studies show that translating to tgped target languages is a useful methodology for building compders, because a compder can use the types to implement efficient data representations, calling conventions, and tag-free garbage collection. Furthermore, type-based

Yasuhiko Minamidet; Greg Morrisett; Robert Harper

1996-01-01

106

Closure domains in magnetite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed clear arrays of closure domains at internal and external boundaries, such as crystal edges, cracks, and chemically altered regions, in a single crystal of magnetite, using the Bitter colloid technique with a (110) viewing plane. The common occurrence of closure domains in magnetite confirms the controlling role of magnetostatic energy in determining domain structures in strongly magnetic

Ozden Ozdemir; Song Xu; David J. Dunlop

1995-01-01

107

High-precision Penning trap mass measurements of neutron-rich sulfur isotopes at the N=28 shell closure  

SciTech Connect

Direct mass measurements of the neutron-rich {sup 40-44}S isotopes were performed at the Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The resulting mass excesses (MEs) are ME({sup 40}S)=-22 837.8(3.9) keV, ME({sup 41}S)=-19 008.6(4.1) keV, ME({sup 42}S)=-17 637.9(2.7) keV, ME({sup 43}S)=-12 195.5(4.9) keV, and ME({sup 44}S)=-9 204.2(5.2) keV, and they represent improvements by factors of 20 to 50 in the precision of previous mass measurements of these isotopes.

Ringle, R.; Bachelet, C.; Block, M.; Facina, M.; Folden, C. M. III; Guenaut, C.; Schwarz, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Bollen, G.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Prinke, A. M.; Savory, J.; Schury, P. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Morrissey, D. J.; Pang, G. K.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

2009-12-15

108

Uterine and Vaginal Vault Prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse is more challenging than that for stressurinary incontinence, and detection\\u000a and correction of apical repairs can be the most difficult of all pelvic floor defects. One-third of procedures performed\\u000a for pelvic organ prolapse are secondary procedures (1). The number of procedures performed in the United States to treat posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse increased

Peggy A. Norton

109

Vaginal cuff dehiscence after vaginal cuff brachytherapy for uterine cancer. A case report  

PubMed Central

Vaginal cuff dehiscence is a rare, but potentially serious complication after total hysterectomy. We report a case of vaginal cuff dehiscence after vaginal cuff brachytherapy. A 62 year old female underwent a robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and was found to have International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2009 stage IB endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus. The patient was referred for adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy. During the radiation treatment simulation, a computerized tomography (CT) of the pelvis showed abnormal position of the vaginal cylinder. She was found to have vaginal cuff dehiscence that required immediate surgical repair. Vaginal cuff dehiscence triggered by vaginal cuff brachytherapy is very rare with only one case report in the literature.

Cattaneo, Richard; Bellon, Maria

2013-01-01

110

The vaginal microbiome: rethinking health and diseases  

PubMed Central

Vaginal microbiota form a mutually beneficial relationship with their host and have major impact on health and disease. In recent years our understanding of vaginal bacterial community composition and structure has significantly broadened as a result of investigators using cultivation-independent methods based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. In asymptomatic, otherwise healthy women, several kinds of vaginal microbiota exist, the majority often dominated by species of Lactobacillus, while others comprise a diverse array of anaerobic microorganisms. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal conditions and is vaguely characterized as the disruption of the equilibrium of the ‘normal’ vaginal microbiots. A better understanding of ‘normal’ and ‘healthy’ vaginal ecosystems that is based on its ‘true’ function and not simply on its composition would help better define health and further improve disease diagnostics as well as the development of more personalized regimens to promote health and treat diseases.

Ma, Bing; Forney, Larry J.; Ravel, Jacques

2013-01-01

111

What's New in Vaginal Cancer Research and Treatment?  

MedlinePLUS

... resources for vaginal cancer What`s new in vaginal cancer research and treatment? Research is under way to find ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Vaginal Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

112

[Clinical significance of betadine vaginal suppository treatment in pregnancy].  

PubMed

Clinical experience proved the efficacy of Betadine suppository in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis and mycotic infections of the vagina. Vaginal infections, frequently observed in pregnancy, can led to maternal and fetal complications, thus Betadine should be used both for prevention and therapy. One can ask if iodine absorbed from the vagina can influence the fetal thyroid function? 64 pregnant women received 7 day Betadine suppository (200 mg polyvidonum-iodine PVP) treatment for colpitis on 37-40 gestational week with excellent therapeutic result. TSH levels were measured by immunoassay in the serum of newborns 4-5 days after delivery, no signs of hypothyroidism were observed. Authors recommended 7 day Betadine vaginal suppository regimen for the prevention of intrauterine infections, treatment of mixed (bacterial, mycotical) vaginal infections, and restoration of the normal vaginal equilibrium of bacterias, since the risk of hypothyroidism is negligeable in mature newborns. In case of prematurity hypothyroidism is more frequently found also without iodine treatment therefore TSH level control is recommended in each case. PMID:9480620

Gimes, G; Péter, F

1997-11-01

113

Ocular Biometry in Angle Closure  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare ocular biometric parameters in primary angle closure suspects (PACS), primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and acute primary angle closure (APAC). Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 113 patients including 33 cases of PACS, 45 patients with PACG and 35 subjects with APAC. Central corneal thickness (CCT), axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and lens thickness (LT) were measured with an ultrasonic biometer. Lens-axial length factor (LAF), relative lens position, corrected ACD (CACD) and corrected lens position were calculated. The parameters were measured bilaterally but only data from the right eyes were compared. In the APAC group, biometric parameters were also compared between affected and unaffected fellow eyes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors. Results No statistically significant difference was observed in biometric parameters between PACS and PACG eyes, or between affected and fellow eyes in the APAC group (P>0.05 for all comparisons). However, eyes with APAC had thicker cornea (P=0.001), thicker lens (P<0.0001), shallower ACD (P=0.009), shallower CACD (P=0.003) and larger LAF (P<0.0001). Based on ROC curve analysis, lower ACD, and larger LT, LAF and CCT values were associated with APAC. In the APAC group, LAF (P<0.0001) and CCT (P=0.001) were significant risk factors. Conclusion This study revealed no significant difference in biometric characteristics in eyes with PACS and PACG. However, larger LAF and CCT were predictive of APAC.

Razeghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Banifatemi, Mohammad

2013-01-01

114

Adaptation process of the skin graft to vaginal mucosa after McIndoe vaginoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  There are many methods of treatment of vaginal agenesis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this study, patients who underwent McIndoe vaginoplasty were evaluated for development of vaginal mucosa. Vaginal pH measurements,\\u000a smears, and punch biopsies were obtained from seven patients postoperatively at 3, 6, and 12 months after having McIndoe vaginoplasty.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Neovaginal smears indicated no specific data for mucosal development at the 3rd and 6th

M. Bekerecioglu; O. Balat; M. Tercan; M. Karakok; M. G. Ugur; D. Isik

2008-01-01

115

Outcomes of term vaginal breech delivery.  

PubMed

In December 2001, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists revised their recommendations for breech delivery. These recommendations acknowledge that although a planned vaginal delivery may no longer be appropriate, there are instances in which vaginal breech delivery is inevitable. Moreover, there continues to be patients who for any number of reasons will choose vaginal over cesarean delivery when faced with a fetus in the breech presentation. We sought to review maternal and fetal outcomes in such circumstances when vaginal breech delivery occurs, and compare these outcomes to elective cesarean deliveries for breech presentation. We performed a retrospective review of all singleton breech deliveries at our county hospital from January 2002 through June 2003. We reviewed maternal age, ethnicity, gestational age, gravity, parity, birthweight, mode of delivery, Apgar scores, umbilical arterial blood gases, and maternal and infant complications of both cesarean deliveries and vaginal breech deliveries. Univariate and logistic regression statistical analyses were performed with NCSS software. We had a total of 150 term breech deliveries with gestational ages between 37 and 42 weeks. Of these, 41 were vaginal breech and 109 were cesarean deliveries. Greater than 95% of patients are of Hispanic origin. There were no statistically significant differences in maternal age, ethnicity, gravity, or gestational age. Mean birthweight was significantly lower and parity was significantly higher in the vaginal delivery group. There was also a higher proportion of patients who underwent labor induction/augmentation in the vaginal group. We found no differences in the outcomes of 5-minute Apgar scores, umbilical arterial blood gas values, neonatal intensive care unit admissions, deaths or maternal/fetal complications reported between the two groups. Mean umbilical arterial blood gas values were greater than 7.18 in both groups. Vaginal breech delivery cannot always be avoided. Moreover, at our county hospital several patients continue to choose vaginal breech delivery. Our data would suggest that vaginal breech delivery remains a viable option in selected patients. PMID:16118722

Doyle, Nora M; Riggs, John W; Ramin, Susan M; Sosa, Manuel A; Gilstrap, Larry C

2005-08-01

116

Bacterial vaginosis, vaginal flora patterns and vaginal hygiene practices in patients presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome in The Gambia, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) – a syndrome characterised by a shift in vaginal flora – appears to be particularly common in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known of the pattern of vaginal flora associated with BV in Africa. We conducted a study aimed at determining the prevalence of BV and patterns of BV-associated vaginal micro-flora among women with vaginal discharge

Edward Demba; Linda Morison; Maarten Schim van der Loeff; Akum A Awasana; Euphemia Gooding; Robin Bailey; Philippe Mayaud; Beryl West

2005-01-01

117

Vaginal intercourse frequency and heart rate variability.  

PubMed

We examined the relationship between recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI) and both resting heart rate variability (HRV; an index of cardiac autonomic control and parasympathetic tone associated with cardiovascular health outcomes) and resting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in 120 healthy adults aged 19-38 (subjects scoring above the 87th percentile on the Lie scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory were excluded from analyses). As in a previous smaller study, greater HRV was associated with greater FSI (but not masturbation or non-coital sex with a partner) and rated importance of intercourse. There were no sex differences in the HRV-FSI relationship, and the relationship was not explained by including measures of Extraversion, Neuroticism, Depression, Trait Anxiety, or partnership satisfaction. However, the previously obtained negative association of FSI with DBP was not replicated. PMID:14504008

Brody, Stuart; Preut, Ragnar

118

Temporal Dynamics of the Human Vaginal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Elucidating the factors that impinge on the stability of bacterial communities in the vagina may help in predicting the risk of diseases that affect women’s health. Here, we describe the temporal dynamics of the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 32 reproductive age women over a 16-week period. The analysis revealed the dynamics of five major classes of bacterial communities and showed that some communities change markedly over short time periods, whereas others are relatively stable. Modeling community stability using new quantitative measures indicates that deviation from stability correlates with time in the menstrual cycle, bacterial community composition and sexual activity. The women studied are healthy, thus it appears that neither variation in community composition per se, nor higher levels of observed diversity (co-dominance) are necessarily indicative of dysbiosis, in which there is microbial imbalance accompanied by symptoms.

Gajer, Pawel; Brotman, Rebecca M.; Bai, Guoyun; Sakamoto, Joyce; Schutte, Ursel M.E.; Zhong, Xue; Koenig, Sara S.K.; Fu, Li; Ma, Zhanshan; Zhou, Xia; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Ravel, Jacques

2012-01-01

119

Evaluation of vaginal pH for detection of bacterial vaginosis.  

PubMed

Background & objectives : Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is highly prevalent among women in reproductive age group. Little information exists on routine vaginal p H measurement in women with BV. We undertook this study to assess the utility of vaginal p H determination for initial evaluation of bacterial vaginosis. Methods : In this cross-sectional study vaginal swabs were collected from women with complaints of white discharge, back ache and pain abdomen attending a government hospital and a community health clinic, and subjected to vaginal p H determination, Gram stain, wet mount and whiff test. Nugent score and Amsel criteria were used for BV confirmation. Results : Of the 270 women included in the analysis, 154 had BV based on Nugents' score. The mean vaginal p H in women with BV measured by p H strips and p H glove was 5 and 4.9, respectively. The vaginal p H was significantly higher in women with BV. Vaginal discharge was prevalent in 84.8 per cent women, however, only 56.8 per cent of these actually had BV by Nugent score (NS). Presence of clue cells and positive whiff test were significant for BV. Vaginal p H >4.5 by p H strips and p H Glove had a sensitivity of 72 and 79 per cent and specificity of 60 and 53 per cent, respectively to detect BV. Among the combination criteria, clue cells and glove p H >4.5 had highest sensitivity and specificity to detect BV. Interpretation & conclusions : Vaginal p H determination is relatively sensitive, but less specific in detecting women with BV. Inclusion of whiff test along with p H test reduced the sensitivity, but improved specificity. Both, the p H strip and p H glove are equally suitable for screening women with BV on outpatient basis. PMID:24135180

Hemalatha, R; Ramalaxmi, Baru Anantha; Swetha, Eluru; Balakrishna, N; Mastromarino, Paola

2013-09-01

120

Vaginitis: Its Diagnosis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

Ninety-nine patients with a variety of specific and non-specific vaginitis were treated initially with a broad spectrum anti-microbial agent (AVC cream) in an effort to alleviate the acute symptoms of these problems even before specific organisms could be isolated. Diagnostic methods are discussed for Candida albicans and trichomonas vaginalis which could be employed in routine office practice. This agents advantage in being effective against almost all known pathogens, is offset by its some-what limited effectiveness against trichomoniasis. It has been shown in this study to be well tolerated, and it offers an overall cure rate of 66 percent against the more common pathogens.

O'Brien, John R.; Hayden, Peter D.

1970-01-01

121

Vaginal swab specimen processing methods influence performance of rapid semen detection tests: A cautionary tale  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of semen biomarkers in vaginal fluid can be used to assess women’s recent exposure to semen. Quantitative tests for detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) perform well, but are expensive and require specialized equipment. We assessed two rapid immunochromatographic strip tests for identification of semen in vaginal swabs. Study Design We tested 581 vaginal swabs collected from 492 women. Vaginal secretions were eluted into saline, and PSA was measured using the quantitative IMx (Abbott Laboratories) assay. Specimens were also tested using the ABAcard p30 test (Abacus Diagnostics) for detection of PSA and RSID-Semen test (Independent Forensics) for detection of semenogelin (Sg). Results Vaginal swab extraction using saline was compatible with direct assessment of vaginal swab eluates using ABAcard for PSA detection, but not for Sg detection using RSID. The rapid PSA test detected 91% of specimens containing semen compared to 74% by the rapid Sg test. Conclusion Investigators are urged to optimize vaginal swab specimen preparation methods for performance of RSID or other tests to detect semen components other than PSA. Previously described methods for PSA testing are not uniformly applicable to other tests.

Hobbs, Marcia M.; Steiner, Markus J.; Rich, Kimberly D.; Gallo, Maria F.; Warner, Lee; Macaluso, Maurizio

2010-01-01

122

A closure study of aerosol mass concentration measurements: comparison of values obtained with filters and by direct measurements of mass distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare measurements of aerosol mass concentrations obtained gravimetrically using Teflon coated glass fiber filters and by integrating mass distributions measured with the differential mobility analyzer–aerosol particle mass analyzer (DMA–APM) technique (Aerosol Sci. Technol. 36 (2002) 227). The DMA–APM technique measures the distribution of particle mass as a function of mobility size for particles of arbitrary shape and composition (Relationship

David B. Kittelson; Peter H. McMurry

2003-01-01

123

Adjuvant materials in anterior vaginal wall prolapse surgery: a systematic review of effectiveness and complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to assess the objective recurrence and complications of adjuvant materials in the treatment\\u000a of anterior vaginal wall prolapse. The inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using adjuvant materials\\u000a versus standard surgery for anterior vaginal wall prolapse. The main outcome measures were objective recurrence and complications.\\u000a Ten RCTs (1,087 patients) were included in the

Richard Foon; Philip Toozs-Hobson; P. M. Latthe

2008-01-01

124

Vaginitis  

MedlinePLUS

... Date: 04/03/2013 Related A-Z Topics Bacterial Vaginosis Contraception and Birth Control Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) All related topics NICHD News and Spotlights Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research 2012 Annual Report Harnessing Research ...

125

Protection against rat vaginal candidiasis by adoptive transfer of vaginal B lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a mucosal infection affecting many women, but the immune mechanisms operating against Candida albicans at the mucosal level remain unknown. A rat model was employed to further characterize the contribution of B and T cells to anti-Candida vaginal protection. Particularly, the protective role of vaginal B cells was studied by means of adoptive transfer of vaginal CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) cells from Candida-immunized rats to naïve animals. This passive transfer of B cells resulted into a number of vaginal C. albicans CFU approximately 50% lower than their controls. Sorted CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) vaginal B lymphocytes from Candida-infected rats proliferated in response to stimulation with an immunodominant mannoprotein (MP) antigen of the fungus. Importantly, anti-MP antibodies and antibody-secreting B cells were detected in the supernatant and cell cultures, respectively, of vaginal B lymphocytes from infected rats incubated in vitro with vaginal T cells and stimulated with MP. No such specific antibodies were found when using vaginal B cells from uninfected rats. Furthermore, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6 and IL-10, were found in the supernatant of vaginal B cells from infected rats. These data are evidence of a partial anti-Candida protective role of CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) vaginal B lymphocytes in our experimental model. PMID:20402794

De Bernardis, Flavia; Santoni, Giorgio; Boccanera, Maria; Lucciarini, Roberta; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Amantini, Consuelo; Cassone, Antonio

2010-03-08

126

Vaginal breech delivery: is it still an option?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To provide local data on term breech delivery for future guidance. Study design: Retrospective, ‘intended-mode-of-delivery’ analysis of 711 antenatally uncomplicated singleton breech deliveries at ?37 weeks: 445 (63%) planned for vaginal delivery (VD) (no fetal growth restriction, fetal weight 2000–4000g, adequate pelvic size, maternal consent) and 266 for cesarean section (CS). Outcome measures: Apgar score, cord blood acid–base status,

Charlotte Hellsten; Pelle G. Lindqvist; Per Olofsson

2003-01-01

127

Psychosocial characteristics of women and their partners fearing vaginal childbirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To examine the personal characteristics and socio-economic background of women and their partners fearing vaginal childbirth.Design Questionnaire survey by the 30th week of pregnancy.Setting Sixteen outpatient maternity centres in the capital area of Finland.Participants Two hundred and seventy-eight women and their partners.Mainoutcome measures Personality traits, socio-economic factors, life and partnership satisfaction and pregnancy- and delivery-associated anxiety and fear.Results The

Terhi Saisto; Katariina Salmela-Aro; Jari-Erik Nurmi; Erja Halmesmäki

2001-01-01

128

Vaginal evisceration 3 years after abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.  

PubMed

Vaginal evisceration after a pelvic operation is a rare gynecological emergency. When intercourse is the cause, most cases occur within 1 year of surgery. A 53-year-old woman presented to the emergency room for vaginal evisceration half a day after the first postoperative occurrence of intercourse 3 years after an abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. In an emergency laparotomy, the protruding small bowel was replaced within the abdominal cavity. The avulsed vaginal cuff, which measured 6 cm in length and had atrophic but non-necrotic margins, was sutured. Women who go for long periods without intercourse after a hysterectomy, especially post-menopausal women, should be made aware of unrecognized vaginal atrophy that could, in some cases, lead to rupture and evisceration during the next occurrence of intercourse. PMID:22612271

Orito, Seiya; Masuya, Norio; Sakurabashi, Ayako; Minoura, Shigeki

2012-05-21

129

Optimized Dose Distribution of Gammamed Plus Vaginal Cylinders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy arising in the female genital tract. Intracavitary vaginal cuff irradiation may be given alone or with external beam irradiation in patients determined to be at risk for locoregional recurrence. Vaginal cylinders are often used to deliver a brachytherapy dose to the vaginal apex and upper vagina or the entire vaginal surface in the

Sanjay S. Supe; T. K. Bijina; C. Varatharaj; B. Shwetha; T. Arunkumar; S. Sathiyan; K. M. Ganesh; M. Ravikumar

2009-01-01

130

Mullerian agenesis with vaginal vault prolapse following mechanically created neovagina.  

PubMed

A 21-year-old with mullerian agenesis, presented with vaginal mass. Previously, she developed a neovagina by the use of vaginal dilators. Examination revealed vaginal vault prolapse. She was surgically treated with vaginal vault suspension using a mesh. PMID:22578488

Burns, Eve; Naim, Masood; Badawy, Shawky Z A

2012-06-01

131

Critical parameters and measurement methods for post closure monitoring: A review of the state of the art and recommendations for further studies  

SciTech Connect

Both NRC and EPA regulations require programs of post closure monitoring to detect substantial and detrimental deviations from expected performance. The unexpected in this case would involve anomalous stress changes that might rupture the canisters or changes in the hydrologic regime that might accelerate corrosion. In the event of leakage brought about by any means transport of radionuclides to the accessible environment could occur through unexpected changes in the hydrologic flow regime caused either by the long term effects of the thermal loading by the waste or by changes in regional stress or hydrology. Studies of performance confirmation have identified six parameters or conditions that should be monitored that are associated with the thermal, mechanical and hydrologic phenomena introduced by the waste heat: temperature, stress, displacement, pore pressure, groundwater velocity and permeability. Since it is the thermal load that continues to increase after decommissioning, and which continues to alter the stress field and the hydrological regime, these same six parameters remain the critical ones in post closure monitoring. At two of the repository sites fractures have been clearly shown to be critical in modelling and performance confirmation; at the tuff site fluid saturation is also a critical parameter and for all the sites estimates of the groundwater velocity through the site are very important. Changes in fracture properties, saturation and fluid flow are thus of continuing importance in post closure monitoring. 14 refs., 19 figs.

Morrison, H.F.; Majer, E.L.; Tsang, C.F.

1987-05-01

132

Achieving closure at Fernald  

SciTech Connect

When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

2001-02-25

133

Vaginal rings for delivery of HIV microbicides  

PubMed Central

Following the successful development of long-acting steroid-releasing vaginal ring devices for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and contraception, there is now considerable interest in applying similar devices to the controlled release of microbicides against HIV. In this review article, the vaginal ring concept is first considered within the wider context of the early advances in controlled-release technology, before describing the various types of ring device available today. The remainder of the article highlights the key developments in HIV microbicide-releasing vaginal rings, with a particular focus on the dapivirine ring that is presently in late-stage clinical testing.

Malcolm, R Karl; Fetherston, Susan M; McCoy, Clare F; Boyd, Peter; Major, Ian

2012-01-01

134

Pharmacokinetic profiles of controlled-release hydrogel polymer vaginal inserts containing misoprostol.  

PubMed

Misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue, is commonly administered intravaginally for cervical ripening and induction of labor. There is uncertainty regarding the correct dose because of the need to divide the tablets, and there is difficulty in removing the product when there is an adverse event. A proprietary hydrogel polymer containing a removable controlled-release reservoir dose of misoprostol is being developed for vaginal administration (misoprostol vaginal insert) to address these drawbacks while maintaining efficacy. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic profiles of these vaginal inserts and orally administered misoprostol. Twelve nonpregnant women received 100-, 200-, and 400-microg misoprostol vaginal inserts and separately received an oral dose of 200 microg of misoprostol. Values for area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, from time 0 to the last measurable concentration, were dose proportional with 481, 1026, and 2191 pg.h/mL for the 100-, 200-, and 400-microg misoprostol vaginal inserts, respectively. Maximum plasma concentrations were 33.1, 73.4, and 144 pg/mL for the 100-, 200-, and 400-microg misoprostol vaginal inserts, compared with 609 pg/mL for the 200 microg of oral misoprostol. After administration of the insert, plasma misoprostol acid levels increased gradually with time of the maximum measured plasma concentration at 5 to 9 hours. Following removal of the insert, misoprostol acid was eliminated rapidly from the systemic circulation with a mean half-life <1 hour. PMID:18071191

Powers, Barbara L; Wing, Deborah A; Carr, Denis; Ewert, Karine; Di Spirito, Mike

2007-12-10

135

[Local combined therapy of vaginal infections by nifuratel-nistatin].  

PubMed

A test included 40 women in the reproductive age with clinical symptoms of vaginitis and microbiological examination. They were treated by combined therapy of vaginal tablets of nifuratel, 500 mg and nistatin 200 000 i. u. during six days, after which they underwent gynaecological reexamination and repeated microbiological examination of vaginal and cervical smears. An analiysis of vaginal secretion found bacterial flora in 34 smears (65%), fungus (Candida albicans) in 15 (24%) and Trichomonas vaginalis in 7 (11%). Local vaginal therapy in vaginitis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis was successfull in all 7 patients, vaginitis caused by Candida albicans was successly treated in 14 (93%) patients. Bacterial vaginitis was cured in 29 (71%) patients during this tharapy. Local vaginal combined therapy of nifuratel and nistatin is eficient in patients with vaginitis caused by fungi and Trichomonas vaginalis too. PMID:20387731

Jahi?, Mahira; Bali?, Adem; Nurki?, Mahmud; Dragovi?, Jasmina; Adzajli?, Amela; Habibovi?, Amra; Mesali?, Lejla; Zigi?, Aza

2010-02-01

136

Efficacy and safety of Vitamin C vaginal tablets in the treatment of non-specific vaginitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Vitamin C vaginal tablets (250mg) given once a day in patients suffering from non-specific vaginitis. The total length of the study was 20 days, including a treatment phase of 6 days. The primary end-point was the presence in the two groups of non-specific vaginitis 1

E. Eiko Petersen; Paola Magnani

2004-01-01

137

Angle closure in younger patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAngle-closure glaucoma is rare in children and young adults; only scattered cases associated with specific clinical entities have been reported. We evaluated the findings in patients aged 40 or younger with angle closure in our database.

Robert Ritch; Brian M Chang; Jeffrey M Liebmann

2003-01-01

138

Crack Closure and the Environmental Effect on Fatigue Crack Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fatigue crack propagation tests (R = 0.1) were carried out on sheet specimens of 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 in vacuum, air, and salt water. Crack closure measurements were carried out. Although environment had a strong effect on crack growth, the crack closure b...

J. Schijve W. J. Arkema

1976-01-01

139

Nursing considerations in patients with vaginitis.  

PubMed

Vaginitis is defined as an inflammation of the vagina. It can result in symptoms of any or all of the following: discharge, itching and pain, and often irritation or infection of the vulva. There is no specific cause for vaginitis, and many other conditions can cause the symptoms. Vaginitis is a distressing condition that affects many women of reproductive age and beyond, and encompasses candidiasis (also known as thrush), bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis. It can occur in a single episode, or recur throughout a woman's lifetime. Some women will seek medical help, but many more self-treat with over-the-counter medications, suspecting the recurrence of Candida in particular. This article aims to explore the causes, signs and symptoms, and treatments of vaginitis to provide nurses with the necessary background information to feel more confident in dealing with women's health issues. PMID:20852467

Holloway, Debra

140

Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not  

MedlinePLUS

... period Vaginal infections, such as bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis (yeast infection), and trichomoniasis are common causes of abnormal ... having sex, such as bacterial vaginosis or a yeast infection. If you notice any changes in your ...

141

Rulemaking History for OTC Vaginal Drug Products  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Correction [PDF], 3/21/1994, 59FR13284. Notice: Guidance on vaginal yeast infection topical drug product labeling [PDF], 7/16/1998, 63FR38412. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/developmentresources

142

Vaginitis: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

? Harvard Health Publications ? Order the Book ? Contact Us Sign up for our free e-mail newsletter, HEALTHbeat . ... the vaginal discharge ©2000–2006 President & Fellows of Harvard College Sign Up Now For HEALTH beat Our ...

143

Vaginal childbirth and pelvic floor disorders.  

PubMed

Childbirth is an important event in a woman's life. Vaginal childbirth is the most common mode of delivery and it has been associated with increased incidence of pelvic floor disorders later in life. In this article, the authors review and summarize current literature associating pelvic floor disorders with vaginal childbirth. Stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse are strongly associated with vaginal childbirth and parity. The exact mechanism of injury associating vaginal delivery with pelvic floor disorders is not known, but is likely multifactorial, potentially including mechanical and neurovascular injury to the pelvic floor. Observational studies have identified certain obstetrical exposures as risk factors for pelvic floor disorders. These factors often coexist in clusters; hence, the isolated effect of these variables on the pelvic floor is difficult to study. PMID:23638782

Memon, Hafsa U; Handa, Victoria L

2013-05-01

144

Trypan Blue Staining to Determine Vaginal Exposure in Two Types of Plastic Vaginal Applicators Containing Two Different Microbicide Formulations  

PubMed Central

Dye staining of applicators has been shown to be a reliable and objective method to test vaginal insertion in clinical microbicide trials, but different plastics, dyes and product formulations may impact the accuracy of this method. Reportedly used applicators returned from three clinical trials were stained with 1% Trypan Blue. In a phase 1 study (VivaGel®), using gel-filled HTI polypropylene applicators, 1271 (97%) of applicators stained positive. In two phase 1 and 2a studies (LACTIN-V) using linear low-density polyethylene applicators to deliver a dry powder formulation, 57 (95%) and 135 (86%) tested positive, respectively. Dye staining of vaginal applicators is an objective, low cost measure suitable for low resource settings.

Hemmerling, A; Harrison, WG; Brown, JM; Moscicki, AB; Oziemkowska, M; Bukusi, EA; Cohen, CR

2013-01-01

145

Constructing Force-Closure Grasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents fast and simple algorithms for directly constructing force-closure grasps based on the shape of the grasped object. The synthesis of force-closure grasps finds in dependent regions of contact for the fingertips, such that the motion of the grasped object is totally constrained. A force- closure grasp implies equilibrium grasps exist. In the reverse direction, we show that

Van-duc Nguyen

1988-01-01

146

Development of an in vitro alternative assay method for vaginal irritation  

PubMed Central

The vaginal mucosa is commonly exposed to chemicals and therapeutic agents that may result in irritation and/or inflammation. In addition to acute effects, vaginal irritation and inflammation can make women more susceptible to infections such as HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus-2. Hence, the vaginal irritation potential of feminine care formulations and vaginally administered therapeutic agents is a significant public health concern. Traditionally, testing of such materials has been performed using the rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) assay. In the current study, we investigated whether the organotypic, highly differentiated EpiVaginal™ tissue could be used as a non-animal alternative to the RVI test. The EpiVaginal tissue was exposed to a single application of ingredients commonly found in feminine hygiene products and the effects on tissue viability (MTT assay), barrier disruption (measured by transepithelial electrical resistance, TEER and sodium fluorescein (NaFl) leakage), and inflammatory cytokine release (interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-8) patterns were examined. When compared to untreated controls, two irritating ingredients, nonoxynol 9 and benzalkonium chloride, reduced tissue viability to <40% and TEER to <60% while increasing NaFl leakage by 11–24% and IL-1? and IL-1? release by >100%. Four other non-irritating materials had minimal effects on these parameters. Assay reproducibility was confirmed by testing the chemicals using three different tissue production lots and by using tissues reconstructed from cells obtained from three different donors. Coefficients of variation between tissue lots reconstructed with cells obtained from the same donor or lots reconstructed with cells obtained from different donors were less than 10% and 12%, respectively. In conclusion, decreases in tissue viability and barrier function and increases in IL-1? and IL-1? release appear to be useful endpoints for preclinical screening of topically applied chemicals and formulations for their vaginal irritation potential.

Ayehunie, Seyoum; Cannon, Chris; LaRosa, Karen; Pudney, Jeffrey; Anderson, Deborah J.; Klausner, Mitchell

2010-01-01

147

Emerging therapies for postmenopausal vaginal atrophy.  

PubMed

Symptoms related to vaginal atrophy are a significant problem for postmenopausal women and estrogen has been the gold standard for its treatment. A number of recent reviews of vaginal estrogen products are available. This review will, therefore, focus on other products and potential products for this indication, including the tissue selective estrogen complex and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Additionally, lesser-studied approaches will be discussed. PMID:23434231

Pickar, James H

2013-02-22

148

Vaginal cysts causing tenesmus in a bitch.  

PubMed

An eight-year-old female border collie was referred with a two-month history of faecal tenesmus. Ultrasonography and radiology identified fluid-filled masses in the cranial vagina. The fluid was drained from the vaginal cysts via an episiotomy and the clinical signs resolved. Histological examination confirmed that the cysts were of urogenital origin. This is believed to be the first report of vaginal cysts causing faecal tenesmus in the dog. PMID:7474963

Cauvin, A; Sullivan, M; Harvey, M J; Thompson, H

1995-07-01

149

Effects of miphil, a new polycarbophil vaginal gel, in suspected bacterial vaginosis: a randomized study versus vaginal douche  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vaginal pH is an important factor in maintaining a normal vaginal flora. Miphil (Mi) (Mipharm, Italy) is a new polycarbophil-based vaginal gel with high bioadhesivity and a long-lasting (>72 h) pH-lowering effect.Objective: To evaluate the effects on vaginal pH and odor of Mi in comparison with a vaginal douche (Lactacid) (L) in suspected bacterial vaginosis.Patients and methods: Thirty women

Massimo Milani; Bruno Molteni

2000-01-01

150

Passive and active closures by constraining mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a unified theoretical framework for grasping and manipulation by robotic grippers and hands as well as for fixing works by fixtures and vises. The concept of passive closure and active closure for general constraining mechanisms is introduced. Passive closure is further classified into passive form closure and passive force closure. Conditions for these closures to hold are

Tsuneo Yoshikawa

1996-01-01

151

[A new approach to urinary continence disorders in women: urodynamic ultrasonic examination by the vaginal route].  

PubMed

The vesicourethral junction, the urethra cannot be seen when using the abdominal approach because of the interposition of the pubic symphysis. The ultrasonic vaginal approach makes it possible. 53 patients were ultrasonically observed during an urodynamic exploration. The simultaneous utilization of both methods has permit to observe the mechanisms of normal or pathological voiding. When initiating a voluntary micturition, an area (called "prepubic muscle") located in front of the pubic symphysis between the clitoris and the urethral meatus, exert a traction on the periurethral sphincteric area. This sphincteric area, which is well shown by ultrasound, contracts longitudinally (causing shortening of the urethra and opening of the bladder neck) and causes a drop in urethral closure pressure. The increase in the distance between the inferior part of the pubic symphysis and the anterior vaginal wall comes about because of slackening of the elevator ani muscles. This slackening occurs at different times before the bladder contracts. The urethra opens; the complete course of this organ is well defined. Things return to their previous state when voiding finishes. In the case of stress incontinence, the lack of transmission of pressure urodynamically found when the woman is coughing can be seen as a sliding mechanism within the space of Retzius and at the urethro-vesical junction behind the symphysis pubis. The degree of sliding depends on the strength of the cough. In all cases of pure stress incontinence without there being low urethral closure pressure, a maximum stress caused by coughing will produce more than 5 MM sliding before the urethra opens. If the urinary incontinence is due to low urethral closure pressure, the urethra opens without sliding of the urethro-vesical junction whenever the abdominal pressure increases. Urethral instability resembles voluntary voiding but without any voluntary command. "Prepubic" contractions, longitudinal contractions in the sphincteric area and slackening of the levator ani muscles, alone or in association, explain why urethral closure pressure drops. Sometimes this drop is followed by an increase in bladder pressure. PMID:3330102

Beco, J; Sulu, M; Schaaps, J P; Lambotte, R

1987-01-01

152

Sustained eye closure slows saccades.  

PubMed

Saccadic eye movements rapidly orient the line of sight towards the object of interest. Pre-motor burst neurons (BNs) controlling saccades receive excitation from superior colliculus and cerebellum, but inhibition by omnipause neurons (OPNs) prevents saccades. When the OPNs pause, BNs begin to fire. It has been presumed that part of the BN burst comes from post-inhibitory rebound (PIR). We hypothesized that in the absence of prior inhibition from OPNs there would be no PIR, and thus the increase in initial firing rate of BNs would be reduced. Consequently, saccade acceleration would be reduced. We measured eye movements and showed that sustained eye closure, which inhibits the activity of OPNs and thus hypothetically should weaken PIR, reduced the peak velocity, acceleration, and deceleration of saccades in healthy human subjects. Saccades under closed eyelids also had irregular trajectories; the frequency of the oscillations underlying this irregularity was similar to that of high-frequency ocular flutter (back-to-back saccades) often seen in normal subjects during attempted fixation at straight ahead while eyes are closed. Saccades and quick phases of nystagmus are generated by the same pre-motor neurons, and we found that the quick-phase velocity of nystagmus was also reduced by lid closure. These changes were not due to a mechanical hindrance to the eyes, because lid closure did not affect the peak velocities or accelerations of the eyes in the "slow-phase" response to rapid head movements of comparable speeds to those of saccades. These results indicate a role for OPNs in generating the abrupt onset and high velocities of saccades. We hypothesize that the mechanism involved is PIR in pre-motor burst neurons. PMID:20573593

Shaikh, Aasef G; Wong, Aaron L; Optican, Lance M; Miura, Kenichiro; Solomon, David; Zee, David S

2010-05-24

153

A beta-glucan-conjugate vaccine and anti-beta-glucan antibodies are effective against murine vaginal candidiasis as assessed by a novel in vivo imaging technique.  

PubMed

The protective capacity of a parenterally administered beta-glucan-conjugate vaccine formulated with the human-compatible MF59 adjuvant was assessed in a murine model of vaginal candidiasis. To monitor infection, an in vivo imaging technique exploiting genetically engineered, luminescent Candida albicans was adopted, and compared with measurements of colony forming units. The vaccine conferred significant protection, and this was associated with production of serum and vaginal anti-beta-glucan IgG antibodies. Vaginal IgG molecules were the likely mediators of protection as inferred by the efficacy of passive transfer of immune vaginal fluid and passive protection by an anti-beta-1,3-glucan mAb. Overall, the in vivo imaging technique was more reliable than vaginal CFU counts in assessing the extent and duration of the vaginal infection, and the consequent protection level. PMID:20038431

Pietrella, Donatella; Rachini, Anna; Torosantucci, Antonella; Chiani, Paola; Brown, Alistair J P; Bistoni, Francesco; Costantino, Paolo; Mosci, Paolo; d'Enfert, Christophe; Rappuoli, Rino; Cassone, Antonio; Vecchiarelli, Anna

2009-12-25

154

Estrogen effects on the vaginal pH, flora and cytology in late postmenopause after a long period without hormone therapy.  

PubMed

In this report we evaluated the action of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) on vaginal symptoms, cytology, pH, and flora in late postmenopausal women without any previous hormone therapy. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 48 late postmenopausal women who received placebo or unopposed CEE (0.625mg/day of CEE orally) during three months of treatment. Vaginal and sexual complaints were evaluated through daily diary cards. We analyzed vaginal changes through cytology and pH measurements. After three months of treatment, 20% of placebo-treated patients and 80% of the CEE-treated patients reported improvement in vaginal dryness and irritation. In the latter group, the vaginal cells and Lactobacillus increased and the vaginal pH decreased, without other changes in sexual complaints. We concluded that estrogen ameliorated the genital tract of late postmenopausal women without any previous hormone therapy. PMID:16903243

Galhardo, C L; Soares, J M; Simões, R S; Haidar, M A; Rodrigues de Lima, G; Baracat, E C

2006-01-01

155

Desflurane analgesia for vaginal delivery.  

PubMed

The use of subanaesthetic concentration of inhalational anaesthetic for vaginal delivery offers many advantages to the mother and newborn. Desflurane, with the characteristics of rapid onset and minimal metabolism, may provide better analgesia and safety for labour pain control. Eighty healthy parturients were randomly assigned to receive either desflurane 1.0-4.5% and oxygen (n = 40) or nitrous oxide 30-60% in oxygen (n = 40). Analgesia was assessed using a score from 0 (no relief) to 4+ (excellent analgesia), amnesia for the delivery, blood loss were recorded. Neonates were evaluated by Apgar scores and neurologic and adaptive capacity scores (NACS). Data were analyzed for statistical significance using Student's t-test or Chi-square when appropriate. Analgesia scores were similar for both groups with more amnesia in desflurane group (23% vs 0% P < 0.05). Blood loss did not differ significantly, 364 ml for the desflurane group and 335 ml for the nitrous oxide group. There were no significant differences for neonatal Apgar score at 1 min or at 5 min or the NACS at 2 hr or 24 hr between the two groups. We conclude that desflurane in subanaesthetic doses is safe and effective inhalation agent for normal delivery but might be associated with amnesia. PMID:7793195

Abboud, T K; Swart, F; Zhu, J; Donovan, M M; Peres Da Silva, E; Yakal, K

1995-02-01

156

Protection of macaques from vaginal SHIV challenge by vaginally delivered inhibitors of virus-cell fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continues to spread, principally by heterosexual sex, but no vaccine is available. Hence, alternative prevention methods are needed to supplement educational and behavioural-modification programmes. One such approach is a vaginal microbicide: the application of inhibitory compounds before intercourse. Here, we have evaluated the microbicide concept using the rhesus macaque `high dose' vaginal transmission model

Ronald S. Veazey; Per Johan Klasse; Susan M. Schader; Qinxue Hu; Thomas J. Ketas; Min Lu; Preston A. Marx; Jason Dufour; Richard J. Colonno; Robin J. Shattock; Martin S. Springer; John P. Moore

2005-01-01

157

Need for Closure, Achievement Goals, and Cognitive Engagement in High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors extend their understanding of learner motivation by addressing questions around the construct of classroom need for closure in a high school sample. First, they established that their classroom need for closure measure demonstrated adequate psychometric properties when used with high school students. Subsequently, they explored relationships among classroom need for closure, achievement goals, and cognitive engagement using zero-order

Lea Harlow; Teresa DeBacker; H. Michael Crowson

2011-01-01

158

Student Interpretations of a School Closure: Implications for Student Voice in Equity-Based School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background/Context: School closure is becoming an increasingly common policy response to underperforming urban schools. Districts typically justify closure decisions by pointing to schools' low performance on measures required by No Child Left Behind. Closures disproportionately fall on schools with high percentages of poor and working-class…

Kirshner, Ben; Pozzoboni, Kristen M.

2011-01-01

159

The Relationship Between Need for Closure and Conservative Beliefs in Western and Eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work explored the hypothesis that need for closure is associated with the adoption of conservative ideology. Two different studies on eastern and western European samples (Polish and Flemish) supported the hypothesis that need for closure—as measured by Webster and Kruglanski's (1994) Need for Closure Scale—is related to conservative beliefs. However, in the second study, a negative relationship between need

Malgorzata Kossowska; Alain Van Hiel

2003-01-01

160

Comparison of ureteral and cervical descents during vaginal hysterectomy for uterine prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study measured ureteral and cervical locations during vaginal hysterectomy for prolapse and the extent of parametrial ligament shortening possible. Study Design: Cervical and ureteral position were measured in 26 women undergoing uterine prolapse correction. Parametrial clamp tip location was also measured. Results: The cervix lay between 0 and –14.5 cm (below) the hymen (mean ± SD –5.35 ±

John O. L. DeLancey; Kris Strohbehn; Michael P. Aronson

1998-01-01

161

Bladder Neck Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bladder neck closure (BNC) is a procedure that, although not performed frequently, can be very beneficial for an appropriately\\u000a selected patient. T he t raditional role of BNC w as in the female patient with a neurogenic bladder, destroyed bladder neck,\\u000a and patulous urethra from longterm indwelling catheter drainage (1–4). Other options for urethral reconstruction using vagina or bowel have

Aaron D. Berger; Christopher E. Kelly

162

Hexokinase mediates stomatal closure.  

PubMed

Stomata, composed of two guard cells, are the gates whose controlled movement allows the plant to balance the demand for CO2 for photosynthesis with the loss of water through transpiration. Increased guard-cell osmolarity leads to the opening of the stomata and decreased osmolarity causes the stomata to close. The role of sugars in the regulation of stomata is not yet clear. In this study, we examined the role of hexokinase (HXK), a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing, in guard cells and its effect on stomatal aperture. We show here that increased expression of HXK in guard cells accelerates stomatal closure. We further show that this closure is induced by sugar and is mediated by abscisic acid. These findings support the existence of a feedback-inhibition mechanism that is mediated by a product of photosynthesis, namely sucrose. When the rate of sucrose production exceeds the rate at which sucrose is loaded into the phloem, the surplus sucrose is carried toward the stomata by the transpiration stream and stimulates stomatal closure via HXK, thereby preventing the loss of precious water. PMID:23738737

Kelly, Gilor; Moshelion, Menachem; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Halperin, Ofer; Wallach, Rony; Attia, Ziv; Belausov, Eduard; Granot, David

2013-07-19

163

Clinical features of bacterial vaginosis in a murine model of vaginal infection with Gardnerella vaginalis.  

PubMed

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis of the vaginal flora characterized by a shift from a Lactobacillus-dominant environment to a polymicrobial mixture including Actinobacteria and gram-negative bacilli. BV is a common vaginal condition in women and is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth. Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the most frequently isolated bacterial species in BV. However, there has been much debate in the literature concerning the contribution of G. vaginalis to the etiology of BV, since it is also present in a significant proportion of healthy women. Here we present a new murine vaginal infection model with a clinical isolate of G. vaginalis. Our data demonstrate that this model displays key features used clinically to diagnose BV, including the presence of sialidase activity and exfoliated epithelial cells with adherent bacteria (reminiscent of clue cells). G. vaginalis was capable of ascending uterine infection, which correlated with the degree of vaginal infection and level of vaginal sialidase activity. The host response to G. vaginalis infection was characterized by robust vaginal epithelial cell exfoliation in the absence of histological inflammation. Our analyses of clinical specimens from women with BV revealed a measureable epithelial exfoliation response compared to women with normal flora, a phenotype that, to our knowledge, is measured here for the first time. The results of this study demonstrate that G. vaginalis is sufficient to cause BV phenotypes and suggest that this organism may contribute to BV etiology and associated complications. This is the first time vaginal infection by a BV associated bacterium in an animal has been shown to parallel the human disease with regard to clinical diagnostic features. Future studies with this model should facilitate investigation of important questions regarding BV etiology, pathogenesis and associated complications. PMID:23527214

Gilbert, Nicole M; Lewis, Warren G; Lewis, Amanda L

2013-03-19

164

Clinical Features of Bacterial Vaginosis in a Murine Model of Vaginal Infection with Gardnerella vaginalis  

PubMed Central

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis of the vaginal flora characterized by a shift from a Lactobacillus-dominant environment to a polymicrobial mixture including Actinobacteria and Gram-negative bacilli. BV is a common vaginal condition in women and is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth. Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the most frequently isolated bacterial species in BV. However, there has been much debate in the literature concerning the contribution of G. vaginalis to the etiology of BV, since it is also present in a significant proportion of healthy women. Here we present a new murine vaginal infection model with a clinical isolate of G. vaginalis. Our data demonstrate that this model displays key features used clinically to diagnose BV, including the presence of sialidase activity and exfoliated epithelial cells with adherent bacteria (reminiscent of clue cells). G. vaginalis was capable of ascending uterine infection, which correlated with the degree of vaginal infection and level of vaginal sialidase activity. The host response to G. vaginalis infection was characterized by robust vaginal epithelial cell exfoliation in the absence of histological inflammation. Our analyses of clinical specimens from women with BV revealed a measureable epithelial exfoliation response compared to women with normal flora, a phenotype that, to our knowledge, is measured here for the first time. The results of this study demonstrate that G. vaginalis is sufficient to cause BV phenotypes and suggest that this organism may contribute to BV etiology and associated complications. This is the first time vaginal infection by a BV associated bacterium in an animal has been shown to parallel the human disease with regard to clinical diagnostic features. Future studies with this model should facilitate investigation of important questions regarding BV etiology, pathogenesis and associated complications.

Gilbert, Nicole M.; Lewis, Warren G.; Lewis, Amanda L.

2013-01-01

165

Short-term complications after vaginal prolapse surgery: do suture characteristics influence morbidity?  

PubMed

Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery can be associated with early postoperative morbidity resulting in significant service utilisation. This study aimed to investigate whether different suture materials cause different rates of early postoperative morbidity by comparing two cohorts using case-control methodology. A total of 100 women undergoing POP surgery with vaginal closure with 1 Vicryl (polyglycolic acid) multifilament sutures were matched by operation with a cohort in which 2/0 Monocryl (poliglecaprone 25) monofilament sutures were used. The multifilament suture group had significantly higher rates of offensive discharge (p<0.001), vaginal bleeding (p<0.001) and vaginal pain (p=0.004). They were more likely to receive medical advice (0.007). Patients in the multifilament group were no more likely to suffer from a UTI (p=1.000) or to be readmitted postoperatively (p=1.000). Size 1 multifilament sutures result in higher levels of postoperative morbidity when compared with 2/0 monofilament sutures. PMID:23075355

Patil, A; Duckett, J

2012-11-01

166

[Vulvo-vaginitis in pediatric age].  

PubMed

In pediatric gynecology, inflammatory vulvo-vaginitis are very common. Their diagnosis cannot be based either on the symptoms (itching or pain) or on the signs (leucoxanthorrhea) for these classifications are "non-specific". At the Consulting Room of pediatric gynecology of the Vittore Buzzi Hospital, 215 "non-specific" vulvo-vaginitis cases have been analyzed through bacteriological and microscopical examinations of vaginal secretions. The vaginal tampon resulted negative in 53% of the cases and positive in the remaining 47%. Comparing these results with microscopical examinations we obtain: 81.8% of sensibility, 77.4% of specificity, 87.8% of negative predictive value and 62.2% of positive predictive value. In particular, this last figure is influenced by the high number of false positives of the vaginal tampons, due to the growth "in vitro" of opportunist germs momentarily quiescent "in vivo". Thus it is useful to associated the microscopical examination (that will indicate all the cases in need of treatment) and the bacteriological examination (that will indicate the right cure). PMID:8133837

Beolchi, S; Brambilla, C; Roberti, P; Fadin, M; Facchini, M; Pansini, L; Maestri, L; Morandi, C

1993-11-01

167

Breech vaginal delivery at or near term.  

PubMed

Three percent to 4% of term fetuses will be breech at delivery. Evidence from randomized controlled trials has found a policy of planned cesarean section to be significantly better for the singleton fetus in breech presentation at term compared to a policy of planned vaginal birth. However, some women may wish to avoid cesarean section and for others, cesarean section may not be possible. We undertook this review to identify factors associated with higher and lower risk of adverse fetal or neonatal outcome at term during vaginal breech delivery. We searched MEDLINE from 1966 to 2002 using the search terms vaginal breech delivery and breech presentation and retrieved all relevant articles. We also reviewed personal references and reference lists of articles retrieved. Women who are older or who have a fetus that is either in footling presentation, has a hyperextended head or is estimated to weigh <2500 g or >4000 g may be at higher risk of adverse fetal outcome. Prolonged labor or not having an experienced clinician at vaginal breech birth may also increase the risk. Women with a fetus in breech presentation at term should be offered the option of delivery by planned cesarean section and should be informed that this will reduce their risk of adverse fetal or neonatal outcome. Practitioners should develop and maintain skills at vaginal breech delivery for those women not wishing or not able to be delivered by cesarean section. PMID:12641301

Tunde-Byass, Modupe O; Hannah, Mary E

2003-02-01

168

Effect of Vaginal Lubricants on Natural Fertility  

PubMed Central

Objective Over-the-counter vaginal lubricants have been shown to negatively affect in vitro sperm motility. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of vaginal lubricant use during procreative intercourse on natural fertility. Methods Women aged 30–44 years with no history of infertility who had been trying to conceive for less than 3 months completed a baseline questionnaire on vaginal lubricant use. Subsequently, women kept a diary to record menstrual bleeding, intercourse, and vaginal lubricant use and conducted standardized pregnancy testing for up to 6 months. Diary data were used to determine the fertile window and delineate lubricant use during the fertile window. A proportional hazards model was used to estimate fecundability ratios with any lubricant use in the fertile window considered as a time-varying exposure. Results Of the 296 participants, 75 (25%) stated in their baseline questionnaire that they use vaginal lubricants while attempting to conceive. Based on daily diary data, 57% of women never used a lubricant, 29% occasionally used a lubricant, and 14% used a lubricant frequently. Women who used lubricants during the fertile window had similar fecundability to those women who did not use lubricants (fecundability ratio 1.05, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.85) after adjusting for age, partner race, and intercourse frequency in the fertile window. Conclusion Lubricants are commonly used by couples during procreative intercourse. Lubricant use during procreative intercourse does not appear to reduce the probability of conceiving.

Steiner, Anne Z.; Long, D. Leann; Tanner, Catherine; Herring, Amy H.

2012-01-01

169

[Clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and its mixed infections.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis (AV) and its mixed infections for diagnosis efficiently. METHODS: From April 2008 to December 2008, 516 patients with vaginitis treated in Tianjin Medical University General Hospital were enrolled in this study. AV, bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), trichomonal vaginitis (TV), and cytolytic vaginosis (CV) were diagnosed based on symptoms, sign and vaginal discharge examination. RESULTS: Among 516 cases, AV cases were found in 14.7% (76/516), and AV was common vaginal infection. AV mixed infections was diagnosed in 58% (44/76), including mixed with BV (45%, 20/44), mixed with VVC (30%, 13/44), and mixed with TV (25%, 11/44). Those common symptom of AV were yellow vaginal discharge (63%, 20/32), more vaginal discharge (44%, 14/32). Vaginal pH value was usually more than 4.5 (84%, 27/32). Vaginal cleanliness mainly was grade III - IV (88%, 28/32). Six cases with enterococcus faecium and 4 cases with streptococci were frequently isolated. The symptom and sign of mixed AV infection was atypical. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic vaginitis is a common lower vaginal infection and easily mixed with other pathogens, especially with BV, VVC or TV. When patients were diagnosed with AV or other vaginal infection, it should be mentioned whether those patients have mixed vaginal infection or AV. PMID:21211421

Fan, Ai-Ping; Xue, Feng-Xia

2010-12-01

170

Vaginal T lymphocyte population kinetics during experimental vaginal candidosis: evidence for a possible role of CD8+ T cells in protection against vaginal candidosis  

PubMed Central

Vaginal candidosis represents a significant health problem to women of childbearing age worldwide. It has been postulated that localized T cells play a role in protection against vaginal candidosis. In an attempt to evaluate the role of vaginal T cells in protection against vaginal candidosis, T cell population kinetics was evaluated using an oestrogen-dependent vaginal candidosis murine model. Vaginal T lymphocytes were isolated at different time points post C. albicans inoculation, viable cells were enumerated, phenotypically analysed for the expression of CD3, CD4 and CD8 T cell markers and absolute numbers of T cell subsets were calculated. Oestrogen-induced persistence of vaginal candidosis resulted in a significant increase in the total number of vaginal lymphocytes within 24–48 h post infection; increased vaginal lymphocyte numbers persisted throughout the infection period. The number of CD3+ T cells dramatically increased following C. albicans administration and was maintained at high levels throughout the infection period. The majority of CD3+ T cells were of the CD8+ type; however, considerable numbers of both CD4+ T cells and CD4+CD8+ T cells were also observed throughout the infection period. The considerable and persistent increase in vaginal T cell numbers in general and that of CD8+ T cells in particular are evidence of the possible role played by localized T cells in protection against vaginal candidosis.

GHALEB, M; HAMAD, M; ABU-ELTEEN, K H

2003-01-01

171

A Novel Technique for Anterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse Repair: Anterior Vaginal Wall Darn  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of this study is to introduce a new technique, anterior vaginal wall darn (AVWD), which has not been used before to repair the anterior vaginal wall prolapse, a common problem among women. Materials and Methods. Forty-five women suffering from anterior vaginal wall prolapse were operated on with a new technique. The anterior vaginal wall was detached by sharp and blunt dissection via an incision beginning from the 1?cm proximal aspect of the external meatus extending to the vaginal apex, and the space between the tissues that attach the lateral walls of the vagina to the arcus tendineus fascia pelvis (ATFP) was then darned. Preoperation and early postoperation evaluations of the patients were conducted and summarized. Results. Data were collected six months after operation. Cough stress test (CST), Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) evaluation, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7), and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) scores indicated recovery. According to the early postoperation results, all patients were satisfied with the operation. No vaginal mucosal erosion or any other complications were detected. Conclusion. In this initial series, our short-term results suggested that patients with grade II-III anterior vaginal wall prolapsus might be treated successfully with the AVWD method.

Kose, Osman; Saglam, Hasan S.; Kumsar, Sukru; Budak, Salih; Adsan, Oztug

2013-01-01

172

Vaginal delivery through annular placenta -- case report.  

PubMed

Annular placenta is an extremely rare morphological type of human placenta. It is commonly related to placental vessel abnormalities frequently causing antenatal and postnatal hemorrhage and operative delivery. Gravida 4 para 1 had an uneventful course of pregnancy and normal vaginal delivery followed by moderate postpartum hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was found to be local in origin but the placenta was annular in shape and the newborn was delivered through one of the openings. Annular placenta was not recognized before delivery. Its implantation site was in the lower uterine segment but high enough to allow the passage of the fetus through its annular defect and vaginal birth. To our knowledge, this is a first report of annular placenta ending in normal vaginal delivery. PMID:23630149

Živkovi?, Nikica; Krezo, Stipe; Matijevi?, Ratko; Živkovi?, Kresimir

2013-04-01

173

Vaginal delivery through annular placenta - case report  

PubMed Central

Annular placenta is an extremely rare morphological type of human placenta. It is commonly related to placental vessel abnormalities frequently causing antenatal and postnatal hemorrhage and operative delivery. Gravida 4 para 1 had an uneventful course of pregnancy and normal vaginal delivery followed by moderate postpartum hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was found to be local in origin but the placenta was annular in shape and the newborn was delivered through one of the openings. Annular placenta was not recognized before delivery. Its implantation site was in the lower uterine segment but high enough to allow the passage of the fetus through its annular defect and vaginal birth. To our knowledge, this is a first report of annular placenta ending in normal vaginal delivery.

Zivkovic, Nikica; Krezo, Stipe; Matijevic, Ratko; Zivkovic, Kresimir

2013-01-01

174

Peritonitis due to a peritoneal vaginal fistula.  

PubMed

Development of a peritoneal vaginal fistula is rare and presents a unique clinical scenario, since the fistula wall is less likely to spontaneously heal because of the increased intra-abdominal pressure in the abdomen from the peritoneal fluid. Catheter removal and surgical repair of the fistula are required. Early catheter removal contributes to peritoneal membrane preservation. In the case of M.T., the most likely explanation was that the peritoneal fluid was leaking through the vaginal cuff created during the surgical procedure in 2004. Early identification of this problem may have prevented the numerous complications and lengthy hospitalization. Suspicion should be raised in any patient who complains of vaginal leakage or if the passage of "urine" in a previously anuric patient is noted. Early assessment and evaluation along with prompt catheter removal can help reduce complications and preserve the peritoneal membrane. This case also emphasizes that prompt catheter removal is very important in cases of fungal peritonitis. PMID:20462078

Neumann, Joanna Lee; Moran, John

175

Operative vaginal delivery: current trends in obstetrics.  

PubMed

After centuries of use in obstetrics, have forceps and vacuum deliveries become a dying art? Contemporary trends in operative vaginal delivery show increasing numbers of vacuum deliveries and decreasing numbers of forceps deliveries worldwide. Primary drivers of such trends include concerns over neonatal and maternal safety as well as fewer clinicians skilled in forcep use. Current literature reports a comparable efficacy rate for the two instruments, as well as a decrease in maternal morbidity compared with cesarean section. It has also been suggested that the neonatal morbidity once associated with operative vaginal delivery may actually be a function of an abnormal labor process itself, rather than a consequence of an operative vaginal intervention. Both the American College and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists continue to support the use of both vacuum and forceps and strongly encourage residency programs to incorporate the teaching of these skills into their curricula. PMID:19072477

Goetzinger, Katherine R; Macones, George A

2008-05-01

176

Hormone Replacement Therapy: Can It Cause Vaginal Bleeding?  

MedlinePLUS

... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Hormone replacement therapy: Cause of vaginal bleeding? By Mayo Clinic staff ... share your e-mail address Sign up Question Hormone replacement therapy: Cause of vaginal bleeding? I'm taking hormone ...

177

Efficacy and Tolerability of Fitostimoline (Vaginal Cream, Ovules, and Vaginal Washing) and of Benzydamine Hydrochloride (Tantum Rosa Vaginal Cream and Vaginal Washing) in the Topical Treatment of Symptoms of Bacterial Vaginosis  

PubMed Central

Two hundred and 91 patients showing signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis (BV) were randomized to receive topical treatment with Fitostimoline (vaginal cream and vaginal ovules + vaginal washing) or benzydamine hydrochloride (vaginal cream + vaginal washing) for 7 days. Signs (leucorrhoea, erythema, oedema, and erosion) and symptoms (burning, pain, itching, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and dysuria) (scored 0–3) were evaluated at baseline and at the end of treatment; the total symptoms score (TSS) was also calculated. In 125 patients, a bacterial vaginosis was confirmed by vaginal swab test. The primary efficacy variable analysis, that is, the percentage of patients with therapeutic success (almost complete disappearance of signs and symptoms), demonstrated that Fitostimoline ovules and vaginal cream were therapeutically equivalent and that pooled Fitostimoline treatment was not inferior to benzydamine hydrochloride. All the treatments were well tolerated, with only minor local adverse events infrequently reported. The results of this study confirmed that gynaecological Fitostimoline is a safe and effective topical treatment for BV.

Boselli, F.; Petrella, E.; Campedelli, A.; Muzi, M.; Rullo, V.; Ascione, L.; Papa, R.; Saponati, G.

2012-01-01

178

The value of chronic suppressive therapy with itraconazole versus clotrimazole in women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine the comparative efficacy of oral itraconazole versus intravaginal clotrimazole in suppressing recurrent episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis. DESIGN--Prospective randomised open study of women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Clinical and microbiological assessments were made monthly for 12 months. SETTING--Women's Clinic of a University teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--Forty-four otherwise healthy, non-pregnant women, with at least four proven episodes of candida vaginitis in the last year were enrolled into the study. INTERVENTION--After an acute episode of candida vaginitis, 22 women received oral itraconazole 200 mg daily for five days, then 200 mg twice weekly for six months; and 22 women received intra-vaginal clotrimazole 200 mg ovules daily for five days, then 200 mg twice weekly for six months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Symptomatic recurrent clinical vulvovaginal candidiasis during the first six months of suppressive therapy was the major endpoint. A secondary endpoint was recurrent candida vaginitis within six months after completion of therapy. RESULTS--Six patients did not complete the study, one in the itraconazole group and five in the clotrimazole group. Of the evaluable patients, seven of 21 patients (33.3%) in the itraconazole group versus none (0%) of 17 patients on clotrimazole were failures on suppressive therapy, p = 0.02. Following discontinuation of suppressive therapy, recurrences of candida vaginitis were similar, 10 (47.6%) of patients on itraconazole (95% confidence interval (CI) 27-67%), versus 11 (64%) patients on clotrimazole (CI 41-87%), p = 0.15. CONCLUSION--Intermittent suppressive therapy with clotrimazole was more effective than itraconazole in preventing recurrent candida vaginitis, provided patients adhered to the regimen. Recurrence of vaginitis was common with both regimens after stopping suppressive therapy.

Fong, I W

1992-01-01

179

Vaginal gel formulation based on theaflavin derivatives as a microbicide to prevent HIV sexual transmission.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that a commercially available natural product preparation with high content (>90%) of theaflavin derivatives (TFmix) exhibited potent anti-HIV activities. Here we developed a TFmix gel formulation as a topical microbicide candidate. The effect of TFmix on the amyloid fibril formation of semen-derived enhancer of virus infection (SEVI) peptide was detected by transmission electron microscopy. The toxicity of the TFmix gel was evaluated using human vaginal and cervical epithelial cell lines and rabbit vaginal irritation models, respectively. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-?) and immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-10 and GM-CSF) in cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) were measured by ELISA kits. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining was performed to evaluate inflammation in the vaginal tissues. TFmix gel could degrade SEVI-specific amyloid fibrils and showed low cytotoxicity to epithelial cells of the female reproductive tract. No apparent cervicovaginal toxicity was observed at any time point evaluated following the intravaginal administration of TFmix gel to rabbits, whereas application of N-9 gel resulted in damage to the vaginal epithelium. Neither proinflammatory nor immunoregulatory cytokine production was triggered by TFmix gel. Only low expression of PCNA was observed in vaginal tissues of TFmix gel-treated rabbits. The concentration of TFmix in plasma was very low (below the lower limit of quantitation) 1?h after a single vaginal administration of TFmix gel. However, TFmix was still detected in the cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) 6?h after treatment, indicating that it could be retained in the vaginal cavity for a long period of time. With its potent anti-HIV-1 activity, marked stability at acidic condition, low mucosal toxicity, and lack of systemic absorption, TFmix gel can be considered as an inexpensive and safe microbicide candidate for the prevention of HIV sexual transmission. PMID:22867271

Yang, Jie; Li, Lin; Jin, Hong; Tan, Suiyi; Qiu, Jiayin; Yang, Lei; Ding, Yanqing; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Shuwen

2012-09-11

180

50 CFR 654.23 - Southwest Florida seasonal trawl closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.23 Southwest Florida seasonal trawl closure. From January 1 to 1 hour...

2011-10-01

181

Nevada Test Site closure program  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use.

Shenk, D.P.

1994-08-01

182

Preterm Singleton Breech in North Jordan: Vaginal versus Abdominal Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of vaginal birth for singleton preterm breech has not often been addressed before. We retrospectively compared the perinatal outcome of two groups of preterm breech delivery. Sixty-six patients delivered vaginally and 32 delivered abdominally between 26 and 36 completed weeks. Vaginal delivery was allowed under the same protocol for singleton breech delivery at term. Both groups had similar

Saeed Ziadeh; Adel T. Abu-Heija; Ellias El-Sunna; Mohammad F. El-Jallad; Ahmad Shatnawi; A. Obeidat

1997-01-01

183

Bacterial vaginosis and vaginal fluid defensins during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between Gram stain findings of vaginal fluid and the concentration of vaginal fluid neutrophil defensins. Study Design: Vaginal fluid specimens obtained from 749 women at 24 to 29 weeks of gestation were tested for bacterial vaginosis and assayed for neutrophil defensins. Bacterial vaginosis was studied as a categoric variable

Rukmini B. Balu; David A. Savitz; Cande V. Ananth; Katherine E. Hartmann; William C. Miller; John M. Thorp; R. Phillips Heine

2002-01-01

184

8. Launch closure, closure track apron, tracks and track beam, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Launch closure, closure track apron, tracks and track beam, view towards west - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility D-6, 4 miles north of Badlands National Park Headquarters, 4.5 miles east of Jackson County line on county road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

185

Resultants and loop closure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of tripeptide loop closure is formulated in terms of the angles {?i} 3i=1 describing the orientation of each peptide unit about the virtual axis joining the C? atoms. Imposing the constraint that at the junction of two such units the bond angle between the bonds C??N and C??C is fixed at some prescribed value ? results in a system of three bivariate polynomials in ui ? tan ?i/2 of degree 2 in each variable. The system is analyzed for the existence of common solutions by making use of resultants, determinants of matrices composed of the coefficients of two (or more) polynomials, whose vanishing is a necessary and sufficient condition for the polynomials to have a common root. Two resultants are compared: the classical Sylvester resultant and the Dixon resultant. It is shown that when two of the variables are eliminated in favor of the third, a polynomial of degree 16 results. To each one of its real roots, there is a corresponding common zero of the system. To each such zero, there corresponds a consistent conformation of the chain. The Sylvester method can find these zeros among the eigenvalues of a 24 × 24 matrix. For the Dixon approach, after removing extraneous factors, an optimally sized eigenvalue problem of size 16 × 16 results. Finally, the easy extension to the more general problem of triaxial loop closure is presented and an algorithm for implementing the method on arbitrary chains is given.

Coutsias, Evangelos A.; Seok, Chaok; Wester, Michael J.; Dill, Ken A.

186

Group B Streptococcus CovR regulation modulates host immune signalling pathways to promote vaginal colonization.  

PubMed

Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B?Streptococcus, GBS) is a frequent commensal organism of the vaginal tract of healthy women. However, GBS can transition to a pathogen in susceptible hosts, but host and microbial factors that contribute to this conversion are not well understood. GBS CovR/S (CsrR/S) is a two component regulatory system that regulates key virulence elements including adherence and toxin production. We performed global transcription profiling of human vaginal epithelial cells exposed to WT, CovR deficient, and toxin deficient strains, and observed that insufficient regulation by CovR and subsequent increased toxin production results in a drastic increase in host inflammatory responses, particularly in cytokine signalling pathways promoted by IL-8 and CXCL2. Additionally, we observed that CovR regulation impacts epithelial cell attachment and intracellular invasion. In our mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization, we further demonstrated that CovR regulation promotes vaginal persistence, as infection with a CovR deficient strainresulted in a heightened host immune response as measured by cytokine production and neutrophil activation. Using CXCr2 KO mice, we determined that this immune alteration occurs, at least in part, via signalling through the CXCL2 receptor. Taken together, we conclude that CovR is an important regulator of GBS vaginal colonization and loss of this regulatory function may contribute to the inflammatory havoc seen during the course of infection. PMID:23298320

Patras, Kathryn A; Wang, Nai-Yu; Fletcher, Erin M; Cavaco, Courtney K; Jimenez, Alyssa; Garg, Mansi; Fierer, Joshua; Sheen, Tamsin R; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Doran, Kelly S

2013-01-30

187

Feasibility of histological scoring and colony count for evaluating infective severity in mouse vaginal candidiasis.  

PubMed

Qualitative measurement of the infective level is relatively difficult in experimental vaginal candidiasis. Female BALB/c mice aged 8 to 10 weeks were randomly divided into E1, E2 and E0 groups, which received subcutaneous injection of 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg of estradiol benzoate or 0.1 ml soybean oil 3 days before vaginal inoculation, respectively, and hormone treatment continued every other day thereafter. Each group was further divided into infected and noninfected subgroups. The infected mice were inoculated intravaginally with 10 ?l (5 × 10(4) conidia) of Candida albicans suspension, while the noninfected mice were inoculated with 10 ?l phosphate-buffered saline. Direct microscopic examination, colony count and vaginal histopathology including infection degree and inflammation extent were performed at 3, 7 and 14 days post inoculation. Estrogen treatment increased the vaginal fungal burden and extent of infection and inflammation compared with the control group, and 0.3 mg/week estrogen generally induced more severe infection and inflammation than 0.15 mg/week estrogen did. Colony count peaked on day 3 and decreased remarkably after 7 days. Infection score increased gradually during the first 7 days and decreased on day 14, while inflammation extent exacerbated progressively over the course of 14 days. This study demonstrates that the modified histological scoring system might be more feasible than colony count for evaluation of infectivity and dynamic change in experimental vaginal candidiasis. PMID:23903055

Zhang, Jin-E; Luo, Dan; Chen, Rong-Yi; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Ying; Fan, Yi-Ming

2013-01-01

188

Antiviral and immunological effects of tenofovir microbicide in vaginal herpes simplex virus 2 infection.  

PubMed

The anti-HIV microbicide, tenofovir (TFV) gel, has been shown to decrease HIV-1 acquisition by 39% and reduce herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) transmission by 51%. We evaluated the effect of a 1% TFV gel on genital HSV-2 infection in a mouse vaginal challenge model. In vitro plaque assays and luminex multiplex bead analysis were used, respectively, to measure postinfection vaginal viral shedding (day 1) and cytokine secretion (day 2). To further investigate the anti-HSV-2 properties, we evaluated the direct antiviral effect of TFV and the oral prodrug tenofovir disoproxil fumerate (TDF) in cell culture. Compared to placebo-treated mice, TFV-treated mice had significantly lower clinical scores, developed later genital lesions, and showed reduced vaginal viral shedding. Furthermore, the levels of IFN-?, IL-2, TNF-?, and other cytokines were altered in the vaginal fluid following topical tenofovir treatment and subsequent HSV-2 challenge. Finally, we found that both TFV and TDF inhibited HSV-2 infection in vitro; TDF showed a 50-fold greater potency than TFV. In conclusion, we confirmed that the microbicide TFV had direct anti-HSV-2 effects in a murine vaginal challenge model. Therefore, this model would be suitable for evaluating present and future microbicide candidates. Furthermore, the present study warrants further investigation of TDF in microbicides. PMID:22867119

Vibholm, Line; Reinert, Line S; Søgaard, Ole S; Paludan, Søren R; Østergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Melchjorsen, Jesper

2012-09-25

189

Environment-sensitive closure and fatigue crack propagation behavior of Al 2090  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fatigue crack propagation (FCP) behavior of Al-Li alloys is largely influenced by extrinsic crack closure. The studies on closure have been confined to the relatively benign moist air environment. The synergistic interaction between the aggressive environment and closure on FCP, particularly that in the near-threshold ? K regime, has often been neglected due to the difficulties in closure measurement in aqueous environments. In the present study, FCP behavior of Al 2090 was examined in moist air, vacuum, and aqueous 3.5 pct NaCl at different R ratios with an emphasis on the understanding of environment-sensitive crack closure mechanisms. The closure in Al 2090 was strongly affected by applied ? K, R ratio, and environment. The increase in near-threshold da/dN in aqueous 3.5 pct NaCl over that in moist air mostly disappeared after crack closure correction, indicating that environment-sensitive closure was a major determining factor for the FCP rates of high-closure materials. Interestingly, Al 2090 showed a lower closure level in vacuum than in moist air, despite the enhanced fracture surface roughness and reduced FCP rates in low and intermediate ? K regimes. The increasing R ratio tends to reduce closure contribution and eventually increase the FCP rates of Al 2090 for each environment. The trends observed in the present study show that closure is determined by complex interactions between the environment and R ratio, particularly in a low stress intensity regime.

Kim, Sang Shik; Shin, Kwang Seon

1998-10-01

190

40 CFR 146.71 - Closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 146.71 Closure...values. (2) Prior to well closure, appropriate...temperature, pipe evaluation, or cement bond logs...Director. (3) Prior to well closure, the well...

2013-07-01

191

Protocols for vaginal inoculation and sample collection in the experimental mouse model of Candida vaginitis.  

PubMed

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida species, is a fungal infection of the lower female genital tract that affects approximately 75% of otherwise healthy women during their reproductive years. Predisposing factors include antibiotic usage, uncontrolled diabetes and disturbance in reproductive hormone levels due to pregnancy, oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapies. Recurrent VVC (RVVC), defined as three or more episodes per year, affects a separate 5 to 8% of women with no predisposing factors. An experimental mouse model of VVC has been established and used to study the pathogenesis and mucosal host response to Candida. This model has also been employed to test potential antifungal therapies in vivo. The model requires that the animals be maintained in a state of pseudoestrus for optimal Candida colonization/infection. Under such conditions, inoculated animals will have detectable vaginal fungal burden for weeks to months. Past studies show an extremely high parallel between the animal model and human infection relative to immunological and physiological properties. Differences, however, include a lack of Candida as normal vaginal flora and a neutral vaginal pH in the mice. Here, we demonstrate a series of key methods in the mouse vaginitis model that include vaginal inoculation, rapid collection of vaginal specimens, assessment of vaginal fungal burden, and tissue preparations for cellular extraction/isolation. This is followed by representative results for constituents of vaginal lavage fluid, fungal burden, and draining lymph node leukocyte yields. With the use of anesthetics, lavage samples can be collected at multiple time points on the same mice for longitudinal evaluation of infection/colonization. Furthermore, this model requires no immunosuppressive agents to initiate infection, allowing immunological studies under defined host conditions. Finally, the model and each technique introduced here could potentially give rise to use of the methodologies to examine other infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract (bacterial, parasitic, viral) and respective local or systemic host defenses. PMID:22215135

Yano, Junko; Fidel, Paul L

2011-12-08

192

Vaginal epithelial surface appearances in women using vaginal rings for contraception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal inspections using colposcopy before insertion of contraceptive vaginal rings and at 2-month intervals during ring use were conducted on 169 users of four different formulations. The rings studied released Nestorone® alone (50, 75, 100 ?g daily over 6 months); ethinyl estradiol: Nestorone (30:100 and 15:150 ?g daily over 6 months); ethinylestradiol:norethindrone acetate (20:1000 and 15:1000 ?g daily over 4

Ian S Fraser; Maria Lacarra; Daniel R Mishell Jr; Francisco Alvarez; Vivian Brache; Pekka Lähteenmäki; Kaisa Elomaa; Edith Weisberg; Harold A Nash

2000-01-01

193

Liposomal gels for vaginal drug delivery.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to develop a liposomal drug carrier system, able to provide sustained and controlled release of appropriate drug for local vaginal therapy. To optimise the preparation of liposomes with regards to size and entrapment efficiency, liposomes containing calcein were prepared by five different methods. Two optimal liposomal preparations (proliposomes and polyol dilution liposomes) were tested for their in vitro stability in media that simulate human vaginal conditions (buffer, pH 4.5). To be closer to in vivo application of liposomes and to achieve further improvement of their stability, liposomes were incorporated in vehicles suitable for vaginal self-administration. Gels of polyacrylate were chosen as vehicles for liposomal preparations. Due to their hydrophilic nature and bioadhesive properties, it was possible to achieve an adequate pH value corresponding to physiological conditions as well as desirable viscosity. In vitro release studies of liposomes incorporated in these gels (Carbopol 974P NF or Carbopol 980 NF) confirmed their applicability as a novel drug carrier system in vaginal delivery. Regardless of the gel used, even 24 h after the incubation of liposomal gel in the buffer pH 4.5 more than 80% of the originally entrapped substance was still retained. PMID:11337174

Paveli?, Z; Skalko-Basnet, N; Schubert, R

2001-05-21

194

Anterior vaginal wall repair using local anaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of the present study was to describe the possibility of surgical repair of anterior vaginal prolapse including amputation of the cervix using local anaesthesia. The description was made according to postoperative complication, recurrence rate, influence on urinary incontinence, and satisfaction of the patient. Material and methods: Eighty-three women were consecutively operated in the anterior wall of the

Susanne Maigaard Axelsen; Karl Møller Bek

2004-01-01

195

[Vaginal polyp in an infant girl].  

PubMed

A case of vaginal polyp in an infant girl was presented. The tumor was polypoid shape and yellow so that it resembled sarcoma botryoides. Histopathological findings showed hamartomatous appearance with hemangiomatous portions in the stroma. For 5 years after simple resection, she has been well without recurrence. PMID:3425530

Takahashi, G

1987-08-01

196

Vaginal Lacerations from Consensual Intercourse in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: (1) To describe lacerations of the vaginal fornices, an injury known to be associated with consensual sexual intercourse, including known complications and treatment course, (2) to contrast these injuries with injuries sustained during sexual assault, and (3) to discuss the assessment of adolescent patients for sexual injuries.…

Frioux, Sarah M.; Blinman, Thane; Christian, Cindy W.

2011-01-01

197

Zipper Rear Closure Endurance Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A manned endurance test program of 22 two hr. tests was conducted to verify the reliability of the DPE Outergarment Zipper Rear Closure developed under task order nine of this contract. Testing indicates that the closure assembly reliably provides a posit...

C. R. Sandy

1981-01-01

198

Constructing force-closure grasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of synthesizing planar grasps that have force closure. A grasp on an object is a force closure grasp if and only if we can exert, through the set of contacts, arbitrary force and moment on this object. Equivalently, any motion of the object is resisted by a contact force, that is the object cannot break

Van-Duc Nguyen

1986-01-01

199

A case of a large rectovaginal mass presenting as posterior vaginal wall prolapse.  

PubMed

A 66-year-old female presented with symptoms suggestive of pelvic organ prolapse, history of fibroid uterus, and rectal pressure. Pelvic examination revealed a large pelvic mass filling the posterior cul-de-sac, occupying the rectovaginal septum, and compressing the rectum. There was a stage II pelvic organ prolapse of the posterior vaginal wall with distal vaginal wall extending to the hymen during valsalva. A CT scan confirmed the large pelvic mass distinct from the uterus measuring 9.4 × 9.8 × 6.2 cm. Colorectal workup revealed adenocarcinoma of colon on screening colonoscopy with biopsies. Patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, colon resection, and abdominal resection of the pelvic mass in the rectovaginal septum and inferior to the uterus. The patient did not require any concomitant pelvic reconstruction and the posterior vaginal wall prolapse resolved after resecting the pelvic mass. PMID:21416285

Cui, Nuan; Zormpa, Maria; Lazarou, George

2011-03-17

200

Radiation therapy for primary vaginal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Brachytherapy plays a significant role in the management of cervical cancer, but the clinical significance of brachytherapy in the management of vaginal cancer remains to be defined. Thus, a single institutional experience in the treatment of primary invasive vaginal carcinoma was reviewed to define the role of brachytherapy. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 36 patients with primary vaginal carcinoma who received definitive radiotherapy between 1992 and 2010. The treatment modalities included high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy alone (HDR-ICBT; two patients), external beam radiation therapy alone (EBRT; 14 patients), a combination of EBRT and HDR-ICBT (10 patients), or high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT; 10 patients). The median follow-up was 35.2 months. The 2-year local control rate (LCR), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were 68.8%, 55.3% and 73.9%, respectively. The 2-year LCR for Stage I, II, III and IV was 100%, 87.5%, 51.5% and 0%, respectively (P = 0.007). In subgroup analysis consisting only of T2–T3 disease, the use of HDR-ISBT showed marginal significance for favorable 5-year LCR (88.9% vs 46.9%, P = 0.064). One patient each developed Grade 2 proctitis, Grade 2 cystitis, and a vaginal ulcer. We conclude that brachytherapy can play a central role in radiation therapy for primary vaginal cancer. Combining EBRT and HDR-ISBT for T2–T3 disease resulted in good local control.

Murakami, N.; Kasamatsu, T.; Sumi, M.; Yoshimura, R.; Takahashi, K.; Inaba, K.; Morota, M.; Mayahara, H.; Ito, Y.; Itami, J.

2013-01-01

201

Radiation therapy for primary vaginal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Brachytherapy plays a significant role in the management of cervical cancer, but the clinical significance of brachytherapy in the management of vaginal cancer remains to be defined. Thus, a single institutional experience in the treatment of primary invasive vaginal carcinoma was reviewed to define the role of brachytherapy. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 36 patients with primary vaginal carcinoma who received definitive radiotherapy between 1992 and 2010. The treatment modalities included high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy alone (HDR-ICBT; two patients), external beam radiation therapy alone (EBRT; 14 patients), a combination of EBRT and HDR-ICBT (10 patients), or high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT; 10 patients). The median follow-up was 35.2 months. The 2-year local control rate (LCR), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were 68.8%, 55.3% and 73.9%, respectively. The 2-year LCR for Stage I, II, III and IV was 100%, 87.5%, 51.5% and 0%, respectively (P = 0.007). In subgroup analysis consisting only of T2-T3 disease, the use of HDR-ISBT showed marginal significance for favorable 5-year LCR (88.9% vs 46.9%, P = 0.064). One patient each developed Grade 2 proctitis, Grade 2 cystitis, and a vaginal ulcer. We conclude that brachytherapy can play a central role in radiation therapy for primary vaginal cancer. Combining EBRT and HDR-ISBT for T2-T3 disease resulted in good local control. PMID:23559599

Murakami, N; Kasamatsu, T; Sumi, M; Yoshimura, R; Takahashi, K; Inaba, K; Morota, M; Mayahara, H; Ito, Y; Itami, J

2013-04-04

202

Auroral streamers and magnetic flux closure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 7 December 2000 at 2200 UT an auroral streamer was observed to develop above Scandinavia with the IMAGE-FUV global imagers. The ionospheric equivalent current deduced from the MIRACLE-IMAGE Scandinavian ground-based network of magnetometers is typical of a substorm-time streamer. Observations of the proton aurora using the SI12 imager onboard the IMAGE satellite are combined with measurements of the ionospheric convection obtained by the SuperDARN radar network to compute the dayside merging and nightside flux closure rates. On the basis of this and other similar events, it is found that auroral streamers appear during the period of most intense flux closure in the magnetotail, most often shortly after substorm onset. The ionospheric convection velocity, as measured by SuperDARN, appears to be reduced in the vicinity of the streamer, suggesting de-coupling of magnetospheric and ionospheric plasma flows in the region of enhanced ionospheric conductance.

Hubert, B.; Kauristie, K.; Amm, O.; Milan, S. E.; Grocott, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Pulkkinen, T. I.

2007-08-01

203

Atritech, Inc. WATCHMANO LAA Closure Technology Sponsor ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionAtritech, Inc. WATCHMAN@ LAA Closure Technology Executive Summary ... WATCHMANO LAA Closure Technology Sponsor Executive Summary ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

204

`Normal' vaginal microbiology of women of childbearing age in relation to the use of oral contraceptives and vaginal tampons  

PubMed Central

The vaginal microbiology of women attending a family planning clinic was found to be unrelated to the use of oral contraceptives and vaginal tampons. Beta haemolytic streptococci isolated from this `normal' population were compared with those from 1,104 women attending general practitioners complaining of vaginal discharge. There is a caution regarding the indications for antibiotic therapy. Observations were made on the effects of contamination of vaginal swabs with yeasts and ?-haemolytic streptococci from the vulva. The persistent character of the vaginal flora over a six-month period is described.

Morris, C. A.; Morris, Delia F.

1967-01-01

205

Benign vaginal polyp: a histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical study of 20 polyps with comparison to normal vaginal subepithelial layer.  

PubMed

Twenty benign vaginal polyps from 18 patients, together with sections from normal vaginal epithelium, were studied histologically, histochemically using elastic van Gieson stain and immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies against vimentin, desmin and actin. The striking finding was the similarity, both histologically and immunohistochemically, of the stroma of vaginal polyps to that of the loose subepithelial layer found in normal vagina. The important difference was the marked degeneration of the elastic tissue, increased number of stellate and giant fibroblasts and subepithelial condensation of fibroblasts in the polyps. These findings support the hypothesis that vaginal polyps may represent a reactive hyperplasia of the loose subepithelial zone of the vaginal wall. PMID:1302457

al-Nafussi, A I; Rebello, G; Hughes, D; Blessing, K

1992-02-01

206

Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Closure Using a PFO Closure Device.  

PubMed

Percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion is commonly performed using umbrella-shaped devices. However, the utility of such devices is highly dependent on the underlying anatomy of the appendage. For the first time, we report the use of an Occlutech PFO closure device to successfully occlude a left atrial appendage that possessed a circumferential ridge at its mouth. PFO closure devices would also be suitable for the occlusion of left atrial appendages when an incomplete surgical closure results in a circumferential ridge. PMID:23702289

Kanthan, Ajita; Looi, Khang-Li; Mottram, Philip; Harper, Richard; Bittinger, Logan; Alison, Jeffery F

2013-05-20

207

Fatigue crack closure under triaxial stress constraint. 1: Experimental investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigation has been done for fatigue crack closure in 7050-T7451 aluminum alloy and 30CrMnSiNi2A high strength steel. CT specimens with thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, and 8 mm are used and four techniques of closure measurement are adopted in the test, namely the COD-load compliance technique, back face strain-load compliance technique, near tip strain gauge technique, and the indirect

Guo Wanlin

1994-01-01

208

Heart rate change as evidence for vaginally elicited orgasm and orgasm intensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were a) to further replicate previous findings on vaginal eroticism, using heart rate change as corroborative evidence for the subjective perception of sexual arousal and orgasm; and b) to investigate the correlation between heart rate change and subjective intensity of female orgasm. Heart rate measurements were obtained from ECG tracings. Eleven coitally experienced volunteers were

Heli Alzate; Bernardo Useche; Magdalena Villegas

1989-01-01

209

Effect on vaginal pH of a polycarbophil vaginal gel compared with an acidic douche in women with suspected bacterial vaginosis: a randomized, controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vaginal pH is a key factor in maintaining a healthy vaginal ecosystem. An increase in vaginal pH is commonly observed during bacterial vaginosis.Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the effects of polycarbophil, a new bioadhesive polymer in gel form, with those of an acidic vaginal douche on restoration of physiologic vaginal pH in women with a vaginal pH

Massimo Milani; Bruno Molteni; Ilaria Silvani

2000-01-01

210

Transcatheter closure of intracardiac shunts.  

PubMed

In the last decade percutaneous transcatheter techniques and devices for closure of intracardiac defects have considerably improved. Transcatheter ASD closure has become a routine procedure in many centers. It is technically feasible in about 80% of the patients with a secundum type defect. The success rate today is higher than 99% and the rate of any complication below 0.5%. The advantages compared to surgery are the avoidance of a thoracotomy, postoperative pain and morbidity. The length of hospital stay is much shorter and most often general anesthesia is not necessary. Patent foramen ovale has been recognized as a potential cause of paradoxical embolism and embolic stroke particularly in younger patients. Transcatheter closure has recently gained popularity since several studies demonstrated a reduced rate of recurrent strokes after device closure. The occlusion is technically relatively simple and can be performed with ASD closure devices or with devices modified according to the anatomy of the foramen ovale. Catheter closure has certain advantages compared with life-long anticoagulation. For some patients this is the only therapeutic option. Nevertheless, there is still a need for randomized studies. Catheter closure of ventricular septal defects is possible today in selected patients. There are devices available specifically designed for muscular defects, for perimembraneous defects and subaortic ventricular septal defects. PMID:12641019

Sievert, Horst; Krumsdorf, Ulrike

2002-01-01

211

Angle closure in younger patients.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: Angle-closure glaucoma is rare in children and young adults. Only scattered cases associated with specific clinical entities have been reported. We evaluated the findings in patients in our database aged 40 or younger with angle closure. METHODS: Our database was searched for patients with angle closure who were 40 years old or younger. Data recorded included age at initial consultation; age at the time of diagnosis; gender; results of slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (from 1993 onward); clinical diagnosis; and therapy. Patients with previous incisional surgery were excluded, as were patients with anterior chamber proliferative mechanisms leading to angle closure. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients (49 females, 18 males) met entry criteria. Mean age (+/- SD) at the time of consultation was 34.4 +/- 9.4 years (range, 3-68 years). Diagnoses included plateau iris syndrome (35 patients), iridociliary cysts (8 patients), retinopathy of prematurity (7 patients), uveitis (5 patients), isolated nanophthalmos (3 patients), relative pupillary block (2 patients), Weill-Marchesani syndrome (3 patients), and 1 patient each with Marfan syndrome, miotic-induced angle closure, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, and idiopathic lens subluxation. CONCLUSION: The etiology of angle closure in young persons is different from that in the older population and is typically associated with structural or developmental ocular anomalies rather than relative pupillary block. Following laser iridotomy, these eyes should be monitored for recurrent angle closure and the need for additional laser or incisional surgical intervention.

Chang, Brian M; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert

2002-01-01

212

Pharmacokinetics and topical vaginal effects of two tenofovir gels in rabbits.  

PubMed

Tenofovir (TFV) 1% gel has proven effective in preclinical and clinical studies in preventing sexual transmission of HIV-1. The impact of changing the current gel formulation to reduce its osmolality was evaluated using pharmacokinetic assessments and local tissue effects in the rabbit. Following vaginal administration of TFV 1% gel and reduced-glycerin TFV 1% gel, TFV was measured in plasma, vaginal tissues, vaginal fluids, and iliac lymph nodes. After a single dose, plasma C(max) and AUC(0-4h) were significantly higher in the TFV 1% gel group compared with the reduced-glycerin TFV 1% gel group. After 14 days of once-daily dosing, differences in these parameters were insignificant. Vaginal fluid concentrations were ?100??g/ml following the first dose and up to a mean of about 500??g/ml after 14 once-daily doses. Mean (and median) cranial TFV tissue concentrations were generally in excess of 100??g/g following a single dose and 14 once-daily doses of both gels; concentrations in the caudal vaginal tissues were comparatively lower, although in nearly all cases mean values exceeded 10??g/g. Treatment of tissues with phosphatase to liberate TFV from its diphosphate and monophosphate metabolites increased recovery of TFV by 60-120%. Median TFV concentrations in iliac lymph nodes ranged from 44?ng/g to 196?ng/g; differences between iliac lymph node TFV concentrations following dosing of the two gels were insignificant. There were no differences observed in histological evaluation in the cranial vagina following 14 days of once-daily dosing of either gel. There was an apparent impact of TFV on rabbit vaginal epithelium (increased secretory depletion and increased cellular vacuolization) independent of formulation. These data indicate that the reduced-glycerin TFV 1% gel may be a suitable alternative to TFV 1% gel. PMID:22394281

Clark, Meredith R; Friend, David R

2012-04-17

213

Closure report for N Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to satisfy Section 3156(b) of Public Law 101-189 (Reports in Connection with Permanent Closures of Department of Energy Defense Nuclear Facilities), which requires submittal of a Closure Report to Congress by the Secretary of Energy upon the permanent cessation of production operations at a US Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facility (Watkins 1991). This closure report provides: (1) A complete survey of the environmental problems at the facility; (2) Budget quality data indicating the cost of environmental restoration and other remediation and cleanup efforts at the facility; (3) A proposed cleanup schedule.

Not Available

1994-01-01

214

Prospective multicentre randomised trial of tension-free vaginal tape and colposuspension as primary treatment for stress incontinence  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare tension-free vaginal tape with colposuspension as primary treatment for stress incontinence. Design Multicentred randomised comparative trial. Setting Gynaecology or urology departments in 14 centres in the United Kingdom and Eire, including university teaching hospitals and district general hospitals. Participants 344 women with urodynamic stress incontinence; 175 randomised to tension-free vaginal tape and 169 to colposuspension Main outcome measures Assessment before treatment and at six months postoperatively with the SF-36, the Bristol female lower urinary tract symptoms questionnaire, the EQ-5D health questionnaire, a one week urinary diary, one hour perineal pad test, cystometry, and, in some centres, urethral profilometry. Results 23 women in the colposuspension group and 5 in the vaginal tape group withdrew before surgery. No significant difference was found between the groups for cure rates: 115 (66%) women in the vaginal tape group and 97 (57%) in the colposuspension group were objectively cured (95% confidence interval for difference in cure ?4.7% to 21.3%). Bladder injury was more common during the vaginal tape procedure; postoperative complications, in particular delayed resumption of micturition, were more common after colposuspension. Operation time, duration of hospital stay, and return to normal activity were all longer after colposuspension than after the vaginal tape procedure. Conclusion Surgery with tension-free vaginal tape is associated with more operative complications than colposuspension, but colposuspension is associated with more postoperative complications and longer recovery. Vaginal tape shows promise for the treatment of urodynamic stress incontinence because of minimal access and rapid recovery times; cure rates at six months were comparable with colposuspension. What is already known on this topicFew randomised trials exist on surgery for stress incontinenceSystematic reviews suggest that colposuspension is associated with cure rates of up to 90%Case series of tension-free vaginal tape suggest cure rates of about 85%, with rapid return to normal activityWhat this study addsAt six months the tension-free vaginal tape procedure is as effective as colposuspension for the primary treatment of stress incontinenceOperative complications were more common with vaginal tape, but duration of hospital stay and return to normal activity were shorter than with colposuspensionPostoperative complications were more common after colposuspension

Ward, Karen; Hilton, Paul

2002-01-01

215

Economic impact of hospital closure on small rural counties, 1984 to 1988: demonstration of a comparative analysis approach.  

PubMed

Hospital closure in a rural community may affect the locale's economic prospects as well as the health of its residents. Studies of economic effects have primarily relied on modeling techniques rather than observation of actual change. This study demonstrates the use of a comparative analysis approach for estimating the economic effects of hospital closure on small rural counties. The experiences of 103 small rural counties at which a hospital closed between 1984 and 1988 was compared with a matched group of counties at which no closure took place. "Comparable" counties were selected based on seven scales measuring the similarity between a closure county and potential comparisons. Three scales examined population and economic characteristics in the year before closure; two scales measured change throughout a three-year period preceding closure; and two scales measured change throughout a five-year period preceding closure. Closure effects were measured through a multivariate analysis of the post-closure economic history of closure and comparison counties. The key assumption is that similar counties should have similar experiences over time. If an event occurs within some of these counties but not others, this event should have visible effects. Comparative analysis suggested that earned income in closure counties (excluding farming and mining income) was lower than in comparison counties subsequent to closure and that labor force growth was similarly affected. A comparative analysis approach produces results that parallel those obtained from economic modeling and should be considered for further research. PMID:10808632

Probst, J C; Samuels, M E; Hussey, J R; Berry, D E; Ricketts, T C

1999-01-01

216

Murine Models of Vaginal Trichomonad Infections  

PubMed Central

Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus cause common sexually transmitted infections in humans and cattle, respectively. Mouse models of trichomoniasis are important for pathogenic and therapeutic studies. Here, we compared murine genital infections with T. vaginalis and T. foetus. Persistent vaginal infection with T. foetus was established with 100 parasites but T. vaginalis infection required doses of 106, perhaps because of greater susceptibility to killing by mouse vaginal polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Infection with T. vaginalis persisted longest after combined treatment of mice with estrogen and dexamethasone, whereas infection was only short-lived when mice were given estrogen or dexamethasone alone, co-infected with Lactobacillus acidophilus, and/or pretreated with antibiotics. Infection rates were similar with metronidazole-resistant (MR) and metronidazole-sensitive (MS) T. vaginalis. High dose but not low dose metronidazole treatment controlled infection with MS better than MR T. vaginalis. These murine models will be valuable for investigating the pathogenesis and treatment of trichomoniasis.

Cobo, Eduardo R.; Eckmann, Lars; Corbeil, Lynette B.

2011-01-01

217

Probiotic and prebiotic applications for vaginal health.  

PubMed

Infections of the urogenital tract in women are extremely common, and there is no evidence of a reduction in incidence. Treatment and preventive strategies have been relatively unchanged for 50 years. The concept of using probiotic lactobacilli or prebiotics that stimulate the growth of protective organisms emerged in the mid-1980s and has led to several strains being tested successfully in women. With the advent of genomic profiling of the healthy vaginal microbiota, an improved understanding of metabolic systems within lactobacilli, and the ability to deliver products in food and supplement forms, the future should see new ways for women to restore and maintain their vaginal health, without the side effects of pharmaceutical agents. Indeed, studies indicate that probiotics can be taken in conjunction with the antibiotics and antifungal agents used to eradicate infections. In the future, probiotics and prebiotics will represent an important adjunct to pharmaceutical and other approaches used to care for feminine health. PMID:22468339

Reid, Gregor

218

Trial of vaginal breech delivery: current role.  

PubMed

Breech presentation occurs at term in approximately 3% to 4% of singleton gestations. This presentation is associated with a variety of maternal and fetal conditions including preterm labor, abnormal amniotic fluid volume, hydrocephaly, anencephaly, mullerian anomalies, abnormal placentation, and multifetal gestation. Cesarean delivery has been associated with increased risk of subsequent accreta, placenta previa, hemorrhage, and hysterectomy. The Term Breech Trial initially suggested that planned vaginal breech delivery is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality compared with planned cesarean delivery. Long-term follow-up of these vaginally delivered infants contradict the initial findings. Current debate surrounds the dilemma of whether the untoward complications of cesarean delivery are warranted given uncertain minimal increases in neonatal survival and improvement in neurologic outcome with planned cesarean. PMID:17513938

Yamamura, Yasuko; Ramin, Kirk D; Ramin, Susan M

2007-06-01

219

[Vaginal metastasis of renal carcinoma (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Four cases of vaginal metastases of renal carcinoma are reported. This is an incidence of 1.3% in 313 operated patients (from 1/1/70 to 12/31/76). A surgical treatment of primary renal carcinoma and vaginal metastasis seems to be reasonable in there cases. Since in accordance with the literature metastatic involvement of vagina and vulva seems not to be a very rare finding, the diagnostic in renal carcinoma should imply a gynecologic examination. Although in carcinoma of the left kidney metastatic spreading into the external female genitalia most probably occurs by a retrograde venous pathway (left ovarian vein), the way of dissemination in carcinoma of the right side is unclear. PMID:924104

Carl, P; Marx, F J

1977-11-01

220

Can group B streptococci cause symptomatic vaginitis?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Maternal cervicovaginal colonization with Lancefield group B streptococci (GBS) is an important risk factor for neonatal morbidity and mortality. About 15% of women are carriers of GBS. Usually, they are asymptomatic. CASES: We describe two patients with symptomatic vaginitis for which no apparent cause was found. Both patients were heavily colonized with GBS. After antibiotic treatment, both became asymptomatic and culture negative, but after recolonization with GBS, symptoms resumed. This phenomenon was repeatedly observed. After emergence of resistance to antibiotics, local application of chlorhexidine appeared to be the only useful treatment. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that GBS-vaginitis may be a possible disease entity. Although at present it is not clear why some patients become symptomatic, we speculate that the immunologic response is somehow selectively hampered in such patients.

Honig, E; Mouton, J W; van der Meijden, W I

1999-01-01

221

Adolescent Experiences with the Vaginal Ring  

PubMed Central

Purpose To understand racial/ethnic minority adolescent females’ experiences with the vaginal ring. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with a clinic-based sample of 32 young women aged 15–24 years who had used the vaginal ring. Results Qualitative analysis using grounded theory revealed that adolescents undergo a multi-stage process when trying the ring and adopting ring use. These stages include hearing about the ring, initial reactions, first experiences with insertion and removal, and first sexual experiences. Adolescents subsequently enter an assessment and adjustment stage in which they decide whether to adopt or discontinue ring use. Ultimately they share their experiences with friends. Conclusions The model developed provides a context within which providers may advise adolescents as they begin use of the ring. Some specific recommendations are offered.

Epstein, Laura B.; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Ivey, Susan L.; Raine, Tina; Auerswald, Colette

2011-01-01

222

Development and evaluation of acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet for mixed vaginal infections.  

PubMed

An acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was developed for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections. From the bioadhesion experiment and release studies it was found that polycarbophil and sodium carboxymethylcellulose is a good combination for an acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet. Sodium monocitrate was used as a buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4), which is an attribute of a healthy vagina. The effervescent mixture (citric acid and sodium bicarbonate) along with a superdisintegrant (Ac-Di-sol) was used to enhance the swellability of the bioadhesive tablet. The drugs clotrimazole (antifungal) and metronidazole (antiprotozoal as well as an antibacterial) were used in the formulation along with Lactobacillus acidophilus spores to treat mixed vaginal infections. From the ex vivo retention study it was found that the bioadhesive polymers hold the tablet for more than 24 hours inside the vaginal tube. The hardness of the acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was optimized, at 4 to 5 kg hardness the swelling was found to be good and the cumulative release profile of the developed tablet was matched with a marketed conventional tablet (Infa-V). The in vitro spreadability of the swelled tablet was comparable to the marketed gel. In the in vitro antimicrobial study it was found that the acid-buffering bioadhesive tablet produces better antimicrobial action than marketed intravaginal drug delivery systems (Infa-V, Candid-V and Canesten 1). PMID:18181530

Alam, Mohd Aftab; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Khan, Zeenat Iqbal; Khar, Roop Krishen; Ali, Mushir

2007-12-14

223

Vaginal Intercourse Frequency and Heart Rate Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI) and both resting heart rate variability (HRV; an index of cardiac autonomic control and parasympathetic tone associated with cardiovascular health outcomes) and resting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in 120 healthy adults aged 19-38 (subjects scoring above the 87th percentile on the Lie scale of the Eysenck

STUART BRODY; RAGNAR PREUT

2003-01-01

224

Posterior vaginal prolapse and bowel function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study’s objectives were to describe symptoms related to bowel dysfunction in women with uterovaginal prolapse and to compare these symptoms according to extent of posterior vaginal prolapse. Study Design: One hundred forty-three women completed a questionnaire assessment of bowel function and underwent standardized physical examination according to the International Continence Society’s system for grading uterovaginal prolapse. Results: The

Anne M. Weber; Mark D. Walters; Lester A. Ballard; Delbert L. Booher; Marion R. Piedmonte

1998-01-01

225

Glottic closure reflex: control mechanisms.  

PubMed

Reflex glottic closure is a dominant and stable reflex produced by stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve. Its precise execution is basic to successful sphincteric protection of the lower airway. In exaggerated form, it produces life-threatening laryngospasm. Clearly, reflex glottic closure and laryngospasm are facilitated by: a) expiratory phase; b) decreased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2); c) increased arterial partial presure of oxygen (pO2); and d) negative intrathoracic pressure. On the other hand, both reflex glottic closure and laryngospasm are inhibited by; a) inspiratory phase; b) increased arterial pCO2; c) decreased arterial pO2; and d) positive intrathoracic pressure. A clear understanding of laryngeal adductor control is an essential first step in the therapeutic modification of abnormal laryngeal closure and laryngospasm. PMID:6774650

Ikari, T; Sasaki, C T

226

Vernix Caseosa Peritonitis After Vaginal Delivery  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vernix caseosa peritonitis (VCP) is a very unusual complication caused by inflammatory response to amniotic fluid spilled into the maternal peritoneal cavity. Twenty-seven cases have been reported, and all occurred after cesarean section. Case presentation We present a case of VCP following vaginal delivery; this may be the first case reported after vaginal delivery. Mrs. A, 28 years old, gravida 3, para 2, with one previous cesarean section, was admitted at 41 weeks gestation in active labor. Vacuum extraction was performed to deliver a healthy male baby, 4.410 kg, Apgar scores 7, 8. She developed fever, acute abdominal pain, and distension about 3 hours after delivery. A diagnosis of acute abdomen was made. Laparotomy was performed and it revealed neither uterine scar rupture nor other surgical emergencies, but 500 mL of turbid fluid and some cheesy material on the serosal surface of all viscera. Biopsies were taken. She had a course of antibiotics and her recovery was complete. Histology of the peritoneal fluid and tissue biopsy resulted in a diagnosis of VCP. Conclusion Clinical diagnosis of peritonitis due to vernix caseosa should be considered in patients presenting postpartum with an acute abdomen after vaginal delivery.

Sadath, Shameema A.; Abo Diba, Fathiya I.; Nayak, Surendra; Shamali, Iman Al; Diejomaoh, Michael F.

2013-01-01

227

Closure and Sealing Design Calculation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not be addressed in this calculation.

T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

2005-08-26

228

The Conditional Moment Closure Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The relatively recent Conditional Moment Closure methods for turbulent reacting flows have advanced from application to relatively\\u000a well behaved, simple laboratory flames to complex flow geometries and flame conditions with intense turbulence-chemistry interactions.\\u000a The progress on second order closures, double conditioning approaches, two-phase and premixed CMC is reviewed in the first\\u000a part of this chapter, while the second part is

A. Kronenburg; E. Mastorakos

229

The base-closure waltz  

SciTech Connect

A desire to protect bases and weapons contracts in their representative districts and states unites almost all members of Congress, regardless of party affiliation. As described in this paper, this unity was especially evident in the latest round of proposed base closures -- the third in five years. The implications and schedule of these base closures and some remarks of Congressional representatives are provided in this article.

Isaacs, J. (Council for a Livable World, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-05-01

230

Vaginal route: a gynaecological route for much more than hysterectomy.  

PubMed

Vaginal hysterectomy is the method of choice for gynaecologists who carry out hysterectomies. Undertaking this procedure regularly will enhance the gynaecologist's level of skill and enable conditions such as ovarian cysts, broad ligament fibroids and other adnexal pathology to be dealt with vaginally during hysterectomy surgery without abdominal invasion. It is also important as the vaginal route allows access to the posterior cul-de-sac, which can facilitate surgery or offer an alternative route to achieving the desired outcome. In this chapter, we look at the main indications for vaginal surgery, and also at other conditions in which vaginal surgery may be suitable (e.g. benign and malignant conditions). We believe that gynaecologists who include vaginal surgery in their armamentarium are better equipped to serve their patients. PMID:21349773

Sheth, Shirish S; Paghdiwalla, Kurush P; Hajari, Anju R

2011-02-23

231

Relationship between lactobacilli and opportunistic bacterial pathogens associated with vaginitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Vaginitis, is an infectious inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, which sometimes involves the vulva. The balance of the vaginal flora is maintained by the Lactobacilli and its protective and probiotic role in treating and preventing vaginal infection by producing antagonizing compounds which are regarded as safe for humans. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of Lactobacilli against common bacterial opportunistic pathogens in vaginitis and study the effects of some antibiotics on Lactobacilli isolates. Materials and Methods: In this study (110) vaginal swabs were obtained from women suffering from vaginitis who admitted to Babylon Hospital of Maternity and Paediatrics in Babylon province, Iraq. The study involved the role of intrauterine device among married women with vaginitis and also involved isolation of opportunistic bacterial isolates among pregnant and non pregnant women. This study also involved studying probiotic role of Lactobacilli by production of some defense factors like hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocin, and lactic acid. Results: Results revealed that a total of 130 bacterial isolates were obtained. Intrauterine device was a predisposing factor for vaginitis. The most common opportunistic bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All Lactobacilli were hydrogen peroxide producers while some isolates were bacteriocin producers that inhibited some of opportunistic pathogens (S. aureus, E. coli). Lactobacilli were sensitive to erythromycin while 93.3% of them were resistant to ciprofloxacin and (40%, 53.3%) of them were resistant to amoxicillin and gentamycin respectively. Results revealed that there was an inverse relationship between Lactobacilli presence and organisms causing vaginitis. This may be attributed to the production of defense factors by Lactobacilli. Conclusion: The types of antibiotics used to treat vaginitis must be very selective in order not to kill the beneficial bacteria (Lactobacilli) that help in preservation of vaginal health and ecosystem as being one of the probiotic bacteria.

Razzak, Mohammad Sabri A.; Al-Charrakh, Alaa H.; AL-Greitty, Bara Hamid

2011-01-01

232

Analysis of vaginal acetic acid in patients undergoing treatment for bacterial vaginosis.  

PubMed

A "gold standard" method for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) is lacking. The clinical criteria described by the Amsel technique are subjective and difficult to quantify. Alternatively, the reading of Gram-stained vaginal smears by scoring techniques such as those that use the Nugent or Hay-Ison scoring systems is again subjective, requires expert personnel to perform the reading, and is infrequently used clinically. Recently, a new diagnostic device, the Osmetech Microbial Analyzer--Bacterial Vaginosis (OMA-BV), which determines a patient's BV status on the basis of measurement of the amount of acetic acid present in a vaginal swab specimen, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The present study uses the conducting polymer gas-sensing technology of OMA-BV to measure the concentration of acetic acid in the headspace above vaginal swab specimens from patients undergoing treatment for BV with metronidazole. In 97.8% of the cases the level of acetic acid detected fell sharply during the treatment period, crossing from above to below the diagnostic threshold of 900 ppm. The diagnosis obtained on the basis of the level of vaginal acetic acid was compared with the diagnoses obtained by use of the Amsel criteria and the Nugent scoring system both at the time of initial entry into the study and at the repeat samplings on days 7 and 14. The results obtained with OMA-BV showed overall agreements compared with the results of the Amsel and Nugent tests of 98 and 94%, respectively, for the 34 patients monitored through the treatment process. This provides further evidence that the measurement of vaginal acetic acid by headspace analysis with conducting polymer sensors is a valid alternative to present tests for the diagnosis of BV. PMID:15528711

Chaudry, Amjad N; Travers, Paul J; Yuenger, Jeffrey; Colletta, Lorraine; Evans, Phillip; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Tummon, Andrew

2004-11-01

233

Analysis of Vaginal Acetic Acid in Patients Undergoing Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis  

PubMed Central

A “gold standard” method for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) is lacking. The clinical criteria described by the Amsel technique are subjective and difficult to quantify. Alternatively, the reading of Gram-stained vaginal smears by scoring techniques such as those that use the Nugent or Hay-Ison scoring systems is again subjective, requires expert personnel to perform the reading, and is infrequently used clinically. Recently, a new diagnostic device, the Osmetech Microbial Analyzer—Bacterial Vaginosis (OMA-BV), which determines a patient's BV status on the basis of measurement of the amount of acetic acid present in a vaginal swab specimen, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The present study uses the conducting polymer gas-sensing technology of OMA-BV to measure the concentration of acetic acid in the headspace above vaginal swab specimens from patients undergoing treatment for BV with metronidazole. In 97.8% of the cases the level of acetic acid detected fell sharply during the treatment period, crossing from above to below the diagnostic threshold of 900 ppm. The diagnosis obtained on the basis of the level of vaginal acetic acid was compared with the diagnoses obtained by use of the Amsel criteria and the Nugent scoring system both at the time of initial entry into the study and at the repeat samplings on days 7 and 14. The results obtained with OMA-BV showed overall agreements compared with the results of the Amsel and Nugent tests of 98 and 94%, respectively, for the 34 patients monitored through the treatment process. This provides further evidence that the measurement of vaginal acetic acid by headspace analysis with conducting polymer sensors is a valid alternative to present tests for the diagnosis of BV.

Chaudry, Amjad N.; Travers, Paul J.; Yuenger, Jeffrey; Colletta, Lorraine; Evans, Phillip; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Tummon, Andrew

2004-01-01

234

Vaginal Foreign Bodies and Child Sexual Abuse: An Important Consideration  

PubMed Central

Vaginal foreign bodies are a complaint occasionally encountered in pediatric clinics and emergency departments, and when pediatric patients present with a vaginal foreign body sexual abuse may not be considered. We describe two children with vaginal foreign bodies who were found to have been sexually abused. Each child had a discharge positive for a sexually transmitted infection despite no disclosure or allegation of abuse. We recommend that all pre-pubertal girls who present with a vaginal foreign body should be considered as possible victims of sexual abuse and should receive a sexual abuse history and testing for sexually transmitted infections.

Closson, Forrest T.; Lichenstein, Richard

2013-01-01

235

[Vaginal disbacteriosis--social and sexual risk factors].  

PubMed

The vaginal microbe equilibrium could be impaired by different agents. Many of the risk factors can change the preventive mechanisms of the vagina and can lead to inflammation and disease. We even do not suppose about the role of most of them in impairing of vaginal microbe equilibrium. The exact understanding of those risk factors and mechanisms by which they disturb the vaginal microbe balance could reduce female morbidity of vaginal disbacteriosis and vaginal inflammations. The aim of this literature synopsis is to review some of the most frequent risk factors for vaginal disbacteriosis and about how they change vaginal micro-flora with dominant lactobacillus within it. The most informative and detailed articles on the theme which were found in the resent literature as well as in Medline for the period between 1990 and 2012 were selected. The risk agents for vaginal disbacteriosis are: endogenetic, social, sexual, infectious and iatrogenic. The social and sexual factors are the most frequent in our daily round. The intensity and the kind of sexual life, smoking, homosexual connections, vaginal douching and contraception methods are included in them. All these factors depend on us. Thus we hope that through their popularization and discussion will help to prevent the females' health. PMID:23807976

Kovachev, S

2013-01-01

236

Laparoscopically assisted repair of vaginal evisceration after hysterectomy.  

PubMed

Vaginal evisceration is a rare condition most commonly associated with previous vaginal surgery. It usually presents with vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal pain and a protruding mass, and requires immediate assessment and surgical management to salvage the prolapsed bowel. Any delay in the treatment may result in bowel ischaemia and perforation which is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. We report a case of spontaneous vaginal evisceration during defaecation in a 56-year-old postmenopausal women 11 months post hysterectomy. This case highlights the benefits of a combined laparoscopic and transvaginal approach in the successful management of this surgical emergency. PMID:23667228

Nikolopoulos, Ioannis; Khan, Hasan; Janakan, Gnananandan; Kerwat, Rajab

2013-05-09

237

Need for cognitive closure and politics: Voting, political attitudes and attributional style  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of dispositional Need for Cognitive Closure (NFC) on different political attitudes and on the “person blame” and the “system blame” dimensions. Two hundred and thirty-four psychology students completed a questionnaire containing the Italian version of the Need for Closure scale, a measure of political and ideological attitudes, a measure of the person-system blame dimensions, and

Antonio Chirumbolo; Alessandra Areni; Gilda Sensales

2004-01-01

238

40 CFR 265.258 - Closure and post-closure care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or...

2013-07-01

239

Interleukin1 Receptor Antagonist Gene Polymorphism, Vaginal Interleukin1 Receptor Antagonist Concentrations, and Vaginal Ureaplasma urealyticum Colonization in Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ureaplasma urealyticum is the microorganism most frequently isolated from amniotic fluids of women in preterm labor. The relationship between vaginal colonization with U. urealyticum, vaginal interleukin-1 recep- tor antagonist (IL-1ra) levels, and the IL-1ra genotype in pregnant women was examined. Vaginal specimens, obtained with a cotton swab from 207 women in their first trimester of pregnancy, were tested for IL-1ra

Parrin T. Barton; Stefan Gerber; Daniel W. Skupski; Steven S. Witkin

2003-01-01

240

Performance of an in vitro mucoadhesion testing method for vaginal semisolids: influence of different testing conditions and instrumental parameters.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to develop an in vitro mucoadhesion testing method for vaginal semisolid formulations. The proposed method was based on the measurement of the force (detachment force, Fdt) and the work (work of adhesion, Wad) needed to detach a sample of cow vaginal mucosa from a semisolid formulation, using a commercially available texture analyzer. Several testing conditions and instrumental parameters were tested in order to evaluate the mucoadhesive potential of a model vaginal semisolid formulation (1% Carbopol 974P gel). Also, mucoadhesive potential of several commercially available vaginal semisolid products was evaluated. Obtained results showed that the method is reproducible even when the same cow mucosa sample is used up to six times. The similarity of the fluid used to bathe the vaginal mucosa to the one naturally occurring in the vagina influenced considerably the performance of the test, advising that simulation of vaginal fluid properties is important when measuring mucoadhesive properties. Also, temperature of experiment was an important fact to be considered, as results showed slight but significant differences between body (37 degrees C) and room (20 degrees C) temperature. Fdt and Wad increased with increasing instrumental parameters while a plateau region was observable at higher values of probe speed, probe force, and mucosa/sample contact time. Comparison between results for Fdt and Wad demonstrated that although both parameters are generally in agreement, Wad seems to be more reliable and reproducible when evaluating mucoadhesion. Evaluation of commercially available formulations confirmed that experimental conditions are important features that can influence significantly the determination of mucoadhesive potential, being the proposed method an interesting and useful tool in the in vitro evaluation of vaginal semisolids. PMID:18248972

das Neves, José; Amaral, Maria Helena; Bahia, Maria Fernanda

2008-01-14

241

Adenocarcinoma Arising from Vaginal Stump: Unusual Vaginal Carcinogenesis 7 Years After Hysterectomy due to Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.  

PubMed

Primary vaginal adenocarcinomas are one of the rarest malignant neoplasms, which develop in the female genital tract. Because of the extremely low incidence, their clinical and pathologic characteristics are still obscure. Recently, we experienced a case of vaginal adenocarcinoma that appeared 7 yr after hysterectomy because of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The patient, a 65-yr-old obese woman, was diagnosed as having adenocarcinoma in the vaginal stump and was treated by simple tumor excision and radiation. Immunohistochemical and molecular biologic examinations indicated a potential association with human papilloma virus infection in the development of the vaginal adenocarcinoma. There has been no evidence of recurrence for 3 yr after the operation. PMID:24071878

Shibata, Takashi; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Iwai, Yasuhiro; Tokuda, Hisato; Cho, Yuka; Morimoto, Noriyuki; Nakago, Satoshi; Oishi, Tetsuya

2013-11-01

242

Effects of endopeptidase inhibition on the contraction-relaxation response of isolated human vaginal tissue.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION.: Vasoactive peptides, such as bradykinin, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and endothelin 1 (ET-1), are assumed to be involved in the control of female genital vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle. Tissue levels of said peptides are controlled by the activity of endopeptidase enzymes. Theoretically, in female genital tissues, inhibiting the degradation of bradykinin, CNP, and VIP, or the conversion of Big ET-1 into ET-1 should result in an enhancement in smooth muscle relaxation and, thus, an improvement in sexual response. AIM.: Elucidate the effects of the endopeptidase inhibitor KC 12615 on the contraction/relaxation response of isolated human vaginal smooth muscle to Big ET-1, bradykinin, CNP, or VIP. METHODS.: Tissue bath experiments were carried out to ascertain the responses of human vaginal tissue challenged by ET-1 (0.1??M) to increasing concentrations of bradykinin, CNP, and VIP (0.01??M, 0.1??M, and 1??M, respectively). The effects were also evaluated following preexposure to KC 12615 (10??M, for 20 minutes). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Measure the effects of KC 12615 on the relaxation of isolated human vaginal smooth muscle brought about by bradykinin, CNP, or VIP and the contraction mediated by Big ET-1. RESULTS.: The tension induced by ET-1 was reversed by bradykinin, CNP, or VIP (-25?±?6.6%, -13.3?±?2.2%, and -17.6?±?10%, respectively). Big ET-1 induced contraction of the vaginal tissue. Preexposure of the tissue to KC 12615 increased the relaxation exerted by bradykinin, CNP, or VIP (to -39.2?±?5.8%, -40.7?±?7.3%, and -44.6?±?19%, respectively). The contraction induced by Big ET-1 was attenuated in the presence of KC 12615 (to approximately 25% of the initial response). CONCLUSION.: Inhibition of endopeptidase activity can antagonize the contraction of human vaginal tissue induced by Big ET-1 and increase the relaxation induced by vasoactive endogenous peptides. PMID:23347427

Rahardjo, Harrina E; Uckert, Stefan; Taher, Akmal; Sonnenberg, Joachim E; Kauffels, Wolfgang; Rahardjo, Djoko; Kuczyk, Markus A

2013-01-24

243

Practical Guide to Diagnosing and Treating Vaginitis.  

PubMed

Bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis, and trichomoniasis account for more than 90% of vaginal infections. BV typically is associated with a decrease in commensal, protective lactobacilli and a proliferation of other flora. Mobiluncus is pathognomonic but found in only 20% of cases. Presence of 3 of 4 criteria indicates BV: a homogenous noninflammatory discharge (not many WBCs); pH >4.5; clue cells (bacteria attached to borders of epithelial cells, > 20 % of epithelial cells); and a positive whiff test. New intravaginal BV preparations cause less-adverse systemic effects than oral regimens. Trichomonas vaginalis, a protozoan, appears to be sexually transmitted and causes up to 25% of vaginitis cases. Diagnosis is made by observation of a foul, frothy discharge; pH >4.5 (present in 70% of cases); punctate cervical microhemorrhages (25% of cases); and motile trichomonads on wet mount (50%-75% of cases). Recommended treatment is a single 2g dose of oral metronidazole. Treatment failure is usually due to nontreatment of the male partner. Candidiasis typically presents as a thick, "curdled" white discharge or vulvar pruritus, with a hyperemic vagina and an erythematous and/or excoriated vulva. Vaginal pH is usually in the normal range of 3.8-4.2 in uncomplicated candidiasis. Microscopic examination of the discharge reveals hyphae or budding yeast in 50%-70% of cases. While the most common offender is Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata have become increasingly prevalent. Approximately 15% of C albicans organisms are resistant to clotrimazole and miconazole. Recurrent infections may be treated with fluconazole 150mg weekly for up to 12 consecutive weeks. PMID:9746676

Plourd

1997-02-01

244

Update in management of vaginal mesh erosion.  

PubMed

Mesh erosion is one of the major complications of prolapse surgery conducted by transvaginal approach. Following the extensive use of meshes and warning about potential complications, a new classification of mesh-related adverse events has been proposed. Due to the wide scope of clinical features, no standardized approach has been proposed. Surgery is required after failure of conservative management, mostly based on mesh partial or total excision by transvaginal route, following the classic rules of re-do vaginal surgery. Complex cases are best managed in tertiary reference centers. PMID:23873511

Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Peyrat, Laurence; Haab, François

2013-10-01

245

[Vaginal infection caused by Saccharomyces cerevisiae].  

PubMed

In a woman of 26, who suffered from a vulvovaginal infection and had previously been treated for Candida vaginitis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cultured and identified. At her work she sold baking yeast. Topical treatment with amphotericin B 100 mg suppositories was successful. Microscopic examination (1000 x) of the discharge in saline showed haloed yeast cells. For treatment, oral ketoconazole or topical administration of amphotericin B or clotrimazole, in relatively high doses, may be applied. This yeast might be the cause of 'chronic candidiasis' more often than suspected, notably in women working in a bakery or a brewery. PMID:7783803

van Doorn, H C; Coelingh Bennink, F

1995-05-27

246

Vaginal contraceptive film gains wider acceptance.  

PubMed

In US health departments and family planning clinics, women are beginning to accept vaginal contraceptive film more widely. Further, direct sales of this method, which is also distributed over the counter, has increased. In fact, in 1991, vaginal contraceptive film was the top selling contraceptive in pharmacies. This 2.5 sq. inch water-soluble film is impregnated with nonoxynol-9. The woman uses her finger to insert the folded square as close as possible to the cervix 5-60 minutes before intercourse. If the time between acts of intercourse is greater than 1 hour, she must insert another square. After it dissolves, it is a firm gel removed by vaginal and cervical fluids. The company realizes that its relatively high cost (about $3.59 for 3 films) prevents some family planning providers from offering the film. It has tried to cut costs by not using extra packaging material and by manufacturing it in the US instead of ain England. A manager of the family planning clinic at R.E. Thomason County Hospital in El Paso, Texas, notes that user compliance is higher with the vaginal contraceptive film than foam. In fact, patients at the Planned Parenthood League of Middlesex County, New Jersey, favor the film because it is less messy than foam. Teenagers in El Paso prefer the film because of the privacy issue and gives them more control to protect themselves from pregnancy. A worker at the New Jersey clinic recommends the film as a backup method for women beginning to use oral contraceptives. She also suggests to patients requesting condoms to also use the film. The company makes the same recommendation. Yet, family planning workers note that some women cannot convince partners to use the condom. 90% of patients at the El Paso clinic are Hispanic, and they tend to not accept condom use. Some providers suggest using 2 applications of the film to defend against sexually transmitted diseases, but there is no evidence that double application actually does so. PMID:12317927

1992-09-01

247

New immunotherapeutic strategies to control vaginal candidiasis.  

PubMed

The widespread occurrence of mucosal infections caused by Candida, in particular recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis among fertile-age women, together with the paucity of safe candidacidal antimycotics, have prompted a great number of investigations into the immunotherapy of candidal vaginitis. This article will discuss three different experimental approaches demonstrated to be potentially transferable to human disease: (1) the use of antibodies against well-defined cell-surface adhesins or enzymes; (2) the generation of yeast killer-toxin-like candidacidal anti-idiotypic antibodies and their engineered molecular derivatives (e.g. single chains, peptides); and (3) the generation of therapeutic vaccines and immunomodulators. PMID:11879772

Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Cassone, Antonio; De Bernardis, Flavia; Polonelli, Luciano

2002-03-01

248

Evaluation of Cytokines in Endocervical Secretion and Vaginal pH from Women with Bacterial Vaginosis or Human Papillomavirus  

PubMed Central

Objective. To verify the relationship between vaginal pH and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and to measure cytokine levels in endocervical secretions of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) or HPV. Methods. 173 women (16–48 years old) were enrolled and divided into groups: BV, HPV, and controls. Microbiological culture and vaginal pH were measured. HPV detect by PCR, and cytokines by ELISA (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-?, and IFN-? cytokines). Results. Of 173 women, 60 were control group (34.7%) and 113 were distributed in HPV (n=36, 20.8%), BV (n=36, 20.8%), vaginitis (n=30, 17.3%) and, BV and HPV-associated groups (n=11, 6.4%). Vaginal pH > 4.5 was related with HPV infection. IL-2 and IL-12 were increased in BV and HPV groups, and IL-6 (only BV group), compared to control group. IL-12 and IFN-? were higher in HPV than BV group. Conclusion. The increase of vaginal pH was associated with HPV infection; BV and HPV groups had a Th1 cytokines immune response.

Campos, Ana Claudia Camargo; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido; Michelin, Marcia Antoniazi; Reis, Cleomenes

2012-01-01

249

Nasal and Vaginal Vaccinations Have Differential Effects on Antibody Responses in Vaginal and Cervical Secretions in Humans  

PubMed Central

Sexually transmitted diseases are a major health problem worldwide, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how to induce an optimal immune response in the genital tract of humans. In this study we vaccinated 21 volunteers nasally or vaginally with the model mucosal antigen cholera toxin B subunit and determined the level of specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibodies in vaginal and cervical secretions as well as in serum. To assess the hormonal influence on the induction of antibody responses after vaginal vaccination, we administered the vaccine either independently of the stage in the menstrual cycle or on days 10 and 24 in the cycle in different groups of subjects. Vaginal and nasal vaccinations both resulted in significant IgA and IgG anti-cholera toxin B subunit responses in serum in the majority of the volunteers in the various vaccination groups. Only vaginal vaccination given on days 10 and 24 in the cycle induced strong specific antibody responses in the cervix with 58-fold IgA and 16-fold IgG increases. In contrast, modest responses were seen after nasal vaccination and in the other vaginally vaccinated group. Nasal vaccination was superior in inducing a specific IgA response in vaginal secretions, giving a 35-fold increase, while vaginal vaccination induced only a 5-fold IgA increase. We conclude that a combination of nasal and vaginal vaccination might be the best vaccination strategy for inducing protective antibody responses in both cervical and vaginal secretions, provided that the vaginal vaccination is given on optimal time points in the cycle.

Johansson, Eva-Liz; Wassen, Lotta; Holmgren, Jan; Jertborn, Marianne; Rudin, Anna

2001-01-01

250

Vaginal and Oral Epithelial Cell Anti-Candida Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida albicans is the causative agent of acute and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), a common mucosal infection affecting significant numbers of women in their reproductive years. While any murine host protective role for cell-mediated immunity (CMI), humoral immunity, and innate resistance by neutrophils against the vaginal infection appear negligible, significant in vitro growth inhibition of Candida species by vaginal and

Fatema Nomanbhoy; Chad Steele; Junko Yano

2002-01-01

251

Efficacy and tolerability of fitostimoline (vaginal cream, ovules, and vaginal washing) and of benzydamine hydrochloride (tantum rosa vaginal cream and vaginal washing) in the topical treatment of symptoms of bacterial vaginosis.  

PubMed

Two hundred and 91 patients showing signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis (BV) were randomized to receive topical treatment with Fitostimoline (vaginal cream and vaginal ovules + vaginal washing) or benzydamine hydrochloride (vaginal cream + vaginal washing) for 7 days. Signs (leucorrhoea, erythema, oedema, and erosion) and symptoms (burning, pain, itching, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and dysuria) (scored 0-3) were evaluated at baseline and at the end of treatment; the total symptoms score (TSS) was also calculated. In 125 patients, a bacterial vaginosis was confirmed by vaginal swab test. The primary efficacy variable analysis, that is, the percentage of patients with therapeutic success (almost complete disappearance of signs and symptoms), demonstrated that Fitostimoline ovules and vaginal cream were therapeutically equivalent and that pooled Fitostimoline treatment was not inferior to benzydamine hydrochloride. All the treatments were well tolerated, with only minor local adverse events infrequently reported. The results of this study confirmed that gynaecological Fitostimoline is a safe and effective topical treatment for BV. PMID:23209922

Boselli, F; Petrella, E; Campedelli, A; Muzi, M; Rullo, V; Ascione, L; Papa, R; Saponati, G

2012-10-30

252

Septate uterus associated with cervical duplication and vaginal septum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A woman had an unusual müllerian anomaly with a septate uterus, cervical duplication, and longitudinal vaginal septum. Gynecologists should be aware of the possibility of cervical duplication associated with uterine septum and not didelphic uterus, as this disorder in a patient with infertility or recurrent miscarriages can be treated surgically by resection of the uterine and vaginal septum. Embryologic explanations

Juan L. Giraldo; Antonia Habana; Antoni J. Duleba; Anuja Dokras

2000-01-01

253

Variation in vaginal breech delivery rates by hospital type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To relate vaginal breech delivery rates to the following hospital types: public, health maintenance organization, private teaching, or private nonteaching.Methods: In a retrospective study using administrative discharge data from Los Angeles County, California, we calculated the vaginal breech delivery rates of singleton breech deliveries during calendar years 1988 and 1991.Results: Ten thousand four hundred breech deliveries were identified, 8988

Kimberly D Gregory; Lisa M Korst; Michael Krychman; Patricia Cane; Lawrence D Platt

2001-01-01

254

Predictors of episiotomy use at first spontaneous vaginal delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify factors associated with the use of episiotomy at spontaneous vaginal delivery.Methods: We studied 1576 consecutive term, singleton, spontaneous vaginal deliveries in nulliparas at Brigham & Women’s Hospital between December 1, 1994 and July 31, 1995. The association of demographic variables and obstetric factors with the rate of episiotomy use were examined. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and confidence

Julian N Robinson; Errol R Norwitz; Amy P Cohen; Ellice Lieberman

2000-01-01

255

Vaginal Eroticism and Female Orgasm: A Current Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the light of very recent studies, this paper reviews two controversial issues in the area of female sexuality: vaginal eroticism and female orgasm. From the available evidence, it is concluded that most (and probably all) women possess vaginal zones, mainly located on the anterior wall, whose tactile stimulation can lead to orgasm. The apparent contradiction between this finding and

Heli Alzate

1985-01-01

256

[Physicopharmaceutical characteristics of ulinastatin vaginal suppositories prepared in a hospital].  

PubMed

We studied a locally applied vaginal preparation (vaginal suppositories) of ulinastatin (urinary trypsin inhibitor, UTI), designed to threatened premature delivery and maintain pregnancy. Witepsol S55 was chosen as the basic component of the vaginal suppositories based on the physical pharmaceutical characteristics of three kinds of hard fats. The average particle size of the UTI aqueous injection was approximately 70% as compared with that of the UTI lyophilized product, used as the base material for the preparation of UTI vaginal suppositories. We compared the physical pharmaceutical properties of UTI vaginal suppositories with water contents of 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5%, respectively. Preparation strength negatively correlated with the water content. The coefficient of viscosity positively correlated with the water content of the preparation. UTI vaginal suppositories with a water content of 5.0% had the highest average drug release rate on moment analysis. A comprehensive evaluation of the properties of UTI vaginal suppositories, including high strength due to disintegration resistance, the coefficient of viscosity and its influence on local retention, and drug release and its influence on the duration of effect, indicated that a 5.0% UTI aqueous solution for injection combined with Witepsol S55 as the base was the optimal formulation for the hospital preparation of vaginal suppositories. PMID:22041703

Satake, Kiyoshi; Nakajima, Takanori; Iwata, Masanori; Fujikake, Yoshio; Kimura, Masayuki

2011-01-01

257

Two cases of vaginal bleeding in pet rats  

PubMed Central

Two unrelated rats were presented to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine emergency service for vaginal bleeding. Each was taken to surgery due to marked blood loss and suspicion of uterine pathology. Despite similar clinical presentation, gross and histopathologic examination revealed 2 different underlying disease processes, uterine dilatation with mild endometritis and vaginal polyp.

Sadar, Miranda J.; Parker, Dennilyn L.; Burgess, Hilary; Wojnarowicz, Chris

2011-01-01

258

Two cases of vaginal bleeding in pet rats.  

PubMed

Two unrelated rats were presented to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine emergency service for vaginal bleeding. Each was taken to surgery due to marked blood loss and suspicion of uterine pathology. Despite similar clinical presentation, gross and histopathologic examination revealed 2 different underlying disease processes, uterine dilatation with mild endometritis and vaginal polyp. PMID:22210942

Sadar, Miranda J; Parker, Dennilyn L; Burgess, Hilary; Wojnarowicz, Chris

2011-07-01

259

Vaginal birth after cesarean among women with gestational diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to determine the pregnancy and infant outcomes of women with gestational diabetes who attempted vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery. Study Design: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare women with gestational diabetes with matched control subjects without diabetes who attempted vaginal birth after cesarean at Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, from January 1, 1989, through December

Traci L. Coleman; Hugh Randall; William Graves; Michael Lindsay

2001-01-01

260

Vaginal hygiene and douching: perspectives of Hispanic men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal douching is widely practised by women in the USA, particularly among minority ethnic groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. Douching practices are shaped by social and cultural norms regarding female hygiene, reproduction and sexuality. Little previous research has addressed the beliefs and practices of Latina women and none has included the perspective of

Diane McKee; María Baquero; Matthew Anderson; Alison Karasz

2009-01-01

261

EVALUATION OF VAGINAL IMPLANT TRANSMITTERS IN ELK (CERVUS ELAPHUS NELSONI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vaginal implant transmitters for tissue damage after 11 wk in 13 captive adult elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and subsequent reproductive performance in 38 free-ranging elk were evaluated. Vaginal implant transmitters are designed to be shed at parturition and are used to locate birth sites of wild ungulates; however, potential adverse effects of these transmitters on tissues associated

Bruce K. Johnson; Terrance McCoy; Christopher O. Kochanny; Rachel C. Cook

2006-01-01

262

Predictive score for vaginal birth after cesarean section  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the relative weight of the different variables that may influence the chances of vaginal birth after one cesarean delivery, with the aim of developing a predictive score for success of such a trial. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective study, which covered a 10-year period (1981 to 1990), 471 women who attempted vaginal birth at

Daniel Weinstein; Abraham Benshushan; Vasilios Tanos; Ronit Zilberstein; Nathan Rojansky

1996-01-01

263

Why cobacterial infection in candida vaginitis is uncommon?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interesting observation is that cobacterial infection in candida vaginitis is rare, while coinfection between other types\\u000a of vaginitis is common. The author hereby tried to explain this fact by the theory of internal alcoholic production as a cause.

Viroj Wiwanitkit

2008-01-01

264

Tension-free vaginal tape for the treatment of urodynamic stress incontinence with intrinsic sphincteric deficiency.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure in women with urodynamic stress incontinence diagnosed as having intrinsic sphincteric deficiency (ISD). The combination of a maximal urethral closure pressure < 20 cm H2O and a Valsalva leak point pressure < 60 cm H2O was considered as diagnostic of ISD. Subjects with detrusor overactivity on preoperative urodynamics were excluded. A total of 35 patients with both low closure pressure and leak point pressure were enrolled. Bladder perforation occurred in three (8.6%) cases. Postoperative urinary voiding difficulties occurred in nine (25.7%) women. Two patients underwent surgical detension of the tape, with complete resolution of urinary retention and no relapse of incontinence. Women with postoperative voiding dysfunction had a significantly lower detrusorial pressure at the peak flow on preoperative urodynamics compared to those who voided efficiently after TVT. The mean (range) follow-up time was 12.5 months (3-36). The objective cure rate for stress incontinence was 91.4%. Two of the three (66%) patients in whom the TVT procedure failed had a fixed urethra. De novo urge incontinence was found in five (14.3%) patients. PMID:16211315

Ghezzi, Fabio; Serati, Maurizio; Cromi, Antonella; Uccella, Stefano; Salvatore, Stefano; Triacca, Paola; Bolis, Pierfrancesco

2005-10-07

265

Vaginal irritation models: the current status of available alternative and in vitro tests.  

PubMed

Mucosal surfaces, such as the vaginal epithelium, are natural barriers to infection that are constantly exposed to bacteria and viruses, and are therefore potential sites of entry for numerous pathogens. The vaginal epithelium can be damaged mechanically, e.g. by the incorrect use of objects such as tampons, and by chemicals that are irritating or corrosive. Consequently, this can lead to an increase in susceptibility to further damage or infection. Pharmaceutical, cosmetic and personal care products that are specifically formulated for application onto human external mucosae can occasionally induce undesirable local or systemic side-effects. Therefore, the compatibility of applied materials with this mucosal surface represents a key issue to be addressed by manufacturers. The most frequently used method for assessing vaginal mucosal irritation is the in vivo rabbit vaginal irritation test. However, the current emphasis in the field of toxicology is to use alternative in vitro methods that reduce, refine, and replace the use of animals, and which model and predict human, not animal, responses. Such an approach is of particular interest to the personal care and cosmetic industries in their effort to comply with European legislative measures, such as the 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive that does not permit the marketing of cosmetic products if they, or their ingredients, have been tested for irritation responses in animals. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the alternative and in vitro tests that are currently available for vaginal mucosal irritation assessment, and which are already used, or may become useful, to establish the safety of newly-designed products for human use. PMID:21942546

Costin, Gertrude-Emilia; Raabe, Hans A; Priston, Robert; Evans, Eric; Curren, Roger D

2011-09-01

266

Global Expression of Molecular Transporters in the Human Vaginal Tract: Implications for HIV Chemoprophylaxis  

PubMed Central

Background Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrECP) using antiretroviral agents is a promising strategy for the prevention of sexual HIV transmission in women. Molecular transporters in the human vaginal tract (VT) may play a pivotal role in determining drug disposition and, consequently, pharmacodynamic outcomes in these efforts. Little is known, however, on the expression of these transporters in vaginal tissues, representing a critical knowledge gap. Methodology/Principal Findings Our study analyzed the genome-wide transcriptome in 44 vaginal tissue samples from 6 reproductive-age women undergoing gynecologic surgeries. The analysis revealed that, unexpectedly, a large number (43%) of gene isoforms corresponding to membrane transporters were over-expressed (above the median expression level) in all samples. A subset of 12 highly expressed membrane transporters was identified and contained 10 members (83%) of the solute carrier superfamily. The largest difference in membrane transporter gene expression was observed across subjects, but more subtle differential expression also was found along the anterior-posterior axis of the VT. Cross-validation of the microarray analyses with measurements RT-qPCR demonstrated high concordance between these data sets. Immunofluorescence labeling of membrane transporter proteins in vaginal tissues was highly dependent on tissue/cell types. Conclusions/Significance Antiretroviral PrECP drugs currently under evaluation are substrates for molecular transporters that were commonly expressed, but fell into both over- or under-expressed categories in all samples, suggesting a complex role for carrier-mediated processes in determining the disposition of these xenobiotics in vaginal tissues. These findings hold important implications for the successful development of products, either oral or intravaginal, for female-controlled HIV PrECP.

Gunawardana, Manjula; Mullen, Madeline; Moss, John A.; Pyles, Richard B.; Nusbaum, Rebecca J.; Patel, Jignesh; Vincent, Kathleen L.; Wang, Charles; Guo, Chao; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Warden, Charles D.; Baum, Marc M.

2013-01-01

267

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, James A. (Thornton, CO); Stoddard, Lawrence M. (Arvada, CO)

1986-01-01

268

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

1984-01-31

269

Effectiveness of Cellulose Sulfate Vaginal Gel for the Prevention of HIV Infection: Results of a Phase III Trial in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background This trial evaluated the safety and effectiveness of 6% cellulose sulfate vaginal gel in preventing male-to-female vaginal transmission of HIV, gonorrhea and chlamydial infection. Methods This Phase III, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2004 and March 2007 in Lagos and Port Harcourt, Nigeria. We enrolled 1644 HIV-antibody negative women at high risk of HIV acquisition. Study participants were randomized 1?1 to cellulose sulfate or placebo and asked to use gel plus a condom for each act of vaginal intercourse over one year of follow-up. The participants were evaluated monthly for HIV, gonorrhea and chlamydial infection, and for adverse events. Results The trial was stopped prematurely after the data safety monitoring board of a parallel trial concluded that cellulose sulfate might be increasing the risk of HIV. In contrast, we observed fewer infections in the active arm (10) than on placebo (13), a difference that was nonetheless not statistically significant (HR?=?0.8, 95% CI 0.3–1.8; p?=?0.56). Rates of gonorrhea and chlamydial infection were lower in the CS group but the difference was likewise not statistically significant (HR?=?0.8, 95% CI 0.5–1.1; p?=?0.19 for the combined STI outcome). Rates of adverse events were similar across study arms. No serious adverse events related to cellulose sulfate use were reported. Conclusions Cellulose sulfate gel appeared to be safe in the evaluated study population but we found insufficient evidence that it prevented male-to-female vaginal transmission of HIV, gonorrhea or chlamydial infection. The early closure of the trial compromised the ability to draw definitive conclusions about the effectiveness of cellulose sulfate against HIV. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00120770

Halpern, Vera; Ogunsola, Folasade; Obunge, Orikomaba; Wang, Chin-Hua; Onyejepu, Nneka; Oduyebo, Oyinola; Taylor, Doug; McNeil, Linda; Mehta, Neha; Umo-Otong, John; Otusanya, Sakiru; Crucitti, Tania; Abdellati, Said

2008-01-01

270

The role of fomites in the transmission of vaginitis.  

PubMed Central

A role for fomites such as toilet seats in the transmission of vaginitis has never been proved or disproved. A compilation of clinical data from a university community showed that the organisms found in vaginal cultures of patients with vaginitis were, in order of frequency. Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, beta-hemolytic streptococci, Hemophilus vaginalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. In a concurrent bacteriologic survey of washroom fixtures, staphylococci and other micrococci were isolated most frequently. The overt pathogens associated with vaginitis were never found, and gram-negative organisms appeared to be suppressed by the disinfectant used by the cleaning staff. It is clear that fomites are not an important mode of transmission in vaginitis, although a search for specific pathogens on toilets is to be continued.

Andrew, D. E.; Bumstead, E.; Kempton, A. G.

1975-01-01

271

Vaginal Cleansing Practices in HIV Infected Zambian Women  

PubMed Central

Vaginal practices are a variety of behavioral techniques that women use to manage their sexual life and personal hygiene. Women perceive vaginal practices as a beneficial practice. However, vaginal cleansing has been identified as one of the main risk factors for bacterial vaginosis and is potentially implicated in Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection transmission. This study examined the prevalence of vaginal practices and the types of practices used among a sample of HIV positive women living in Lusaka, Zambia. Over 90% of all women recruited engaged in vaginal practices. Certain practices, such as use of water or soap, were more frequently used for hygiene reasons. Herbs and traditional medicines were mainly used to please sexual partner. Strategies to decrease VP appear urgently needed in the Zambian community.

Alcaide, Maria L.; Mumbi, Miriam; Chitalu, Ndashi; Jones, Deborah

2013-01-01

272

Vaginal Primary Malignant Melanoma: A Rare and Aggressive Tumor  

PubMed Central

Vaginal primary malignant melanoma is a rare and very aggressive tumor. It most commonly occurs in postmenopausal women, with a mean age of 57 years. Our patient is an 80-year-old, postmenopausal Greek woman presented with a complaint of abnormal vaginal bleeding. On gynecologic examination there was a pigmented, raised, ulcerated, and irregular lesion 5 × 4.5?cm in the upper third of anterior vaginal wall. She underwent a wide local excision of the lesion. The histopathology revealed vaginal primary malignant melanoma with ulceration and no clear surgical margins. She denied any additional surgical interventions and underwent to postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. Follow up 5 months after initial diagnosis revealed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. The prognosis of vaginal primary malignant melanoma is very poor despite treatment modality, because most of the cases are diagnosed at advanced stage. Particularly patients with no clear surgical margins and tumor size >3?cm needed postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy.

Terzakis, Emmanouil; Ioannidou, Georgia; Tsamandas, Athanasios; Decavalas, Georgios

2013-01-01

273

Vaginal breech delivery: results of a prospective registration study  

PubMed Central

Background Most countries recommend planned cesarean section in breech deliveries, which is considered safer than vaginal delivery. As one of few countries in the western world Norway has continued to practice planned vaginal delivery in selected women. The aim of this study is to evaluate prospectively registered neonatal and maternal outcomes in term singleton breech deliveries in a Norwegian hospital during a ten years period. We aim to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in term breech pregnancies subjected either to planned vaginal or elective cesarean section. Methods A prospective registration study including 568 women with term breech deliveries (>37 weeks) consecutively registered at Sorlandet Hospital Kristiansand between 2001 and 2011. Fetal and maternal outcomes were compared according to delivery method; planned vaginal delivery versus planned cesarean section. Results Of 568 women, elective cesarean section was planned in 279 (49%) cases and vaginal delivery was planned in 289 (51%) cases. Acute cesarean section was performed in 104 of the planned vaginal deliveries (36.3%). There were no neonatal deaths. Two cases of serious neonatal morbidity were reported in the planned vaginal group. One infant had seizures, brachial plexus injury, and cephalhematoma. The other infant had 5-minutes Apgar?vaginal group (10.0%) and eight in the planned cesarean section group (2.9%) (p?vaginal delivery group (p?vaginal group without long-term sequelae.

2013-01-01

274

Vaginal Health: Insights, Views & Attitudes (VIVA) survey - Canadian cohort.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate knowledge of vaginal atrophy among postmenopausal women (aged 55-65 years), using the Vaginal Health: Insights, Views & Attitudes (VIVA) survey. METHODS: An independent research organization conducted a quantitative Internet-based survey, to obtain information from 3520 women who were living in the UK, the USA, Canada, Sweden, Denmark, Finland or Norway. Findings from Canada are presented (n = 500). RESULTS: Almost half of Canadian respondents had experienced vaginal discomfort since they had stopped menstruating, most commonly (88%) vaginal dryness; over half (56%) reported having experienced symptoms for three years or longer. Seven percent would have attributed vaginal symptoms to vaginal atrophy. Eighty-two percent of women felt that vaginal discomfort would have a negative impact on various aspects of their lives, most notably sexual intimacy (72%), 'having a loving relationship with a partner' (39%) and 'overall quality of life' (30%). While the majority of women (66%) who had experienced vaginal atrophy eventually sought the assistance of a health-care professional, a considerable proportion (34%) did not. Most women (58%) had tried lubricating gels and creams to treat their symptoms, but many were less aware of specific means of treating the underlying cause. However, compared with systemic hormone replacement therapy, more women indicated that they would consider local estrogen therapy (e.g. vaginal tablets or creams). CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that many postmenopausal women in Canada have a low understanding of vaginal atrophy. Medical practitioners should proactively initiate dialogue about this chronic condition with their patients, and discuss appropriate treatment options. PMID:23201626

Frank, Sheldon M; Ziegler, Cleve; Kokot-Kierepa, Marta; Maamari, Ricardo; Nappi, Rossella E

2012-11-30

275

Changes in uterine size after vaginal delivery and cesarean section determined by vaginal sonography in the puerperium.  

PubMed

There have been few reports on postpartum changes in the uterus during the three months after delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate uterine morphological changes in women after vaginal delivery (n=262-351) and in women after cesarean section (n=64-82) and to evaluate the relation between breast-feeding and parity, and uterine involution at 1 and 3 months postpartum measured by vaginal ultrasonography. There were no significant differences in parity between the vaginal delivery group and the cesarean section group. The length of the uterus at one month (7.93+/-1.16 cm, mean+/-SD) and, three months (7.03+/-1.19 cm) and the width of the uterus at three months (3.83+/-0.94 cm) after delivery in the cesarean section group were greater than in the transvaginal group (7.64+/-1.03 cm, 6.65+/-0.99 cm, 3.57+/-0.62 cm, respectively). Increasing maternal parity was associated slightly with larger uterine size at one month post partum. The length of the uterus of women with a breast-feeding rate of 80% or more per day was 6.35+/-0.85 cm, and shorter than in women with a rate of 20% or less 7.03+/-1.04 cm, at three months after delivery. The width of the uterine body of women with a breast-feeding rate of 80% or more per day was 3.32+/-0.45 cm, and shorter than in women with a rate of 20% or less 3.87+/-0.66 cm, at 3 months after delivery. Stepwise regression and multiple regression analysis among parity, the history of cesarean section, the breast-feeding rate at one and three months after the delivery, and the restoration of the menses at three months after the delivery showed that the uterine size at one month after the delivery was related to the cesarean section and that the uterine size at three months after delivery was mostly related to the rate of breast-feeding. These results indicated that uterine involution was related to delivery mode at one and three months postpartum, feeding mode at three months postpartum, the menses restoration, and parity. The rate of breastfeeding was mostly related to the uterine size at three months postpartum. PMID:10728621

Negishi, H; Kishida, T; Yamada, H; Hirayama, E; Mikuni, M; Fujimoto, S

1999-11-01

276

50 CFR 665.466 - Closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closures. 665.466 Section 665.466 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND...WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries § 665.466 Closures. (a) If the Regional...

2011-10-01

277

50 CFR 665.466 - Closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Closures. 665.466 Section 665.466 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND...WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries § 665.466 Closures. (a) If the Regional...

2012-10-01

278

40 CFR 265.404 - Closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.404 Closure. At closure, all...be removed from treatment processes or equipment, discharge control equipment, and discharge confinement structures....

2013-07-01

279

40 CFR 280.74 - Closure records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure § 280.74 Closure records. Owners and...

2012-07-01

280

Synthesis of Stable Force-Closure Grasps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis addresses the problem of synthesizing grasps that are force-closure and stable. The synthesis of force closure grasps constructs independent regions of contact for the fingertips, such that the motion of the grasped object is totally constraine...

V. D. Nguyen

1986-01-01

281

Vaginal microbial flora analysis by next generation sequencing and microarrays; can microbes indicate vaginal origin in a forensic context?  

PubMed

Forensic analysis of biological traces generally encompasses the investigation of both the person who contributed to the trace and the body site(s) from which the trace originates. For instance, for sexual assault cases, it can be beneficial to distinguish vaginal samples from skin or saliva samples. In this study, we explored the use of microbial flora to indicate vaginal origin. First, we explored the vaginal microbiome for a large set of clinical vaginal samples (n?=?240) by next generation sequencing (n?=?338,184 sequence reads) and found 1,619 different sequences. Next, we selected 389 candidate probes targeting genera or species and designed a microarray, with which we analysed a diverse set of samples; 43 DNA extracts from vaginal samples and 25 DNA extracts from samples from other body sites, including sites in close proximity of or in contact with the vagina. Finally, we used the microarray results and next generation sequencing dataset to assess the potential for a future approach that uses microbial markers to indicate vaginal origin. Since no candidate genera/species were found to positively identify all vaginal DNA extracts on their own, while excluding all non-vaginal DNA extracts, we deduce that a reliable statement about the cellular origin of a biological trace should be based on the detection of multiple species within various genera. Microarray analysis of a sample will then render a microbial flora pattern that is probably best analysed in a probabilistic approach. PMID:22282153

Benschop, Corina C G; Quaak, Frederike C A; Boon, Mathilde E; Sijen, Titia; Kuiper, Irene

2012-01-27

282

The relationship between the need for closure and deviant bias: An investigation of generality and process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for closure predicts an evaluative bias against people whose opinions or behaviors deviate from those of other members of their social groups. In the present study, we investigated whether the relationship between the need for closure and deviant bias generalized to nonsocial stimuli, and we examined the process underlying this relationship. Sixty-one undergraduate students completed measures of the

Mark Rubin; Stefania Paolini; Richard J. Crisp

2011-01-01

283

Sustained release of the CCR5 inhibitors CMPD167 and maraviroc from vaginal rings in rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

Antiretroviral entry inhibitors are now being considered as vaginally administered microbicide candidates for the prevention of the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Previous studies testing the entry inhibitors maraviroc and CMPD167 in aqueous gel formulations showed efficacy in the macaque challenge model, although protection was highly dependent on the time period between initial gel application and subsequent challenge. In this paper, we describe the sustained release of maraviroc and CMPD167 from matrix-type silicone elastomer vaginal rings both in vitro and in vivo. Both inhibitors were released continuously during 28 days from rings in vitro at rates of 100 to 2,500 ?g/day. In 28-day pharmacokinetic studies in rhesus macaques, the compounds were measured in the vaginal fluid and vaginal tissue; steady-state fluid concentrations were ~10(6)-fold greater than the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) for simian human immunodeficiency virus 162P3 inhibition in macaque lymphocytes in vitro. Plasma concentrations for both compounds were very low. The pretreatment of macaques with Depo-Provera (DP), which is commonly used in macaque challenge studies, was shown to significantly modify the biodistribution of the inhibitors but not the overall amount released. Vaginal fluid and tissue concentrations were significantly decreased while plasma levels increased with DP pretreatment. These observations have implications for designing macaque challenge experiments and also for ring performance during the human female menstrual cycle. PMID:22330914

Malcolm, R Karl; Veazey, Ronald S; Geer, Leslie; Lowry, Deborah; Fetherston, Susan M; Murphy, Diarmaid J; Boyd, Peter; Major, Ian; Shattock, Robin J; Klasse, Per Johan; Doyle, Lara A; Rasmussen, Kelsi K; Goldman, Laurie; Ketas, Thomas J; Moore, John P

2012-02-13

284

Fourier's law from closure equations.  

PubMed

We sketch a rigorous derivation of Fourier's law from a system of closure equations for a nonequilibrium stationary state of a Hamiltonian system of coupled oscillators subjected to heat baths on the boundary. The local heat flux is proportional to the temperature gradient with a temperature dependent heat conductivity and the stationary temperature exhibits a nonlinear profile. PMID:17677777

Bricmont, Jean; Kupiainen, Antti

2007-05-21

285

Endoscopic Closure of Gastrointestinal Leaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgery has been the mainstay of therapy in patients with gastrointestinal perforations. This paradigm started to shift with the development of techniques for endoscopic closure of gastrointestinal perforations. A detailed review of the literature on this subject, along with a commentary on practical aspects in the management of patients with gastrointestinal leaks, is provided here.

Gottumukkala Subba Raju

2009-01-01

286

CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0-14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only <0.5% of patients. Postdeployment bleeding occurred in 6.4%, and most these (51.5%) could be managed with light manual compression. During follow-up, other device-related complications were reported in 1.3%: seven false aneurysms, three hematoma >5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan [Academic Hospitals, Department of Radiology (Germany); Libicher, Martin [University Clinics, Department of Radiology (Germany); Atar, Eli [Hasharon Hospital, Department of Radiology (Israel); Trentmann, Jens [University Clinics Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Radiology (Germany); Goffette, Pierre [University Clinics St. Luc, Department of Radiology (Belgium); Borggrefe, Jan [University Clinics Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Radiology (Germany); Zelenak, Kamil [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia); Hooijboer, Pieter [Scheper Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Belli, Anna-Maria [St. Georges Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2011-02-15

287

An energy approach to crack closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crack closure is analyzed using an energy approach whereby it is shown that crack closure does not completely shield the input mechanical energy to the crack tip at a load below the crack opening load Pop if the compliance below Pop is non-zero. An equivalent shielding stress intensity range is defined by the energy release rate against crack closure. From

X. J. Wu

1995-01-01

288

Weighted Case Closure and Counselor Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Use of the 26 closure may lead to serious problems in the evaluation of counselor performance. This article examines some of the shortcomings, briefly reviews several suggestions for weighting case closure, and introduces two possible weighting methods for case closure. (Author)|

Worrall, John D.

1978-01-01

289

Angioscopic evaluation of periprocedural and postprocedural abrupt closure after percutaneous coronary angioplasty.  

PubMed

Abrupt closure remains a significant complication of PTCA. On the basis of the presumption of underlying cause (thrombus, dissection, spasm), various empiric medical and mechanical interventions have been used to prevent and/or treat this event. Despite these measures, however, abrupt closure remains a highly unpredictable occurrence with a substantial incidence of myocardial infarction and angioplasty-related morbidity and mortality. Direct visualization of the site of abrupt closure may allow determination of responsible mechanisms and appropriate treatment strategies. Intracoronary visualization using a new angioscope was carried out in two cases of abrupt closure after percutaneous coronary angioplasty. The angioscope features a movable fiberoptic bundle that provides continuous and uninterrupted imaging of the coronary artery segment incorporating the site of abrupt closure. In one patient with intraprocedural closure angioscopy revealed obstruction of the lumen with extruded plaque material. In a second patient with postprocedural closure, however, imaging at the site of coronary artery occlusion revealed a mass consistent with a large platelet thrombus. Intracoronary evaluation with angioscopy may yield important characteristics that identify lesions at risk for abrupt closure. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying abrupt closure may allow more appropriate selection of therapeutic interventions. PMID:8338018

Sassower, M A; Abela, G S; Koch, J M; Manzo, K M; Friedl, S E; Vivino, P G; Nesto, R W

1993-08-01

290

Prostate-specific antigen in vaginal fluid as a biologic marker of condom failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty women participated in three clinic visits during which they were exposed to their partner’s semen (10 ?L, 100 ?L, and 1 mL). At each visit they took vaginal fluid samples before exposure to their partner’s semen, immediately after, and at 1, 24, and 48 h after exposure. PSA was measured with an enzyme-linked immunoassay. The mean PSA level for

Maurizio Macaluso; Louise Lawson; Rachel Akers; Thamban Valappil; Karen Hammond; Richard Blackwell; Glen Hortin

1999-01-01

291

A comparison of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies in Benghazi, Libya.  

PubMed

We performed a comparative study between abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies using clinical data from Al-Jamhouria hospital (one of the largest maternity hospitals in Eastern Libya). Various parameters were taken into consideration: the rates of each type (and their subtypes); average age of patients; indications; causes; postoperative complications; and duration of stay in the hospital afterwards. Conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the results of this study. In light of the aforementioned parameters, it was found that: (1) abdominal hysterectomies were more common than vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (2) patients admitted for abdominal hysterectomies are younger than those admitted for vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (3) the most common indication for an abdominal hysterectomy was menstrual disturbances, while for vaginal hysterectomies it was vaginal prolapse; (4) the histopathological cause for abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies were observed and the most common were found to be leiomyomas and atrophic endometrium; (5) there was no significant difference between the two routes in terms of postoperative complications; (6) patients who were admitted for abdominal hysterectomies spent a longer amount of time in the hospital (p < 0.01). It was concluded that efforts should be made to further pursue vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomies as a viable option to the more conventional abdominal route. PMID:23919862

Agnaeber, K; Bodalal, Z

2013-08-01

292

[Post hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse: diagnosis prevention and treatment].  

PubMed

Post-hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse is a common disorder which generally manifests as a protrusion of the vagina through the genital hiatus, sometimes accompanied by urinary and gastrointestinal symptoms as well as sexual dysfunction. Risk factors for this condition include vaginal deliveries, obesity and previous hysterectomy, although genetic predisposition leading to reduced connective tissue and muscle strength may also play a role. Surgical correction of this disorder can be performed through either the abdominal or transvaginal approaches. Two prospective randomized trials have compared these approaches demonstrating better anatomic success rates for the abdominal approach as opposed to faster recovery and lower morbidity for the transvaginal approach. Laparoscopic and other transvaginal minimal access techniques for vaginal vault suspension have recently been advocated utilizing synthetic or biological adjuvant grafts. These techniques have been associated with high success rates albeit substantial graft complications such as erosion, contraction and dyspareunia. Suspension of the vaginal apex to the uterosacral ligaments (McCall culdoplasty) or to the sacrospinous ligaments at the time of vaginal hysterectomy is the mainstay for prevention of post hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse. Our knowledge of the pathophysiology of post hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse is quickly being refined, leading to more efficient surgical therapies for prevention and treatment of this disorder. PMID:18770962

Segev, Yakir; Auslander, Ron; Lavie, Ofer; Lissak, Arie; Abramov, Yoram

2008-05-01

293

Performing vaginal lavage, crystal violet staining, and vaginal cytological evaluation for mouse estrous cycle staging identification.  

PubMed

A rapid means of assessing reproductive status in rodents is useful not only in the study of reproductive dysfunction but is also required for the production of new mouse models of disease and investigations into the hormonal regulation of tissue degeneration (or regeneration) following pathological challenge. The murine reproductive (or estrous) cycle is divided into 4 stages: proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. Defined fluctuations in circulating levels of the ovarian steroids 17-?-estradiol and progesterone, the gonadotropins luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, and the luteotropic hormone prolactin signal transition through these reproductive stages. Changes in cell typology within the murine vaginal canal reflect these underlying endocrine events. Daily assessment of the relative ratio of nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells, and leukocytes present in vaginal smears can be used to identify murine estrous stages. The degree of invasiveness, however, employed in collecting these samples can alter reproductive status and elicit an inflammatory response that can confound cytological assessment of smears. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive protocol that can be used to determine the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse without altering her reproductive cycle. We detail how to differentiate between the four stages of the estrous cycle by collection and analysis of predominant cell typology in vaginal smears and we show how these changes can be interpreted with respect to endocrine status. PMID:23007862

McLean, Ashleigh C; Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A L

2012-09-15

294

Performing Vaginal Lavage, Crystal Violet Staining, and Vaginal Cytological Evaluation for Mouse Estrous Cycle Staging Identification  

PubMed Central

A rapid means of assessing reproductive status in rodents is useful not only in the study of reproductive dysfunction but is also required for the production of new mouse models of disease and investigations into the hormonal regulation of tissue degeneration (or regeneration) following pathological challenge. The murine reproductive (or estrous) cycle is divided into 4 stages: proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. Defined fluctuations in circulating levels of the ovarian steroids 17-?-estradiol and progesterone, the gonadotropins luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, and the luteotropic hormone prolactin signal transition through these reproductive stages. Changes in cell typology within the murine vaginal canal reflect these underlying endocrine events. Daily assessment of the relative ratio of nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells, and leukocytes present in vaginal smears can be used to identify murine estrous stages. The degree of invasiveness, however, employed in collecting these samples can alter reproductive status and elicit an inflammatory response that can confound cytological assessment of smears. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive protocol that can be used to determine the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse without altering her reproductive cycle. We detail how to differentiate between the four stages of the estrous cycle by collection and analysis of predominant cell typology in vaginal smears and we show how these changes can be interpreted with respect to endocrine status.

McLean, Ashleigh C.; Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A.L.

2012-01-01

295

Pathogenesis of urinary tract infection —experimental studies of vaginal resistance to colonization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review summarizes studies of vaginal colonization resistance againstEscherichia coli in a primate model. The genital flora surrounding the urethral orifice exerts a strong colonization resistance. Amoxicillin profoundly disturbs the normal vaginal microflora, reduces its adherence to vaginal epithelial cells in vivo and promotes a persistent vaginalE. coli colonization. Certain cephalosporins may have a similar effect. The induced ecological changes

Jan Winberg; Maria Herthelius-Elman; Roland Miillby; Carl Erik Nord

1993-01-01

296

Magnitude of Interfractional Vaginal Cuff Movement: Implications for External Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To quantify the extent of interfractional vaginal cuff movement in patients receiving postoperative irradiation for cervical or endometrial cancer in the absence of bowel/bladder instruction. Methods and Materials: Eleven consecutive patients with cervical or endometrial cancer underwent placement of three gold seed fiducial markers in the vaginal cuff apex as part of standard of care before simulation. Patients subsequently underwent external irradiation and brachytherapy treatment based on institutional guidelines. Daily megavoltage CT imaging was performed during each external radiation treatment fraction. The daily positions of the vaginal apex fiducial markers were subsequently compared with the original position of the fiducial markers on the simulation CT. Composite dose-volume histograms were also created by summing daily target positions. Results: The average ({+-} standard deviation) vaginal cuff movement throughout daily pelvic external radiotherapy when referenced to the simulation position was 16.2 {+-} 8.3 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff movement for any patient during treatment was 34.5 mm. In the axial plane the mean vaginal cuff movement was 12.9 {+-} 6.7 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff axial movement was 30.7 mm. In the craniocaudal axis the mean movement was 10.3 {+-} 7.6 mm, with a maximum movement of 27.0 mm. Probability of cuff excursion outside of the clinical target volume steadily dropped as margin size increased (53%, 26%, 4.2%, and 1.4% for 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm, respectively.) However, rectal and bladder doses steadily increased with larger margin sizes. Conclusions: The magnitude of vaginal cuff movement is highly patient specific and can impact target coverage in patients without bowel/bladder instructions at simulation. The use of vaginal cuff fiducials can help identify patients at risk for target volume excursion.

Ma, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Michaletz-Lorenz, Martha [Department of Education and Training, Elekta, Maryland Heights, MO (United States); Goddu, S. Murty [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Grigsby, Perry W., E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

2012-03-15

297

Improving Vaginal Examinations Performed by Midwives  

PubMed Central

A vaginal examination (VE) is an essential part of midwifery care, and is routinely performed when assessing the progress of labour. As evidence shows that during labour women may find VEs unpleasant, embarrassing and sometimes painful, the aim of this article is to review literature on the use of VEs during labour and to synthesise information from the available literature on how to provide an effective VE. The studies considered were retrieved from three databases (the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], SCOPUS and MEDLINE) using the following search terms: “VEs in labour”, “midwives and use of VEs” and “women experiences of VEs in labour”. The literature reviewed suggests that midwives are not careful about VEs. Therefore, a concerted effort is needed to pay attention to the frequency of VEs, the management of pain and distress, information-giving and the preferences of the patient, so that the patient can feel in control during a VE.

Muliira, Rhoda S.; Seshan, Vidya; Ramasubramaniam, Shanthi

2013-01-01

298

Surgical device closure a new technique of ASD closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Conventional approach of atrial septal defect (ASD) closure with cardio pulmonary bypass using mid sternotomy, minimally invasive\\u000a or endoscopic technique is time tested. We decided to use custom made device with direct minimally invasive approach without\\u000a cardio pulmonary bypass. Percutaneous transfemoral route using custom made device is a well established procedure performed\\u000a by interventional cardiologist with occasional trauma and vessels.

Mahadev Dixit; Mohan Gan; Anuradha Dubey; Narendra Nishanimath; Pradeep Kizakke Kuttikot; Raghunath Mohapatra; Darshan Devikere Sharabhalingswamy; Raghav Johari; Bhaskar Venkatakrishnaiah Bhagyalakshmi; Aruneshwari Dayal

2007-01-01

299

Open magnetic flux and magnetic flux closure during sawtooth events  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use IMAGE-FUV observations of the polar aurora and measurements of the ionospheric convection from the SuperDARN radar network to study several sawtooth events previously reported in the literature. We estimate the amount of open magnetic flux in the Earth magnetosphere during a significant part of these sawtooth intervals as well as the magnetic flux opening and closure rates, that

B. Hubert; S. E. Milan; A. Grocott; S. W. H. Cowley; J. C. Gérard

2008-01-01

300

Bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma after hyperopic LASIK correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute angle closure glaucoma is unexpected complication following laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). We are reporting a 49-years-old lady that was presented to the emergency department with acute glaucoma in both eyes soon after LASIK correction. Diagnosis was made on detailed clinical history and examination, slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure measurement and gonioscopy. Laser iridotomy in both eyes succeeded in

Essam A. Osman; Ahmed A. Alsaleh; Turki Al Turki; Saleh A. AL Obeidan

2009-01-01

301

Nickerson's Medium in the Diagnosis of Vaginal Moniliasis  

PubMed Central

One thousand one hundred and ninety-four cultures for vaginal moniliasis were performed on 1034 patients, using Nickerson's medium, to confirm the simplicity of the procedure and to demonstrate the inaccuracy of clinical impressions when compared to culture results. The error in the diagnosis of vaginal moniliasis on clinical impression and the wet-smear technique was as great as 60% when compared to the results of culture. The method employing this medium is easily adapted to routine office use, and offers an accurate and convenient means of diagnosis. The overall incidence of vaginal moniliasis in the variety of clinical groups studied was 21.3%.

O'Brien, J. R.

1964-01-01

302

Vaginal microbiome and sexually transmitted infections: an epidemiologic perspective  

PubMed Central

Vaginal bacterial communities are thought to help prevent sexually transmitted infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome in which the protective lactic acid–producing bacteria (mainly species of the Lactobacillus genus) are supplanted by a diverse array of anaerobic bacteria. Epidemiologically, BV has been shown to be an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes including preterm birth, development of pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Longitudinal studies of the vaginal microbiome using molecular techniques such as 16S ribosomal DNA analysis may lead to interventions that shift the vaginal microbiota toward more protective states.

Brotman, Rebecca M.

2011-01-01

303

Therapeutic Mechanisms of Treatment in Cervical and Vaginal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Cervical and vaginal cancers remain serious health problems. Worldwide, more than 530,000 women annually are diagnosed with these diseases, with most new incident cases occurring in nations with limited health resources and underdeveloped screening programs. For women whose disease is too bulky or widespread for surgery, radiochemotherapy should be looked upon as the standard of care. Randomized clinical trials have indicated that radiochemotherapy strategies that disrupt the repair of damaged DNA are key to the management of advanced stage cervical and vaginal cancers. Here, from a viewpoint of cancer cell molecular biology, treatments for advanced stage cervical and vaginal cancers are discussed.

Kunos, Charles A

2012-01-01

304

Health Risk Assessment for Area 514 RCRA Closure  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a USDOE research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security. The specific area that is the subject of this document, Area 514, was the location of active LLNL waste treatment facilities until November 2003, and the operations there were authorized under interim status. The site is being closed pursuant to the requirements of the Resource Conservation Recovery Act. The DTSC-approved ''Closure Plan for Area 514 Treatment and Storage Facility, LLNL 2004'', states clean closure concentrations for certain organic compounds, metals and metalloids. if all soil samples contained measured concentrations less than these levels, it was agreed that the site would meet the requirements for clean closure. However, if the samples had measured concentrations greater than the clean closure levels, a more detailed risk assessment could be prepared to evaluate the potential effects of the actual measured levels. Soil samples collected from 33 locations in Area 514 were analyzed for 37 constituents of potential concern, as identified by the Closure Plan. Many of these compounds and elements were not detected. However, 10 metals or metalloids were present at levels above the clean closure requirements, and 19 organic compounds were identified as contaminants of potential concern. Following the guidance in the Closure Plan, a health risk assessment is presented in this document to demonstrate the low level of potential health effects from the remaining constituents and to support clean closure of the site. Three types of hypothetical receptors were identified: an intrusive construction worker conducting trenching in the area, a bystander worker in a nearby building, and a future resident. Of the worker receptors, the intrusive construction worker was found to have the greater overall chronic exposure, with a theoretical calculated carcinogenic risk of 4 x 10{sup -8}, a chronic hazard index of 8 x 10{sup -3}, and an acute hazard index of 9 x 10{sup -1}. The estimated incremental cancer risk for the residential receptor, 1 x 10{sup -6}, was calculated by adjusting contaminant concentrations to account for background levels of metals at the Livermore LLNL site. When no adjustments for background concentrations are made, the estimated incremental cancer risk is 3 x 10{sup -6}. The chronic hazard index for the residential receptor, 2 x 10{sup -1}, was developed without accounting for background concentrations of metals. These values are all below levels associated with health concerns, and support the conclusion that further cleanup of the area is not necessary.

Gallegos, G M; Hall, L C

2005-05-26

305

Insidious Urinary Retention after Vaginal Delivery: Prevalence and Symptoms at Follow-Up in a Population-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of postpartum urinary retention in women after vaginal delivery and to determine whether parturients with retention develop voiding problems later. During a 3-month period, all parturients in the catchment area of the University Hospital, Lund, were investigated 3 days after delivery, residual volume being measured by ultrasonography. All those with

Ellika Andolf; Constantin S. Iosif; Connie Jörgensen; Håkan Rydhström

1994-01-01

306

Vesicovaginal fistula due to vaginal herb for primary infertility: could it be devastating?  

PubMed

Vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) is a very commonly encountered urogynaecological entity in developing countries such as India. The most common cause of VVF in developing counties is secondary to obstructive labour. We report a very unusual case of VVF in a young woman that developed due to insertion of an unknown vaginal herb for treatment of primary infertility. Cystoscopy showed a single trigonal fistula measuring 3×2 cm just near the bladder neck. Vaginoscopy revealed cicatrised less capacious vagina and unhealthy vaginal mucosa. She was treated with transvaginal VVF repair using Martius flap interposition which leaked on 10th postoperative day. She underwent re-evaluation and another transvaginal fistula repair for small trigonal residual fistula after 3 months. She is doing well during the follow-up of 2 years. She attained sexual activity after 3 months of surgical repair but could not conceive. PMID:24092608

Paul, Sagorika; Singh, Vishwajeet; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Kumar, Arvind

2013-10-03

307

Dose Reduction Study in Vaginal Balloon Packing Filled With Contrast for HDR Brachytherapy Treatment;HDR; Uterine cervix cancer; Vaginal balloon packing; Contrast; Monte Carlo  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Vaginal balloon packing is a means to displace organs at risk during high dose rate brachytherapy of the uterine cervix. We tested the hypothesis that contrast-filled vaginal balloon packing reduces radiation dose to organs at risk, such as the bladder and rectum, in comparison to water- or air-filled balloons. Methods and Materials: In a phantom study, semispherical vaginal packing balloons were filled with air, saline solution, and contrast agents. A high dose rate iridium-192 source was placed on the anterior surface of the balloon, and the diode detector was placed on the posterior surface. Dose ratios were taken with each material in the balloon. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, by use of the MC computer program DOSXYZnrc, were performed to study dose reduction vs. balloon size and contrast material, including commercially available iodine- and gadolinium-based contrast agents. Results: Measured dose ratios on the phantom with the balloon radius of 3.4 cm were 0.922 {+-} 0.002 for contrast/saline solution and 0.808 {+-} 0.001 for contrast/air. The corresponding ratios by MC simulations were 0.895 {+-} 0.010 and 0.781 {+-} 0.010. The iodine concentration in the contrast was 23.3% by weight. The dose reduction of contrast-filled balloon ranges from 6% to 15% compared with water-filled balloon and 11% to 26% compared with air-filled balloon, with a balloon size range between 1.4 and 3.8 cm, and iodine concentration in contrast of 24.9%. The dose reduction was proportional to the contrast agent concentration. The gadolinium-based contrast agents showed less dose reduction because of much lower concentrations in their solutions. Conclusions: The dose to the posterior wall of the bladder and the anterior wall of the rectum can be reduced if the vaginal balloon is filled with contrast agent in comparison to vaginal balloons filled with saline solution or air.

Saini, Amarjit S. [Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Zhang, Geoffrey G., E-mail: geoffrey.zhang@moffitt.org [Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Finkelstein, Steven E.; Biagioli, Matthew C. [Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States)

2011-07-15

308

Intravaginal and Intranasal Immunizations Are Equally Effective in Inducing Vaginal Antibodies and Conferring Protection against Vaginal Candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Oophorectomized, estrogen-treated rats were immunized by the intravaginal or intranasal route with a mannoprotein extract (MP) or secreted aspartyl proteinases (Sap) of Candida albicans, with or without cholera toxin as a mucosal adjuvant. Both routes of immunization were equally effective in (i) inducing anti-MP and anti-Sap vaginal antibodies and (ii) conferring a high degree of protection against the vaginal infection by the fungus. These data suggest that appropriate fungal antigens and adjuvant can be used to protect against candidal vaginitis, by either route.

De Bernardis, Flavia; Boccanera, Maria; Adriani, Daniela; Girolamo, Antonietta; Cassone, Antonio

2002-01-01

309

Intravaginal and intranasal immunizations are equally effective in inducing vaginal antibodies and conferring protection against vaginal candidiasis.  

PubMed

Oophorectomized, estrogen-treated rats were immunized by the intravaginal or intranasal route with a mannoprotein extract (MP) or secreted aspartyl proteinases (Sap) of Candida albicans, with or without cholera toxin as a mucosal adjuvant. Both routes of immunization were equally effective in (i) inducing anti-MP and anti-Sap vaginal antibodies and (ii) conferring a high degree of protection against the vaginal infection by the fungus. These data suggest that appropriate fungal antigens and adjuvant can be used to protect against candidal vaginitis, by either route. PMID:11953420

De Bernardis, Flavia; Boccanera, Maria; Adriani, Daniela; Girolamo, Antonietta; Cassone, Antonio

2002-05-01

310

Optical Coherence Tomography Compared With Colposcopy for Assessment of Vaginal Epithelial Damage: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective Colposcopy has been used to detect epithelial damage with vaginal microbicides. In animal models, optical coherence tomography (OCT) provided increased sensitivity over colposcopy in detecting epithelial injury. This randomized double-blinded clinical study compared OCT to colposcopy for the evaluation of epithelial injury in women using placebo or nonoxynol-9. Methods Thirty women aged 18–45 were randomized to use hydroxyethyl cellulose placebo or nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel twice daily for 5.5 days. Imaging with colposcopy and OCT was performed prior to product use, after the last dose, and 1 week later. Colposcopy was graded using standard criteria. OCT images were scored for epithelial integrity based on a published scoring system and measured for epithelial thickness. Results Colposcopy findings and OCT scores and epithelial thicknesses were similar between treatment groups at baseline. After treatment, there were significant differences between the nonoxynol-9 (1.37) and control group (1.15) OCT scores (p<0.001, indicating epithelial injury, and there was epithelial thinning in the nonoxynol-9 group (237?m) compared to the control group (292?m) (p=0.008). There were no significant posttreatment colposcopic differences in epithelial disruption between treatment groups, with only increased erythema noted after nonoxynol-9 use (p=0.02). Conclusion OCT detected epithelial disruption and thinning not identified by colposcopy. Vaginal epithelial thickness, a measure previously available only through biopsy, decreased after nonoxynol-9 use, a finding that may contribute to increased susceptibility to HIV after frequent use. OCT shows promise for the noninvasive clinical assessment of vaginal epithelial damage. Clinical Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm, R000006186.

Vincent, Kathleen L.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Moench, Thomas R.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Loza, Melissa L.; Wei, Jingna; Grady, James; Paull, Jeremy; Motamedi, Massoud; Rosenthal, Susan L.

2011-01-01

311

A rare case of vaginal vault evisceration and its management  

PubMed Central

A 66 year old woman presented to A&E with per vagina bleeding and a mass protruding from the vagina. The patient was examined under anaesthesia, which revealed vaginal prolapse with evisceration of approximately 20-30 cm of bowel. The patient had received an abdominal hysterectomy 30 years ago for menorrhagia. In the last decade, the patient had experienced other recurrent episodes of prolapse (cystocoele and retrocoele). Vaginal vault evisceration is a recognised rare complication of hysterectomy and is a gynaecological emergency. This patient’s condition was rapidly recognised and surgically managed. The repair was achieved in two surgeries. Initially, the small bowel was re-inserted into the peritoneal cavity through the vaginal wall defect and the vaginal defect repaired. After sufficient time for healing, a sacrocolpopexy was performed to repair the prolapse.

Pereira, FD Alves; Rai, H

2012-01-01

312

Trichomoniasis as Seen in a Chronic Vaginitis Clinic  

PubMed Central

Objective: We sought to determine the clinical and laboratory features of trichomonas vaginitis (TV) in a chronic vaginitis clinic. Methods: We studied 45 women with symptomatic TV attending a specialty chronic vaginitis clinic. These patients were older than the usual symptomatic patients with TV. They frequently described unusual chronicity of symptoms, half being referred because of clinical resistance and the other half referred because of chronic vaginitis of unknown etiology. Results: In spite of the chronicity of infection, the signs and symptoms of florid inflammation were still evident and high numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and parasitic load were present. Conclusions: A longstanding infection, especially if previously untreated, invariably responded to conventional nitroimidazole therapy. In addition, the majority of patients seen with clinical resistance to the conventional doses of metronidazole responded to high-dose oral metronidazole therapy. Unsuspected TV should always be considered in low-risk patients with chronic vulvovaginal symptoms.

Dan, Michael

1996-01-01

313

Moniliasis--The Use of Candicidin Vaginal Ointment for Treatment  

PubMed Central

Candicidin vaginal ointment, 0.14 mg per gm of petrolatum base, was used in the treatment of 25 patients with monilial vaginitis. Ten of these patients were pregnant. All 15 of the non-gravid patients were cured, as proved by repeated cultures, after a maximum of three weeks of therapy. Eight of the 10 gravid patients were cured. Of the two patients with resistant cases, one had severe diabetes and the other had endocervicitis. Of 50 patients treated by insertion of Candeptin vaginal tablets, 42 became free of vaginal moniliasis after one or two 14-day courses of home treatment. All 42 remained free of infection for one month following treatment, as proven by culture. There were no instances of sensitivity to the preparation.

Roberts, Chester L.; Sullivan, John J.

1965-01-01

314

Gynecologic bleeding revealing vaginal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Vaginal metastases of renal cell carcinoma have been rarely described. We report a case of a 75-year old woman, who underwent radical right nephrectomy for a renal cell carcinoma. Tumour was classified pT3bN0M0 and grade III of Furhmann grading. One year later, scanner discovered mediastinal and lombo-aortic lymph nodes. She received 2 months of immunotherapy associated with bevacizumab, but stopped because of intolerance. She was readmitted in our institute for vaginal bleeding. Clinical investigations showed a vaginal mass and biopsy revealed a renal cell carcinoma metastasis. This case suggests that retrograde venous dissemination may be at the origin of vaginal metastasis of renal cell carcinoma and emphasized the preventive value of early ligature of renal vein.

Benbrahim, Zineb; Chouaib, Ali; Mazeron, Renaud; Leger-Ravet, Marie Benedicte; Lefort, Catherine; Lhomme, Catherine; El Mesbahi, Omar; Escudier, Bernard

2013-01-01

315

Vaginal pH: Home-Use Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... type of test is this? This is a quantitative test -- you find out how acidic your vaginal ... Government For Press Combination Products Advisory Committees Science & Research Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & ...

316

Vaginal and Cervical Cytology of the Early Puerperium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cervical and vaginal smears were obtained from 160 women who had delivered one to eight days prior to cytologic examination. Preparations were examined for general morphology and graded for malignancy. The degree of cytologic abnormality was found to corr...

H. B. Soloway

1969-01-01

317

Optimized Dose Distribution of Gammamed Plus Vaginal Cylinders  

SciTech Connect

Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy arising in the female genital tract. Intracavitary vaginal cuff irradiation may be given alone or with external beam irradiation in patients determined to be at risk for locoregional recurrence. Vaginal cylinders are often used to deliver a brachytherapy dose to the vaginal apex and upper vagina or the entire vaginal surface in the management of postoperative endometrial cancer or cervical cancer. The dose distributions of HDR vaginal cylinders must be evaluated carefully, so that clinical experiences with LDR techniques can be used in guiding optimal use of HDR techniques. The aim of this study was to optimize dose distribution for Gammamed plus vaginal cylinders. Placement of dose optimization points was evaluated for its effect on optimized dose distributions. Two different dose optimization point models were used in this study, namely non-apex (dose optimization points only on periphery of cylinder) and apex (dose optimization points on periphery and along the curvature including the apex points). Thirteen dwell positions were used for the HDR dosimetry to obtain a 6-cm active length. Thus 13 optimization points were available at the periphery of the cylinder. The coordinates of the points along the curvature depended on the cylinder diameters and were chosen for each cylinder so that four points were distributed evenly in the curvature portion of the cylinder. Diameter of vaginal cylinders varied from 2.0 to 4.0 cm. Iterative optimization routine was utilized for all optimizations. The effects of various optimization routines (iterative, geometric, equal times) was studied for the 3.0-cm diameter vaginal cylinder. The effect of source travel step size on the optimized dose distributions for vaginal cylinders was also evaluated. All optimizations in this study were carried for dose of 6 Gy at dose optimization points. For both non-apex and apex models of vaginal cylinders, doses for apex point and three dome points were higher for the apex model compared with the non-apex model. Mean doses to the optimization points for both the cylinder models and all the cylinder diameters were 6 Gy, matching with the prescription dose of 6 Gy. Iterative optimization routine resulted in the highest dose to apex point and dome points. The mean dose for optimization point was 6.01 Gy for iterative optimization and was much higher than 5.74 Gy for geometric and equal times routines. Step size of 1 cm gave the highest dose to the apex point. This step size was superior in terms of mean dose to optimization points. Selection of dose optimization points for the derivation of optimized dose distributions for vaginal cylinders affects the dose distributions.

Supe, Sanjay S. [Department of Radiation Physics, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)], E-mail: sanjayssupe@gmail.com; Bijina, T.K.; Varatharaj, C.; Shwetha, B.; Arunkumar, T.; Sathiyan, S.; Ganesh, K.M.; Ravikumar, M. [Department of Radiation Physics, Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

2009-04-01

318

Optimized dose distribution of Gammamed plus vaginal cylinders.  

PubMed

Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy arising in the female genital tract. Intracavitary vaginal cuff irradiation may be given alone or with external beam irradiation in patients determined to be at risk for locoregional recurrence. Vaginal cylinders are often used to deliver a brachytherapy dose to the vaginal apex and upper vagina or the entire vaginal surface in the management of postoperative endometrial cancer or cervical cancer. The dose distributions of HDR vaginal cylinders must be evaluated carefully, so that clinical experiences with LDR techniques can be used in guiding optimal use of HDR techniques. The aim of this study was to optimize dose distribution for Gammamed plus vaginal cylinders. Placement of dose optimization points was evaluated for its effect on optimized dose distributions. Two different dose optimization point models were used in this study, namely non-apex (dose optimization points only on periphery of cylinder) and apex (dose optimization points on periphery and along the curvature including the apex points). Thirteen dwell positions were used for the HDR dosimetry to obtain a 6-cm active length. Thus 13 optimization points were available at the periphery of the cylinder. The coordinates of the points along the curvature depended on the cylinder diameters and were chosen for each cylinder so that four points were distributed evenly in the curvature portion of the cylinder. Diameter of vaginal cylinders varied from 2.0 to 4.0 cm. Iterative optimization routine was utilized for all optimizations. The effects of various optimization routines (iterative, geometric, equal times) was studied for the 3.0-cm diameter vaginal cylinder. The effect of source travel step size on the optimized dose distributions for vaginal cylinders was also evaluated. All optimizations in this study were carried for dose of 6 Gy at dose optimization points. For both non-apex and apex models of vaginal cylinders, doses for apex point and three dome points were higher for the apex model compared with the non-apex model. Mean doses to the optimization points for both the cylinder models and all the cylinder diameters were 6 Gy, matching with the prescription dose of 6 Gy. Iterative optimization routine resulted in the highest dose to apex point and dome points. The mean dose for optimization point was 6.01 Gy for iterative optimization and was much higher than 5.74 Gy for geometric and equal times routines. Step size of 1 cm gave the highest dose to the apex point. This step size was superior in terms of mean dose to optimization points. Selection of dose optimization points for the derivation of optimized dose distributions for vaginal cylinders affects the dose distributions. PMID:19181251

Supe, Sanjay S; Bijina, T K; Varatharaj, C; Shwetha, B; Arunkumar, T; Sathiyan, S; Ganesh, K M; Ravikumar, M

2007-10-02

319

Intrinsic Sphincter Deficiency: Do the Maximum Urethral Closure Pressure and the Valsalva Leak-Point Pressure Identify Different Pathogenic Mechanisms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   A prospective analysis of 166 women with genuine stress incontinence was performed comparing Valsalva leak-point pressure\\u000a (VLPP) and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) with age, previous urogynecologic surgery and\\/or hysterectomy, poor urethral\\u000a mobility, weight, menopause and vaginal deliveries, to find correlations with intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD). Cut-off\\u000a value for VLPP were 60 cmH2O and for MUCP 30 cmH2O. MUCP

C. Pajoncini; E. Costantini; F. Guercini; M. Porena

2002-01-01

320

Female sexual dysfunction following vaginal surgery: Myth or reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the mechanisms by which vaginal surgery affects female sexual function and related pathophysiology to\\u000a potential causes. The anatomy, neurovascular supply of the clitoris and introitus, and intrapelvic nerve supply are discussed\\u000a as they apply to vaginal surgery. Methods to avoid neurovascular damage during pelvic floor surgery have been corroborated\\u000a by supporting literature. The incidence of female sexual

Hari S. G. R. Tunuguntla; Angelo E. Gousse

2004-01-01

321

RASTREAMENTO DE CANDIDOSE VAGINAL DURANTE A PREVENÇÃO DO CÂNCER CÉRVICO-UTERINO SCREENING OF VAGINAL CANDIDOSIS DURING THE PREVENTION OF UTERINE CERVIX CANCER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: vaginal candidosis is one of the most prevalent infection of the lower genital tract around the world. Lately a huge increase in inciden- ce accounted for ranking this disease as the second more frequent vaginal infection in Brazil. These reasons led some authors to indicate the scree- ning of vaginal discharge in gynecology clinics. Objective: the aim of this

Vânia LN Cavalcante; Aldine T Miranda; Glenda MP Portugal

322

Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Vaginal Dendritic Cells in a Rat Model of Candida albicans Vaginitis  

PubMed Central

This study analyzes the phenotype of vaginal dendritic cells (VDCs), their antigenic presentation and activation of T-cell cytokine secretion, and their protective role in a rat model of Candida vaginitis. Histological observation demonstrated a significant accumulation of OX62+ VDCs in the mucosal epithelium of Candida albicans-infected rats at the third round of infection. We identified two subsets of OX62+ VDCs differing in the expression of CD4 molecule in both noninfected and Candida-infected rats. The OX62+ CD4+ subset of VDCs displayed a lymphoid cell-like morphology and expressed the T-cell antigen CD5, whereas the OX62+ CD4? VDC subset exhibited a myeloid morphology and was CD5 negative. Candida infection resulted in VDC maturation with enhanced expression of CD80 and CD134L on both CD4+ and CD4? VDC subsets at 2 and 6 weeks after Candida infection. CD5? CD4? CD86? CD80? CD134L+ VDCs from infected, but not noninfected, rats spontaneously released large amounts of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha, whereas all VDC subsets released comparable levels of IL-10 and IL-2 cytokines. Furthermore, OX62+ VDCs from infected rats primed naïve CD4+ T-cell proliferation and release of cytokines, including gamma interferon, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10, in response to staphylococcal enterotoxin B stimulation in vitro. Adoptive transfer of highly purified OX62+ VDCs from infected rats induced a significant acceleration of fungal clearance compared with that in rats receiving naive VDCs, suggesting a protective role of VDCs in the anti-Candida mucosal immunity. Finally, VDC-mediated protection was associated with their ability to rapidly migrate to the vaginal mucosa and lymph nodes, as assessed by adoptive transfer of OX62+ VDCs labeled with 5 (and 6-)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester.

De Bernardis, Flavia; Lucciarini, Roberta; Boccanera, Maria; Amantini, Consuelo; Arancia, Silvia; Morrone, Stefania; Mosca, Michela; Cassone, Antonio; Santoni, Giorgio

2006-01-01

323

Phenotypic and functional characterization of vaginal dendritic cells in a rat model of Candida albicans vaginitis.  

PubMed

This study analyzes the phenotype of vaginal dendritic cells (VDCs), their antigenic presentation and activation of T-cell cytokine secretion, and their protective role in a rat model of Candida vaginitis. Histological observation demonstrated a significant accumulation of OX62(+) VDCs in the mucosal epithelium of Candida albicans-infected rats at the third round of infection. We identified two subsets of OX62(+) VDCs differing in the expression of CD4 molecule in both noninfected and Candida-infected rats. The OX62(+) CD4(+) subset of VDCs displayed a lymphoid cell-like morphology and expressed the T-cell antigen CD5, whereas the OX62(+) CD4(-) VDC subset exhibited a myeloid morphology and was CD5 negative. Candida infection resulted in VDC maturation with enhanced expression of CD80 and CD134L on both CD4(+) and CD4(-) VDC subsets at 2 and 6 weeks after Candida infection. CD5(-) CD4(-) CD86(-) CD80(-) CD134L(+) VDCs from infected, but not noninfected, rats spontaneously released large amounts of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor alpha, whereas all VDC subsets released comparable levels of IL-10 and IL-2 cytokines. Furthermore, OX62(+) VDCs from infected rats primed naïve CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and release of cytokines, including gamma interferon, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10, in response to staphylococcal enterotoxin B stimulation in vitro. Adoptive transfer of highly purified OX62(+) VDCs from infected rats induced a significant acceleration of fungal clearance compared with that in rats receiving naive VDCs, suggesting a protective role of VDCs in the anti-Candida mucosal immunity. Finally, VDC-mediated protection was associated with their ability to rapidly migrate to the vaginal mucosa and lymph nodes, as assessed by adoptive transfer of OX62(+) VDCs labeled with 5 (and 6-)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. PMID:16790803

De Bernardis, Flavia; Lucciarini, Roberta; Boccanera, Maria; Amantini, Consuelo; Arancia, Silvia; Morrone, Stefania; Mosca, Michela; Cassone, Antonio; Santoni, Giorgio

2006-07-01

324

Biological and Technical Variables Affecting Immunoassay Recovery of Cytokines from Human Serum and Simulated Vaginal Fluid: A Multicenter Study  

PubMed Central

The increase of proinflammatory cytokines in vaginal secretions may serve as a surrogate marker of unwanted inflammatory reaction to microbicide products topically applied for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV-1. Interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 have been proposed as indicators of inflammation and increased risk of HIV-1 transmission; however, the lack of information regarding detection platforms optimal for vaginal fluids and interlaboratory variation limit their use for microbicide evaluation and other clinical applications. This study examines fluid matrix variants relevant to vaginal sampling techniques and proposes a model for interlaboratory comparisons across current cytokine detection technologies. IL-1? and IL-6 standards were measured by 12 laboratories in four countries, using 14 immunoassays and four detection platforms based on absorbance, chemiluminescence, electrochemiluminescence, and fluorescence. International reference preparations of cytokines with defined biological activity were spiked into (1) a defined medium simulating the composition of human vaginal fluid at pH 4.5 and 7.2, (2) physiologic salt solutions (phosphate-buffered saline and saline) commonly used for vaginal lavage sampling in clinical studies of cytokines, and (3) human blood serum. Assays were assessed for reproducibility, linearity, accuracy, and significantly detectable fold difference in cytokine level. Factors with significant impact on cytokine recovery were determined by Kruskal?Wallis analysis of variance with Dunn’s multiple comparison test and multiple regression models. All assays showed acceptable intra-assay reproducibility; however, most were associated with significant interlaboratory variation. The smallest reliably detectable cytokine differences (P < 0.05) derived from pooled interlaboratory data varied from 1.5- to 26-fold depending on assay, cytokine, and matrix type. IL-6 but not IL-1? determinations were lower in both saline and phosphate-buffered saline as compared to vaginal fluid matrix, with no significant effect of pH. The (electro)chemiluminescence-based assays were most discriminative and consistently detected <2-fold differences within each matrix type. The Luminex-based assays were less discriminative with lower reproducibility between laboratories. These results suggest the need for uniform vaginal sampling techniques and a better understanding of immunoassay platform differences and cross-validation before the biological significance of cytokine variations can be validated in clinical trials. This investigation provides the first standardized analytic approach for assessing differences in mucosal cytokine levels and may improve strategies for monitoring immune responses at the vaginal mucosal interface.

2008-01-01

325

Tree canopy closure assessment using ground digital photography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree canopy closure is often a desired metric in ecological applications of spectral remote sensing. There are numerous models and field protocols for estimating this variable, many of which are specialized or may have poor accuracies. Specialized instruments are also available but they may be cost prohibitive for small programs. An expedient alternative is the use of in-situ handheld digital photography to estimate canopy closure. This approach is cost effective while maintaining accuracy. The objective of this study was to develop and test an efficient field protocol for determining tree canopy closure from zenith-looking and oblique digital photographs. Investigators created a custom software package that uses Euclidean distance to cluster pixels into sky and non-sky categories. The percentages of sky and tree canopy are calculated from the clusters. Acquisition protocols were tested using JPEG photographs taken at multiple upward viewing angles and along transects within an open stand of loblolly pine trees and a grove of broadleaf-deciduous trees. JPEG lossy compression introduced minimal error but provided an appropriate trade-off given limited camera storage capacity and the large number of photographs required to meet the field protocol. This is in contrast to relatively larger error introduced by other commonly employed measurement techniques such as using gridded template methods and canopy approximations calculated by tree diameter measurements. Experiment results demonstrated the viability of combining image classification software with ground-level digital photographs to produce fast and economical tree canopy closure approximations.

Baker, Peter C.; Allen, C. Scott

2006-06-01

326

Numerical studies of thermally induced slope winds: A comparison of turbulence closures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to improve the understanding and prediction of thermally induced slope winds. This is motivated by the important role of slope winds in local air quality, weather and climate in complex, mountainous terrain. Accurate numerical modeling of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows requires adequate representation of the effects of turbulence. To this end, a comparison of turbulence closures is made in modeling katabatic winds. First, a one-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer model for studying slope winds has been developed and six turbulence closure schemes commonly used for simulations of the atmospheric boundary layer are implemented in the model. Then, the model is used to investigate the impacts of different turbulence closures on model results in the context of katabatic winds. In this study the E --? closure, two versions of q 2? Level 2.5, E--epsilon closure and its planetary boundary layer (PBL) modifications are compared. The different turbulence closures are compared in terms of their influence on mean variables, turbulent fluxes, turbulent kinetic energy and eddy diffusivity. Analyses of momentum, heat and turbulent kinetic energy budgets of the predicted slope flows are also carried out. Model sensitivity to physical parameters such as ambient atmospheric stability, slope angle and roughness are also investigated using the q2? _I closure based on its good performance. Effects of these parameters on steady state slope winds are discussed. Model simulations with the q 2? _I closure are compared with published measurements of katabatic winds taken over the sloping ice surfaces in Vatnajokull, Iceland and Pasterze, Austria. In addition, model results are also compared with second- order closure modeling and large eddy simulations in relation to these observations. Model results demonstrate that the q 2? _I closure performs well in modeling slope winds in spite of some deficiencies. Finally, we investigate whether slope winds may explain surface wind measurements reported from the Phoenix mission to Mars in terms of the observed diurnal variation of wind direction.

Sun, Xiurong

327

Squeezing flows of vaginal gel formulations relevant to microbicide drug delivery.  

PubMed

Efficacy of topical microbicidal drug delivery formulations against HIV depends in part on their ability to coat, distribute, and be retained on epithelium. Once applied to the vagina, a formulation is distributed by physical forces including: gravity, surface tension, shearing, and normal forces from surrounding tissues, i.e., squeezing forces. The present study focused on vaginal microbicide distribution due to squeezing forces. Mathematical simulations of squeezing flows were compared with squeezing experiments, using model vaginal gel formulations. Our objectives were: (1) to determine if mathematical simulations can accurately describe squeezing flows of vaginal gel formulations; (2) to find the best model and optimized parameter sets to describe these gels; and (3) to examine vaginal coating due to squeezing using the best models and summary parameters for each gel. Squeezing flow experiments revealed large differences in spreadability between formulations, suggesting different coating distributions in vivo. We determined the best squeezing flow models and summary parameters for six test gels of two compositions, cellulose and polyacrylic acid (PAA). We found that for some gels it was preferable to deduce model input parameters directly from squeezing flow experiments. For the cellulose gels, slip conditions in squeezing flow experiments needed to be evaluated. For PAA gels, we found that in the absence of squeezing experiments, rotational viscometry measurements (to determine Herschel-Bulkley parameters) led to reasonably accurate predictions of squeezing flows. Results indicated that yield stresses may be a strong determinant of squeezing flow mechanics. This study serves as a template for further investigations of other gels and determination of which sources of rheological data best characterize potential microbicidal formulations. These mathematical simulations can serve as useful tools for exploring drug delivery parameters, and optimizing formulations, prior to costly clinical trials. PMID:16813445

Kieweg, Sarah L; Katz, David F

2006-08-01

328

Does the presence of a vaginal probe alter pelvic floor muscle activation in young, continent women?  

PubMed

Vaginal probes may induce changes in pelvic floor muscle (PFM) recruitment by the very presence of the probes. Fine-wire electrodes allow us to detect muscle activation parameters without altering the natural position and shape of the PFMs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PFM activation is altered by changes in sensory feedback, muscle length or tissue position caused by two different vaginal probes used to record surface electromyography (EMG). Twelve continent women (30.1 ± 5.4 years), performed PFM maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in supine while fine-wire EMG was recorded bilaterally from the PFMs under three conditions: (a) without any probe inserted into the vagina, (b) while a Femiscan™ probe was in situ, and (c) while a Periform™ vaginal probe was in situ. The reliability of the fine wire EMG data was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation (CV). A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) model was used to determine if there were differences in EMG amplitude recorded when the different vaginal probes were in situ. For each condition the between-trial reliability was excellent, ICC((3,1)) = 0.93-0.96, (p < 0.001) and CV = 11.2-21.8%. There were no differences in peak EMG amplitude recorded during the MVCs across the three conditions (no probe 63.4 ± 48.4 ?V, Femiscan™ 55.3 ± 42.4 ?V, Periform™ 59.4 ± 42.2 ?V, p = 0.178). These results suggest that women produce consistent MVCs over multiple contractions, and that PFM muscle activation is not affected by different probes inserted into the vagina. PMID:22892546

Auchincloss, Cindy; McLean, Linda

2012-08-11

329

Vaginal repair with mesh versus colporrhaphy for prolapse: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare vaginal repair augmented by mesh with traditional colporrhaphy for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. Design Prospective randomised controlled trial. Setting Tertiary teaching hospital. Population One hundred and thirty-nine women with stage ?2 prolapse according to the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) system requiring both anterior and posterior compartment repair. Methods Subjects were randomised to anterior and posterior vaginal repair with mesh augmentation (mesh group, n= 69) or traditional anterior and posterior colporrhaphy (no mesh group, n= 70). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the absence of POP-Q stage ?2 prolapse at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were symptoms, quality-of-life outcomes and satisfaction with surgery. Complications were also reported. Results For subjects attending the 12-month review, success in the mesh group was 81.0% (51 of 63 subjects) compared with 65.6% (40/61) in the no mesh group and was not significantly different (P-value = 0.07). A high level of satisfaction with surgery and improvements in symptoms and quality-of-life data were observed at 12 months compared to baseline in both groups, but there was no significant difference in these outcomes between the two groups. Vaginal mesh exposure occurred in four women in the mesh group (5.6%). De novo dyspareunia was reported by five of 30 (16.7%) sexually active women in the mesh group and five of 33 (15.2%) in the no mesh group at 12 months. Conclusion In this study, vaginal surgery augmented by mesh did not result in significantly less recurrent prolapse than traditional colporrhaphy 12 months following surgery.

Carey, M; Higgs, P; Goh, J; Lim, J; Leong, A; Krause, H; Cornish, A

2009-01-01

330

PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES OF RECENT VAGINAL DOUCHING AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN ADOLESCENT FEMALES  

PubMed Central

Study objective To describe the prevalence and correlates of vaginal douching among urban African American adolescents and to examine the association between douching and STI status. Design: Demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral data were collected through cross-sectional, self-administered surveys. Self-collected vaginal swabs were assayed using NAAT for trichomoniasis, Chlamydia, and gonorrhea. Setting Sexual health clinic in a large metropolitan area of the Southeast Participants African American females (N=701) ages 14 to 20 participating in an HIV prevention intervention Main outcome measure The outcome of interest was the association between vaginal douching (lifetime, past 90 days, and past 7 days) with demographic characteristics (e.g. age, education, and socioeconomic status), physical and mental health status, STI status, sexual behavior (e.g. number of vaginal sexual partners, age of sex partners, consistent condom use in the past 90 days, sex while self/partner was high on drugs or alcohol), and psychosocial characteristics (e.g. sexual adventurism, social support, peer norms, sexual happiness, self-efficacy for sex refusal, self-esteem, relationship power, risk avoidance). Results Forty-three percent reported ever douching, and 29% reported douching in the past 90 days. In bivariate analyses, recent douching was associated with demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial variables, but not current STI status. In multivariate analyses, recent douching was associated with age (AOR=1.13, CI=1.02–1.25), lower socio-economic status (AOR=1.25, CI=1.05–1.47), and having sex with much older partners (AOR=1.87, CI=1.22–2.86). Conclusion Increased age, lower socioeconomic status, and older partners may be salient risk factors for douching behavior among African American young women.

DiClemente, RJ; Young, AM; Painter, JL; Wingood, GM; Rose, E; Sales, JM

2011-01-01

331

Efficacy of Rifaximin Vaginal Tablets in Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis: a Molecular Characterization of the Vaginal Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder characterized by an alteration of the vaginal bacterial morphotypes, associated with sexually transmitted infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of different doses of rifaximin vaginal tablets (100 mg/day for 5 days, 25 mg/day for 5 days, and 100 mg/day for 2 days) on the vaginal microbiota of 102 European patients with BV enrolled in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. An integrated molecular approach based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to investigate the effects of vaginal tablets containing the antibiotic. An increase in members of the genus Lactobacillus and a decrease in the BV-related bacterial groups after the antibiotic treatment were demonstrated by qPCR. PCR-DGGE profiles confirmed the capability of rifaximin to modulate the composition of the vaginal microbial communities and to reduce their complexity. This molecular analysis supported the clinical observation that rifaximin at 25 mg/day for 5 days represents an effective treatment to be used in future pivotal studies for the treatment of BV.

Cruciani, Federica; Brigidi, Patrizia; Calanni, Fiorella; Lauro, Vittoria; Tacchi, Raffaella; Donders, Gilbert; Peters, Klaus; Guaschino, Secondo

2012-01-01

332

Efficacy of rifaximin vaginal tablets in treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a molecular characterization of the vaginal microbiota.  

PubMed

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder characterized by an alteration of the vaginal bacterial morphotypes, associated with sexually transmitted infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of different doses of rifaximin vaginal tablets (100 mg/day for 5 days, 25 mg/day for 5 days, and 100 mg/day for 2 days) on the vaginal microbiota of 102 European patients with BV enrolled in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. An integrated molecular approach based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to investigate the effects of vaginal tablets containing the antibiotic. An increase in members of the genus Lactobacillus and a decrease in the BV-related bacterial groups after the antibiotic treatment were demonstrated by qPCR. PCR-DGGE profiles confirmed the capability of rifaximin to modulate the composition of the vaginal microbial communities and to reduce their complexity. This molecular analysis supported the clinical observation that rifaximin at 25 mg/day for 5 days represents an effective treatment to be used in future pivotal studies for the treatment of BV. PMID:22585228

Cruciani, Federica; Brigidi, Patrizia; Calanni, Fiorella; Lauro, Vittoria; Tacchi, Raffaella; Donders, Gilbert; Peters, Klaus; Guaschino, Secondo; Vitali, Beatrice

2012-05-14

333

Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: a therapeutical dilemma.  

PubMed

Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN) represents a rare and asymptomatic pre-neoplastic lesion. Its natural history and potential evolution into invasive cancer are uncertain. VaIN can occur alone or as a synchronous or metachronous lesion with cervical and vulvar HPV-related intra epithelial or invasive neoplasia. Its association with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is found in 65% of cases, with vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia in 10% of cases, while for others, the association with concomitant cervical or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasias is found in 30-80% of cases. VaIN is often asymptomatic and its diagnosis is suspected in cases of abnormal cytology, followed by colposcopy and colposcopically-guided biopsy of suspicious areas. In the past, high-grade VaIN and multifocal VaIN have been treated by radical surgery, such as total or partial upper vaginectomy associated with hysterectomy and radiotherapy. The need to maintain the integrity of reproductive capacity has determined the transition from radical therapies to conservative ones, according to the different patients' characteristics. PMID:23267125

Frega, Antonio; Sopracordevole, Francesco; Assorgi, Chiara; Lombardi, Danila; DE Sanctis, Vitaliana; Catalano, Angelica; Matteucci, Eleonora; Milazzo, Giusi Natalia; Ricciardi, Enzo; Moscarini, Massimo

2013-01-01

334

Species-level classification of the vaginal microbiome  

PubMed Central

Background The application of next-generation sequencing to the study of the vaginal microbiome is revealing the spectrum of microbial communities that inhabit the human vagina. High-resolution identification of bacterial taxa, minimally to the species level, is necessary to fully understand the association of the vaginal microbiome with bacterial vaginosis, sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy complications, menopause, and other physiological and infectious conditions. However, most current taxonomic assignment strategies based on metagenomic 16S rDNA sequence analysis provide at best a genus-level resolution. While surveys of 16S rRNA gene sequences are common in microbiome studies, few well-curated, body-site-specific reference databases of 16S rRNA gene sequences are available, and no such resource is available for vaginal microbiome studies. Results We constructed the Vaginal 16S rDNA Reference Database, a comprehensive and non-redundant database of 16S rDNA reference sequences for bacterial taxa likely to be associated with vaginal health, and we developed STIRRUPS, a new method that employs the USEARCH algorithm with a curated reference database for rapid species-level classification of 16S rDNA partial sequences. The method was applied to two datasets of V1-V3 16S rDNA reads: one generated from a mock community containing DNA from six bacterial strains associated with vaginal health, and a second generated from over 1,000 mid-vaginal samples collected as part of the Vaginal Human Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University. In both datasets, STIRRUPS, used in conjunction with the Vaginal 16S rDNA Reference Database, classified more than 95% of processed reads to a species-level taxon using a 97% global identity threshold for assignment. Conclusions This database and method provide accurate species-level classifications of metagenomic 16S rDNA sequence reads that will be useful for analysis and comparison of microbiome profiles from vaginal samples. STIRRUPS can be used to classify 16S rDNA sequence reads from other ecological niches if an appropriate reference database of 16S rDNA sequences is available.

2012-01-01

335

Complications associated with percutaneous closure devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In an effort to reduce time to hemostasis after angiography, several closure devices have been marketed. We report some of their complications.Methods: A retrospective review was conducted.Results: Over an 8-month study period, 2,181 diagnostic and interventional procedures were performed. Closure devices were used in 408 (19%) of these patients. The Angio-Seal closure device is composed of a collagen sponge

Mark D Gonze; W. Charles Sternbergh; Khashayar Salartash; Samuel R Money

1999-01-01

336

Pseudocomplements of closure operators on posets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some recent results provide su,cient conditions for complete lattices of closure operators on complete lattices, ordered pointwise, to be pseudocomplemented. This paper gives results of pseudocomplementation in the more general setting of closure operators on mere posets. The following result is 0rst proved: closure operators on a meet-continuous meet-semilattice form a pseudocomplemented complete lattice. Furthermore, the following orthogonal result (actually,

Francesco Ranzato

2002-01-01

337

Elective colostomy closure in an AIDS patient.  

PubMed Central

This article describes a 27-year-old patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who underwent emergency sigmoid colostomy, Hartmann's pouch, and presacral drainage for rectal perforation. Three months later, he underwent uneventful elective colostomy closure, a procedure previously unreported in an AIDS patient. He remained without gastrointestinal symptoms for 14 months after colostomy closure until he died from central nervous system toxoplasmosis. A diagnosis of AIDS alone should not preclude colostomy closure in AIDS patients.

Pasquale, M. D.; Kenkel, J. M.; Holt, R. W.

1994-01-01

338

On the Closure Properties of Robotic Grasping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The form--closure and force--closure properties of robotic grasping are investigated. Looselyspeaking, these properties are related to the capability of the robot to inhibit motions ofthe workpiece in spite of externally applied forces. In this paper, form--closure is consideredas a purely geometric property of a set of unilateral (contact) constraints, suchas those applied on a workpiece by a mechanical fixture, while

Antonio Bicchi

1995-01-01

339

Closure Welding of Plutonium Bearing Storage Containers  

SciTech Connect

A key element in the Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for the stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing materials involves closure welding of DOE-STD-3013 Outer Containers (3013 container). The 3013 container provides the primary barrier and pressure boundary preventing release of plutonium-bearing materials to the environment. The final closure (closure weld) of the 3013 container must be leaktight, structurally sound and meet DOE STD 3013 specified criteria. This paper focuses on the development, qualification and demonstration of the welding process for the closure welding of Hanford PFP 3013 outer containers.

Cannell, G.R.

2002-02-28

340

100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

Petersen, S.W.

1997-09-01

341

Evaluation of closure integrity after multiple penetrations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to simulate in-use testing of closures to determine how many doses could be reasonably withdrawn from a multiple dose vial of a product without compromising the integrity of the closure. Four types of studies were done: 1) a simulated in-use test, 2) a coring test development study, 3) effect of sterilization on coring, and 4) exploratory studies of closure leakage after multiple penetrations. A modified drill press was used for the studies. West 1888 and West 1535 closures were evaluated by the simulated in-use test using a 26G Needle. The results indicated that few particles were generated after 20 penetrations of both closures. There was a marked increase in particles after 30 penetrations. When sterilized closures were tested, it was found that West 1888 generated no particles after 10 insertions with 21G and 18G needles, but there was an increase in the number of particles after 20 insertions. With West 1535, particles were generated after only 10 insertions. Interestingly, autoclaved closures released fewer particles than closures that were not autoclaved. Leakage was observed only from West 850 closures and only under relatively high pressure differential conditions. PMID:8445495

Chanana, G D; Guo, X; Avis, K E; Fleischner, A M; Sheth, B B

342

Vacuum-assisted closure in the treatment of poststernotomy mediastinitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique using vacuum-assisted closure was successfully applied in 3 patients with poststernotomy mediastinitis. After surgical debridement, this vacuum-assisted closure technique has made it possible to avoid the need for secondary surgical closure (including direct secondary surgical closure and secondary surgical closure by use of vascularized muscle flaps). A healed stable sternotomy wound can be achieved using this new

Miryam C Obdeijn; Marjoleine Y de Lange; Dagna H. E Lichtendahl; Willem J de Boer

1999-01-01

343

Management of angle closure glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is equally prevalent in Indian in Asian population as the primary open angle glaucoma. Eighty-six percent of people with PACG are in Asia, with approximately 48.0% in China, 23.9% in India and 14.1% in southeast Asia. To understand PACG, it is mandatory to understand its classification and type of presentation with the underlying pathophysiology. The treatment options are medical, laser and/or surgical. The present article provides an overview of PACG.

See, Jovina L S; Aquino, Maria Cecilia D; Aduan, Joel; Chew, Paul T K

2011-01-01

344

Laboratory testing of closure cap repair techniques  

SciTech Connect

Landfill design requires a low permeability closure cap as well as a low permeability liner. The Savannah River Site, in South Carolina, has approximately 85 acres of mixed waste landfills covered with compacted kaolin clay. Maintaining low permeability of the clay cap requires both that the permeability of the compacted clay itself remain low and that the integrity of the barrier be maintained. Barrier breaches typically result from penetration by roots or animals, and especially cracks caused by uneven settling or desiccation. In this study, clay layers, 0.81 m in diameter and 7.6 cm thick, were compacted in 7 lysimeters to simulate closure caps. The hydraulic conductivity of each layer was measured, and the compacted clay layers (CCL`s) were cracked by drying. Then various repair techniques were applied and the effectiveness of each repair was assessed by remeasuring the hydraulic conductivity. Finally the repaired CCL was again dried and measured to determine how the repair responded to the conditions that caused the original failure. For a full report of this investigation see Persoff et al. Six repair techniques have been tested, four of which involve the use of injectable barrier liquids colloidal silica (CS) and polysiloxane (PSX) described below: (I) covering the crack with a bentonite geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), (ii) recompaction of new kaolinite at STD+3 moisture content joined to existing kaolinite that had dried and shrunk, (iii) direct injection of colloidal silica to a crack, (iv) injection of colloidal silica (CS) to wells in an overlying sand layer, (v) direct injection of polysiloxane to a crack, and (vi), injection of polysiloxane (PSX) to wells in an overlying soil layer.

Persoff, P.; Moridis, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Tuck, D.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01

345

New concepts and trends in vaginal prolapse surgery.  

PubMed

Despite poor results in prolapse surgery, the operative procedures have basically remained unchanged for 100 years. It has been postulated that lifting restrictions and other measures of inactivation are crucial for the success. Even though most of what is done in prolapse repair is not evidence based, few have challenged the prevailing concepts. However, tradition-based policies are now being scrutinized and in accordance with other operations, time of hospitalization is sharply reduced at many institutions. The reintroduction of local anesthesia and sedation offers potential advantages compared to regional- or general anesthesia. Although augmentation by foreign material is not altogether a new concept, the introduction of commercial kits make mesh procedures more standardized, but not necessarily technically more easy to perform. As molecular biology provides more and more evidence about the importance of the quality of the connective tissue, it is conceivable that foreign material in prolapse repair is here to stay. In this period of time it is more essential than ever to scientifically document the results of the new concepts. In the Nordic countries, where the first registries were set up for Tensionfree Vaginal Tape (TVT), a cooperative effort among 53 institutions is under way to evaluate mesh repairs in prolapse surgery. PMID:19172442

Flam, Folke; Söderberg, Marie Westergren

2009-01-01

346

Identification of Selected Child-Resistant Closures (Continuous Thread, Lug-Bayonet, and Snap Closures).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication describes a selected group of child-resistant closures used in packaging five categories of medicine and household products. The material in the document was collected to train survey personnel to identify closures for a planned household study of the effectiveness of child-resistant packaging. The 39 closures described are of…

Gross, Rosalind L.; White, Harry E.

347

40 CFR 264.258 - Closure and post-closure care.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.258 Closure and post-closure...1) The owner or operator of a waste pile that does not comply with the liner requirements...i) Include in the closure plan for the pile under § 264.112 both a plan for...

2013-07-01

348

Acid Production by Vaginal Flora In Vitro Is Consistent with the Rate and Extent of Vaginal Acidification  

PubMed Central

Perinatally, and between menarche and menopause, increased levels of estrogen cause large amounts of glycogen to be deposited in the vaginal epithelium. During these times, the anaerobic metabolism of the glycogen, by the epithelial cells themselves and/or by vaginal flora, causes the vagina to become acidic (pH ?4). This study was designed to test whether the characteristics of acid production by vaginal flora in vitro can account for vaginal acidity. Eight vaginal Lactobacillus isolates from four species—L. gasseri, L. vaginalis, L. crispatus, and L. jensenii—acidified their growth medium to an asymptotic pH (3.2 to 4.8) that matches the range seen in the Lactobacillus-dominated human vagina (pH 3.6 to 4.5 in most women) (B. Andersch, L. Forssman, K. Lincoln, and P. Torstensson, Gynecol. Obstet. Investig. 21:19–25, 1986; L. Cohen, Br. J. Vener. Dis. 45:241–246, 1969; J. Paavonen, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. Suppl. 40:31–35, 1983; C. Tevi-Bénissan, L. Bélec, M. Lévy, V. Schneider-Fauveau, A. Si Mohamed, M.-C. Hallouin, M. Matta, and G. Grésenguet, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 4:367–374, 1997). During exponential growth, all of these Lactobacillus species acidified their growth medium at rates on the order of 106 protons/bacterium/s. Such rates, combined with an estimate of the total number of lactobacilli in the vagina, suggest that vaginal lactobacilli could reacidify the vagina at the rate observed postcoitally following neutralization by the male ejaculate (W. H. Masters and V. E. Johnson, Human sexual response, p. 93, 1966). During bacterial vaginosis (BV), there is a loss of vaginal acidity, and the vaginal pH rises to >4.5. This correlates with a loss of lactobacilli and an overgrowth of diverse bacteria. Three BV-associated bacteria, Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella bivia, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, acidified their growth medium to an asymptotic pH (4.7 to 6.0) consistent with the characteristic elevated vaginal pH associated with BV. Together, these observations are consistent with vaginal flora, rather than epithelial cells, playing a primary role in creating the acidity of the vagina.

Boskey, E. R.; Telsch, K. M.; Whaley, K. J.; Moench, T. R.; Cone, R. A.

1999-01-01

349

Geographic Concentration and Correlates of Nursing Home Closures: 1999-2008  

PubMed Central

Background While demographic shifts project an increased need for long-term care for an aging population, hundreds of nursing homes close each year. We examine whether nursing home closures are geographically concentrated and related to local community characteristics such as the racial and ethnic population mix and poverty. Methods National Online Survey Certification and Reporting data were used to document cumulative nursing facility closures over a decade, 1999 through 2008. Census 2000 zip code level demographics and poverty rates were matched to study facilities. The weighted Gini coefficient was used to measure geographic concentration of closures, and geographic information system maps to illustrate spatial clustering patterns of closures. Changes in bed supply due to closures were examined at various geographic levels. Results Between 1999 and 2008, a national total of 1776 freestanding nursing homes closed (11%), compared with 1126 closures of hospital-based facilities (nearly 50%). Combined, there was a net loss of over 5% of beds. The relative risk of closure was significantly higher in zip code areas with a higher proportion of blacks or Hispanics or a higher poverty rate. The weighted Gini coefficient for closures was 0.55 across all metropolitan statistical areas and 0.71 across zip codes. Closures tended to be spatially clustered in minority-concentrated zip codes around the urban core, often in pockets of concentrated poverty. Conclusions Nursing home closures are geographically concentrated in minority and poor communities. Since nursing home use among the minority elderly population is growing while it is declining among whites, these findings suggest that disparities in access will increase.

Feng, Zhanlian; Lepore, Michael; Clark, Melissa A.; Tyler, Denise; Smith, David B.; Mor, Vincent; Fennell, Mary L.

2013-01-01

350

The effect of contour closure on shape perception.  

PubMed

We studied psychophysically whether 'contour closure' enhances the accuracy of shape perception. Stimulus configurations (presented on a blank background) always consisted of identical pattern elements, but the positions of the local elements were varied: the global contour shape either contained closure or not. In the first two stimulus conditions (Closure), the oriented pattern elements (Gabor patches) formed a 'closed' rectangular shape composed of either four long lines or four corners. In the third condition (No closure), the global shape was composed of the four corners, but they were outward oriented, and hence they did not form the outline of a closed contour. We measured the precision of shape perception using a discrimination task in which observers judged the aspect ratio of the outline shape i.e. whether the rectangular shape was tall or wide. We found that: (i) shape discrimination was better (more precise) for Closed contours than for Non-closed contours, i.e. the aspect ratio discrimination thresholds were lower for the Closed than Non-closed configurations. The improved performance could not be explained by differences in visibility of the local elements in the two conditions. (ii) For closed contours, shape discrimination was more precise when the local elements were aligned with the global shape, than when the local elements were orthogonal to it. PMID:10221429

Saarinen, J; Levi, D M

1999-01-01

351

Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure  

SciTech Connect

This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE`s national strategy, the Richland Operations Office`s Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established.

Edwards, C.

1998-06-30

352

Current status of contraceptive vaginal rings.  

PubMed

Contraceptive vaginal rings (CVR) offer a new, effective contraceptive option, expanding the available choices of hormonal contraception. Various ring prototypes have been evaluated: progestin-only rings and combined progestin-estrogen rings, as well as different combination of progestins and estrogens. The progestin-only ring is intended for continuous use, whereas the combined ring has been designed for cyclic 3-week in/1-week out use, although several studies have explored alternative schemes of extended use. However, only two ring designs have reached the market: NuvaRing, a 1-month combined ring that releases etonogestrel and ethinylestradiol, and Progering, a 3-month progesterone-releasing ring for use in lactating women. A one year Nestorone/ethinyl estradiol CVR is approaching the final stages of development, as the Population Council is preparing to submit a new drug application to the Food and Drug Administration. The main advantages of CVRs are their effectiveness (similar or slightly better than the pill), ease of use without the need of remembering a daily routine, user ability to control initiation and discontinuation, nearly constant release rate allowing for lower doses, greater bioavailability and good cycle control with the combined ring, in comparison with oral contraceptives. Current prototypes in development include rings releasing progesterone receptor modulators, which would provide estrogen-free contraception, as well as combined rings releasing estradiol, instead of ethinyl-estradiol, providing a safer profile. Furthermore, intensive efforts towards developing dual protection rings, providing both contraception and protection against reproductive tract infections, offer hope that this greatly needed technology will soon undergo clinical testing and will be in the hands of women worldwide in the near future. PMID:23040125

Brache, Vivian; Payán, Luis José; Faundes, Aníbal

2012-10-04

353

Vaginal microbiota of women with frequent vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

PubMed

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an insidious infection that afflicts a large proportion of women of all ages, and 5 to 8% of affected women experience recurrent VVC (RVVC). The aim of this study was to explore the possible importance of vaginal bacterial communities in reducing the risk of RVVC. The species composition and diversity of microbial communities were evaluated for 42 women with and without frequent VVC based on profiles of terminal restriction fragment polymorphisms of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences from the numerically dominant microbial populations. The data showed that there were no significant differences between the vaginal microbial communities of women in the two groups (likelihood score, 5.948; bootstrap P value, 0.26). Moreover, no novel bacteria were found in the communities of women with frequent VVC. The vaginal communities of most women in both groups (38/42; 90%) were dominated by species of Lactobacillus. The results of this study failed to provide evidence for the existence of altered or unusual vaginal bacterial communities in women who have frequent VVC compared to women who do not have frequent VVC. The findings suggest that commensal vaginal bacterial species may not be able to prevent VVC. PMID:19528218

Zhou, Xia; Westman, Rachel; Hickey, Roxana; Hansmann, Melanie A; Kennedy, Colleen; Osborn, Thomas W; Forney, Larry J

2009-06-15

354

Local treatment of colpitis with Betadine vaginal suppository.  

PubMed

Observations made with Betadine vaginal suppository in the treatment of 60 women suffering from colpitis have been discussed. The results of microbiological examinations of vaginal discharge sampled before 1 week and 4 weeks after the onset of therapy were compared. The effectiveness, tolerance of therapy, and the subjective opinion of the treated women were analysed. According to the results of the examinations in response to Betadine vaginal suppository the positivity of vaginal discharge for Candida decreased from 16 to 3 cases, for Trichomonas from 8 to 1 case, for aerobic bacteria from 16 to 7 cases, and the occurrence of mixed infections from 20 to 2 cases. Subjective complaints, burning, stinging sensation were rapidly moderated. In 52 of the 60 women discharge ceased, in another 4 cases it significantly decreased. In 51 cases burning sensation in the vagina ceased, and in 5 women it significantly decreased. Recurrence was not observed when a control examination was done after 1 month. The women tolerated Betadine vaginal suppository well and found it effective and easily applicable. At the beginning of treatment burning sensation was aggravated in 3 cases. These patients refused to further participate in the examination and received systemic treatment. Due to its broad bactericidal, fungicidal, protozoicide action and its good tolerability Betadine suppository was found to be useful for the local treatment of colpitis. PMID:8029781

Resch, B A; Szántó, F

1993-01-01

355

Vaginal douching by women with vulvovaginitis and relation to reproductive health hazards  

PubMed Central

Background Vaginal douching (VD) is a common practice among married women all over the world specially those in the Middle East. It is used for personal hygiene or for other aesthetic reasons in many countries. The current study investigates the prevalence of VD among patients with vulvovaginitis in Egypt. It also compares the reproductive health hazards among women performing routine VD with those using external hygiene. It also investigates why, and how women practice this douching. Methods A cross sectional observational study was conducted in a tertiary university affiliated hospital in Assiut, Egypt. An interview administered questionnaire was administered to 620 women by two trained clinic nurses. Women presented to the outpatient clinic and diagnosed to have any type of vaginal infections were approached for participation. The principle outcome was the history of preterm labor in women who routinely performed VD versus those who did not (upon which sample size was estimated). Other outcome measures were the types of vaginal infections, and reproductive implications comprising, ectopic pregnancy, abortion and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Results The participants were predominantly multiparas from semi-urban background and middle socioeconomic level. Considering VD as a religious duty and a kind of personal cleanliness were the most common reasons for performing VD in 88.9% and 80.6% of the studied population, respectively. History of preterm labor was reported in 19.2% versus 11.9% (p=0.048), while history of PID in 13.2% versus 6.0% (p=0.008) in women performing VD compared to those not performing this habit, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups as regard the history of ectopic pregnancy or the number of previous abortions. Conclusion Vaginal douching is a prevalent practice in Egypt and has traditional and religious roots within the community. There are many misbeliefs around this habit in Egypt. Vaginal douching increases certain reproductive health hazards especially preterm labor and PID. Much effort and awareness campaigns are needed to increase women awareness about health hazards of this incorrect practice and to limit its use.

2013-01-01

356

Postnatal quality of life in women after normal vaginal delivery and caesarean section  

PubMed Central

Background Caesarean section might increase the incidence of surgical interventions and problems resulting from hospitalization and thus affecting quality of life in women after delivery. This study aimed to compare quality of life in women after normal delivery and caesarean section. Methods This was a prospective study. A sample of women with normal delivery and caesarean section from 5 health care centers in Isfahan, Iran were entered into the study. Quality of life was measured using the SF-36 at two points in time (time 1: 6 to 8 weeks after delivery; time 2: 12 to 14 weeks after delivery). Data were analyzed to compare quality of life in the two study groups. Results In all 100 women were interviewed (50 with normal delivery and 50 with caesarean section). Postnatal quality of life in both groups was improved from time1 to time 2. However, comparing the mean scores between the normal and caesarean delivery groups the results showed that in general the normal vaginal delivery group had a better quality of life for almost all subscales in both assessment times. The differences were significant for vitality (mean score 62.9 vs. 54.4 P = 0.03) and mental health (mean score 75.1 vs. 66.7, P = 0.03) at first assessment and for physical functioning (mean score 88.4 vs. 81.5, P = 0.03) at second evaluation. However, comparing the findings within each group the analysis showed that the normal vaginal delivery group improved more on physical health related quality of life while the caesarean section group improved more on mental health related quality of life. Conclusion Although the study did not show a clear cut benefit in favor of either methods of delivery that are normal vaginal delivery or caesarean section, the findings suggest that normal vaginal delivery might lead to a better quality of life especially resulting in a superior physical health. Indeed in the absence of medical indications normal vaginal delivery might be better to be considered as the first priority in term pregnancy.

Torkan, Behnaz; Parsay, Sousan; Lamyian, Minoor; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Montazeri, Ali

2009-01-01

357

Fast Decision Procedures Based on Congruence Closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of the congruence closure of a relation on a graph is defined and several algorithms for computing it are surveyed. A simple proof is given that the congruence closure algorithm provides a decision procedure for the quantifier-free theory of equality. A decision procedure is then given for the quantifier-free theory of LISP list structure based on the congruence

Greg Nelson; Derek C. Oppen

1980-01-01

358

Quick release storage battery closure assembly  

SciTech Connect

A quick release storage battery closure assembly for removably engaging the inspection opening defining bosses on a storage battery, the one that replaces the individual caps that normally are used for closing the inspection openings. The closure assembly is particularly adapted for use where the storage batteries are arranged as a group, such as on a golf cart or industrial vehicle.

Braswell, R.R.

1984-10-16

359

100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The

1997-01-01

360

2401-W Waste storage building closure plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This plan describes the performance standards met and closure activities conducted to achieve clean closure of the 2401-W Waste Storage Building (2401-W) (Figure I). In August 1998, after the last waste container was removed from 2401-W, the U.S. Departme...

S. M. Luke

1999-01-01

361

Closures of the Vlasov-Poisson system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider closures of the one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson system, in which a system of fluid equations is generated from the kinetic theory of particles interacting through a mean field. Closure may be understood as the restriction of the dynamics of the probability density, a function of space, velocity, and time, to a form parametrized by functions of space and time alone. This generates a set of relations among the moments of the conditional probability density at a given time and point in space. For closures which exactly reproduce Vlasov-Poisson dynamics, these relations are subject to the requirement that various functions of the moments remain zero. Inexact closures may be understood as arising from Vlasov-Poisson dynamics with a source which constrains the motion of the probability density to the specified form. This source, whose moments are the previously mentioned functions, represents the emergence of fine scale structure in the probability density with respect to the closure.

Jones, Christopher Scott

362

Statistical closure and the logistic map  

SciTech Connect

We consider the chaotic logistic map with stochastic initial conditions. All initial conditions assume a Gaussian distribution centered in the unit interval with a small dispersion. We show that the system exhibits behavior characterized by three different regimes (called initial, transient, and final). The initial interval is characterized by the Gaussian closure being accurate and the evolution of the system dominated by the evolution of the mean. The transient interval is characterized by rapid growth of all cumulants and a breakdown of Gaussian closure. We identify this period as the Suzuki scaling regime. An alternative closure scheme based on the beta distribution is also introduced. We find that the evolution equations for the mean and dispersion based on a beta distribution closure give accurate predictions over all iterations. This type of closure assumes nothing about the vanishing of higher-order cumulants (in fact, cumulants of all order are nonvanishing). The possible relevance of these results to clump kinetics is also addressed.

Bauer, J.D.; Graziani, F.R. (University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

1994-01-01

363

PLAN FOR CLOSURE OF HANFORDS CENTRAL PLATEAU  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes an approach to reduce risk to the public and environment through accelerated closure of Hanford's Central Plateau, based on a plan developed by Fluor Hanford and submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE)-Richland Office, for consideration, in September, 2004. This plan provides a framework and starting point for discussions with regulators and further planning for closure activities on the Plateau. The closure strategy and approach required developing a full inventory of items needing closure as well as identifying and defining technical and regulatory approaches that were compatible with current regulatory processes, reduce risks, and met DOE objectives. This effort, and the paper that follows, integrates closure activities among several contractors and two DOE field offices.

AUSTIN, B.A.

2004-12-15

364

Adenoid involvement in velopharyngeal closure in children with cleft palate  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess the role of the adenoid pad in velopharyngeal (VP) closure. DESIGN A retrospective review of patients with cleft palate (CP) who underwent nasendoscopy and multiview videofluoroscopy during evaluation for VP insufficiency (VPI) from January 2006 to March 2008. PATIENTS Thirty-two consecutive patients were identified. None of the patients were lost to follow-up. Five patients were excluded: two for advanced age, two due to mental disabilities and one with a submucous cleft. INTERVENTION Video nasendoscopy and multiview videofluoroscopy were performed for evaluation of VPI. OUTCOME MEASURES Adenoid size based on nasendoscopy studies, and adenoid involvement in VP closure based on videofluoroscopy were recorded. RESULTS The average patient age was 6.6 years (range three to 13 years). Seventy-eight per cent of patients had small adenoid volumes (less than 50% obstruction of the choanae), and six patients (two unilateral cleft lip and palate patients, one bilateral cleft lip and palate patient, two isolated CP patients and one cleft of secondary palate patient) had large adenoid volumes (50% or greater obstruction of the choanae); the adenoid pads of these patients were almost always (five of six patients) involved in their VP closure patterns. Videofluoroscopy showed that 26% (95% CI 9% to 40%) of patients did not significantly use their adenoid pad in VP closure. Forty-three per cent of those not using their adenoids attempted contact with a Passavant’s ridge. CONCLUSIONS In general, the adenoid pad should be maintained in CP patients. However, not all CP patients in the present study used their adenoid pad in attempted VP closure. If adenoidectomy is medically indicated, a percentage of these patents might be considered to be at lower risk for the development of postadenoidectomy VPI.

Hubbard, Bradley A; Rice, Gale B; Muzaffar, Arshad R

2010-01-01

365

Large Vesico-Vaginal Fistula Caused by a Foreign Body  

PubMed Central

Foreign body is a rare cause of vesico-vaginal fistula most often reported in developed countries. In developing countries obstructed labor is the commonest cause of fistula. A nulliparous 19-year-old female presented with a 3-week history of a foreign body in the vagina causing urinary incontinence and offensive vaginal discharge. Her guardian allegedly inserted the foreign body after she refused a pre-arranged marriage. A plastic container was removed from the vagina under general anesthesia. A large vesico-vaginal fistula was discovered, which was successfully surgically repaired. We recommend urgent removal of the foreign body, preferably under general anesthesia. However, if the history or physical examination reveals prolonged exposure, repair of the fistula should be delayed to allow for adequate debridement in order to prevent any life-threatening complications.

Massinde, AN; Kihunrwa, A

2013-01-01

366

A functional ectopic vaginal anus: a rare clinical entity.  

PubMed

A case of functional ectopic vaginal anus is presented in a 20 years old girl. Patient complained of passage of stool through her vagina. She was continent and had no complaint of constipation. Her examination revealed imperforated anus with functional ectopic vaginal anus. Her surgery was performed in two stages. In first stage, anoplasty was performed at midpoint between the vulval and anal opening. The posterior vaginal wall was repaired in two layers and protective loop colostomy was made. In the second stage, after a period of 3 months loop colostomy was closed. Patient's recovery was smooth, she is not constipated and continent with Wexner score of 3. She was advised pelvic floor rehabilitation exercises.She improved within a month with Wexner score of zero. PMID:23058153

Mehboob, Mukhtar; Naz, Samina; Tabassum, Shahina; Khan, Jamil Ahmed

2012-10-01

367

Sustained release of proteins from a modified vaginal ring device  

PubMed Central

A new vaginal ring technology, the insert vaginal ring (InVR), is presented. The InVR overcomes the current shortfall of conventional vaginal rings (VRs) that are generally ineffectual for the delivery of hydrophilic and/or macromolecular actives, including peptides, proteins and antibodies, due to their poor permeation characteristics in the hydrophobic polymeric elastomers from which VRs are usually fabricated. Release of the model protein BSA from a variety of insert matrices for the InVR is demonstrated, including modified silicone rods, directly compressed tablets and lyophilised gels, which collectively provided controlled release profiles from several hours to beyond 4 weeks. Furthermore, the InVR was shown to deliver over 1 mg of the monoclonal antibody 2F5 from a single device, offering a potential means of protecting women against the transmission of HIV.

Morrow, Ryan J.; Woolfson, A. David; Donnelly, Louise; Curran, Rhonda; Andrews, Gavin; Katinger, Dietmar; Malcolm, R. Karl

2013-01-01

368

Analysis of vaginal lactic acid producing bacteria in healthy women.  

PubMed

Vaginal lactic acid-producing bacteria of 80 pre-menopausal women were studied by isolation on Blood and DeMan-Rogosa-Sharpe agar, PCR with group-specific primers for Lactobacillus-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and PCR with specific primers for V3 region in 16S rRNA-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE). Conventional isolation method on media detected only one lactobacillus (Lactobacillus brevis) while TTGE detected only Lactobacillus sp. DGGE detected seven Lactobacillus species; L. coleohominis, L. crispatus, L. iners, L. reuteri, L. rhamnosus, L. vaginalis, and Leuconostoc lactis. L. acidophilus and L. gasseri, which are prevalent in Western women, were not detected in Korean women. Furthermore, L. rhamnosus, Leuc. lactis, L. coleohominis, and Weissella cibaria, which were not previously reported in the vaginal microbiota of Korean women, were detected. The five most prevalent LABs in vaginal microbiota in Korean women were L. iners, Enterococcus faecalis, L. crispatus, Leuc. lactis, and W. cibaria. PMID:18176534

Nam, Hyeran; Whang, Kyunghee; Lee, Yeonhee

2007-12-01

369

Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery: Deciding on a Trial of Labor After a Cesarean Delivery (TOLAC)  

MedlinePLUS

What is a vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC)? If you have had a previous cesarean delivery , you have two choices ... vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC). What is a trial of labor after cesarean delivery (TOLAC)? A ...

370

Airway closure on imaging relates to airway hyperresponsiveness and peripheral airway disease in asthma  

PubMed Central

The regional pattern and extent of airway closure measured by three-dimensional ventilation imaging may relate to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and peripheral airways disease in asthmatic subjects. We hypothesized that asthmatic airways are predisposed to closure during bronchoconstriction in the presence of ventilation heterogeneity and AHR. Fourteen asthmatic subjects (6 women) underwent combined ventilation single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography scans before and after methacholine challenge. Regional airway closure was determined by complete loss of ventilation following methacholine challenge. Peripheral airway disease was measured by multiple-breath nitrogen washout from which Scond (index of peripheral conductive airway abnormality) was derived. Relationships between airway closure and lung function were examined by multiple-linear regression. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 87.5 ± 15.8% predicted, and seven subjects had AHR. Methacholine challenge decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 s by 23 ± 5% and increased nonventilated volume from 16 ± 4 to 29 ± 13% of computed tomography lung volume. The increase in airway closure measured by nonventilated volume correlated independently with both Scond (partial R2 = 0.22) and with AHR (partial R2 = 0.38). The extent of airway closure induced by methacholine inhalation in asthmatic subjects is greater with increasing peripheral airways disease, as measured by ventilation heterogeneity, and with worse AHR.

Salome, Cheryl M.; Harris, Benjamin E.; Bailey, Dale L.; Bailey, Elizabeth; Berend, Norbert; Young, Iven H.; King, Gregory G.

2012-01-01

371

2101-M Pond closure plan  

SciTech Connect

This document describes activities for the closure of a surface impoundment (2101-M Pond) operated by the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). Although the US Government holds legal title to this facility, the DOE-RL, for the purposes of defining Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) facilities, is considered the legal owner of the facility under existing US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) interpretive regulations (EPA 1986f). The 2101-M Pond will be closed in accordance with the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. 90 refs., 30 figs., 28 tabs.

Not Available

1991-03-01

372

Closure assembly for a furnace  

SciTech Connect

A closure assembly for an access opening in a furnace wall is described; the assembly comprising: a door shell; means for pivoting the door shell to the furnace wall; at least one shoulder formed on the shell; a clip angle having one leg portion extending over a face of the shoulder; bolt means extending through the one leg portion and the shoulder for securing the clip angle to the shoulder; an anchor member secured to another leg portion of the clip angle; a plug member having a portion extending in the shell, a recessed portion for receiving the shoulder, and a portion adapted to extend in the access opening when the door is closed; at least one opening extending through the plug member for receiving the anchor member; a cup extending in the opening and adapted to receive a corresponding anchor member; and a castable material extending in the cup and over the anchor member to secure the plug member to the shell.

Barkley, J.D.

1989-01-10

373

Energy balance closure for the LITFASS-2003 experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first part, this paper synthesises the main results from a series of previous studies on the closure of the local energy\\u000a balance at low-vegetation sites during the LITFASS-2003 experiment. A residual of up to 25% of the available energy has been\\u000a found which cannot be fully explained either by the measurement uncertainty of the single components of the

Thomas Foken; Matthias Mauder; Claudia Liebethal; Florian Wimmer; Frank Beyrich; Jens-Peter Leps; Siegfried Raasch; Henk A. R. DeBruin; Wouter M. L. Meijninger; Jens Bange

2010-01-01

374

Robust Technique for Real-Time Closure Stress Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve credible engineering estimates of fracture geometry, fluid efficiency, and potential risks of premature screen-out, the engineer must reliably history match the observed net-fracturing pressure. Measurement of net-fracturing pressure requires first, and foremost, a reliable estimate of the formation closure stress, to which the net pressure is referred. This paper documents both the theory and several example field applications

C. A. Wright; L. Weijers; W. A. Minner; D. M. Snow

1996-01-01

375

Dynamics in the unfolded state: loop closure kinetics in peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent series of experiments, the end-to-end contact formation rates of several peptides were measured by tryptophan triplet quenching (Lapidus et al., PNAS 97, 7220-7225, 2000). Motivated by this experimental work, we have carried out molecular dynamics simulations of loop closure kinetics. This allows us to study the dynamics of peptides in the unfolded state, thus probing early events

In-Chul Yeh; Gerhard Hummer

2002-01-01

376

Rulison Site Surface Closure Report  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report provides documentation for closure of the Rulison Site surface and summarizes the data from groundwater monitoring conducted quarterly in 1996 and 1997. The quarterly groundwater monitoring was conducted to demonstrate that no contaminants are migrating from the pond after completion of the pond remediation activities. The Rulison Site is located in the North 1/2 of the Southwest 1/4 of Section 25, Township 7 South, Range 95 West of the 6` Principal Meridian, Garfield County, Colorado, approximately 19 kilometers (km) (12 miles [mi]) southwest of Rifle, Colorado, and approximately 65 km (40 mi) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado (Figure I - 1). The site is situated on the north slope of Battlement Mesa on the upper reaches of Battlement Creek at an elevation of approximately 2,500 meters (m) (8,200 feet [ft]). The valley is open to the north-northwest and is bounded on the other three sides by steep mountain slopes that rise to elevations above 2,927 m (9,600 ft). Project Rulison was a joint U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and Austral Oil Company (Austral) experiment. It was conducted under the AEC`s Plowshare Program to evaluate the feasibility of using a nuclear device to stimulate natural gas production in low- permeability, gas-producing geologic formations. The experiment consisted of detonating a 40-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2, 568 m (8,426 ft) below ground surface on September 10, 1969, followed by natural gas production testing in 1970 and 1971 (AEC, 1973).

NONE

1998-07-01

377

The Neurobiology of Sexual Solicitation: Vaginal Marking in Female Syrian Hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal marking is a reproductively-oriented scent marking response, in which female Syrian hamsters deposit vaginal secretions\\u000a in response to odor cues from male conspecifics. Converging lines of evidence suggest that vaginal marking functions as a\\u000a solicitational signal, or an advertisement of a female’s impending sexual receptivity. Although vaginal marking is commonly\\u000a used as an assay of proceptivity, the neural control

Laura Been; Aras Petrulis

378

Low prevalence of cervical infections in women with vaginal discharge in west Africa: implications for syndromic management  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To measure prevalence and risk factors for cervical infections among a large sample of women consulting for vaginal discharge in west Africa and to evaluate its syndromic management through a two visit algorithm. Methods: In 11 health centres in Bénin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guinée, and Mali 726 women who presented with a vaginal discharge without abdominal pain and who denied being a sex worker (SW) were enrolled. Cervical samples were tested for the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. All participants were treated with single dose (2 g) metronidazole and clotrimazole cream for 3 days. They were randomised to be told either to come back on day 7 only if there was no improvement in the discharge (group A), or to come back on day 7 regardless of response to treatment (group B). Results: Overall, the prevalence of NG and CT was only 1.9% (14/726) and 3.2% (23/726) respectively. Risk factors previously recommended by the WHO were not associated with the presence of cervical infection, with the exception of the number of sex partners in the past 3 months. When taken together, these risk factors had a positive predictive value of only 6.4% to identify cervical infections. Prevalence of cervical infection was not higher in women who came back on day 7, regardless of the strategy used. Prevalence of NG/CT was lower in Ghana and Bénin (5/280, 1.8%), where comprehensive interventions for SW have been ongoing for years, than in the three other countries (27/446, 6.1%, p = 0.01). Conclusions: NG and CT infections are uncommon in west African women who consult for vaginal discharge and who are not SW. Syndromic management of vaginal discharge should focus on the proper management of vaginitis. The control of gonococcal and chlamydial infection should be redesigned around interventions focusing on sex workers.

Pepin, J; Deslandes, S; Khonde, N; Kintin, D; Diakite, S; Sylla, M; Meda, H; Sobela, F; Asamoah-Adu, C; Agyarko-Poku, T; Frost, E

2004-01-01

379

Uncertainties in Assesment of the Vaginal Dose for Intracavitary Brachytherapy of Cervical Cancer using a Tandem-ring Applicator  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The vagina has not been widely recognized as organ at risk in brachytherapy for cervical cancer. No widely accepted dose parameters are available. This study analyzes the uncertainties in dose reporting for the vaginal wall using tandem-ring applicators. Methods and Materials: Organ wall contours were delineated on axial magnetic resonance (MR) slices to perform dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Different DVH parameters were used in a feasibility study based on 40 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based treatment plans of different cervical cancer patients. Dose to the most irradiated, 0.1 cm{sup 3}, 1 cm{sup 3}, 2 cm{sup 3}, and at defined points on the ring surface and at 5-mm tissue depth were reported. Treatment-planning systems allow different methods of dose point definition. Film dosimetry was used to verify the maximum dose at the surface of the ring applicator in an experimental setup. Results: Dose reporting for the vagina is extremely sensitive to geometrical uncertainties with variations of 25% for 1 mm shifts. Accurate delineation of the vaginal wall is limited by the finite pixel size of MRI and available treatment-planning systems. No significant correlation was found between dose-point and dose-volume parameters. The DVH parameters were often related to noncontiguous volumes and were not able to detect very different situations of spatial dose distributions inside the vaginal wall. Deviations between measured and calculated doses were up to 21%. Conclusions: Reporting either point dose values or DVH parameters for the vaginal wall is based on high inaccuracies because of contouring and geometric positioning. Therefore, the use of prospective dose constraints for individual treatment plans is not to be recommended at present. However, for large patient groups treated within one protocol correlation with vaginal morbidity can be evaluated.

Berger, Daniel [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniel.berger@akhwien.at; Dimopoulos, Johannes [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Georg, Petra [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Georg, Dietmar [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Kirisits, Christian [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

2007-04-01

380

Factors predisposing to perinatal death related to uterine rupture during attempted vaginal birth after caesarean section: retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the factors associated with an increased risk of perinatal death related to uterine rupture during attempted vaginal birth after caesarean section. Design Population based retrospective cohort study. Setting Data from the linked Scottish Morbidity Record and Stillbirth and Infant Death Survey of births in Scotland, 1985-98. Participants All women with one previous caesarean delivery who gave birth to a singleton infant at term by a means other than planned repeat caesarean section (n = 35 854). Main outcome measures All intrapartum uterine rupture and uterine rupture resulting in perinatal death (that is, death of the fetus or neonate). Results The overall proportion of vaginal births was 74.2% and of uterine rupture was 0.35%. The risk of intrapartum uterine rupture was higher among women who had not previously given birth vaginally (adjusted odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 3.9, P < 0.001) and those whose labour was induced with prostaglandin (2.9, 2.0 to 4.3, P < 0.001). Both factors were also associated with an increased risk of perinatal death due to uterine rupture. Delivery in a hospital with < 3000 births a year did not increase the overall risk of uterine rupture (1.1, 0.8 to 1.5, P = 0.67). However, the risk of perinatal death due to uterine rupture was significantly higher in hospitals with < 3000 births a year (one per 1300 births) than in hospitals with ? 3000 births a year (one per 4700; 3.4, 1.0 to 14.3, P = 0.04). Conclusion Women who have not previously given birth vaginally and those whose labour is induced with prostaglandin are at increased risk of uterine rupture when attempting vaginal birth after caesarean section. The risk of consequent death of the infant is higher in units with lower annual numbers of births.

Smith, Gordon C S; Pell, Jill P; Pasupathy, Dharmintra; Dobbie, Richard

2004-01-01

381

Pregnancy in HIV-Positive Patients: Effects on Vaginal Flora  

PubMed Central

A high proportion of HIV-infected pregnant women present pathogenic organisms in their lower genital tract. This has been associated with the development of postpartum morbility, HIV transmission to the partner and offspring, and other gynaecological conditions, such as cervical dysplasia or cancer. Vaginal flora alterations can range from 47% in Western countries to 89% in Africa in pregnant HIV-positive patients, much higher than about 20% of the general population. Pathogen organism retrieval is high. As peripartum complications due to vaginal infections seem higher in HIV-positive patients, accurate investigation and treatment of such infections are strongly mandatory.

Vallone, Cristina; Rigon, Giuliano; Lucantoni, Valeria; Putignani, Lorenza; Signore, Fabrizio

2012-01-01

382

Uterine arteriovenous malformation with sudden heavy vaginal hemmorhage.  

PubMed

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is a common presentation in the emergency department and has a wide differential. Most presentations of DUB are in hemodynamically stable patients and can be evaluated as an outpatient. Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is one presentation that can result in a life-threatening medical emergency with unexpected sudden and massive vaginal bleeding. We describe a case of a 24-year-old female with sudden heavy vaginal bleeding requiring a blood transfusion, ultrasound evidence of uterine AVM, and a treatment method of expectant management using an intrauterine device in an attempt to preserve fertility. PMID:24106528

Selby, Sarah T; Haughey, Marianne

2013-09-01

383

[Paralysis of the femoral nerve after abdominal and vaginal surgery].  

PubMed

Damages of the femoral nerve during gynaecological operations are more frequent than generally supposed. They are observed after abdominal and vaginal operations caused by pressure on the nerve. During abdominal procedures an unsuitable self-retaining retractor is due to the paralysis. If the legs of the patients are deposited on the shoulder-back-parties of the assistants during vaginal procedures there is the danger of pressing the femoral nerve against the inguinal ligament by strong bending and abduction of the thighs. We report about 3 cases of paralysis of this nerve; recommendations for avoidance are given. PMID:919868

Lau, H U

1977-01-01

384

Vaginal douching and adverse health effects: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The meta-analysis described here reviewed the current literature on adverse health effects of vaginal douching. METHODS: Papers published in English from 1965 through 1995 were potentially eligible. RESULTS: One third of White women and two thirds of Black women of reproductive age reported douching regularly. Analyses indicated that vaginal douching increases the overall risk of pelvic inflammatory disease by 73% and the risk of ectopic pregnancy by 76%. Frequent douching was shown to be highly associated with pelvic inflammatory disease and modestly associated with cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Current literature suggests that frequent douching increases the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and, possibly, cervical cancer.

Zhang, J; Thomas, A G; Leybovich, E

1997-01-01

385

Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation with Sudden Heavy Vaginal Hemmorhage  

PubMed Central

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is a common presentation in the emergency department and has a wide differential. Most presentations of DUB are in hemodynamically stable patients and can be evaluated as an outpatient. Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is one presentation that can result in a life-threatening medical emergency with unexpected sudden and massive vaginal bleeding. We describe a case of a 24-year-old female with sudden heavy vaginal bleeding requiring a blood transfusion, ultrasound evidence of uterine AVM, and a treatment method of expectant management using an intrauterine device in an attempt to preserve fertility.

Selby, Sarah T.; Haughey, Marianne

2013-01-01

386

The diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and vaginal flora changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a population of 956 women, attending for contraceptive advice, 131 (13.7%) were found to have BV acording to Amsel’s criteria.\\u000a Clue cells were detected in 200 (20.9%) women, a positive amine (’sniff’) test in 191 (20.0%), a vaginal pH?4.7 in 243 (25.4%)\\u000a and a ”characteristic” vaginal discharge in 104 (10.9%) women. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive\\u000a values in

D. Hellberg; S. Nilsson; P.-A. Mårdh

2001-01-01

387

Laser surgery in the treatment of vaginal cysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors described the results of treatment of vaginal cysts with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in 12 women. In five of them the recurrent Bartholin's, in another five the Gartner's and in tow the endometrial cysts were diagnosed. All laser surgeries were done in the Department of Reproduction, Institute of Gynecology, Karol Marcinkowski School of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland between September 1995 and September 1996. In the authors' opinion the use of CO2 laser is the efficient method of treatment of vaginal cysts. The most of laser procedures are doing as the one-day surgery. There are no serious postoperative complications after laser surgery.

Wozniak, Jakub; Dydowicz, Piotr; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

1997-10-01

388

RF performance of a 418-MHz radio telemeter packaged for human vaginal placement.  

PubMed

The electrical and communication performance of a 0.8-microW UHF temperature telemeter designed for human vaginal placement is discussed; a solenoidal loop antenna was used, occupying a volume of 0.1 cm3. In situ, measured power absorption was between 19-25 dB, resulting in an effective operating range of 10 m. Capacitive loading lowered the antenna's resonant frequency by 1.4% and there was a significant polarization change in the radiated output. PMID:9125828

Scanlon, W G; Evans, N E; McCreesh, Z M

1997-05-01

389

Vaginal hysterectomy for the woman with a moderately enlarged uterus weighing 200 to 700 grams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the surgical outcomes of women with moderately enlarged uteri undergoing vaginal hysterectomy with those of women with uteri of normal size undergoing vaginal hysterectomy. A secondary objective was to investigate the roles of uterine morcellation and laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy in the treatment of these women. Study Design: Thirty consecutive women

James B. Unger

1999-01-01

390

21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use...Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an...

2010-04-01

391

21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use...Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an...

2009-04-01

392

21 CFR 884.5940 - Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...884.5940 Powered vaginal muscle stimulator for therapeutic use...Identification. A powered vaginal muscle stimulator is an...

2013-04-01

393

Preliminary experience with a prospective protocol for planned vaginal delivery of triplet gestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate a protocol for vaginal delivery of triplet gestations. Study Design: All women with triplet gestations managed between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 1997, by University Medical Center’s perinatal practice were offered enrollment in our vaginal delivery protocol. Our protocol offered attempt of vaginal delivery if triplet A was in vertex

Vito Alamia; Anthony B. Royek; Ronald K. Jaekle; Bruce A. Meyer

1998-01-01

394

Symptomatic Vaginal Bleeding in a Postmenopausal Woman Revealing Colon Adenocarcinoma Metastasizing Exclusively to the Vagina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal carcinomas are rare entities, accounting for 2% of all malignant cancers of the female genital tract, and the vast majority are metastatic. Adenocarcinoma of the colon metastasizing to the vagina is extremely rare, only 5 cases have been reported. We present the case of a woman who experienced vaginal bleeding as an isolated symptom of vaginal metastasis of colorectal

Marcello Ceccaroni; Amelia Paglia; Giacomo Ruffo; Marco Scioscia; Francesco Bruni; Anna Pesci; Luca Minelli

2010-01-01

395

Molecular analysis of the vaginal response to estrogens in the ovariectomized rat and postmenopausal woman  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Vaginal atrophy (VA) is the thinning of the vaginal epithelial lining, typically the result of lowered estrogen levels during menopause. Some of the consequences of VA include increased susceptibility to bacterial infection, pain during sexual intercourse, and vaginal burning or itching. Although estrogen treatment is highly effective, alternative therapies are also desired for women who are not candidates for

Scott A Jelinsky; Sung E Choe; Judy S Crabtree; Monette M Cotreau; Ewa Wilson; Kathryn Saraf; Andrew J Dorner; Eugene L Brown; Bryan J Peano; Xiaochun Zhang; Richard C Winneker; Heather A Harris

2008-01-01

396

Uncommon complications of sacrospinous fixation for treatment of vaginal vault prolapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate uncommon complications following trans- vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy for treatment of vaginal vault prolapse. Case reports: A series of three patients who developed uncommon complications following sacrospinous fixation are reported. A 64-year-old patient undergoing bilateral sacrospinous colpopexy for the treatment of an ICS stage III vaginal vault prolapse developed a perineal necrotizing infection.

Agnaldo L. Silva-Filho; Admário S. Santos-Filho; Octacílio Figueiredo-Netto; Sérgio A. Triginelli

2005-01-01

397

Vaginal Microbiome and Epithelial Gene Array in PostMenopausal Women with Moderate to Severe Dryness  

Microsoft Academic Search

After menopause, many women experience vaginal dryness and atrophy of tissue, often attributed to the loss of estrogen. An understudied aspect of vaginal health in women who experience dryness due to atrophy is the role of the resident microbes. It is known that the microbiota has an important role in healthy vaginal homeostasis, including maintaining the pH balance and excluding

Ruben Hummelen; Jean M. Macklaim; Jordan E. Bisanz; Jo-Anne Hammond; Amy McMillan; Rebecca Vongsa; David Koenig; Gregory B. Gloor; Gregor Reid

2011-01-01

398

Innervation of the Human Vaginal Mucosa as Revealed by PGP 9.5 Immunohistochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain a description of the innervation of the vaginal wall we employed an antiserum against the general neuronal marker, protein gene product 9.5, on normal human vaginal mucosa. Specimens were taken from the anterior and posterior fornices, from the anterior vaginal wall at the bladder neck level and from the introitus vaginae region, and then processed for

M. Hilliges; C. Falconer; G. Ekman-Ordeberg; O. Johansson

1995-01-01

399

Analysis of Bacterial Vaginosis-Related Amines in Vaginal Fluid by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of various amines in vaginal fluid from women with malodorous vaginal discharge has been reported before. The investigations have used several techniques to identify the amines. However, an optimized quantification, together with a sensitive analysis method in connection with a diagnostic procedure for vaginal discharge, including the syndrome of bacterial vaginosis, as defined by the accepted \\

HELEN WOLRATH; URBAN FORSUM; P. G. LARSSON; HANS BOREN

2001-01-01

400

Burkholderia cenocepacia Vaginal Infection in Patient with Smoldering Myeloma and Chronic Hepatitis C  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a vaginal infection caused by a strain of Burkholderia cenocepacia. The strain was isolated from vaginal swab specimens from a 68-year-old woman with smoldering myeloma and chronic hepatitis C virus infection who was hospitalized for abdominal abscess. Treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam eliminated B. cenocepacia infection and vaginal symptoms.

Petrucca, Andrea; Cipriani, Paola; Sessa, Rosa; Teggi, Antonella; Pustorino, Rosalia; Santapaola, Daniela

2004-01-01

401

Vaginal pressure during lifting, floor exercises, jogging, and use of hydraulic exercise machines.  

PubMed

We recorded vaginal pressure in 12 women without risk factors for prolapse during two activity and exercise sessions, compared exercise and cough pressure, and evaluated method reproducibility and patterns of relative pressure. Portable urodynamic equipment, repeated measures descriptive design, and purposeful sampling were used with nonparametric analysis and visual comparison of pressure graphs. Mean participant age was 31.1 years (range 20-51), and mean body mass index was 22.7 (range 18.5-29.3). Mean pressures (in cm H(2)O): cough, 98.0 (48.0-133.7); standing, 24.0 (15.9-28.5); supine exercise, 34.0 (6.3-91.9); exercise machines, 37.0 (20.3-182.3). Repeated measures correlations for selected measures ranged from 0.66 (p vaginal pressure measurement is reproducible in women without prolapse and that studied exercises generally produced lower pressure than cough, but individuals varied in pressure exerted. Individual variations warrant further study. PMID:17982711

O'Dell, Katharine K; Morse, Abraham N; Crawford, Sybil L; Howard, Allison

2007-05-22

402

Embolization of Patent Foramen Ovale Closure Devices  

PubMed Central

Transcatheter patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure is an alternative to antiplatelet or anticoagulative therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke, and it is associated with a small incidence of periprocedural sequelae. Because embolization of PFO closure devices is a very rare procedural complication, data on its frequency, causes, and management are sparse. We sought to review the medical literature and the cases of PFO closure-device embolization at our institution with the aim of identifying likely problems and reporting potential solutions. Out of 310 adult patients who underwent transcatheter PFO closure from June 2002 through April 2011, there were 2 cases (0.6%) of PFO closure-device embolization. In both patients, hypermobile septum primum and thick septum secundum were present. In one patient, failure to use a sizing balloon might have resulted in an underestimation of the PFO's size. In both patients, device embolization was identified in a timely fashion, the embolized device was safely retrieved, and the PFO was percutaneously closed with success. The incidence of PFO closure-device embolization is very low. The cases described here underscore the importance of imaging in the identification of morphologic predispositions to closure-device malpositioning, in the recognition of impending embolization, and in the timely management of embolization.

Goel, Sachin S.; Aksoy, Olcay; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Krasuski, Richard A.; Kapadia, Samir R.

2013-01-01

403

Factors Associated with Increasing Nursing Home Closures  

PubMed Central

Purpose We determine the rate of nursing home closures for 7 years (1999–2005) and examine internal (e.g., quality), organizational (e.g., chain membership), and external (e.g., competition) factors associated with these closures. Design and Method The names of the closed facilities and dates of closure from state regulators in all 50 states were obtained. This information was linked to the Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting data, which contains information on internal, organizational, and market factors for almost all nursing homes in the United States. Results One thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine facilities closed over this time period (1999–2005). The average annual rate of closure was about 2 percent of facilities, but the rate of closure was found to be increasing. Nursing homes with higher rates of deficiency citations, hospital-based facilities, chain members, small bed size, and facilities located in markets with high levels of competition were more likely to close. High Medicaid occupancy rates were associated with a high likelihood of closure, especially for facilities with low Medicaid reimbursement rates. Implications As states actively debate about how to redistribute long-term care services/dollars, our findings show that they should be cognizant of the potential these decisions have for facilitating nursing home closures.

Castle, Nicholas G; Engberg, John; Lave, Judith; Fisher, Andrew

2009-01-01

404

Vaginal agenesis (Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome) associated with the N314D mutation of galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT).  

PubMed

To follow-up our previous observation that vaginal agenesis might be associated with decreased activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT), we studied activity and genotype of GALT in 13 daughters with vaginal agenesis and their mothers. For comparison, GALT measurements were available from 113 pre-menopausal women with no known Müllerian anomalies selected from the general population. Red cell GALT activity was significantly lower in both the daughters and their mothers in comparison with general population controls. Six out of thirteen (46%) daughters and two mothers of the remaining seven daughters (29%) were carriers for the N314D mutation of GALT associated with the Duarte variant of galactosaemia as compared to 16 out of 113 general population controls (14%) who possessed at least one N314D allele. Pigmentary skin changes and scoliosis were associated phenotypic findings in daughters with vaginal agenesis. We conclude that fetal or maternal GALT mutations that decrease GALT activity may be associated with vaginal agenesis and have, as their possible biological basis, increased intrauterine exposure to galactose which has been demonstrated in rodents to cause decreased oocyte survival and delayed vaginal opening in offspring. PMID:9238673

Cramer, D W; Goldstein, D P; Fraer, C; Reichardt, J K

1996-03-01

405

Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System  

SciTech Connect

The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

2006-04-01

406

Percutaneous closure of tricuspid paravalvular leak.  

PubMed

While transcatheter closure of mitral and aortic paravalvular leaks has been well-described, there are no prior reports of such procedures for prosthetic tricuspid valves. We describe our experience with percutaneous closure of a tricuspid paravalvular leak in a 34-year-old patient with a history of tricuspid atresia. He had previously undergone repair with placement of a right atrium-to-right ventricle conduit and most recently, placement of a bio-prosthetic tricuspid valve. He subsequently developed significant tricuspid paravalvular leak with symptoms of severe right heart failure. His clinical status was improved following successful transcatheter closure of the defect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23554068

Turner, Mariel E; Lai, Wyman W; Vincent, Julie A

2013-04-18

407

Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System  

SciTech Connect

The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

2005-10-01

408

Homeostatic properties of Lactobacillus jensenii engineered as a live vaginal anti-HIV microbicide  

PubMed Central

Background Vaginal probiotics are investigated as a binary strategy for prevention of bacterial vaginosis and HIV. We applied an innovative experimental model using primary and immortalized human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells to assess the functional properties of Lactobacillus jensenii, a predominant constituent of the healthy vaginal microbiome, engineered to express the HIV-1 entry inhibitor modified cyanovirin-N (mCV-N). In this model bacteria colonize the epithelial cells over a period of 24-72 h. Staurosporine and the Toll-like receptor 2/6 ligand macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2) serve as positive controls for apoptosis and proinflammatory activation, respectively. In 24-hour intervals, the colonized epithelium is assessed microscopically, supernatants are collected for measurement of soluble immunoinflammatory mediators and production of CV-N, and cells are lysed for assessment of: 1) apoptosis by cleaved versus total caspase-3 assay; 2) NF-?B activation by a luciferase reporter assay; or 3) epithelia-associated colony forming units (CFU) in Brucella agar. Results Wild type (WT) L. jensenii 1153 consistently colonized cervical and vaginal cells in the absence of epithelial damage and apoptosis. The bioengineered derivatives expressing mCV-N or control plasmids showed the same stable colonization pattern, which was reproducible between technologists and bacterial batches (CFU coefficient of variation <10% within and between experiments and epithelial cell types). MALP-2 activated NF-?B and caused fold-increased levels of proinflammatory mediators with clinically established significance in the cervicovaginal environment (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, IL-8, RANTES, MIP-3?, and ICAM-1), measured by a multiplex electrochemiluminescence assay. At the same time levels of protective anti-inflammatory mediators interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), both measured by ELISA, remained constant (IL-1RA) or moderately increased (SLPI). Similarly to MALP-2, colonization by L. jensenii WT activated NF-?B; however, unlike the synthetic TLR2/6 ligand, the live microorganisms did not induce significant changes in the secreted levels across all inflammation-associated proteins. The mCV-N production and function were confirmed by western blot and a HIV-1 gp120 binding assay, respectively. The bioengineered lactobacilli expressed mCV-N with anti-HIV activity preserved in the epithelial cell context and caused no significant immunoinflammatory changes as compared to the WT L. jensenii. Conclusions These results highlight the translational value of the colonization model and justify further clinical investigation of the homeostatic and anti-HIV effectiveness of the L. jensenii derivates.

2013-01-01

409

Establishing and Sustaining a Healthy Vaginal Environment: Analysis of Data From a Randomized Trial of Periodic Presumptive Treatment for Vaginal Infections  

PubMed Central

Data from a randomized trial of oral periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) to reduce vaginal infections were analyzed to assess the effect of the intervention on a healthy vaginal environment (normal flora confirmed by Gram stain with no candidiasis or trichomoniasis). The incidence of a healthy vaginal environment was 608 cases per 100 person-years in the intervention arm and 454 cases per 100 person-years in the placebo arm (hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–1.58). Sustained vaginal health (healthy vaginal environment for ?3 consecutive visits) was also more frequent in the intervention arm (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23–2.33). PPT is effective at establishing and sustaining a healthy vaginal environment.

Richardson, Barbra A.; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra; Kiarie, James; Jaoko, Walter; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O.; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Farquhar, Carey; McClelland, R. Scott

2011-01-01

410

Effect of forest canopy closure on incoming solar radiance  

SciTech Connect

In order to better understand the physical processes involved in defoliation assessment from remotely sensed data, a field study was designed to investigate the effect of forest canopy closure and other environmental variables on incoming solar radiation. Diffuse radiation measurements were recorded in red, infrared, and middle infrared wavelengths using the Mark 2 three band field radiometer. Results to date indicate that the percent canopy closure is the single most important variable affecting incoming solar radiation. In the visible and near infrared regions, interaction between time of day and date (defined later as solar zenith angle) also affect radiometric response. Aspect has only limited influence on radiance response. These same variables do not influence middle infrared response, however. Uniformity of the forest canopy appears to be more important. These results are compared to LANDSAT MSS classification results of gypsy moth defoliation.

Dottavio, C.L.

1981-04-01

411

Alexithymia Is Inversely Associated with Women's Frequency of Vaginal Intercourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the relation between frequency of penile–vaginal intercourse (FSI; contrasted with other sexual behavior) and alexithymia (difficulty recognizing, identifying, and communicating emotions, reduced fantasy capacity, and an externally oriented cognitive style). To minimize response bias, persons scoring above the 86th percentile on the Eysenck Personality Inventory Lie scale were excluded. Participants (54 female and 39 male healthy young

Stuart Brody

2003-01-01

412

Anorectal symptoms after various modes of vaginal delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and the changes in, anorectal symptoms following different modes of vaginal delivery in primiparous women. Six hundred and seventeen questionnaires were distributed to primiparous women 3–4 years after delivery. The questionnaires were designed to obtain information regarding the development of anorectal symptoms, including the type of symptoms experienced, their

S. E. Schraffordt Koops; H. A. M. Vervest; H. J. M. Oostvogel

2003-01-01

413

Candida albicans forms biofilms on the vaginal mucosa  

PubMed Central

Current understanding of resistance and susceptibility to vulvovaginal candidiasis challenges existing paradigms of host defence against fungal infection. While abiotic biofilm formation has a clearly established role during systemic Candida infections, it is not known whether C. albicans forms biofilms on the vaginal mucosa and the possible role of biofilms in disease. In vivo and ex vivo murine vaginitis models were employed to examine biofilm formation by scanning electron and confocal microscopy. C. albicans strains included 3153A (lab strain), DAY185 (parental control strain), and mutants defective in morphogenesis and/or biofilm formation in vitro (efg1/efg1 and bcr1/bcr1). Both 3153A and DAY815 formed biofilms on the vaginal mucosa in vivo and ex vivo as indicated by high fungal burden and microscopic analysis demonstrating typical biofilm architecture and presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) co-localized with the presence of fungi. In contrast, efg1/efg1 and bcr1/bcr1 mutant strains exhibited weak or no biofilm formation/ECM production in both models compared to wild-type strains and complemented mutants despite comparable colonization levels. These data show for the first time that C. albicans forms biofilms in vivo on vaginal epithelium, and that in vivo biotic biofilm formation requires regulators of biofilm formation (BCR1) and morphogenesis (EFG1).

Harriott, M. M.; Lilly, E. A.; Rodriguez, T. E.; Fidel, P. L.; Noverr, M. C.

2010-01-01

414

Effects of Ovarian Steroids on Vaginal Smears in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correspondence between the appearance of vaginal smears and the layers of the epithelium from which the cells had desquamated was established in untreated rats during the estrous cycle, in control ovariectomized rats and in spayed rats injected with either estrogen or progesterone. The technique for preparing and staining the smears (modified Shorr’s staining procedure) is outlined. A simplified.system of

G. S. Monies; E. H. Luque

1988-01-01

415

Efficacy dilution in randomized placebo-controlled vaginal microbicide trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To date different vaginal gel microbicides have been evaluated in phase 2b\\/3 trials, but none have demonstrated effectiveness for preventing HIV infection. Failure to demonstrate effectiveness however does not necessarily indicate that a product is truly inefficacious, as several sources of efficacy dilution may compromise our ability to identify products that may have been truly efficacious. METHODS: For four

Benoît R Mâsse; Marie-Claude Boily; Dobromir Dimitrov; Kamal Desai

2009-01-01

416

Vaginal-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Hysterectomy: Rationale, Technique, Results  

PubMed Central

Objective: Total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (TLRH) makes it difficult to resect adequate vaginal cuff according to tumor size and to avoid tumor spread after opening the vagina. Laparoscopic-assisted radical vaginal hysterectomy (LARVH) is associated with higher risk for urologic complications. Methods: The vaginal-assisted laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (VALRH) technique comprises 3 steps: (1) comprehensive laparoscopic staging, (2) creation of a tumor-adapted vaginal cuff, and (3) laparoscopic transsection of parametria. We retrospectively analyzed data of 122 patients who underwent VALRH for early stage cervical cancer (n=110) or stage II endometrial cancer (n=12) between January 2007 and December 2009 at Charité University Berlin. Results: All patients underwent VALRH without conversion. Mean operating time was 300 minutes, and mean blood loss was 123cc. On average, 36 lymph nodes were harvested. Intra- and postoperative complication rates were 0% and 13.1%, respectively. Resection was in sound margins in all patients. After median follow-up of 19 months, disease-free survival and overall survival for all 110 cervical cancer patients was 94% and 98%, and for the subgroup of patients (n=90) with tumors ?pT1b1 N0 V0 L0/1 R0, 97% and 98%, respectively. Conclusion: VALRH is a valid alternative to abdominal radical hysterectomy and LARVH in patients with early-stage cervical cancer and endometrial cancer stage II with minimal intraoperative complications and identical oncologic outcomes.

Gottschalk, Elisabeth; Lanowska, Malgorzata; Chiantera, Vito; Marnitz, Simone; Schneider, Achim; Brink-Spalink, Verena; Hasenbein, Kati

2011-01-01

417

Cervical and Vaginal Cancer Screening (Pap Test and Pelvic Exam)  

MedlinePLUS

... service covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Cervical & vaginal cancer screenings How often is it covered? Medicare Part ... doctor accepts assignment . Related resources National Cancer Institute—cervical cancer information CDC—cervical cancer information U.S. Preventive Services ...

418

Costs and Outcomes of Abdominal, Vaginal, Laparoscopic and Robotic Hysterectomies  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: To estimate the incidence of operative complications and compare operative cost and overall cost of different methods of benign hysterectomy including abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic, and robotic techniques. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis (Canadian Task Force classification II-2) of all patients who underwent a hysterectomy for benign reasons in 2009 at a single urban academic tertiary care center using the ?2 test and Student t test. A multivariate regression analysis was also performed for predictors of costs. Cost data were gathered from the hospital's billing system; the remainder of data was extracted from patient's medical records. Results: In 2009, 688 patients underwent a benign hysterectomy; 185 (26.9%) hysterectomies were abdominal, 135 (19.6%) vaginal, 352 (51.5%) laparoscopic, and 14 (2.0%) robotic. The rate of intraoperative complication was 1.7% for abdominal, 0.8% for vaginal, 0.3% for laparoscopic, and 0 for robotic. Mean total patient costs were $43,622 for abdominal, $31,934 for vaginal, $38,312 for laparoscopic, and $49,526 for robotic hysterectomies. Costs were significantly influenced by method of hysterectomy, operative time, and length of stay. Conclusion: Though complication rates did not vary significantly among minimally invasive methods of hysterectomy, patient costs were significantly influenced by the method of hysterectomy.

Jonsdottir, Gudrun M.; Jorgensen, Selena; Shah, Neel; Einarsson, Jon I.

2012-01-01

419

Protection Against Vaginal SIV Transmission with Microencapsulated Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although protection in animal models against intravenous challenges with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has been reported, no previous vaccines have protected against a heterosexual route of infection. In this study, five of six macaques were protected against vaginal challenge when immunized with formalin-treated SIV in biodegradable microspheres by the intramuscular plus oral or plus intratracheal route. Oral immunization alone did

Preston A. Marx; Richard W. Compans; Agegnehu Gettie; Jay K. Staas; Richard M. Gilley; Mark J. Mulligan; Galina V. Yamshchikov; Dexiang Chen; John H. Eldridge

1993-01-01

420

Penile – vaginal intercourse is better: evidence trumps ideology  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has often been asserted that all sexual behaviours are equal. However, empirical research demonstrates that different sexual behaviours differ in many physiological and psychological domains. These differences are remarkably consistent in revealing an association between specifically penile-vaginal intercourse and indices of better physiological and psychological function. Other sexual behaviours (masturbation, partner masturbation, oral sex, anal sex, or any other

2006-01-01

421

Candida albicans forms biofilms on the vaginal mucosa.  

PubMed

Current understanding of resistance and susceptibility to vulvovaginal candidiasis challenges existing paradigms of host defence against fungal infection. While abiotic biofilm formation has a clearly established role during systemic Candida infections, it is not known whether C. albicans forms biofilms on the vaginal mucosa and the possible role of biofilms in disease. In vivo and ex vivo murine vaginitis models were employed to examine biofilm formation by scanning electron and confocal microscopy. C. albicans strains included 3153A (lab strain), DAY185 (parental control strain), and mutants defective in morphogenesis and/or biofilm formation in vitro (efg1/efg1 and bcr1/bcr1). Both 3153A and DAY815 formed biofilms on the vaginal mucosa in vivo and ex vivo as indicated by high fungal burden and microscopic analysis demonstrating typical biofilm architecture and presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) co-localized with the presence of fungi. In contrast, efg1/efg1 and bcr1/bcr1 mutant strains exhibited weak or no biofilm formation/ECM production in both models compared to wild-type strains and complemented mutants despite comparable colonization levels. These data show for the first time that C. albicans forms biofilms in vivo on vaginal epithelium, and that in vivo biotic biofilm formation requires regulators of biofilm formation (BCR1) and morphogenesis (EFG1). PMID:20705667

Harriott, M M; Lilly, E A; Rodriguez, T E; Fidel, P L; Noverr, M C

2010-08-12

422

Other Gynecologic Cancers: endometrial, ovarian, vulvar and vaginal cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEALTH ISSUE: In Canada, cancers of the endometrium, ovaries, vulva, vagina, placenta and adnexa account for 11% of all malignant neoplasms in women and 81% of all genital cancers. Although the incidence and mortality from vulvar and vaginal cancers are very low, endometrium and ovarian cancer are important public health problems. KEY FINDINGS: In Canada, there has been no appreciable

Eliane Duarte-Franco; Eduardo L Franco

2004-01-01

423

Vaginal Douching among University Women in the Southeastern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors assessed the knowledge, beliefs about, and practices of vaginal douching among women attending 2 universities in the southeastern United States. Participants: There were 416 participants in this study; 46.9% were black and 44.5% were white. Methods: The authors administered a 30-item questionnaire to women enrolled in…

Cottrell, Barbara Hansen; Close, Fran T.

2008-01-01

424

21 CFR 884.5900 - Therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...douche solutions. The apparatus is intended and labeled for use in the treatment of medical conditions except it is not for contraceptive use. After filling the therapeutic vaginal douche apparatus with a solution, the patient uses the device to direct a...

2013-04-01

425

Plasma prolactin concentrations after caesarean section or vaginal delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The umbilical venous plasma prolactin concentrations of three groups of term infants were compared immediately after birth. Samples were taken following seven vaginal deliveries, eight emergency caesarean sections performed during labour, and 12 elective caesarean sections before labour. Mean concentrations of prolactin were significantly lower in the elective caesarean section group compared with the labour groups. This result indicates that

Lindsay Heasman; John A D Spencer; Michael E Symonds

1997-01-01

426

Antifungal activity of lectins against yeast of vaginal secretion  

PubMed Central

Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-imune origin. This group of proteins is distributed widely in nature and they have been found in viruses, microorganisms, plants and animals. Lectins of plants have been isolated and characterized according to their chemical, physical-chemical, structural and biological properties. Among their biological activities, we can stress its fungicidal action. It has been previously described the effect of the lectins Dviol, DRL, ConBr and LSL obtained from the seeds of leguminous plants on the growth of yeasts isolated from vaginal secretions. In the present work the experiments were carried out in microtiter plates and the results interpreted by both methods: visual observations and a microplate reader at 530nm. The lectin concentrations varied from 0.5 to 256?g/mL, and the inoculum was established between 65-70% of trammitance. All yeast samples isolated from vaginal secretion were evaluated taxonomically, where were observed macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to each species. The LSL lectin did not demonstrate any antifungal activity to any isolate studied. The other lectins DRL, ConBr and DvioL, showed antifungal potential against yeast isolated from vaginal secretion. These findings offering offer a promising field of investigation to develop new therapeutic strategies against vaginal yeast infections, collaborating to improve women's health.

Gomes, Bruno Severo; Siqueira, Ana Beatriz Sotero; de Cassia Carvalho Maia, Rita; Giampaoli, Viviana; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; de Lima, Adriana Nunes; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Porto, Ana Lucia Figueiredo

2012-01-01

427

New solid mucoadhesive systems for benzydamine vaginal administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was the realization of new formulations for vaginal application to improve the pharmacological effect of benzydamine, displaying both anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activities. For this reasons, this drug was formulated in solid dispersions, by using the mucoadhesive polymers HPMC and\\/or Carbopol®, then compressed. Tablets were characterized by studies of friability, hardness, hydration, DSC, mucoadhesion and in

Luana Perioli; Valeria Ambrogi; Cinzia Pagano; Elena Massetti; Carlo Rossi

2011-01-01

428

Vaginal delivery and serum markers of ischemia\\/reperfusion injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Vaginal deliveries have been associated with pelvic organ prolapse and incontinence. The objective was to show whether markers of ischemia\\/reperfusion injury are dependent upon the mode of delivery and length of labor. Method: Complete venipuncture sets were obtained on 62 subjects. All samples collected were analyzed for serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Lipid peroxidation was analyzed,

E. Conner; R. Margulies; Mengling Liu; S. W. Smilen; R. F. Porges; C. Kwon

2006-01-01

429

Cervical immunoglobulin A and altered vaginal flora in pregnant women with threatened preterm delivery.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to investigate the cervical immunoglobulin A concentration in women with threatened preterm delivery. Immunoglobulin A concentration in the cervical mucus of 80 women with symptoms of preterm delivery was measured using radial immunodiffusion. The results were compared with those of 60 healthy pregnant women. Concentrations of immunoglobulins in maternal serum were also measured. There was no significant difference of cervical immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentration between women with threatened preterm delivery and controls: 53.98 (0.0-189.7) mg/l vs. 61.7 (1.4-400.9; p<0.4) mg/l (median, range). The median of cervical IgA levels in the group of threatened preterm delivery did not differ significantly between patients delivered preterm (n=34) or at term (n=46): 38.3 (0.0-187.9) vs. 65.7 (1.4-189.7; p<0.2) mg/l. Women with a normal vaginal flora showed a significantly higher cervical IgA concentration than those with a pathological colonization: 72.7 (0.0-187.9) vs. 42.5 (0.0-189.7) mg/l. Patients with a pathological vaginal smear and preterm delivery had the lowest IgA levels (35.0; 0.0-187.9 mg/l). Measurement of cervical IgA concentration does not differentiate between women who deliver before or at term. PMID:15008384

Glasow, Simone; Stepan, Holger; Sack, Ulrich; Faber, Renaldo

2004-01-01

430

Relationship Between the Length of the Perineum and Position of the Anus and Vaginal Delivery in Primigravidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The aim of the study was to determine perineal length and anal position in primigravidae and to evaluate their effect on\\u000a vaginal delivery. The distances between the fourchette and each of the center of the anal orifice and the inferior margin\\u000a of the coccyx were measured in 212 primigravidae with singleton term pregnancies during the first stage of labor.

D. E. E. Rizk; L. Thomas

2000-01-01

431

Identification and characterisation of vaginal lactobacilli from South African women  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV), which is highly prevalent in the African population, is one of the most common vaginal syndromes affecting women in their reproductive age placing them at increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases including infection by human immunodeficiency virus-1. The vaginal microbiota of a healthy woman is often dominated by the species belonging to the genus Lactobacillus namely L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii and L. iners, which have been extensively studied in European populations, albeit less so in South African women. In this study, we have therefore identified the vaginal Lactobacillus species in a group of 40 African women from Soweto, a township on the outskirts of Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Identification was done by cultivating the lactobacilli on Rogosa agar, de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS) and Blood agar plates with 5% horse blood followed by sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA. BV was diagnosed on the basis of Nugent scores. Since some of the previous studies have shown that the lack of vaginal hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) producing lactobacilli is associated with bacterial vaginosis, the Lactobacillus isolates were also characterised for their production of H2O2. Results Cultivable Lactobacillus species were identified in 19 out of 21 women without BV, in three out of five women with intermediate microbiota and in eight out of 14 women with BV. We observed that L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii, L. gasseri and L. vaginalis were the predominant species. The presence of L. crispatus was associated with normal vaginal microbiota (P = 0.024). High level of H2O2 producing lactobacilli were more often isolated from women with normal microbiota than from the women with BV, although not to a statistically significant degree (P = 0.064). Conclusion The vaginal Lactobacillus species isolated from the cohort of South African women are similar to those identified in European populations. In accordance with the other published studies, L. crispatus is related to a normal vaginal microbiota. Hydrogen peroxide production was not significantly associated to the BV status which could be attributed to the limited number of samples or to other antimicrobial factors that might be involved.

2013-01-01

432

The TopClosure® 3S System, for skin stretching and a secure wound closure.  

PubMed

The principle of stretching wound margins for primary wound closure is commonly practiced and used for various skin defects, leading at times to excessive tension and complications during wound closure. Different surgical techniques, skin stretching devices and tissue expanders have been utilized to address this issue. Previously designed skin stretching devices resulted in considerable morbidity. They were invasive by nature and associated with relatively high localized tissue pressure, frequently leading to necrosis, damage and tearing of skin at the wound margins. To assess the clinical effectiveness and performance and, to determine the safety of TopClosure® for gradual, controlled, temporary, noninvasive and invasive applications for skin stretching and secure wound closing, the TopClosure® device was applied to 20 patients for preoperative skin lesion removal and to secure closure of a variety of wound sizes. TopClosure® was reinforced with adhesives, staples and/or surgical sutures, depending on the circumstances of the wound and the surgeon's judgment. TopClosure® was used prior to, during and/or after surgery to reduce tension across wound edges. No significant complications or adverse events were associated with its use. TopClosure® was effectively used for preoperative skin expansion in preparation for dermal resection (e.g., congenital nevi). It aided closure of large wounds involving significant loss of skin and soft tissue by mobilizing skin and subcutaneous tissue, thus avoiding the need for skin grafts or flaps. Following surgery, it was used to secure closure of wounds under tension, thus improving wound aesthetics. A sample case study will be presented. We designed TopClosure®, an innovative device, to modify the currently practiced concept of wound closure by applying minimal stress to the skin, away from damaged wound edges, with flexible force vectors and versatile methods of attachment to the skin, in a noninvasive or invasive manner. PMID:22719176

Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Silberman, Adi; Li, Ming Sen; Li, Yong Zhong

2012-01-18

433

Investigating the therapeutic effect of vaginal cream containing garlic and thyme compared to clotrimazole cream for the treatment of mycotic vaginitis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Vaginitis is the most prevalent gynecological problem for which women look for treatment and is responsible for 10 million physician visits annually. Use of herbal treatments has been recorded in many of patient groups as well as in general populations to increase health level. The present study was conducted with the purpose of determination and comparison of the effect of vaginal cream containing garlic and thyme compared to clotrimazole cream for the treatment of mycotic vaginitis. METHODS: This clinical trial is a prospective, multivariate, single-blind, two-stage, two-group study with randomized assignment of samples into the two groups. From the clinics in Isfahan in 2010, 64 cases (32 individuals in each group) entered the study. Data collection was accomplished by demographic information questionnaire and clinical performance checklist, and data analysis was performed by SPSS 16.0 software. RESULTS: Abundance distributions of clinical symptoms (vaginal discharge; vulval erythema and edema), patients’ complaints (secretions, itching, dyspareunia, painful urination, and vaginal irritation) and clinical symptoms (existence of germinating hypha, acidity under 4.5, and culture of vaginal secretions) were different in each group prior to and after the intervention; these factors however were not different between the two groups before and after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The vaginal cream containing garlic and thyme is effective as much as clotrimazole vaginal cream for the treatment of candida vaginitis and there is no difference between responses to treatment by these two drugs.

Bahadoran, Parvin; Rokni, Fatemeh Karimzadeh; Fahami, Fariba

2010-01-01

434

Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure  

SciTech Connect

The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties.

Fossum, A.F. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31

435

40 CFR 265.381 - Closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.381 Closure. ...limited to, ash) from the thermal treatment process or equipment. [Comment...solid waste removed from his thermal treatment process or equipment is...

2009-07-01

436

40 CFR 265.381 - Closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.381 Closure. ...limited to, ash) from the thermal treatment process or equipment. [Comment...solid waste removed from his thermal treatment process or equipment is...

2010-07-01

437

50 CFR 665.166 - Closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION,