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Sample records for measuring vitamin b12

  1. Vitamin B12 level

    MedlinePlus

    The vitamin B12 level is a blood test that measures how much vitamin B12 is in your blood. ... a form of megaloblastic anemia caused by poor vitamin B12 absorption. This can occur when the stomach ...

  2. Vitamin B-12

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Vitamin B-12 Vitamin B-12 What is vitamin B-12? Vitamin B-12 is an important nutrient that is found naturally ... shellfish, meat, eggs, dairy products, and fortified foods. Vitamin B-12 helps make red blood cells and ...

  3. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePlus

    ... body to absorb vitamin B12 from food. First, hydrochloric acid in the stomach separates vitamin B12 from the ... Many older adults, who do not have enough hydrochloric acid in their stomach to absorb the vitamin B12 ...

  4. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePlus

    ... naturally in a wide variety of animal proteins. Plant foods have no vitamin B12 unless they are ... animal sources of vitamin B12 much better than plant sources. Non-animal sources of vitamin B12 vary ...

  5. Vitamin B-12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B-12 is a cofactor for 2 enzymes. In the cytoplasm, methionine synthase requires vitamin B-12 in the form of methylcobalamin and catalyzes the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate.This enzyme links the methylation pathway through ...

  6. Improved method for measuring vitamin B12 in serum using intrinsic factor, 57CoB12, and coated charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Raven, J. L.; Robson, M. B.; Walker, P. L.; Barkhan, P.

    1969-01-01

    An improved and simplified method is described for the measurement of vitamin B12 in serum using intrinsic factor, 57CoB12, and coated charcoal. The extraction of serum in the presence of cyanide and the incorporation of B12-deficient serum into the intrinsic factor control has increased the accuracy of the method for both sera and crystalline B12 solutions. There are interesting differences between the results obtained for some sera by the isotope and L. leichmannii methods and the reasons for these differences are discussed. PMID:5776552

  7. Vitamin B12 source (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The human body stores several years' worth of vitamin B12, so nutritional deficiency of this vitamin is extremely rare. Although, people who follow a strict vegetarian diet and do not consume eggs or dairy products may require vitamin B12 supplements.

  8. Update on vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Langan, Robert C; Zawistoski, Kimberly J

    2011-06-15

    Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) deficiency is a common cause of megaloblastic anemia, a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms, and elevated serum homocysteine levels, especially in older persons. There are a number of risk factors for vitamin B(12) deficiency, including prolonged use of metformin and proton pump inhibitors. No major medical organizations, including the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, have published guidelines on screening asymptomatic or low-risk adults for vitamin B(12) deficiency, but high-risk patients, such as those with malabsorptive disorders, may warrant screening. The initial laboratory assessment of a patient with suspected vitamin B(12) deficiency should include a complete blood count and a serum vitamin B(12) level. Measurements of serum vitamin B(12) may not reliably detect deficiency, and measurement of serum homocysteine and/or methylmalonic acid should be used to confirm deficiency in asymptomatic high-risk patients with low normal levels of vitamin B(12). Oral administration of high-dose vitamin B(12) (1 to 2 mg daily) is as effective as intramuscular administration in correcting the deficiency, regardless of etiology. Because crystalline formulations are better absorbed than naturally occurring vitamin B(12), patients older than 50 years and strict vegetarians should consume foods fortified with vitamin B(12) and vitamin B(12) supplements, rather than attempting to get vitamin B(12) strictly from dietary sources. Administration of vitamin B(12) to patients with elevated serum homocysteine levels has not been shown to reduce cardiovascular outcomes in high-risk patients or alter the cognitive decline of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. PMID:21671542

  9. Vitamin B12

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23193625 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer ... Saunders; 2011:chap 225. Salwen MJ. Vitamins and trace elements. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's ...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin B 12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862....1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B 12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862....1810 Vitamin B 12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1810 - Vitamin B12 test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12 test system. 862.1810 Section 862.1810....1810 Vitamin B12 test system. (a) Identification. A vitamin B12 test system is a device intended to measure vitamin B12 in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  15. Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... vitamin B12. They include: Chronic alcoholism Crohn disease, celiac disease, infection with the fish tapeworm, or other problems ... may no longer be needed after Crohn disease, celiac disease, or alcohol use is properly treated. Your provider ...

  16. Bioavailability of vitamin B12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in people of all ages who consume a low intake of animal-source foods, including populations in developing countries. It is also prevalent among the elderly, even in wealthier countries, due to their malabsorption of B12 from food. Several methods have been applied t...

  17. How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In considering the vitamin B-12 fortification of flour, it is important to know who is at risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency and whether those individuals would benefit from flour fortification.This article reviews current knowledge of the prevalence and causes of vitamin B-12 deficiency and considers ...

  18. Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio

    2007-11-01

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B(12) are animal foods, meat, milk, egg, fish, and shellfish. As the intrinsic factor-mediated intestinal absorption system is estimated to be saturated at about 1.5-2.0 microg per meal under physiologic conditions, vitamin B(12) bioavailability significantly decreases with increasing intake of vitamin B(12) per meal. The bioavailability of vitamin B(12) in healthy humans from fish meat, sheep meat, and chicken meat averaged 42%, 56%-89%, and 61%-66%, respectively. Vitamin B(12) in eggs seems to be poorly absorbed (< 9%) relative to other animal food products. In the Dietary Reference Intakes in the United States and Japan, it is assumed that 50% of dietary vitamin B(12) is absorbed by healthy adults with normal gastro-intestinal function. Some plant foods, dried green and purple lavers (nori) contain substantial amounts of vitamin B(12), although other edible algae contained none or only traces of vitamin B(12). Most of the edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) used for human supplements predominantly contain pseudovitamin B(12), which is inactive in humans. The edible cyanobacteria are not suitable for use as vitamin B(12) sources, especially in vegans. Fortified breakfast cereals are a particularly valuable source of vitamin B(12) for vegans and elderly people. Production of some vitamin B(12)-enriched vegetables is also being devised. PMID:17959839

  19. Overview of a roundtable on NHANES monitoring of biomarkers of folate and vitamin B-12 status: measurement procedure issues123456

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Clifford L

    2011-01-01

    A roundtable dialogue to discuss “NHANES Monitoring of Biomarkers of Folate and Vitamin B-12 Status” took place in July 2010. This article provides an overview of the meeting and this supplement issue. Although the focus of the roundtable dialogue was on the measurement of folate and vitamin B-12 status biomarkers in NHANES, this article also describes the relevance and importance of these issues for clinical and research laboratories. The roundtable identified the microbiological assay (MA) as the gold standard for measurement of serum and red blood cell folate concentrations. The roundtable noted that differences in results between the Bio-Rad Quantaphase II procedure (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) that NHANES 1991–1994 and 1999–2006 used and the MA that NHANES 2007–2010 used will require adjustment equations to evaluate time trends. The roundtable found that the close agreement between the serum results for the MA and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) procedures supported the conversion to LC-MS/MS for serum folate in future NHANES. The roundtable recognized the uncertainty about whether subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency is a public health concern but encouraged reinstatement of at least one circulating vitamin B-12 measure and one functional vitamin B-12 status measure in future NHANES. The use of serum vitamin B-12 and plasma methylmalonic acid would provide continuity with past NHANES. The roundtable supported the continued use of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) reference materials in NHANES biomarker analyses and the further development of additional reference materials by the NIST. PMID:21593504

  20. [Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Leischker, A H; Kolb, G F

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency increases with age. Patients with dementia and spouses of patients with dementia are at special risk for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency. In a normal diet this vitamin is present only in animal source foods; therefore, vegans frequently develop vitamin B12 deficiency if not using supplements or foods fortified with cobalamin. Apart from dementia, most of these manifestations are completely reversible under correct therapy; therefore it is crucial to identify and to treat even atypical presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency as early as possible. This article deals with the physiology and pathophysiology of vitamin B12 metabolism. A practice-oriented algorithm which also considers health economic aspects for a rational laboratory diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency is presented. In cases with severe neurological symptoms, therapy should be parenteral, especially initially. For parenteral treatment, hydroxocobalamin is the drug of choice. PMID:25586321

  1. The difficulties with vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Ruth; Alvares, Debie

    2016-08-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with progressive sensory ataxia and optic neuropathy. Previous investigation by her general practitioner had found a low serum vitamin B12, which had been corrected with oral supplementation. Neurological investigations showed raised plasma homocysteine and methylmalonic acid towards the upper limit of normal with a low serum vitamin B12 MRI showed an extensive cord lesion in keeping with subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. We treated her with high dose parenteral vitamin B12 and she has made a partial recovery. We discuss the management of patients who present with neurological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency; highlighting the fact that parenteral replacement is needed in such cases, even if the serum vitamin B12 level appears to be normal. We also discuss ancillary investigations that should be performed in patients with suspected vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27009308

  2. [Therapy of hyperhomocysteinemia with vitamin B12].

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Sebeková, K; Valachovicová, M

    2002-11-01

    Prevalence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians and vegans is a consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Clinical study of homocysteine reduction by vitamin B12 consisted of subjective healthy adults on alternative nutrition (n = 9) with vitamin B12 deficiency and with mild hyperhomocysteinemia. Vitamin B12 treatment was implemented by 5 intramuscular cyanocobalamin injections of a total content of 2200 micrograms during two weeks. Homocysteine level was significantly reduced (from 22 mumol/l to 11.7 mumol/l; individual reduction 29-55%). Vitamin B12 concentration in blood was significantly increased (from 152 pmol/l to 277 pmol/l; individual % of increase 63-150). The results show a high effect of vitamin B12 treatment in homocysteine value reduction of subjects on alternative nutrition. PMID:12501494

  3. Vitamin B-12 and Perinatal Health.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Layden, Alexander J; Stover, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency (<148 pmol/L) is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, including developmental anomalies, spontaneous abortions, preeclampsia, and low birth weight (<2500 g). The importance of adequate vitamin B-12 status periconceptionally and during pregnancy cannot be overemphasized, given its fundamental role in neural myelination, brain development, and growth. Infants born to vitamin B-12-deficient women may be at increased risk of neural tube closure defects, and maternal vitamin B-12 insufficiency (<200 pmol/L) can impair infant growth, psychomotor function, and brain development, which may be irreversible. However, the underlying causal mechanisms are unknown. This review was conducted to examine the evidence that links maternal vitamin B-12 status and perinatal outcomes. Despite the high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency and associated risk of pregnancy complications, few prospective studies and, to our knowledge, only 1 randomized trial have examined the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy. The role of vitamin B-12 in the etiology of adverse perinatal outcomes needs to be elucidated to inform public health interventions. PMID:26374177

  4. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Peter J.; Dueker, Stephen; Miller, Joshua; Green, Ralph; Roth, John; Carkeet, Colleen; Buchholz,; Bruce A.

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  5. [Vitamin B12 and related genetic disorders].

    PubMed

    Guéant, Jean-louis; Coelho, David; Nicolas, Jean-Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin (Cbl)) is a water-soluble vitamin that requires complex mechanisms for its assimilation, blood transport and intracellular metabolism. Three proteins, intrinsic factor (IF), haptocorrin (HC), and transcobalamin (TC), and their specific receptors are involved in B12 absorption and transport. Acquired and inherited deficiencies can result in megaloblastic anemia and neurological manifestations. Several genetic diseases are linked to these two steps, namely inherited deficits in FI and TC, and Imerslund-Gräsbeck disease. In mammalian cells, only two enzymes depend on vitamin B12: L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (EC 5.4.99.2) in mitochondria, and methionine synthase (EC 2.1.1.13) in cytoplasm. Direct metabolic consequences of impaired B12 absorption and metabolism are the accumulation of methylmalonic acid (MMA) and of homocysteine (HCy), respectively. More than a dozen genes are involved in the intracellular metabolism of B12, and their defects result in several diseases designated cblA through cblJ This article reviews the steps involved in vitamin B12 absorption, transport and intracellular metabolism, and the main related genetic defects. PMID:26983191

  6. Vitamin B12 deficiency: the great masquerader.

    PubMed

    Dobrozsi, Sarah; Flood, Veronica H; Panepinto, Julie; Scott, J Paul; Brandow, Amanda

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in children, with nonspecific symptoms including failure to thrive, vomiting, anorexia, and neurologic changes with or without hematologic disturbances. The neuropathy can be severe and irreversible. We report four cases of children with B12 deficiency secondary to adult type pernicious anemia, a presumed transport protein abnormality, and a metabolic defect. All demonstrated neurologic compromise that improved after initiation of B12 therapy. Hematologic manifestations may be preceded by constitutional, gastrointestinal, or neurologic changes, and must raise concern for B12 deficiency. Therapy should be initiated promptly in this setting to prevent irreversible neuropathy. PMID:24115632

  7. Release of vitamin B12 from carrier erythrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eichler, H G; Raffesberg, W; Gasic, S; Korn, A; Bauer, K

    1985-01-01

    Resealed erythrocyte ghosts (carrier erythrocytes) are potential in vivo carriers for exogenous enzymes or drugs, but data on carrier erythrocyte survival and clearance rate in humans are not available. We have measured the in vitro efflux of vitamin B12 encapsulated in human red cell by hypo-osmotic dialysis, as a preliminary for its use as a marker for in vivo human studies. Vitamin B12 was encapsulated into erythrocytes at a relative incorporation efficiency of 60%. In vitro hemolysis of carrier erythrocytes was minimal over 40 h, but vitamin B12 was rapidly lost from the cells, efflux t/2 was 5 h, presumably by diffusion through the intact cell membrane. Vitamin B12 (Vit B12) may, nevertheless, be a suitable marker for short-term human studies on carrier erythrocyte splanchnic clearance. PMID:4048655

  8. Determining Functional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Khodabandehloo, Niloofar; Vakili, Masoud; Hashemian, Zahra; Zare Zardini, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Elevated concentration of serum total homocysteine usually occurs in vitamin B-12 deficiency. This metabolite can be measured and used for screening functional vitamin B-12 deficiency. Objectives: We assessed functional vitamin B12 deficiency in Tehranian elderly admitted to elderly research center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences. Patients and Materials: A cross-sectional study was performed on 232 elderly admitted to elderly research center in Tehran, Iran in 2012. According to other studies, individuals were classified into two groups: high risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency (< 220 pmol/L) and borderline vitamin B-12 (220–258 pmol/L) accompanied by elevated homocysteine (> 15 micmol/L). Results: Cut-off of 15.0 pmol/L for homocysteine was identified for persons with normal or elevated concentrations. Among persons aged 65–74 and ≥ 75 years, respectively, 56% and 93% were at high risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Conclusions: The prevalence of B12 deficiency was higher in this study compared to other studies, so more attention and massive efficacious policy should be designed to reduce the deficiency of this vitamin. PMID:26430518

  9. Dietary Sources of Vitamin B-12 and Their Association with Vitamin B-12 Status Markers in Healthy Older Adults in the B-PROOF Study

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P.; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L.; van der Velde, Nathalie; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin B-12 concentrations are frequently observed among older adults. Malabsorption is hypothesized to be an important cause of vitamin B-12 inadequacy, but serum vitamin B-12 may also be differently affected by vitamin B-12 intake depending on food source. We examined associations between dietary sources of vitamin B-12 (meat, fish and shellfish, eggs, dairy) and serum vitamin B-12, using cross-sectional data of 600 Dutch community-dwelling adults (≥65 years). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in serum. Associations were studied over tertiles of vitamin B-12 intake using P for trend, by calculating prevalence ratios (PRs), and splines. Whereas men had significantly higher vitamin B-12 intakes than women (median (25th–75th percentile): 4.18 (3.29–5.38) versus 3.47 (2.64–4.40) μg/day), serum vitamin B-12 did not differ between the two sexes (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 275 ± 104 pmol/L versus 290 ± 113 pmol/L). Higher intakes of dairy, meat, and fish and shellfish were significantly associated with higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations, where meat and dairy—predominantly milk were the most potent sources. Egg intake did not significantly contribute to higher serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Thus, dairy and meat were the most important contributors to serum vitamin B-12, followed by fish and shellfish. PMID:26389945

  10. Folate, vitamin B12 and human health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared func...

  11. Microbial production of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Martens, J H; Barg, H; Warren, M J; Jahn, D

    2002-03-01

    One of the most alluring and fascinating molecules in the world of science and medicine is vitamin B12 (cobalamin), which was originally discovered as the anti pernicious anemia factor and whose enigmatic complex structure is matched only by the beguiling chemistry that it mediates. The biosynthesis of this essential nutrient is intricate, involved and, remarkably, confined to certain members of the prokaryotic world, seemingly never have to have made the eukaryotic transition. In humans, the vitamin is required in trace amounts (approximately 1 microg/day) to assist the actions of only two enzymes, methionine synthase and (R)-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase; yet commercially more than 10 t of B12 are produced each year from a number of bacterial species. The rich scientific history of vitamin B12 research, its biological functions and the pathways employed by bacteria for its de novo synthesis are described. Current strategies for the improvement of vitamin B12 production using modern biotechnological techniques are outlined. PMID:11935176

  12. [Production of vitamin B12 by fermentation].

    PubMed

    Oğultekin, R; Oner, M

    1985-10-01

    In this work, the methods and technology of vitamin B12 production were studied on laboratory scale. The microorganisms used for experiments were Streptomyces olivaceus IFO 3409, Streptomyces olivaceus CBS 355.53 and Streptomyces griseus CBS 161.45 which were brought from foreign countries. Vitamin B12 activity that have been obtained from fermentation experiments of each microorganisms are determined by microbiological assays using Lactobacillus leichmannii IFO 3073 (ATCC 4797) which is a test microorganism. As a result of these assays S. olivaceus IFO 3409 (2 micrograms/ml) was found as the most efficient strain were followed by S. olivaceus CBS 355.53 and S. griseus CBS 16.45 respectively. PMID:3938519

  13. Regulation of phytoplankton dynamics by vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Gobler, C. J.; Okbamichael, M.; Taylor, G. T.

    2006-02-01

    Despite the biological necessity of vitamin B12 (cobalamin), its importance in phytoplankton ecology has been ignored for nearly three decades. Here we report strong and selective responses of phytoplankton communities to varying low levels (5-87 pM) of dissolved B12 in several coastal embayments. The ecological importance of this vitamin is inferred from observed declines in dissolved B12 levels as field populations of large (>5 μm) phytoplankton increased. In contrast, biomass of small (<5 μm) phytoplankton varied independently of B12 concentrations. These observations were corroborated by field-based nutrient amendment experiments, in which B12 additions stimulated growth of large phytoplankton taxa 6-fold over unamended controls. In contrast, small taxa (<5 μm) were largely unaffected. This study provides the first evidence of vitamin B12's influence on phytoplankton field population dynamics based on direct chemical measurements of cobalamin, and implicates B12 as an important organic regulator of photoautotrophic fertility in marine systems.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and....1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88CoN14O14P, CAS Reg. No. 68-0919... exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may be used in infant formula in...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B 12..

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12.. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B 12.. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin B 12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B 12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin B 12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B 12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5945 - Vitamin B12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin B12. 582.5945 Section 582.5945 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5945 Vitamin B12. (a) Product. Vitamin B12. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. Neuro-regression in vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sanwar; Nathani, Shweta

    2009-01-01

    Neuroregression in infants has varied aetiology and vitamin B12 deficiency is one of the uncommon causes. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency is encountered in malnourished infants or in offspring of strict vegan mothers. We present two cases, both infants of 10 and 8 months of age, whose mothers had vitamin B12 deficiency. On admission, the patients were apathic, hypotonic and lethargic. Serum vitamin B12 levels were below normal limits. On cranial MRI, T2-weighted images revealed frontoparietal cortical atrophy. Both the infants responded to vitamin B12 treatment. PMID:21686891

  5. Vitamin B12 deficiency in relation to functional disabilities.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Breanna S; Tangney, Christy C; Gustashaw, Kristin A R; Rasmussen, Heather E

    2013-11-01

    This study was designed to assess whether symptoms, functional measures, and reported disabilities were associated with vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency when defined in three ways. Participants, aged 60 or more years of age, in 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were categorized in relation to three previously used definitions of B12 deficiency: (1) serum B12 < 148 pmol/L; (2) serum B12 < 200 pmol/L and serum homocysteine > 20 μmol/L; and (3) serum B12 < 258 pmol/L or serum methylmalonic acid > 0.21 μmol/L. Functional measures of peripheral neuropathy, balance, cognitive function, gait speed, along with self-reported disability (including activities of daily living) were examined with standardized instruments by trained NHANES interviewers and technicians. Individuals identified as B12 deficient by definition 2 were more likely to manifest peripheral neuropathy OR (odds) (95% confidence intervals), p value: 9.70 (2.24, 42.07), 0.004 and report greater total disability, 19.61 (6.22, 61.86) 0.0001 after adjustments for age, sex, race, serum creatinine, and ferritin concentrations, smoking, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Smaller, but significantly increased, odds of peripheral neuropathy and total disability were also observed when definition 3 was applied. Functional measures and reported disabilities were associated with B12 deficiency definitions that include B12 biomarkers (homocysteine or methylmalonic acid). Further study of these definitions is needed to alert clinicians of possible subclinical B12 deficiency because functional decline amongst older adults may be correctable if the individual is B12 replete. PMID:24225845

  6. [Vegetarians are at high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Javid, Parva; Christensen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Since vegetarians have a lower intake of vitamin B12 (B12) than non-vegetarians, they are at increased risk of developing B12 deficiency. The less animal products the food contains the worse the B12 status. However, even lacto-ovo-vegetarians run the risk of becoming deficient in B12. Vegetarians are recommended regularly to take supplements of B12, and they should be informed of the lacking content of B12 of plant products and the hazards of B12 deficiency. Furthermore, vegetarians should routinely be checked for possible B12 deficiency. PMID:26750191

  7. How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians?

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Roman; Parrott, Scott James; Raj, Sudha; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Lucus, Debbie

    2013-02-01

    Vegetarians are at risk for vitamin B(12) (B12) deficiency due to suboptimal intake. The goal of the present literature review was to assess the rate of B12 depletion and deficiency among vegetarians and vegans. Using a PubMed search to identify relevant publications, 18 articles were found that reported B12 deficiency rates from studies that identified deficiency by measuring methylmalonic acid, holo-transcobalamin II, or both. The deficiency rates reported for specific populations were as follows: 62% among pregnant women, between 25% and almost 86% among children, 21-41% among adolescents, and 11-90% among the elderly. Higher rates of deficiency were reported among vegans compared with vegetarians and among individuals who had adhered to a vegetarian diet since birth compared with those who had adopted such a diet later in life. The main finding of this review is that vegetarians develop B12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residency, age, or type of vegetarian diet. Vegetarians should thus take preventive measures to ensure adequate intake of this vitamin, including regular consumption of supplements containing B12. PMID:23356638

  8. [Hemolytic anemias and vitamin B12 deficieny].

    PubMed

    Dietzfelbinger, Hermann; Hubmann, Max

    2015-08-01

    Hemolytic anemias consist of corpuscular, immun-hemolytic and toxic hemolytic anemias. Within the group of corpuscular hemolytic anemias, except for the paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), all symptoms are caused by underlying heredetiary disorders within the red blood cell membran (hereditary spherocytosis), deficiencies of red cell enzymes (G6PDH- and pyrovatkinase deficiency) or disorders in the hemoglobin molecule (thalassaemia and sickle cell disease). Immune-hemolytic anemias are acquired hemolytic anemias and hemolysis is caused by auto- or allo-antibodies which are directed against red blood cell antigens. They are classified as warm, cold, mixed type or drug-induced hemolytic anemia. Therapy consists of glucocorticoids and other immunsuppressive drugs. Pernicious anemia is the most important vitamin B12 deficiency disorder. Diagnosis relies on cobalamin deficiency and antibodies to intrinsic factor. The management should focus on a possibly life-long replacement treatment with cobalamin. PMID:26306021

  9. [Treatable Dementia due to Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency].

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Toshihiro

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin deficiency is one of the major causes of treatable dementia. Specifically, patients suffering from dementia frequentry display low serum levels of vitamin B(12). There is a close metabolic interaction between folate and vitamin B(12). Folate deficiency causes various neuropsychiatric symptoms, which resemble those observed in vitamin B(12) deficiency. This review summarizes, the basic pathophysiology of vitamin B(12) and folate deficiency, its clinical diagnosis, associated neuropsychiatric symptoms such as subacute combined degeneration and dementia, and epidemiological studies of cognitive decline and brain atrophy. PMID:27056859

  10. Bound vitamin B12 absorption in patients with low serum B12 levels.

    PubMed

    Miller, A; Furlong, D; Burrows, B A; Slingerland, D W

    1992-07-01

    In many patients with low serum levels of vitamin B12, the absorption of the free vitamin has been normal. The present study, using a total body counter 57CoB12 absorption method that clearly separated those with intrinsic factor deficiency from controls, found that of 94 patients with low B12 levels and intact stomachs in whom the absorption of free and bound B12 was determined, 44 (47%) had normal absorption of both. However, 20 of the 94 (21%) with normal absorption of free B12 had low absorption of bound B12. The remainder (32%) had low absorption of both free and bound B12. All patients with high serum gastrin levels had low bound B12 absorption, but so did 21% of those patients with normal serum gastrin levels. PMID:1609768

  11. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Bito, Tomohiro; Teng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups. PMID:24803097

  12. Selective vitamin B12 malabsorption in two siblings

    PubMed Central

    Khakee, Sam; Stachewitsch, Andrew; Katz, Max

    1974-01-01

    Two siblings with megaloblastic anemia responsive to parenteral vitamin B12 were studied to elucidate the cause of the B12 deficiency. Gastric juice from both contained acid and functional intrinsic factor. Serum contained transcobalamin II and lacked antibodies to intrinsic factor. Schilling tests showed vitamin B12 malabsorption uncorrected by hog intrinsic factor or pancreatic extract. Other parameters of small intestinal function were normal. Proteinuria was initially present in both but cleared in one following treatment with B12. These patients with “familial selective vitamin B12 malabsorption” are the first reported from Canada. Only 37 cases have been reported in the world literature to date. PMID:4817548

  13. Enhancing the vitamin B12 production and growth of Propionibacterium freudenreichii in tofu wastewater via a light-induced vitamin B12 riboswitch.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Zhu, Xuan; Shen, Yubiao; Yao, Huanghong; Wang, Peiheng; Ye, Kun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Qing

    2015-12-01

    The vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch is a crucial factor that regulates gene transcription to mediate the growth of and vitamin B12 synthesis by Propionibacterium freudenreichii. In this study, the effect of various wavelengths of light on the growth rate and vitamin B12 synthesis was studied. Red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were selected, and a dark condition was used as the control. The microorganism growth rate was measured using a spectrophotometer and plate counting, while the vitamin B12 content was determined using an HPLC-based method. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) values indicated that P. freudenreichii grew better under the continuous and discontinuous blue light conditions. Moreover, under the blue light condition, P. freudenreichii tended to have a higher growth rate (0.332 h(-1)) and vitamin B12 synthesis (ca. 10 μg/mL) in tofu wastewater than in dark conditions. HPLC analysis also showed that more methylcobalamin was produced under the blue light conditions than in the other conditions. The cbiB gene transcription results showed that blue light induced the synthesis of this vitamin B12 synthesis enzyme. Moreover, the results of inhibiting the expression of green fluorescent protein indicated that blue light removed the inhibition by the vitamin B12-dependent riboswitch. This method can be used to reduce fermentation time and produce more vitamin B12 in tofu wastewater. PMID:26373724

  14. Biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status in NHANES: a roundtable summary123456

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Phinney, Karen W; Bailey, Regan L; Blackmore, Sheena; Bock, Jay L; Brody, Lawrence C; Carmel, Ralph; Curtin, L Randy; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón A; Eckfeldt, John H; Green, Ralph; Gregory, Jesse F; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Jacobsen, Donald W; Jacques, Paul F; Lacher, David A; Molloy, Anne M; Massaro, Joseph; Mills, James L; Nexo, Ebba; Rader, Jeanne I; Selhub, Jacob; Sempos, Christopher; Shane, Barry; Stabler, Sally; Stover, Patrick; Tamura, Tsunenobu; Tedstone, Alison; Thorpe, Susan J; Johnson, Clifford L; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2011-01-01

    A roundtable to discuss the measurement of vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) status biomarkers in NHANES took place in July 2010. NHANES stopped measuring vitamin B-12–related biomarkers after 2006. The roundtable reviewed 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-12 status used in past NHANES—serum vitamin B-12, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine (tHcy)—and discussed the potential utility of measuring holotranscobalamin (holoTC) for future NHANES. The roundtable focused on public health considerations and the quality of the measurement procedures and reference methods and materials that past NHANES used or that are available for future NHANES. Roundtable members supported reinstating vitamin B-12 status measures in NHANES. They noted evolving concerns and uncertainties regarding whether subclinical (mild, asymptomatic) vitamin B-12 deficiency is a public health concern. They identified the need for evidence from clinical trials to address causal relations between subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency and adverse health outcomes as well as appropriate cutoffs for interpreting vitamin B-12–related biomarkers. They agreed that problems with sensitivity and specificity of individual biomarkers underscore the need for including at least one biomarker of circulating vitamin B-12 (serum vitamin B-12 or holoTC) and one functional biomarker (MMA or tHcy) in NHANES. The inclusion of both serum vitamin B-12 and plasma MMA, which have been associated with cognitive dysfunction and anemia in NHANES and in other population-based studies, was preferable to provide continuity with past NHANES. Reliable measurement procedures are available, and National Institute of Standards and Technology reference materials are available or in development for serum vitamin B-12 and MMA. PMID:21593512

  15. Vitamin B12 Deficiency due to Chlorofluorocarbon: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Hemlata; Chaudhary, Rekha

    2010-01-01

    Background. Vitamin B12 is vital for optimal functioning of various organ systems but more importantly the central nervous system and the hematological system. Deficiency of vitamin B12 clinically manifests as excessive daytime fatigue, memory difficulties, encephalopathy, myelopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and optic neuropathy. In occupational medicine, vitamin B12 deficiency has been reported with exposure to nitrous oxide in health care workers. However, not much is known about exposure to Freons in other industries and vitamin B12 deficiency. Aim. We are reporting a case of vitamin B12 deficiency in the setting of exposure to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases. Case Report. A 55-year-old male refrigerator mechanic experienced recurrent visual symptoms, which included diplopia and blurring. A complete workup was done and was significant of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, his B12 levels were refractory to supplementation. Appropriate precautions at workplace improved patient's symptoms and were associated with significant improvement in B12 levels. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of vitamin B12 deficiency (that remains refractory to supplementation) in the setting of exposure to Freon gases. PMID:21461374

  16. Nature and nurture in vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zschocke, J; Schindler, S; Hoffmann, G F; Albani, M

    2002-07-01

    We report on a child in whom severe nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency was exacerbated by a genetic impairment of the folate cycle, causing reduced CSF concentrations of the methyl group donor 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Some patients with vitamin B12 deficiency may benefit from high dose folic acid supplementation, even if plasma concentrations are high. PMID:12089131

  17. Causes of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetar...

  18. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

    2014-08-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

  19. Holotranscobalamin (HoloTC, Active-B12) and Herbert's model for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency: a review and alternative hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Golding, Paul Henry

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of total vitamin B12 in serum is not a sufficiently sensitive or specific indicator for the reliable diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. Victor Herbert proposed a model for the staged development of vitamin B12 deficiency, in which holotranscobalamin (HoloTC) is the first indicator of deficiency. Based on this model, a commercial immunoassay has been controversially promoted as a replacement for the total vitamin B12 test. HoloTC is cobalamin (vitamin B12) attached to the transport protein transcobalamin, in the serum, for delivery to cells for metabolism. Although there have been many published reports supporting the claims for HoloTC, the results of some studies were inconsistent with the claim of HoloTC as the most sensitive marker of vitamin B12 deficiency. This review examines the evidence for and against the use of HoloTC, and concludes that the HoloTC immunoassay cannot be used to measure vitamin B12 status any more reliably than total vitamin B12, or to predict the onset of a metabolic deficiency, because it is based on an erroneous hypothesis and a flawed model for the staged development of vitamin B12 deficiency. The author proposes an alternative model for the development of vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27350907

  20. Vitamin B-12 concentrations in breast milk are low and are not associated with reported household hunger, recent animal source food or vitamin B-12 intake among women in rural Kenya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Breastmilk vitamin B-12 concentration may be inadequate in mothers living in regions where animal source food consumption is low or infrequent. Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes megaloglastic anemia and impairs growth and development in children. Objective: To measure vitamin B-12 in breast...

  1. [Psychiatric manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report].

    PubMed

    Durand, C; Mary, S; Brazo, P; Dollfus, S

    2003-01-01

    successively presented during a period of 5 Years before anemia have been developed. The case of Mme V. is similar in the succession of severe depression with delusion of persecution and Capgras' syndrome, delusion with lability of mood and hypomania, during a period of two Months. This report seems to be the first one of a sequence of several psychiatric states with pernicious anemia during a period of two Months with normocytosis anemia. To illustrate this illness we reviewed the literature regarding psychopathology associated with B12 deficiency. The most common psychiatric symptoms were depression, mania, psychotic symptoms, cognitive impairment and obsessive compulsive disorder. The neuropsychiatric severity by vitamin B12 deficiency and the therapeutic efficacy depends on the duration of signs and symptoms. Conclusion - We recommend consideration of B12 deficiency and serum B12 determinations in all the patients with organic mental disorders, atypical psychiatric symptoms and fluctuation of symptomatology. B12 levels should be evaluated with treatment resistant depressive disorders, dementia, psychosis or risk factors for malnutrition such as alcoholism or advancing age associated with neurological symptoms, anemia, malabsorption, gastrointestinal surgery, parasite infestation or strict vegetarian diet. In first intention, B12 deficiency should be researched by serum B12 determination (normal 200-950 pg/ml). Studies of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine showed that they are very sensitive functional indicators of cobalamin status especially when other evidence of cobalamin (B12) deficiency was equivocal. Measurement of methylmalonic acid (normal 73-271 nmol/l) and homocysteine (normal 5,4-13,9 micromol/l) should not replace the measurement of serum cobalamin. PMID:15029091

  2. Characterization of vitamin B12 in Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Kumudha, Anantharajappa; Sarada, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of nature's complex metabolite which is industrially produced using certain bacteria. Algae could be an alternative source of vitamin B12 and in this study, vitamin B12 from a halotolerant green alga, Dunaliella salina V-101 was purified and characterized. The extract of Dunaliella was purified by passing through Amberlite XAD-2 and EASI-extract vitamin B12 immunoaffinity column. The total vitamin B12 content in purified sample fractions was 42 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as determined by the chemiluminescence method which was almost close to 49 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as estimated by microbiological method. Further quantification of total vitamin B12 using gold nanoparticle (AUNPs) based aptamer showed 40 ± 0.8/100 g dry weight. There was a good correlation among all the methods of quantification. Adenosylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 which is a cofactor for methylmalonyl CoA mutase was identified by HPLC. Upon quantification, Dunaliella was found to contain 34 ± 4 μg of adenosylcobalamin for 100 g dry biomass. Authenticity of adenosylcobalmin was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), selected ion recording (SIR) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) studies. PMID:26788012

  3. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

  4. [Biosynthesis, fermentation and application of vitamin B12--a review].

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Chunxiao; Yi, Hong

    2008-06-01

    Vitamin B12 is an important nutrient widely used in feed, food and medicine field. China is the primary producing area and the VB12 production is 27 t in 2007, 77% of total production in the world. VB12 is the most complex small molecule difficult to chemosynthesize. It ismanufactured by bacteria and archaea via two alternative routes, aerobic or anaerobic pathway. The main strains used in industry fermentation are Propionibacterium freudenrechii and Pseudomonas denitrificans. The basic characteristics, biosynthesis and fermentation of vitamin B12 are reviewed. The vitamin B12 application and market are also summarized. PMID:18807971

  5. [Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in infants breastfed by vegans].

    PubMed

    Roed, Casper; Skovby, Flemming; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2009-10-19

    Weight loss and reduction of motor skills resulted in paediatric evaluation of a 10-month-old girl and a 12-month-old boy. Both children suffered form anaemia and delayed development due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by strict maternal vegan diet during pregnancy and nursing. Therapy with cyanocobalamin was instituted with remission of symptoms. Since infants risk irreversible neurologic damage following severe vitamin B12 deficiency, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory. Vegan and vegetarian women should take vitamin B12 supplementation during the pregnancy and nursing period. PMID:19852900

  6. Application of vitamin B(12)-targeting site on Lactobacillus helveticus B-1 to vitamin B(12) assay by chemiluminescence method.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuyoshi; Muramatsu, Kumi; Amano, Setsumi

    2002-09-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus B-1 is assumed to have a vitamin B(12)-targeting (or B(12)-binding) site on the cells, since the binding reaction of vitamin B(12) with L. helveticus B-1 cells proceeded instantly and quantitatively. This reaction is specific to complete B(12) compounds, cobalamins, and can be used for a vitamin B(12) assay method by chemiluminescence. The calibration graph was linear from 0.1 to 10.0 ng/mL. The B(12) contents in oyster and sardine were 75.9 and 39.4 microg/100g, respectively. These values were very close to those obtained using a chemilumi-ADVIA Centaur immunoassay system with intrinsic factor and to those obtained by microbiological assays. PMID:12234457

  7. Cobalamin's (Vitamin B12) Surprising Function as a Photoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhuo; Yamamoto, Haruki; Bauer, Carl E

    2016-08-01

    Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) is an adenosyl- or methyl-donating cofactor for many enzymes, yet many proteins with unknown or nonenzymatic function also contain B12-binding domains. Recent studies show that light excitation energy can promote covalent linkage of B12 to transcription factors with this linkage, affecting gene expression. Thus, B12 now has a newly described regulatory function. Here, our bioinformatics analysis reveals other transcription factors, photoreceptors, kinases, and oxygen sensors that harbor a B12-binding domain that could also regulate activity in response to light absorption. PMID:27217104

  8. Daily milk intake improves vitamin B-12 status in young vegetarian Indians: an intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic Indian lacto vegetarians, who make up more than half of the Indian population in different geographic regions, have distinctly low vitamin B-12 concentrations than non- vegetarians. Vegetarians consume milk but it seems that the amount is not enough to improve vitamin B-12 status or vitamin B-12 concentration in milk itself may be low. The aim of this study was to determine if daily milk consumption can improve vitamin B-12 status. Methods Fifteen male and 36 female, young healthy post-graduate volunteers participated. Blood from ten participants (4 males and 6 females) was collected (day-1). They continued their regular diet for next fourteen days and on day-15, blood of all 51 participants was collected, plasma vitamin B-12 concentration was measured and were divided into two groups; Normal (vitamin B-12 >148 pmol/L, n = 22) and Vitamin B-12 deficient (<148 pmol/L, n = 29), the remaining plasma was stored. All participants consumed 600 ml. of non-enriched buffalo milk (200 × 3) during the day along with their usual diet. Next day blood was collected for plasma holotranscobalamin II measurement. Subjects from deficient group continued to drink 400 ml of milk daily for next 14 days and blood was collected on day-30. Plasma holotranscoabalamin II (day-1, 15, 16, 30), vitamin B-12, folate, total homocysteine, creatinine and hematoloical parameters (day-1, 15, 30), and milk vitamin B-12 concentrations (day-15, 16, 30) were measured. Results Fifty seven per cent of the participants were vitamin B-12 deficient and 65% were hyperhomocysteinemic. No significant difference in biomarkers was observed when there was no intervention. Plasma holotranscobalamin II concentration increased from 19.6 to 22.27 pmol/L (p < 0.0001) 24 hrs after milk load in the whole group. Plasma vitamin B-12 increased from 92.5 to 122 pmol/L and tHcy concentrations decreased from 31.9 to 24.9 μ mol/L (p < 0.0001 for both) 14 days after regular milk

  9. Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in an adolescent white boy.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, P; Holmes, D; Ramanan, A V; Bose-Haider, B; Lewis, M J; Will, A

    2002-06-01

    Dietary deficiency of cobalamin resulting in tissue deficiency in white individuals is unusual. However, several patients with dietary deficiency who were neither vegan nor Hindu have been described. This report describes the case of a 14 year old boy who was a white non-Hindu with a very low intake of cobalamin, which was not apparent until a detailed dietary assessment was performed. The patient responded rapidly to a combination of oral and parenteral B12. This case illustrates the fact that severe dietary vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in non-Hindu white individuals. Inadequate dietary content of B12 may not be apparent until a detailed dietary assessment is performed. This patient is likely to have had subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency for several years. Increased vitamin B12 requirements associated with the adolescent growth spurt may have provoked overt tissue deficiency. PMID:12037034

  10. Dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in an adolescent white boy

    PubMed Central

    O'Gorman, P; Holmes, D; Ramanan, A V; Bose-Haider, B; Lewis, M J; Will, A

    2002-01-01

    Dietary deficiency of cobalamin resulting in tissue deficiency in white individuals is unusual. However, several patients with dietary deficiency who were neither vegan nor Hindu have been described. This report describes the case of a 14 year old boy who was a white non-Hindu with a very low intake of cobalamin, which was not apparent until a detailed dietary assessment was performed. The patient responded rapidly to a combination of oral and parenteral B12. This case illustrates the fact that severe dietary vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in non-Hindu white individuals. Inadequate dietary content of B12 may not be apparent until a detailed dietary assessment is performed. This patient is likely to have had subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency for several years. Increased vitamin B12 requirements associated with the adolescent growth spurt may have provoked overt tissue deficiency. PMID:12037034

  11. Neuroenhancement with vitamin B12-underestimated neurological significance.

    PubMed

    Gröber, Uwe; Kisters, Klaus; Schmidt, Joachim

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin B12 is a cofactor of methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is involved in different epigenomic regulatory mechanisms and especially in brain development. A Vitamin B12 deficiency expresses itself by a wide variety of neurological manifestations such as paraesthesias, skin numbness, coordination disorders and reduced nerve conduction velocity. In elderly people, a latent Vitamin B12 deficiency can be associated with a progressive brain atrophy. Moderately elevated concentrations of homocysteine (>10 µmol/L) have been associated with an increased risk of dementia, notably Alzheimer's disease, in many cross-sectional and prospective studies. Raised plasma concentrations of homocysteine is also associated with both regional and whole brain atrophy, not only in Alzheimer's disease but also in healthy elderly people. Clinician awareness should be raised to accurately diagnose and treat early Vitamin B12 deficiency to prevent irreversible structural brain damage. PMID:24352086

  12. Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2008-06-01

    This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor vitamin B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetarians (vegans) are at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, evidence now indicates that low intakes of animal-source foods, such as occur in some lacto-ovo vegetarians and many less-industrialized countries, cause vitamin B12 depletion. Malabsorption of the vitamin is most commonly observed as food-bound cobalamin malabsorption due to gastric atrophy in the elderly, and probably as a result of Helicobacter pylori infection. There is growing evidence that gene polymorphisms in transcobalamins affect plasma vitamin B12 concentrations. The primary cause of folate deficiency is low intake of sources rich in the vitamin, such as legumes and green leafy vegetables, and the consumption of these foods may explain why folate status can be adequate in relatively poor populations. Other situations in which the risk of folate deficiency increases include lactation and alcoholism. PMID:18709879

  13. Down beat nystagmus in vitamin B 12 deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Puri, V; Chaudhry, N; Satyawani, M

    2006-01-01

    A 34 years old male, presenting with progressive proximal weakness, with a neurogenic pattern on needle EMG, and a family history suggestive of an autosomal recessive disorder, was found to have additional features of myeloneuropathy and a down beat nystagmus. A low serum vitamin B12 level was found, and on vitamin B12 supplementation there was a partial clinical as well as electrophysiological recovery. PMID:16795999

  14. Serum Vitamin B12 and thyroid hormone levels in Saudi patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khamis, Fahd A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Materials and Methods: One hundred and ten patients with MS were recruited for this study after Institutional Review Board approval. All patients signed a written informed consent form and donated a single blood sample. Plasma Vitamin B12 levels, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) hormone levels were measured. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Analysis of Vitamin B12 levels in 110 patients with MS revealed that 65% had normal levels of Vitamin B12 (200–900 pg/ml), 30% had low levels of Vitamin B12 (<200 pg/ml), and 5% high levels of Vitamin B12 (higher than 900 pg/ml). Further analysis of patients with low levels of Vitamin B12 revealed that this cohort exhibited a significantly high number of patients with low levels of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) (P < 0.005). Conclusion: This study suggests a relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones. This opens the possibility that the use of therapies that increase triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels might be beneficial to patients with MS. PMID:27625581

  15. A rare case of vitamin B12 deficiency with ascites.

    PubMed

    Rajsekhar, Putta; Reddy, Mugannagari Maheshwar; Vaddera, Sameeraja; Rajini, G; Tikeli, Vinil

    2014-07-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widespread than assumed in population. At risk are older people, pregnant women, vegans, patients with renal and intestinal diseases. Vitamin B12 deficiency can present with various hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations. In the population, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in younger people is 5% to 7% which is less compared to elderly people. In developing countries, deficiency is much more common, starting in early life and persisting across the life span. Here, we present a 16-year-old female patient presenting with ascites since 2 months who was subsequently investigated and diagnosed to have nutritional megaloblastic anaemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency after exclusion of other infective, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inspite, patient was treated with antitubercular drugs but she did not respond. After supplementation of Vitamin B12, ascites responded well. Inadequate intake due to low consumption of animal source foods is the main cause of low serum vitamin B12 in younger adults and likely the main cause in poor population worldwide. PMID:25177593

  16. Human Vitamin B12 Absorption and Metabolism are Measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Using Specifically Labeled 14C-Cobalamin

    SciTech Connect

    Carkeet, C; Dueker, S R; Lango, J; Buchholz, B A; Miller, J W; Green, R; Hammock, B D; Roth, J R; Anderson, P J

    2006-01-26

    There is need for an improved test of human ability to assimilate dietary vitamin B{sub 12}. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B{sub 12} is important because defects can lead to hematological and neurological complications. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is uniquely suited for assessing absorption and kinetics of {sup 14}C-labeled substances after oral ingestion because it is more sensitive than decay counting and can measure levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) in microliter volumes of biological samples, with negligible exposure of subjects to radioactivity. The test we describe employs amounts of B{sub 12} in the range of normal dietary intake. The B{sub 12} used was quantitatively labeled with {sup 14}C at one particular atom of the DMB moiety by exploiting idiosyncrasies of Salmonellametabolism. In order to grow aerobically on ethanolamine, S. entericamust be provided with either pre-formed B{sub 12} or two of its precursors: cobinamide and dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). When provided with {sup 14}C-DMB specifically labeled in the C2 position, cells produced {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} of high specific activity (2.1 GBq/mmol, 58 mCi/mmol) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human kinetic study, a physiological dose (1.5 mg, 2.2 KBq/59 nCi) of purified {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} was administered and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin. This method opens new avenues for study of B{sub 12} assimilation.

  17. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Multiple Sclerosis; Is there Any Association?

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Mohamad Reza; Shaygannajad, Vahid; Mirpourian, Maryam; Gholamrezaei, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) deficiency can result in some clinical and paraclinical characteristics similar to what is seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This study aimed to evaluate the controversial association between vitamin B12 deficiency and MS. Methods: We measured serum vitamin B12 in 60 patients with MS and 38 healthy controls. Clinical disability was evaluated according to the Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Serum B12 concentration was measured with Radioimmunoassay Dual Isotope method. The cutoff value for low serum vitamin B12 concentrations was 75 pg/mL. Patients were in remission at the time of blood draw. Results: There were 13 (21.6%) MS patients and 10 (26.3%) controls with low serum B12 concentration with no significant difference between the groups; P>0.05. The mean serum vitamin B12 concentration in MS patients (108.9±45.3 pg/mL) was not significantly different compared with controls (98.9±44.4 pg/mL); P=0.284. Likewise, there was no correlation between the concentration of serum vitamin B12 and disease’ age of onset, duration, subtypes, or disability status. Conclusions: In contrast to some previous reports, our findings did not support any association between B12 deficiency and MS. PMID:22624086

  18. The electronic structure and chemical bonding of vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurmaev, E. Z.; Moewes, A.; Ouyang, L.; Randaccio, L.; Rulis, P.; Ching, W. Y.; Bach, M.; Neumann, M.

    2003-05-01

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and B12-derivative (methylcobalamin) are studied by means of X-ray emission (XES) and photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy. The obtained results are compared with ab initio electronic structure calculations using the orthogonalized linear combination of the atomic orbital method (OLCAO). We show that the chemical bonding in vitamin B12 is characterized by the strong Co-C bond and relatively weak axial Co-N bond. It is further confirmed that the Co-C bond in cyanocobalamin is stronger than that of methylcobalamin resulting in their different biological activity.

  19. Further Studies on the Binding of Vitamin B12 to the Cell Wall of a B12-Requiring Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takashi

    1972-01-01

    The vitamin B12-binding property of Lactobacillus leichmannii ATCC 7830 has been studied. The organism could bind 0.52 μg of B12 per mg of cells. With regard to the cellular site for B12 accumulation, three-quarters of the B12 bound to the cell was found in the crude cell wall fraction, and the remaining one-quarter was found in the particulate (ribosome) fraction. After receiving enzymatic treatments with ribonuclease, lipase, and trypsin, the wall fraction retained three-fifths of the initial B12. The possibility of cross-contamination of the wall and particulate fractions was excluded by measuring the contents of ribonucleic acid and hexosamines in each fraction. The B12-binding activity of the wall was destroyed by pretreatment of the wall with pepsin, Pronase, or trypsin. However, once bound to the wall, the B12 was not released by the same treatments. These facts suggest that B12 is bound to a polypeptide in the wall on which these enzymes act and that, once bound, B12 somehow inhibits the enzymatic actions as described earlier with L. delbrueckii no. 1. A B12-polypeptide complex was isolated by treatment with 0.2 n HCl from walls to which B12 had been bound. The complex was then purified. The complex moves as a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its molecular weight was estimated around 21,500 with microheterogeneity on a Sephadex G-75 column. The mode of B12 binding was found to be similar to that of L. delbrueckii. Images PMID:4550659

  20. Vitamin B12 and methionine deficiencies induce genome damage measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay in human B lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiayu; Cheng, Jiaoni; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    One-carbon metabolism is a network of interrelated biochemical reactions that has 2 major functions: DNA methylation and DNA synthesis. Methionine (Met), an essential amino acid, is converted to S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM), the body's main methyl group donor, which is converted to S-adenosylhomocysteine during methylation reactions. Vitamin B12 (B12) acts as a coenzyme of methionine synthase, which is required for the synthesis of Met and SAM. To determine the effects of Met and B12, we used the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in GM13705 and GM12593 cell line cultures exposed to 13 unique combinations of B12 and Met concentrations over 9 days. The nutrient levels chosen span the normal physiological ranges in humans. The Met-B12 concentration significantly and negatively correlated with all markers of genotoxicity in the 2 cell lines tested. In both cell lines, all markers of genotoxicity were significantly higher when treated with 15 μM Met than when treated with 50 μM Met, regardless of the B12 treatment level. Genotoxicity was significantly reduced in the group treated with 50 μM Met and 600 pM B12. Concentrations of 50 μM Met and 600 pM B12 are an optimal combination for stabilizing the genome. It is advisable to acquire adequate amounts of Met and B12 for maintaining genome stability. PMID:23909731

  1. Neurological consequences of vitamin B12 deficiency and its treatment.

    PubMed

    Chalouhi, Christel; Faesch, Sabine; Anthoine-Milhomme, Marie-Constance; Fulla, Yvonne; Dulac, Olivier; Chéron, Gérard

    2008-08-01

    In developed countries, the vitamin B12 deficiency usually occurs in children exclusively breast-fed, whose mothers are vegetarians, causing low stores of vitamin B12. Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency appear during the second trimester of life and include failure to thrive, lethargy, hypotonia, and arrest or regression of developmental skills. A megaloblastic anemia can be present. One half of the infants exhibit abnormal movements before the start of treatment with intramuscular cobalamin, which disappear 1 or 2 days after. More rarely, movement disorders appear a few days after treatment, whereas neurological symptoms are improving. These abnormal movements can last for 2 to 6 weeks. If not treated, vitamin B12 deficiency can cause lasting neurodisability. Therefore, efforts should be directed to preventing deficiency in pregnant and breast-feeding women on vegan diets and their infants by giving them vitamin B12 supplements. When preventive supplementation has failed, one should recognize and treat quickly an infant presenting with failure to thrive and delayed development. PMID:18708898

  2. Isolation and analysis of vitamin B12 from plant samples.

    PubMed

    Nakos, M; Pepelanova, I; Beutel, S; Krings, U; Berger, R G; Scheper, T

    2017-02-01

    Based on increased demands of strict vegetarians, an investigation of vitamin B12 content in plant sources, was carried out. The vitamin B12 concentration was determined by RP-HPLC with UV detection, after prior matrix isolation by immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC). Vitamin B12 was extracted in the presence of sodium cyanide, to transform all forms of cobalamin into cyanocobalamin. Diode array detector was used to monitor vitamin B12, after its chromatographic separation under gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid 0.025% (w/v). The method demonstrated excellent linearity with a limit of detection 0.004μg/ml. The method precision was evaluated for plant samples and it was below 0.7% (n=6). Significant amounts of vitamin B12 in plants were detected in Hippophae rhamnoides (37μg/100g dry weight), in Elymus (26μg/100g dry weight) and in Inula helenium (11μg/100g dry weight). PMID:27596424

  3. Seasonal distribution of vitamin B12 in Lake Kinneret.

    PubMed Central

    Cavari, B; Grossowicz, N

    1977-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is formed in Lake Kinneret in the hypolimnion and in the sediment. The highest value of B12 recorded in the lake water was about 100 ng/liter in November and December of 1975 at a 40-m depth. The vitamin was liberated from the hypolimnion during the turnover period. This supply of the vitamin to the photic zone was accompanied by increasing biomass of Dinoflagellates, Bacillariophyta, and Chlorophyta. The decrease in the vitamin concentration, followed by an increase, is correlated with a decline and subsequent rise in the algal biomass, respectively. Cyanophyta biomass, on the other hand, increased when the vitamin concentration in the photic zone was at its lowest level. PMID:907339

  4. Comparison of the radioisotope dilution-coated charcoal method and a microbiological method (L. leichmannii) for measuring vitamin B12 in serum

    PubMed Central

    Raven, J. L.; Walker, P. L.; Barkhan, P.

    1966-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the radioisotope dilution-coated charcoal method and a microbiological assay (with L. leichmannii as test organism) for determining the concentration of vitamin B12 in serum. A satisfactory correlation was found between the results of the two methods. Under appropriate conditions the reproducibility of the radioisotope method compared favourably with that of the microbiological method. PMID:5333257

  5. The potential cocarcinogenic effect of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Friso, Simonetta; Choi, Sang-Woon

    2005-01-01

    Since vitamin B12 serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of methyl precursors for biological methylation and enables methylfolate to be recycled for nucleotide synthesis, B12 deficiency has been known to induce hyperhomocysteinemia and inadequate DNA synthesis, along with "methylfolate trap". Even though depletion of B12, a common B-vitamin deficiency in the elderly, has not often been invoked as a causative factor in carcinogenesis, a recent animal study demonstrated that a B12-deficient diet, which was of insufficient severity to cause anemia or illness, disturbed normal homeostasis of one-carbon metabolism in the colonic mucosa and resulted in diminished genomic DNA methylation and increased uracil misincorporation in DNA, both of which are purported mechanisms for one-carbon metabolism-related colonic carcinogenesis. PMID:16197314

  6. Nitrous oxide misuse and vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Massey, Thomas H; Pickersgill, Trevor T; J Peall, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old man presented to hospital with a 5-week history of ascending limb paraesthesiae and balance difficulties. He had no medical or travel history of note, but admitted habitual nitrous oxide (N2O) inhalation. Neurological examination revealed a sensory ataxia with pseudoathetosis in the upper limbs and reduced vibration sensation to the hips bilaterally. Significant investigation results included a low serum vitamin B12 concentration, mild macrocytosis and raised serum homocysteine concentration. T2 MRI of the spinal cord demonstrated increased signal extending from C1 to T11 in keeping with a longitudinal myelitis. The patient was diagnosed with a myeloneuropathy secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting from heavy N2O inhalation. He was treated with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections and received regular physiotherapy. At discharge, he was able to mobilise short distances with the aid of a zimmer frame, and was independently mobile 8 weeks later. PMID:27247211

  7. Involuntary movements misdiagnosed as seizure during vitamin B12 treatment.

    PubMed

    Carman, Kursat Bora; Belgemen, Tugba; Yis, Uluc

    2013-11-01

    Seizures and epilepsy are a common problem in childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events are conditions that can mimic seizure and frequent in early childhood. Nonepileptic paroxysmal events can be due to physiological or exaggerated physiological responses, parasomnias, movement disorders, behavioral or psychiatric disturbances, or to hemodynamic, respiratory, or gastrointestinal dysfunction. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of failure to thrive and developmental regression, involuntary movements, and anemia. Involuntary movements rarely may appear a few days after the initiation of vitamin B12 treatments and might be misdiagnosed as seizure. Here, we report 2 patients who presented with involuntary movements with his video image. PMID:24196096

  8. Metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency: a missed opportunity to prevent dementia and stroke.

    PubMed

    Spence, J David

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this narrative review is to highlight insights into the importance and frequency of metabolic vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency, reasons why it is commonly missed, and reasons for the widespread but mistaken belief that treatment of B12 deficiency does not prevent stroke or improve cognitive function. Metabolic B12 deficiency is common, being present in 10%-40% of the population; is frequently missed; is easily treated; and contributes importantly to cognitive decline and stroke in older people. Measuring serum B12 alone is not sufficient for diagnosis; it is necessary to measure holotranscobalamin or functional markers of B12 adequacy such as methylmalonic acid or plasma total homocysteine. B-vitamin therapy with cyanocobalamin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with normal renal function but is harmful (perhaps because of thiocyanate accumulation from cyanide in cyanocobalamin) in patients with renal impairment. Methylcobalamin may be preferable in renal impairment. B12 therapy slowed gray matter atrophy and cognitive decline in the Homocysteine and B Vitamins in Cognitive Impairment Trial. Undiagnosed metabolic B12 deficiency may be an important missed opportunity for prevention of dementia and stroke; in patients with metabolic B12 deficiency, it would be prudent to offer inexpensive and nontoxic supplements of oral B12, preferably methylcobalamin or hydroxycobalamin. Future research is needed to distinguish the effects of thiocyanate from cyanocobalamin on hydrogen sulfide, and effects of treatment with methylcobalamin on cognitive function and stroke, particularly in patients with renal failure. PMID:26597770

  9. [Vitamin B12, folic acid and mental function in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Meertens, Lesbia; Solano, Liseti

    2005-03-01

    Elderly people is a vulnerable population group to specific nutrient deficiencies as vitamin B12 and folic acid, which are closely related to mental functions deterioration, especially of cognitive functions. This study was aimed to measure B12 vitamin and folic acid indicators and to establish relationships to mental function. 53 elderly, older than 60 years, living in a geriatric home were assessed. The dietary intake was evaluated by the direct weighed method, serum B12 vitamin and folic acid by radioimmunoanalysis and mental function by Foltein's mini-mental test. Dietary intake for Vit B12 was adequate and deficient for folic acid while serum levels were within normal range. Vitamin B12 levels were at marginal or deficiency values in 26,4% of the elderly and folic acid deficiency was present in 43.4%. 49% of the elderly had mental function alterations and B12 vitamin levels were significantly lower in this group. A positive association between age and mental function (elderly below 80 years had lower risk of mental impairment) and between serum B12 and mental function were found. Elderly were at risk of deficiency for both vitamins and age and mental function were associated to this risk. Further evaluation including other nutrients should be performed. PMID:15782537

  10. Quantitation of vitamin B 12 by first-derivative absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karşilayan, Huriye

    1996-08-01

    Quantitation of vitamin B 12 by first-derivative absorption spectroscopy is described. Peak-to-peak (355 nm to 370 nm) amplitudes were measured from the first derivative spectra. The method permits rapid determination of vitamin B 12, and increases the detection limit while decreasing interference by impurities. The effects of the majority of other absorbing macromolecules which may also be present in biological samples are eliminated or very considerably minimized by this method.

  11. [Neurological signs due to isolated vitamin B12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Martinez Estrada, K M; Cadabal Rodriguez, T; Miguens Blanco, I; García Méndez, L

    2013-01-01

    Isolated vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition in elderly patients but uncommon in patients younger than 30 years, with an average age of onset between 60 and 70 years. This is because the dietary cobalamin, which is normally split by enzymes in meat in the presence of hydrochloric acid and pepsin in the stomach, is not released in the stomachs of elderly patients, usually due to achlorhydria. Although the body may be unable to release cobalamin it does retain the ability to absorb vitamin B12 in its crystalline form, which is present in multivitamin preparations. Other causes are due to drugs that suppress gastric acid production. Neurological signs of vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in patients with a normal haematocrit and red cell indices. They include paresthesia, loss of sensation and strength in the limbs, and ataxia. Reflexes may be slowed down or increased. Romberg and Babinsky signs may be positive, and vibration and position sensitivity often decreases. Behavoural disorders range from irritability and memory loss to severe dementia. The symptoms often do not fully respond to treatment. A case is presented of an isolated vitamin B12 deficiency in 27 year-old female patient who was seen in primary health care. During anamnesis she mentioned low back pain, to which she attributed the loss of strength and tenderness in the right side of the body, as well as the slow and progressive onset of accompanied headache for the previous 4 days. PMID:23834987

  12. Spinal myoclonus associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Ebru Apaydin; Yuruten, Betigul

    2007-11-01

    We report a 85-year-old female patient with involuntary and regular movements restricted to abdominal muscles, resembling belly dance, with additional clinical features; ataxia, impaired cognition, neuropathy and glossitis. We initially excluded the possible cortical and spinal structural abnormalities with magnetic resonance imagings and performed routine blood analysis which revealed that serum vitamin B12 (vB12) level was under normal ranges. The relation of low serum vB12 level and myoclonus is speculative and very few studies have demonstrated such patients. In this case report, serum vB12 deficiency is discussed in the context of its probable role in the generation of spinal myoclonus. PMID:17766037

  13. Plasma folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and risk of breast cancer in women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: B vitamins such as folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 are coenzymes that are important for DNA integrity and stability. Deficiency in these B vitamins may promote tumor carcinogenesis. Objective: We prospectively evaluated plasma concentrations of folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; ...

  14. Folate–vitamin B-12 interaction in relation to cognitive impairment, anemia, and biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous reports on pernicious anemia treatment suggested that high folic acid intake adversely influences the natural history of vitamin B-12 deficiency, which affects many elderly individuals. However, experimental investigation of this hypothesis is unethical, and the few existing observational d...

  15. Associations between Vitamin B-12 Status and Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Vegetarians and Omnivores

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Wang, Ming-Yang; Lin, Mon-Chiou; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is considered an oxidative stress and a chronic inflammatory disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between vitamin B-12 status and oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic vegetarians and omnivores. We enrolled 154 patients with type 2 diabetes (54 vegetarians and 100 omnivores). Levels of fasting glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes activity, and inflammatory makers were measured. Diabetic vegetarians with higher levels of vitamin B-12 (>250 pmol/L) had significantly lower levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and higher antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase) than those with lower levels of vitamin B-12 (≤250 pmol/L). A significant association was found between vitamin B-12 status and fasting glucose (r = −0.17, p = 0.03), HbA1c (r = −0.33, p = 0.02), oxidative stress (oxidized low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, r = −0.19, p = 0.03), and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, r = 0.28, p = 0.01) in the diabetic vegetarians; vitamin B-12 status was significantly correlated with inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, r = −0.33, p < 0.01) in diabetic omnivores. As a result, we suggest that it is necessary to monitor the levels of vitamin B-12 in patients with diabetes, particularly those adhering to a vegetarian diet. PMID:26927168

  16. Associations between Vitamin B-12 Status and Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Vegetarians and Omnivores.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Wang, Ming-Yang; Lin, Mon-Chiou; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes is considered an oxidative stress and a chronic inflammatory disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between vitamin B-12 status and oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic vegetarians and omnivores. We enrolled 154 patients with type 2 diabetes (54 vegetarians and 100 omnivores). Levels of fasting glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes activity, and inflammatory makers were measured. Diabetic vegetarians with higher levels of vitamin B-12 (>250 pmol/L) had significantly lower levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c and higher antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase) than those with lower levels of vitamin B-12 (≤ 250 pmol/L). A significant association was found between vitamin B-12 status and fasting glucose (r = -0.17, p = 0.03), HbA1c (r = -0.33, p = 0.02), oxidative stress (oxidized low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, r = -0.19, p = 0.03), and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, r = 0.28, p = 0.01) in the diabetic vegetarians; vitamin B-12 status was significantly correlated with inflammatory markers (interleukin-6, r = -0.33, p < 0.01) in diabetic omnivores. As a result, we suggest that it is necessary to monitor the levels of vitamin B-12 in patients with diabetes, particularly those adhering to a vegetarian diet. PMID:26927168

  17. The role of Vitamin B12 in the critically ill-a review.

    PubMed

    Romain, M; Sviri, S; Linton, D M; Stav, I; van Heerden, P V

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin B12 is an essential micronutrient, as humans have no capacity to produce the vitamin and it needs to be ingested from animal proteins. The ingested Vitamin B12 undergoes a complex process of absorption and assimilation. Vitamin B12 is essential for cellular function. Deficiency affects 15% of patients older than 65 and results in haematological and neurological disorders. Low levels of Vitamin B12 may also be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. High levels of Vitamin B12 are associated with inflammation and represent a poor outlook for critically ill patients. Treatment of Vitamin B12 deficiency is simple, but may be lifelong. PMID:27456173

  18. Low Vitamin B12 Levels among Newly-Arrived Refugees from Bhutan, Iran and Afghanistan: A Multicentre Australian Study

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Jill; Phillips, Christine; Kay, Margaret; Webber, Murray T.; Ratcliff, Alison J.; Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Lorimer, Michelle F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin B12 deficiency is prevalent in many countries of origin of refugees. Using a threshold of 5% above which a prevalence of low Vitamin B12 is indicative of a population health problem, we hypothesised that Vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds this threshold among newly-arrived refugees resettling in Australia, and is higher among women due to their increased risk of food insecurity. This paper reports Vitamin B12 levels in a large cohort of newly arrived refugees in five Australian states and territories. Methods In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we collected Vitamin B12, folate and haematological indices on all refugees (n = 916; response rate 94% of eligible population) who had been in Australia for less than one year, and attended one of the collaborating health services between July 2010 and July 2011. Results 16.5% of participants had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<150 pmol/L). One-third of participants from Iran and Bhutan, and one-quarter of participants from Afghanistan had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Contrary to our hypothesis, low Vitamin B12 levels were more prevalent in males than females. A higher prevalence of low Vitamin B12 was also reported in older age groups in some countries. The sensitivity of macrocytosis in detecting Vitamin B12 deficiency was only 4.6%. Conclusion Vitamin B12 deficiency is an important population health issue in newly-arrived refugees from many countries. All newly-arrived refugees should be tested for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Ongoing research should investigate causes, treatment, and ways to mitigate food insecurity, and the contribution of such measures to enhancing the health of the refugee communities. PMID:23469126

  19. Characterization and bioavailability of vitamin B12-compounds from edible algae.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Takenaka, Shigeo; Kittaka-Katsura, Hiromi; Ebara, Shuhei; Miyamoto, Emi

    2002-10-01

    Substantial amounts of vitamin B12 were found in some edible algae (green and purple lavers) and algal health food (chlorella and spirulina tablets) using the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ATCC7830 microbiological assay method. Corrinoid-compounds were purified and characterized from these algae to clarify the chemical properties and bioavailability of the algal vitamin B12. True vitamin B12 is the predominate cobamide of green and purple lavers and chlorella tablets. Feeding the purple laver to vitamin B12-deficient rats significantly improved the vitamin B12 status. The results suggest that algal vitamin B12 is a bioavailable source for mammals. Pseudovitamin B12 (an inactive corrinoid) predominated in the spirulina tablets, which are not suitable for use as a vitamin B12 source, especially for vegetarians. algal health food, bioavailability, cobalamin, edible algae, vitamin B12 PMID:12656203

  20. Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in middle and older age: The HAPIEE study

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Pia; Gardiner, Julian; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Schöttker, Ben; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Jansen, Eugene; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutrient status of B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamin B-12, may be related to cognitive ageing but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the association of serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations with cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults from three Central and Eastern European populations. Methods Men and women aged 45–69 at baseline participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study were recruited in Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six urban centres in the Czech Republic. Tests of immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency and letter search were administered at baseline and repeated in 2006–2008. Serum concentrations of biomarkers at baseline were measured in a sub-sample of participants. Associations of vitamin quartiles with baseline (n = 4166) and follow-up (n = 2739) cognitive domain-specific z-scores were estimated using multiple linear regression. Results After adjusting for confounders, folate was positively associated with letter search and vitamin B-12 with word recall in cross-sectional analyses. In prospective analyses, participants in the highest quartile of folate had higher verbal fluency (p < 0.01) and immediate recall (p < 0.05) scores compared to those in the bottom quartile. In addition, participants in the highest quartile of vitamin B-12 had significantly higher verbal fluency scores (β = 0.12; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21). Conclusions Folate and vitamin B-12 were positively associated with performance in some but not all cognitive domains in older Central and Eastern Europeans. These findings do not lend unequivocal support to potential importance of folate and vitamin B-12 status for cognitive function in older age. Long-term longitudinal studies and randomised trials are required before drawing conclusions on the role of these vitamins in cognitive decline. PMID:26808046

  1. Folate and vitamin B12 status of adolescent girls in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed Central

    VanderJagt, D. J.; Spelman, K.; Ambe, J.; Datta, P.; Blackwell, W.; Crossey, M.; Glew, R. H.

    2000-01-01

    The diets of populations in many developing countries are low in folate and vitamin B12 and a deficiency of either of these vitamins results in increased risk for cardiovascular disease and neural tube defects. The rates of neural tube defects in Nigeria are among the highest reported worldwide. Since many girls marry at an early age in northern Nigeria, we therefore determined the folate and vitamin B12 status of adolescent girls between 12 and 16 years of age in Maiduguri, Nigeria. The mean serum folate concentration for subjects was 15.3 +/- 5.2 nmol/L. Whereas only four subjects (2.4%) had serum folate concentrations lower than 6.8 nmol/L, a level indicative of negative folate balance, 9% of the subjects had serum vitamin B12 concentrations at or below 134 pmol/L, the lower limit of the reference range for their age group. Serum homocysteine was measured in 56 of the 162 subjects and the mean level was 15.9 +/- 5.0 mumol/L. The majority of subjects had serum homocysteine concentrations above the upper limit of the reference range for their age group. We conclude that the adolescent girls we studied were at greater risk for vitamin B12 deficiency than folate deficiency. This conclusion is consistent with the fact that their diet included few foods that contained vitamin B12. PMID:10946529

  2. [Stability of folic acid and vitamin B12 in TPN].

    PubMed

    Almodóvar, M J; Hernández Jaras, M V; León-Sanz, M; Ortuño, B; Estenoz, J; Negro Vega, E; Marfagón, N; Herreros de Tejada, A

    1991-01-01

    The stability of folic acid (FA) in mixtures of Total Parenteral Nutrition has been and is a controversial subject, with discussion concerning the influence of factors such as temperature, light and storage time. As regards the stability of the vitamin B12, there are few studies in scientific literature. For all those reasons, we consider it necessary to make a proper study to evaluate the influence of different factors in the stability of both vitamins. The study was made on 3 liter TPN bags of the EVA type, the composition of which was as follows: AA (85g), glucosa (225g), fat (50g), Na (86mEq), K (60 mEq), Ca (15 mEq), Cl (90 mEq), P (17 mmol) acetate (149 mEq) and 10 ml of MVI-12 which contain 400 micrograms of PA and 5 micrograms of Vitamin B 12. Consideration was also given to the stability of these two vitamins in the same diet, to which were added 10 ml of a commercial preparation of oligo-elements. Six TPN bags were prepared (without oligo-elements); two of them were kept in a fridge and protected from the light, two were kept at room temperature and protected from the light and the other two at room temperature without protection from the light. Samples were taken from all the bags immediately after their preparation and after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The same process was carried with other TPN bags which did contain oligo-elements. The method for determining FA and Vitamin B12 was by radioassay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1764534

  3. Effect of gastrointestinal proteases on purified human intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 (IF-B12) complex.

    PubMed

    Srikumar, K; Premalatha, R

    2003-04-01

    Intrinsic factor (IF) from human gastric juice was purified and complexed with vitamin B12 (IF-B12 complex) on Sepharose-vitamin B12 affinity matrix. By labeling studies, using [(57)Co] vitamin B12 and (125)I, the specific B12 binding activity of IF was found to be 23 microg B12/mg protein, and the molecular size by gel filtration 60 kDa. Proteolysis of the IF-B12 complex by sequential treatment with pepsin, trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase A, followed by chromatography of proteolysed complex and IF-B12 showed higher mobility of proteolysed fraction. Gel filtration, however, showed same molecular size for both proteolysed and the IF-B12 complex. On SDS-PAGE, purified IF-B12 appeared as a single band of 60 kDa. The proteolysed complex had higher mobility on SDS-PAGE and did not bind to zirconium phosphate gel. Immunodiffusion with rabbit antisera had positive reaction with IF-B12, but there was no reaction with the proteolysed sample. PMID:22900303

  4. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  5. Revisiting Metformin: Annual Vitamin B12 Supplementation may become Mandatory with Long-Term Metformin Use.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, R; Gupta, K

    2010-10-01

    Monitoring of adverse drug reactions of a drug is a continuous process and runs through-out the life of a drug. Many rare adverse effects of a drug are documented after years of use; when a single case (signal generation) is reported leading subsequently to reporting of more cases. Deficiency of Vitamin B12 (vit B(12)) is a known sequel of prolonged metformin therapy. It was recommended to have annual measurement of serum vit B(12) levels in patients on long term metformin therapy way back in 1970 itself. After more than 50 years of use of metformin, we have come to know that metformin induced vit B(12) deficiency can cause neuropathy; forcing to change the recommendation from annual screening of vit B(12) levels to annual supplementation of vit B(12). PMID:21264109

  6. A review of vitamin B12 in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Brescoll, Jennifer; Daveluy, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is important in the hematological and nervous systems, and it has a complex relationship with the skin. Altered cobalamin levels can lead to dermatological manifestations, which may indicate a deficiency or excess of this vitamin. The biochemistry and metabolism of cobalamin is complex, and diseases can be associated with alterations of this metabolic pathway. The cutaneous manifestations of cobalamin deficiency include hyperpigmentation (most commonly); hair and nail changes; and oral changes, including glossitis. Additionally, several dermatologic conditions, including vitiligo, aphthous stomatitis, atopic dermatitis, and acne are related to cobalamin excess or deficiency. The cutaneous complications of cobalamin therapy include acne, rosacea, and allergic site reactions, or anaphylaxis with cobalamin injections. As cobalt is a component of cobalamin, patients with cobalt sensitivity have been reported to have cutaneous manifestations when receiving cobalamin replacement therapy. PMID:25559140

  7. Vitamin B12 as a modulator of gut microbial ecology

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Patrick H.; Taga, Michiko E.; Goodman, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial mechanisms and key metabolites that shape the composition of the human gut microbiota are largely unknown, impeding efforts to manipulate dysbiotic microbial communities towards stability and health. Vitamins, which by definition are not synthesized in sufficient quantities by the host and can mediate fundamental biological processes in microbes, represent an attractive target for reshaping microbial communities. Here, we discuss how vitamin B12 (cobalamin) impacts diverse host-microbe symbioses. Although cobalamin is synthesized by some human gut microbes, it is a precious resource in the gut and is likely not provisioned to the host in significant quantities. However, this vitamin may make an unrecognized contribution in shaping the structure and function of human gut microbial communities. PMID:25440056

  8. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lian-Hua; Quan, Zhen-Yu; Piao, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Meng-Hui; Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su

    2016-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients' clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15-0.60), 0.33 (0.17-0.65), and 0.19 (0.09-0.38). Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02-3.98). HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels), whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results. PMID:27376276

  9. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lian-Hua; Quan, Zhen-Yu; Piao, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Meng-Hui; Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su

    2016-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients’ clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15–0.60), 0.33 (0.17–0.65), and 0.19 (0.09–0.38). Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02–3.98). HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels), whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results. PMID:27376276

  10. Anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand of vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Amrita B.; Han, Andrew W.; Mehta, Angad P.; Mok, Kenny C.; Osadchiy, Vadim; Begley, Tadhg P.; Taga, Michiko E.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is required by humans and other organisms for diverse metabolic processes, although only a subset of prokaryotes is capable of synthesizing B12 and other cobamide cofactors. The complete aerobic and anaerobic pathways for the de novo biosynthesis of B12 are known, with the exception of the steps leading to the anaerobic biosynthesis of the lower ligand, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Here, we report the identification and characterization of the complete pathway for anaerobic DMB biosynthesis. This pathway, identified in the obligate anaerobic bacterium Eubacterium limosum, is composed of five previously uncharacterized genes, bzaABCDE, that together direct DMB production when expressed in anaerobically cultured Escherichia coli. Expression of different combinations of the bza genes revealed that 5-hydroxybenzimidazole, 5-methoxybenzimidazole, and 5-methoxy-6-methylbenzimidazole, all of which are lower ligands of cobamides produced by other organisms, are intermediates in the pathway. The bza gene content of several bacterial and archaeal genomes is consistent with experimentally determined structures of the benzimidazoles produced by these organisms, indicating that these genes can be used to predict cobamide structure. The identification of the bza genes thus represents the last remaining unknown component of the biosynthetic pathway for not only B12 itself, but also for three other cobamide lower ligands whose biosynthesis was previously unknown. Given the importance of cobamides in environmental, industrial, and human-associated microbial metabolism, the ability to predict cobamide structure may lead to an improved ability to understand and manipulate microbial metabolism. PMID:26246619

  11. Nutrient Acquisition: The Generation of Bioactive Vitamin B12 by Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Arthur

    2016-04-25

    Many microalgae acquire vitamin B12 from marine prokaryotes. A new study demonstrates that vitamin B12 is synthesized by planktonic cyanobacteria as pseudocobalamin, a form not bioactive in microalgae. However, some microalgae can remodel pseudocobalamin to the active cobalamin form, adding complexity to our assessment of active vitamin B12 in the environment. PMID:27115686

  12. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia.

    PubMed

    Crawford, John Ross; Say, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 7-year-old Caucasian boy was hospitalised for evaluation of acute ataxia and failure to thrive, initially suspicious for an intracranial mass. Weight and body mass index were below the third percentile and he demonstrated loss of joint position and vibratory sense on examination. Laboratory studies revealed megaloblastic anaemia while an initial MRI of the brain showed no evidence of mass lesions or other abnormalities. A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods. The child was diagnosed with presumed vitamin B12 deficiency and was treated with intramuscular B12 injections. Neurological symptoms resolved promptly within several days after starting therapy. This case underlines the importance of assessing nutritional status in the evaluation of neurological dysfunction in the pediatric patient. PMID:23536622

  13. Vitamin B12 deficiency presenting as acute ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, John Ross; Say, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 7-year-old Caucasian boy was hospitalised for evaluation of acute ataxia and failure to thrive, initially suspicious for an intracranial mass. Weight and body mass index were below the third percentile and he demonstrated loss of joint position and vibratory sense on examination. Laboratory studies revealed megaloblastic anaemia while an initial MRI of the brain showed no evidence of mass lesions or other abnormalities. A dietary history revealed the child subscribed to a restrictive vegan diet with little to no intake of animal products or other fortified foods. The child was diagnosed with presumed vitamin B12 deficiency and was treated with intramuscular B12 injections. Neurological symptoms resolved promptly within several days after starting therapy. This case underlines the importance of assessing nutritional status in the evaluation of neurological dysfunction in the pediatric patient. PMID:23536622

  14. Folate and vitamin B12 status in schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Djalali, Mahmoud; Moghadam, Ali Malekshahi; Ramezankhani, Ozra; Najmi, Laya

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine red blood cell (RBC) and serum folate and vitamin B12 levels as well as their intake in schizophrenic patients. METHODS: The folate and cobalamin status of 60 schizophrenic patients (15-55 years) was compared to 60 matched healthy controls using Radio Isotope Dilution Assay (RIDA). RESULTS: Serum and RBC folate in schizophrenic patients was significantly lower than the control group. Mean serum cobalamin levels in the schizophrenic group were higher than controls. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that folate deficiency is common in schizophrenic patients; therefore, it is important to pay attention to folate levels in these patients. PMID:22247731

  15. [Rare Case of Strongyloides stercoralis with Vitamin B12 Deficiency].

    PubMed

    Kadılar, Özlem; Bozkurt, Berna; Karakeçe, Engin; Kaya, Tezcan; Çiftçi, İhsan Hakkı; Tamer, Ali

    2015-09-01

    Strongyloidiyasis is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, and mostly soil transmitted nematode disease that is seen as sporadic cases in Turkey. As may be asymptomatic in healthy individuals, it may even cause death in immunosuppressive people. We report a case of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a patient, 29 years old young male was admitted to our institution with diarrhea who has got vitamin B12 deficiency and eosinophilia. The case represents an extremely rare and in our knowledge, it is the first case in Sakarya. PMID:26470934

  16. Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tanioka, Yuri; Bito, Tomohiro

    2013-07-17

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-source based foods, including meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish, although a few plant-based foods such as certain types of dried lavers (nori) and mushrooms contain substantial and considerable amounts of vitamin B12, respectively. Unexpectedly, detailed characterization of vitamin B12 compounds in foods reveals the presence of various corrinoids that are inactive in humans. The majority of edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and certain edible shellfish predominately contain an inactive corrinoid known as pseudovitamin B12. Various factors affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. For example, vitamin B12 is partially degraded and loses its biological activity during cooking and storage of foods. The intrinsic factor-mediated gastrointestinal absorption system in humans has evolved to selectively absorb active vitamin B12 from naturally occurring vitamin B12 compounds, including its degradation products and inactive corrinoids that are present in daily meal foods. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date information on various factors that can affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. To prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify plant-source foods that contain high levels of bioactive vitamin B12 and, in conjunction, to prepare the use of crystalline vitamin B12-fortified foods. PMID:23782218

  17. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    SciTech Connect

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  18. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (<148 pmol/L) and suboptimal B12 status (148-220 pmol/L). We collected demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake data and conducted genotyping for common genetic variants linked to B-vitamin metabolism. The prevalence of deficiency and suboptimal B12 status were 14% and 20%, respectively. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were negatively associated with oral contraceptive use and first-generation immigrant status, and positively with dietary B12 intake and B12 supplement use. The prevalence of B12 inadequacy in this sample of highly educated women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements. PMID:26579949

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of vitamin B12 on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Katsuhiro; Kagaya, Noritaka; Akamatsu, Soichiro; Hayashi, Shinji; Tamesada, Makoto; Watanabe, Aiko; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Tagawa, Yoh-ichi; Kondoh, Masuo; Kawase, Masaya; Yagi, Kiyohito

    2008-02-01

    Vitamin B(12) contains a cobalt complex and accumulates at high levels in the liver. Vitamin B(12) was examined for its hepatoprotective effect on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury in mice. Vitamin B(12) decreased the blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and clearly inhibited the overaccumulation of collagen fibrils. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the liver showed that the gene expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and heat-shock protein 47, which are markers of fibrosis, were suppressed by vitamin B(12) administration. Our findings indicate that vitamin B(12) could be an effective hepatoprotective agent. PMID:18239293

  20. Effect of vitamin B12-enriched thraustochytrids on the population growth of rotifers.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Masahiro; Yukino, Tsugiyo; Watanabe, Fumio; Miyamoto, Emi; Nakano, Yoshihisa

    2007-01-01

    Newly isolated thraustochytrids showed uptake of vitamin B12 from the culture into the cells. Cultivation of thraustochytrids in a medium containing 1 microg/ml of vitamin B12 greatly increased the contents of vitamin B12 in the cells. Similarly to Schizochytrium limacinum, odd numbered fatty acids decreased in the cells of new isolates cultivated with vitamin B12. Vitamin B12-enriched thraustochytrids, strain mh0186, enhanced the population growth of rotifers fed on the cells as sole feed. PMID:17213643

  1. Determination of pantothenic acid, biotin, and vitamin B12 in nutritional products.

    PubMed

    Hudson, T S; Subramanian, S; Allen, R J

    1984-01-01

    Until recently, liquid chromatographic (LC) methodology for pantothenic acid, biotin, and B12 (cyanocobalamin) has been only marginally successful. These vitamins are difficult to determine by conventional LC techniques and UV detection at 254 or 280 nm, because either the chromophore is inadequate for detection or interference from co-eluting vitamins is overwhelming. Biotin and B12 are usually present in pharmaceutical products at concentrations 100-1000 times lower than other commonly occurring water-soluble vitamins. Co-extraction of all water-soluble vitamins results in gross interferences, especially in LC when the interfering vitamins co-elute with biotin or B12. In addition, pantothenic acid and biotin are colorless in solution and do not exhibit strong UV absorption above 240 nm. As a result, they must be quantitated either by using a low UV wavelength for detection or by derivatizing the vitamin to obtain an adequate chromophore. A description of procedures for LC determination of pantothenic acid, panthenol, cyanocobalamin, and biotin in pharmaceutical products is presented. Pantothenic acid has been measured by using both a derivatization technique and low UV wavelength detection. Biotin has been quantitated by using low UV wavelength detection. The limitations of these techniques are also discussed. Chromatographic separation of cyanocobalamin is complicated by co-eluting vitamins such as riboflavin. It is detected by using the 546 nm wavelength where riboflavin does not interfere. PMID:6501166

  2. NutriPhone: vitamin B12 testing on your smartphone (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seoho; O'Dell, Dakota; Hohenstein, Jessica; Colt, Susannah; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is the leading cause of cognitive decline in the elderly and is associated with increased risks of several acute and chronic conditions including anemia. The deficiency is prevalent among the world population, most of whom are unaware of their condition due to the lack of a simple diagnostics system. Recent advancements in the smartphone-enabled mobile health can help address this problem by making the deficiency tests more accessible. Previously, our group has demonstrated the NutriPhone, a smartphone platform for the accurate quantification of vitamin D levels. The NutriPhone technology comprises of a disposable test strip that performs a colorimetric reaction upon collecting a sample, a reusable accessory that interfaces with the smartphone camera, and a smartphone app that stores the algorithm for analyzing the test-strip reaction. In this work, we show that the NutriPhone can be expanded to measure vitamin B12 concentrations by developing a lateral flow assay for B12 that is compatible with our NutriPhone system. Our novel vitamin B12 assay incorporates blood sample processing and key reagent storage on-chip, which advances it into a sample-in-answer-out format that is suitable for point-of-care diagnostic applications. In order to enable the detection of pM levels of vitamin B12 levels, silver amplification of the initial signal is used within the total assay time of less than 15 minutes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our NutriPhone system by deploying it in a resource-limited clinical setting in India where it is used to test tens of participants for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  3. [Determination of serum vitamin B12 and folic acid by non boil (new standard) radioassay].

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, Y; Tuchii, K; Endo, N; Ikeda, R; Yasuda, K

    1994-06-01

    On purpose to study the radioassay of serum vitamin B12 and folic acid using non boil methods in with these two vitamins were released from their endogenous binding proteins with alkaline denaturation and separated the bound vitamins from the free ones with the magnetic iron particles coated these vitamin binders (purified hog intrinsic factor and beta-lactoglobulin from cow milk) were evaluated on precision and accuracy, compared with boil radioassay. 1. The reproducibilities of non boil method were 4.5 +/- 2.5% on vit. B12 and 3.5 +/- 0.2% on folate (n = 10), respectively. 2. The recovery test of the two serum vitamins with the use of cyanocobalamin and pteroylglutamic acid (J.P.) were finely showed the rations of 95.2-99.0% for vit. B12 and 101.0-108.0% for folic acid. And that of folic acid use of 5-methyl-tetrahydro-pteroylglutamic acid was showed the ratios of 101.0-104.0%. The values of folic acid measured by this method were found slightly higher than non boil method using conventional standard. 3. The correlation coefficient between non boil method and boil method were 0.987 and regression equation was showed y = 0.97x + 73.59 for vit. B12 (n = 75) and r = 0.932, y = 1.02x-0.08 (n = 78) for folic acid. 4. Normal range of serum total vit. B12 concentration was 210-920 (484 +/- 160 pg/ml, n = 259) and that of folic acid was 2.5-9.2 (5.2 +/- 1.4 ng/ml, n = 257), as well as boil method. 5. Accordingly it was considered that non boil (new standard) method was excellent for estimation of vitamin B12 and folic acid clinical status. PMID:8072237

  4. Vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 levels after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Altun, Idiris; Kurutaş, Ergül Belge

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 were altered after crush-induced peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat model. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomized into one control (n = 8) and six study groups (1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3, and 7 days after experimental nerve injury; n = 12 for each group). Crush-induced peripheral nerve injury was performed on the sciatic nerves of rats in six study groups. Tissue samples from the sites of peripheral nerve injury were obtained at 1, 6, 12, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after experimental nerve injury. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve were significantly greater at 1 and 12 hours after experimental nerve injury, while they were significantly lower at 7 days than in control group. Tissue level of vitamin B12 in the injured sciatic nerve was significantly lower at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours than in the control group. These results suggest that tissue levels of vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 vary with progression of crush-induced peripheral nerve injury, and supplementation of these vitamins in the acute period may be beneficial for acceleration of nerve regeneration. PMID:27335572

  5. Biochemistry, function, and deficiency of vitamin B12 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Bito, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Fumio

    2016-09-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a nematode that has been widely used as an animal for investigation of diverse biological phenomena. Vitamin B12 is essential for the growth of this worm, which contains two cobalamin-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase. A full complement of gene homologs encoding the enzymes associated with the mammalian intercellular metabolic processes of vitamin B12 is identified in the genome of C elegans However, this worm has no orthologs of the vitamin B12-binders that participate in human intestinal absorption and blood circulation. When the worm is treated with a vitamin B12-deficient diet for five generations (15 days), it readily develops vitamin B12 deficiency, which induces worm phenotypes (infertility, delayed growth, and shorter lifespan) that resemble the symptoms of mammalian vitamin B12 deficiency. Such phenotypes associated with vitamin B12 deficiency were readily induced in the worm. PMID:27486161

  6. Production of vitamin B-12 in tempeh, a fermented soybean food.

    PubMed

    Liem, I T; Steinkraus, K H; Cronk, T C

    1977-12-01

    Several varieties of soybeans contained generally less than 1 ng of vitamin B-12 per g. It was found that use of a lactic fermentation typical of tropical conditions during the initial soaking of the soybeans did not influence the vitamin B-12 content of the resulting tempeh. Pure tempeh molds obtained from different sources did not produce vitamin B-12. It was found that the major source of vitamin B-12 in commercial tempeh purchased in Toronto, Canada, was a bacterium that accompanies the mold during fermentation. Reinoculation of the pure bacterium onto dehulled, hydrated, and sterilized soybeans resulted in the production of 148 ng of vitamin B-12 per g. The presence of the mold, along with the bacterium, did not inhibit or enhance production of vitamin B-12. Nutritionally significant amounts of vitamin B-12 were also found in the Indonesian fermented food, ontjom. PMID:563702

  7. Biomarkers and Algorithms for the Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Luciana; Lysne, Vegard; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Behringer, Sidney; Grünert, Sarah C; Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Jacobsen, Donald W; Blom, Henk J

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl, B12) is an indispensable water-soluble micronutrient that serves as a coenzyme for cytosolic methionine synthase (MS) and mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM). Deficiency of Cbl, whether nutritional or due to inborn errors of Cbl metabolism, inactivate MS and MCM leading to the accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA), respectively. In conjunction with total B12 and its bioactive protein-bound form, holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC), Hcy, and MMA are the preferred serum biomarkers utilized to determine B12 status. Clinically, vitamin B12 deficiency leads to neurological deterioration and megaloblastic anemia, and, if left untreated, to death. Subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency (usually defined as a total serum B12 of <200 pmol/L) presents asymptomatically or with rather subtle generic symptoms that oftentimes are mistakenly ascribed to unrelated disorders. Numerous studies have now established that serum vitamin B12 has limited diagnostic value as a stand-alone marker. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 not always represent deficiency, and likewise, severe functional deficiency of the micronutrient has been documented in the presence of normal and even high levels of serum vitamin B12. This review discusses the usefulness and limitations of current biomarkers of B12 status in newborn screening, infant and adult diagnostics, the algorithms utilized to diagnose B12 deficiency and unusual findings of vitamin B12 status in various human disorders. PMID:27446930

  8. Biomarkers and Algorithms for the Diagnosis of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Luciana; Lysne, Vegard; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Behringer, Sidney; Grünert, Sarah C.; Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Jacobsen, Donald W.; Blom, Henk J.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl, B12) is an indispensable water-soluble micronutrient that serves as a coenzyme for cytosolic methionine synthase (MS) and mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM). Deficiency of Cbl, whether nutritional or due to inborn errors of Cbl metabolism, inactivate MS and MCM leading to the accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA), respectively. In conjunction with total B12 and its bioactive protein-bound form, holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC), Hcy, and MMA are the preferred serum biomarkers utilized to determine B12 status. Clinically, vitamin B12 deficiency leads to neurological deterioration and megaloblastic anemia, and, if left untreated, to death. Subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency (usually defined as a total serum B12 of <200 pmol/L) presents asymptomatically or with rather subtle generic symptoms that oftentimes are mistakenly ascribed to unrelated disorders. Numerous studies have now established that serum vitamin B12 has limited diagnostic value as a stand-alone marker. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 not always represent deficiency, and likewise, severe functional deficiency of the micronutrient has been documented in the presence of normal and even high levels of serum vitamin B12. This review discusses the usefulness and limitations of current biomarkers of B12 status in newborn screening, infant and adult diagnostics, the algorithms utilized to diagnose B12 deficiency and unusual findings of vitamin B12 status in various human disorders. PMID:27446930

  9. Vitamin B12 intake and status and cognitive function in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Doets, Esmée L; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Szczecińska, Anna; Dullemeijer, Carla; Souverein, Olga W; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; van 't Veer, Pieter; Brzozowska, Anna; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2013-01-01

    Current recommendations on vitamin B12 intake vary from 1.4 to 3.0 μg per day and are based on the amount needed for maintenance of hematologic status or on the amount needed to compensate obligatory losses. This systematic review evaluates whether the relation between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function should be considered for underpinning vitamin B12 recommendations in the future. The authors summarized dose-response evidence from randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies on the relation of vitamin B12 intake and status with cognitive function in adults and elderly people. Two randomized controlled trials and 6 cohort studies showed no association or inconsistent associations between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that serum/plasma vitamin B12 (50 pmol/L) was not associated with risk of dementia (4 cohort studies), global cognition z scores (4 cohort studies), or memory z scores (4 cohort studies). Although dose-response evidence on sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status (methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamin) was scarce, 4 of 5 cohort studies reported significant associations with risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or global cognition. Current evidence on the relation between vitamin B12 intake or status and cognitive function is not sufficient for consideration in the development of vitamin B12 recommendations. Further studies should consider the selection of sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status. PMID:23221971

  10. Maximal Load of the Vitamin B12 Transport System: A Study on Mice Treated for Four Weeks with High-Dose Vitamin B12 or Cobinamide

    PubMed Central

    Lildballe, Dorte L.; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik; Nexo, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an inert derivative, we established a mouse model using implanted osmotic minipumps to deliver saline, cobinamide (Cbi) (4.25 nmol/h), or B12 (1.75 nmol/h) for 27 days (n = 7 in each group). B12 content and markers of B12 metabolism were analysed in plasma, urine, kidney, liver, and salivary glands. Both Cbi and B12 treatment saturated the transcobalamin protein in mouse plasma. Cbi decreased the content of B12 in tissues to 33–50% of the level in control animals but did not influence any of the markers examined. B12 treatment increased the tissue B12 level up to 350%. In addition, the transcript levels for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in kidneys and for transcobalamin and transcobalamin receptor in the salivary glands were reduced. Our study confirms the feasibility of delivering drugs through the B12 transport system but emphasises that B12 status should be monitored because there is a risk of decreasing the transport of endogenous B12. This risk may lead to B12 deficiency during prolonged treatment. PMID:23049711

  11. Longitudinal association of vitamin B-6, folate, and vitamin B-12 with depressive symptoms among older adults over time123

    PubMed Central

    Tangney, Christine; Li, Hong; Ouyang, Bichun; Evans, Denis A; Morris, Martha Clare

    2010-01-01

    Background: B-vitamin deficiencies have been associated with depression; however, there is very little prospective evidence from population-based studies of older adults. Objective: We examined whether dietary intakes of vitamins B-6, folate, or vitamin B-12 were predictive of depressive symptoms over an average of 7.2 y in a community-based population of older adults. Design: The study sample consisted of 3503 adults from the Chicago Health and Aging project, an ongoing, population-based, biracial (59% African American) study in adults aged ≥65 y. Dietary assessment was made by food-frequency questionnaire. Incident depression was measured by the presence of ≥4 depressive symptoms from the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Results: The logistic regression models, which used generalized estimating equations, showed that higher total intakes, which included supplementation, of vitamins B-6 and B-12 were associated with a decreased likelihood of incident depression for up to 12 y of follow-up, after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, income, and antidepressant medication use. For example, each 10 additional milligrams of vitamin B-6 and 10 additional micrograms of vitamin B-12 were associated with 2% lower odds of depressive symptoms per year. There was no association between depressive symptoms and food intakes of these vitamins or folate. These associations remained after adjustment for smoking, alcohol use, widowhood, caregiving status, cognitive function, physical disability, and medical conditions. Conclusion: Our results support the hypotheses that high total intakes of vitamins B-6 and B-12 are protective of depressive symptoms over time in community-residing older adults. PMID:20519557

  12. The source and content of vitamin B12 in the tempehs.

    PubMed

    Areekul, S; Pattanamatum, S; Cheeramakara, C; Churdchue, K; Nitayapabskoon, S; Chongsanguan, M

    1990-03-01

    Vitamin B12 contents were determined on 10 commercial tempeh samples purchased from various markets in Jakarta, Indonesia. A relatively high vitamin B12 content was found, i.e., 19 ng/g (ranges from 1.8 to 41.4 ng/g). As soybeans contain no vitamin B12, the amount of vitamin in the tempeh must therefore be derived from the other sources during the fermentation process. The tempeh prepared in the laboratory by inoculation of the commercial starter into the sterile soybean contained a much higher amount of vitamin B12, 127 ng/g (ranges from 122 to 136 ng/g). Pure mold and a single species of bacteria were isolated from the starter and commercial tempehs. Pure mold did not produce vitamin B12 in the sterile broth, soybean and medium used for vitamin B12 production. Only the isolated bacteria, identified as K. pneumoniae, could produce vitamin B12 in those substrates. The presence of mold did not significantly enhance or inhibit the vitamin B12 production by K. pneumoniae. It was, therefore, concluded that K. pneumoniae, the bacteria contaminated during the process of tempeh production, was responsible for the vitamin B12 production. PMID:2380647

  13. Drugs and vitamin B12 and folate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lindenbaum, J

    1983-01-01

    Deficiency of either folic acid or vitamin B12 may interfere with DNA synthesis and result in megaloblastic anemia or other conditions. These 2 vitamins have dissimilar molecular structures and are present in different foods; they are also absorbed and metabolized differently. In 201 consecutive cases of megaloblastic anemia, for 90% the cause was alcoholism and poor diet; 0.5% (1 case) was related to oral contraceptives (OCs). Megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency has occasionally been reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and has been attributed to poor diet, impaired absorption, and increased tissue utilization of folate. Sulfasalazine, a compound containing a sulfa drug and a salicylate that is broken down to its active components by the gut flora, is widely used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and has been shown to impair the absorption of folic acid, polyglutamyl folate, and methyl-tetrahydrofolic acid in patients with these disorders. There is also evidence suggesting an interaction between anticonvulsant drugs and folate balance. A number of cases of megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency have been reported in women taking OCs. While in some cases no apparent cause for the megaloblastic anemia other than contraceptive therapy was demonstrated, in many patients other underlying disorders that were likely to disturb folate balance such as celiac disease, decreased dietary vitamin intake, and the administration of other drugs known to affect folate status have also been present. There is no convincing evidence that sex steroids affect folate absorption; about 20% of women taking OCs were found to have mild megaloblastic changes on Papanicolaou smears. These changes disappered after folic acid therapy, suggesting that OCs may cause an increased demand for folate limited to the reproductive system. Another finding is of low serum cobalamin levels in women using OCs; this appears however to be a laboratory abnormality

  14. Update: vitamin B12 deficiency among Bhutanese refugees resettling in the United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Cuffe, Kendra; Stauffer, William; Painter, John; Shetty, Sharmila; Montour, Jessica; Zhou, Weigong

    2014-07-18

    In 2008, clinicians performing routine medical examinations in the United States reported high rates of hematologic and neurologic disorders caused by vitamin B12 deficiency in resettled Bhutanese refugees. To confirm this finding, CDC screened Bhutanese refugees' serum samples for vitamin B12 levels and found vitamin B12 deficiency in 64% (n = 99) of samples obtained before departure and 27% (n = 64) of samples obtained after arrival in the United States. In response, CDC recommended that arriving Bhutanese refugees receive oral vitamin B12 supplements and nutrition advice. In 2012, based on anecdotal reports of decreasing rates of vitamin B12 deficiency in this population, CDC worked with select domestic refugee health programs to determine if the recommendations had reduced the vitamin B12 deficiency rate among Bhutanese refugees. PMID:25029113

  15. Iron limitation of a springtime bacterial and phytoplankton community in the ross sea: implications for vitamin b(12) nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Erin M; Saito, Mak A; Lee, Peter A; Dunbar, Robert B; Sedwick, Peter N; Ditullio, Giacomo R

    2011-01-01

    The Ross Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B(12) colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the Ross Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B(12) nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B(12), cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season Ross Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B(12) limitation in this location is consistent with previous Ross Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B(12) was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B(12) uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B(12), but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B(12) uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95 pM B(12). A rapid B(12) uptake rate was observed after 13 min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52 h. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season Ross Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B(12) production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability. PMID:21886638

  16. Iron Limitation of a Springtime Bacterial and Phytoplankton Community in the Ross Sea: Implications for Vitamin B12 Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Erin M.; Saito, Mak A.; Lee, Peter A.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DiTullio, Giacomo R.

    2011-01-01

    The Ross Sea is home to some of the largest phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Primary production in this system has previously been shown to be iron limited in the summer and periodically iron and vitamin B12 colimited. In this study, we examined trace metal limitation of biological activity in the Ross Sea in the austral spring and considered possible implications for vitamin B12 nutrition. Bottle incubation experiments demonstrated that iron limited phytoplankton growth in the austral spring while B12, cobalt, and zinc did not. This is the first demonstration of iron limitation in a Phaeocystis antarctica-dominated, early season Ross Sea phytoplankton community. The lack of B12 limitation in this location is consistent with previous Ross Sea studies in the austral summer, wherein vitamin additions did not stimulate P. antarctica growth and B12 was limiting only when bacterial abundance was low. Bottle incubation experiments and a bacterial regrowth experiment also revealed that iron addition directly enhanced bacterial growth. B12 uptake measurements in natural water samples and in an iron fertilized bottle incubation demonstrated that bacteria serve not only as a source for vitamin B12, but also as a significant sink, and that iron additions enhanced B12 uptake rates in phytoplankton but not bacteria. Additionally, vitamin uptake rates did not become saturated upon the addition of up to 95 pM B12. A rapid B12 uptake rate was observed after 13 min, which then decreased to a slower constant uptake rate over the next 52 h. Results from this study highlight the importance of iron availability in limiting early season Ross Sea phytoplankton growth and suggest that rates of vitamin B12 production and consumption may be impacted by iron availability. PMID:21886638

  17. The cardiac effects of prolonged vitamin B12 and folate deficiency in rats.

    PubMed

    Taban-Shomal, Omid; Kilter, Heiko; Wagner, Alexandra; Schorr, Heike; Umanskaya, Natalia; Hübner, Ulrich; Böhm, Michael; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Herrmann, Markus

    2009-06-01

    In the recent past, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY) has been linked to chronic heart failure. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies are the common causes of HHCY. The impact of these vitamins on cardiac function and morphology has scarcely been investigated. The aim of this study was to conduct an analysis of the cardiac effect of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in vivo. Two groups of rats, a control (Co, n = 10) and a vitamin-deficient group (VitDef, n = 10), were fed for 12 weeks with a folate and vitamin B12-free diet or an equicaloric control diet. Plasma and tissue concentrations of HCY, S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH), S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM), and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured. Moreover, echocardiographic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. VitDef animals developed a significant HHCY (Co vs VitDef: 6.8 +/- 2.7 vs 61.1 +/- 12.8 micromol/l, P < 0.001). Fractional shortening, left ventricular dimension at end-diastole and end-systole, posterior wall thickness, perivascular collagen, mast cell number, and BNP tissue levels were comparable in VitDef and Co animals. Interstitial collagen (Co vs VitDef: 6.8 +/- 3.0 vs 4.5 +/- 2.1%, P < 0.05), plasma BNP (Co vs VitDef: 180 +/- 80 vs 70 +/- 60 ng/l, P < 0.05), and tissue HCY (Co vs VitDef: 0.13 +/- 0.07 vs 0.07 +/- 0.04 micromol/g protein, P < 0.05) were lower in VitDef animals. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency do not affect cardiac function and morphology. PMID:19399644

  18. Extraction of serum vitamin B12 for radio-isotopic and Lactobacillus leichmannii assay.

    PubMed Central

    Raven, J L; Robson, M B

    1975-01-01

    The protein precipitates discarded during the extraction process of the Lactobacillus leichmannii vitamin B12 assay have been shown to contain significant amounts of vitamin B12. This loss of vitamin B12 provide a satisfactory explanation for many of the descrepancies between the serum vitamin B12 values obtained by the L. leichmannii method and the radio-isotopic method of Raven et al (1969). It is possible to produce lower results by the method of Raven et al (1969)by incorporating into that method the L. leichmannii extraction process; it is also possible to produce higher results by the L. leichmannii method using a papain extraction process. Images PMID:1150894

  19. Plasma vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid and heart rate variability in healthy young Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Sucharita, Sambashivaiah; Sowmya, Sharma; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura V; Vaz, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in the Indian population is not known, however; it is considered to be higher than in the Western population. Vitamin B12 deficiency is generally diagnosed by the plasma vitamin B12 level. Metabolites of vitamin B12 such as homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) are considered to be better markers to diagnose vitamin B12 deficiency at the tissue level. Autonomic neuropathy in vitamin B12 deficiency appears to precede other neurological signs. One of the recent techniques to evaluate autonomic neuropathy is heart rate variability (HRV). We evaluated 14 healthy young adults to explore the association of plasma vitamin B12, MMA, and Hcy levels with HRV. Resting lead II ECG was recorded and power spectral analyses were performed. Plasma MMA level was significantly and negatively correlated with the log-transformed low frequency (r = - 0.74, p = 0.002) and total power spectra (r = - 0.55, p = 0.03) of HRV in absolute units. Low frequency (LF) (r = - 0.56, p = 0.03) and high frequency (HF) (r = 0.57, p = 0.03), when represented in normalized units, were also correlated significantly with plasma MMA. In summary, plasma MMA but not vitamin B12 was significantly associated with HRV indices in a young adult population, suggesting that a tissue-level marker of vitamin B12 deficiency is more closely correlated with functional changes. PMID:24846903

  20. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 in older adults with normal nutritional status by mini nutritional assessment.

    PubMed

    Araújo, D A; Noronha, M B; Cunha, N A; Abrunhosa, S F; Rocha, A N; Amaral, T F

    2016-07-01

    Undernutrition as well as low levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid are common problems among older adults. However, recommended routine nutritional status assessment tools may result in inadequate vitamin serum levels to go unnoticed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the inadequacy of serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid within Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) classification categories among older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 97 older adults residing in care homes in Portugal. Undernutrition was identified through the MNA, and serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured using chemiluminescence. Cognitive function, depressive symptoms and functional characteristics were also assessed using the Abbreviated Mental Test Score, the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Barthel Index, respectively. The mean age of older adults was 82.2 (6.3) years; 3.1% were undernourished and 26.8% were at undernutrition risk. In the MNA normal nutritional status group, 11.8% presented vitamin B12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml), 32.4% had low serum levels (200-400 pg/ml) and 4.4% had folic acid deficiency (<3 ng/ml). A high proportion of older adults with low serum levels of vitamin B12 presenting normal nutritional status by MNA was identified. This finding emphasizes the need to evaluate serum vitamin B12 levels, independently of the MNA results. PMID:27004491

  1. [Effects of Vitamin B12 in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Peripheral Neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Nodera, Hiroyuki; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin B(12)(vB(12)) deficient is regarded as iatrogenic in some cases. Although the recommended oral intake of vB(12) has been determined, administration of vB(12) exceeding the recommended dose could have multiple pharmacological effects. "Ultra-high dose" vB(12) therapy has been used for peripheral neuropathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, suggesting its promising neuroprotective effects. PMID:26329154

  2. Effect of calcium deficiency on vitamin B12 absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Bergesen, O; Schjønsby, H; Schjerven, L

    1990-03-01

    The influence of calcium on vitamin B12 absorption was investigated in two experiments. In the first we investigated whether B12 malabsorption in rats with biliary diversion through choledochocolic fistula is caused by deficiency of calcium in the small intestine. Calcium concentrations were measured in 10 fistula- and 10 sham-operated rats. Fistula rats had steatorrhea, but the concentration of calcium in the intestinal lumen was increased. In the second experiment we studied the effect of calcium deficiency on B12 absorption. Ten young rats were fed a low-calcium diet and 10 rats a control diet for 4 weeks. Rats on the low-calcium diet had moderately reduced calcium concentration in the blood and in the intestinal juice but unaltered calcium concentration in the cytosol fraction of intestinal mucosal scrapings. The absorption of 57CoB12 was unimpaired. This suggests that moderate calcium deficiency does not influence the intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 in the rat. PMID:2320946

  3. Urinary levels of early kidney injury molecules in children with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Güneş, Ali; Aktar, Fesih; Tan, İlhan; Söker, Murat; Uluca, Ünal; Balık, Hasan; Mete, Nuriye

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate urine early kidney injury molecules, including human kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty-acid binding protein (L-FABP), N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase A (NAG), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in children with vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency (CD). Twelve children with vitamin B12 deficiency and 20 healthy matched controls were included. Hematologic parameters, serum urea, creatinine (Cr), electrolytes, B12 and folate levels were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. Urine protein, electrolytes, andurinary early markers were measured. Patients with CD had significantly higher urine electrolyte/Cr ratios (p <0.05). Significantly higher urinary KIM-1/Cr, L-FABP/Cr, NAG/Cr and NGAL/Cr were found in CD group (p <0.05). Significant negative correlations were found between levels of serum B12 and urinary markers in the patients (p <0.05). Increased urinary kidney injury molecules and electrolytes in children with B12 deficiency suggest a possible subclinical renal dysfunction, which cannot be determined by conventional kidney function tests. PMID:27606644

  4. Decreased Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Concentrations in Acne Patients After Isotretinoin Therapy: A Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Gökalp, Hilal; Bulur, I; Gürer, MA

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral isotretinoin treatment might influence the levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris with those of the healthy control group and to investigate the effect of isotretinoin treatment on these vitamins. Materials and Methods: Patients who completed 6 months of isotretinoin therapy for moderate and severe forms of acne vulgaris and a control group consisting of healthy individuals between February 2011 and March 2012 were included in the study. Before isotretinoin therapy and at 6.- months of the therapy, serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were measured. In the healthy control group, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were assessed only once. Results: In total, 120 patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris who completed 6 months isotretinoin therapy and 100 healthy individuals who constituted the control group were included in the study. Pre-treatment vitamin B12 values of the patient group were found to be statistically significantly higher (P = 0.002), but any statistically significant difference was not detected in folic acid measurements (P = 0.566). A statistically significant decrease was detected in post-treatment vitamin B12 and folic acid levels (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Vitamin B12/folic acid treatment should be given under medical surveillance before and during isotretinoin therapy. Supplementation of these vitamins should be recommended in cases of their deficiency, so as to decrease the risks of neuropsychiatric and occlusive vascular diseases. PMID:25484410

  5. Effect of a Klamath algae product ("AFA-B12") on blood levels of vitamin B12 and homocysteine in vegan subjects: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Luciana; Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Serena; Bonetto, Chiara; Pagliarani, Silvia; Benedetti, Yanina; Rocchi, Marco; Canestrari, Franco

    2009-03-01

    Vitamin B12 is a critical nutrient that is often inadequate in a plant-based (vegan) diet, thus the inclusion of a reliable vitamin B12 source in a vegan diet is recommended as essential. Unfortunately, many natural sources of vitamin B12 have been proven to contain biologically inactive vitamin B12 analogues, inadequate for human supplementation. The aim of this non-randomized open trial was to determine whether supplementation with a natural Klamath algae-based product ("AFA-B12", Aphanizomenon flos-aquae algae plus a proprietary mix of enzymes) could favorably affect the vitamin B12 status of a group of 15 vegan subjects. By assessing blood concentration of vitamin B12, folate, and more importantly homocysteine (Hcy, a reliable marker in vegans of their B12 absorption), the vitamin B12 status of the participants at the end of the 3-month intervention period, while receiving the Klamath-algae supplement (T2), was compared with their vitamin B12 status at the end of the 3-month control period (T1), when they were not receiving any supplement, having stopped taking their usual vitamin B12 supplement at the beginning of the study (T0). Compared to the control period, in the intervention period participants improved their vitamin B12 status, significantly reducing Hcy blood concentration (p=0.003). In conclusion, the Klamath algae product AFA-B12 appears to be, in a preliminary study, an adequate and reliable source of vitamin B12 in humans. PMID:20108213

  6. Vitamin B-12 supplementation of rural Mexican women changes biochemical B-12 status indicators but does not affect hematology or a bone turnover marker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on the high prevalence of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and low dietary intake of the vitamin in Latin American studies including research in Mexico, it appears that vitamin B-12 deficiency is common. Whether this is associated with adverse effects on human function is unknown. To eval...

  7. Experience with a commercial kit for the radioisotopic assay of vitamin B12 in serum: the Phadebas B12 Test

    PubMed Central

    Raven, J. L.; Robson, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    The first commercial kit for the radioisotopic assay of vitamin B12 in serum—the Phadebas B12 Test produced higher values than the radioisotopic method of Raven, Robson, Walker, and Barkham (1969) and the Lactobacillus leichmannii microbiological assay. Its normal range was 300-1100 pg/ml and its reproducibility was similar to that of the other radioisotopic method. It should be possible to lower the results obtained by the Phadebas method by modifying its standard curve and to reduce the time taken for the assay by shortening its incubation period. PMID:4821096

  8. Oral Vitamin B12 Replacement for the Treatment of Pernicious Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Catherine Qiu Hua; Low, Lian Leng; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with pernicious anemia are treated with lifelong intramuscular (IM) vitamin B12 replacement. As early as the 1950s, there were studies suggesting that oral vitamin B12 replacement may provide adequate absorption. Nevertheless, oral vitamin B12 replacement in patients with pernicious anemia remains uncommon in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 for the treatment of pernicious anemia, the recommended dosage, and the required frequency of laboratory test and clinical monitoring. Relevant articles were identified by PubMed search from January 1, 1980 to March 31, 2016 and through hand search of relevant reference articles. Two randomized controlled trials, three prospective papers, one systematic review, and three clinical reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We found that oral vitamin B12 replacement at 1000 μg daily was adequate to replace vitamin B12 levels in patients with pernicious anemia. We conclude that oral vitamin B12 is an effective alternative to vitamin B12 IM injections. Patients should be offered this alternative after an informed discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of both treatment options. PMID:27602354

  9. Interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C in pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water-soluble vitamins B6, B12 and C play important roles in maternal health as well as fetal development and physiology during gestation. This systematic review evaluates the risks and benefits of interventions with vitamins B6, B12 and C during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and child health ...

  10. Competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND Few accurate data exist on the concentration of vitamin B12 in human milk. Binding of the vitamin to haptocorrin (HC) can interfere with the assay if not removed by pretreatment, and very low values can occur in women with poor B12 status. This study evaluated two competitive enzyme bind...

  11. Oral Vitamin B12 Replacement for the Treatment of Pernicious Anemia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Catherine Qiu Hua; Low, Lian Leng; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with pernicious anemia are treated with lifelong intramuscular (IM) vitamin B12 replacement. As early as the 1950s, there were studies suggesting that oral vitamin B12 replacement may provide adequate absorption. Nevertheless, oral vitamin B12 replacement in patients with pernicious anemia remains uncommon in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 for the treatment of pernicious anemia, the recommended dosage, and the required frequency of laboratory test and clinical monitoring. Relevant articles were identified by PubMed search from January 1, 1980 to March 31, 2016 and through hand search of relevant reference articles. Two randomized controlled trials, three prospective papers, one systematic review, and three clinical reviews fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We found that oral vitamin B12 replacement at 1000 μg daily was adequate to replace vitamin B12 levels in patients with pernicious anemia. We conclude that oral vitamin B12 is an effective alternative to vitamin B12 IM injections. Patients should be offered this alternative after an informed discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of both treatment options. PMID:27602354

  12. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  13. False-normal vitamin B12 results in a patient with pernicious anaemia.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, P; Narayanan, S; Cook, P

    2015-12-01

    Pernicious anaemia is a common autoimmune disorder with a prevalence of approximately 4% amongst Europeans. If untreated, it can result in permanent neurological disability or death. Central to the diagnosis is establishing the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Concern has been raised recently regarding false-normal results obtained with competitive-binding vitamin B12 assays performed on automated biochemistry platforms in patients with pernicious anaemia due to the presence of interfering anti-intrinsic factor antibodies in the patient sample. We report a case in which diagnosis of pernicious anaemia was delayed due to false-normal vitamin B12 results. Questioning the results in light of high pre-test probability, and knowledge of the role of functional markers of vitamin B12 deficiency enabled the correct diagnosis to be made so that effective treatment could be initiated. It is crucial that those who frequently request vitamin B12 are aware of the potential problems with the available assays and how these problems can be addressed. We suggest that all patients with normal vitamin B12 levels where there is a high clinical suspicion for deficiency such as a macrocytic anaemia, neurological symptoms or megaloblastic bone marrow should have a functional assay of vitamin B12 (plasma homocysteine or methylmalonic acid) checked to further investigate for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:26277634

  14. Vitamin B-12 and homocysteine status among vegetarians: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Singer, Ingrid

    2009-05-01

    Evidence exists that well-planned vegetarian diets provide numerous health benefits and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle. It is also known that animal foods provide micronutrients that are nonexistent or available only in limited amounts in plant foods. Restriction or exclusion of all animal foods may therefore result in low intake of certain micronutrients such as vitamin B-12, thereby affecting vitamin B-12 status and elevating plasma homocysteine concentrations. Overall, the studies we reviewed showed reduced mean vitamin B-12 status and elevated mean homocysteine concentrations in vegetarians, particularly among vegans. Low vitamin B-12 intake may lead to decreased bioavailability and functional deficiency of cobalamin. Although early noticeable symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency are nonspecific (unusual fatigue, digestion problems, frequent upper respiratory infections), the best-known clinical manifestations of cobalamin malabsorption are hematologic (pernicious anemia) and neurologic symptoms. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Given these health concerns, vegetarians, particularly vegans, must be advised to carefully plan their diets, to monitor their plasma vitamin B-12 on a regular basis to facilitate early detection of low cobalamin status, and to use vitamin B-12-fortified foods or take vitamin B-12 supplements if necessary. PMID:19357223

  15. Prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency among patients with thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Collins, Aryn B; Pawlak, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Due to the non-specificity of symptoms and possibly severe consequences of untreated vitamin B-12 deficiency, screening is important for at-risk patients to ensure the prompt delivery of treatment. In this review, studies assessing the prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in thyroid dysfunction are evaluated to determine whether regular vitamin B-12 screening is necessary. A literature search was conducted using multiple electronic databases. Only original studies assessing the prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in thyroid dysfunction that reported their findings as percentages of the sample were eligible for inclusion. From a total of 7091 manuscripts generated, 6 were included in this review. The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in hypothyroidism was reported as 10, 18.6, and 40.5% in three separate studies. The prevalence of deficiency in autoimmune thyroid disease was reported as 6.3, 28, and 55.5% in three studies. The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disease are reflective of the nutrition status of the population. Autoimmune thyroid disease is also associated with the autoimmune disorders pernicious anemia and atrophic gastritis which may lead to malabsorption of vitamin B-12. Vitamin B-12 screening is recommended upon initial diagnosis with autoimmune thyroid disease and then periodically thereafter. There is not enough evidence to recommend regular screening for patients with hypothyroidism unless the underlying cause is autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:27222404

  16. Neomycin has no persistent sparing effect on vitamin B-12 status in pectin-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Cullen, R W; Oace, S M

    1989-10-01

    In the present study, rats were depleted of vitamin B-12 with fiber-free or 5% pectin diets, with or without neomycin. Through use of this intestinal antibiotic reported to "spare" vitamin B-12, we sought to determine if bacterial fermentation of pectin might explain our previous observations of negative effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status. However, neomycin did not lessen interference by pectin with vitamin B-12 metabolism. Pectin increased urinary methylmalonate and decreased propionate oxidation to a greater extent in the presence than in the absence of neomycin. Also, regardless of the presence of neomycin, the biologic half-life of injected [57Co]vitamin B-12 was 58 d for rats fed the fiber-free diets and only 38 d for rats fed 5% pectin diets. Neomycin delayed early fecal excretion of 57Co but had no persistent effect. Thus, neomycin-sensitive bacteria do not mediate the negative effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status. Pectin may interfere directly with vitamin B-12 absorption or may stimulate vitamin B-12 uptake or propionate production by microbial species that have adapted to neomycin. PMID:2555466

  17. If high folic acid aggravates vitamin B12 deficiency what should be done about it?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mary Ann

    2007-10-01

    The most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people is malabsorption of food-bound vitamin B12. Thus, it is suggested that the recommended daily allowance of 2.4 microg/d be met primarily with crystalline vitamin B12, which is believed to be well absorbed in individuals who have food-bound malabsorption. There is concern that high intakes of folic acid from fortified food and dietary supplements might mask the macrocytic anemia of vitamin B12 deficiency, thereby eliminating an important diagnostic sign. One recent study indicates that high serum folate levels during vitamin B12 deficiency exacerbate (rather than mask) anemia and worsen cognitive symptoms. Another study suggests that once vitamin B12 deficiency is established in subjects with food-bound malabsorption, 40 microg/d to 80 microg/d of oral crystalline vitamin B12 for 30 d does not reverse the biochemical signs of deficiency. Together, these studies provide further evidence that public health strategies are needed to improve vitamin B12 status in order to decrease the risk of deficiency and any potentially adverse interactions with folic acid. PMID:17972439

  18. Medical intelligence in Sweden. Vitamin B12: oral compared with parenteral?

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, M; Norberg, B; Hultdin, J; Sandstrom, H; Westman, G; Lokk, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Sweden is the only country in which oral high dose vitamin B12 has gained widespread use in the treatment of deficiency states. Objective: The aim of the study was to describe prescribing patterns and sales statistics of vitamin B12 tablets and injections in Sweden 1990–2000. Design, setting, and sources: Official statistics of cobalamin prescriptions and sales were used. Results: The use of vitamin B12 increased in Sweden 1990–2000, mainly because of an increase in the use of oral high dose vitamin B12 therapy. The experience, in statistical terms a "total investigation", comprised 1 000 000 patient years for tablets and 750 000 patient years for injections. During 2000, 13% of residents aged 70 and over were treated with vitamin B12, two of three with the tablet preparation. Most patients in Sweden requiring vitamin B12 therapy have transferred from parenteral to oral high dose vitamin B12 since 1964, when the oral preparation was introduced. Conclusion: The findings suggest that many patients in other post-industrial societies may also be suitable for oral vitamin B12 treatment. PMID:15749797

  19. Is it time for vitamin B-12 fortification? What are the questions?1234

    PubMed Central

    Green, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of folic acid fortification of flour 10 y ago, an initiative to consider fortifying flour with vitamin B-12 has gained momentum in the United States. The impetus for this move stems from several considerations, including some evidence that a proportion of neural tube defect pregnancies may be the result of vitamin B-12 rather than folate deficiency. However, no interventional trials have taken place to show the efficacy of vitamin B-12 supplementation or fortification in the primary prevention or recurrence of neural tube defect pregnancies, as was the case with folic acid. Other reasons put forward for the institution of vitamin B-12 fortification include the high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in certain demographic groups, including the elderly and the young in some countries. Much of this deficiency, however, is subclinical and not associated with manifest morbidity. Moreover, individuals affected by the most severe cases of vitamin B-12 deficiency that are associated with morbidity would not benefit from the concentrations of vitamin B-12 fortification that are practical or that are being considered, because such individuals suffer from malabsorption of vitamin B-12 rather than from an inadequacy of intake of the vitamin. In addition to the well-recognized complications of vitamin B-12 deficiency, such as macrocytic anemia and neurological complications affecting sensory and motor function, more subtle effects have also been described, including osteopenia, neurocognitive impairment, and increased vascular disease risk associated with elevated homocysteine. This analysis focuses on the research questions that are pertinent to the consideration of whether or not to introduce mandatory vitamin B-12 fortification in the United States. PMID:19141694

  20. Genetic disorders of vitamin B12 metabolism: eight complementation groups – eight genes

    PubMed Central

    Froese, D. Sean; Gravel, Roy A.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is an essential nutrient in human metabolism. Genetic diseases of vitamin B12 utilisation constitute an important fraction of inherited newborn disease. Functionally, B12 is the cofactor for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl CoA mutase. To function as a cofactor, B12 must be metabolised through a complex pathway that modifies its structure and takes it through subcellular compartments of the cell. Through the study of inherited disorders of vitamin B12 utilisation, the genes for eight complementation groups have been identified, leading to the determination of the general structure of vitamin B12 processing and providing methods for carrier testing, prenatal diagnosis and approaches to treatment. PMID:21114891

  1. Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B-12 in channel catfish

    SciTech Connect

    Limsuwan, T.; Lovell, R.T.

    1981-12-01

    A feeding experiment conducted in a controlled environment and using a vitamin B12-deficient, but otherwise nutritionally complete, purified diet revealed that intestinal microorganisms in channel catfish synthesized approximately 1.4 ng of vitamin B12 per gram of bodyweight per day. Removal of cobalt from the diet or supplementation with an antibiotic (succinylsulfathiazole) significantly reduced the rate of intestinal synthesis and liver stores of vitamin B12. Radiolabeled vitamin B12 in the blood, liver, kidneys, and spleen of fish fed 60Co in the diet indicated that the intestinally synthesized vitamin was absorbed by the fish. The primary route of absorption was directly from the digestive tract into the blood because coprophagy was prevented in the rearing aquariums and the amount of vitamin B12 dissolved in the aquarium water was too low for gill absorption. Dietary supplementation of vitamin B12 was not necessary for normal growth and erythrocyte formation in channel catfish in a 24-week feeding period. A longer period, however, may have caused a vitamin deficiency since liver-stored vitamin B 12 decreased between the 2nd and 24th weeks.

  2. The master key effect of vitamin B12 in treatment of malignancy--a potential therapy?

    PubMed

    Volkov, Ilia

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin B12 plays a functional role in a variety of organs and body systems and the list of these organs and body systems is growing. According to our working hypothesis ("Master Key Effect") vitamin B12 has some unique functions, which are still not accepted; vitamin B12 functions to keep body systems in balance, even under the stress of severe pathology. What is the explanation for elevation of cobalamin level in oncological patients? As yet I have not been able to find another explanation for high level of vitamin B12 in oncology patients other than that it is a compensatory mechanism. Perhaps following this body's "warning sign", we should start treatment with high doses of vitamin B12 to try to help the stabilization of normal function of the organs and systems. Laboratory researches should be continued to substantiate introduction of cobalamin as preliminary treatment of particular diseases. PMID:17640826

  3. Delayed auditory conduction in diabetes: is metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency responsible?

    PubMed Central

    Khattar, Deepti; Khaliq, Farah; Vaney, Neelam; Madhu, Sri Venkata

    2016-01-01

    Summary The present study aims to evaluate the functional integrity of the auditory pathway in patients with diabetes taking metformin. A further aim is to assess its association with vitamin B12 deficiency induced by metformin. Thirty diabetics taking metformin and 30 age-matched non-diabetic controls were enrolled. Stimulus-related potentials and vitamin B12 levels were evaluated in all the subjects. The diabetics showed deficient vitamin B12 levels and delayed wave III latency and III–V interpeak latency in the right ear and delayed Na and Pa wave latencies in the left ear compared with the controls. The dose and duration of metformin showed no association with the stimulus-related potentials. Therefore, although vitamin B12 levels were deficient and auditory conduction impairment was present in the diabetics on metformin, this impairment cannot be attributed to the vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27358222

  4. Study on methane fermentation and production of vitamin B12 from alcohol waste slurry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenya; Quan, Taisheng; Li, Pomin; Zhang, Yansheng; Sugiura, Norio; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2004-01-01

    We studied biogas fermentation from alcohol waste fluid to evaluate the anaerobic digestion process and the production of vitamin B12 as a byproduct. Anaerobic digestion using acclimated methanogens was performed using the continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and fixed-bed reactor packed with rock wool as carrier material at 55 degrees C. We also studied the effects of metal ions added to the culture broth on methane and vitamin B12 formation. Vitamin B12 production was 2.92 mg/L in the broth of the fixed-bed reactor, twice that of the CSTR. The optimum concentrations of trace metal ions added to the culture liquid for methane and vitamin B12 production were 1.0 and 8 mL/L for the CSTR and fixed-bed reactor, respectively. Furthermore, an effective method for extracting and purifying vitamin B12 from digested fluid was developed. PMID:15054251

  5. Transcobalamins I and II as natural transport proteins of vitamin B12.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, C A

    1975-01-01

    There are two conflicting theories of how plasma vitamin B12 (B12) is transported in man: (a) by two distinct transport proteins, transcobalamins I and II (TC I and II), each having a specific role and time of function; and (b) by three active transport proteins, TC I, II, and III, that take up B12 randomly in proportion to the unsaturated amounts of each. To test these theories a man was given 1.12 mug, 229 muCi, of [57Co]B12 mixed with food. Blood samples were taken several times on the 1st day and at lengthening intervals up to day 51. The amount of TC II-B12 was measured in each sample by: gel filtration and by precipitation with (NH4)2SO4. Total serum R-B12 was then separated into TC I and TC III by: (a) a single step anion exchange system and (b) isoelectric focusing (IEF). As the B12 was being absorbed, 92-95% of that in venous blood was carried by TC II. Absolute and percentage transport by TC II declined sharply during the first 24 h; between days 7 and 51 20-33% of the label was on TC II, and the rest was carried by R-type binders. Absolute transport by TC I did not reach a maximum until after day 1 and before day 3. Transport by an alpha2 R-type binder, TC III, could not be demonstrated. TC I was isoelectrically heterogenous, with the components focusing between pH 2.9 and 3.35. It was concluded that (a) TC II is the dominant carrier of B12 immediately after absorption; (b) maximum transport by TC I requires the passage of time after absorption; (c) after the absorbed B12 reaches equilibrium with the total body B12, about one fourth of the plasma B12 is carried by TC II and three fourth by TC I; and (d) TC I and TC II are the only functional transport proteins of plasma B12. PMID:1184739

  6. Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together regulate lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khaire, Amrita; Rathod, Richa; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Our recent study indicates that maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status influence plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profile in dams. The present study examines the effects of prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid status on lipid metabolism in the offspring. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: Control; Vitamin B12 deficient (BD); Vitamin B12 supplemented (BS); Vitamin B12 deficient group supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (BDO); Vitamin B12 supplemented group with omega-3 fatty acids (BSO). The offspring were continued on the same diets till 3 month of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased cholesterol levels (p<0.01) but reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (p<0.05), liver mRNA levels of acetyl CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) (p<0.05) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) (p<0.01) in the offspring. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to this group normalized cholesterol but not mRNA levels of ACC-1 and CPT-1. Vitamin B12 supplementation normalized the levels cholesterol to that of control but increased plasma triglyceride (p<0.01) and reduced liver mRNA levels of adiponectin, ACC-1, and CPT-1 (p<0.01 for all). Supplementation of both vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid normalized triglyceride and mRNA levels of all the above genes. Prenatal and postnatal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids together play a crucial role in regulating the genes involved in lipid metabolism in adult offspring. PMID:26003565

  7. The Folate-Vitamin B12 Interaction, Low Hemoglobin, and the Mortality Risk from Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-03-21

    Abnormal hemoglobin levels are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the mechanism underlying these associations is elusive, inadequate micronutrients, particularly folate and vitamin B12, may increase the risk for anemia, cognitive impairment, and AD. In this study, we investigated whether the nutritional status of folate and vitamin B12 is involved in the association between low hemoglobin levels and the risk of AD mortality. Data were obtained from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the NHANES (1999-2006) Linked Mortality File. A total of 4,688 participants aged ≥60 years with available baseline data were included in this study. We categorized three groups based on the quartiles of folate and vitamin B12 as follows: Group I (low folate and vitamin B12); Group II (high folate and low vitamin B12 or low folate and high vitamin B12); and Group III (high folate and vitamin B12). Of 4,688 participants, 49 subjects died due to AD. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education, smoking history, body mass index, the presence of diabetes or hypertension, and dietary intake of iron, significant increases in the AD mortality were observed in Quartile1 for hemoglobin (HR: 8.4, 95% CI: 1.4-50.8), and the overall risk of AD mortality was significantly reduced with increases in the quartile of hemoglobin (p for trend = 0.0200), in subjects with low levels of both folate and vitamin B12 at baseline. This association did not exist in subjects with at least one high level of folate and vitamin B12. Our finding shows the relationship between folate and vitamin B12 levels with respect to the association between hemoglobin levels and AD mortality. PMID:27003215

  8. Platelet MAO-B activity and vitamin B12 in old age dementias.

    PubMed

    Parnetti, L; Mecocci, P; Reboldi, G P; Santucci, C; Brunetti, M; Gaiti, A; Cadini, D; Senin, U

    1992-01-01

    Platelet MAO-B activity, serum vitamin B12 levels, and plasma folate were measured in patients suffering from presenile (AD) and senile (SDAT) dementia of Alzheimer-type, and vascular dementia (VD). MAO-B was higher in the SDAT group than in AD and controls. An inverse relationship between MAO-B activity and vit. B12 levels was documented in the whole group and in each category studied; furthermore, MAO-B was positively related to age. All the patients were then divided into two groups, according to vit. B12 levels (Group I: less than 200 pg/mL; Group II: greater than or equal to 200 pg/mL); Group I showed a significantly higher MAO-B activity with respect to Group II. The results indicate the existence of a negative association between platelet MAO-B activity and serum levels of vitamin B12 and confirm the existence of biological differences between presenile and senile dementia of Alzheimer type. PMID:1520404

  9. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiting; Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Trivedi, Malav S; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Fournier, Margot; Cuenod, Michel; Do, Kim Quang; Deth, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age), primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY). Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO) mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26799654

  10. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiting; Hodgson, Nathaniel W.; Trivedi, Malav S.; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M.; Fournier, Margot; Cuenod, Michel; Do, Kim Quang; Deth, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies indicate a crucial role for the vitamin B12 and folate-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS) in brain development and function, but vitamin B12 status in the brain across the lifespan has not been previously investigated. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) exists in multiple forms, including methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), serving as cofactors for MS and methylmalonylCoA mutase, respectively. We measured levels of five Cbl species in postmortem human frontal cortex of 43 control subjects, from 19 weeks of fetal development through 80 years of age, and 12 autistic and 9 schizophrenic subjects. Total Cbl was significantly lower in older control subjects (> 60 yrs of age), primarily reflecting a >10-fold age-dependent decline in the level of MeCbl. Levels of inactive cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) were remarkably higher in fetal brain samples. In both autistic and schizophrenic subjects MeCbl and AdoCbl levels were more than 3-fold lower than age-matched controls. In autistic subjects lower MeCbl was associated with decreased MS activity and elevated levels of its substrate homocysteine (HCY). Low levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) have been linked to both autism and schizophrenia, and both total Cbl and MeCbl levels were decreased in glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit knockout (GCLM-KO) mice, which exhibit low GSH levels. Thus our findings reveal a previously unrecognized decrease in brain vitamin B12 status across the lifespan that may reflect an adaptation to increasing antioxidant demand, while accelerated deficits due to GSH deficiency may contribute to neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26799654

  11. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-μmol/L increase above 10 μmol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 μmol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements. PMID:25998928

  12. Vitamin B12 intake and status in early pregnancy among urban South Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Tinu Mary; Duggan, Christopher; Thomas, Tinku; Bosch, Ronald; Rajendran, Ramya; Virtanen, Suvi M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the vitamin B12 status of South Indian women in early pregnancy and its relationship with sociodemographic, anthropometry and dietary intake. Methods Cross-sectional study among 366 pregnant urban South Indian women ≤14 weeks of gestation with outcome variables defined as low vitamin B12 blood concentration (<150 pmol/L) and impaired vitamin B12 status [low vitamin B12 plus elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) >0.26 μmol/L)]. Results Low plasma vitamin B12 concentration was observed in 51.1% of the women, while 42.4% had impaired B12 status. Elevated MMA, elevated homocysteine ( >10 μmol/L) and low erythrocyte folate (<283 nmol/L) was observed among 75.8%, 43.3% and 22.2% of women, respectively. The median (25th, 75th percentile) dietary intake of vitamin B12 was 1.25 (0.86, 1.96) μg/day. Lower maternal body weight was associated with higher vitamin B12 concentration [prevalence ratios (PR) (95% CI) 0.57 (0.39, 0.84)). The predictors of impaired vitamin B12 status were non-use of yoghurt [PR (95%CI) 1.63 (1.03, 2.58)], non-use of fish [PR (95% CI) 1.32 (1.01, 1.71)] and primiparity [PR (95% CI) 1.41 (1.05, 1.90)]. Conclusion A high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in early pregnancy among urban South Indian women was related to primiparity and to a low consumption of yoghurt and fish. PMID:23344013

  13. Vitamin B12 deficiency in resettled Bhutanese refugees--United States, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    2011-03-25

    Since 2008, approximately 30,000 Bhutanese refugees have been resettled in the United States. Routine medical examinations of refugees after arrival in resettlement states indicated hematologic and neurologic disorders caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. These cases were reported by examining physicians and state health departments to CDC, which initiated an investigation. This report summarizes the results of that investigation. Sera from overseas medical examinations, postarrival examinations in three state health departments (Minnesota, Utah, and Texas), and medical records and interviews at a health clinic in St. Paul, Minnesota, were evaluated. Vitamin B12 deficiency, defined as serum vitamin B12 concentration <203 pg/mL, was found in 64% (63 of 99) of overseas specimens, 27% (17 of 64) of postarrival medical screenings, and 32% (19 of 60) of Bhutanese refugees screened for vitamin B12 deficiency at the St. Paul clinic. Although the deficiencies might be multifactorial, the main cause is thought to be the diet consumed by these refugees for nearly two decades in Nepal, which lacked meat, eggs, and dairy products, the major dietary sources of vitamin B12. Additionally, infection with Helicobacter pylori might play a role. Clinicians should be aware of the risk for vitamin B12 deficiency in Bhutanese refugees. All Bhutanese refugees should be given nutrition advice and should receive supplemental vitamin B12 upon arrival in the United States. In addition, refugees with clinical manifestations suggestive of deficiency should be tested for adequate serum vitamin B12 concentrations and, if found to have a B12 deficiency, screened for underlying causes, treated with parenteral vitamin B12 or high-dose oral supplements, and evaluated for response to therapy. PMID:21430638

  14. Solution Structure and Constrained Molecular Dynamics Study of Vitamin B12 Conjugates of the Anorectic Peptide PYY(3-36).

    PubMed

    Henry, Kelly E; Kerwood, Deborah J; Allis, Damian G; Workinger, Jayme L; Bonaccorso, Ron L; Holz, George G; Roth, Christian L; Zubieta, Jon; Doyle, Robert P

    2016-05-01

    Vitamin B12 -peptide conjugates have considerable therapeutic potential through improved pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic properties imparted on the peptide upon covalent attachment to vitamin B12 (B12 ). There remains a lack of structural studies investigating the effects of B12 conjugation on peptide secondary structure. Determining the solution structure of a B12 -peptide conjugate or conjugates and measuring functions of the conjugate(s) at the target peptide receptor may offer considerable insight concerning the future design of fully optimized conjugates. This methodology is especially useful in tandem with constrained molecular dynamics (MD) studies, such that predictions may be made about conjugates not yet synthesized. Focusing on two B12 conjugates of the anorectic peptide PYY(3-36), one of which was previously demonstrated to have improved food intake reduction compared with PYY(3-36), we performed NMR structural analyses and used the information to conduct MD simulations. The study provides rare structural insight into vitamin B12 conjugates and validates the fact that B12 can be conjugated to a peptide without markedly affecting peptide secondary structure. PMID:27027248

  15. Methylmalonic Acid and Homocysteine as Indicators of Vitamin B-12 Deficiency in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vashi, Pankaj; Edwin, Persis; Popiel, Brenten; Lammersfeld, Carolyn; Gupta, Digant

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Normal or high serum vitamin B-12 levels can sometimes be seen in a B-12 deficient state, and can therefore be misleading. High levels of Methymalonic Acid (MMA) and Homocysteine (HC) have been identified as better indicators of B-12 deficiency than the actual serum B-12 level itself. We evaluated the prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency using appropriate cut-off levels of vitamin B-12, MMA and HC, and determined the relationship between serum levels of vitamin B-12, MMA and HC in cancer. Methods This is a cross-sectional study using a consecutive case series of 316 cancer patients first seen at Cancer Treatment Centers of America® (CTCA) at Midwestern Regional Medical Center between April 2014 and June 2014. All patients were evaluated at baseline for vitamin B-12 (pg/mL), MMA (nmol/L) and HC (μmol/L) levels. In accordance with previously published research, the following cut-offs were used to define vitamin B-12 deficiency: <300 pg/mL for vitamin B-12, >260 nmol/L for MMA and >12 μmol/L for HC. The relationship between B-12, MMA and HC was evaluated using Spearman's rho correlation coefficient and cross-tabulation analysis. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were estimated using the non-parametric method to further evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of vitamin B-12 using Fedosov quotient as the "gold standard". Results Mean age at presentation was 52.5 years. 134 (42.4%) patients were males while 182 (57.6%) were females. Median vitamin B-12, MMA and HC levels were 582.5 pg/mL, 146.5 nmol/L and 8.4 μmol/L respectively. Of 316 patients, 28 (8.9%) were vitamin B-12 deficient based on vitamin B-12 (<300pg/mL), 34 (10.8%) were deficient based on MMA (>260 nmol/L) while 55 (17.4%) were deficient based on HC (>12 μmol/L). Correlation analysis revealed a significant weak negative correlation between vitamin B-12 and MMA (rho = -0.22) as well as B-12 and HC (rho = -0.35). ROC curves suggested MMA to have the best discriminatory power in

  16. Levels of circulating homocysteine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate in different types of open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Burak; Kaya, Murat; Arslan, Sermal; Demir, Tamer; Güler, Mete; Kaya, Mehmet Kaan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B6 (vit-B6), serum vitamin B12 (vit-B12), and folate in healthy individuals and in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG), pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG), or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Study design: A prospective controlled trial. Participants and methods: Forty healthy subjects, 48 patients with NTG, 38 patients with PXG, and 34 patients with POAG were included in the study. Those who used vitamin supplements or medications affecting Hcy and vitamin levels were excluded from the study. The levels of Hcy and vit-B6 were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The levels of serum vit-B12 and folic acid were measured by competitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CEI). One-way analysis if variance (ANOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and the Tukey honestly significant difference test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean Hcy level of the PXG group was 15.46 ± 9.27 μmol/L which was significantly higher (P = 0.03) than that of the control group. There were no statistical differences in serum vit-B12 and folate levels among control subjects and NTG, PXG and POAG groups (P > 0.05). It was found that the mean plasma vit-B6 level was significantly higher in subjects with NTG (P = 0.03) and POAG (P = 0.025) versus controls. Mean vit-B6 levels in NTG and POAG were 30.50 ± 11.29 μg/L and 30 ± 12.15 μg/L, respectively. Conclusions: The plasma level of Hcy was found to be increased only in PXG patients and the plasma levels of vit-B6 were found to increase in the NTG and POAG sample groups. Using homocysteine and vit-B6 levels as the determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia still needs further research. PMID:20458351

  17. Subjective well-being in older adults: folate and vitamin B12 independently predict positive affect.

    PubMed

    Edney, Laura C; Burns, Nicholas R; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2015-10-28

    Vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine have long been implicated in mental illness, and growing evidence suggests that they may play a role in positive mental health. Elucidation of these relationships is confounded due to the dependence of homocysteine on available levels of vitamin B12 and folate. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and subjective well-being were assessed in a sample of 391 older, community-living adults without clinically diagnosed depression. Levels of vitamin B12, but not folate, influenced homocysteine levels 18 months later. Vitamin B12, folate and their interaction significantly predicted levels of positive affect (PA) 18 months later, but had no impact on the levels of negative affect or life satisfaction. Cross-sectional relationships between homocysteine and PA were completely attenuated in the longitudinal analyses, suggesting that the cross-sectional relationship is driven by the dependence of homocysteine on vitamin B12 and folate. This is the first study to offer some evidence of a causal link between levels of folate and vitamin B12 on PA in a large, non-clinical population. PMID:26346363

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Glutathione Status in Type 2 Diabetics with Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Karamshetty, Varun; Acharya, Jhankar D.; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Goel, Pranay

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies in vitamin B12 and glutathione (GSH) are associated with a number of diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus. We tested newly diagnosed Indian diabetic patients for correlation between their vitamin B12 and GSH, and found it to be weak. Here we seek to examine the theoretical dependence of GSH on vitamin B12 with a mathematical model of 1-carbon metabolism due to Reed and co-workers. We study the methionine cycle of the Reed-Nijhout model by developing a simple “stylized model” that captures its essential topology and whose kinetics are analytically tractable. The analysis shows—somewhat counter-intuitively—that the flux responsible for the homeostasis of homocysteine is, in fact, peripheral to the methionine cycle. Elevation of homocysteine arises from reduced activity of methionine synthase, a vitamin B12-dependent enzyme, however, this does not increase GSH biosynthesis. The model suggests that the lack of vitamin B12–GSH correlation is explained by suppression of activity in the trans-sulfuration pathway that limits the synthesis of cysteine and GSH from homocysteine. We hypothesize this “cysteine-block” is an essential consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. It can be clinically relevant to appreciate that these secondary effects of vitamin B12 deficiency could be central to its pathophysiology. PMID:27047940

  19. [Maternal Crohn's disease-related vitamin B12 deficient megaloblastic anemia in an infant].

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Wataru; Yamaoka, Masayoshi; Yokoi, Kentaro; Iwahashi, Megumi; Inage, Yuka; Arihiro, Seiji; Koganei, Kazutaka; Sugita, Akira; Ida, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    We report an 11-month-old breast-fed boy with feeding difficulties, lethargy, and developmental delay. Blood examination showed pancytopenia and decreased serum levels of vitamin B12. Anisocytosis and poikilocytes were detected in his peripheral blood, and increased megaloblastosis without leukemic cells was detected in his bone marrow. After the diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency, symptoms were improved by vitamin B12 administration. Further investigation of the mother identified Crohn's disease and suggested that the supply of vitamin B12 from the mother to the infant, via the placenta during pregnancy and via breast milk after birth, was decreased due to impaired absorption of vitamin B12 in the mother's small intestine. Magnetic resonance imaging of the boy's brain on admission showed cerebral cortex atrophy which had improved by the age of 1 year and 10 months after vitamin B12 treatment, though developmental delay was still evident at the age of 3 years. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency often presents with nonspecific manifestations, such as developmental delay and failure to thrive, in addition to anemia and is thus not easily diagnosed. To prevent severe neurological sequelae, this condition must be rapidly diagnosed, because a prolonged duration increases the risk of permanent disabilities. PMID:26861098

  20. Neurology of Nutritional Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Infants: Case Series From India and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Goraya, Jatinder Singh; Kaur, Sukhjot; Mehra, Bharat

    2015-11-01

    We studied 27 infants aged 6 to 27 months with vitamin B12 deficiency also known as "infantile tremor syndrome" in India. All were exclusively breast-fed by vegetarian mothers. Developmental delay or regression, pallor, skin hyperpigmentation, and sparse brown hair were present in all. Majority were hypotonic and involuntary movements were encountered in 18. Anemia and macrocytosis was found in 83% and 71% infants, respectively. Low serum vitamin B12 was present in 12 of 21 infants. Seven of the 9 infants with normal serum vitamin B12 had received vitamin B12 before referral. Twelve mothers had low serum vitamin B12. Cerebral atrophy was present in all the 9 infants who underwent neuroimaging. Treatment with vitamin B12 resulted in dramatic improvement in general activity and appetite within 48 to 72 hours followed by return of lost milestones. Tremors resolved in all by 3 to 4 weeks. Nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency is a treatable cause of neurologic dysfunction in infants. PMID:25953825

  1. Is there an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Miles, Lisa M; Mills, Kerry; Clarke, Robert; Dangour, Alan D

    2015-08-28

    Low vitamin B12 status is common in older people; however, its public health significance in terms of neurological manifestations remains unclear. The present systematic review evaluated the association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function and clinically relevant neurological outcomes in adults aged 50+ years. A systematic search of nine bibliographic databases (up to March 2013) identified twelve published articles describing two longitudinal and ten cross-sectional analyses. The included study populations ranged in size (n 28-2287) and mean/median age (range 65-81 years). Studies reported various neurological outcomes: nerve function; clinically measured signs and symptoms of nerve function; self-reported neurological symptoms. Studies were assessed for risk of bias, and results were synthesised qualitatively. Among the general population groups of older people, one longitudinal study reported no association, and four of seven cross-sectional studies reported limited evidence of an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes. Among groups with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of low vitamin B12 status, one longitudinal study reported an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes and three cross-sectional analyses reported no association. Overall, there is limited evidence from observational studies to suggest an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people. The heterogeneity and quality of the evidence base preclude more definitive conclusions, and further high-quality research is needed to better inform understanding of public health significance in terms of neurological function of vitamin B12 status in older people. PMID:26202329

  2. Methylmalonic acid and coenzyme A concentrations in the livers of pair-fed vitamin B12-deficient and vitamin B12-treated sheep

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R. M.; Osborne-White, W. S.; Russell, G. R.

    1969-01-01

    The concentrations of CoA in the livers of severely vitamin B12-deficient ewes were about 2·6 times those in pair-fed animals treated with vitamin B12. When the feeding rates of the pair-fed animals were closely similar, the concentrations of methylmalonic acid in deficient livers were about twice those in vitamin B12-sufficient livers. The molar concentrations of CoA present were more than three times those of methylmalonic acid in both deficient and treated animals, and it is concluded that the elevated concentrations of CoA in the deficient livers were not primarily due to accumulation of methylmalonyl-CoA. PMID:4898195

  3. The effects of exercise training and acute exercise duration on plasma folate and vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam; Hwang, Ji Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Energy production and the rebuilding and repair of muscle tissue by physical activity require folate and vitamin B12 as a cofactor. Thus, this study investigated the effects of regular moderate exercise training and durations of acute aerobic exercise on plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in moderate exercise trained rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Fifty rats underwent non-exercise training (NT, n = 25) and regular exercise training (ET, n = 25) for 5 weeks. The ET group performed moderate exercise on a treadmill for 30 min/day, 5 days/week. At the end of week 5, each group was subdivided into 4 groups: non-exercise and 3 exercise groups. The non-exercise group (E0) was sacrificed without exercising and the 3 exercise groups were sacrificed immediately after exercising on a treadmill for 0.5 h (E0.5), 1 h (E1), and 2 h (E2). Blood samples were collected and plasma folate and vitamin B12 were analyzed. RESULTS After exercise training, plasma folate level was significantly lower and vitamin B12 concentration was significantly higher in the ET group compared with the NT group (P < 0.05). No significant associations were observed between plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations. In both the NT and ET groups, plasma folate and vitamin B12 were not significantly changed by increasing duration of aerobic exercise. Plasma folate concentration of E0.5 was significantly lower in the ET group compared with that in the NT group. Significantly higher vitamin B12 concentrations were observed in the E0 and E0.5 groups of the ET group compared to those of the NT group. CONCLUSION Regular moderate exercise training decreased plasma folate and increased plasma vitamin B12 levels. However, no significant changes in plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were observed by increasing duration of acute aerobic exercise. PMID:27087899

  4. The usefulness of holotranscobalamin in predicting vitamin B12 status in different clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Wolfgang; Obeid, Rima; Schorr, Heike; Geisel, Jürgen

    2005-02-01

    Serum concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) become increased in B12-deficient subjects and are therefore, considered specific markers of B12 deficiency. Serum level of holotranscobalamin (holoTC) becomes decreased before the development of the metabolic dysfunction. We investigated the usefulness of holoTC in diagnosing B12 deficiency in some clinical settings. We measured serum concentrations of holoTC, MMA, Hcy and total B12 in omnivores, vegetarians, elderly people and haemodialysis patients. Our results indicated that the incidence of holoTC <35 pmol/L was highest in the vegans (76%). Low holoTC and elevated MMA were detected in 64% of the vegans and 43% of the lacto- and lacto-ovovegetarians. An elevated MMA and a low holoTC were found in subjects with total serum B12 as high as 300 pmol/L. The distribution of holoTC in elderly people was similar to that in younger adults (median holoTC 55 pmol/L in both groups). A low holoTC and an elevated MMA were found in 16% of the elderly group. An elevated MMA and a normal holoTC were found in 20% of the elderly group who had a relatively high median serum concentration of creatinine (106.1 micromol/L). Serum concentrations of holoTC in dialysis patients were considerably higher than all other groups (median 100 pmol/L). This was also associated with severely increased serum levels of MMA (median 987 nmol/L). From these results it can be concluded that serum concentration of holoTC is a much better predictor of B12 status than total B12. This was particularly evident in case of dietary B12 deficiency. Serum concentrations of holoTC as well as MMA can be affected by renal dysfunction. Elevated MMA and normal holoTC in patients with renal insufficiency may not exclude vitamin B12 deficiency. HoloTC seems not to be a promising marker in predicting B12 status in renal patients. PMID:15720207

  5. Prevalent vitamin B-12 deficiency in twelve-month-old Guatemalan infants is predicted by maternal B-12 deficiency and infant diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marginal (<148 pmol/L) or deficient (148-220 pmol/L) plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations were reported previously in approximately one third of low-income women and children studied in Guatemala. Since vitamin B-12 deficiency can adversely affect infant development and cognitive function, this study ...

  6. 4-Ethylphenyl-Cobalamin Impairs Tissue Uptake of Vitamin B12 and Causes Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, Elena; Ruetz, Markus; Birn, Henrik; Kräutler, Bernhard; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III) alamin (EtPhCbl) is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl) which binds to transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl). In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl suggesting that administration of EtPhCbl may cause cellular Cbl deficiency. Here, we investigate the in vivo effect of EtPhCbl in mice and its ability, if any, to induce Cbl deficiency. We show that EtPhCbl binds to mouse TC and we examined mice that received 3.5 nmol/24h EtPhCbl (n=6), 3.5 nmol/24h CNCbl (n=7) or NaCl (control group) (n=5) through osmotic mini-pumps for four weeks. We analyzed plasma, urine, liver, spleen, submaxillary glands and spinal cord for Cbl and markers of Cbl deficiency including methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (tHcy). Plasma MMA (mean±SEM) was elevated in animals treated with EtPhCbl (1.01±0.12 µmol/L) compared to controls (0.30±0.02 µmol/L) and CNCbl (0.29±0.01 µmol/L) treated animals. The same pattern was observed for tHcy. Plasma total Cbl concentration was higher in animals treated with EtPhCbl (128.82±1.87 nmol/L) than in CNCbl treated animals (87.64±0.93 nmol/L). However, the organ levels of total Cbl were significantly lower in animals treated with EtPhCbl compared to CNCbl treated animals or controls, notably in the liver (157.07±8.56 pmol/g vs. 603.85±20.02 pmol/g, and 443.09±12.32 pmol/g, respectively). Differences between the three groups was analysed using one-way ANOVA and, Bonferroni post-hoc test. EtPhCbl was present in all tissues, except the spinal cord, accounting for 35-90% of total Cbl. In conclusion, treatment with EtPhCbl induces biochemical evidence of Cbl deficiency. This may in part be caused by a compromised tissue accumulation of Cbl. PMID:24073261

  7. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Charu; Kawatra, Rahul; Gupta, Jaya; Awasthi, Vishnu; Dungana, Homnath

    2016-01-01

    True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases) received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg) weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20) patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS) after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus. PMID:26960786

  8. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charu; Kawatra, Rahul; Gupta, Jaya; Awasthi, Vishnu; Dungana, Homnath

    2016-01-01

    True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases) received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg) weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20) patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS) after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus. PMID:26960786

  9. Vitamin B-12 deficiency induces anomalies of base substitution and methylation in the DNA of rat colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang-Woon; Friso, Simonetta; Ghandour, Haifa; Bagley, Pamela J; Selhub, Jacob; Mason, Joel B

    2004-04-01

    Derangements of one-carbon metabolism can directly affect the integrity of the genome by producing inappropriate uracil insertion into DNA and by altering patterns of DNA methylation. Vitamin B-12, a one-carbon nutrient, serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of precursors of biological methylation and in nucleotide synthesis. We therefore examined whether vitamin B-12 deficiency can induce these molecular anomalies in the colonic mucosa of rats. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were divided into 2 groups and fed either a vitamin B-12-deficient diet or a similar diet containing adequate amounts of the vitamin. Rats from each group were killed at 6 and 10 wk. Uracil misincorporation into DNA was measured by GC/MS and genomic DNA methylation was measured by LC/MS. Plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations in deficient rats were below detectable limits at 6 and 10 wk; in control rats, concentrations were 0.46 +/- 0.07 and 0.42 +/- 0.10 nmol/L at those times. Although the colon total folate concentration did not differ between the groups, the proportion that was methylfolate was marginally greater in the deficient rats at 10 wk (P = 0.05) compared with control, consistent with the "methylfolate trap" that develops during vitamin B-12 deficiency. After 10 wk, the colonic DNA of the deficient rats displayed a 35% decrease in genomic methylation and a 105% increase in uracil incorporation (P < 0.05). This vitamin B-12-deficient diet, which was of insufficient severity to cause anemia or illness, created aberrations in both base substitution and methylation of colonic DNA, which might increase susceptibility to carcinogenesis. PMID:15051821

  10. Vitamin B12, folate and iron levels in primary nocturnal enuresis

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Sebahattin; Zengin, Kürsad; Tanik, Serhat; Daar, Ghaniya; Ozdamar, Mustafa Yasar; Bakirtas, Hasan; Imamoglu, M. Abdurrahim; Gurdal, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Folate, vitamin B12 and iron are important vitamin and minerals which play role in the development of nervous system. The aim of this study was looking at the presence of folate, vitamin B12 and iron deficiency among patients with Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) and possible relation between the delay of central nervous system (CNS) development, PNE and folate, vitamin B12 and iron states. Methods: Consecutively applied forty patients with PNE (23 girls and 17 boys) and otherwise normal thirty control subjects (17 girls and 13 boys) were included in the study. Average ages (in range) of PNE and the control group were 9.2(6-12) years and 9.3 (6-12) years accordingly. Age, height, weight, complete blood count, blood vitamin B12, folate, ferritin and iron values of both groups were recorded and compared to each other. Results: Average vitamin B12 and folate levels of patients with PNE were significantly and statistically lower compared to those of the control group. Average blood iron of patients with PNE was significantly higher than that of the control group and also average ferritin level of the PNE group was detected to be higher than the control group but this relation was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Primary nocturnal enuresis is related to the delay in CNS maturation so it was thought that low vitamin B12 and folate which were found in patients with PNE may have role in the delay of CNS maturation. Additionally, further studies are needed to investigate the role of vitamin B12 and folate either alone or as combination in treatment of patients with PNE who have low vitamin B12and folate level. PMID:25878620

  11. Vitamin B12-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles as a drug carrier in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Genç, Lütfi; Kutlu, H Mehtap; Güney, Gamze

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructure-mediated drug delivery, a key technology for the realization of nanomedicine, has the potential to improve drug bioavailability, ameliorate release deviation of drug molecules and enable precision drug targeting. Due to their multifunctional properties, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have received great attention of scientists to find a solution to cancer. Vitamin supplements may contribute to a reduction in the risk of cancer. Vitamin B12 has several characteristics that make it an attractive entity for cancer treatment and possible therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to produce B12-loaded SLNs (B12-SLNs) and determine the cytotoxic effects of B12-SLNs on H-Ras 5RP7 and NIH/3T3 control cell line. Results obtained by MTT assay, transmission electron and confocal microscopy showed that B12-loaded SLNs are more effective than free vitamin B12 on cancer cells. In addition, characterization studies indicate that while the average diameter of the B12 was about 650 nm, B12-SLNs were about 200 nm and the drug release efficiency of vit. B12 by means of SLNs increased up to 3 h. These observations point to the fact that B12-SLNs could be used as carrier systems due to the therapeutic effects on cancer. PMID:24344935

  12. FRACTION OF TOTAL PLASMA VITAMIN B12 BOUND TO TRANSCOBALAMIN CORRELATES WITH COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY LATINOS WITH DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The fraction of total plasma vitamin B12 bound to transcobalamin (holoTC/B12 ratio) may reflect tissue levels of the vitamin, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Methods: associations between cognitive function and total B12, holoTC, and holoTC/B12 ratio were assessed in a cohort of ...

  13. Vitamin B(12) Immunoassay on Roche Elecsys 2010: Effects of High Excess Concentration of Serum Vitamin B(12) in CKD Patients on Parenteral Administration.

    PubMed

    Basu, Surupa; Chaudhuri, Subimal

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin B(12) being water soluble is excreted in the urine when administered in excess. The probability of finding an abnormally excess serum concentration would be almost surreal. We report a peculiar clinical situation that may impact the vitamin B(12) immunoassay on the Roche Elecsys 2010 due to excess analyte concentration. In separate episodes (Feb and June 2010), the Biochemistry laboratory of a tertiary-care hospital, Kolkata, India, encountered two critically ill patients with background chronic kidney disease (CKD), low urine output, and on cyanocoabalamin supplementation, who had serum vitamin B(12) concentrations far exceeding expected values; even post dialysis. The B(12) assays (pmol/l) were performed using electrochemiluminiscence immunoassay on Roche Elecsys 2010, the assay validity confirmed by concomitant quality control runs. The immunoassays failed to deliver results, flagged with "signal level below limit". Biotin therapy was ruled out as a possible interferent. In the first episode, re-assay of a repeat draw yielded same outcome; outsourcing on Immulite provided concentration of >738 pmol/l. Serial dilution gave result of >29520 pmol/l on Elecsys 2010. In the second, we gained from past experience. Vitamin B(12) concentration >59040 pmol/l was conveyed to the treating nephrologist the very day. The B(12) immunoassay on the Elecsys 2010 employs sequential incubation steps for competitive binding that is compromised in the event of abnormally excess B(12) concentration in patient sera akin to the prozone effect. This knowledge may be beneficial while assaying sera of CKD patients to avoid financial loss due unnecessary repeats and delay in turnaround time. PMID:23024480

  14. The use of blood concentrations of vitamins and their respective functional indicators to define folate and vitamin B12 status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the vitamins folic acid and vitamin B12 because of the realization that the status of these vitamins in populations is less than adequate, and that such inadequacy may be linked to adverse public health outcomes. This concern has prompted the United...

  15. Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large datasets.

    PubMed

    Grarup, Niels; Sulem, Patrick; Sandholt, Camilla H; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Bjarnason, Helgi; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Magnusson, Olafur T; Sparsø, Thomas; Albrechtsen, Anders; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Tian, Geng; Cao, Hongzhi; Nie, Chao; Kristiansen, Karsten; Husemoen, Lise Lotte; Thuesen, Betina; Li, Yingrui; Nielsen, Rasmus; Linneberg, Allan; Olafsson, Isleifur; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I; Jørgensen, Torben; Wang, Jun; Hansen, Torben; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefánsson, Kari; Pedersen, Oluf

    2013-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies have mainly relied on common HapMap sequence variations. Recently, sequencing approaches have allowed analysis of low frequency and rare variants in conjunction with common variants, thereby improving the search for functional variants and thus the understanding of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B(12) (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B(12) and folate measurements, respectively. We found six novel loci associating with serum B(12) (CD320, TCN2, ABCD4, MMAA, MMACHC) or folate levels (FOLR3) and confirmed seven loci for these traits (TCN1, FUT6, FUT2, CUBN, CLYBL, MUT, MTHFR). Conditional analyses established that four loci contain additional independent signals. Interestingly, 13 of the 18 identified variants were coding and 11 of the 13 target genes have known functions related to B(12) and folate pathways. Contrary to epidemiological studies we did not find consistent association of the variants with cardiovascular diseases, cancers or Alzheimer's disease although some variants demonstrated pleiotropic effects. Although to some degree impeded by low statistical power for some of these conditions, these data suggest that sequence variants that contribute to the population diversity in serum B(12) or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations. PMID:23754956

  16. [Folate metabolism--epigenetic role of choline and vitamin B12 during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Drews, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Adequate choline intake during pregnancy is essential for proper fetal development. Nowadays studies suggest that even in high income countries regular pregnant women diet does not provide the satisfactory amount of choline. Choline demand during pregnancy is high and it seems to exceed present choline intake recommendations. Moreover lactation period also demands choline supplementation because of its high concentration in female milk. Numerous studies on animal model proved correlation between choline supplementation during pregnancy and proper fetal cognitive function development. Despite increased synthesis in maternal liver during pregnancy choline demand is much higher than common dietary uptake. Nowadays studies as to the nutritional recommendations during pregnancy concern also vitamin B12 supplementation. Vitamin B12 deficiency may be an important risk factor of neural tube defects development. Presented article contains a review of data on proper choline and vitamin B12 uptake during pregnancy and lactation and potential results of choline and vitamin B12 poor maternal status. PMID:26995945

  17. Treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency-methylcobalamine? Cyancobalamine? Hydroxocobalamin?-clearing the confusion.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, K; Billa, G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cyancobalamin, Cbl) has two active co-enzyme forms, methylcobalamin (MeCbl) and adenosylcobalamin (AdCbl). There has been a paradigm shift in the treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency such that MeCbl is being extensively used and promoted. This is despite the fact that both MeCbl and AdCbl are essential and have distinct metabolic fates and functions. MeCbl is primarily involved along with folate in hematopiesis and development of the brain during childhood. Whereas deficiency of AdCbl disturbs the carbohydrate, fat and amino-acid metabolism, and hence interferes with the formation of myelin. Thereby, it is important to treat vitamin B12 deficiency with a combination of MeCbl and AdCbl or hydroxocobalamin or Cbl. Regarding the route, it has been proved that the oral route is comparable to the intramuscular route for rectifying vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25117994

  18. Cerebral atrophy in a vitamin B12-deficient infant of a vegetarian mother.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu, Celebi; Akin, Fatih; Caksen, Hüseyin; Böke, Saltuk Buğra; Arslan, Sükrü; Aygün, Serhat

    2014-06-01

    In developed countries, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency usually occurs in children, exclusively breastfed ones whose mothers are vegetarian, causing low body stores of vitamin B12. The haematologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anaemia. It is a megaloblastic anaemia with high mean corpuscular volume and typical morphological features, such as hyperlobulation of the nuclei of the granulocytes. In advanced cases, neutropaenia and thrombocytopaenia can occur, simulating aplastic anaemia or leukaemia. In addition to haematological symptoms, infants may experience weakness, fatigue, failure to thrive, and irritability. Other common findings include pallor, glossitis, vomiting, diarrhoea, and icterus. Neurological symptoms may affect the central nervous system and, in severe cases, rarely cause brain atrophy. Here, we report an interesting case, a 12-month old infant, who was admitted with neurological symptoms and diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:25076673

  19. Metabolic network rewiring of propionate flux compensates vitamin B12 deficiency in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emma; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Hoy, Michael J; Li, Chi-Hua; Louisse, Timo; Yao, Victoria; Mori, Akihiro; Holdorf, Amy D; Troyanskaya, Olga G; Ralser, Markus; Walhout, Albertha Jm

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic network rewiring is the rerouting of metabolism through the use of alternate enzymes to adjust pathway flux and accomplish specific anabolic or catabolic objectives. Here, we report the first characterization of two parallel pathways for the breakdown of the short chain fatty acid propionate in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic interaction mapping, gene co-expression analysis, pathway intermediate quantification and carbon tracing, we uncover a vitamin B12-independent propionate breakdown shunt that is transcriptionally activated on vitamin B12 deficient diets, or under genetic conditions mimicking the human diseases propionic- and methylmalonic acidemia, in which the canonical B12-dependent propionate breakdown pathway is blocked. Our study presents the first example of transcriptional vitamin-directed metabolic network rewiring to promote survival under vitamin deficiency. The ability to reroute propionate breakdown according to B12 availability may provide C. elegans with metabolic plasticity and thus a selective advantage on different diets in the wild. PMID:27383050

  20. Effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neurodevelopment in infants: current knowledge and possible mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Severe vitamin B12 deficiency produces a cluster of neurological symptoms in infants, including irritability, failure to thrive, apathy, anorexia, and developmental regression, which respond remarkably rapidly to supplementation. The underlying mechanisms may involve delayed myelination or demyelina...

  1. Rapid determination of vitamin B2 and B12 in human urine by isocratic liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Mandal, Mahitosh; Ghosh, Ananta K; Dey, Satyahari

    2009-04-27

    A simple and rapid method for the identification and quantification of vitamin B(2) and B(12) in human urine has been developed using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the peaks identity were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). HPLC separation was performed in single wavelength detector (lambda(365)) mode and separated isocratically using mobile phase methanol: 1mM aqueous TFA (1:4) in C18 column. The calibration graphs plotted with different concentrations of vitamin B(2) and B(12) was linear with a correlation coefficients (r(2))=0.9975 and 0.9985, respectively. The recoveries of vitamin B(2) and B(12) were above 87% and 90%, respectively. The results of this present study suggest that the proposed method may be simple and convenient way of identifying and quantifying vitamin B(2) and B(12) from human urine. PMID:19362629

  2. Improved large-scale production of vitamin B12 by Pseudomonas denitrificans with betaine feeding.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-Tai; Liu, Dong-Hong; Li, Yong-Liang; Chu, Ju; Wang, Yong-Hong; Zhuang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Si-Liang

    2008-11-01

    The strategy of betaine control for vitamin B12 large-scale fermentation by Pseudomonas denitrificans was investigated in this paper. The results obtained in shake-flask experiments demonstrated that betaine could greatly stimulate vitamin B12 biosynthesis but had an inhibition to cell growth. Based on the influence of betaine on the fermentation of P. denitrificans, betaine feeding was a beneficial strategy to solve the inconsistency between cell growth and vitamin B12 production. As a result, an effective and economical strategy of betaine feeding was established for vitamin B12 fermentation in 120-m3 fermenter, in which betaine was continuously fed to maintain betaine concentration of the broth at the range of 5-7g/l during 50-140h of fermentation. PMID:18440227

  3. Is Metformin-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency Responsible for Cognitive Decline in Type 2 Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Khattar, Deepti; Khaliq, Farah; Vaney, Neelam; Madhu, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has its deleterious effects on various aspects of cognition such as memory function, executive function, and information-processing speed. The present study aims to assess cognition in diabetes patients and also tries to find its association with Vitamin B12 deficiency induced by metformin. Materials and Methods: Thirty diabetics taking metformin and thirty nondiabetic controls were enrolled. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and serum Vitamin B12 levels were evaluated in them. Results: Vitamin B12 levels were found to be deficient, and latencies of waves P200 and P300 were prolonged in the diabetics as compared to the controls. The dose and duration of metformin had no association with the ERPs. Conclusions: Although the Vitamin B12 levels were deficient in diabetics on metformin, this is not the reason behind the cognitive impairment found in them. PMID:27570337

  4. Biosynthesis of vitamin B12: identity of fragment extruded during ring contraction to the corrin macrocycle.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A R; Bushell, M J; Jones, C; Lewis, N G; Pfenninger, A

    1981-01-01

    Incorporation experiments with labeled sirohydrochlorin and trimethylisobacteriochlorin demonstrate that ring contraction in vivo to the corrin macrocycle of vitamin B12 liberates acetic acid. The C-20 atom of the precursors becomes the acetate carboxyl carbon. PMID:6938990

  5. Vitamin B12 modulates the transcriptome of the skin microbiota in acne pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dezhi; Shi, Baochen; Erfe, Marie C; Craft, Noah; Li, Huiying

    2015-06-24

    Various diseases have been linked to the human microbiota, but the underlying molecular mechanisms of the microbiota in disease pathogenesis are often poorly understood. Using acne as a disease model, we aimed to understand the molecular response of the skin microbiota to host metabolite signaling in disease pathogenesis. Metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that the transcriptional profiles of the skin microbiota separated acne patients from healthy individuals. The vitamin B12 biosynthesis pathway in the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes was significantly down-regulated in acne patients. We hypothesized that host vitamin B12 modulates the activities of the skin microbiota and contributes to acne pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the skin microbiota in healthy subjects supplemented with vitamin B12. We found that the supplementation repressed the expression of vitamin B12 biosynthesis genes in P. acnes and altered the transcriptome of the skin microbiota. One of the 10 subjects studied developed acne 1 week after vitamin B12 supplementation. To further understand the molecular mechanism, we revealed that vitamin B12 supplementation in P. acnes cultures promoted the production of porphyrins, which have been shown to induce inflammation in acne. Our findings suggest a new bacterial pathogenesis pathway in acne and provide one molecular explanation for the long-standing clinical observation that vitamin B12 supplementation leads to acne development in a subset of individuals. Our study discovered that vitamin B12, an essential nutrient in humans, modulates the transcriptional activities of skin bacteria, and provided evidence that metabolite-mediated interactions between the host and the skin microbiota play essential roles in disease development. PMID:26109103

  6. The influence of erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 status on birth weight.

    PubMed

    Relton, Caroline L; Pearce, Mark S; Parker, Louise

    2005-05-01

    The extent to which maternal folate and vitamin B12 modulate infant birth weight is unclear. The present study investigated mothers in early gestation (mean 11.5 (sd 5.8) weeks) and neonates, at delivery. Erythrocyte (RBC) folate (mothers: n 683; neonates: n 614) and vitamin B12 (mothers: n 534; neonates: n 614) were measured. Data on smoking habits were available for 44 % of pregnancies (n 443). The relationship between vitamin levels and birth weight standardized for gender and gestational age was investigated, using linear regression and adjusting for possible confounding variables (maternal age, parity). Results are presented as standardized regression coefficients (b). Increasing maternal age was associated with elevated RBC folate (b 0.11 (95 % CI 0.08, 0.15), P<0.001; n 674) and smoking was associated with a decrease in maternal RBC folate (b -1.38 (95 % CI -1.92, -0.86), P=0.001; n 319). Neonatal RBC folate was predicted by maternal RBC folate (b 0.08 (95 % CI 0.04, 0.11), P=0.001; n 315) and maternal vitamin B12 (b 0.08 (95 % CI 0.01, 0.16), P=0.02; n 252). Smoking influenced maternal vitamin B12 status (b -0.88 (95 % CI -1.49, -0.27), P=0.005; n 231). Using univariate regression, smoking significantly influenced infant birth weight (b -2.15 (95 % CI -3.24, -1.04), P<0.001; n 437). However, the effect of smoking on birth weight was statistically non-significant when considered in a multivariate regression model, leaving maternal RBC folate as the only significant predictor of birth weight (b 0.25 (95 % CI 0.08, 0.42), P=0.005; n 145). These findings suggest that maternal folate status is an important determinant of infant birth weight. The combined effects of smoking and reduced RBC status on birth weight require further investigation. PMID:15975157

  7. The cytotoxic effect of the vitamin B12 inhibitor cyanocobalamin [c-lactam], and a review of other vitamin B12 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J H

    1998-09-01

    The vitamin B12 antagonist cyanocobalamin [c-lactam] was cytotoxic to cultured human leukemia cells, grown in methylfolate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12, but not in the presence of methionine. Small concentrations of methionine were effective in restoring the growth rate in a dose-dependent fashion, confirming methionine deficiency as the cytotoxic principle. Cyanocobalamin [c-lactam] prevented utilization of the methyl group of methylfolate, but no evidence of folate deficiency developed in long-term culture. High concentrations of non-methylated folate were unable to reverse the cytotoxicity, excluding a methylfolate 'trap' as the cause. Low concentrations of serine in the medium induced transient biochemical megaloblastosis. Cyanocobalamin [c-lactam] caused this to occur earlier, and persist. In high concentrations of serine, the inhibitor caused only transient changes in deoxyuridine suppression. Homocysteine cannot be remethylated without vitamin B12, and condensation with serine is the only other excretory pathway for this toxic amino acid. We hypothesize that impaired DNA synthesis in vitamin B12 deficiency is the result of diverting serine away from thymidylate synthesis, into homocysteine metabolism. PMID:9720712

  8. Hyperhomocysteinemia, deep vein thrombosis and vitamin B12 deficiency in a metformin-treated diabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Chung, Chih-Yuan; Chang, Cheng-Shyong; Wang, Ming-Lun; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Shen, Ming-Ching

    2007-09-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency may be induced by long-term use of metformin, which may in turn lead to hyperhomocysteinemia. Thus, hyperhomocysteinemia may increase the risk of vascular thrombosis in diabetic patients, when metformin is used and a homozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation is present. We report a 65-year-old Taiwanese diabetic woman who was treated with metformin for 6 years and who had suffered from swelling of the left lower extremity for 3 months. Ascending venography confirmed the diagnosis of proximal deep vein thrombosis, while hyperhomocysteinemia, megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, and a homozygous C677T mutation of the MTHFR gene were also found. She had no identifiable venous thrombotic risk factors other than hyperhomocysteinemia, which seemed to be caused by both MTHFR C677T homozygous mutation and vitamin B12 deficiency. With the substitution of insulin injection for metformin, short-term supplement of vitamin B12, and anticoagulant therapy for the deep vein thrombosis, her anemia and hyperhomocysteinemia recovered rapidly. The deep vein thrombosis also responded well. Our findings highly suggested the role of metformin in causing vitamin B12 deficiency, which may serve as an additional risk factor for venous thrombosis in diabetic patients. Our report also highlights the need to check vitamin B12 levels during metformin treatment. PMID:17908667

  9. Associations between Homocysteine, Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Alzheimer's Disease: Insights from Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The associations between homocysteine (Hcy), folic acid, and vitamin B12 and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have gained much interest, while remaining controversial. We aim to perform meta-analyses to evaluate comprehensively: i) Hcy, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels in AD patients in comparison with controls; and ii) the association between Hcy, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels and risk of AD. A literature search was performed using Medline and Scopus databases. A total of 68 studies were identified and included in the meta-analyses. Stata 12.0 statistical software was used to perform the meta-analyses. First, AD patients may have higher level of Hcy, and lower levels of folate and vitamin B12 in plasma than controls. Further age-subgroup analysis showed no age effect for Hcy levels in plasma between AD patients and matched controls, while the differences in folate and vitamin B12 levels further enlarged with increased age. Second, data suggests that high Hcy and low folate levels may correlate with increased risk of AD occurrence. The comprehensive meta-analyses not only confirmed higher Hcy, lower folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels in AD patients than controls, but also implicated that high Hcy and low folic acid levels may be risk factors of AD. Further studies are encouraged to elucidate mechanisms linking these conditions. PMID:25854931

  10. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo. PMID:22846211

  11. Investigation of a vitamin B12 conjugate as a PET imaging probe.

    PubMed

    Ikotun, Oluwatayo F; Marquez, Bernadette V; Fazen, Christopher H; Kahkoska, Anna R; Doyle, Robert P; Lapi, Suzanne E

    2014-06-01

    Nutrient demand is a fundamental characteristic of rapidly proliferating cells. Vitamin B12 is vital for cell proliferation; thus neoplastic cells have an increased demand for this essential nutrient. In this study we exploited the vitamin B12 uptake pathway to probe the nutritional demand of proliferating cells with a radiolabeled B12 derivative in various preclinical tumor models. We describe the synthesis and biological evaluations of copper-64-labeled B12 -ethylenediamine-benzyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid (B12 -en-Bn-NOTA-(64) Cu), the first example of a B12 derivative for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Small-animal imaging and pharmacological evaluation show high tumor uptake ranging from 2.20 to 4.84% ID g(-1) at 6 h post-administration. Competition studies with excess native B12 resulted in a 95% decrease in tumor accumulation, indicating the specificity of this radiopharmaceutical for B12 endocytotic transport proteins. These results show that a vitamin B12 PET radiopharmaceutical has potential utility for non-invasive imaging of enhanced nutrient demand in proliferating cells. PMID:24753453

  12. Vitamin B12-dependent propionate production by the ruminal bacterium Prevotella ruminicola 23.

    PubMed

    Strobel, H J

    1992-07-01

    When Prevotella ruminicola 23 was grown in a defined medium containing a vitamin mixture, significant amounts of propionate were formed. Succinate and acetate were the major fermentation acids produced when vitamins were omitted, and further experiments demonstrated that propionate formation was dependent on vitamin B12. When the organism was grown in continuous culture at dilution rates of less than 0.20 h-1, propionate and acetate were the predominant fermentation products and little succinate was formed when vitamin B12 was present. However, at higher dilution rates, propionate formation declined and succinate accumulated. Since cell protein yields were reduced 15 to 25% in the absence of vitamin B12, the pathway for propionate formation may contain an energy-conserving step. PMID:1637169

  13. Methionine synthetase activity of human lymphocytes both replete in and depleted of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Hall, C A; Begley, J A; Chu, R C

    1986-10-01

    The activity of the enzyme methionine synthetase (MS) (methyltetrahydrofolate:homocysteine methyltransferase) (EC 2.1.1.13) was measured in human lymphocytes of various types and cobalamin (vitamin B12) status. Total and holo MS activity was low in unstimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes from persons with tissue deficiency of cobalamin, but not in cells from those with low serum cobalamin levels for other reasons. The MS activity of the lymphocyte was increased by treatment of the patients with vitamin B12. The number of lymphocytes was often low or low normal in the circulation of those deficient in cobalamin. Holo MS activity was low in an established line of human B cells, RPMI 6410 cells, depleted of cobalamin. The total and holo MS activity of both RPMI 6410 cells, replete or depleted, and lymphocytes stimulated in culture was increased by cobalamin in vitro; 222 nmol/L free cobalamin was roughly the equivalent of 0.22 nmol/L cobalamin bound to transcobalamin II. Both lymphocytes and RPMI 6410 cells required folate for growth and could meet these needs via methylfolate, homocysteine, and the cobalamin-dependent MS reaction. Depleted RPMI 6410 cells, however, used cobalamin in some way in addition to the provision of available folate from methylfolate. The consequences of the reduced MS activity in deficient cells could include a reduction in available folate with diminished capacity for clonal expansion of lymphocytes in reaction to infection and impairment of essential methylations including those of protein synthesis. The prompt induction of MS activity by cobalamin, especially in the in vitro model, suggests an effect of therapeutic vitamin B12 well in advance of the numerical increase in cells of the blood. PMID:3760673

  14. Contribution of Food Sources to the Vitamin B12 Status of South Indian Children from a Birth Cohort Recruited in the City of Mysore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is evidence that sub-clinical vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is common in India. Vegetarianism is prevalent and therefore meat consumption is low. Our objective was to explore the contribution of B12 source-foods and maternal B12 status during pregnancy to plasma B12 concentrations. Design Maternal plasma B12 concentrations were measured during pregnancy. Children’s dietary intakes and plasma B12 concentrations were measured at age 9.5 years; B12 and total energy intakes were calculated using food composition databases. We used linear regression to examine associations between maternal B12 status and children’s intakes of B12 and B12 source-foods, and children’s plasma B12 concentrations. Setting South Indian city of Mysore and surrounding rural areas. Subjects Children from the Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort (n=512, 47.1% male). Results Three percent of children were B12 deficient (<150 pmol/l). A further 14% had ‘marginal’ B12 concentrations (150-221 pmol/l). Children’s total daily B12 intake and consumption frequency of meat and fish, and micronutrient-enriched beverages were positively associated with plasma B12 concentrations (p=0.006, p=0.01 and p=0.04, adjusted for socio-economic indicators and maternal B12 status). Maternal pregnancy plasma B12 was associated with children’s plasma B12 concentrations, independent of current B12 intakes (p<0.001). Milk and curd (yoghurt) intakes were unrelated to B12 status. Conclusions Meat and fish are important B12 sources in this population. Micronutrient-enriched beverages appear to be important sources in our cohort, but their high sugar content necessitates care in their recommendation. Improving maternal B12 status in pregnancy may improve Indian children’s status. PMID:24866058

  15. Accurate measurement of the essential micronutrients methionine, homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12, B9 and their metabolites in plasma, brain and maternal milk of mice using LC/MS ion trap analysis.

    PubMed

    Oosterink, J Efraim; Naninck, Eva F G; Korosi, Aniko; Lucassen, Paul J; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Schierbeek, Henk

    2015-08-15

    Methionine, homocysteine, vitamins B6, B12, B9, and their metabolites are crucial co-factors and substrates for many basic biological pathways including one-carbon metabolism, and they are particularly important for brain function and development and epigenetic mechanisms. These are essential nutrients that cannot be synthesized endogenously and thus need to be taken in via diet. A novel method was developed that enables simultaneous assessment of the exact concentrations of these essential micronutrients in various matrices, including maternal milk, plasma, and brain of neonatal mice. The protocol for analysis of these components in the various matrices consists of a cleanup step (i.e. lipid extraction followed by protein precipitation) combined with a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) ion trap method with high sensitivity and selectivity (SRM mode). This novel method enables the measurement of these essential nutrients with good recoveries (69-117%), and high intra-day (<10%) and high intra-day precision (defined as <15% for compounds with an isotopologue and <20% for compounds without an isotopologue as internal standard) in plasma, maternal milk, and brain of mice at low and high levels. In addition, lower limits of quantitation (LOQ) were determined for the various matrices in the range for methionine (700-2000nmol/L), homocysteine (280-460-nmol/L), vitamins B6 (5-230nmol/L), B12 (7-11nmol/L), B9 (20-30nmol/L). Degradation of vitamins and oxidation of homocysteine is limited to a minimum, and only small sample volumes (30μL plasma, 20mg brain and maternal milk) are needed for simultaneous measurement. This method can help to understand how these nutrients are transferred from mother to offspring via maternal milk, as well as how these nutrients are absorbed by the offspring and eventually taken up in various tissues amongst the brain in preclinical and clinical research settings. Therefore the method can help to explore critical periods in

  16. Rare sensory and autonomic disturbances associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Puntambekar, Preeti; Basha, Maysaa M; Zak, Imad T; Madhavan, Ramesh

    2009-12-15

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is an important nutritional disorder causing neurological manifestations of myelopathy, neuropathy and dementia. Sub-acute combined degeneration (SCD) with involvement of the posterior columns in the cervical and thoracic cord is a common presentation of this disorder. In this case report, we describe a 43 year old woman with pernicious anemia and myelopathy with atypical clinical features. The patient presented with motor symptoms, a sensory level and bladder dysfunction. She had severe autonomic disturbances including an episode of unexplained bronchospasm, which has not been previously reported as a manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency. We review the literature regarding these rarely reported features of vitamin B12 deficiency, and discuss aspects of management of this reversible condition. We emphasize the importance of awareness of autonomic disturbances in B12 deficient individuals. PMID:19720386

  17. Effect of amino acid availability on vitamin B12 production in Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Santos, Filipe; Teusink, Bas; Molenaar, Douwe; van Heck, Maurice; Wels, Michiel; Sieuwerts, Sander; de Vos, Willem M; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2009-06-01

    Recent functional genomics and genome-scale modeling approaches indicated that B(12) production in Lactobacillus reuteri could be improved by optimization of the medium. Here we show that a series of systematic single-amino-acid omissions could significantly modulate the production of B(12) from nearly undetectable levels (with omission of isoleucine) to levels 20-fold higher than the levels previously reported (with omission of cysteine). Using cDNA microarray experiments, we analyzed the transcriptional response of L. reuteri to medium lacking cysteine. The results supported the observed high level of B(12) production and provided new avenues for future improvement of production of vitamin B(12). PMID:19376900

  18. Enhancing vitamin B12 content in soy-yogurt by Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qing; Zhang, Chen; Song, Dafeng; Li, Ping; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-08-01

    More attention from the aged and vegetarians has been paid to soy-product due to its taste, easy digestibility, as well as the association with health. However, soy-product has a defect of low vitamin content, mainly the water-soluble vitamin B12. This study was to investigate co-fermentation of glycerol and fructose in soy-yogurt to enhance vitamin B12 production by Lactobacillus reuteri. After a serial combination experiments, the co-fermentation was confirmed to enhance the production of vitamin B12 up to 18 μg/100mL. Both supplementations induced the expression of cobT and cbiA and functioned to balance the redox reaction. Meanwhile, high content of fructose supplementation reduced the production of vitamin B12 and suppressed expression of cobT in bacteria. It was proved that the vitamin B12 content of this soy-yogurt is higher than other fermented soybean based food and thus can be served as an alternative food for the aged and vegetarians. PMID:25955289

  19. The role of vitamin B 12 and its transport globulins in the production of antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Hitzig, W H; Kenny, A B

    1975-01-01

    Immunological functions were repeatedly tested in a patient with hereditary deficiency of transcobalamin II (TC II): he was unable to synthesize immunoglobulins and specific antibodies, but was able to do so normally after injection of high doses of vitamin B 12 (1000 mug per week). Lymphocytes (B and T) were present in normal numbers prior to therapy, thus indicating normal differentiation of stem cells. In contrast, clonal expansion, necessary for immunoglobulin production, was possible only after vitamin B 12 administration. These observations, as well as the well known disturbances in haemopoiesis, indicate that vitamin B 12 is indispensable to rapidly replicating tissues, and that a severe deficiency of this vitamin in the cells can result from the absence of TC II. PMID:128427

  20. OLDER ADULT PSYCHIATRIC INPATIENTS WITH NON-COGNITIVE DISORDERS SHOULD BE SCREENED FOR VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY

    PubMed Central

    LACHNER, C.; MARTIN, C.; JOHN, D.; NEKKALAPU, S.; SASAN, A.; STEINLE, N.; REGENOLD, W.T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is most prevalent among older adults. Practice guidelines recommend screening older adults with symptoms of cognitive disorder for B12 deficiency. However, guidelines for non-cognitive psychiatric disorders typically do not mention screening older adults for B12 deficiency. The purpose of this study was to determine whether routine screening of older adult psychiatric inpatients for B12 deficiency, regardless of cognitive symptoms, is clinically justified. Design We conducted a retrospective chart-review study of consecutive inpatient admissions. Setting Older Adult Acute Psychiatric Inpatient Unit at the University of Maryland Medical Center from 10/2007-4/2010. Participants Acute psychiatric inpatients aged ≥50 years who met inclusion criteria (N=374). Measurements Mean (SD) B12 levels and percentages of probable (<180pg/mL) and possible (180–350pg/mL) B12 deficiency as well as characteristics of patients with probable and possible B12 deficiency compared to patients with optimal B12 levels. Results Mean (SD) B12 levels and percentages of probable and possible B12 deficiency, respectively, for cognitive disorder patients [468 (284) pg/mL, 7.8 % (n=5) and 29.7% (n=19)] and for non-cognitive disorder patients [481(268) pg/mL, 4.8 %(n=15) and 33.2%(n=103)] were not significantly different (t=0.339, df=372, P=0.735; χ2=1.084, df=2, P=0.582, respectively). Conclusion Considering the potential benefits and low costs of screening and treatment, we conclude that it is justified to routinely screen older adult psychiatric inpatients for B12 deficiency whether or not cognitive disorder symptoms are present. PMID:24522476

  1. Metabolic engineering of cobalamin (vitamin B12) production in Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Biedendieck, Rebekka; Malten, Marco; Barg, Heiko; Bunk, Boyke; Martens, Jan-Henning; Deery, Evelyne; Leech, Helen; Warren, Martin J; Jahn, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) production in Bacillus megaterium has served as a model system for the systematic evaluation of single and multiple directed molecular and genetic optimization strategies. Plasmid and genome-based overexpression of genes involved in vitamin B(12) biosynthesis, including cbiX, sirA, modified hemA, the operons hemAXCDBL and cbiXJCDETLFGAcysG(A)cbiYbtuR, and the regulatory gene fnr, significantly increased cobalamin production. To reduce flux along the heme branch of the tetrapyrrole pathway, an antisense RNA strategy involving silencing of the hemZ gene encoding coproporphyrinogen III oxidase was successfully employed. Feedback inhibition of the initial enzyme of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, HemA, by heme was overcome by stabilized enzyme overproduction. Similarly, the removal of the B(12) riboswitch upstream of the cbiXJCDETLFGAcysG(A)cbiYbtuR operon and the recombinant production of three different vitamin B(12) binding proteins (glutamate mutase GlmS, ribonucleotide triphosphate reductase RtpR and methionine synthase MetH) partly abolished B(12)-dependent feedback inhibition. All these strategies increased cobalamin production in B. megaterium. Finally, combinations of these strategies enhanced the overall intracellular vitamin B(12) concentrations but also reduced the volumetric cellular amounts by placing the organism under metabolic stress. PMID:21255303

  2. When the picture is fragmented: Vitamin B12 deficiency masquerading as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Patil, Pradnya D; Riley, Elizabeth C; Mitchell, Charlene K

    2016-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) has high mortality and necessitates prompt recognition of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) and initiation of plasmapheresis. We present a challenging diagnostic workup and management of a 42-year-old man who presented with anemia, thrombocytopenia, and schistocytes on peripheral smear, all pointing to MAHA. Plasmapheresis and steroid therapy were promptly initiated, but hemolysis continued. Further workup showed megaloblastic anemia, severe Vitamin B12 deficiency, high iron saturation, and absent reticulocytosis, none of which could be explained by TTP. Severe Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to hemolytic anemia from the destruction of red cells in the marrow that have failed the process of maturation. However, this should not cause thrombotic microangiopathy. Previous reports of B12 deficiency presenting with MAHA and a TTP-like manifestation have identified acute hyperhomocysteinemia as a missing link between B12 deficiency and MAHA, so this possibility was further explored. Our patient similarly had significantly elevated serum homocysteine levels, confirming this suspicion of Vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 replacement led to normalization of the elevated levels of homocysteine, the disappearance of schistocytes on the peripheral smear, and resolution of the microangiopathic hemolysis, thereby confirming the diagnosis. It is pertinent that intensivists not only know the importance of early recognition and treatment of TTP but are also familiar with rare conditions that can present in a similar fashion. PMID:27308258

  3. When the picture is fragmented: Vitamin B12 deficiency masquerading as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

    PubMed Central

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S.; Patil, Pradnya D.; Riley, Elizabeth C.; Mitchell, Charlene K.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) has high mortality and necessitates prompt recognition of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) and initiation of plasmapheresis. We present a challenging diagnostic workup and management of a 42-year-old man who presented with anemia, thrombocytopenia, and schistocytes on peripheral smear, all pointing to MAHA. Plasmapheresis and steroid therapy were promptly initiated, but hemolysis continued. Further workup showed megaloblastic anemia, severe Vitamin B12 deficiency, high iron saturation, and absent reticulocytosis, none of which could be explained by TTP. Severe Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to hemolytic anemia from the destruction of red cells in the marrow that have failed the process of maturation. However, this should not cause thrombotic microangiopathy. Previous reports of B12 deficiency presenting with MAHA and a TTP-like manifestation have identified acute hyperhomocysteinemia as a missing link between B12 deficiency and MAHA, so this possibility was further explored. Our patient similarly had significantly elevated serum homocysteine levels, confirming this suspicion of Vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 replacement led to normalization of the elevated levels of homocysteine, the disappearance of schistocytes on the peripheral smear, and resolution of the microangiopathic hemolysis, thereby confirming the diagnosis. It is pertinent that intensivists not only know the importance of early recognition and treatment of TTP but are also familiar with rare conditions that can present in a similar fashion. PMID:27308258

  4. Unraveling Vitamin B12-Responsive Gene Regulation in Algae1[W

    PubMed Central

    Helliwell, Katherine E.; Scaife, Mark A.; Sasso, Severin; Araujo, Ana Paula Ulian; Purton, Saul; Smith, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae play a vital role in primary productivity and biogeochemical cycling in both marine and freshwater systems across the globe. However, the growth of these cosmopolitan organisms depends on the bioavailability of nutrients such as vitamins. Approximately one-half of all microalgal species requires vitamin B12 as a growth supplement. The major determinant of algal B12 requirements is defined by the isoform of methionine synthase possessed by an alga, such that the presence of the B12-independent methionine synthase (METE) enables growth without this vitamin. Moreover, the widespread but phylogenetically unrelated distribution of B12 auxotrophy across the algal lineages suggests that the METE gene has been lost multiple times in evolution. Given that METE expression is repressed by the presence of B12, prolonged repression by a reliable source of the vitamin could lead to the accumulation of mutations and eventually gene loss. Here, we probe METE gene regulation by B12 and methionine/folate cycle metabolites in both marine and freshwater microalgal species. In addition, we identify a B12-responsive element of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii METE using a reporter gene approach. We show that complete repression of the reporter occurs via a region spanning −574 to −90 bp upstream of the METE start codon. A proteomics study reveals that two other genes (S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase2) involved in the methionine-folate cycle are also repressed by B12 in C. reinhardtii. The strong repressible nature and high sensitivity of the B12-responsive element has promising biotechnological applications as a cost-effective regulatory gene expression tool. PMID:24627342

  5. Experimental vitamin B12 deficiency in a human subject: a longitudinal investigation of the performance of the holotranscobalamin (HoloTC, Active-B12) immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Golding, Paul Henry

    2016-01-01

    Based on Victor Herbert's model for sequential stages in the development of vitamin B12 deficiency, the holotranscobalamin (HoloTC) immunoassay has controversially been promoted as a more specific and sensitive replacement for the total vitamin B12 test, for the diagnosis of deficiency. There have been no longitudinal studies, by means of experimental cobalamin deficiency, because ethical considerations prevent such risky studies on patients or healthy human volunteers. The objective was to provide a detailed record of the response of HoloTC, compared to total vitamin B12 and metabolites, to the development of experimental vitamin B12 deficiency in an initially replete human subject. This 54 year old male, with a vitamin B12 deficiency possibly caused by a defect in the intracellular cobalamin metabolism, ensured an initially replete condition by means of oral doses of cyanocobalamin supplements at 1000 μg/day for 12 weeks. The subject then depleted himself of vitamin B12, by withholding treatment and using a low-cobalamin diet, until significant metabolic disturbances were observed. The responses of serum total vitamin B12 and HoloTC and the two metabolites, plasma methylmalonic acid and homocysteine, were monitored by weekly blood tests. HoloTC was not significantly more sensitive than either total serum vitamin B12 or total homocysteine, and was much less sensitive than methylmalonic acid. HoloTC decreased from an initial concentration of >128 pmol/L to a minimum of 33 pmol/L on day 742, the only day on which it fell below the lower limit of the reference interval. Total vitamin B12 decreased from an initial concentration of 606 pmol/L to a minimum of 171 pmol/L on day 728. Total homocysteine increased from an initial concentration of 8.4 μmol/L to a maximum of 14.2 μmol/L on day 609. Methylmalonic acid unexpectedly contained four distinct peaks; initially at 0.17 μmol/L, it first exceeded the upper limit of the reference interval on day 386

  6. Stability of added and in situ-produced vitamin B12 in breadmaking.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Minnamari; Chamlagain, Bhawani; Santin, Marco; Kariluoto, Susanna; Piironen, Vieno

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B12 exists naturally in foods of animal origin and is synthesised only by certain bacteria. New food sources are needed to ensure vitamin B12 intake in risk groups. This study aimed to investigate the stability of added cyanocobalamin (CNCbl, chemically modified form) and hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl, natural form) and in situ-synthesised vitamin B12 in breadmaking. Samples were analysed both with a microbiological (MBA) and a liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method to test applicability of these two methods. Proofing did not affect CNCbl and OHCbl levels. By contrast, 21% and 31% of OHCbl was lost in oven-baking steps in straight- and sponge-dough processes, respectively, whereas CNCbl remained almost stable. In sourdough baking, 23% of CNCbl and 44% of OHCbl were lost. In situ-produced vitamin B12 was almost as stable as added CNCbl and more stable than OHCbl. The UHPLC method showed its superiority to the MBA in determining the active vitamin B12. PMID:26988471

  7. Pseudo-Foster Kennedy Syndrome as a Rare Presentation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Petramfar, Peyman; Hosseinzadeh, Farideh; Mohammadi, S. Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pseudo-Foster Kennedy syndrome is a triad consisting of ipsilateral optic atrophy, contralateral optic disc edema, and ipsilateral anosmia in the absence of an intracranial mass. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in DNA synthesis, and its deficiency causes peripheral neuropathy, myeloneuropathy, and, very rarely, optic neuropathy. Case Presentation In this study, we describe a 34-year-old male who presented with progressive loss of visual acuity and field. Fundoscopy showed optic disc edema with telangiectasia in the right eye, while the left eye had optic disc atrophy. We ruled out nearly all possible and common causes of optic neuropathy, and vitamin B12 deficiency was finally diagnosed. After treatment with vitamin B12, the patient improved. Conclusions Demyelinating disease, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, autoimmune disease, and hereditary optic neuropathy could cause optic neuropathy. Normal CBC parameters and the absence of clinical manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency could not rule out its diagnosis. Careful physical examinations and history-taking with a classical approach led us to the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency and its treatment. PMID:27621919

  8. Intergenotypic variation of Vitamin B12 and Folate in AD: In north indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chhillar, Neelam; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Bala, Kiran; Basu, Mitra; Sharma, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Changes in lifestyle habits such as diet modification or supplementation have been indicated as probable protective factors for a number of chronic conditions including Alzheimer's disease (AD). With this background, we aim to hypothesize that whether C677T polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene contributes towards the risk of developing AD and its association with vitamin B12 and folate levels. Materials and Methods: A case-control study comprising of total 200 subjects, within the age group of 50-85 years. Their blood samples were analyzed for serum folate, vitamin B12 levels, and MTHFR C677T polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: The mean plasma levels of vitamin B12 and folate were significantly lower in study group when compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Genotypic and allelic frequency of MTHFR gene in both groups was found to be significant (P < 0.05). The intergenotypic variations of vitamin B12 and folate were found to be significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: We concluded that the subjects with homozygous mutated alleles are more prone to AD and also pointed out the influence of presence/absence of MTHFR T allelic variants on serum folate and vitamin B12 levels. PMID:25221401

  9. Vitamin B12 levels of subjects aged 0-24 year(s) in Konya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akin, Fatih; Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-12-01

    Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  10. A case of vitamin B12 deficiency with involuntary movements and bilateral basal ganglia lesions.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Taisuke; Gotoh, Seiji; Takaki, Hayato; Kiyuna, Fumi; Yoshimura, Sohei; Fujii, Kenichiro

    2016-07-28

    An 86-year-old woman with a one-year history of dementia was admitted to our hospital complaining of loss of appetite, hallucinations, and disturbance of consciousness. She gradually presented with chorea-like involuntary movements of the extremities. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral symmetrical hyperintense signals in the basal ganglia. The serum vitamin B12 level was below the lower detection limit of 50 pg/ml. The homocysteine level was markedly elevated at 115.8 nmol/ml. Anti-intrinsic factor and anti-parietal cell antibody tests were positive. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed atrophic gastritis. The patient was diagnosed with encephalopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency caused by pernicious anemia. Involuntary movements and MRI abnormalities improved with parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation. Bilateral basal ganglia lesions are rare manifestations of adult vitamin B12 deficiency. The present case is considered valuable in identifying the pathophysiology of involuntary movement due to vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:27356735

  11. Vitamin B12 Levels of Subjects Aged 0-24 Year(s) in Konya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  12. [Vitamin B 12 deficiency in strict vegetarian diet. Why do some people choose such a diet, and what will they do in case of vitamin B 12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Johnsen, J B; Fønnebø, V

    1991-01-10

    Nine persons in the county of Troms, Norway, were interviewed on their strict vegetarian diet. Improved health was indicated as the main reason for their choice of diet, but religion was a contributing reason for some. Most of the study persons would increase the intake of vitamin B12 if a deficiency state were to occur. One person reported, however, that she would not regard vitamin B12 deficiency as a health problem. The interviews disclosed beliefs regarding human physiology that are very far removed from standard scientific knowledge. The article indicates that communication between patient and the health care system may be difficult in such circumstances. Problems of communication would probably be minimized if the patient had a thorough understanding of human physiology and the health worker a thorough understanding of the reasons for the patient's choice of diet. PMID:2000592

  13. The Online Morphology Control and Dynamic Studies on Improving Vitamin B12 Production by Pseudomonas denitrificans with Online Capacitance and Specific Oxygen Consumption Rate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze-Jian; Shi, Hui-Lin; Wang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the morphological character of Pseudomonas denitrificans and vitamin B12 synthesis based on real-time capacitance measurement and online specific oxygen consumption rate (Q O2) control was established for enhancing vitamin B12 production. Results demonstrated that the threshold Q O2 value lower than 2.0 mmol/gDCW/l would greatly stimulate the state transfer from the cell number growth phase to the cell elongation phase and promote rapid vitamin B12 biosynthesis, while the vitamin B12 biosynthesis rate could also be inhibited when the rate of cell's length-to-width ratio (ratio-LW) was higher than 10:1. Furthermore, the optimal morphology controlling strategy was achieved based on online Q O2 control, which increases the appropriate active cell numbers at the former phase, and then control the elongation of ratio-LW no more than 10:1 at the vitamin B12 biosynthesis phase. The maximal vitamin B12 production reached 239.7 mg/l at 168 h, which was improved by 14.7 % compared with the control (208 mg/l). This online controlling strategy would be effectively applied for improving industrial vitamin B12 fermentation. PMID:27022751

  14. The nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 of Buddhist vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional status of iron, folate, and vitamin B-12 in vegetarians were assessed and compared with those of non- vegetarians in Korea. The vegetarian subjects were 54 Buddhist nuns who ate no animal source food except for dairy products. The non-vegetarians were divided into two groups: 31 Catholic nuns and 31 female college students. Three-day dietary records were completed, and the blood samples were collected for analyzing a complete blood count, and serum levels of ferritin, folate, and vitamin B-12. There was no difference in hemoglobin among the diet groups. The serum ferritin and hematocrit levels of vegetarians did not differ from that of non- vegetarian students with a high intake of animal source food but low intake of vitamin C, and the levels were lower than that of non-vegetarian Catholic nuns with a modest consumption of animal source food and a high intake of vitamin C. The serum vitamin B-12 levels of all subjects except one vegetarian and the serum folate levels of all subjects except one non-vegetarian student fell within a normal range. In vegetarians, there was a positive correlation between the vitamin C intake and serum ferritin levels as well as between the laver intake and serum vitamin B-12 levels. In order to achieve an optimal iron status, both an adequate amount of iron intake and its bioavailability should be considered. Sufficient intake of vegetables and fruits was reflected in adequate serum folate status. Korean laver can be a good source of vitamin B-12 for vegetarians. PMID:21393109

  15. Protective efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B12 against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Ankita; Prasad, Shilpi Kumari; Pal, Swagata; Maji, Bithin; Syamal, Alak Kumar; Banerjee, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, few studies have examined the effect of nicotine on the adult endocrine pancreas. In this study, male Wister rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg body weight/ day) with or without supplementation of folic acid (36 μg/kg body weight/day) or vitamin B12 (0.63 μg/kg body weight/day) alone or in combination. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and HBA1C level and different oxidative and anti-oxidative stress parameters were measured and pancreatic tissue sections were stained with eosin-haematoxylene. Data were analysed by nonparametric statistics. The results revealed that nicotine induced prediabetes condition with subsequent damage to pancreatic islets in rats. Nicotine also caused oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue as evidenced by increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level and decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione level. Compared to vitamin B12 supplementation, folic acid blunted the nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets with higher efficacy. Further, folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination were able to confer significant protection on pancreatic islets against nicotine induced toxicity. These results suggest that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination may be a possible strategy of detoxification against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat. PMID:27486368

  16. Isolated cerebellar involvement in vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Dubey, Rachana; Gulati, Sheffali; Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Atin

    2014-11-01

    Deficiency of vitamin B12 causes megaloblastic anemia and nervous system demyelination. Structures affected in the nervous system include spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerves, and brain white matter. A 9-year-old boy presented with knuckle hyperpigmentation and oral ulcers for 3 years, pallor and easy fatigability for 6 months, gait abnormalities for 3 months, and abnormal speech and behavioral abnormalities for 3 days. On examination, he had physical signs of megaloblastic anemia, mood swings with intermittent hallucinations, and features of cerebellar impairment. Blood investigations revealed megaloblastic anemia, and pernicious anemia was ruled out. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral cerebellar signal changes. He received treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency and appropriate nutritional counseling. Three months later, he showed significant clinical and radiologic resolution. To our knowledge, isolated cerebellar involvement as the sole neurologic manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency has not been described previously in children. PMID:24346315

  17. [Neurological disorders related to vitamin B12 deficiency in prisons in Guinea: a 22-case study].

    PubMed

    Cisse, F A; Bah, H; Konate, F; Camara, N; Camara, M I; Conde, K; Kassory, I F B; Sanogo, A; Diakhate, I; Cisse, A

    2013-08-01

    Neurological disorders related to vitamin B12 deficiency are common in prisons of tropical Africa. We collected 22 cases (20 men and 2 women). They all showed vitamin B12 deficiency associated with neurological signs that were represented by sclerosis combined with bone marrow (n = 9), peripheral neuropathy (n = 6), cerebellar syndrome (n = 2), a pyramidal syndrome of the lower limbs (n = 4) and optic neuropathy (n = 1). Laboratory tests showed a mean hemoglobin concentration of 7.2 ± 1.5 g/dl, mean 104 ± 28 fl, macrocytic anemia in 10 patients. Biermer's disease was identified in 9 patients, 3 patients showed the syndrome of non dissociation of vitamin B12, a gastrectomy in 2 patients and no etiology was identified in 8 patients. PMID:23793871

  18. Reduced folate and serum vitamin metabolites in patients with rectal carcinoma: an open-label feasibility study of pemetrexed with folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Odin, Elisabeth A.; Carlsson, Göran U.; Kurlberg, Göran K.; Björkqvist, Hillevi G.; Tångefjord, Maria T.; Gustavsson, Bengt G.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this single-center, open-label, phase II study were to evaluate (a) the feasibility and safety of neoadjuvant administration of pemetrexed with oral folic acid and vitamin B12 (FA/B12) in newly diagnosed patients with resectable rectal cancer and (b) intracellular and systemic vitamin metabolism. Patients were treated with three cycles of pemetrexed (500 mg/m2, every 3 weeks) and FA/B12 before surgery. The reduced folates tetrahydrofolate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate were evaluated from biopsies in tumor tissue and in adjacent mucosa. Serum levels of homocysteine, cystathionine, and methylmalonic acid were also measured. All 37 patients received three cycles of pemetrexed; 89.2% completed their planned dosage within a 9-week feasibility time frame. Neither dose reductions nor study drug-related serious adverse events were reported. Reduced folate levels were significantly higher in tumor tissue compared with adjacent mucosa at baseline. After FA/B12 administration, tissue levels of reduced folates increased significantly and remained high during treatment in both tumor and mucosa until surgery. Serum levels of cystathionine increased significantly compared with baseline after FA/B12 administration, but then decreased, fluctuating cyclically during pemetrexed therapy. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels decreased significantly after FA/B12 administration, and remained below baseline levels during the study. These results indicate that administration of three neoadjuvant cycles of single-agent pemetrexed, every 3 weeks, with FA/B12 in patients with resectable rectal cancer is feasible and tolerable. Tissue and serum vitamin metabolism results demonstrate the influence of pemetrexed and FA/B12 on vitamin metabolism and warrant further study. PMID:26825869

  19. Reduced folate and serum vitamin metabolites in patients with rectal carcinoma: an open-label feasibility study of pemetrexed with folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation.

    PubMed

    Stoffregen, Clemens C; Odin, Elisabeth A; Carlsson, Göran U; Kurlberg, Göran K; Björkqvist, Hillevi G; Tångefjord, Maria T; Gustavsson, Bengt G

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this single-center, open-label, phase II study were to evaluate (a) the feasibility and safety of neoadjuvant administration of pemetrexed with oral folic acid and vitamin B12 (FA/B12) in newly diagnosed patients with resectable rectal cancer and (b) intracellular and systemic vitamin metabolism. Patients were treated with three cycles of pemetrexed (500 mg/m, every 3 weeks) and FA/B12 before surgery. The reduced folates tetrahydrofolate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate were evaluated from biopsies in tumor tissue and in adjacent mucosa. Serum levels of homocysteine, cystathionine, and methylmalonic acid were also measured. All 37 patients received three cycles of pemetrexed; 89.2% completed their planned dosage within a 9-week feasibility time frame. Neither dose reductions nor study drug-related serious adverse events were reported. Reduced folate levels were significantly higher in tumor tissue compared with adjacent mucosa at baseline. After FA/B12 administration, tissue levels of reduced folates increased significantly and remained high during treatment in both tumor and mucosa until surgery. Serum levels of cystathionine increased significantly compared with baseline after FA/B12 administration, but then decreased, fluctuating cyclically during pemetrexed therapy. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels decreased significantly after FA/B12 administration, and remained below baseline levels during the study. These results indicate that administration of three neoadjuvant cycles of single-agent pemetrexed, every 3 weeks, with FA/B12 in patients with resectable rectal cancer is feasible and tolerable. Tissue and serum vitamin metabolism results demonstrate the influence of pemetrexed and FA/B12 on vitamin metabolism and warrant further study. PMID:26825869

  20. Effect of Yeast Extract and Vitamin B(12) on Ethanol Production from Cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Goto, S; Yonemura, S; Sekine, K; Okuma, E; Takagi, Y; Hon-Nami, K; Saiki, T

    1992-02-01

    Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B(12), biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B(12) alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20. PMID:16348657

  1. [A case of subacute combined degeneration with normal serum vitamin B12 level].

    PubMed

    Nagaishi, Akiko; Takashima, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Yasuo; Kuroda, Yasuo

    2003-09-01

    A 40-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of pancytopenia with megaloblastic anemia. Two months later she complained of rapidly progressive gait disturbance and numbness in the distal part of limbs. She also told that her hair had turned totally gray in the third decade. Neurologically, mental state, cranial nerves and cerebellar functions were normal. Superficial sensations were impaired below the lower thoracic level and deep sensations were completely lost in the lower limbs. Moderate weakness was found in the lower limbs, symmetrically. Deep tendon reflexes were diminished in the upper limbs and absent in the lower limbs. Babinski's reflex was positive bilaterally. MR images of the spinal cord showed hyperintensity in the posterior column below the thoracic cord. Although the serum level of vitamin B12 was within normal range, serum homocysteine level was elevated markedly. Under the diagnosis of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) due to possible vitamin B12 deficiency, the treatment with intravenous injections of 500 micrograms/day of mecobalamin was undertaken. Muscle strength and sensory impairment improved progressively and she became able to walk with a cane. The coloration of her gray hair was also noted. After treatment, pancytopenia and megaloblastic anemia also markedly improved. Vitamin B12 became high in serum concentration and the serum level of homocysteine became normal. These clinical and laboratory findings support the diagnosis of SCD with normal serum level of vitamin B12 in our case, suggesting that the level of vitamin B12 in serum does not always correlate with that in tissue and, therefore, SCD should not be excluded just only by the reason of normal serum vitamin B12 level. PMID:14727562

  2. Effects of vitamin B12 on the corneal nerve regeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Romano, Maria Rosaria; Biagioni, Francesca; Carrizzo, Albino; Lorusso, Massimo; Spadaro, Angelo; Micelli Ferrari, Tommaso; Vecchione, Carmine; Zurria, Monia; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Mascio, Giada; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Madonna, Michele; Fornai, Francesco; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Lograno, Marcello Diego

    2014-03-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effects of a new ophthalmic solution containing 0.05% vitamin B12 0.05% on corneal nerve regeneration in rats after corneal injury. Eyes of anesthetized male Wistar rats were subjected to corneal injury by removing the corneal epithelium with corneal brush (Algerbrush). After the epithelial debridement, the right eye of each animal received the instillation of one drop of the ophthalmic solution containing vitamin B12 0.05% plus taurine 0.5% and sodium hyaluronate 0.5% four time per day for 10 or 30 days. Left eyes were used as control and treated with solution containing taurine 0.5% and sodium hyaluronate 0.5% alone following the same regimen. Fluorescein staining by slit-lamp and morphological analysis was used to determine corneal wound healing. Immunohistochemistry, immunoblot and confocal microscopy were used to examine corneal re-innervation. Slit-lamp and histological analyses showed that re-epithelization of the corneas was accelerated in rats treated with vitamin B12. A clear-cut difference between the two groups of rats was seen after 10 days of treatment, whereas a near-to-complete re-epithelization was observed in both groups at 30 days. Vitamin B12 treatment had also a remarkable effect on corneal re-innervation, as shown by substantial increased in the expression of neurofilament 160 and β-III tubulin at both 10 and 30 days. The presence of SV2A-positive nerve endings suggests the presence of synapse-like specialized structures in corneal epithelium of the eye treated with vitamin B12. Our findings suggest that vitamin B12 treatment represents a powerful strategy to accelerate not only re-epithelization but also corneal re-innervation after mechanical injury. PMID:24486457

  3. Decreased vitamin B12 availability induces ER stress through impaired SIRT1-deacetylation of HSF1

    PubMed Central

    Ghemrawi, R; Pooya, S; Lorentz, S; Gauchotte, G; Arnold, C; Gueant, J-L; Battaglia-Hsu, S-F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a key determinant of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent epigenomic cellular regulations related to methylation/acetylation and its deficiency produces neurodegenerative disorders by elusive mechanisms. Sirtuin 1 deacetylase (SIRT1) triggers cell response to nutritional stress through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Recently, we have established a N1E115 dopaminergic cell model by stable expression of a transcobalamin–oleosin chimera (TO), which impairs cellular availability of vitamin B12, decreases methionine synthase activity and SAM level, and reduces cell proliferation. In contrast, oleosin-transcobalamin chimera (OT) does not modify the phenotype of transfected cells. Presently, the impaired cellular availability of vitamin B12 in TO cells activated irreversible ER stress pathways, with increased P-eIF-2α, P-PERK, P-IRE1α, ATF6, ATF4, decreased chaperon proteins and increased pro-apoptotic markers, CHOP and cleaved caspase 3, through reduced SIRT1 expression and consequently greater acetylation of heat-shock factor protein 1 (HSF1). Adding either B12, SIRT1, or HSF1 activators as well as overexpressing SIRT1 or HSF1 dramatically reduced the activation of ER stress pathways in TO cells. Conversely, impairing SIRT1 and HSF1 by siRNA, expressing a dominant negative form of HSF1, or adding a SIRT1 inhibitor led to B12-dependent ER stress in OT cells. Addition of B12 abolished the activation of stress transducers and apoptosis, and increased the expression of protein chaperons in OT cells subjected to thapsigargin, a strong ER stress stimulator. AdoX, an inhibitor of methyltransferase activities, produced similar effects than decreased B12 availability on SIRT1 and ER stress by a mechanism related to increased expression of hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1). Taken together, these data show that cellular vitamin B12 has a strong modulating influence on ER stress in N1E115 dopaminergic cells. The impaired cellular availability in

  4. Vitamin B12: one carbon metabolism, fetal growth and programming for chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Rush, E C; Katre, P; Yajnik, C S

    2014-01-01

    This review brings together human and animal studies and reviews that examine the possible role of maternal vitamin B12 (B12) on fetal growth and its programming for susceptibility to chronic disease. A selective literature review was undertaken to identify studies and reviews that investigate these issues, particularly in the context of a vegetarian diet that may be low in B12 and protein and high in carbohydrate. Evidence is accumulating that maternal B12 status influences fetal growth and development. Low maternal vitamin B12 status and protein intake are associated with increased risk of neural tube defect, low lean mass and excess adiposity, increased insulin resistance, impaired neurodevelopment and altered risk of cancer in the offspring. Vitamin B12 is a key nutrient associated with one carbon metabolic pathways related to substrate metabolism, synthesis and stability of nucleic acids and methylation of DNA which regulates gene expression. Understanding of factors regulating maternal-fetal one carbon metabolism and its role in fetal programming of non communicable diseases could help design effective interventions, starting with maternal nutrition before conception. PMID:24219896

  5. Studies on the spin Hamiltonian parameters of vitamin B 12r

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shao-Yi; Wei, Li-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The spin Hamiltonian parameters g factors gi ( i = x, y, z) and the hyperfine structure constants Ai of vitamin B 12r have been theoretically studied from the perturbation formulas of these parameters for a Co 2+(3d 7) ion with low spin ( S = 1/2) in rhombically distorted octahedra. The related crystal-field parameters are determined from the point-charge-dipole model and the local structure around Co 2+ in vitamin B 12r. The theoretical spin Hamiltonian parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Folic acid metabolism in vitamin B12-deficient sheep. Depletion of liver folates

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard M.; Osborne-White, William S.

    1973-01-01

    1. Metabolism of folate was studied in six ewes in an advanced state of vitamin B12 deficiency as judged by voluntary food intake and in their pair-fed controls receiving vitamin B12. A group of four animals that were maintained throughout the experiment at pasture was also studied. 2. After 34–40 weeks on the cobalt-deficient diet urinary excretion of formiminoglutamate by four deficient animals was about 3.2mmol/day and this was not significantly decreased by injection of three of them with about 4.5μg of [2-14C]folate/kg body weight per day for 5 days. Three days after the last injection retention of [2-14C]folate by the livers of the deficient animals (5.5% of the dose) was lower than that of their pair-fed controls (26% of the dose) but there was no evidence of net retention of injected folate in the livers of either group. Urinary excretion of 14C indicated that renal clearance of folate may have been impaired in very severe vitamin B12 deficiency. 3. As estimated by microbiological assays total folates in the livers of animals at pasture (12.9μg/g) included about 24% of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate as compared with about 72% of a total of 12.5μg/g in three further ewes fed on a stock diet of wheaten hay-chaff and lucerne-chaff. Liver folates of vitamin B12-deficient animals (0.5μg/g) included about 88% of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate as compared with about 51% of a total of 5.2μg/g in pair-fed animals treated with vitamin B12. 4. Chromatography of liver folates of the pair-fed animals permitted quantitative estimates of the pteroylglutamates present. The results showed that the vitamin B12-deficient livers were more severely depleted of tetrahydrofolates and formyltetrahydrofolates than of methyltetrahydrofolates and that as the deficiency developed they were more severely depleted of the higher polyglutamates than of the monoglutamate within each of these classes. Results from animals injected with [2-14C]folate indicated an impairment of the exchange

  7. Folic acid and vitamin B12 in vitiligo: a nutritional approach.

    PubMed

    Montes, L F; Diaz, M L; Lajous, J; Garcia, N J

    1992-07-01

    When compared with the normal population, patients with vitiligo often showed diminished blood levels of folic acid. In a group of fifteen patients with vitiligo, folic acid levels were below normal in the serum of eleven patients, in the whole blood of five patients, and in the erythrocytes of six patients. Vitamin B12 serum levels were below normal in five of the fifteen patients. Ascorbic acid plasma levels were also lowered in four of the patients. In eight patients prolonged oral administration of folic acid with simultaneous parenteral treatment with vitamin B12 and oral ascorbic acid was followed by definite repigmentation without side effects. PMID:1516378

  8. An appraisal of the value of vitamin B12 in the prevention of motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Lacey, C. L.; Homick, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin B12 given by intramuscular injection can significantly reduce the occurrence of motion sickness in susceptible individuals (Banks, 1980). Since it is known that B12 influences the metabolism of histidine and choline, dietary precursors to neurotransmitters with established roles in motion sickness, an experimental evaluation has been undertaken of the efficacy of B12 in the prevention of motion sickness induced by controlled coriolis simulation. Subjects executed standardized head movements at successively higher rpm until a malaise III endpoint was reached. Following two baseline tests with this motion stressor, subjects received a B12 injection, a second injection two weeks later, and a final motion sickness test three weeks later. No significant differences in the susceptibility to motion sickness were noted after B12.

  9. Pernicious anemia presenting as catatonia: correlating vitamin B12 levels and catatonic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bram, Damien; Bubrovszky, Maxime; Durand, Jean-Paul; Lefevre, Guillaume; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Vaiva, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Pernicious anemia has been associated with various psychiatric manifestations, such as depression, mania and psychosis. Psychiatric symptoms can sometimes occur without hematological and neurological abnormalities and can be prodromal of vitamin B12 deficiency. We report a case of autoimmune B12 deficiency presenting as catatonia without signs of anemia or macrocytosis, in which a correlation was found between the patient's B12 blood levels and catatonic symptoms over time. This catatonic episode was successfully treated with only lorazepam and adequate doses of cyanocobalamin. PMID:25774050

  10. A pediatric patient with recurrent pseudotumor cerebri and vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yetgin, Sevgi; Derman, Orhan; Dogan, Muhsin

    2006-01-01

    Pseudotumor cerebri is a syndrome of increased intracranial pressure, normal cerebrospinal fluid values, and a normal cerebral ventricles on brain imaging studies. A patient with a diagnosis of pseudotumor cerebri was admitted to the authors' hospital twice within a 2.5-year interval and treated with vitamin B12 (vit-B12). At the second admission she also presented with a cerebral venous thrombosis that might have been explained by vit-B12 deficiency, homocysteinemia, and an increased level of lipoprotein-a. PMID:16326411

  11. CdTe quantum dot as a fluorescence probe for vitamin B12 in dosage form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaishnavi, E.; Renganathan, R.

    2013-11-01

    We here report the CdTe quantum dot (CdTe QDs)-based sensor for probing vitamin B12 derivatives in aqueous solution. In this paper, simple and sensitive fluorescence quenching measurements has been employed. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV), quenching rate constant (kq) and binding constant (K) were rationalized from fluorescence quenching measurement. Furthermore, the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism was discussed. This method was applicable over the concentration ranging from 1 to 14 μg/mL (VB12) with correlation coefficient of 0.993. The limit of detection (LOD) of VB12 was found to be 0.15 μg/mL. Moreover, the present approach opens a simple pathway for developing cost-effective, sensitive and selective QD-based fluorescence sensors/probes for biologically significant VB12 in pharmaceutical sample with mean recoveries in the range of 100-102.1%.

  12. Immunomodulation by vitamin B12: augmentation of CD8+ T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cell activity in vitamin B12-deficient patients by methyl-B12 treatment.

    PubMed

    Tamura, J; Kubota, K; Murakami, H; Sawamura, M; Matsushima, T; Tamura, T; Saitoh, T; Kurabayshi, H; Naruse, T

    1999-04-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin B12 (vit.B12) plays an important role in immune system regulation, but the details are still obscure. In order to examine the action of vit.B12 on cells of the human immune system, lymphocyte subpopulations and NK cell activity were evaluated in 11 patients with vit.B12 deficiency anaemia and in 13 control subjects. Decreases in the number of lymphocytes and CD8+ cells and in the proportion of CD4+ cells, an abnormally high CD4/CD8 ratio, and suppressed NK cell activity were noted in patients compared with control subjects. In all 11 patients and eight control subjects, these immune parameters were evaluated before and after methyl-B12 injection. The lymphocyte counts and number of CD8+ cells increased both in patients and in control subjects. The high CD4/CD8 ratio and suppressed NK cell activity were improved by methyl-B12 treatment. Augmentation of CD3-CD16+ cells occurred in patients after methyl-B12 treatment. In contrast, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity, lectin-stimulated lymphocyte blast formation, and serum levels of immunoglobulins were not changed by methyl-B12 treatment. These results indicate that vit.B12 might play an important role in cellular immunity, especially relativing to CD8+ cells and the NK cell system, which suggests effects on cytotoxic cells. We conclude that vit.B12 acts as an immunomodulator for cellular immunity. PMID:10209501

  13. Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6). Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2). Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8) and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study. PMID:25436187

  14. Effect of Vitamin B12 supplementation on serum homocysteine in patients undergoing hemodialysis: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tayebi, Ali; Biniaz, Vajihe; Savari, Samira; Ebadi, Abbas; Shermeh, Mahdi Sadeghi; Einollahi, Behzad; Rahimi, Abolfazl

    2016-03-01

    Clinical studies have shown that hyper-homocysteinemia is a potent independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and many different methods have been investigated for lowering it in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Our study investigated the effect of Vitamin B 12 supplementation on serum homocysteine levels in these patients. This randomized trial was conducted on 140 HD patients. They were randomly distributed by lottery method into two groups: intervention and control. In the intervention group, 100 μg/mL of Vitamin B 12 was intravenously injected two times a week, for eight weeks. No intervention was performed in the control group. Serum levels of homocysteine, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) were measured at the beginning and again after eight weeks (2 months) of treatment. About 91% of the patients had hyperhomocysteinemia (serum homocysteine >15 μmol/L). The median baseline levels of serum homocysteine in the intervention and control groups were 31.9 and 26.9 μmol/L, respectively (P = 0.1). After eight weeks, the median homocysteine level reduced significantly in the Vitamin B 12 group to 22.2 versus 28.4 μmol/L in control group (P = 0.006). The mean Hb and Hct also changed significantly during our study (12.3 vs. 11.4 g/dL; P = 0.003 and 37.9 vs. 35.3%; P = 0.02, respectively). Our results demonstrated the existence of a statistical negative relationship between Vitamin B 12 and serum levels of homocysteine. Detailed investigations with larger sample sizes and longer-term use of Vitamin B 12 are recommended. PMID:26997378

  15. Monitoring of vitamin B-12 nutritional status in the United States by using plasma methylmalonic acid and serum vitamin B-121234

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L; Carmel, Ralph; Green, Ralph; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Cogswell, Mary E; Osterloh, John D; Sempos, Christopher T; Yetley, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Various definitions, criteria, tests, and cutoffs have been used to define vitamin B-12 status; however, a need exists for the systematic study of vitamin B-12 status in the United States because of concerns about high folic acid intakes and the potential for associated adverse effects. Objective: The objective was to determine the effect of different cutoff choices on outcomes and of the different degrees of serum vitamin B-12 status, definable by the concurrent use of a functional and circulating marker as the first steps to developing a data-based consensus on the biochemical diagnosis of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Design: Data from NHANES, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey, were examined for adults aged >19 y (mean ± SD age: 45 ± 1 y) from 1999 to 2004 (n = 12,612). Results: Commonly used cutoffs had a greater effect on prevalence estimates of low vitamin B-12 status with the use of vitamin B-12 than with the use of methylmalonic acid (MMA; 3–26% and 2–6%, respectively). A cutoff of >148 pmol/L for vitamin B-12 and of ≤210 nmol/L for MMA resulted in significant misclassifications. Approximately 1% of adults had a clear vitamin B-12 deficiency (low vitamin B-12 and elevated MMA); 92% of adults had adequate vitamin B-12 status. A high percentage of younger women characterized the group with low vitamin B-12 and normal MMA (2% of adults) and may have falsely reflected low vitamin B-12. Adults with elevated MMA (5%) only were demographically similar (ie, by age and race) to the deficient group and may have included some individuals with early vitamin B-12 deficiency. Conclusions: These analyses indicate the challenges of assessing vitamin B-12 status when uncertainties exist about the appropriate cutoffs. Future studies should determine definable endpoints to achieve this goal. PMID:21677051

  16. Low Maternal Vitamin B12 Status Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood HDL Cholesterol in White Caucasians Living in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Vatish, Manu; Lawson, Alexander; Wood, Catherine; Sivakumar, Kavitha; McTernan, Philip G.; Webster, Craig; Anderson, Neil; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Tripathi, Gyanendra; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Studies in South Asian population show that low maternal vitamin B12 associates with insulin resistance and small for gestational age in the offspring. Low vitamin B12 status is attributed to vegetarianism in these populations. It is not known whether low B12 status is associated with metabolic risk of the offspring in whites, where the childhood metabolic disorders are increasing rapidly. Here, we studied whether maternal B12 levels associate with metabolic risk of the offspring at birth. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 91 mother-infant pairs (n = 182), of white Caucasian origin living in the UK. Blood samples were collected from white pregnant women at delivery and their newborns (cord blood). Serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine as well as the relevant metabolic risk factors were measured. Results: The prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (<191 ng/L) and folate (<4.6 μg/L) were 40% and 11%, respectively. Maternal B12 was inversely associated with offspring’s Homeostasis Model Assessment 2-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, homocysteine and positively with HDL-cholesterol after adjusting for age and BMI. In regression analysis, after adjusting for likely confounders, maternal B12 is independently associated with neonatal HDL-cholesterol and homocysteine but not triglycerides or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Our study shows that low B12 status is common in white women and is independently associated with adverse cord blood cholesterol. PMID:25849948

  17. Profound Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a 1-Year-Old Child in Botswana: A Call to Initiate Early Empiric Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gajudhur, Juyotee; Slone, Jeremy S; Mehta, Parth S; Mahoney, Donald

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a rare diagnosis in young children. We present the case of a 1-year-old Zimbabwean child with profound anemia. Further testing revealed undetectable levels of vitamin B12 and positive intrinsic factor antibodies that were drawn after the initiation of empiric treatment with parenteral vitamin B12. We report the evaluation and management of vitamin B12 deficiency in a resource-limited setting. Vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered in children presenting with unexplained cytopenias with consideration of empiric treatment with parenteral vitamin B12, as developmental and neurological complications of vitamin B12 deficiency can be devastating and permanent. PMID:27306229

  18. [Homocysteine, vitamin B-12, folic acid and the cognitive decline in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Smach, M A; Naffeti, S; Charfeddine, B; Ben Abdallah, J; Othmen, L B; Letaef, A; Limem, K

    2013-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for neurological diseases, but the underlying pathophysiology has not been adequately explained. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia, which is sometimes associated with a low plasma level of vitamin B9, B12 and folic acid, is responsible in the toxicity in neural cell by activating NMDA receptor. Indeed, even if vitamin supplementation has clearly proven its efficiency on lowering plasma levels of homocysteine, recent studies do not show any positive effect of vitamin therapy on cognitive function. The hypothesis that this therapy is inefficient has been recently reinforced by two randomized trials on the effects of vitamin supplementation. Several hypotheses still need to be explored: Mechanisms of homocysteine toxicity and that of total uselessness of vitamin supplementation; the possible need to complete the actual data with further, more powerful studies in order to prove the role of homocysteine in the development of neurodegenerative diseases and a clinical effect of vitamin therapy. PMID:22647793

  19. STM investigations of Au(1 1 1) electrodes coated with vitamin B 12 derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szőcs, E.; Durrer, L.; Luginbühl, R.; Simic, N.; Viana, A. S.; Abrantes, L. M.; Keese, R.; Siegenthaler, H.

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 derivatives immobilized at flame-annealed Au(1 1 1) electrode surfaces have been investigated in close correlation with their structural properties and spatial arrangement at the electrode substrate by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in air and in aqueous 0.1 M NaClO 4 solution. The investigated compounds were symmetrical (B 12C 10S-SC 10B 12) and nonsymmetrical (B 12C 10S-SC 10) dialkyl disulfide derivatives of vitamin B 12, attached to the electrode surfaces by the S-Au bond. The ex situ and in situ STM experiments show the formation of a surface layer, whose packing density and structure is presumably controlled by the spatial arrangement of the large cobyrinate head groups. In presence of the symmetrical B 12 compound, a disordered surface layer is observed. Voltammetric investigations show that, in 0.1 M NaClO 4, this layer becomes unstable at potentials approximately ⩽ -1000 mV vs. MSE and is almost completely removed at more negative potentials. The STM imaging properties of the nonsymmetrical B 12 surface layer show a significant dependence on the tunneling distance. In particular, at small tunneling distances, a highly regular hexagonal surface pattern is observed that suggests strongly the presence of an ordered surface assembly. Modeling of the B 12 head group has been performed to provide information for a structure-related interpretation of the high-resolution STM images. The investigations are first STM results obtained at such B 12 modified electrodes.

  20. Effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric symptoms and immune response in HIV-positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Prabha M.; Chowta, Mukta N.; Ramapuram, John T.; Rao, Satish B.; Udupa, Karthik; Acharya, Sahana D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Micronutrients such as B12 and folic acid deficiencies are found in higher number in HIV-infected patients. Objective: We conducted a study to examine the effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric manifestations, CD4 count, and anthropometric measurements in HIV-positive patients. Materials and Methods: Three different groups of HIV patients, namely, HIV patients with tuberculosis, HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations, and asymptomatic HIV patients with 50 patients in each group were included in the study. Baseline and follow-up CD4 count, anthropometric measurements, neuropsychiatric assessments, Vitamin B12, and folic acid estimation were done. Results: The prevalence of folic acid deficiency was 27.1% in Group I, 31.9% in Group II, and 23.4% in Group III. The prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency was 8.16% in Group I, 6.12% in Group II, and 4.16% in Group III. HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations were noted to have the lowest mean mini–mental score. After the supplementation of vitamins, anthropometric measurements, MMSE as well as Hamilton depression scores, improved in all the three groups whereas Hamilton anxiety scores improved only in Group III. The CD4 count also improved in Groups I and II after the supplementation of vitamins. Conclusion: Folic acid deficiency was highest among neuropsychiatric patients. The majority of people who had a folic acid deficiency have shown improvement in their neuropsychiatric assessment scores as well as CD4 count after its supplementation. PMID:27365952

  1. Genomic Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae IIEMP-3, a Vitamin B12-Producing Strain from Indonesian Tempeh.

    PubMed

    Yulandi, Adi; Sugiokto, Febri Gunawan; Febrilina; Suwanto, Antonius

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae strain IIEMP-3, isolated from Indonesian tempeh, is a vitamin B12-producing strain that exhibited a different genetic profile from pathogenic isolates. Here we report the draft genome sequence of strain IIEMP-3, which may provide insights on the nature of fermentation, nutrition, and immunological function of Indonesian tempeh. PMID:26950331

  2. Copper control of bacterial nitrous oxide emission and its impact on vitamin B12-dependent metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Matthew J.; Gates, Andrew J.; Appia-Ayme, Corinne; Rowley, Gary; Richardson, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Global agricultural emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) have increased by around 20% over the last 100 y, but regulation of these emissions and their impact on bacterial cellular metabolism are poorly understood. Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate in soils to inert di-nitrogen gas (N2) via N2O and the biochemistry of this process has been studied extensively in Paracoccus denitrificans. Here we demonstrate that expression of the gene encoding the nitrous oxide reductase (NosZ), which converts N2O to N2, is regulated in response to the extracellular copper concentration. We show that elevated levels of N2O released as a consequence of decreased cellular NosZ activity lead to the bacterium switching from vitamin B12-dependent to vitamin B12-independent biosynthetic pathways, through the transcriptional modulation of genes controlled by vitamin B12 riboswitches. This inhibitory effect of N2O can be rescued by addition of exogenous vitamin B12. PMID:24248380

  3. Metabolic network rewiring of propionate flux compensates vitamin B12 deficiency in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Emma; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Hoy, Michael J; Li, Chi-Hua; Louisse, Timo; Yao, Victoria; Mori, Akihiro; Holdorf, Amy D; Troyanskaya, Olga G; Ralser, Markus; Walhout, Albertha JM

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic network rewiring is the rerouting of metabolism through the use of alternate enzymes to adjust pathway flux and accomplish specific anabolic or catabolic objectives. Here, we report the first characterization of two parallel pathways for the breakdown of the short chain fatty acid propionate in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic interaction mapping, gene co-expression analysis, pathway intermediate quantification and carbon tracing, we uncover a vitamin B12-independent propionate breakdown shunt that is transcriptionally activated on vitamin B12 deficient diets, or under genetic conditions mimicking the human diseases propionic- and methylmalonic acidemia, in which the canonical B12-dependent propionate breakdown pathway is blocked. Our study presents the first example of transcriptional vitamin-directed metabolic network rewiring to promote survival under vitamin deficiency. The ability to reroute propionate breakdown according to B12 availability may provide C. elegans with metabolic plasticity and thus a selective advantage on different diets in the wild. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17670.001 PMID:27383050

  4. Enhanced pharmacological activity of Vitamin B12 and Penicillin as nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yariv, Inbar; Lipovsky, Anat; Gedanken, Aharon; Lubart, Rachel; Fixler, Dror

    2015-01-01

    Sonochemistry has become a well-known technique for fabricating nanomaterials. Since one of the advantages of nanomaterials is that they have higher chemical activities compared with particles in the bulk form, efforts are being made to produce nano organic compounds with enhanced biological activities that could be exploited in the medical area. This study uses the sonication technique to prepare nano Vitamin B12 and nano Penicillin, and demonstrates their enhanced biological and pharmacological activity. The size and morphology of the nano Penicillin and nano Vitamin B12 were investigated using electron microscopy as well as dynamic light scattering techniques. The sizes of Penicillin and Vitamin B12 nanoparticles (NPs) were found to be 70 and 120–180 nm, respectively. The bactericidal effect of nano Penicillin was studied and found to be higher than that of the bulk form. Reducing the size of Vitamin B12 resulted in their enhanced antioxidative activity as observed using the electron paramagnetic spectroscopy technique. The penetration depth of these organic NPs can be detected by an optical iterative method. It is believed that nano organic drugs fabrication will have a great impact on the medical field. PMID:26028970

  5. Competitive chemiluminescent anzyme immunoassay for vitamin B12 analysis in human milk.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent discoveries of matrix interferences by haptocorrin (HC) in human milk and serum show that past analyses of vitamin B12 in samples with high HC content might have been inaccurate (Lildballe et al., 2009; Carmel & Agrawal, 2012). We evaluated two competitive enzyme-binding immunoassays for seru...

  6. Improved vitamin B12 fermentation process by adding rotenone to regulate the metabolism of Pseudomonas denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin; Chen, Wei; Peng, Wei-Fu; Li, Kun-Tai

    2014-06-01

    Our previous research had revealed that the dissolved oxygen limitation was more favorable for vitamin B12 fermentation, due to its inducement to the increased glycolytic flux in Pseudomonas denitrificans. In this paper, a novel strategy was implemented to further investigate the metabolic characteristics of P. denitrificans under different oxygen supply levels, by exogenously adding rotenone (a respiratory chain inhibitor interfering with the oxygen consumption) to the fermentation broths. Compared to the fermentation process without rotenone treatment, it was observed that 5 mg/L rotenone treatment could significantly strengthen the glycolytic flux of P. denitrificans via activating the key glycolytic enzymes (phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase), resulting in the accelerated generations of anterior precursors (glutamate and 5-aminolevulinic acid) for vitamin B12 biosynthesis. Although 5 mg/L rotenone treatment had a negative effect on cell growth of P. denitrificans, the vitamin B12 yield was increased from 48.28 ± 0.62 mg/L to 54.70 ± 0.45 mg/L, which further proved that an increased glycolytic flux in P. denitrificans was a consequence of higher vitamin B12 production. PMID:24687557

  7. Expeditious synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using Vitamin B12 under microwave irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A greener synthesis protocol for noble nanometals is developed using vitamin B12 as a reducing and capping agent in conjunction with the use of microwaves. Successful assembly of nanoparticles or microparticles with varied shapes and sizes have been demonstrated. The synthesized ...

  8. Review of the magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies worldwide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12 result in adverse effects which may be of public health significance, but the magnitude of these deficiencies is unknown. Therefore, we examine the prevalence data currently available, assess global coverage of surveys, determine the frequency with which...

  9. Brief Report: Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Likely Manifestation of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B. N.; Parakh, Preeti; Lahariya, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder is a rare disorder, characterized by regression of acquired skills after a period of normal development. The case of childhood disintegrative disorder presented here was found to have vitamin B12 deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia on extensive evaluation to find a probable cause for regression. This case…

  10. Vitamin B12 Production and Depletion in a Naturally Occurring Eutrophic Lake1

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Paul A.; Morita, Richard Y.

    1972-01-01

    The distribution of vitamin B12 within Upper Klamath Lake was surveyed at approximately monthly intervals during a period from September 1968 to November 1969. High concentrations (up to 1.8 μg/g of dry sediment) characteristically occurred at the water-sediment interface, with a sharp decline below this area. A heavy bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae occurred from the latter part of May through October 1969. B12 concentrations of the uppermost sediments, from all but one sampling site, increased gradually through the bloom, followed by a drastic increase during the die-off period. B12 is probably not a limiting factor for primary productivity, since sufficient levels of this vitamin were found to occur throughout the year. Of 42 cultures isolated from Upper Klamath Lake water and sediments, 20 were found capable of producing 50 pg or more of B12/ml of medium. Phytoplankton samples were found to contain up to 5 μg of B12/g of dry material. Degradation of B12 occurred in sterilized as well as fresh sediment samples. PMID:4622828

  11. [Failure to thrive and psychomotor regression revealing vitamin B12 deficiency in 3 infants].

    PubMed

    Mathey, C; Di Marco, J-N; Poujol, A; Cournelle, M-A; Brevaut, V; Livet, M-O; Chabrol, B; Michel, G

    2007-05-01

    The newborn's vitamin B12 storage exclusively comes from placenta transfer, later from animal food. We relate 3 observations of infants (3-11-13 months) with failure to thrive, anorexia, vomiting and for the two olders refusal of weaning, associated with psychomotricity regression and hypotony. Blood cell count showed a macrocytosis without anemia (case 2-3) and a severe microcytic anemia for the first case caused by a mild alpha-thalassemia, with megaloblastic bone marrow. Vitamin B12 levels were very low associated with increased methylmalonic acid and homocysteine serum levels which confirm the diagnostic . Cerebral imaging showed diffuse cortical atrophy. Cobalamin deficiency was caused by strict vegetarian diets mothers of breastfed infants (cases 2-3) and for younger by mother's unrecognized pernicious anemia. 3 mothers had no anemia and normal B12 's levels at diagnosis. Vitamin B12 supply lead to a rapid clinical and hematologic improvement. In two cases, neurologic recovery was incomplete. About one hundred case of B12 deficiency 's infant are reported, 2/3 are breast-fed by vegetarian mothers, and 1/4 have mothers with pernicious anemia. The failure to thrive is due to anorexia, refusal of weaning and partial villous atrophy. Neurologic manifestations are secondary to cerebral disorders, sometimes revealed by an exposure to anesthetic nitrous oxyd. The macrocytic anemia is inconstant. The etiologic research of developmental delay in an infant may include vitamin B12's deficiency, even if there is no haematologic signs, especially if breast-fedding 's mothers is vegetarian. PMID:17412572

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection, vitamin B12 and homocysteine. A review.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Jutta; Ebert, Matthias; Malfertheiner, Peter; Luley, Claus

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that there is an association between Helicobacter pylori infection, reduced cobalamin absorption and cobalamin status and, consequently, elevated homocysteine levels. This would offer an explanation why H. pylori infection is associated with coronary heart disease. To date, more than 25 studies have been published that either deal with H. pylori infection and homocysteine, H. pylori infection and cobalamin status, or both. The design of these studies differs widely in terms of definition of H. pylori status, measuring cobalamin status, selection of study cohorts and geographical study areas. Therefore, results are fairly inconclusive at present and do not suggest a major role of H. pylori infection in the development of cobalamin deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels. PMID:14571097

  13. Variability in the carbon isotope fractionation of trichloroethene on its reductive dechlorination by vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Gan, Yiqun; Yu, Tingting; Zhou, Aiguo; Liu, Yunde; Yu, Kai; Han, Li

    2014-08-01

    Stable carbon isotope fractionation through the reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene by vitamin B12 was determined to assess the possibility of using stable carbon isotope analysis to determine the efficacy of remediation of trichloroethylene using vitamin B12. We elucidated the effects of environmental conditions, including the pH, reaction temperature, and vitamin B12 concentration, on the carbon isotope enrichment factor (ε). The ε values were relatively insensitive to the reaction temperature and vitamin B12 concentration, ranging from -15.7‰ to -16.2‰, with a mean of -15.9 ± 0.2‰, at different temperatures and vitamin B12 concentrations. Such a reproducible ε value could be particularly useful for estimating the extent of degradation in reactions in which a mass balance is difficult to achieve. However, changing the initial solution pH from 6.5 to 9.0 caused a notable change in the ε values, from -14.0‰ to -18.0‰. Reactions were investigated by calculating the apparent kinetic isotope effects for carbon, which, at 1.029-1.037, were smaller than the kinetic isotope effect values previously found for C-Cl bond cleavage. This indicates that a reaction other than the elimination of chloride may be a competitive degradation pathway. The dominant degradation pathway may be different for different initial solution pH values, and this will clearly influence carbon isotope fractionation. Therefore, if the ε value varies with reaction conditions, such as the solution pH, the calculations should take into account the actual environmental conditions that affect the rate limiting pathways. PMID:24889017

  14. [Vitamin B(12) deficiency anaemia in a 7.5 months old girl].

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Malgorzata; Irga, Ninela; Wierzba, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    Vitamin B(12) stores at birth are adequate for infants until the end of the first year of life even if it 's concentration in maternal breast milk is low. However, there are some situations in which infants have depleted vitamin B(12) stores and in addition have a low dietary intake of cobalamin. Vitamin B(12) depletion occurs in infants who are exclusively breastfed by mothers who have unrecognized pernicious anemia or are strict vegetarians for many years. In those infants symptoms of bone marrow disfunction and impaired development of the central nervous system appear already in the first months of life. Unrecognized cobalamin deficiency may lead to serious neurologic consequences, and even to the death of the child. The authors present a case of a 7.5 month old girl admitted to the Department of Paediatrics, Haematology, Oncology and Endocrinology. Gdańsk Medical University suspected of acute leukaemia. Based on a detailed diagnostic procedure a final diagnosis of vitamin B(12) deficiency anaemia was established. The child was exclusively breast-fed. Results of investigations into the reason for cobalamin deficiency in the patient s organism. Led to the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia in the mother. Such a suspicion had been made during pregnancy, but no continuation of investigations nor appropriate treatment were implemented. After treatment with vitamin B(12) supplements and modification of the diet the patient improved quickly and remarkably. A few months follow-up was enough to observe remarkable improvement of psychomotor development of this child. PMID:15738604

  15. Short communication: Factors affecting vitamin B12 concentration in milk of commercial dairy herds: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Pellerin, D; Cue, R I; Girard, C L

    2016-06-01

    Only bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12, and this requires adequate Co supply. The natural source of vitamin B12 in human diets comes from animal products, especially those from ruminants. This study aimed to describe variability regarding vitamin B12 concentration in milk among and within commercial dairy herds in early lactation. A secondary objective was to explore potential causes for this variability such as genetic variation and diet characteristics. In total, 399 dairy cows (135 primiparous and 264 multiparous; 386 Holstein and 13 Jersey cows) in 15 commercial herds were involved. Milk samples were taken at 27.4±4.1 and 55.4±4.1d in milk. Neither parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) nor sampling time affected milk concentrations of vitamin B12. Nevertheless, vitamin B12 concentration in milk was highly variable among and within dairy herds. The lowest vitamin B12 concentration in milk of cows was observed in the Jersey herd. Among herds, vitamin B12 concentration in milk ranged from 2,309 to 3,878 pg/mL; one glass (250mL) of milk from those herds would provide between 23 and 40% of the vitamin B12 recommended daily allowance. Among individual cows, however, this provision varied between 16 and 57% of the recommendation. In spite of the limited size of the studied population, the heritability value was 0.23, suggesting that genetic selection could modify milk vitamin B12 concentration. We observed a positive relationship between milk vitamin B12 concentration and dietary acid detergent fiber content and a negative relationship between milk concentration of vitamin B12 and dietary crude protein content. PMID:27040783

  16. Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Young Lady due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency Induced Hyperhomocysteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Shamkani, Warkaa Al; Jafar, Nagham Saeed; Narayanan, Sunil Roy; Rajappan, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Hyper-homocysteinemia is a risk factor for coronary artery disease in young patients. A 32 years old female without any conventional risk factors except obesity presented with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction (MI). Her echocardiography showed anterior wall hypokinesia with moderate left ventricular dysfunction. Angiography showed tight stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) and borderline lesion in left circumflex coronary artery (LCX). She underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to LAD with good result. Her blood tests showed low vitamin B12, folate and serum iron levels and elevated serum homocysteine level. She was given folic acid and vitamin B12 and her homocysteine levels normalized. This case demonstrates that hyperhomocysteinemia caused by nutritional deficiency of vitamin co factors may lead to MI. Hyperhomocysteinemia should be considered in the evalauation of young people with MI, especially those without conventional risk factors. PMID:25838876

  17. Limitations of protein-coated charcoal in the separation of free from bound vitamin B12 in serum.

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, E; Wong, K T

    1983-01-01

    The effect of haemoglobin and albumin-coated charcoal on the concentration of vitamin B12 binding proteins in serum has been investigated. As commonly employed, coated charcoal removes a significant amount of transcobalamin II (TCII) from serum, but does not affect transcobalamin I and III (TCI and III). Increasing the protein coat up to about 10 mg of protein per 25 mg of charcoal reduces the adsorption of TCII, but increasing the protein concentration beyond this has little added effect. The amount of adsorption is proportional to the amount of coated charcoal employed, but even small amounts adsorb some TCII. These results indicate that protein-coated charcoal is not the ideal way of separating free from bound vitamin B12 in serum; it cannot reliably be used for the measurement of the concentration of apo-TCII but can be employed for the measurement of apo-TCI and III. PMID:6886019

  18. Insights into the evolution of vitamin B12 auxotrophy from sequenced algal genomes.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, Katherine E; Wheeler, Glen L; Leptos, Kyriacos C; Goldstein, Raymond E; Smith, Alison G

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) is a dietary requirement for humans because it is an essential cofactor for two enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase (METH). Land plants and fungi neither synthesize or require cobalamin because they do not contain methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, and have an alternative B(12)-independent methionine synthase (METE). Within the algal kingdom, approximately half of all microalgal species need the vitamin as a growth supplement, but there is no phylogenetic relationship between these species, suggesting that the auxotrophy arose multiple times through evolution. We set out to determine the underlying cellular mechanisms for this observation by investigating elements of B(12) metabolism in the sequenced genomes of 15 different algal species, with representatives of the red, green, and brown algae, diatoms, and coccolithophores, including both macro- and microalgae, and from marine and freshwater environments. From this analysis, together with growth assays, we found a strong correlation between the absence of a functional METE gene and B(12) auxotrophy. The presence of a METE unitary pseudogene in the B(12)-dependent green algae Volvox carteri and Gonium pectorale, relatives of the B(12)-independent Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, suggest that B(12) dependence evolved recently in these lineages. In both C. reinhardtii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, growth in the presence of cobalamin leads to repression of METE transcription, providing a mechanism for gene loss. Thus varying environmental conditions are likely to have been the reason for the multiple independent origins of B(12) auxotrophy in these organisms. Because the ultimate source of cobalamin is from prokaryotes, the selective loss of METE in different algal lineages will have had important physiological and ecological consequences for these organisms in terms of their dependence on bacteria. PMID:21551270

  19. [Lysozyme activity (LZM) and unsaturated vitamin B-12-binding capacity (NZW vit B-12) in the serum following prednisone administration in patients with bone marrow aplasia with pancotypenia].

    PubMed

    Wysocki, H; Wierusz-Wysocka, B; Fenrych, W; Prazmowska-Owczarek, B

    1978-01-01

    In 18 patients with bone marrow aplasia with pancytopenia lysozyme activity and unsaturated vitamin B12-binding capacity in the serum were determined. These investigations, together with determinations of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear count, were done again after prednisone administration. In all cases a significant fall was found in the NZW vit B12 and LZM activity in the serum. A slight rise in the polymorphonuclear count in the 24th hour of the study was associated with a rise in the NZW wit. B12 in the serum, and decreased LZM activity. This confirmed the previously demonstrated complex character of corticosteroid action on the system of polymorphonuclears. These results point also to the usefulness of determination of unsaturated vitamin B12-binding capacity for evaluating the value of the total granulocyte pool in granulocytopenia. PMID:735710

  20. Vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy and postpartum improves B12 status of both mothers and infants but vaccine response in mothers only: a randomized clinical trial in Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose Poor vitamin B12 (B12) status is associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy and infancy. Little is known about effects of B12 supplementation on immune function. The present study aimed to evaluate effects of pre- and postnatal B12 supplementation on biomarkers of B12 status and vaccine-s...

  1. Influence of Vitamin B12 and Cocultures on the Growth of Dehalococcoides Isolates in Defined Medium▿

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianzhong; Holmes, Victor F.; Lee, Patrick K. H.; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Dehalococcoides play a key role in the complete detoxification of chloroethenes as these organisms are the only microbes known to be capable of dechlorination beyond dichloroethenes to vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene. However, Dehalococcoides strains usually grow slowly with a doubling time of 1 to 2 days and have complex nutritional requirements. Here we describe the growth of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes 195 in a defined mineral salts medium, improved growth of strain 195 when the medium was amended with high concentrations of vitamin B12, and a strategy for maintaining Dehalococcoides strains on lactate by growing them in consortia. Although strain 195 could grow in defined medium spiked with ∼0.5 mM trichloroethene (TCE) and 0.001 mg/liter vitamin B12, the TCE dechlorination and cellular growth rates doubled when the vitamin B12 concentration was increased 25-fold to 0.025 mg/liter. In addition, the final ratios of ethene to VC increased when the higher vitamin concentration was used, which reflected the key role that cobalamin plays in dechlorination reactions. No further improvement in dechlorination or growth was observed when the vitamin B12 concentration was increased to more than 0.025 mg/liter. In defined consortia containing strain 195 along with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and/or Acetobacterium woodii and containing lactate as the electron donor, tetrachloroethene (∼0.4 mM) was completely dechlorinated to VC and ethene and there was concomitant growth of Dehalococcoides cells. In the cultures that also contained D. desulfuricans and/or A. woodii, strain 195 cells grew to densities that were 1.5 times greater than the densities obtained when the isolate was grown alone. The ratio of ethene to VC was highest in the presence of A. woodii, an organism that generates cobalamin de novo during metabolism. These findings demonstrate that the growth of D. ethenogenes strain 195 in defined medium can be optimized by providing

  2. Influence of vitamin B12 and cocultures on the growth of Dehalococcoides isolates in defined medium.

    PubMed

    He, Jianzhong; Holmes, Victor F; Lee, Patrick K H; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2007-05-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Dehalococcoides play a key role in the complete detoxification of chloroethenes as these organisms are the only microbes known to be capable of dechlorination beyond dichloroethenes to vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene. However, Dehalococcoides strains usually grow slowly with a doubling time of 1 to 2 days and have complex nutritional requirements. Here we describe the growth of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes 195 in a defined mineral salts medium, improved growth of strain 195 when the medium was amended with high concentrations of vitamin B(12), and a strategy for maintaining Dehalococcoides strains on lactate by growing them in consortia. Although strain 195 could grow in defined medium spiked with approximately 0.5 mM trichloroethene (TCE) and 0.001 mg/liter vitamin B(12), the TCE dechlorination and cellular growth rates doubled when the vitamin B(12) concentration was increased 25-fold to 0.025 mg/liter. In addition, the final ratios of ethene to VC increased when the higher vitamin concentration was used, which reflected the key role that cobalamin plays in dechlorination reactions. No further improvement in dechlorination or growth was observed when the vitamin B(12) concentration was increased to more than 0.025 mg/liter. In defined consortia containing strain 195 along with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and/or Acetobacterium woodii and containing lactate as the electron donor, tetrachloroethene ( approximately 0.4 mM) was completely dechlorinated to VC and ethene and there was concomitant growth of Dehalococcoides cells. In the cultures that also contained D. desulfuricans and/or A. woodii, strain 195 cells grew to densities that were 1.5 times greater than the densities obtained when the isolate was grown alone. The ratio of ethene to VC was highest in the presence of A. woodii, an organism that generates cobalamin de novo during metabolism. These findings demonstrate that the growth of D. ethenogenes strain 195 in defined medium

  3. Dietary pectin shortens the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 in rats by increasing fecal and urinary losses

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, R.W.; Oace, S.M. )

    1989-08-01

    As little as 5% of pectin added to a fiber-free diet elevates urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) severalfold in vitamin B-12--deprived rats. The present study examines whether increased urinary MMA reflects lower vitamin B-12 status or occurs only because of fermentation of pectin by intestinal bacteria and increased production of propionate, a precursor of MMA. By monitoring urinary and fecal excretion of {sup 57}Co after a tracer dose of ({sup 57}Co)vitamin B-12, we found the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 to be 59 d for rats fed a fiber-free diet and only 19 d for rats fed a 5% pectin diet. Also, pectin-fed rats oxidized only 12% of a 1-mmol dose of ({sup 14}C)propionate to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in 2 h, whereas rats fed the fiber-free diet expired 33% of the dose. Finally, high urinary MMA persisted even after the removal of pectin from the diet. We conclude that dietary pectin accelerates vitamin B-12 depletion in rats, possibly by interfering with enterohepatic recycling of vitamin B-12. By stimulating microbial propionate production, pectin and other fermentable fibers may also contribute to increased urinary MMA in vitamin B-12 deficiency, but a larger propionate pool does not account for the other effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status.

  4. Dietary pectin shortens the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 in rats by increasing fecal and urinary losses.

    PubMed

    Cullen, R W; Oace, S M

    1989-08-01

    As little as 5% of pectin added to a fiber-free diet elevates urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) severalfold in vitamin B-12--deprived rats. The present study examines whether increased urinary MMA reflects lower vitamin B-12 status or occurs only because of fermentation of pectin by intestinal bacteria and increased production of propionate, a precursor of MMA. By monitoring urinary and fecal excretion of 57Co after a tracer dose of [57Co]vitamin B-12, we found the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 to be 59 d for rats fed a fiber-free diet and only 19 d for rats fed a 5% pectin diet. Also, pectin-fed rats oxidized only 12% of a 1-mmol dose of [14C]propionate to 14CO2 in 2 h, whereas rats fed the fiber-free diet expired 33% of the dose. Finally, high urinary MMA persisted even after the removal of pectin from the diet. We conclude that dietary pectin accelerates vitamin B-12 depletion in rats, possibly by interfering with enterohepatic recycling of vitamin B-12. By stimulating microbial propionate production, pectin and other fermentable fibers may also contribute to increased urinary MMA in vitamin B-12 deficiency, but a larger propionate pool does not account for the other effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status. PMID:2550599

  5. Release of vitamin B12—binding protein by human leukocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Corcino, José; Krauss, Stephen; Waxman, Samuel; Herbert, Victor

    1970-01-01

    Human granulocytes (G) contain a vitamin B12-binding protein (B12BP). There is evidence that chronic myelogenous leukemia leukocytes (CMLL) may synthesize B12BP. Our prior studies suggested that intact, living intravascular G synthesize and release such protein into extracellular compartments in vivo. In the present study, CMLL were incubated in Trisbuffered Hank's basal salt solution (pH 7.2) containing 0.1% human serum albumin to study release of B12BP into the medium. B12BP was released continuously and in increasing amounts over a 5 hr period at 37°C; this release was inhibited almost completely when the cells were incubated at 4°C and by about half as much in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide (1 mmole/liter). Cycloheximide (50 μg/ml) had no effect on the release of B12BP but significantly inhibited incorporation of leucine-3H into leukocyte protein. G incubated with 20 mg/ml of compound 48/80, an experimental histamine-releasing agent, had a 6-fold increase in release of B12BP over a 2 hr period. Subcellular fractionation studies of human granulocytes demonstrate that most of the B12BP is associated with the granular (20,000 g) layer with an excellent correlation observed between its subcellular distribution and that of acid phosphatase. These findings suggest that the release of B12BP from G is mediated by an active process and provide further evidence that granulocytes are secretory as well as phagocytic cells. Images PMID:5273803

  6. Insights into dechlorination of PCE and TCE from carbon isotope fractionation by vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, G.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Lesage, S.; Brown, S.

    2003-04-01

    Reductive dechlorination of perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) by vitamin B12 is both a potential remediation technique and an analogue of the microbial reductive dechlorination reaction. Stable carbon isotopic analysis, an effective and powerful tool for the investigation and monitoring of contaminant remediation, was used to characterize the isotopic effects of reductive dechlorination of PCE and TCE by vitamin B12 in laboratory microcosms. 10 mg/L vitamin B12 degraded greater than 90% of an initial concentration of PCE of 20 mg/L. TCE, the primary product of PCE degradation, accounted for between 64 - 72% of the PCE degraded. In experiments with TCE, 147 mg/L vitamin B12 degraded greater than 90% of an initial concentration of TCE of 20 mg/L. Cis-dichloroethene (cDCE), the primary product of TCE degradation, accounted for between 30 - 35% of the TCE degraded. Degradation of both PCE and TCE exhibited first order kinetics. Strong isotopic fractionation of the reactant PCE and of the reactant TCE was observed over the course of degradation. This fractionation could be described by a Rayleigh model with enrichment factors between -16.5 ppm and -15.8 ppm for PCE, and -17.2 ppm and -16.6 ppm for TCE. Fractionation was similar in all four experiments, with a mean enrichment factor of -16.5 +/- 0.6 ppm. These large enrichment factors indicate that isotopic analysis can be used to assess the occurrence of dechlorination of PCE and TCE by vitamin B12 in remediation situations. Significantly, the Rayleigh model could be used to predict the isotopic compositions of the major products of the reaction as well as the reactant, notwithstanding the lack of complete mass balance observed between product and reactant. This evidence suggests that isotopic fractionation is taking place during complexation of the chlorinated ethenes to vitamin B12, as has been suggested for reductive dechlorination by zero valent iron. The differences between e for this reaction and

  7. Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intakes and risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese adults: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fang-fang; Liu, Yuan-ting; Lin, Xiao-ling; Fan, Yu-Ying; Zhang, Xing-lan; Xu, Chun-hua; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-14

    Many studies have suggested that folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients may play a role in certain cancer risks, but few studies have assessed their associations with the risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we investigated the association between four folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients (folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine) and NPC risk in Chinese adults. A total of 600 patients newly diagnosed (within 3 months) with NPC were individually matched with 600 hospital-based controls by age, sex and household type (urban v. rural). Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intakes were measured using a validated seventy-eight-item FFQ. A higher dietary folate or vitamin B6 intake was associated with a lower NPC risk after adjusting for potential confounders. The adjusted OR of NPC for quartiles 2-4 (v. 1) were 0·66 (95% CI 0·48, 0·91), 0·52 (95% CI 0·37, 0·74) and 0·34 (95% CI 0·23, 0·50) (P(trend)<0·001) for folate and 0·72 (95% CI 0·52, 1·00), 0·55 (95% CI 0·39, 0·78) and 0·44 (95% CI 0·30, 0·63) (P(trend)<0·001) for vitamin B6. No significant association with NPC risk was observed for dietary vitamin B12 or methionine intake. The risk for NPC with dietary folate intake was more evident in the participants who were not exposed to toxic substances than in those who were exposed (P(interaction)=0·014). This study suggests that dietary folate and vitamin B6 may be protective for NPC in a high-risk population. PMID:26515433

  8. Folate, Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12 Intake and Mild Cognitive Impairment and Probable Dementia in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Kang, Jae H.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Coker, Laura H.; Snetselaar, Linda G.; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Whether higher B vitamin (B6, B12, and folate) intake is protective against cognitive decline in later life remains uncertain. Several prospective, observational studies find higher B vitamin intake to be associated with lower risk of dementia; other studies, including most trials of B vitamin supplementation, observe no effect on cognition. We examine this question in a large population of older women carefully monitored for development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and probable dementia. Objective To determine whether baseline folate, vitamin B6 and/or B12 intake, alone or in combination, are associated with incident MCI/probable dementia among older women. Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort study. B vitamin intake was self-reported using a food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline between May 1996 and December 1999. Participants/Setting Postmenopausal women (n=7,030) free of MCI/probable dementia at baseline in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study. Main outcome measures Over a mean follow-up of 5.0 years, 238 cases of incident MCI and 69 cases of probable dementia were identified through rigorous screening and expert adjudication. Statistical analyses Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors examined the association of B vitamin intake above and below the recommended daily allowance and incident MCI/probable dementia. Results Folate intake below the RDA at study baseline was associated with increased risk of incident MCI/probable dementia (HR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.3, 2.9), after controlling for multiple confounders. There were no significant associations between vitamins B6 or B12 and MCI/probable dementia, nor any evidence of an interaction between these vitamins and folate intake. Conclusions Folate intake below the RDA may increase risk for MCI/probable dementia in later life. Future research should include long-term trials of folic acid supplementation to examine whether folate may

  9. The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, R; Lester, S E; Babatunde, T

    2014-05-01

    Individuals following vegetarian diets are at risk for developing vitamin B12 deficiency owing to suboptimal intake. As vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids, erythrocytes and in the maintenance of myelin, deficiency may result in a variety of symptoms. Some of these symptoms may be severe while others may be irreversible. The objective of this review was to assess vitamin B12 deficiency, based on reported serum vitamin B12, among individuals adhering to different types of vegetarian diets. A systematic literature search was carried out using multiple search engines including PubMed, Medline, CINAHL plus, ERIC, Nursing and Allied Health Collection and Nursing/Academic Edition. The inclusion criteria consisted of original studies that assessed serum vitamin B12, studies written in English, non-case studies and studies that reported actual percentages of vitamin B12 deficiency. Forty research studies were included. The deficiency prevalence among infants reached 45%. The deficiency among the children and adolescents ranged from 0 to 33.3%. Deficiency among pregnant women ranged from 17 to 39%, dependent on the trimester. Adults and elderly individuals had a deficiency range of 0-86.5%. Higher deficiency prevalence was reported in vegans than in other vegetarians. Thus, with few exceptions, the reviewed studies documented relatively high deficiency prevalence among vegetarians. Vegans who do not ingest vitamin B12 supplements were found to be at especially high risk. Vegetarians, especially vegans, should give strong consideration to the use of vitamin B12 supplements to ensure adequate vitamin B12 intake. Vegetarians, regardless of the type of vegetarian diet they adhere to, should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:24667752

  10. Theoretical analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andruniow, Tadeusz; Kozlowski, Pawel M.; Zgierski, Marek Z.

    2001-10-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) is applied to analyze the electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12. To accomplish this two model systems were considered: CN-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (dicyanocobinamide, DCC) and imidazole-[CoIII-corrin]-CN (cyanocobalamin, ImCC). For both models 30 lowest excited states were calculated together with transition dipole moments. When the results of TD-DFT calculations were directly compared with experiment it was found that the theoretical values systematically overestimate experimental data by approximately 0.5 eV. The uniform adjustment of the calculated transition energies allowed detailed analysis of electronic absorption spectra of vitamin B12 models. All absorption bands in spectral range 2.0-5.0 eV were readily assigned. In particular, TD-DFT calculations were able to explain the origin of the shift of the lowest absorption band caused by replacement of the-CN axial ligand by imidazole.

  11. An evaluation of commercial radioisotope methods for the determination of folate and vitamin B12.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, D W; Delamore, I W; Fish, D I; Flaherty, T A; Gowenlock, A H; Hunt, L P; Hyde, K; MacIver, J E; Thornton, J A; Waters, H M

    1980-01-01

    Five commercial kits for the determination of folate and six kits for the determination of vitamin B12 were investigated. Their performance has been compared with microbiological methods for the two vitamins and with a non-commercial radioisotopic method for B12. The results show the importance of the determination of the reference range for an individual laboratory for each method. The precision of the kits varied appreciably, as did their performance using specimens from patients with different haematological disorders. In particular, certain kits failed to detect all patients with pernicious anaemia. The relative accuracy of the kits was assessed. Various factors which should be taken into account in the final selection of a satisfactory kit are discussed. PMID:7381023

  12. Ultrafast electronic relaxation of excited state vitamin B 12 in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafizadeh, Niloufar; Poisson, Lionel; Soep, Benoıˆt

    2008-06-01

    The time evolution of electronically excited vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) has been observed for the first time in the gas phase. It reveals an ultrafast decay to a state corresponding to metal excitation. This decay is interpreted as resulting from a ring to metal electron transfer. This opens the observation of the excited state of other complex biomimetic systems in the gas phase, the key to the characterisation of their complex evolution through excited electronic states.

  13. Serial nerve conduction studies in vitamin B12 deficiency-associated polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Ren; Chang, Wen-Neng; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

    2011-02-01

    This report is on a 22-year-old male vegetarian with acute polyneuropathy secondary to vitamin B(12) deficiency. He presented with weakness and numbness of the distal limbs and absent deep tendon reflex in all four extremities. Nerve conduction study (NCS) showed an axonal type sensori-motor polyneuropathy. Serum biochemical studies revealed vitamin B(12) level of 119 pg/mL (reference range 185-710 pg/mL), with elevated creatine kinase (CK) (719 U/L) and homocysteine (Hcy) (24.04 μmol/L) levels. Anti-parietal cell antibody test was positive. The patient received both oral and intramuscular injection of vitamin B(12). The amplitude of the median and ulnar motor NCS increased 2.5 months later, while muscle power of the ankle plantar flexion and dorsiflexion recovered after 3.5 and 5.5 months, respectively. Follow-up NCS after 14.5 months showed response in sural NCS, but not the peroneal NCS. Follow-up also showed decreased serum Hcy and CK to 9.6 μmol/L and 198 U/L, respectively, and increasing amplitude of response. Recovery sequence involved muscle power of the proximal muscles, hands, plantar flexion, and dorsiflexion of the feet, and followed by sensory conduction. PMID:20890625

  14. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B12 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pala, Betül Bozdoğan; Vural, Tayfun; Kuralay, Filiz; Çırak, Tamer; Bolat, Gülçin; Abacı, Serdar; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2014-06-01

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B12 analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 μM and 9.50 μM Vitamin B12 concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B12 in real samples.

  15. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxypropionate) from glycerol using engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain without vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xinjun; Xian, Mo; Liu, Wei; Xu, Chao; Zhang, Haibo; Zhao, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (P3HP) is a biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic. Previous studies demonstrated that engineered Escherichia coli strains can produce P3HP with supplementation of expensive vitamin B12. The present study examined the production of P3HP from glycerol in the recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, which naturally synthesizes vitamin B12. The genes glycerol dehydratase and its reactivation factor (dhaB123, gdrA, and gdrB from K. pneumoniae), aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldH from E. coli) were cloned and expressed in K. pneumoniae to produce 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP), with 2 genes (dhaT and yqhD) for biosynthesis of 1,3-propanediol were deleted. To obtain P3HP production, propionyl-CoA synthetase (prpE from E. coli) and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phaC from Ralstonia eutropha) were introduced. Under the appropriate aeration condition, the cell yield and P3HP content were 0.24 g/L and 12.7% (wt/wt [cell dry weight]) respectively along with 2.03 g/L 3HP after 48 h cultivation. Although the yield is relatively low, this study shows the feasibility of producing P3HP in K. pneumoniae from glycerol without vitamin B12 for the first time. The results also suggest that the aeration conditions should be optimized carefully for the efficient production of P3HP. PMID:25621933

  16. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxypropionate) from glycerol using engineered Klebsiella pneumoniae strain without vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinjun; Xian, Mo; Liu, Wei; Xu, Chao; Zhang, Haibo; Zhao, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxypropionate) (P3HP) is a biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic. Previous studies demonstrated that engineered Escherichia coli strains can produce P3HP with supplementation of expensive vitamin B12. The present study examined the production of P3HP from glycerol in the recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, which naturally synthesizes vitamin B12. The genes glycerol dehydratase and its reactivation factor (dhaB123, gdrA, and gdrB from K. pneumoniae), aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldH from E. coli) were cloned and expressed in K. pneumoniae to produce 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP), with 2 genes (dhaT and yqhD) for biosynthesis of 1,3-propanediol were deleted. To obtain P3HP production, propionyl-CoA synthetase (prpE from E. coli) and polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (phaC from Ralstonia eutropha) were introduced. Under the appropriate aeration condition, the cell yield and P3HP content were 0.24 g/L and 12.7% (wt/wt [cell dry weight]) respectively along with 2.03 g/L 3HP after 48 h cultivation. Although the yield is relatively low, this study shows the feasibility of producing P3HP in K. pneumoniae from glycerol without vitamin B12 for the first time. The results also suggest that the aeration conditions should be optimized carefully for the efficient production of P3HP. PMID:25621933

  17. Optic neuropathy in a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report.

    PubMed

    Areekul, S; Roongpisuthipong, C; Churdchu, K; Thanomsak, W

    1992-12-01

    A 19-year-old man presented with blurring of vision for 2 weeks. He also complained of anorexia with weight loss during the past 4 months. Eight years ago, his small bowel from midportion of the jejunum, ileum, ascending colon and transverse colon were resected because of gangrene. He gave no history of exposure to tobacco, alcohol or other toxins. The bone marrow aspiration showed hypocellular with panhypoplasia. Serum vitamin B12 level was low while serum and red cell folate were within normal limits. His visual acuity was 5/200 in both eyes with centrocecal scotomas in both eyes. Other neurologic and ophthalmic examinations were found to be normal. The patient was given intramuscular injections of 1,000 micrograms of cyanocobalamin. Four months later, his visual acuity improved, serum vitamin B12 level and the bone marrow returned to be normal. This is a frank case of optic neuropathy in a patient with vitamin B12 deficiency due to a massive small bowel resection. PMID:1308541

  18. Vitamin B12 and vitamin d deficiencies: an unusual cause of Fever, severe hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vikas A; Harbada, Rishit; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    The array of diagnostic workup for pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) generally revolves in searching for infections, inflammatory/autoimmune, and endocrine etiologies. A differential diagnosis of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia can have etiologies varying from infections like malaria, dengue, cytomegalovirus, Ebstein barr virus, Parvovirus, infective endocarditis, to autoimmune disorder (systemic lupus erythromatosis), vasculitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia/Evan's syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuri (PNH), or drugs. Nutritional deficiencies (especially vitamin B12 deficiency) as a cause of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia are very rare and therefore rarely thought of. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency may cause fever and if accompanied by concurrent hyper-homocysteinemia and hypophosphatemia can sometimes lead to severe hemolysis mimicking the above-mentioned conditions. We present a case that highlights vitamin B12 and vitamin D deficiency as an easily treatable cause of PUO, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia, which should be actively looked for and treated before proceeding with more complicated and expensive investigation or starting empiric treatments. PMID:25811010

  19. Vitamin B12 and Vitamin D Deficiencies: An Unusual Cause of Fever, Severe Hemolytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vikas A.; Harbada, Rishit; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    The array of diagnostic workup for pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) generally revolves in searching for infections, inflammatory/autoimmune, and endocrine etiologies. A differential diagnosis of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia can have etiologies varying from infections like malaria, dengue, cytomegalovirus, Ebstein barr virus, Parvovirus, infective endocarditis, to autoimmune disorder (systemic lupus erythromatosis), vasculitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), autoimmune hemolytic anemia/Evan's syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuri (PNH), or drugs. Nutritional deficiencies (especially vitamin B12 deficiency) as a cause of fever, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia are very rare and therefore rarely thought of. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency may cause fever and if accompanied by concurrent hyper-homocysteinemia and hypophosphatemia can sometimes lead to severe hemolysis mimicking the above-mentioned conditions. We present a case that highlights vitamin B12 and vitamin D deficiency as an easily treatable cause of PUO, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia, which should be actively looked for and treated before proceeding with more complicated and expensive investigation or starting empiric treatments. PMID:25811010

  20. Combined indicator of vitamin B 12 status: modification for missing biomarkers and folate status and recommendations for revised cut-points

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: A novel approach to determine vitamin B 12 status is to combine four blood markers: total B 12 (B 12 ), holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy). This combined indicator of B 12 status is expressed as cB 12 = log 10 [(holoTC · B 12 )/ (MMA · Hcy...

  1. Long term treatment with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency: randomised placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    de Jager, Jolien; Kooy, Adriaan; Lehert, Philippe; Wulffelé, Michiel G; van der Kolk, Jan; Bets, Daniël; Verburg, Joop; Donker, Ab J M

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To study the effects of metformin on the incidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency (<150 pmol/l), low concentrations of vitamin B-12 (150-220 pmol/l), and folate and homocysteine concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving treatment with insulin. Design Multicentre randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Outpatient clinics of three non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants 390 patients with type 2 diabetes receiving treatment with insulin. Intervention 850 mg metformin or placebo three times a day for 4.3 years. Main outcome measures Percentage change in vitamin B-12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations from baseline at4, 17, 30, 43, and 52 months. Results Compared with placebo, metformin treatment was associated with a mean decrease in vitamin B-12 concentration of −19% (95% confidence interval −24% to −14%; P<0.001) and in folate concentration of −5% (95% CI −10% to −0.4%; P=0.033), and an increase in homocysteine concentration of 5% (95% CI −1% to 11%; P=0.091). After adjustment for body mass index and smoking, no significant effect of metformin on folate concentrations was found. The absolute risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency (<150 pmol/l) at study end was 7.2 percentage points higher in the metformin group than in the placebo group (95% CI 2.3 to 12.1; P=0.004), with a number needed to harm of 13.8 per 4.3 years (95% CI 43.5 to 8.3). The absolute risk of low vitamin B-12 concentration (150-220 pmol/l) at study end was 11.2 percentage points higher in the metformin group (95% CI 4.6 to 17.9; P=0.001), with a number needed to harm of 8.9 per 4.3 years (95% CI 21.7 to 5.6). Patients with vitamin B-12 deficiency at study end had a mean homocysteine level of 23.7 µmol/l (95% CI 18.8 to 30.0 µmol/l), compared with a mean homocysteine level of 18.1 µmol/l (95% CI 16.7 to 19.6 µmol/l; P=0.003) for patients with a low vitamin B-12 concentration and 14.9 µmol/l (95% CI 14.3 to 15.5 µmol/l; P<0.001 compared

  2. High frequency of vitamin B12 deficiency in asymptomatic individuals homozygous to MTHFR C677T mutation is associated with endothelial dysfunction and homocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Zittan, E; Preis, M; Asmir, I; Cassel, A; Lindenfeld, N; Alroy, S; Halon, D A; Lewis, B S; Shiran, A; Schliamser, J E; Flugelman, M Y

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of homozygosity for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation and vitamin B12 deficiency in 360 asymptomatic individuals and to investigate forearm endothelial function in C677T homozygotes. MTHFR C677T mutation and levels of vitamin B12, folic acid, and homocysteine were measured in study participants. Frequency of homozygosity for the C677T mutation was 67/360 (18.6%). Homocysteine levels were elevated in homozygous compared with heterozygous subjects or those without the mutation (20.6 +/- 18.8 vs. 9.4 +/- 3.2 mumol/l; P < 0.0001). The number of subjects with vitamin B12 deficiency (<150 pmol/l) was significantly higher among the homozygote than the heterozygote subjects or subjects without mutation [20/67 (29.8%) vs. 27/293 (9.2%); P < 0.0001]. Homozygote subjects had 4.2 times higher probability of having B12 deficiency (95% confidence interval = 2.1-8.3). Forearm endothelial function was assessed in 33 homozygote and 12 control subjects. Abnormal endothelial function was observed in homozygous subjects and was worse in homozygote subjects with vitamin B12 deficiency. Endothelial function was normalized after B12 and folic acid treatment. We found that homozygosity for the C677T mutation is strongly associated with B12 deficiency. Coexistence of homozygosity for the C677T mutation and B12 deficiency is associated with endothelial dysfunction and can be corrected with vitamin B12 and folic acid treatment. PMID:17449548

  3. Localised Skin Hyperpigmentation as a Presenting Symptom of Vitamin B12 Deficiency Complicating Chronic Atrophic Gastritis.

    PubMed

    El-Shafie, Kawther; Samir, Nafisa; Lakhtakia, Ritu; Davidson, Robin; Al-Waili, Ahmed; Al-Mamary, Muna; Al-Shafee, Mohammed

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in developing countries and should be suspected in patients with unexplained anaemia or neurological symptoms. Dermatological manifestations associated with this deficiency include skin hyper- or hypopigmentation, angular stomatitis and hair changes. We report a case of a 28-year-old man who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in November 2013 with localised hyperpigmentation of the palmar and dorsal aspects of both hands of two months' duration. Other symptoms included numbness of the hands, anorexia, weight loss, dizziness, fatigability and a sore mouth and tongue. There was no evidence of hypocortisolaemia and a literature search revealed a possible B12 deficiency. The patient had low serum B12 levels and megaloblastic anaemia. An intrinsic factor antibody test was negative. A gastric biopsy revealed chronic gastritis. After B12 supplementation, the patient's symptoms resolved. Family physicians should familiarise themselves with atypical presentations of B12 deficiency. Many symptoms of this deficiency are reversible if detected and treated early. PMID:26357561

  4. Vitamin B12 status of pregnant Indian women and cognitive function in their 9-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Bhate, Vidya; Deshpande, Swapna; Bhat, Dattatray; Joshi, Niranjan; Ladkat, Rasika; Watve, Sujala; Fall, Caroline; de Jager, Celeste A.; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent research has highlighted the influence of maternal factors on the health of the offspring. Intrauterine experiences may program metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychiatric disorders. We have shown that maternal vitamin B12 status affects adiposity and insulin resistance in the child. Vitamin B12 is important for brain development and function. Objective We investigated the relationship between maternal plasma vitamin B12 status during pregnancy and the child's cognitive function at 9 years of age. Methods We studied children born in the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. Two groups of children were selected on the basis of maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentration at 28 weeks of gestation: group 1 (n = 49) included children of mothers with low plasma vitamin B12 (lowest decile, < 77 pM) and group 2 (n = 59) children of mothers with high plasma vitamin B12 (highest decile, > 224 pM). Results Children from group 1 performed more slowly than those from group 2 on the Color Trail A test (sustained attention, 182 vs. 159 seconds; p < .05) and the Digit Span Backward test (short-term memory, p <.05), after appropriate adjustment for confounders. There were no differences between group 1 and group 2 on other tests of cognitive function (intelligence, visual agnosia). Conclusions Maternal vitamin B12 status in pregnancy influences cognitive function in offspring. PMID:19227049

  5. NutriPhone: a mobile platform for low-cost point-of-care quantification of vitamin B12 concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoho; O'Dell, Dakota; Hohenstein, Jess; Colt, Susannah; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is necessary for formation of red blood cells, DNA synthesis, neural myelination, brain development, and growth. Vitamin B12 deficiency is often asymptomatic early in its course; however, once it manifests, particularly with neurological symptoms, reversal by dietary changes or supplementation becomes less effective. Access to easy, low cost, and personalized nutritional diagnostics could enable individuals to better understand their own deficiencies as well as track the effects of dietary changes. In this work, we present the NutriPhone, a mobile platform for the analysis of blood vitamin B12 levels in 15 minutes. The NutriPhone technology comprises of a smartphone accessory, an app, and a competitive-type lateral flow test strip that quantifies vitamin B12 levels. To achieve the detection of sub-nmol/L physiological levels of vitamin B12, our assay incorporates an innovative "spacer pad" for increasing the duration of the key competitive binding reaction and uses silver amplification of the initial signal. We demonstrate the efficacy of our NutriPhone system by quantifying physiologically relevant levels of vitamin B12 and performing human trials where it was used to accurately evaluate blood vitamin B12 status of 12 participants from just a drop (~40 μl) of finger prick blood. PMID:27301282

  6. NutriPhone: a mobile platform for low-cost point-of-care quantification of vitamin B12 concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seoho; O’Dell, Dakota; Hohenstein, Jess; Colt, Susannah; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is necessary for formation of red blood cells, DNA synthesis, neural myelination, brain development, and growth. Vitamin B12 deficiency is often asymptomatic early in its course; however, once it manifests, particularly with neurological symptoms, reversal by dietary changes or supplementation becomes less effective. Access to easy, low cost, and personalized nutritional diagnostics could enable individuals to better understand their own deficiencies as well as track the effects of dietary changes. In this work, we present the NutriPhone, a mobile platform for the analysis of blood vitamin B12 levels in 15 minutes. The NutriPhone technology comprises of a smartphone accessory, an app, and a competitive-type lateral flow test strip that quantifies vitamin B12 levels. To achieve the detection of sub-nmol/L physiological levels of vitamin B12, our assay incorporates an innovative “spacer pad” for increasing the duration of the key competitive binding reaction and uses silver amplification of the initial signal. We demonstrate the efficacy of our NutriPhone system by quantifying physiologically relevant levels of vitamin B12 and performing human trials where it was used to accurately evaluate blood vitamin B12 status of 12 participants from just a drop (~40 μl) of finger prick blood. PMID:27301282

  7. Leukocyte Telomere Length is Associated With Serum Vitamin B12 and Homocysteine Levels in Older Adults With the Presence of Systemic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine (HCY) are involved in the metabolism of nucleic acid precursors and it has been hypothesized that they also influence telomere length, a biomarker of aging. However, previous studies have reported inconsistent findings, and data for older adults are limited. Our study aimed to evaluate associations between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and serum folate, vitamin B12, and HCY levels among adults aged 55 years and over. In a cross-sectional study in 798 men and women aged 55-79 years, serum folate, vitamin B12, and HCY levels were measured using chemiluminescent immunometric assays, and relative LTL was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. To evaluate associations between LTL and serum folate, vitamin B12, and HCY levels, multiple linear regression models were used. In multiple models adjusted for age, sex, serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels, and other potential confounding factors, we found no association between LTL and serum folate, vitamin B12, and HCY levels. However, we did find a significant inverse association between HCY levels and LTL in participants with serum hs-CRP levels of ≥ 2 mg/L (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was a trend toward an association between HCY and vitamin B12 levels in these individuals (p = 0.08). In those with serum hs-CRP levels of < 2 mg/L, HCY was inversely associated with vitamin B12 levels (p < 0.001) and had no association with LTL. Our findings suggest that increased serum HCY levels, when combined with the presence of systemic inflammation, may play a role in accelerating biological aging. PMID:26839872

  8. Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations of Guatemalan women are correlated with maternal but not infant vitamin B–12 status at 12 months postpartum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous studies one third of lactating Guatemalan women, infants and children had deficient or marginal serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Relationships among maternal and infant status and breast milk vitamin B-12, however, have not been investigated in such populations. Our purpose was to ...

  9. Folate, vitamin B(6) , vitamin B(12) , methionine and alcohol intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Harris, Holly R; Cramer, Daniel W; Vitonis, Allison F; DePari, Mary; Terry, Kathryn L

    2012-08-15

    Folate, methionine, vitamin B(6) and vitamin B(12) may influence carcinogenesis due to their roles in the one-carbon metabolism pathway, which is critical for DNA synthesis, methylation and repair. Low intake of these nutrients has been associated with an increased risk of breast, colon and endometrial cancers. Previous studies that have examined the relation between these nutrients and ovarian cancer risk have been inconsistent and have had limited power to examine the relation by histologic subtype. We investigated the association between folate, methionine, vitamin B(6) , vitamin B(12) and alcohol among 1910 women with ovarian cancer and 1989 controls from a case-control study conducted in eastern Massachusetts and New Hampshire from 1992 to 2008. Diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Participants were asked to recall diet one-year before diagnosis or interview. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). We also examined whether the associations varied by ovarian cancer histologies using polytomous logistic regression. We observed an inverse association between dietary vitamin B(6) (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.92; p(trend) = 0.002) and methionine intake (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.60-0.87; p(trend) < 0.001) and ovarian cancer risk comparing the highest to lowest quartile. The association with dietary vitamin B(6) was strongest for serous borderline (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.32-0.77; p(trend) = 0.001) and serous invasive (covariate-adjusted OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.94; p(trend) = 0.012) subtypes. Overall, we observed no significant association between folate and ovarian cancer risk. One-carbon metabolism related nutrients, especially vitamin B(6) and methionine, may lower ovarian cancer risk. PMID:21953625

  10. A review of the cut-off points for the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency in the general population.

    PubMed

    Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Palacios, Gonzalo; Alder, Monika; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin B12 deficit is one of the most common vitamin deficiencies. However, there is no consensus on the cut-off points for vitamin B12 and its co-markers, such as folate, holotranscobalamin, methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. In order to establish the state of the art about cut-off points used to determine vitamin B12 deficiency in the last decades, the database MEDLINE was used for searching studies published in adults between December 1992 and May 2014 (69 articles), using search terms like 'vitamin B12', 'cobalamin', 'cut-off', 'deficiency' alone or in combinations. Broad ranges of cut-off points for vitamin B12 and its biomarkers were identified: vitamin B12 ranged between 100 pmol/L and 350 pmol/L, holotranscobalamin 20-50 pmol/L, methylmalonic acid 0.210-0.470 μmol/L, homocysteine 10-21.6 μmol/L, serum folate 3.7-15.9 nmol/L and red blood cell 124-397 nmol/L. For the majority of studies, the potential influence of age, analytical methods, gender and fortified food consumption was not taken in account when choosing cut-off values. This could explain the discrepancies between studies on vitamin B12 and folate deficiency prevalences. We conclude that there is inconsistency in the literature regarding vitamin B12 cut-offs. It would be necessary to establish different reference cut-offs according to age, considering the analytical methods used. PMID:25470607

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of vitamin B12-related metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Young, Douglas B.; Comas, Iñaki; de Carvalho, Luiz P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation. Differences in the B12 synthesis pathway, methionine biosynthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and DNA repair and replication are consistent with adaptations to different environmental niches and pathogenic lifestyles. While there is no evidence of further gene acquisition during expansion of the M. tuberculosis complex, the emergence of other forms of genetic diversity provides insights into continuing host-pathogen co-evolution and has the potential to identify novel targets for disease intervention. PMID:25988174

  12. Electrochemistry and catalytic properties of amphiphilic vitamin B12 derivatives in nonaqueous media.

    PubMed

    Giedyk, M; Shimakoshi, H; Goliszewska, K; Gryko, D; Hisaeda, Y

    2016-05-17

    The reduction pathway of cobalester (CN)Cble, an amphiphilic vitamin B12 derivative, was investigated in organic solvents under electrochemical conditions and compared with mono- and dicyanocobyrinates. The redox characteristics were determined using cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical methods. The presence of a nucleotide moiety in B12-derivative impedes the in situ formation of dicyano-species thus facilitating the (CN)Co(iii) to Co(i) reduction. The (CN)Cble shows stepwise reduction to Co(i) via (CN)Co(ii). The reduction of (CN)Co(ii)/Co(i) was found to depend on cyanide-solvent exchange equilibrium with weakly coordinating solvents and bulky peripheral chains promoting intact (CN)Co(ii) species existence. The studied complexes were also utilized as catalysts in bulk electrolysis of benzyl bromide affording bibenzyl in very good yield. PMID:26974051

  13. Micronutrient Status in Female University Students: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Vitamin B12 and Folate

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Young women are at an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly due to higher micronutrient requirements during childbearing years and multiple food group avoidances. The objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of particular micronutrients in apparently healthy young women. Female students (n = 308; age range 18–35 year; Body Mass Index 21.5 ± 2.8 kg/m2; mean ± SD) were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Blood samples were obtained from participants in the fasted state and analysed for biomarkers of iron status, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, selenium, zinc, and copper. The results show iron deficiency anaemia, unspecified anaemia, and hypoferritinemia in 3%, 7% and 33.9% of participants, respectively. Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<120 pmol/L) were found in 11.3% of participants, while 4.7% showed sub-clinical deficiency based on serum methylmalonic acid concentrations >0.34 μmol/L. Folate concentrations below the reference range were observed in 1.7% (serum) or 1% (erythrocytes) of participants, and 99.7% of the participant had erythrocyte-folate concentrations >300 nmol/L. Serum zinc concentrations <10.7 μmol/L were observed in 2% of participants. Serum copper and selenium concentrations were below the reference range in 23% and 11% of participants, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies including iron and vitamin B12, and apparent excess of folate are present in educated Australian female students of childbearing age, including those studying nutrition. The effects of dietary behaviours and food choices on markers of micronutrient status require further investigation. PMID:25401503

  14. Release of toxic Gd3+ ions to tumour cells by vitamin B12 bioconjugates.

    PubMed

    Siega, Patrizia; Wuerges, Jochen; Arena, Francesca; Gianolio, Eliana; Fedosov, Sergey N; Dreos, Renata; Geremia, Silvano; Aime, Silvio; Randaccio, Lucio

    2009-08-10

    Two probes consisting of vitamin B(12) (CNCbl) conjugated to Gd chelates by esterification of the ribose 5'-OH moiety, Gd-DTPA-CNCbl (1; DTPA = diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid) and Gd-TTHA-CNCbl (2; TTHA = triethylenetetramine-N,N,N',N'',N''',N'''-hexaacetic acid), have been synthesised and characterised. The crystal structure of a dimeric form of 1, obtained by crystallisation with an excess of GdCl(3), has been determined. The kinetics of binding to and dissociation from transcobalamin II show that 1 and 2 maintain high-affinity binding to the vitamin B(12) transport protein. Complex 2 is very stable with respect to Gd(3+) release owing to the saturated co-ordination of the Gd(3+) ion by four amino and five carboxylate groups. Hydrolysis of the ester functionality occurs on the time scale of several hours. The lack of saturation and the possible involvement of the ester functionality in co-ordination result in lower stability of 1 towards hydrolysis and in a considerable release of Gd(3+) in vitro. Gd(3+) ions released from 1 are avidly taken up by the K562 tumour cells to an extent corresponding to approximately 10(10) Gd(3+) per cell. The internalisation of toxic Gd(3+) ions causes a marked decrease in cell viability as assessed by Trypan blue and WST-1 tests. On the contrary, the experiments with the more stable 2 did not show any significant cell internalisation of Gd(3+) ions and any influence on cell viability. The results point to new avenues of in situ generation of cytotoxic pathways based on the release of toxic Gd(3+) ions by vitamin B(12) bioconjugates. PMID:19562781

  15. Simultaneous determination of vitamin B12 and its derivatives using some of multivariate calibration 1 (MVC1) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Darzi, S. K. Hassani Nejad

    2008-10-01

    Resolution of binary mixtures of vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme with minimum sample pre-treatment and without analyte separation has been successfully achieved by methods of partial least squares algorithm with one dependent variable (PLS1), orthogonal signal correction/partial least squares (OSC/PLS), principal component regression (PCR) and hybrid linear analysis (HLA). Data of analysis were obtained from UV-vis spectra. The UV-vis spectra of the vitamin B12, methylcobalamin and B12 coenzyme were recorded in the same spectral conditions. The method of central composite design was used in the ranges of 10-80 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 and methylcobalamin and 20-130 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme. The models refinement procedure and validation were performed by cross-validation. The minimum root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 2.26 mg L -1 for vitamin B12 with PLS1, 1.33 mg L -1 for methylcobalamin with OSC/PLS and 3.24 mg L -1 for B12 coenzyme with HLA techniques. Figures of merit such as selectivity, sensitivity, analytical sensitivity and LOD were determined for three compounds. The procedure was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of three compounds in synthetic mixtures and in a pharmaceutical formulation.

  16. Transcobalamin derived from bovine milk stimulates apical uptake of vitamin B12 into human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hine, Brad; Boggs, Irina; Green, Ralph; Miller, Joshua W; Hovey, Russell C; Humphrey, Rex; Wheeler, Thomas T

    2014-11-01

    Intestinal uptake of vitamin B12 (hereafter B12) is impaired in a significant proportion of the human population. This impairment is due to inherited or acquired defects in the expression or function of proteins involved in the binding of diet-derived B12 and its uptake into intestinal cells. Bovine milk is an abundant source of bioavailable B12 wherein it is complexed with transcobalamin. In humans, transcobalamin functions primarily as a circulatory protein, which binds B12 following its absorption and delivers it to peripheral tissues via its cognate receptor, CD320. In the current study, the transcobalamin-B12 complex was purified from cows' milk and its ability to stimulate uptake of B12 into cultured bovine, mouse and human cell lines was assessed. Bovine milk-derived transcobalamin-B12 complex was absorbed by all cell types tested, suggesting that the uptake mechanism is conserved across species. Furthermore, the complex stimulated the uptake of B12 via the apical surface of differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. These findings suggest the presence of an alternative transcobalamin-mediated uptake pathway for B12 in the human intestine other than that mediated by the gastric glycoprotein, intrinsic factor. Our findings highlight the potential for transcobalamin-B12 complex derived from bovine milk to be used as a natural bioavailable alternative to orally administered free B12 to overcome B12 malabsorption. PMID:24913691

  17. Masked deficit of vitamin B12 in the patient with heterozygous beta-thalassemia and spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Bilic, Ernest; Bilic, Ervina; Zagar, Marija; Juric, Stjepan

    2004-12-01

    The spinal cord, brain, optic nerves and peripheral nerves may be affected by vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency. Deficiency of vitamin B12 also causes megaloblastic anaemia, meaning that the red blood cells are usually larger than normal. In this paper we report a 16-year old girl who was referred to us for the evaluation of mild paraparesis and paresthesias marked by tingling "pins and needles" feelings and general weakness. The patient, her parents and sisters were on a strict vegan diet, which made us believe that vitamin B12 deficiency may be the possible cause of the neurologic clinical manifestations. The serum level of vitamin B12 was low, but there was no macrocytosis in the routine blood examination. The electrophoresis of haemoglobin was pathologic, there was 3.7% of HbA2 and 11.6% of HbF (heterozygous form of beta-thalassaemia). When megaloblastic anaemia occurs in combination with a condition that gives rise to microcytic anaemia, many megaloblastic features may be masked. Instead of being macrocytic, the anaemia could be normocytic or even microcytic. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a diagnosis that must not be overlooked. This case report turns the light on the fact that increased MCV is a hallmark in vitamin B12 deficiency, but it is not an obligatory sign. PMID:15742609

  18. Investigation of hemorheological parameters at the diagnosis and the follow-up of nutritional vitamin B12 deficient children.

    PubMed

    Tancer-Elci, Hazal; Isik-Balci, Yasemin; Bor-Kucukatay, Melek; Kilic-Toprak, Emine; Kilic-Erkek, Ozgen; Senol, Hande; Aybek, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin B12 deficiency on hemorheological parameters, and the changes in these parameters following vitamin B12 treatment. 33 patients (mean-age:7 ± 5.7 years) diagnosed as nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency, and 31 age and sex matched controls (mean-age:7.1 ± 5.2 years) were enrolled. Erythrocyte deformability and aggregation were determined by an ectacytometer, plasma and whole blood viscosities by a cone-plate rotational viscometer. The differences between patients and controls were compared. Hemorheological parameters were repeated in the patient group following vitamin B12 treatment, and the results were compared with the initial results. In vitamin B12 deficiency, erythrocyte deformability and whole blood viscosity were found to be significantly decreased, eythrocyte aggregation was found to be significantly increased compared with the controls. Plasma viscosity was found to be decreased in deficiency but this decrease was not statistically significant. In patient group, erythrocyte deformability, whole blood and plasma viscosities were found to be significantly increased and erythrocyte aggregation was significantly decreased, after treatment. This study indicates that vitamin B12 deficiency has important effects on hemorheological parameters and adequate treatment of deficiency not only corrects the hematological parameters, but also by helping to normalize the hemorheological parameters, may contribute to the regulation of microvascular perfusion. PMID:23719423

  19. Improved propionic acid and 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole control strategy for vitamin B12 fermentation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Zhiwei; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin; Wang, Yunshan

    2015-01-10

    An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of vitamin B12 by cultivation process optimization with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The effects of the byproduct propionic acid and the precursor 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) on vitamin B12 biosynthesis were investigated. Byproduct inhibition experiments showed that maintaining propionic acid concentration in broth below 10-20 g/L in the early stage and 20-30 g/L in the late stage can efficiently improve vitamin B12 biosynthesis. Batch fermentation indicated the occurrence of feed-back inhibition in intracellular intermediate biosynthesis. In addition, the incorporation of the precursor DMB depended on the fermentation level of the vitamin B12 intermediate. High vitamin B12 concentration (58.8 mg/L) and production (0.37 mg/g) were obtained with an expanded bed adsorption bioreactor by using the propionic acid and DMB control method. The optimum concentration and production of 59.5 and 0.59 mg/L h for vitamin B12 production were respectively achieved after five continuous batches. PMID:25455014

  20. Discovery of Novel Sources of Vitamin B12 in Traditional Korean Foods from Nutritional Surveys of Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Lee, Mee Sook; Oh, Se In; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B12 status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B12 in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B12 contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B12. Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B12, resulting in maintenance of health status. PMID:21436999

  1. Vitamin B12 production by Citrobacter freundii or Klebsiella pneumoniae during tempeh fermentation and proof of enterotoxin absence by PCR.

    PubMed

    Keuth, S; Bisping, B

    1994-05-01

    The influence of some fermentation parameters on vitamin B12 formation by strains of Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Indonesian tempeh samples during tempeh fermentation was investigated. A decrease in fermentation temperature from 32 to 24 degrees C led to a decrease in vitamin B12 formation. Inoculation of soybeans with different numbers of cells of C. freundii at the beginning of solid-substrate fermentation showed that only the velocity of vitamin formation and not the final amount of vitamin formed depended on the number of cells. The addition of cobalt and 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole increased the vitamin B12 content of tempeh. Nevertheless, levels of incorporation of the two precursors into the vitamin B12 molecule were very low. Neither C. freundii nor K. pneumoniae possessed the genes encoding the enterotoxins Shiga-like toxin SLT IIA, heat-labile enterotoxin LT Ih, and heat-stable enterotoxin ST Ih, as indicated by PCR. This result supports the suggested use of these two strains to form vitamin B12 during tempeh fermentation in Indonesia. PMID:8017933

  2. The Effect of Vitamin B12 Infusion on Prevention of Nitrous Oxide-induced Homocysteine Increase: A Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kiasari, Alieh Zamani; Firouzian, Abolfazl; Baradari, Afshin Gholipour; Nia, Hamid Sharif; Kiasari, Seyed Hosein Moosavi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nitrous oxide is a common inhalation anesthetic agent in general anesthesia. While it is widely accepted as a safe anesthetic agent, evidence suggests exposure to this gas, leads to hyperhomocysteinemia. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of single-dose intravenous infusions of vitamin B12, before and after the induction of nitrous oxide anesthesia on homocysteine levels after the surgery. Methods This double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 patients who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia, presumably lasting for more than two hours. The subjects were randomly allocated to three groups of 20. For the first group, vitamin B12 solution (1 mg/100 ml normal saline) and 100 ml of normal saline (placebo), were infused before and after the induction of anesthesia, respectively. The second group received placebo and vitamin B12 infusion before and after the induction of anesthesia, respectively. The third group received placebo infusions at both times. Homocysteine levels were measured before and 24 hours after the surgery. Results The mean homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels were significantly different within the three groups (p<0.001). In patients who had been infused with vitamin B12 before the surgery, homocysteine levels were significantly lower than the other two groups. In the placebo group, homocysteine levels significantly increased after the surgery. Conclusion Nitrous oxide causes hyperhomocysteinemia after general anesthesia. Since vitamin B12 infusion is a safe and inexpensive method to decrease homocysteine levels in these patients, it may be recommended for patients undergoing nitrous oxide anesthesia to be used before induction of anesthesia. PMID:24936269

  3. Effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation on neurologic and cognitive function in older people: a randomized controlled trial12

    PubMed Central

    Dangour, Alan D; Allen, Elizabeth; Clarke, Robert; Elbourne, Diana; Fletcher, Astrid E; Letley, Louise; Richards, Marcus; Whyte, Ken; Uauy, Ricardo; Mills, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency is relatively common in older people. However, there is little robust evidence on the effect of vitamin B-12 supplementation on neurologic and cognitive outcomes in later life. Objective: We investigated whether vitamin B-12 supplementation benefits neurologic and cognitive function in moderately vitamin B-12–deficient older people. Design: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 7 general practices in South East England, United Kingdom. Study participants were aged ≥75 y and had moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency (serum vitamin B-12 concentrations: 107–210 pmol/L) in the absence of anemia and received 1 mg crystalline vitamin B-12 or a matching placebo as a daily oral tablet for 12 mo. Peripheral motor and sensory nerve conduction, central motor conduction, a clinical neurologic examination, and cognitive function were assessed before and after treatment. Results: A total of 201 participants were enrolled in the trial, and 191 subjects provided outcome data. Compared with baseline, allocation to vitamin B-12 was associated with a 177% increase in serum concentration of vitamin B-12 (641 compared with 231 pmol/L), a 331% increase in serum holotranscobalamin (240 compared with 56 pmol/L), and 17% lower serum homocysteine (14.2 compared with 17.1 μmol/L). In intention-to-treat analysis of covariance models, with adjustment for baseline neurologic function, there was no evidence of an effect of supplementation on the primary outcome of the posterior tibial compound muscle action potential amplitude at 12 mo (mean difference: −0.2 mV; 95% CI: –0.8, 0.3 mV). There was also no evidence of an effect on any secondary peripheral nerve or central motor function outcome, or on cognitive function or clinical examination. Conclusion: Results of the trial do not support the hypothesis that the correction of moderate vitamin B-12 deficiency, in the absence of anemia and of neurologic and cognitive

  4. Genetic animal models to decipher the pathogenic effects of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lu; Dreumont, Natacha; Coelho, David; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Arnold, Carole

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin B12 and folate are essential micronutrients that provide methyl groups for cellular methylations through the so-called one-carbon metabolism. Deficits in the absorption and transport or defects of the enzymes can lead to human pathogenesis comprising hematologic, neural, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, cardiovascular and developmental manifestations. One-carbon metabolism is a complex, multistep and multi-organ metabolism, and the understanding of the mechanisms at work have benefited from human inborn errors and population studies, as well as from nutritional animal models. Since 15 years, a wide variety of genetically engineered mice has been developed and has proved to be useful to decipher the underlying mechanisms. These genetically engineered mice target all the genes that are important for the intestinal absorption, cellular transport and metabolism of vitamin B12 and folate, which are detailed in this article. In conclusion, these mouse models represent valuable experimental paradigms for human pathogenesis. Since no animal model recapitulates the full spectrum of a human disease, researchers have to choose the one that is the most relevant for their specific needs, and this review may help in this respect. PMID:27178438

  5. [Old or new medicine? Vitamin B12 and peripheral nerve neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-01

    Methylcobalamin is a vitamin B12 analog that is necessary for nervous system maintenance. Although methylcobalamin has some positive effects on peripheral nervous system disorders, the mechanism through which it affects neurons are not entirely known. Recent studies have revealed its intracellular signaling pathway and some of its molecular actions on neurons. In this article, I review interactions between methylcobalamin and neurons that have been revealed through in vitro studies, in vivo studies, and clinical use. Methylcobalamin participates in nervous system maintenance through several mechanisms. Methylcobalamin is an active form of vitamin B12, and a coenzyme of methionine synthase, which is required for DNA and protein methylation. In addition, methylcobalamin facilitates neurite outgrowth and inhibits neural apoptosis through the Erk1/2 and Akt signaling pathways. Treatment with high doses of methylcobalamin ameliorates symptoms and negative electrophysiological findings in animal models of peripheral nerve neuropathy and in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Thus, high-dose methylcobalamin has great potential for treating nervous system disorders. Further investigations with methylcobalamin may help elucidate its mechanisms of action, which may further enable us to treat many nervous system disorders. PMID:24018744

  6. A newly isolated and identified vitamin B12 producing strain: Sinorhizobium meliloti 320.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huina; Li, Sha; Fang, Huan; Xia, Miaomiao; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Dawei; Sun, Jibin

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin, VB12) has several physiological functions and is widely used in pharmaceutical and food industries. A new unicellular species was extracted from China farmland, and the strain could produce VB12 which was identified by HPLC and HPLC-MS/MS. 16S rDNA analysis reveals this strain belongs to the species Sinorhizobium meliloti and we named it S. meliloti 320. Its whole genome information indicates that this strain has a complete VB12 synthetic pathway, which paves the way for further metabolic engineering studies. The optimal carbon and nitrogen sources are sucrose and corn steep liquor (CSL) plus peptone. The optimal combination of sucrose and CSL was obtained by response surface methodology as they are the most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. This strain could produce 140 ± 4.2 mg L(-1) vitamin B12 after incubating for 7 days in the optimal medium. PMID:27282166

  7. Microbial production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 using molasses or sugar.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Chanto, A; Afschar, A S; Wagner, F

    1994-06-01

    With a cell concentration of 125 g dry biomass l-1 and a dilution rate of 0.1 h-1, Propionibacterium acidipropionici produces 30 g propionic acid l-1 from sugar with a productivity of 3 g l-1 h-1. The yield of propionic acid is approx. 0.36-0.45 g propionic acid g-1 sucrose and is independent of the dilution rate and cell concentration. Acetic acid is an unwanted by-product in the production of propionic acid. The concentration of acetic acid only increases slightly when the cell concentration is increased. A two-stage fermentation process was developed for the conversion of sugar or molasses of various types to propionic acid and vitamin B12. By fermentation of blackstrap molasses (from sugar beet and sugar cane) in the first fermentation stage 17.7 g propionic acid l-1 with a yield of 0.5 g propionic acid g-1 carbohydrate was produced with a dilution rate of 0.25 h-1. In the second stage 49 mg vitamin B12 1-1 was produced at a dilution rate of 0.03 h-1. PMID:7765100

  8. Influence of heme and vitamin B12 on growth and fermentations of Bacteroides species.

    PubMed

    Chen, M; Wolin, M J

    1981-01-01

    We examined the effects of heme on the growth and fermentations of Bacteroides species. Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285 required heme for growth and produced malate and lactate as major products of glucose fermentation when the concentration of heme was 1 ng/ml. With 1 microgram of heme per ml, malate was not formed, lactate production decreased, and succinate and acetate were the major fermentation products. B. eggerthii ATCC 27754 grew without heme, with the production of mainly malate and lactate from glucose. Its fermentation with 1 microgram of heme per ml was similar to that of B. fragilis grown with the same concentration of heme. B. splanchicus VPI 6842 grew without heme, with the production of mainly malate, acetate, and H2 from glucose. With 1 microgram of heme per ml, malate disappeared, H2 decreased significantly, and succinate, acetate, and butyrate were the major products. The addition of vitamin B12 to media containing 1 microgram of heme per ml caused all species to produce propionate at the expense of succinate and, with B. splanchnicus, also at the expense of butyrate. Thus, the concentration of heme and the presence of vitamin B12 significantly influenced the course of glucose fermentation by these bacteria. PMID:7462148

  9. Electronic structure of vitamin B12 within the framework of the Haldane-Anderson impurity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandemir, Zafer; Mayda, Selma; Bulut, Nejat

    2015-03-01

    We study the electronic structure of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine C63H88CoN14O14P) by using the framework of the multi-orbital single-impurity Haldane-Anderson model of a transition-metal impurity in a semiconductor host. Here, our purpose is to understand the many-body effects originating from the transition-metal impurity. In this approach, the cobalt 3 d orbitals are treated as the impurity states placed in a semiconductor host which consists of the rest of the molecule. The parameters of the resulting effective Haldane-Anderson model are obtained within the Hartree-Fock approximation for the electronic structure of the molecule. The quantum Monte Carlo technique is then used to calculate the one-electron and magnetic correlation functions of this effective Haldane-Anderson model for vitamin B12. We find that new states form inside the semiconductor gap due to the on-site Coulomb interaction at the impurity 3 d orbitals and that these states become the highest occupied molecular orbitals. In addition, we present results on the charge distribution and spin correlations around the Co atom. We compare the results of this approach with those obtained by the density-functional theory calculations.

  10. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  11. HETEROGENEITY AND LACK OF GOOD QUALITY STUDIES LIMIT ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FOLATE, VITAMIN B-6 AND B-12, AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from rev...

  12. Low plasma vitamin B-12 in Kenyan school children is highly prevalent and improved by supplemental animal source foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in many regions of the world is becoming recognized as a widespread public health problem, but it is not known to what extent this deficiency results from a low intake of the vitamin or from its malabsorption from food. In rural Kenya, where a previous ...

  13. The Schilling test cannot be replaced by an absorption test with unlabeled vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Henze, E; Männer, S; Clausen, M; Malfertheiner, P; Hellwig, D; Ditschuneit, H; Kornhuber, H; Adam, W E

    1988-04-15

    It was the purpose of this study to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of an oral absorption test using nonlabeled Vit B12 suggested by a commercial distributor as an alternative for the more expensive Schilling test (ST). Plasma levels of Vit B12 were measured with a commercial kit before and 4 h after oral administration of 1 mg Vit B12 in 32 normals, in 16 patients with normal ST, and in 14 patients with abnormal ST for determination of sensitivity and specificity with the ST as golden standard. In normals, a mean of 767 +/- 404 pg/ml before and 1096 +/- 776 pg/ml after oral Vit B12 with a mean increase of 331 +/- 453 pg/ml was measured. Because of the obvious large variation, no meaningful range for normal absorption could be established. In the two patient subsets, there was no Gaussian distribution of the results, with a meridian of Vit B12 increase after absorption of 142 pg/ml, range 27-2668 pg/ml, in the group with normal ST and a meridian of 244 pg/ml ranging from 40 to 2453 pg/ml in the group with abnormal ST. Statistical nonparametric analysis did not reveal any difference between the two groups. Assuming a minimum required increase of 100 pg/ml, as suggested by the kit distributor, a sensitivity of only 27% and a specificity of 75% was obtained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3392890

  14. Effects of dietary supplements of folic acid and vitamin B12 on metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Graulet, B; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Doepel, L; Palin, M-F; Girard, C L

    2007-07-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary supplements of folic acid and vitamin B12 given from 3 wk before to 8 wk after calving on lactational performance and metabolism of 24 multiparous Holstein cows assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to their previous milk production. Supplementary folic acid at 0 or 2.6 g/d and vitamin B12 at 0 or 0.5 g/d were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Supplementary folic acid increased milk production from 38.0 +/- 0.9 to 41.4 +/- 1.0 kg/d and milk crude protein yield from 1.17 +/- 0.02 to 1.25 +/- 0.03 kg/d. It also increased plasma Gly, Ser, Thr, and total sulfur AA, decreased Asp, and tended to increase plasma Met. Supplementary B12 decreased milk urea N, plasma Ile, and Leu and tended to decrease Val but increased homocysteine, Cys, and total sulfur AA. Liver concentration of phospholipids was higher in cows fed supplementary B12. Plasma and liver concentrations of folates and B12 were increased by their respective supplements, but the increase in plasma folates and plasma and liver B12 was smaller for cows fed the 2 vitamins together. In cows fed folic acid supplements, supplementary B12 increased plasma glucose and alanine, tended to decrease plasma biotin, and decreased Km of the methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase in hepatic tissues following addition of deoxyadenosylcobalamin, whereas it had no effect when cows were not fed folic acid supplements. There was no treatment effect on plasma nonesterified fatty acids as well as specific activity and gene expression of Met synthase and methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase in the liver. Ingestion of folic acid supplements by cows fed no supplementary B12 increased total lipid and triacylglycerols in liver, whereas these supplements had no effect in cows supplemented with B12. The increases in milk and milk protein yields due to folic acid supplements did not seem to be dependent on the vitamin B12 supply. However, when vitamin B12 was given in

  15. Greater intake of vitamins B6 and B12 spares gray matter in healthy elderly: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Suever, Barbara L; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Colcombe, Stanley J; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2008-03-14

    Previous studies have reported that high concentrations of homocysteine and lower concentrations of vitamins B6, B12, and folate increase the risk for cognitive decline and pathology in aging populations. In this cross-sectional study, high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and a 3-day food diary were collected on 32 community-dwelling adults between the ages of 59 and 79. We examined the relation between vitamins B6, B12, and folate intake on cortical volume using an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method and global gray and white matter volume after correcting for age, sex, body mass index, calorie intake, and education. All participants met or surpassed the recommended daily intake for these vitamins. In the VBM analysis, we found that adults with greater vitamin B6 intake had greater gray matter volume along the medial wall, anterior cingulate cortex, medial parietal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus, whereas people with greater B12 intake had greater volume in the left and right superior parietal sulcus. These effects were driven by vitamin supplementation and were negated when only examining vitamin intake from diet. Folate had no effect on brain volume. Furthermore, there was no relationship between vitamins B6, B12, or folate intake on global brain volume measures, indicating that VBM methods are more sensitive for detecting localized differences in gray matter volume than global measures. These results are discussed in relation to a growing literature on vitamin intake on age-related neurocognitive deterioration. PMID:18281020

  16. Interaction of Nutrition and Infection: Macrophage Activity in Vitamin B12-Deficient Rats Infected with Trypanosoma Lewisi

    PubMed Central

    Thomaskutty, K. G.; Lee, C. M.

    1987-01-01

    Macrophage activity was studied in rats infected with Trypanosoma lewisi in three protocol groups: one group was fed complete diet, a second group was given a vitamin B12-deficient diet, and a third group was fed a pair-fed control (calorically restricted) diet. Throughout the observational period, in animals fed complete and pairfed diets, marked increases in acid phosphatase levels in peritoneal macrophages were directly related to the degree of parasitemia. Acid phosphatase levels in rats deprived of vitamin B12 were approximately one third that of animals with an adequate supply of the vitamin. Irrespective of the diets, the infection with T lewisi also elicited increased macrophage phagocytosis of polystyrene latex particles and macrophage spreading. Both of these activities occurred at a much slower rate in the vitamin B12-deficient animals. PMID:3295263

  17. Supplementing lactating dairy cows with a vitamin B12 precursor, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, increases the apparent ruminal synthesis of vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Brito, A; Chiquette, J; Stabler, S P; Allen, R H; Girard, C L

    2015-01-01

    Cobalamin (CBL), the biologically active form of vitamin B12, and its analogs, are produced by bacteria only if cobalt supply is adequate. The analogs differ generally by the nucleotide moiety of the molecule. In CBL, 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (5,6-DMB) is the base in the nucleotide moiety. The present study aimed to determine if a supplement of 5,6-DMB could increase utilization of dietary cobalt for synthesis of CBL and change ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, omasal flow of nutrients and ruminal protozoa counts. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows (mean±standard deviation=238±21 days in milk and 736±47 kg of BW) were used in a crossover design. Cows were randomly assigned to a daily supplement of a gelatin capsule containing 1.5 g of 5,6-DMB via the rumen cannula or no supplement. Each period lasted 29 days and consisted of 21 days for treatment adaptation and 8 days for data and samples collection. Five corrinoids, CBL and four cobamides were detected in the total mixed ration and the omasal digesta from both treatments. The dietary supplement of 5,6-DMB increased (P=0.02) apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL from 14.6 to 19.6 (s.e.m. 0.8) mg/day but had no effect (P>0.1) on apparent ruminal synthesis of the four analogs. The supplement of 5,6-DMB had no effect (P>0.1) on milk production and composition, or on protozoal count, ruminal pH and concentrations of volatile fatty acids and ammonia nitrogen in rumen content. The supplement had also no effect (P>0.1) on intake, omasal flow and apparent ruminal digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF, ADF and nitrogenous fractions. Plasma concentration of CBL was not affected by treatments (P=0.98). Providing a preformed part of the CBL molecule, that is, 5,6-DMB, increased by 34% the apparent ruminal synthesis of CBL by ruminal bacteria but had no effect on ruminal fermentation or protozoa count and it was not sufficient to increase plasma concentrations of the vitamin. Even though

  18. Fundamental shift in vitamin B12 eco-physiology of a model alga demonstrated by experimental evolution

    PubMed Central

    Helliwell, Katherine E.; Collins, Sinéad; Kazamia, Elena; Purton, Saul; Wheeler, Glen L.; Smith, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    A widespread and complex distribution of vitamin requirements exists over the entire tree of life, with many species having evolved vitamin dependence, both within and between different lineages. Vitamin availability has been proposed to drive selection for vitamin dependence, in a process that links an organism’s metabolism to the environment, but this has never been demonstrated directly. Moreover, understanding the physiological processes and evolutionary dynamics that influence metabolic demand for these important micronutrients has significant implications in terms of nutrient acquisition, and in microbial organisms, can affect community composition and metabolic exchange between coexisting species. Here, we investigate the origins of vitamin dependence, using an experimental evolution approach with the vitamin B12-independent model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In fewer than 500 generations of growth in the presence of vitamin B12, we observe the evolution of a B12-dependent clone that rapidly displaces its ancestor. Genetic characterization of this line reveals a type-II Gulliver-related transposable element (GR-TE) integrated into the B12-independent methionine synthase gene (METE), knocking out gene function and critically altering the physiology of the alga. PMID:25526368

  19. Multivitamin Use and Serum Vitamin B12 Concentrations in Older-Adult Metformin Users in REGARDS, 2003-2007

    PubMed Central

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Garn, Joshua V.; Zakai, Neil A.; Williamson, Rebecca S.; Cashion, Winn T.; Odewole, Oluwaseun; Judd, Suzanne E.; Oakley, Godfrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Metformin, an insulin-sensitizing drug, is a first line treatment for type 2 diabetes. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with subsequent reductions in vitamin B12 concentrations. The objective of our study was to determine whether metformin use is associated with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations in older adults, and whether concurrent use of multivitamins modifies this association. We examined 2,510 participants aged 50 years and over, participating in the national population-based Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to assess associations between multivitamin use and serum vitamin B12 concentrations. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR)s and confidence intervals (CI)s. Results were stratified by three metformin/diabetes sub-groups: 1) participants with diabetes who were metformin users; 2) participants with diabetes who were not metformin users; and 3) participants without diabetes. We found that diabetic metformin users had significantly lower geometric mean serum B12 concentrations (409 pmol/L) than the group with diabetes not taking metformin (485 pmol/L; P<0.01), and the group without diabetes (445 pmol/L; P = 0.02). The geometric mean serum B12 concentrations were greater for multivitamin users (509 pmol/L) compared to those who did not use multivitamins (376 pmol/L; p<0.01). Among the participants with diabetes who were on metformin therapy, multivitamin use was associated with geometric mean serum vitamin B12 concentrations that were 50% (or 161 pmol/L) higher, compared to those not using multivitamins. Among metformin users, multivitamin use was associated with lower prevalence of combined low and borderline vitamin B12 concentrations (aOR = 0.14; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.54) compared to those not using multivitamins. In conclusion, metformin use was associated with lower geometric mean serum vitamin B12 concentrations among diabetic older

  20. Parallel computing and first-principles calculations: Applications to complex ceramics and Vitamin B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Lizhi

    A systematic improvement and extension of the orthogonalized linear combinations of atomic orbitals method was carried out using a combined computational and theoretical approach. For high performance parallel computing, a Beowulf class personal computer cluster was constructed. It also served as a parallel program development platform that helped us to port the programs of the method to the national supercomputer facilities. The program, received a language upgrade from Fortran 77 to Fortran 90, and a dynamic memory allocation feature. A preliminary parallel High Performance Fortran version of the program has been developed as well. To be of more benefit though, scalability improvements are needed. In order to circumvent the difficulties of the analytical force calculation in the method, we developed a geometry optimization scheme using the finite difference approximation based on the total energy calculation. The implementation of this scheme was facilitated by the powerful general utility lattice program, which offers many desired features such as multiple optimization schemes and usage of space group symmetry. So far, many ceramic oxides have been tested with the geometry optimization program. Their optimized geometries were in excellent agreement with the experimental data. For nine ceramic oxide crystals, the optimized cell parameters differ from the experimental ones within 0.5%. Moreover, the geometry optimization was recently used to predict a new phase of TiNx. The method has also been used to investigate a complex Vitamin B12-derivative, the OHCbl crystals. In order to overcome the prohibitive disk I/O demand, an on-demand version of the method was developed. Based on the electronic structure calculation of the OHCbl crystal, a partial density of states analysis and a bond order analysis were carried out. The calculated bonding of the corrin ring of OHCbl model was coincident with the big open-ring pi bond. One interesting find of the calculation was

  1. Serum Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Concentrations in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) and Pigtailed Macaques (Macaca nemestrina) with Chronic Idiopathic Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Izzi, Jessica M; Beck, Sarah E; Adams, Robert J; Metcalf Pate, Kelly A; Hutchinson, Eric K

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea poses a significant threat to the health of NHP research colonies, and its primary etiology remains unclear. In macaques, the clinical presentation of intractable diarrhea and weight loss that are accompanied by inflammatory infiltrates within the gastrointestinal tract closely resembles inflammatory bowel disease of humans, dogs, and cats, in which low serum and tissue cobalamin (vitamin B12) levels are due to intestinal malabsorption. We therefore hypothesized that macaques with chronic idiopathic diarrhea (CID) have lower serum cobalamin concentrations than do healthy macaques. Here we measured serum cobalamin concentrations in both rhesus and pigtailed macaques with CID and compared them with those of healthy controls. Serum cobalamin levels were 2.5-fold lower in pigtailed macaques with CID than control animals but did not differ between rhesus macaques with CID and their controls. This finding supports the use of serum cobalamin concentration as an adjunct diagnostic tool in pigtailed macaques that present with clinical symptoms of chronic gastrointestinal disease. This use of serum vitamin B12 levels has implications for the future use of parenteral cobalamin supplementation to improve clinical outcomes in this species. PMID:27538863

  2. Novel fermentation process strengthening strategy for production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin

    2014-12-01

    An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by co-fermentation with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Vitamin B12 production from glucose resulted in relatively high productivity (0.35 mg/L h) but a low propionic acid yield (0.55 g/g). By contrast, glycerol gave a high propionic acid yield (0.63 g/g) but low productivity (0.16 g/L h). Co-fermentation of glycerol and glucose with a gradual addition strategy gave high yields (propionic acid: 0.71 g/g; vitamin B12: 0.72 mg/g) and productivities (propionic acid: 0.36 g/L h; vitamin B12: 0.36 mg/L h). Finally, the integrated feedstock and fermentation system strengthening strategy was demonstrated as an efficient method for the economic production of bio-based propionic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25261985

  3. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the brain leads to DNA hypomethylation in the TCblR/CD320 knockout mouse

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA methylation is an epigenetic phenomenon that can modulate gene function by up or downregulation of gene expression. Vitamin B12 and folate pathways are involved in the production of S-Adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor. Findings Brain vitamin B12 concentration and global DNA methylation was determined in transcobalamin receptor (TCblR/CD320) knock out (KO) (n = 4) and control mice (n = 4) at 20–24 weeks of age. Median [IQR] brain vitamin B12 concentrations (pg/mg) in TCblR/CD320 KO mice compared with control mice was 8.59 [0.52] vs 112.42 [33.12]; p < 0.05. Global DNA methylation levels in brain genomic DNA were lower in TCblR/CD320 KO compared with control mice (Median [IQR]: 0.31[0.16] % vs 0.55[0.15] %; p < 0.05.). Conclusions In TCblR/CD320 KO mice, brain vitamin B12 drops precipitously by as much as 90% during a 20 week period. This decrease is associated with a 40% decrease in global DNA methylation in the brain. Future research will reveal whether the disruption in gene expression profiles due to changes in DNA hypomethylation contribute to central nervous system pathologies that are frequently seen in vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:22607050

  4. Cyanocobalamin [c-lactam] inhibits vitamin B12 and causes cytotoxicity in HL60 cells: methionine protects cells completely.

    PubMed

    Matthews, J H

    1997-06-15

    The [c-lactam] derivative of cobalamin antagonizes vitamin B12 in vivo. Therefore, we investigated its effects in tissue culture to develop a model in which to study vitamin B12-deficient hemopoiesis. HL60 cells were cultured in medium containing either methionine or L-homocysteine thiolactone, and various concentrations of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate or pteroylglutamic acid. In medium with L-homocysteine thiolactone, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and dialyzed serum, cyanocobalamin [c-lactam] caused cell death, reversible by additional vitamin B12. Pteroylglutamic acid did not prevent this cytotoxic effect. Methionine completely protected cells against cyanocobalamin [c-lactam] for periods of up to 4 months of culture, irrespective of the folate source. Cyanocobalamin [c-lactam] reversibly impaired the incorporation of 5-[14CH3]-tetrahydrofolate and [1-(14)C] propionic acid by intact cells, consistent with inhibition of methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. A substantial proportion of 5-[14CH3]-tetrahydrofolate uptake could not be suppressed by methionine and may, therefore, have occurred outside of the methionine synthase pathway. These findings are the first indication that cyanocobalamin [c-lactam] antagonizes vitamin B12 in vitro and causes cell death from methionine deficiency. The model should be valuable for investigating the biochemical pathology of vitamin B12-deficient hemopoiesis. The results suggest that methylfolate is not trapped when methionine synthase is inhibited in HL60 cells, but they do not disprove the methylfolate trap hypothesis as applied to normal blood cells. PMID:9192785

  5. [Determination of vitamin B12 concentration by fluorescence quenching with acridine orange-rhodamine 6G energy transfer system].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bao-sheng; Gao, Jing; Yang, Geng-liang

    2005-07-01

    An energy transfer technique between acridine orange (AO) and rhodamine 6G (R6G) was studied, and the optimum experimental conditions of energy transfer were defined. It was found that the effective energy transfer could occur between AO and R6G in the dodecylbenzene sodium sulfonate solution with Na2 HPO4-citric acid buffer solution at pH 5.0. The fluorescence intensity of AO-R6G system was diminished by vitamin B12 in an alkalescence medium. Based on the AO-R6G energy transfer system anovel fluorescence quenching method for the determination of vitamin B12 has been developed. Under optimal conditious, the linear range of calibration curves for the determination of vitamin B12 was 0-3.0 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1). The detection limits were 4.8 x 10(-7) mol x L(-1) for Vitamin B12. Among six times of determination, the relative standard deviation was 0.51%-0.64%, and the recovery was 98.40% -103.62%. The method features good recurrence, rapidity of reaction, good stability, and few interfering substances. It can be satisfactorily used in the determination of the injection content of vitamin B12. PMID:16241060

  6. Response to Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Regland, Björn; Forsmark, Sara; Halaouate, Lena; Matousek, Michael; Peilot, Birgitta; Zachrisson, Olof; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called chronic fatigue syndrome) may respond most favorably to frequent vitamin B12 injections, in vital combination with oral folic acid. However, there is no established algorithm for individualized optimal dosages, and rate of improvement may differ considerably between responders. Objective To evaluate clinical data from patients with ME, with or without fibromyalgia, who had been on B12 injections at least once a week for six months and up to several years. Methods 38 patients were included in a cross-sectional survey. Based on a validated observer’s rating scale, they were divided into Good (n = 15) and Mild (n = 23) responders, and the two groups were compared from various clinical aspects. Results Good responders had used significantly more frequent injections (p<0.03) and higher doses of B12 (p<0.03) for a longer time (p<0.0005), higher daily amounts of oral folic acid (p<0.003) in good relation with the individual MTHFR genotype, more often thyroid hormones (p<0.02), and no strong analgesics at all, while 70% of Mild responders (p<0.0005) used analgesics such as opioids, duloxetine or pregabalin on a daily basis. In addition to ME, the higher number of patients with fibromyalgia among Mild responders was bordering on significance (p<0.09). Good responders rated themselves as “very much” or “much” improved, while Mild responders rated “much” or “minimally” improved. Conclusions Dose-response relationship and long-lasting effects of B12/folic acid support a true positive response in the studied group of patients with ME/fibromyalgia. It’s important to be alert on co-existing thyroid dysfunction, and we suspect a risk of counteracting interference between B12/folic acid and certain opioid analgesics and other drugs that have to be demethylated as part of their metabolism. These issues should be considered when controlled trials for ME and fibromyalgia are to be designed. PMID

  7. Vitamin B12[c-lactone], a biologically inactive corrinoid compound, occurs in cultured and dried lion's mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) fruiting bodies.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; Bito, Tomohiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2014-02-19

    This study determined the vitamin B12 content of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus, lion's mane mushroom fruiting body, using a microbiological assay based on Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 7830. Trace levels (0.04-0.36 μg/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B12 were found in most of the dried mushroom samples, and two samples contained slightly higher levels (0.56 and 1.04 μg/100 g dry weight, respectively) of vitamin B12. We purified the corrinoid compounds from the extracts of dried lion's mane mushroom fruiting bodies using an immunoaffinity column and identified them as vitamin B12 or vitamin B12[c-lactone] (or both) based on LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms. This is the first report on an unnatural corrinoid, vitamin B12[c-lactone], occurring in foods. Vitamin B12[c-lactone] was simple to produce during incubation of authentic vitamin B12 and chloramine-T, an antimicrobial agent, at varying pH values (3.0-7.0) and was completely inactive in the vitamin B12-dependent bacteria that are generally used in vitamin B12 bioassays. PMID:24506286

  8. The cis influence of the corrin in vitamin B12 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govender, Penny P.; Navizet, Isabelle; Perry, Christopher B.; Marques, Helder M.

    2012-10-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) calculations on [NH3[Co(III)(C10-X-corrin)]-CH3]+, where the C10-H of corrin is replaced by electron-donating or -withdrawing groups, X, explore the cis influence in these vitamin B12 models. As the electron donating ability of X increases, a normal trans influence is observed: the Co-NH3 bond weakens while the Co-CH3 bond strengthens. Surprisingly, though, the Co-CH3 bond dissociation energy decreases monotonically as the Co-C bond strengthens. This is found to be a consequence of the extent of shortening of the Co-NH3 during the homolysis reaction.

  9. Vitamin B12 Metabolism during Pregnancy and in Embryonic Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Garcia, Maira A.; Rosenblatt, David S.; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory loss and dementia. During pregnancy Cbl is essential, presumably because of its role in DNA synthesis and methionine synthesis; however, there are conflicting studies regarding an association between early pregnancy loss and Cbl deficiency. We here review the literature about the requirement for Cbl during pregnancy, and summarized what is known of the expression pattern and function of genes required for Cbl metabolism in embryonic mouse models. PMID:24025485

  10. Distribution of vitamin B12 R-binder in carcinomas of the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Kudo, H; Ohshio, G; Ogawa, K; Kim, Y C; Wakatsuki, Y; Nakashima, Y; Yamabe, H; Inada, M

    1988-03-01

    To evaluate whether the increase in serum transcobalamin I, seen in patients with carcinoma, is caused by synthesis of R-binder to tumour cells, the distribution of vitamin B12 R-binder in 125 malignant growths of the digestive tract was studied. Positive staining for R-binder with immunoperoxidase was observed in 85 (70%) carcinomas. Positive staining for R-binder was observed in all four cholangiocarcinomas studied, but was absent in nine hepatocellular carcinomas. These findings suggest that determination of R-binder in liver tumours may be of some value in differentiating hepatocellular carcinomas and cholangiocarcinoma, and that synthesis of R-binder by tumour cells causes an increase in serum transcobalamin I. PMID:2834423

  11. Folate and vitamin B12 status and dietary intake of anaemic adolescent schoolgirls in the delta region of Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Htet, Min Kyaw; Fahmida, Umi; Thurnham, David I; Hlaing, Lwin Mar; Akib, Arwin; Utomo, Budi; Houghton, Lisa A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of deficiency of folate and vitamin B12 and, simultaneously, the nutrient intake adequacy of folate, vitamin B12, iron, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6 and calcium in 391 adolescent anaemic (Hb<120 g/l) schoolgirls living in the delta region of Myanmar (Burma). Dietary intakes were assessed using a 3 d estimated food record. The distribution of observed intakes calculated from the food records were adjusted for usual intakes, and the prevalence of inadequacy was estimated using the estimated average requirement cut-point method. Median (first, third quartile) serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were 6·5 (4·6, 8·5) nmol/l and 612·8 (443·2, 795·2) pmol/l, respectively. The prevalence of folate deficiency defined as <6·8 nmol/l was 54 %; however, vitamin B12 deficiency defined as <148 pmol/l was negligible (<1 %). The prevalence of inadequate intake of folate was high (100 %) as was the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6 and calcium, ranging from 60 to 100 %. Red meat or poultry was rarely consumed, but fish was consumed on a daily basis. Green leafy vegetables were also consumed frequently but consumption of dairy products was uncommon. Folate deficiency was high, and the prevalence of inadequate intake of folate among other key micronutrients was relatively common in this sample of anaemic adolescent schoolgirls. Appropriate strategies such as food fortification and dietary diversification are needed to improve the micronutrient status of these young women to ensure optimal health and future reproductive success. PMID:26481660

  12. Pharmacological dose of vitamin B12 is as effective as low-dose folinic acid in correcting hyperhomocysteinemia of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yi-Wen; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2009-01-01

    Various regimens of folic acid-based and vitamin B12 (Vit B12) supplementations have been tried for lowering plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels in uremic patients. However, the therapeutic potency of low-dose folic acid and Vit B12 alone is not properly understood. In this study, seventy-five patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) therapy were randomized into three groups. The FNA group received intravenous (IV) supplementation with folinic acid 3 mg weekly; the Vit B12 group received IV supplementation with vitamin B12 1 mg weekly; and the combination group received IV supplementation with both agents weekly. Blood levels of Hcy, folic acid, and Vit B12 were measured monthly for three months. After three months of treatment, plasma levels of Hcy decreased significantly in all three groups when compared with their baselines (all p < 0.05). The final Hcy level was significantly lower in the combination group (11.5 +/- 2.3 micromol/L) when compared with that of the FNA group (15.9 +/- 5.6 micromol/L, p < 0.05) but not with the Vit B12 group (15.9 +/- 11.6 micromol/L), although their baseline levels were similar. The percentage decreases of tHcy at the end of the treatment in the FNA group, Vit B12 group, and combination group were 16.4%, 29.3%, and 38.9% respectively. Our study showed that IV pharmacologic dose of Vit B12 alone is as effective as low-dose folic acid in correcting hyperhomocysteinemia in chronic HD patients, and combining both drugs in low doses may have added effects. PMID:19462276

  13. [Use of dextrofer-100 and vitamin B12 on newborn pigs].

    PubMed

    Petkov, P I; Khadzhistoev, V

    1984-01-01

    Studies were carried out with the iron dextran preparation-100 and vitamin B12 at 100 gamma, applied to 80 pigs of 10 sows of the Camborough hybrid on two swine breeding complexes of different raising technologies. The pigs were divided into 4 groups of animals each. The Ist group was treated with dextrofer, the IInd--with dextrofer + vit. B12, the IIIrd--with vit. B12, and the IVth was left as control. The hemoglobin rate, erythrocyte, count, iron, and live-weight were followed up. It was found that the hemoglobin values at birth with the Ist group on the two complexes were within the range of 8.89 +/- 1.3 to 10.24 +/- 1.36 g/100 cm-3, while with the IInd group they were higher at weaning--11.8 +/- 0.48 g/100 cm3. The IIIrd and IVth group showed very low values at weaning--7.47 +/- 0.46 g/100 cm3 and 6.35 +/- 1.05 cm3. The twofold injection at a 7-day interval did not alter essentially the hemoglobin values. The pigs of the IInd group, injected twice, had much higher values of the erythrocyte count--7.58 +/- 0.09 T/L. The liveweight of the pigs of all four groups from the 7th day on ranged from 2.15 to 2.4 +/- 0.2 kg. Following a twofold injection with the pigs of the IInd group it rose to 6.1 +/- 0.14 kg. Similar proved the data concerning the iron in the blood plasma. Its values were highest with the pigs of the IInd group which were injected twice--38.86 +/- 1.7 mol/l. PMID:6474827

  14. Improvement of vitamin B(12) fermentation by reducing the inhibitory metabolites by cell recycle system and a mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Miyano; Ye; Shimizu

    2000-12-01

    The major problem in vitamin B(12) production using Propionibacterium is the growth inhibition of the cell due to the accumulation of inhibitory metabolites such as propionic acid and acetic acid. In the present paper, we considered several approaches of controlling the propionic acid concentration at low level. Namely: (1) the periodic cultivation of Propionibacterium where dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was alternatively changed between 0 and 1ppm; (2) cell recycle system using hollow fiber module; and (3) mixed culture using Propionibacterium and Ralstonia eutropha where the latter microorganism assimilates the propionic acid produced by the former. It was found that the productivity of vitamin B(12) was the highest for the cell recycle system, while if the performance was evaluated based on the amount of vitamin B(12) produced per medium used, the mixed culture system gave the far highest value. PMID:11080651

  15. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in food analytics: Detection of vitamins B2 and B12 in cereals.

    PubMed

    Radu, Andreea Ioana; Kuellmer, Maria; Giese, Bernd; Huebner, Uwe; Weber, Karina; Cialla-May, Dana; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-11-01

    Food analysis has been gaining interest throughout recent decades for different reasons: the detection of hazardous substances in food and routine investigations of food composition and vitamin/nutrient contents. Regardless of the targeted component, food analysis raises a few challenges regarding the complexity of the matrix and detecting trace amounts of substances. We report herein the results obtained regarding the simultaneous detection of two B vitamins (riboflavin, vitamin B2 and cyanocobalamin, vitamin B12) by means of SERS. SERS provides molecular fingerprint identification and high analytical sensitivity together with a low processing time and cost. All these make SERS a promising tool for the development of food analytical methods. PMID:27591616

  16. Infection Susceptibility in Gastric Intrinsic Factor (Vitamin B12)-Defective Mice Is Subject to Maternal Influences

    PubMed Central

    Mottram, Lynda; Speak, Anneliese O.; Selek, Reza M.; Cambridge, Emma L.; McIntyre, Zoe; Kane, Leanne; Mukhopadhyay, Subhankar; Grove, Carolyn; Colin, Amy; Brandt, Cordelia; Duque-Correa, Maria A.; Forbester, Jessica; Nguyen, Tu Anh Pham; Hale, Christine; Vasilliou, George S.; Arends, Mark J.; Wren, Brendan W.; Dougan, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mice harboring a mutation in the gene encoding gastric intrinsic factor (Gif), a protein essential for the absorption of vitamin B12/cobalamin (Cbl), have potential as a model to explore the role of vitamins in infection. The levels of Cbl in the blood of Giftm1a/tm1a mutant mice were influenced by the maternal genotype, with offspring born to heterozygous (high Cbl, F1) mothers exhibiting a significantly higher serum Cbl level than those born to homozygous (low Cbl, F2) equivalents. Low Cbl levels correlated with susceptibility to an infectious challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium or Citrobacter rodentium, and this susceptibility phenotype was moderated by Cbl administration. Transcriptional and metabolic profiling revealed that Cbl deficient mice exhibited a bioenergetic shift similar to a metabolic phenomenon commonly found in cancerous cells under hypoxic conditions known as the Warburg effect, with this metabolic effect being exacerbated further by infection. Our findings demonstrate a role for Cbl in bacterial infection, with potential general relevance to dietary deficiency and infection susceptibility. PMID:27329747

  17. Lactobacillus rossiae, a Vitamin B12 Producer, Represents a Metabolically Versatile Species within the Genus Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Bottacini, Francesca; Fosso, Bruno; Kelleher, Philip; Calasso, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Ventura, Marco; Picardi, Ernesto; van Sinderen, Douwe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus rossiae is an obligately hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium, which can be isolated from a broad range of environments including sourdoughs, vegetables, fermented meat and flour, as well as the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. In order to unravel distinctive genomic features of this particular species and investigate the phylogenetic positioning within the genus Lactobacillus, comparative genomics and phylogenomic approaches, followed by functional analyses were performed on L. rossiae DSM 15814T, showing how this type strain not only occupies an independent phylogenetic branch, but also possesses genomic features underscoring its biotechnological potential. This strain in fact represents one of a small number of bacteria known to encode a complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B12 (in addition to other B vitamins such as folate and riboflavin). In addition, it possesses the capacity to utilize an extensive set of carbon sources, a characteristic that may contribute to environmental adaptation, perhaps enabling the strain's ability to populate different niches. PMID:25264826

  18. The Vitamin B1 and B12 Required by the Marine Dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum Can be Provided by its Associated Bacterial Community in Culture.

    PubMed

    Cruz-López, Ricardo; Maske, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    In this study we established the B1 and B12 vitamin requirement of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum and the vitamin supply by its associated bacterial community. In previous field studies the B1 and B12 demand of this species was suggested but not experimentally verified. When the axenic vitamin un-supplemented culture (B-ns) of L. polyedrum was inoculated with a coastal bacterial community, the dinoflagellate's vitamin growth limitation was overcome, reaching the same growth rates as the culture growing in vitamin B1B7B12-supplemented (B-s) medium. Measured B12 concentrations in the B-s and B-ns cultures were both higher than typical coastal concentrations and B12 in the B-s culture was higher than in the B-ns culture. In both B-s and B-ns cultures, the probability of dinoflagellate cells having bacteria attached to the cell surface was similar and in both cultures an average of six bacteria were attached to each dinoflagellate cell. In the B-ns culture the free bacterial community showed significantly higher cell abundance suggesting that unattached bacteria supplied the vitamins. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol allowed the quantification and identification of three bacterial groups in the same samples of the free and attached epibiotic bacteria for both treatments. The relative composition of these groups was not significantly different and was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (>89%). To complement the FISH counts, 16S rDNA sequencing targeting the V3-V4 regions was performed using Illumina-MiSeq technology. For both vitamin amendments, the dominant group found was Alphaproteobacteria similar to FISH, but the percentage of Alphaproteobacteria varied between 50 and 95%. Alphaproteobacteria were mainly represented by Marivita sp., a member of the Roseobacter clade, followed by the Gammaproteobacterium Marinobacter flavimaris. Our results show that L. polyedrum is a B1 and B12 auxotroph, and acquire both vitamins from the associated

  19. The Vitamin B1 and B12 Required by the Marine Dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum Can be Provided by its Associated Bacterial Community in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-López, Ricardo; Maske, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    In this study we established the B1 and B12 vitamin requirement of the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum and the vitamin supply by its associated bacterial community. In previous field studies the B1 and B12 demand of this species was suggested but not experimentally verified. When the axenic vitamin un-supplemented culture (B-ns) of L. polyedrum was inoculated with a coastal bacterial community, the dinoflagellate’s vitamin growth limitation was overcome, reaching the same growth rates as the culture growing in vitamin B1B7B12-supplemented (B-s) medium. Measured B12 concentrations in the B-s and B-ns cultures were both higher than typical coastal concentrations and B12 in the B-s culture was higher than in the B-ns culture. In both B-s and B-ns cultures, the probability of dinoflagellate cells having bacteria attached to the cell surface was similar and in both cultures an average of six bacteria were attached to each dinoflagellate cell. In the B-ns culture the free bacterial community showed significantly higher cell abundance suggesting that unattached bacteria supplied the vitamins. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol allowed the quantification and identification of three bacterial groups in the same samples of the free and attached epibiotic bacteria for both treatments. The relative composition of these groups was not significantly different and was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (>89%). To complement the FISH counts, 16S rDNA sequencing targeting the V3–V4 regions was performed using Illumina-MiSeq technology. For both vitamin amendments, the dominant group found was Alphaproteobacteria similar to FISH, but the percentage of Alphaproteobacteria varied between 50 and 95%. Alphaproteobacteria were mainly represented by Marivita sp., a member of the Roseobacter clade, followed by the Gammaproteobacterium Marinobacter flavimaris. Our results show that L. polyedrum is a B1 and B12 auxotroph, and acquire both vitamins from the

  20. Vitamin B12 production from crude glycerol by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii: optimization of medium composition through statistical experimental designs.

    PubMed

    Kośmider, Alicja; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

    2012-02-01

    A two-step statistical experimental design was employed to optimize the medium for vitamin B(12) production from crude glycerol by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. In the first step, using Plackett-Burman design, five of 13 tested medium components (calcium pantothenate, NaH(2)PO(4)·2H(2)O, casein hydrolysate, glycerol and FeSO(4)·7H(2)O) were identified as factors having significant influence on vitamin production. In the second step, a central composite design was used to optimize levels of medium components selected in the first step. Valid statistical models describing the influence of significant factors on vitamin B(12) production were established for each optimization phase. The optimized medium provided a 93% increase in final vitamin concentration compared to the original medium. PMID:22178491

  1. A Study of Clinical Profile of Vitamin B12 Deficiency with Special Reference to Dermatologic Manifestations in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sub-Himalayan Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Kaushik; Sinhamahapatra, Pradyot; Lalhmachhuana, Joseph; Ray, Subhabrata

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be uncommon in the eastern parts of India including Bengal and the eastern states as compared to the northern and southern parts of India. The importance of cutaneous features in relation to vitamin B12 deficiency is not well described in literature. Aim: To know the clinical profile of vitamin B12 deficiency in this region and to find out if there is any relationship between dermatologic manifestations with vitamin B12 deficiency. Materials and Methods: All symptomatic patients of anemia requiring blood transfusions who had either raised mean corpuscular volume (MCV) or bicytopenia/pancytopenia on complete blood count or were symptomatic in the form of skin hyperpigmentation were screened for vitamin B12 deficiency. Results: Twenty-five patients were tested for vitamin B12 deficiency. Of them 19 patients were found to be having vitamin B12 deficiency. Conclusions: Vitamin B12 deficiency is not uncommon in the eastern parts of India, contrasting the previous thoughts that it was uncommon in this area, though larger studies are required to know it better. This study included only those requiring blood transfusions, thus a much higher prevalence is expected in this area. Patients with vitamin B12 deficiency do present with severe anemia requiring blood transfusions and often have skin hyperpigmentation. PMID:26288424

  2. Mood disorder with mixed, psychotic features due to vitamin b12 deficiency in an adolescent: case report.

    PubMed

    Tufan, Ali Evren; Bilici, Rabia; Usta, Genco; Erdoğan, Ayten

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were "irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy" which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/exposure or infections. No stressors were present. The patient was not vegetarian. Past medical history and family history was normal. Neurological examination revealed glossitis, ataxia, rigidity in both shoulders, cog-wheel rigidity in the left elbow, bilateral problems of coordination in cerebellar examination, reduced swinging of the arms and masked face. Romberg's sign was present. Laboratory evaluations were normal. Endoscopy and biopsy revealed atrophy of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter Pylori colonization. Schilling test was suggestive of malabsorbtion. He was diagnosed with Mood disorder with Mixed, Psychotic Features due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency and risperidone 0.5 mg/day and intramuscular vitamin B12 500 mcg/day were started along with referral for treatment of Helicobacter pylori. A visit on the second week revealed no psychotic features. Romberg's sign was negative and cerebellar tests were normal. Extrapyramidal symptoms were reduced while Vitamin B12 levels were elevated. Risperidone was stopped and parenteral Vitamin B12 treatment was continued with monthly injections for 3 months. Follow-up endoscopy and biopsy at the first month demonstrated eradication of H. pylori. He was followed monthly for another 6 months and psychiatric symptoms did not recur at the time of last evaluation. Despite limitations, this case may underline the observation that mood disorders with psychotic features especially with accompanying extrapyramidal

  3. Mood disorder with mixed, psychotic features due to vitamin b12 deficiency in an adolescent: case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Reports of psychiatric disorders due to its deficiency mostly focus on middle aged and elderly patients. Here we report a case of vitamin B 12 deficiency in a 16-year old, male adolescent who presented with mixed mood disorder symptoms with psychotic features. Chief complaints were “irritability, regressive behavior, apathy, crying and truancy” which lasted for a year. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/exposure or infections. No stressors were present. The patient was not vegetarian. Past medical history and family history was normal. Neurological examination revealed glossitis, ataxia, rigidity in both shoulders, cog-wheel rigidity in the left elbow, bilateral problems of coordination in cerebellar examination, reduced swinging of the arms and masked face. Romberg’s sign was present. Laboratory evaluations were normal. Endoscopy and biopsy revealed atrophy of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter Pylori colonization. Schilling test was suggestive of malabsorbtion. He was diagnosed with Mood disorder with Mixed, Psychotic Features due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency and risperidone 0.5 mg/day and intramuscular vitamin B12 500 mcg/day were started along with referral for treatment of Helicobacter pylori. A visit on the second week revealed no psychotic features. Romberg’s sign was negative and cerebellar tests were normal. Extrapyramidal symptoms were reduced while Vitamin B12 levels were elevated. Risperidone was stopped and parenteral Vitamin B12 treatment was continued with monthly injections for 3 months. Follow-up endoscopy and biopsy at the first month demonstrated eradication of H. pylori. He was followed monthly for another 6 months and psychiatric symptoms did not recur at the time of last evaluation. Despite limitations, this case may underline the observation that mood disorders with psychotic features especially with accompanying

  4. Enhanced Peptide Stability Against Protease Digestion Induced by Intrinsic Factor Binding of a Vitamin B12 Conjugate of Exendin-4

    PubMed Central

    Bonaccorso, Ron L.; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Holz, George G.; Doyle, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide digestion from proteases is a significant limitation in peptide therapeutic development. It has been hypothesized that the dietary pathway of vitamin B12 (B12) may be exploited in this area, but an open question is whether B12-peptide conjugates bound to the B12 gastric uptake protein intrinsic factor (IF) can provide any stability against proteases. Herein, we describe a new conjugate of B12 with the incretin peptide exendin 4 that demonstrates picomolar agonism of the glugacon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1-R). Stability studies reveal that Ex-4 is digested by pancreatic proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin and by the kidney endopeptidase meprin β. Prebinding the B12 conjugate to IF, however, resulted in up to a 4-fold greater activity of the B12-Ex-4 conjugate relative to Ex-4, when the IF-B12-Ex-4 complex was exposed to 22 µg/mL of trypsin, 2.3-fold greater activity when exposed to 1.25 µg/mL of chymotrypsin, and there was no decrease in function at up to 5 µg/mL of meprin β. PMID:26260673

  5. Vitamin B12: a tunable, long wavelength, light-responsive platform for launching therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Shell, Thomas A; Lawrence, David S

    2015-11-17

    Light-responsive agents offer the promise of targeted therapy, whose benefits include (i) prolonged action at the target site, (ii) overall reduced systemic dosage, (iii) reduced adverse effects, and (iv) localized delivery of multiple agents. Although photoactivated prodrugs have been reported, these species generally require short wavelengths (<450 nm) for activation. However, maximal tissue penetrance by light occurs within the "optical window of tissue" (600-900 nm), well beyond the wavelength range of most existing photocleavable functional groups. Furthermore, since multidrug therapy holds promise for the treatment of complex diseases, from cancer to neurological disorders, controlling the action of multiple drugs via wavelength modulation would take advantage of a property that is unique to light. However, discrimination between existing photoresponsive moieties has thus far proven to be limited. We have developed a vitamin B12/light-facilitated strategy for controlling drug action using red, far-red, and NIR light. The technology is based on a light-triggered reaction displayed by a subset of B12 derivatives: alkyl-cob(III)alamins suffer photohomolysis of the C-Co(III) bond. The C-Co(III) bond is weak (<30 kcal/mol), and therefore all wavelengths absorbed by the corrin ring (330-580 nm) induce photocleavage. In addition, by appending fluorophores to the corrin ring, long wavelength light (>600 nm) is readily captured and used to separate the Co-appended ligand (e.g., a drug) from B12. Consequently, it is now feasible to preassign the wavelength of homolysis by simply installing a fluorescent antenna with the desired photophysical properties. The wavelength malleability inherent within this strategy has been used to construct photoresponsive compounds that launch different drugs by simply modulating the wavelength of illumination. In addition, these phototherapeutics have been installed on the surface and interior of cells, such as erythrocytes or neural

  6. Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Elevated Folate Levels: An Unusual Cause of Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Lubana, Sandeep Singh; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Singh, Navdeep; Atkinson, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 49 Final Diagnosis: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the setting of vitamin B12 deficiency and elevated folate levels Symptoms: Seizures Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Neurology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to abnormal myelination or demyelination, resulting in sub-acute combined degeneration, peripheral neuropathy, and psychiatric problems, including delusions, hallucinations, cognitive changes, depression, and dementia. Vitamin B12 deficiency also leads to brain shrinkage and neurodegenerative disorders. Case Report: We report the case of a 49-year-old man presenting with new-onset seizures one and a half years following subtotal gastrectomy due to stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient did not have any history of head injury. Laboratory tests were negative for any metabolic derangements. There were no signs of infection. MRI brain and EEG were normal and there were no changes in medications. Conclusions: In case of unexplained new-onset seizures, patients should be tested for vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and these should be done as part of the initial work-up. PMID:26101427

  7. Oral versus intramuscular administration of vitamin B12 for the treatment of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency: a pragmatic, randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority clinical trial undertaken in the primary healthcare setting (Project OB12)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The oral administration of vitamin B12 offers a potentially simpler and cheaper alternative to parenteral administration, but its effectiveness has not been definitively demonstrated. The following protocol was designed to compare the effectiveness of orally and intramuscularly administered vitamin B12 in the treatment of patients ≥65 years of age with vitamin B12 deficiency. Methods/design The proposed study involves a controlled, randomised, multicentre, parallel, non-inferiority clinical trial lasting one year, involving 23 primary healthcare centres in the Madrid region (Spain), and patients ≥65 years of age. The minimum number of patients required for the study was calculated as 320 (160 in each arm). Bearing in mind an estimated 8-10% prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency among the population of this age group, an initial sample of 3556 patients will need to be recruited. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned to one of the two treatment arms. In the intramuscular treatment arm, vitamin B12 will be administered as follows: 1 mg on alternate days in weeks 1 and 2, 1 mg/week in weeks 3–8,and 1 mg/month in weeks 9–52. In the oral arm, the vitamin will be administered as: 1 mg/day in weeks 1–8 and 1 mg/week in weeks 9–52. The main outcome variable to be monitored in both treatment arms is the normalisation of the serum vitamin B12 concentration at weeks 8, 26 and 52; the secondary outcome variables include the serum concentration of vitamin B12 (in pg/ml), adherence to treatment, quality of life (EuroQoL-5D questionnaire), patient 3satisfaction and patient preferences. All statistical tests will be performed with intention to treat and per protocol. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors or factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in analyses. Discussion The

  8. Use of cheese whey for vitamin B12 production. 3. Growth studies and dry-weight activity.

    PubMed

    Bullerman, L B; Berry, E C

    1966-05-01

    The patterns of growth and vitamin formation by Propionibacterium shermanii in whey were similar to the patterns established in other substrates. The vitamin formation was observed during the latter part of the fermentation after the organism approached maximal growth. Lactose utilization by the organism corresponded to the logarithmic-growth phase of the organism. Analyses of the dried culture showed a large increase of vitamin B(12) in the fermentation solids compared with unfermented dried whey. A feed analysis showed a notable increase of protein and a large decrease in nitrogen-free extract of the dried fermentation solid compared with dried whey. PMID:5970819

  9. Associations between Intake of Folate, Methionine, and Vitamins B-12, B-6 and Prostate Cancer Risk in American Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Adriana C.; Grant, Delores J.; Williams, Christina D.; Masko, Elizabeth; Allott, Emma H.; Shuler, Kathryn; McPhail, Megan; Gaines, Alexis; Calloway, Elizabeth; Gerber, Leah; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Freedland, Stephen J.; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Recent reports suggest that excess of nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway increases PC risk; however, empirical data are lacking. Veteran American men (272 controls and 144 PC cases) who attended the Durham Veteran American Medical Center between 2004–2009 were enrolled into a case-control study. Intake of folate, vitamin B12, B6, and methionine were measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Regression models were used to evaluate the association among one-carbon cycle nutrients, MTHFR genetic variants, and prostate cancer. Higher dietary methionine intake was associated with PC risk (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.1–3.9) The risk was most pronounced in men with Gleason sum <7 (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.32– 5.73). The association of higher methionine intake and PC risk was only apparent in men who carried at least one MTHFR A1298C allele (OR = 6.7; 95%CI = 1.6–27.8), compared to MTHFR A1298A noncarrier men (OR = 0.9; 95%CI = 0.24–3.92) (p-interaction = 0.045). There was no evidence for associations between B vitamins (folate, B12, and B6) and PC risk. Our results suggest that carrying the MTHFR A1298C variants modifies the association between high methionine intake and PC risk. Larger studies are required to validate these findings. PMID:22927849

  10. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9- to 10- year-old children in South India.

    PubMed

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline H D

    2010-05-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment during 2007-2008 using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery, and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, and visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Maternal folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine concentrations were measured at 30 +/- 2 wk gestation. During pregnancy, 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low vitamin B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L), and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 micromol/L). The children's cognitive test scores increased by 0.1-0.2 SD per SD increase across the entire range of maternal folate concentrations (P < 0.001 for all), with no apparent associations at the deficiency level. The associations with learning, long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention, and concentration were independent of the parents' education, socioeconomic status, religion, and the child's sex, age, current size, and folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations. There were no consistent associations of maternal vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. In this Indian population, higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12, concentrations during pregnancy predicted better childhood cognitive ability. It also suggests that, in terms of neurodevelopment, the concentration used to define folate deficiency may be set too low. PMID:20335637

  11. Vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and child's IQ at age 8: a Mendelian randomization study in the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lawlor, Debbie A; Taylor, Amy E; Gunnell, David J; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Ness, Andrew R; Timpson, Nicholas J; St Pourcain, Beate; Ring, Susan M; Emmett, Pauline M; Smith, A David; Refsum, Helga; Pennell, Craig E; Brion, Marie-Jo; Smith, George Davey; Lewis, Sarah J

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B-12 is essential for the development and maintenance of a healthy nervous system. Brain development occurs primarily in utero and early infancy, but the role of maternal vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy on offspring cognitive function is unclear. In this study we assessed the effect of vitamin B-12 status in well-nourished pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring in a UK birth cohort (ALSPAC). We then examined the association of SNPs in maternal genes FUT2 (rs492602) and TCN2 (rs1801198, rs9606756) that are related to plasma vitamin B-12, with offspring IQ. Observationally, there was a positive association between maternal vitamin B-12 intake and child's IQ that was markedly attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders (mean difference in offspring IQ score per doubling of maternal B-12 intake, before adjustment: 2.0 (95% CI 1.3, 2.8); after adjustment: 0.7 (95% CI -0.04, 1.4)). Maternal FUT2 was weakly associated with offspring IQ: mean difference in IQ per allele was 0.9 (95% CI 0.1, 1.6). The expected effect of maternal vitamin B-12 on offspring IQ, given the relationships between SNPs and vitamin B-12, and SNPs and IQ was consistent with the observational result. Our findings suggest that maternal vitamin B-12 may not have an important effect on offspring cognitive ability. However, further examination of this issue is warranted. PMID:23227234

  12. Nutritional value of meat: the influence of nutrition and physical activity on vitamin B12 concentrations in ruminant tissues.

    PubMed

    Ortigues-Marty, Isabelle; Micol, Didier; Prache, Sophie; Dozias, Dominique; Girard, Christiane L

    2005-01-01

    An important nutritional characteristic of ruminant meat is its high content in vitamin B12. The variability of these contents is not known. Three studies were been set up in order to test the influence of the animal species (2 studies on Charolais steers slaughtered at 30-32 months of age, n = 24 and n = 30 and a third one on lambs slaughtered at 4.5 months of age, n = 21), of the nature of the diet (grass vs. maize silage, lucerne or concentrate diets) and of physical activity (without or with walking) on the vitamin B12 contents of different muscle types (rather oxidative (Rectus Abdominis, RA), intermediate (Longissimus Dorsi, LD), or glycolytic (Semi Tendinosus, ST)) and on the liver. The animals were supplemented in macro and trace minerals according to usual feeding practices in France in order to theoretically avoid any risk of deficiency. For this reason, cobalt allowances, which are necessary for the ruminal synthesis of vitamin B12, could differ among treatments. The results indicate the following: (1) cobalt allowances varied widely among treatments, from (sub-)deficient to plethoric allowances, influencing vitamin B12 contents of the liver, and muscles (only in case of deficiency), (2) the effects of dietary treatments or of physical exercise were essentially related to differences in cobalt allowances, (3) the oxidative type muscle (RA) showed contents which were double those in glycolytic type muscle (RA 10.8 vs. ST 5.0 ng.g(-1)) and (4) vitamin B12 contents of raw muscles were lower than the values indicated in tables of feed composition for humans for cooked meat (0.5 to 1 vs. 2 to 3 microg.100 g(-1)). PMID:16045893

  13. Electronic structure and correlations of vitamin B12 studied within the Haldane-Anderson impurity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandemir, Zafer; Mayda, Selma; Bulut, Nejat

    2016-05-01

    We study the electronic structure and correlations of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine) by using the framework of the multi-orbital single-impurity Haldane-Anderson model of a transition-metal impurity in a semiconductor host. The parameters of the effective Haldane-Anderson model are obtained within the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) technique is then used to calculate the one-electron and magnetic correlation functions of this effective model. We observe that new states form inside the semiconductor gap found by HF due to the intra-orbital Coulomb interaction at the impurity 3 d orbitals. In particular, the lowest unoccupied states correspond to an impurity bound state, which consists of states from mainly the CN axial ligand and the corrin ring as well as the Co e g -like orbitals. We also observe that the Co (3 d) orbitals can develop antiferromagnetic correlations with the surrounding atoms depending on the filling of the impurity bound states. In addition, we make comparisons of the HF+QMC data with the density functional theory calculations. We also discuss the photoabsorption spectrum of cyanocobalamine.

  14. Basal Gnathostomes Provide Unique Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Binders

    PubMed Central

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, Inês; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Castro, L. Filipe C.

    2015-01-01

    The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of this gene family took place earlier in gnathostome ancestry. Our data indicates the presence of single copy orthologs of the Sarcopterygii/Tetrapoda duplicates Tcn1 and Gif, and Tcn2, in Chondrichthyes. In addition, a highly divergent Cbl binder was found in the Elasmobranchii. We unveil a complex scenario forged by genome, tandem duplications and lineage-specific gene loss. Our findings suggest that from an ancestral transporter, exhibiting large spectrum and high affinity binding, highly specific Cbl transporters emerged through gene duplication and mutations at the binding pocket. PMID:25552533

  15. Electronic structure and correlations of vitamin B12 studied within the Haldane-Anderson impurity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandemir, Zafer; Mayda, Selma; Bulut, Nejat

    2016-04-01

    We study the electronic structure and correlations of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine) by using the framework of the multi-orbital single-impurity Haldane-Anderson model of a transition-metal impurity in a semiconductor host. The parameters of the effective Haldane-Anderson model are obtained within the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) technique is then used to calculate the one-electron and magnetic correlation functions of this effective model. We observe that new states form inside the semiconductor gap found by HF due to the intra-orbital Coulomb interaction at the impurity 3d orbitals. In particular, the lowest unoccupied states correspond to an impurity bound state, which consists of states from mainly the CN axial ligand and the corrin ring as well as the Co eg-like orbitals. We also observe that the Co (3d) orbitals can develop antiferromagnetic correlations with the surrounding atoms depending on the filling of the impurity bound states. In addition, we make comparisons of the HF+QMC data with the density functional theory calculations. We also discuss the photoabsorption spectrum of cyanocobalamine.

  16. The chemistry of vitamin B12. The coordination of biologically important molecules

    PubMed Central

    Hill, H. A. O.; Pratt, J. M.; Thorp, R. G.; Ward, B.; Williams, R. J. P.

    1970-01-01

    The following equilibrium constants (given as logK in units of m−1) were determined for the substitution of co-ordinated H2O in aquocobalamin by glycine (bound through N) 5.8, cysteine (bound through S) 6.0 or 8.3, depending on the value chosen for the pK of the thiol group, and phenolate 2.9. The spectrum of the phenolate cobalamin shows an additional intense absorption band at 468nm with a molar extinction coefficient of 1.1×104, which is assigned to a charge transfer from the phenolate to the cobalt ion. Equilibrium constants have also been determined for the equilibria between adenylcobamide cyanide and CN−, HO− and H+, which show that the adenine is more easily displaced by CN− and HO− than is 5,6-dimethylbenziminazole in vitamin B12, but can be protonated by acid while still remaining co-ordinated to the cobalt. It is shown that in the binding of corrinoids to proteins and polypeptides the formation of hydrogen bonds is far more important than co-ordination by the metal. PMID:5493853

  17. The chemistry of vitamin B 12. The co-ordination of biologically important molecules.

    PubMed

    Hill, H A; Pratt, J M; Thorp, R G; Ward, B; Williams, R J

    1970-11-01

    The following equilibrium constants (given as logK in units of m(-1)) were determined for the substitution of co-ordinated H(2)O in aquocobalamin by glycine (bound through N) 5.8, cysteine (bound through S) 6.0 or 8.3, depending on the value chosen for the pK of the thiol group, and phenolate 2.9. The spectrum of the phenolate cobalamin shows an additional intense absorption band at 468nm with a molar extinction coefficient of 1.1x10(4), which is assigned to a charge transfer from the phenolate to the cobalt ion. Equilibrium constants have also been determined for the equilibria between adenylcobamide cyanide and CN(-), HO(-) and H(+), which show that the adenine is more easily displaced by CN(-) and HO(-) than is 5,6-dimethylbenziminazole in vitamin B(12), but can be protonated by acid while still remaining co-ordinated to the cobalt. It is shown that in the binding of corrinoids to proteins and polypeptides the formation of hydrogen bonds is far more important than co-ordination by the metal. PMID:5493853

  18. Folate and Vitamin B12 Transport Systems in the Developing Infant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    B vitamin transport systems in infants are not as well studied as those for amino acids and glucose. For most B vitamins, a 2-step process allows for digestion of coenzyme forms of the vitamins in food, followed by specific transport systems for the free vitamin in the intestine. Folate and vitamin ...

  19. Effects of intramuscular administration of folic acid and vitamin B12 on granulosa cells gene expression in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, A; Khan, D R; Sirard, M-A; Girard, C L; Laforest, J-P; Richard, F J

    2015-11-01

    The fertility of dairy cows is challenged during early lactation, and better nutritional strategies need to be developed to address this issue. Combined supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 improve energy metabolism in the dairy cow during early lactation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the effects of this supplement on gene expression in granulosa cells from the dominant follicle during the postpartum period. Multiparous Holstein cows received weekly intramuscular injection of 320 mg of folic acid and 10 mg of vitamin B12 (treated group) beginning 24 (standard deviation=4) d before calving until 56 d after calving, whereas the control group received saline. The urea plasma concentration was significantly decreased during the precalving period, and the concentration of both folate and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Milk production and dry matter intake were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Plasma concentrations of folates and vitamin B12 were increased in treated animals. Daily dry matter intake was not significantly different between the 2 groups before [13.5 kg; standard error (SE)=0.5] and after (23.6 kg; SE=0.9) calving. Average energy-corrected milk tended to be greater in vitamin-treated cows, 39.7 (SE=1.4) and 38.1 (SE=1.3) kg/d for treated and control cows, respectively. After calving, average plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate tended to be lower in cows injected with the vitamin supplement, 0.47 (SE=0.04) versus 0.55 (SE=0.03) for treated and control cows, respectively. The ovarian follicle ≥12 mm in diameter was collected by ovum pick-up after estrus synchronization. Recovered follicular fluid volumes were greater in the vitamin-treated group. A microarray platform was used to investigate the effect of treatment on gene expression of granulosa cells. Lower expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and higher expression of genes associated with granulosa cell differentiation

  20. Opportunistic Screening of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in IT Professionals Presenting for Routine Health Check-up

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rishi Devilal; Ingole, Sonali Jitendra; Pandave, Harshal Tukaram

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin B12 deficiency is mainly diagnosed in symptomatic patients. However, the deficiency may also be prevalent in asymptomatic patients. Our aim was to study the prevalence of Vit B12 deficiency in IT professionals (Information Technology Professionals from Software industry) who presented for routine health screening and to correlate the deficiency to various parameters. Materials and Methods This was single centre, observational study comprising of 84 IT professionals. The data was collected in structured format. The study was designed to identify prevalence of Vit B12 deficiency and correlate to other factors such as type of diet, income level & regular use of medication (such as Antacid & Metformin). Results Total 28 individuals were found to be deficient (33.34%). Prevalence of Vit B12 deficiency amongst Vegetarian and non vegetarian diet adhering subjects was 47.5% and 20.45% respectively. B12 deficiency was also prevalent in high income age group. Further chronic intake of PPI (Proton pump inhibitor) and Metformin was associated with prevalence of 37.5% and 33.34% in the present study. Conclusion During health screening of IT Professionals, significant prevalence of Vit B12 deficiency was noted across all income groups & non vegetarian diet consuming subjects also. There is significant correlation between Vit B12 deficiency with chronic use of PPI and Metformin. PMID:26816929

  1. Effects of supplements of folic acid, vitamin B12, and rumen-protected methionine on whole body metabolism of methionine and glucose in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Preynat, A; Lapierre, H; Thivierge, M C; Palin, M F; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Girard, C L

    2009-02-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary supplements of rumen-protected methionine and intramuscular injections of folic acid and vitamin B(12), given 3 wk before to 16 wk after calving, on glucose and methionine metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to their previous milk production. Within each block, 2 cows were fed a diet estimated to supply methionine as 1.83% metabolizable protein, equivalent to 76% of methionine requirement, whereas the 2 other cows were fed the same diet supplemented daily with 18 g of rumen-protected methionine. Within each diet, the cows were administrated either no vitamin supplement or weekly intramuscular injections of 160 mg of folic acid plus 10 mg of vitamin B(12.) To investigate metabolic changes at 12 wk of lactation, glucose and methionine kinetics were measured by isotope dilution using infusions of 3[U-(13)C]glucose, [(13)C]NaHCO(3) and 3[1-(13)C,(2)H(3)] methionine. Milk and plasma concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B(12) increased with vitamin injections. Supplementary B-vitamins increased milk production from 34.7 to 38.9 +/- 1.0 kg/d and increased milk lactose, protein, and total solids yields. Whole-body glucose flux tended to increase with vitamin supplementation with a similar quantitative magnitude as the milk lactose yield increase. Vitamin supplementation increased methionine utilization for protein synthesis through increased protein turnover when methionine was deficient and through decreased methionine oxidation when rumen-protected methionine was fed. Vitamin supplementation decreased plasma concentrations of homocysteine independently of rumen-protected methionine feeding, although no effect of vitamin supplementation was measured on methionine remethylation, but this could be due to the limitation of the technique used. Therefore, the effects of these B-vitamins on lactation performance

  2. Isotope-dilution assay for urinary methylmalonic acid in the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. A prospective clinical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Matchar, D.B.; Feussner, J.R.; Millington, D.S.; Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.; Watson, D.J.; Gale, D.

    1987-05-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is a frequently considered diagnosis for which there is no single, commonly available and accurate test. A urinary methylmalonic acid assay using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been proposed as the preferred test. We reviewed vitamin B12 assays on 1599 consecutive patients and prospectively studied all patients with low serum B12 levels (n = 75) and a random sample of patients with normal levels (n = 68). Of 96 evaluable patients, 7 had clinical deficiency. All 7 deficient patients had urinary methylmalonic acid levels greater than 5 micrograms/mg creatine (sensitivity, 100%; confidence interval, 65% to 100%). Of the 89 patients who were not clinically deficient, 88 had urinary methylmalonic acid levels less than or equal to 5 micrograms/mg creatinine (specificity, 99%). The overall test accuracy in this population was 99%. If the high sensitivity and specificity of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for urinary methylmalonic acid is supported by other clinical studies, the methylmalonic acid assay may become the reference standard for the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  3. Fermentable dietary fibers elevate urinary methylmalonate and decrease propionate oxidation in rats deprived of vitamin B-12.

    PubMed

    Cullen, R W; Oace, S M

    1989-08-01

    This study examines the effect of dietary fiber supplements of different degrees of bacterial fermentability on biochemical indicators of vitamin B-12 deficiency in rats. Groups of rats were fed a fiber-free diet deficient in vitamin B-12 or the fiber-free diet diluted with 5% of a poorly fermentable dietary fiber (cellulose, lignin or alginic acid) or a highly fermentable fiber (pectin, guar gum or xylan). Poorly fermentable fibers had no significant effect on apparent B-12 status, whereas the highly fermentable fibers significantly increased urinary methylmalonic acid and depressed oxidation of [14C]propionate to 14CO2. Pectin consistently induced significantly greater effects than did xylan or guar gum. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that fermentable fibers stimulate bacterial propionate production and exaggerate certain biochemical indicators of B-12 deficiency. Since pectin had a more pronounced effect than did other fermentable fibers, the possibility that pectin may also interfere with B-12 absorption requires further study. PMID:2550598

  4. Vitamin B-12 and folate status in relation to decline in scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination in the Framingham Heart Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochemical evidence of low vitamin B-12 status is common in seniors, but its clinical relevance is unclear. Vitamin B-12 deficiency can result in rapid, irreversible cognitive decline – a phenomenon that has been linked to high folate status. Our objective was to investigate the cognitive significa...

  5. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency with pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and leukoerythroblastosis in two Syrian refugee infants: a challenge to differentiate from acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Belen, Burcu; Hismi, Burcu Ozturk; Kocak, Ulker

    2014-01-01

    Megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency is rare in childhood. However, as most cases are due to maternal insufficiency, it is mainly seen in breastfed infants especially when the mother's socioeconomic status is low and the nutrition is not adequate. We present case of two Syrian refugee infants with severe vitamin B12 deficiency with pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and leukoerythroblastosis. PMID:24599434

  6. Cellular folate vitamer distribution during and after correction of vitamin B12 deficiency: a case for the methylfolate trap.

    PubMed

    Smulders, Y M; Smith, D E C; Kok, R M; Teerlink, T; Swinkels, D W; Stehouwer, C D A; Jakobs, C

    2006-03-01

    Haematological sequellae of vitamin B12 deficiency are attributed to disturbed DNA synthesis, but vitamin B12 itself plays no role in DNA biosynthesis. A proposed explanation for this is the methylfolate trap hypothesis. This hypothesis states that B12 deficiency impairs overall folate metabolism because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) becomes metabolically trapped. This trap results from the fact that 5MTHF can neither be metabolised via the methionine synthase pathway, nor can it be reconverted to its precursor, methylenetetrahydrofolate. Other manifestations of the methylfolate trap include cellular folate loss because of shorter 5MTHF polyglutamate chains and global hypomethylation. The methylfolate trap has never been demonstrated in humans. We describe a patient with B12 deficiency who was homozygous for the common methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation. We analysed red blood cell (RBC) folate vitamers and global DNA methylation by liquid chromatography (LC) in combination with tandem mass spectrometry, and 5MTHF polyglutamate length by LC-electrochemical detection. Compared to post-B12 supplementation values, homocysteine was higher (52.9 micromol/l vs. 16.8 micromol/l), RBC folate was lower (268.92 nmol/l vs. 501.2 nmol/l), the 5MTHF fraction of RBC folate was much higher (94.5% vs. 67.4%), polyglutamate chain length was shorter (more tetra- and pentaglutamates), and global DNA methylation was 22% lower. This is the first time that virtually all features of the methylfolate trap hypothesis have been demonstrated in a human with vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:16445837

  7. A Potential Epigenetic Marker Mediating Serum Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels Contributes to the Risk of Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Keat Wei, Loo; Sutherland, Heidi; Au, Anthony; Camilleri, Emily; Haupt, Larisa M.; Gan, Siew Hua; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a multifactorial disease that may be associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. We investigated epigenetic dysregulation for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene among ischemic stroke patients. Cases and controls were recruited after obtaining signed written informed consents following a screening process against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Serum vitamin profiles (folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine) were determined using immunoassays. Methylation profiles for CpGs A and B in the MTHFR gene were determined using a bisulfite-pyrosequencing method. Methylation of MTHFR significantly increased the susceptibility risk for ischemic stroke. In particular, CpG A outperformed CpG B in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels to increase ischemic stroke susceptibility risks by 4.73-fold. However, both CpGs A and B were not associated with serum homocysteine levels or ischemic stroke severity. CpG A is a potential epigenetic marker in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 to contribute to ischemic stroke. PMID:25705649

  8. Structural Insights into the MMACHC-MMADHC Protein Complex Involved in Vitamin B12 Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Froese, D Sean; Kopec, Jolanta; Fitzpatrick, Fiona; Schuller, Marion; McCorvie, Thomas J; Chalk, Rod; Plessl, Tanja; Fettelschoss, Victoria; Fowler, Brian; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Yue, Wyatt W

    2015-12-01

    Conversion of vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) into the cofactor forms methyl-Cbl (MeCbl) and adenosyl-Cbl (AdoCbl) is required for the function of two crucial enzymes, mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and cytosolic methionine synthase, respectively. The intracellular proteins MMACHC and MMADHC play important roles in processing and targeting the Cbl cofactor to its destination enzymes, and recent evidence suggests that they may interact while performing these essential trafficking functions. To better understand the molecular basis of this interaction, we have mapped the crucial protein regions required, indicate that Cbl is likely processed by MMACHC prior to interaction with MMADHC, and identify patient mutations on both proteins that interfere with complex formation, via different mechanisms. We further report the crystal structure of the MMADHC C-terminal region at 2.2 Å resolution, revealing a modified nitroreductase fold with surprising homology to MMACHC despite their poor sequence conservation. Because MMADHC demonstrates no known enzymatic activity, we propose it as the first protein known to repurpose the nitroreductase fold solely for protein-protein interaction. Using small angle x-ray scattering, we reveal the MMACHC-MMADHC complex as a 1:1 heterodimer and provide a structural model of this interaction, where the interaction region overlaps with the MMACHC-Cbl binding site. Together, our findings provide novel structural evidence and mechanistic insight into an essential biological process, whereby an intracellular "trafficking chaperone" highly specific for a trace element cofactor functions via protein-protein interaction, which is disrupted by inherited disease mutations. PMID:26483544

  9. Structural Insights into the MMACHC-MMADHC Protein Complex Involved in Vitamin B12 Trafficking*

    PubMed Central

    Froese, D. Sean; Kopec, Jolanta; Fitzpatrick, Fiona; Schuller, Marion; McCorvie, Thomas J.; Chalk, Rod; Plessl, Tanja; Fettelschoss, Victoria; Fowler, Brian; Baumgartner, Matthias R.; Yue, Wyatt W.

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) into the cofactor forms methyl-Cbl (MeCbl) and adenosyl-Cbl (AdoCbl) is required for the function of two crucial enzymes, mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and cytosolic methionine synthase, respectively. The intracellular proteins MMACHC and MMADHC play important roles in processing and targeting the Cbl cofactor to its destination enzymes, and recent evidence suggests that they may interact while performing these essential trafficking functions. To better understand the molecular basis of this interaction, we have mapped the crucial protein regions required, indicate that Cbl is likely processed by MMACHC prior to interaction with MMADHC, and identify patient mutations on both proteins that interfere with complex formation, via different mechanisms. We further report the crystal structure of the MMADHC C-terminal region at 2.2 Å resolution, revealing a modified nitroreductase fold with surprising homology to MMACHC despite their poor sequence conservation. Because MMADHC demonstrates no known enzymatic activity, we propose it as the first protein known to repurpose the nitroreductase fold solely for protein-protein interaction. Using small angle x-ray scattering, we reveal the MMACHC-MMADHC complex as a 1:1 heterodimer and provide a structural model of this interaction, where the interaction region overlaps with the MMACHC-Cbl binding site. Together, our findings provide novel structural evidence and mechanistic insight into an essential biological process, whereby an intracellular “trafficking chaperone” highly specific for a trace element cofactor functions via protein-protein interaction, which is disrupted by inherited disease mutations. PMID:26483544

  10. Role of vitamin B12 on methylmalonyl-CoA mutase activity*

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi-Iñiguez, Tóshiko; García-Hernandez, Enrique; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto; Flores, María Elena

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is an organometallic compound with important metabolic derivatives that act as cofactors of certain enzymes, which have been grouped into three subfamilies depending on their cofactors. Among them, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) has been extensively studied. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible isomerization of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA using adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) as a cofactor participating in the generation of radicals that allow isomerization of the substrate. The crystal structure of MCM determined in Propionibacterium freudenreichii var. shermanii has helped to elucidate the role of this cofactor AdoCbl in the reaction to specify the mechanism by which radicals are generated from the coenzyme and to clarify the interactions between the enzyme, coenzyme, and substrate. The existence of human methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) due to the presence of mutations in MCM shows the importance of its role in metabolism. The recent crystallization of the human MCM has shown that despite being similar to the bacterial protein, there are significant differences in the structural organization of the two proteins. Recent studies have identified the involvement of an accessory protein called MMAA, which interacts with MCM to prevent MCM’s inactivation or acts as a chaperone to promote regeneration of inactivated enzyme. The interdisciplinary studies using this protein as a model in different organisms have helped to elucidate the mechanism of action of this isomerase, the impact of mutations at a functional level and their repercussion in the development and progression of MMA in humans. It is still necessary to study the mechanisms involved in more detail using new methods. PMID:22661206

  11. Vitamin B12 affects non-photic entrainment of circadian locomotor activity rhythms in mice.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, S; Mano, N; Kurono, N; Komuro, G; Yoshimura, T

    1996-07-15

    Administration of vitamin B12 (VB12) has been reported to normalize human sleep-wake rhythm disorders such as non-24-h sleep-wake syndrome (HNS), delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) or insomnia. However, the mechanisms of the action of VB12 on the rhythm disorders are unknown. In the present study, therefore, effects of VB12 on circadian rhythms of locomotor activity were examined in mice. In the first experiment, CBA/J mice were maintained under continuous light condition (LL) or blinded, and after free-running rhythms became stable, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with either VB12 or saline at a fixed time every day. In all the mice with tau > 24 h, saline injections resulted in entrainment of circadian rhythms, whereas not all the mice with tau < 24 h entrained to the injection. In contrast to saline injections, VB12 injections did not always induce entrainment and about half of the mice with tau > 24 h free-ran during the injection. In the second experiment, the amount of phase advances of circadian rhythms induced by a single injection of saline at circadian time (CT) 11 under LL was compared between the mice with and without VB12 silastic tubes. The results showed that the amplitude of phase advances was smaller in the mice with VB12 than those without VB12. In the third experiment, daily injections of saline were given to the mice with VB12 silastic tubes maintained under LL. In this chronic treatment of VB12 as well, attenuating effects of VB12 on saline-induced entrainment were observed. These results suggest that VB12 affects the mechanisms implicated in non-photic entrainment of circadian rhythms in mice. PMID:8842380

  12. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Duplessis, M; Girard, C L; Santschi, D E; Laforest, J-P; Durocher, J; Pellerin, D

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a combined folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement given in early lactation on culling rate, metabolic disorders and other diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds. A total of 805 cows (271 primiparous and 534 multiparous cows) in 15 commercial dairy herds were involved. Every 2mo from February to December 2010 and within each herd, cows were assigned according to parity, previous 305-d milk production, and calving interval to 5mL of either (1) saline 0.9% NaCl (control group) or (2) 320mg of folic acid + 10mg of vitamin B12 (vitamin group). Treatments were administered weekly by intramuscular injections starting 3wk before the expected calving date until 8wk after parturition. A total of 221 cows were culled before the next dry period. Culling rate was not affected by treatment and was 27.5%; culling rate was greater for multiparous (32.2%) than for primiparous cows (18.8%). Within the first 60d in milk (DIM), 47 cows were culled, representing 21.3% of total culling, and no treatment effect was noted. Ketosis incidence based on a threshold ≥100µmol/L of β-hydroxybutyrate in milk was 38.3±2.9% for the vitamin group and 41.8±3.0% for the control group and was not affected by treatment. The combined supplement of folic acid and vitamin B12 did not decrease incidence of retained placenta, displaced abomasum, milk fever, metritis, or mastitis. However, the incidence of dystocia decreased by 50% in multiparous cows receiving the vitamin supplement, although no effect was observed in primiparous cows. The first breeding postpartum for multiparous cows occurred 3.8d earlier with the vitamin supplement compared with controls, whereas no treatment effect was seen for primiparous cows. Days open, first- and second-breeding conception rates, number of breedings per conception, and percentage of cows pregnant at 150 DIM were not affected by treatment. The reduced percentage of dystocia combined with the

  13. Folate/vitamin-B12 prevents chronic hyperhomocysteinemia-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and memory deficits in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Liu, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Chang-E; Wang, Qun; Wei, Zelan; Mousseau, Darrell D; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Tian, Qing; Liu, Gong-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous work has demonstrated that combined folate and vitamin B12 (vit-B12) supplementation prevents tau hyperphosphorylation and memory deficits induced by acute administration of homocysteine in young rats. Here, we further investigated whether folate/vit-B12 supplementation is also effective in aged rats with a chronically high level of homocysteine. 18-month-old rats were injected with homocysteine via the vena caudalis with or without a concurrent folate/vit-B12 supplementation for 28 weeks. We found that hyperhomocysteinemia induced tau hyperphosphorylation and accumulation in hippocampus and cortex. Concurrent signaling changes included the activation of glycogen synthase kinases-3β, cyclin-dependent kinase-5, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38MAPK, and inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A. Although the ability to learn was not affected, the aged rats exhibited significant memory deficits. Folate/vit-B12 supplementation attenuated these biochemical and behavioral correlates. These data demonstrate that folate/vit-B12 supplementation is also effective in a chronic hyperhomocysteinemia model in reversing the AD-like tau pathologies and memory deficits. PMID:21860088

  14. Plasma and Red Cell Reference Intervals of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate of Healthy Adults in Whom Biochemical Functional Deficiencies of Folate and Vitamin B12 Had Been Excluded

    PubMed Central

    Sobczyńska-Malefora, Agata; Harrington, Dominic J.; Voong, Kieran; Shearer, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    5-Methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) is the predominant form of folate and a strong determinant of homocysteine concentrations. There is evidence that suboptimal 5-MTHF availability is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent of homocysteine. The analysis of folates remains challenging and is almost exclusively limited to the reporting of “total” folate rather than individual molecular forms. The purpose of this study was to establish the reference intervals of 5-MTHF in plasma and red cells of healthy adults who had been prescreened to exclude biochemical evidence of functional deficiency of folate and/or vitamin B12. Functional folate and vitamin B12 status was assessed by respective plasma measurements of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid in 144 healthy volunteers, aged 19–64 years. After the exclusion of 10 individuals, values for 134 subjects were used to establish the upper reference limits for homocysteine (13 μmol/L females and 15 μmol/L males) and methylmalonic acid (430 nmol/L). Subjects with values below these cutoffs were designated as folate and vitamin B12 replete and their plasma and red cell 5-MTHF reference intervals determined, N = 126: 6.6–39.9 nmol/L and 223–1041 nmol/L, respectively. The application of these intervals will assist in the evaluation of folate status and facilitate studies to evaluate the relationship of 5-MTHF to disease. PMID:24527038

  15. Genetic and non-genetic influences during pregnancy on infant global and site specific DNA methylation: role for folate gene variants and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    McKay, Jill A; Groom, Alexandra; Potter, Catherine; Coneyworth, Lisa J; Ford, Dianne; Mathers, John C; Relton, Caroline L

    2012-01-01

    Inter-individual variation in patterns of DNA methylation at birth can be explained by the influence of environmental, genetic and stochastic factors. This study investigates the genetic and non-genetic determinants of variation in DNA methylation in human infants. Given its central role in provision of methyl groups for DNA methylation, this study focuses on aspects of folate metabolism. Global (LUMA) and gene specific (IGF2, ZNT5, IGFBP3) DNA methylation were quantified in 430 infants by Pyrosequencing®. Seven polymorphisms in 6 genes (MTHFR, MTRR, FOLH1, CβS, RFC1, SHMT) involved in folate absorption and metabolism were analysed in DNA from both infants and mothers. Red blood cell folate and serum vitamin B(12) concentrations were measured as indices of vitamin status. Relationships between DNA methylation patterns and several covariates viz. sex, gestation length, maternal and infant red cell folate, maternal and infant serum vitamin B(12), maternal age, smoking and genotype were tested. Length of gestation correlated positively with IGF2 methylation (rho = 0.11, p = 0.032) and inversely with ZNT5 methylation (rho = -0.13, p = 0.017). Methylation of the IGFBP3 locus correlated inversely with infant vitamin B(12) concentration (rho = -0.16, p = 0.007), whilst global DNA methylation correlated inversely with maternal vitamin B(12) concentrations (rho = 0.18, p = 0.044). Analysis of common genetic variants in folate pathway genes highlighted several associations including infant MTRR 66G>A genotype with DNA methylation (χ(2) = 8.82, p = 0.003) and maternal MTHFR 677C>T genotype with IGF2 methylation (χ(2) = 2.77, p = 0.006). These data support the hypothesis that both environmental and genetic factors involved in one-carbon metabolism influence DNA methylation in infants. Specifically, the findings highlight the importance of vitamin B(12) status, infant MTRR genotype and maternal MTHFR genotype, all of which may influence the supply of methyl groups for DNA

  16. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Santiago, Chile: a cluster randomized controlled trial. a study protocol [ISRCTN 02694183

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older people. Less is known about subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency and concurrent neuroconduction and cognitive impairment. A Programme of Complementary Feeding for the Older Population (PACAM) in Chile delivers 2 complementary fortified foods that provide approximately 1.4 μg/day of vitamin B12 (2.4 μg/day elderly RDA). The aim of the present study is to assess whether supplementation with vitamin B12 will improve neuroconduction and cognitive function in older people who have biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 insufficiency in the absence of clinical deficiency. Methods We designed a cluster double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving community dwelling people aged 70-79 living in Santiago, Chile. We randomized 15 clusters (health centers) involving 300 people (20 per cluster). Each cluster will be randomly assigned to one of three arms: a) a 1 mg vitamin B12 pill taken daily and a routine PACAM food; b) a placebo pill and the milk-PACAM food fortified to provide 1 mg of vitamin B12; c) the routine PACAM food and a placebo pill. The study has been designed as an 18 month follow up period. The primary outcomes assessed at baseline, 4, 9 and 18 months will be: serum levels of vitamin B12, neuroconduction and cognitive function. Conclusions In view of the high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in later life, the present study has potential public health interest because since it will measure the impact of the existing program of complementary feeding as compared to two options that provide higher vitamin B12 intakes that might potentially may contribute in preserving neurophysiologic and cognitive function and thus improve quality of life for older people in Chile

  17. Iron, zinc, folate and vitamin B12 nutritional status and milk composition of low-income Brazilian mothers.

    PubMed

    Donangelo, C M; Trugo, N M; Koury, J C; Barreto Silva, M I; Freitas, L A; Feldheim, W; Barth, C

    1989-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status of low-income Brazilian mothers, who were supplemented with iron and vitamin B12 during pregnancy, in terms of iron, zinc, folate and vitamin B12, in different stages of lactation and to determine the influence of the maternal nutritional status on milk composition. The effect of folate supplementation during pregnancy on folate status of the nursing mothers and milk composition was investigated. The effect of partial weaning on maternal status and milk composition was also studied. In general, the nutritional status of iron, zinc, folate and vitamin B12 of the mothers appears adequate. However, some of the mothers had indices of status lower than normal limits for non-pregnant women. These values, particularly after 30 d post-partum, indicate that these mothers might be at nutritional risk and that the nutrient supplementation received during pregnancy was insufficient to meet demands. There was an increase with the stage of lactation for haematocrit, serum vitamin B12, serum zinc, serum albumin, milk folate and saturation of its binding protein, but there was a decrease for milk protein, total and whey-bound iron and zinc, and lactoferrin. Mothers who took folate supplements during pregnancy had higher serum folate levels immediately after birth than those not taking the supplements but no differences were found at later stages of lactation. Milk composition was not affected. Partial weaning did not affect the maternal nutritional status or the milk composition except for iron which was higher in milk from mothers who were partially breastfeeding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2661218

  18. Maternal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient diet normalizes angiogenic markers in the pup brain at birth.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Richa S; Khaire, Amrita A; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids are critical for normal brain development and function and their deficiencies during pregnancy could have adverse effects on cognitive performance in children. Our earlier studies indicate that both maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids influence brain development by regulating the levels of neurotrophins. Literature suggests that there exists a cross talk between neurotrophins like nerve growth factor (NGF) and angiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It remains to be established whether maternal nutrients like vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids influence the levels of angiogenic markers like VEGF and NGF in the brain of the offspring. Therefore the present study examines the effect of maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids on protein and mRNA levels of VEGF, HIF-1 alpha (hypoxia inducible factor alpha) and NGF in the pup brain at birth. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into five dietary groups (n=8 each): control, vitamin B12 deficient, vitamin B12 deficient+omega-3 fatty acid, vitamin B12 supplemented, vitamin B12 supplemented+omega-3 fatty acid. At birth the pups were dissected to collect the brain tissue. Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency showed lower (p<0.05) pup brain mRNA and protein levels (p<0.01) of VEGF, higher (p<0.01) HIF-1 alpha protein levels, lower (p<0.05) NGF protein levels while NGF mRNA levels were not altered. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to a vitamin B12 deficient group normalized the VEGF mRNA levels, NGF protein levels and HIF-1 alpha protein levels. Vitamin B12 supplementation showed similar protein and mRNA levels of VEGF and NGF as well as HIF-1 alpha protein levels as compared to control. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the vitamin B12 supplemented group showed higher (p<0.01) protein and mRNA levels of NGF but the protein and mRNA levels of VEGF were comparable to control. In conclusion maternal vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids both influence the

  19. Utilisation of tomato pomace as a substrate for the production of vitamin B12--a preliminary appraisal.

    PubMed

    Haddadin, M S; Abu-Reesh, I M; Haddadin, F A; Robinson, R K

    2001-07-01

    The cellulose fraction in tomato pomace was hydrolysed using Trichoderma reesei, and the resultant sugars were fermented with Propionibacterium shermanii to produce vitamin B12. A multifactorial experiment revealed that aeration of the culture of T. reesei gave substantial improvements in cellulase activity as did higher concentrations of available nitrogen, but a rapid drop in pH appeared to inhibit extensive hydrolysis; after 14 days, the maximum level of cellulose degradation was only 34.4% of the total available, and the highest level of reducing sugars achieved was 15 g l(-1). When flasks with the latter concentration of reducing sugars were inoculated with P. shermanii, 11.1 mg l(-1) of B12 were produced under optimum conditions. If the degree of hydrolysis of the cellulose could be increased, then sufficient vitamin B12 might be generated to justify extraction but, even if purification does not prove to be economically feasible, a fermented tomato pomace (dried) with 50-55 mg kg(-1) or more of B12 could prove a useful feedstuff for animals. PMID:11341680

  20. Central and peripheral SEP defects in neurologically symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects with low vitamin B12 levels.

    PubMed

    Jones, S J; Yu, Y L; Rudge, P; Kriss, A; Gilois, C; Hirani, N; Nijhawan, R; Norman, P; Will, R

    1987-12-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) following median nerve stimulation were abnormal in 7 patients with sensory impairment due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Extensor plantar reflexes indicated a central sensory pathway lesion in 4 cases and absent tendon jerks suggested peripheral neuropathy in 4, but median nerve SEPs indicated a predominantly central lesion without marked peripheral nerve involvement in 6 and an axonal neuropathy without CNS involvement in 1. The latter had evidence of central slowing of conduction in SEPs following posterior tibial nerve stimulation. Consequently, it is suggested that the brunt of sensory pathway involvement usually falls on the CNS, although peripheral neuropathy may occur as the major abnormality in some cases. In 2 patients SEPs showed a marked improvement following treatment with vitamin B12 injections, one consistent with restored central conduction and the other with recovery from peripheral neuropathy. No peripheral or central SEP abnormalities were seen in 18 dairy-produce eating vegetarians with low vitamin B12 levels, although 6 reported mild sensory symptoms suggestive of peripheral neuropathy and 3 had corroborative clinical signs. PMID:2831310

  1. Relation between Vitamin B12 and Folate Status, and Hemoglobin Concentration and Parasitemia during Acute Malaria Infections in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Caicedo, Olga; Villamor, Eduardo; Forero, Yibby; Ziade, José; Pérez, Pilar; Quiñones, Francisco; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2010-01-01

    Anemia is a common complication of human malaria. Since micronutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent in malaria-endemic areas and appear to contribute to anemia etiology, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Tumaco, Colombia, to examine the associations between plasma vitamin B12 or erythrocyte folate concentrations and hemoglobin (Hb) among 96 adults with predominantly Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Prevalence of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies were 26.0% and 26.6%, respectively. There was an inverse, linear relation between folate and Hb concentrations. Adjusted difference in Hb between lowest and highest folate quartiles was 1 g/dL (p = 0.04; p, test for trend = 0.01). Vitamin B12 was not associated with Hb concentrations and did not modify the associations between folate and Hb. Incidentally, body mass index (BMI) was inversely associated with parasitemia and risk of clinical malaria. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the potential pathophysiological role of folate in malaria-related anemia. PMID:19931503

  2. An appraisal of the value of vitamin B 12 in the prevention of motion sickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Randall L.; Lacey, Carol L.; Homick, Jerry L.

    Unpublished reports have suggested that hydroxycobalamin (B 12, i.m.) prevents motion sickness. Some biomedical evidence supports this contention in that B 12 influences the metabolism of histidine and choline; dietary precursors to neurotransmitters with established roles in motion sickness. Susceptibility to motion sickness was evaluated after B 12 (1000 μg, i.m.). Subjects initially completed vestibular function and motion sickness susceptibility tests to establish normal vestibular function. The experimental motion stressor was a modified coriolis sickness susceptibility test. Subjects executed standardized head movements at successively higher RPM until a malaise III endpoint was reached. Following two baseline tests with this motion stressor, subjects received a B 12 injection, a second injection two weeks later, and a final motion sickness test three weeks later. No significant differences in susceptibility were noted after B 12. Hematological parameters revealed no B 12 deficiency before injection. The possibility that patients with B 12 deficiencies are more susceptible to motion sickness cannot be ruled out.

  3. Vitamin B12 status in women of childbearing age in the UK and its relationship with national nutrient intake guidelines: results from two National Diet and Nutrition Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Adaikalakoteswari, Antonysunil; Venkataraman, Hema; Maheswaran, Hendramoorthy; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess serum B12, folate and the associated homocysteine (Hcy) levels among women of childbearing age in the UK and examine their association with dietary intake in relation to the UK Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) for B12 and folate. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data from two publicly available National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS 2000/2001 and 2008/2012) were used. These were population-based surveys of randomly selected samples of adults which were carried out in their households. Participants Women of childbearing age (aged 19–39 years), representative of the UK population. Those who were pregnant or breastfeeding were excluded. Outcome measures The associations between micronutrient intakes and blood levels of B12, folate and Hcy were assessed by correlation and stepwise linear regression. B12 intake was divided into quintiles and plotted against blood B12 and Hcy concentrations to determine the threshold of any associations. Results 299 women from the first NDNS cohort had complete intake and biomarker data. The prevalence of serum vitamin B12 (≤150 pmol/L) and serum folate (≤10 nmol/L) deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia (≥12 µmol/L) was 12.4%, 6.4% and 21.2%, respectively, despite seemingly adequate B12 intakes (median 3.8 μg/day, 96% consumed more than the UK RNI of 1.5 μg/day). B12 concentrations increased across all quintiles of intake with serum levels in quintiles 4 and 5 (median intake 4.9 and 7.1 μg/day, respectively) significantly higher than quintile 1. However, Hcy concentrations levelled off between quintiles 4 and 5. Comparison of micronutrient intake between the two surveys found that folate intake has reduced in the more recent cohort. Conclusions The UK RNI for B12 intake should be increased for women of childbearing age with intakes of around 5–7 μg/day likely to be associated with stable biomarker levels. B12 levels should also be measured in women preconceptionally or in early

  4. [Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with hyperhomocysteinemia due to combined deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12].

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Yuhei; Neshige, Shuichiro; Takemaru, Makoto; Shiga, Yuji; Takeshima, Shinichi; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    A 63-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of convulsive seizures. Radiological examinations revealed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in the anterior part of the superior sagittal sinus. He had marked hyperhomocysteinemia (93.5 nmol/ml) due to combined deficiencies of folate and vitamin B12. He was T/T homozygous for methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism. He received a supplement therapy of vitamins. First, he was administered folate orally. After 3 months, the serum level of homocysteine decreased to 22.6 nmol/ml (an 86% reduction), but was still above the normal level. Next, an additional supplement therapy of vitamin B12 lowered the homocysteine level to normal (12.3 nmol/ml) after 4 months. These results showed that the increase of homocysteine levels in this patient was mainly caused by the deficiency of folate. Additionally, acquired risk factors like vitamin deficiencies increased the level of serum homocysteine to almost 100 nmol/ml. PMID:26797484

  5. Severe but Not Moderate Vitamin B12 Deficiency Impairs Lipid Profile, Induces Adiposity, and Leads to Adverse Gestational Outcome in Female C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent in women of childbearing age, especially in developing countries. In the present study, through dietary restriction, we have established mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiencies to elucidate the impact on body composition, biochemical parameters, and reproductive performance. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice were fed for 4 weeks: (a) control AIN-76A diet, (b) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severe deficiency group, as pectin inhibits vitamin B12 absorption), or (c) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderate deficiency group as cellulose does not interfere with vitamin B12 absorption). After confirming deficiency, the mice were mated with male colony mice and maintained on their respective diets throughout pregnancy, lactation, and thereafter till 12 weeks. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency increased body fat% significantly, induced adiposity and altered lipid profile. Pregnant dams of both the deficient groups developed anemia. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency decreased the percentage of conception and litter size, pups were small-for-gestational-age and had significantly lower body weight at birth as well as weaning. Most of the offspring born to severely deficient dams died within 24 h of birth. Stress markers and adipocytokines were elevated in severe deficiency with concomitant decrease in antioxidant defense. The results show that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 restriction had profound impact on the physiology of C57BL/6 mice. Oxidative and corticosteroid stress, inflammation and poor antioxidant defense seem to be the probable underlying mechanisms mediating the deleterious effects. PMID:26835453

  6. Severe but Not Moderate Vitamin B12 Deficiency Impairs Lipid Profile, Induces Adiposity, and Leads to Adverse Gestational Outcome in Female C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Shampa; Sinha, Jitendra Kumar; Putcha, Uday Kumar; Raghunath, Manchala

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent in women of childbearing age, especially in developing countries. In the present study, through dietary restriction, we have established mouse models of severe and moderate vitamin B12 deficiencies to elucidate the impact on body composition, biochemical parameters, and reproductive performance. Female weanling C57BL/6 mice were fed for 4 weeks: (a) control AIN-76A diet, (b) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with pectin as dietary fiber (severe deficiency group, as pectin inhibits vitamin B12 absorption), or (c) vitamin B12-restricted AIN-76A diet with cellulose as dietary fiber (moderate deficiency group as cellulose does not interfere with vitamin B12 absorption). After confirming deficiency, the mice were mated with male colony mice and maintained on their respective diets throughout pregnancy, lactation, and thereafter till 12 weeks. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency increased body fat% significantly, induced adiposity and altered lipid profile. Pregnant dams of both the deficient groups developed anemia. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency decreased the percentage of conception and litter size, pups were small-for-gestational-age and had significantly lower body weight at birth as well as weaning. Most of the offspring born to severely deficient dams died within 24 h of birth. Stress markers and adipocytokines were elevated in severe deficiency with concomitant decrease in antioxidant defense. The results show that severe but not moderate vitamin B12 restriction had profound impact on the physiology of C57BL/6 mice. Oxidative and corticosteroid stress, inflammation and poor antioxidant defense seem to be the probable underlying mechanisms mediating the deleterious effects. PMID:26835453

  7. Association of Vitamin B12 Deficiency and Use of Reverse Osmosis Processed Water for Drinking: A Cross-Sectional Study from Western India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ekant Surendra; Ganjiwale, Jaishree Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency has increased in community in recent time. Possibility is raised for new and yet unidentified factors being associated with this increased prevalence. One of these factors frequently questioned is use of Reverse Osmosis (RO) processed water for drinking. Aim We aimed to study association of use of RO processed water for drinking with Vitamin B12 deficiency. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was done at tertiary care centre of Western India. Total 250 participants were recruited after excluding those participants with known factors responsible for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Information about gender, type of diet, milk intake and duration, dairy product intake, use of RO water and Vitamin B12 level was collected. Results Total 70 (28%) participants out of 250 were having Vitamin B12 deficiency. Forty (50.6%) of 79 participants using RO water were Vitamin B12 deficient against 30 (17.5%) of 171 using other sources. Logistic regression analysis showed independent association between use of RO water and Vitamin B12 deficiency. Although association of male gender, milk quantity of less than 100 ml per day and duration of RO water intake with occurrence of Vitamin B12 deficiency was found statistically significant in univariate analysis, logistic regression analysis did not show significant association. Conclusion Use of RO processed drinking water was associated with Vitamin B12 deficiency. This being cross- sectional study, further longitudinal studies with large sample size and taking confounding factors into consideration, are required to establish this association. PMID:27437269

  8. Cyanobacteria and Eukaryotic Algae Use Different Chemical Variants of Vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, Katherine Emma; Lawrence, Andrew David; Holzer, Andre; Kudahl, Ulrich Johan; Sasso, Severin; Kräutler, Bernhard; Scanlan, David John; Warren, Martin James; Smith, Alison Gail

    2016-04-25

    Eukaryotic microalgae and prokaryotic cyanobacteria are the major components of the phytoplankton. Determining factors that govern growth of these primary producers, and how they interact, is therefore essential to understanding aquatic ecosystem productivity. Over half of microalgal species representing marine and freshwater habitats require for growth the corrinoid cofactor B12, which is synthesized de novo only by certain prokaryotes, including the majority of cyanobacteria. There are several chemical variants of B12, which are not necessarily functionally interchangeable. Cobalamin, the form bioavailable to humans, has as its lower axial ligand 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Here, we show that the abundant marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus synthesizes only pseudocobalamin, in which the lower axial ligand is adenine. Moreover, bioinformatic searches of over 100 sequenced cyanobacterial genomes for B12 biosynthesis genes, including those involved in nucleotide loop assembly, suggest this is the form synthesized by cyanobacteria more broadly. We further demonstrate that pseudocobalamin is several orders of magnitude less bioavailable than cobalamin to several B12-dependent microalgae representing diverse lineages. This indicates that the two major phytoplankton groups use a different B12 currency. However, in an intriguing twist, some microalgal species can use pseudocobalamin if DMB is provided, suggesting that they are able to remodel the cofactor, whereas Synechococcus cannot. This species-specific attribute implicates algal remodelers as novel and keystone players of the B12 cycle, transforming our perception of the dynamics and complexity of the flux of this nutrient in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27040778

  9. Cyanobacteria and Eukaryotic Algae Use Different Chemical Variants of Vitamin B12

    PubMed Central

    Helliwell, Katherine Emma; Lawrence, Andrew David; Holzer, Andre; Kudahl, Ulrich Johan; Sasso, Severin; Kräutler, Bernhard; Scanlan, David John; Warren, Martin James; Smith, Alison Gail

    2016-01-01

    Summary Eukaryotic microalgae and prokaryotic cyanobacteria are the major components of the phytoplankton. Determining factors that govern growth of these primary producers, and how they interact, is therefore essential to understanding aquatic ecosystem productivity. Over half of microalgal species representing marine and freshwater habitats require for growth the corrinoid cofactor B12, which is synthesized de novo only by certain prokaryotes, including the majority of cyanobacteria. There are several chemical variants of B12, which are not necessarily functionally interchangeable. Cobalamin, the form bioavailable to humans, has as its lower axial ligand 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). Here, we show that the abundant marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus synthesizes only pseudocobalamin, in which the lower axial ligand is adenine. Moreover, bioinformatic searches of over 100 sequenced cyanobacterial genomes for B12 biosynthesis genes, including those involved in nucleotide loop assembly, suggest this is the form synthesized by cyanobacteria more broadly. We further demonstrate that pseudocobalamin is several orders of magnitude less bioavailable than cobalamin to several B12-dependent microalgae representing diverse lineages. This indicates that the two major phytoplankton groups use a different B12 currency. However, in an intriguing twist, some microalgal species can use pseudocobalamin if DMB is provided, suggesting that they are able to remodel the cofactor, whereas Synechococcus cannot. This species-specific attribute implicates algal remodelers as novel and keystone players of the B12 cycle, transforming our perception of the dynamics and complexity of the flux of this nutrient in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27040778

  10. Binding proteins from fish sera and intrinsic factor compared in vitamin B12 radioassay.

    PubMed

    Ithakissios, D S; Kubiatowicz, D O; Windorski, D C; Wicks, J H

    1977-11-01

    We compare serum proteins from rainbow trout, chinook salmon, coho salmon, and oyster toadfish with intrinsic factor as binding proteins in a simplified radioassay for B12. Regression analysis of B12 values, determined in 21 serum samples, shows good correlation (r greater than .975) between results for the fish sera and intrinsic factor. The accuracy of the five assays, as evaluated by analytical recovery of B12 added to pooled human serum, ranges from 90 to 110%. Intra-assay precision ranges from 2.6% for coho salmon serum to 5.5% for intrinsic factor, Ionic strength and variations in pH influence binding of [57Co]vit B12 to the fish sera. Maximum binding occurs from pH 6 to 10 at an ionic strength of 0.1 for all sera. The sera are stable for longer than two years when stored at -20 degrees C. Important advantages of fish sera are their high binding capacity (typical assay dilutions range from 1500-fold for trout serum to more than 50 000-fold for chinook salmon); high affinity for B12 (K greater than 10(12) liter/mol); their relative constant binding characteristics as compared to commercial intrinsic factor preparations; and the finding that the accuracy of radioassays with use of fish sera is not significantly affected by the amount of B12 or human serum proteins present. PMID:912869

  11. Effect of Vegetarianism and Smoking on Vitamin B12, Thiocyanate, and Folate Levels in the Blood of Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dastur, D. K.; Quadros, E. V.; Wadia, N. H.; Desai, M. M.; Bharucha, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    Vitamin B12, thiocyanate, and folate levels in the blood were estimated in 69 apparently normal subjects, of whom 26 were non-vegetarian non-smokers, 19 non-vegetarian smokers, 15 vegetarian non-smokers, and nine vegetarian smokers. The serum total (cyanide-extracted) B12 level (value A) ranged from 105 to 728 pg/ml, with a mean of 292 pg/ml. The highest values were found in non-vegetarian non-smokers and the lowest in vegetarian smokers. There was no significant difference in value A between smokers as a group and non-smokers as a group. On the other hand, in vegetarians value A was very significantly lower than in non-vegetarians regardless of their smoking habits. It is suggested that A may represent both the protein-bound and free forms of vitamin B12 in the blood, and B mainly the free B12, which may be the physiologically active form. The plasma thiocyanate level varied from 1·0 to 15 μmol/100 ml, being, as expected, much higher in smokers (mean 8·20 μmol/100 ml) than in non-smokers (mean 2·02 μmol/100 ml). There was a rough correlation between falling B12 levels and rising thiocyanate levels. The serum folate level ranged from 2·75 to 15·75 ng/ml, and was slightly but significantly higher in vegetarians (mean 6·60 ng/ml) than in non-vegetarians (mean 4·79 ng/ml), reflecting the greater content of folate in a vegetarian diet. PMID:5046479

  12. Effect of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on biomarkers of endothelial function and inflammation among elderly individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Suzanne C; Enneman, Anke W; Swart, Karin Ma; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Ham, Annelies C; de Jonge, R; Blom, Henk J; Feskens, Edith J; Geleijnse, Johanna Marianne; van Schoor, Natasja M; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie Am; de Jongh, Renate T; Lips, Paul; de Groot, Lisette Cpgm; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van den Meiracker, Ton H; Mattace-Raso, Francesco Us; van der Velde, Nathalie; Smulders, Yvo M

    2016-04-01

    B-vitamin trials failed to demonstrate beneficial effects on cardiovascular outcomes, but hyperhomocysteinemia still stands out as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, particularly in elderly individuals. B-vitamins may influence early vascular dysfunction, such as endothelial dysfunction, or may have adverse effects, for example on inflammation. We investigated the effect of B-vitamins on endothelial function and inflammation within an interventional study. This study was conducted within the framework of the B-PROOF trial, which included 2919 hyperhomocysteinemic elderly individuals, who received daily vitamin B12 (500 μg) and folic acid (400 μg) or placebo for 2 years. Using an electrochemiluminescence platform, we measured intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), serum amyloid A (SAA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at baseline and follow-up in a subsample of 522 participants (271 intervention group; 251 placebo). Treatment effects were analyzed with ANCOVA. The participants had a mean age of 72 years, and 55% of them were male. At the 2-year follow-up, B-vitamins did not change the ICAM-1 (+36% change in the intervention group versus +32% change in the placebo group; p = 0.72), VCAM-1 (+27% vs +25%; p = 0.39), VEGF (-1% vs +4%; p = 0.40), SAA (+34% vs +38%; p = 0.85) or CRP levels (+26% vs +36%; p = 0.70) as compared to placebo. In conclusion, in elderly patients with hyperhomocysteinemia, vitamin B12 and folic acid are unlikely to influence either endothelial function or low-grade systemic inflammation. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER NCT00696514. PMID:26774115

  13. Chronic maternal vitamin B12 restriction induced changes in body composition & glucose metabolism in the Wistar rat offspring are partly correctable by rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n = 24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  14. Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n = 24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  15. The influence of an increased cobalt supply on ruminal parameters and microbial vitamin B12 synthesis in the rumen of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Stemme, Kirsten; Lebzien, Peter; Flachowsky, Gerhard; Scholz, Henner

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of an elevated dietary cobalt supply to dairy cows on rumen fermentation parameters and microbial vitamin B12 synthesis in the rumen. Five lactating dairy cows fitted with a ruminal and a duodenal cannula were subsequently fed either a ration containing only the native cobalt content (0.17 mg Co/ kg DM) or a ration supplemented with cobalt sulphate (0.29 mg Co/kg DM). The pH-value, the ammonia concentration as well as the concentration and the molar proportions of short chain fatty acids in the rumen were not significantly influenced by feeding the ration with the higher cobalt content. While there was no difference in microbial protein flow, the cobalamin flow at the duodenum was significantly elevated in supplemented animals (3.67 +/- 0.69 vs. 8.63 +/- 2.22 mg B12/d). The efficiency of cobalt utilisation for ruminal vitamin B12 synthesis was calculated to be 7.1 +/- 1.3% for the unsupplemented and 9.5 +/- 2.4% for the supplemented ration. Further investigation has to prove if there are any benefits for cows resulting from the elevated cobalamin synthesis measured, caused by feeding higher amounts of dietary cobalt. PMID:18610536

  16. Bacterial vitamin B2, B11 and B12 overproduction: An overview.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Catherine M; Smid, Eddy J; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2009-07-31

    Consumers are becoming increasingly health conscious and therefore more discerning in their food choices. The production of fermented food products with elevated levels of B-vitamins increase both their commercial and nutritional value, and eliminate the need for subsequent fortification with these essential vitamins. Such novel products could reduce the incidence of inadequate vitamin intake which is common in many parts of the world, not only in developing countries, but also in many industrialised countries. Moreover, the concept of in situ fortification by bacterial fermentation opens the way for development of food products targeted at specific groups in society such as the elderly and adolescents. This review looks at how vitamin overproduction strategies have been developed, some of which have successfully been tested in animal models. Such innovative strategies could be relatively easily adapted by the food industry to develop novel vitamin-enhanced functional foods with enhanced consumer appeal. PMID:19467724

  17. Human gut microbes use multiple transporters to distinguish vitamin B12 analogs and compete in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Patrick H.; Barry, Natasha A.; Mok, Kenny C.; Taga, Michiko E.; Goodman, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Genomic and metagenomic sequencing efforts, including human microbiome projects, reveal that microbes often encode multiple systems that appear to accomplish the same task. Whether these predictions reflect actual functional redundancies is unclear. We report that the prominent human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron employs three functional, homologous vitamin B12 transporters that in at least two cases confer a competitive advantage in the presence of distinct B12 analogs (corrinoids). In the mammalian gut, microbial fitness can be determined by the presence or absence of a single transporter. The total number of distinct corrinoid transporter families in the human gut microbiome likely exceeds those observed in B. thetaiotaomicron by an order of magnitude. These results demonstrate that human gut microbes use elaborate mechanisms to capture and differentiate corrinoids in vivo and that apparent redundancies observed in these genomes can instead reflect hidden specificities that determine whether a microbe will colonize its host. PMID:24439897

  18. Application of the SPE reversed phase HPLC/MS technique to determine vitamin B12 bio-active forms in beef.

    PubMed

    Szterk, Arkadiusz; Roszko, Marek; Małek, Krystian; Czerwonka, Małgorzata; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena

    2012-08-01

    Vitamin B12 is an animal origin nutrient of a substantial importance in human diet. Its concentration in foodstuffs is low and its chemical forms are diverse, which significantly hampers its precise determination. The determination method of choice is HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) coupled with inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The main disadvantage of this method is high instrumentation cost and complexity of handling. The aim of this work was to develop a novel approach for determination of vitamin B12 bio-active forms in beef and beef liver. The proposed method comprises the following steps: (i) vitamin B12 is cleaved off from peptides using thermal denaturation in a weakly acidic environment; (ii) sample is cleaned-up using liquid-liquid extraction and reversed phase solid phase extraction; and finally (iii) vitamin B12 is determined using HPLC and single-quadrupole mass spectrometer with ESI source. Vitamin B12 concentrations in various beef meats were in the 2.84-3.95 μg 100g(-1) range. Average B12 concentration in beef liver was 153,60 μg 100g(-1) (n = 15). Major forms of B12 present in beef meat include adenosine cobalamin (AdoCbl) and in smaller quantities hydroxycobalamin (OHCbl). Major forms of vitamin B12 present in beef liver include OHCbl (48.2%), AdoCbl (33.8%), methylocobalamin (MeCbl, 16.3%), and cyanocobalamin (CNCbl, 1.7%). Thermal treatment noticeably decreases B12 the content in meat. Depending on conditions of treatment, B12 concentrations in the 1.04-2.20 μg 100g(-1) range were found in processed meats. PMID:22429804

  19. Thiol antioxidants in combination with vitamin B12 induce apoptotic death of human lymphocytic leukemia cells by destabilization of lysosomes with the involvement of iron ions.

    PubMed

    Solovyeva, M E; Faskhutdinova, A A; Solovyev, V V; Akatov, V S

    2013-02-01

    The extensively used thiol antioxidants (dithiothreitol, glutathione, and N-acetylcysteine) in combination with hydroxycobalamine (vitamin B12) gain toxic activity in relation to human lymphocytic leukemia cell line HL60. Combined treatment with thiol and vitamin B12 was followed by early destabilization of lysosomes and apoptotic death of cells. The cytotoxic effect was abolished by caspase inhibitors. An iron-chelating agent deferoxamine partly prevented cell death, while lysosomal protease inhibitor pepstatin produced no protective effect. PMID:23486578

  20. Determination of Vitamin B12 in Infant, Adult, and Pediatric Formulas by HPLC-UV and Column Switching: Collaborative Study, Final Action 2011.10.

    PubMed

    Butler-Thompson, Linda D; Jacobs, Wesley A; Schimpf, Karen J

    2015-01-01

    AOAC First Action Method 2011.10, Vitamin B12 in Infant and Pediatric Formulas and Adult Nutritionals, was collaboratively studied. This method uses a pH 4.5 sodium acetate buffer and potassium cyanide at 105°C to extract and convert all biologically active forms of vitamin B12 present to cyanocobalamin; octylsilyl (C8) or C18 SPE cartridges to purify and concentrate cyanocobalamin; a combination of size-exclusion and RPLC to isolate cyanocobalamin; and visible absorbance at 550 nm to detect and quantitate cyanocobalamin in infant, pediatric, and adult nutritionals with vitamin B12 concentrations greater than 0.025 μg/100 g ready-to-feed (RTF) liquid. During this collaborative study, nine to 11 laboratories from eight different countries analyzed blind duplicates of 12 infant, pediatric, and adult nutritional formulas. Per the AOAC Expert Review Panel (ERP) on Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals (SPIFAN) Nutrient Methods the method demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility and met SPIFAN Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPRs®) for the majority of product matrixes analyzed. Vitamin B12 SPIFAN SMPRs for repeatability were ≤15% RSD at vitamin B12 concentrations of 0.01 μg/100 g RTF liquid and ≤7% RSD at vitamin B12 concentrations of 0.2-5.0 μg/100 g RTF liquid. Vitamin B12 SPIFAN SMPRs for reproducibility were ≤11% RSD in products with vitamin B12 concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 5.0 μg/100 g RTF liquid. During this collaborative study, the RSDr ranged from 2.98 to 9.77%, and the RSDR ranged from 3.54 to 19.5%. During previous single-laboratory validation studies, the method LOQ was estimated to be 0.025 μg/100 g RTF liquid. PMID:26651579

  1. Dexamethasone and vitamin B12 synergistically promote peripheral nerve regeneration in rats by upregulating the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongzhi; Yang, Tao; Li, Qing; Zhu, Zhitu; Wang, Lei; Bai, Guang; Li, Dongsheng; Li, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Dexamethasone and vitamin B12 are currently used in the clinic to treat peripheral nerve damage but their mechanisms of action remain incompletely understood. In this study we hypothesized that dexamethasone and vitamin B12 promote the production of endogenous neurotrophic factors, thereby enhancing peripheral nerve repair. Material and methods Ninety-six adult male Wistar rats were employed to establish a sciatic nerve injury model. They were then randomly divided into 4 groups to be subjected to different treatment: saline (group A), dexamethasone (group B), vitamin B12 (group C), and dexamethasone combined with vitamin B12 (group D). The walking behavior of rats was evaluated by footprint analysis, and the nerve regeneration was assessed by electrophysiological analysis and ultrastructural examination. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, NT-3 and IL-6 in the injured sciatic nerves was detected by immunohistochemical and RT-PCR analysis. Results Dexamethasone and vitamin B12 promoted the regeneration of myelinated nerve fibers and the proliferation of Schwann cells. Furthermore, dexamethasone and vitamin B12 promoted the recovery of sciatic functional index and sensory nerve conduction velocity, and upregulated BDNF expression in the injured sciatic nerves. Conclusions Dexamethasone and vitamin B12 promote peripheral nerve repair in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury through the upregulation of BDNF expression. These findings provide new insight into the neurotrophic effects of dexamethasone and vitamin B12 and support the application of these agents in clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injury. PMID:23185205

  2. A Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for the Determination of Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a Novel Vitamin B12 Analog

    PubMed Central

    Dunphy, Michael J.; Sysel, Annette M.; Lupica, Joseph A.; Griffith, Kristie; Sherrod, Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), a novel vitamin B12 analog and anti-tumor agent, functions as a biologic ‘Trojan horse’, utilizing the vitamin B12 transcobalamin II transport protein and cell surface receptor to specifically target cancer cells. a stability-indicating HPLC method was developed for the detection of NO-Cbl during forced degradation studies. This method utilized an ascentis® RP-amide (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column at 35 °C with a mobile phase (1.0 mL min−1) combining a gradient of methanol and an acetate buffer at pH 6.0. Detection wavelengths of 450 and 254 nm were used to detect corrin and non-corrin-based products, respectively. NO-Cbl, synthesized from hydroxocobalamin and pure nitric oxide gas, was subjected to degradative stress conditions including oxidation, hydrolysis and thermal and radiant energy challenge. The method was validated by assessing linearity, accuracy, precision, detection and quantitation limits and robustness. The method was applied successfully for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl and for the determination of NO-Cbl during kinetic studies in aqueous solution and in solid-state degradation assessments. This HPLC method is suitable for the separation of cobalamins in aqueous and methanolic solutions, for routine detection of NO-Cbl and for purity assessment of synthesized NO-Cbl. additionally, this method has potential application in identification and monitoring of diseases involving altered nitric oxide homeostasis where vitamin B12 therapy is utilized to scavenge excess nitric oxide, subsequently resulting in the in vivo production of NO-Cbl. PMID:24855323

  3. Conventional MRI for diagnosis of subacute combined degeneration (SCD) of the spinal cord due to vitamin B-12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Cui-Ping; Ren, Cui-Ping; Cheng, Jing-Liang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Ying; Li, Bei-bei; Fan, Yi-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord (SCD) is often found in vitamin B-12 deficiency and typically shows hyperintensity on T2-weighted images of the lateral and posterior columns. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of conventional magnetic resonance examination in diagnosing SCD. Thirty-six patients were clinically confirmed and retrospectively analyzed; conventional spine MRIs were available for all patients and eight of them had contrast enhancement MRIs. 19 out of 36 patients showed abnormal signal intensity on T2 weighted images with a sensitivity of 52.8%, among which 18 in the posterior aspect of the spinal cord and 1 in the anterior horn of the thoracic spinal cord The spinal cord abnormalities were seen at the cervical spine in 12 patients (33.3%) and at the thoracic spine in the other 7 patients (19.4%). Axial T2-weighted images showed symmetric linear T2-hyperintensity as an "inverted V" at the cervical spinal cord in 5 patients, which has been reported as a typical sign of SCD. For patients with thoracic spinal cord abnormalities, the bilateral paired nodular T2-hyperintensity looked like "binoculars" at the thoracic spinal cord. Only one out of the eight patients showed slight enhancement after injection with contrast agent. All the 36 patients reported clinical improvement after appropriate vitamin B-12 treatment. The two follow-up spine MRIs showed a decreased extent of the lesion. Therefore, conventional MRI is useful in the diagnosis and management of SCD caused by vitamin B-12 deficiency. PMID:26965759

  4. An effective and simplified pH-stat control strategy for the industrial fermentation of vitamin B(12) by Pseudomonas denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-Tai; Liu, Dong-Hong; Chu, Ju; Wang, Yong-Hong; Zhuang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Si-Liang

    2008-10-01

    In order to improve the productivity of vitamin B(12) by Pseudomonas denitrificans carried out in a 120-m(3) fermenter, the effect of pH on vitamin B(12) biosynthesis was investigated. Results obtained from shake flask experiments showed that the feeding of carbon source (beet molasses or glucose) and methyl-group donor (betaine or choline chloride) significantly influenced the pH and the biosynthesis of vitamin B(12). In contrast to beet molasses or choline chloride, using glucose as a feed medium and betaine as a methyl-group donor, pH could be maintained at a stable range. As a result, higher vitamin B(12) production was achieved. Accordingly, an effective and simplified pH-stat control strategy was established for the fermentation of vitamin B(12) in a 120-m(3) industrial fermenter. When the new pH control strategy was applied, pH was stably kept in the range of 7.15-7.30 during fermentation. Thus, 214.3 microg/mL of vitamin B(12) was achieved. PMID:18320234

  5. Industrial vitamin B12 production by Pseudomonas denitrificans using maltose syrup and corn steep liquor as the cost-effective fermentation substrates.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Chen, Wei; Peng, Wei-Fu; Li, Kun-Tai

    2015-06-01

    The aerobic Pseudomonas denitrificans is widely used for industrial and commercial vitamin B12 fermentation, due to its higher productivity compared to the anaerobic vitamin B12-producing microorganisms. This paper aimed to develop a cost-effective fermentation medium for industrial vitamin B12 production by P. denitrificans in 120,000-l fermenter. It was found that maltose syrup (a low-cost syrup from corn starch by means of enzymatic or acid hydrolysis) and corn steep liquor (CSL, a by-product of starch industry) were greatly applicable to vitamin B12 production by P. denitrificans. Under the optimal fermentation medium performed by response surface methodology, 198.27 ± 4.60 mg/l of vitamin B12 yield was obtained in 120,000-l fermenter, which was close to the fermentation with the refined sucrose (198.80 mg/l) and was obviously higher than that obtained under beet molasses utilization (181.75 mg/l). Therefore, maltose syrups and CSL were the efficient and economical substrates for industrial vitamin B12 fermentation by P. denitrificans. PMID:25561346

  6. The vitamin B12 analog cobinamide is an effective hydrogen sulfide antidote in a lethal rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    BRENNER, M.; BENAVIDES, S.; MAHON, S. B.; LEE, J.; YOON, D.; MUKAI, D.; VISEROI, M.; CHAN, A.; JIANG, J.; NARULA, N.; AZER, S. M.; ALEXANDER, C.; BOSS, G. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic gas for which no effective antidotes exist. It acts, at least in part, by binding to cytochrome c oxidase, causing cellular asphyxiation and anoxia. We investigated the effects of three different ligand forms of cobinamide, a vitamin B12 analog, to reverse sulfide (NaHS) toxicity. Methods New Zealand white rabbits received a continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of NaHS (3 mg/min) until expiration or a maximum 270 mg dose. Animals received six different treatments, administered at the time when they developed signs of severe toxicity: Group 1—saline (placebo group, N = 9); Group 2—IV hydroxocobalamin (N = 7); Group 3—IV aquohydroxocobinamide (N = 6); Group 4—IV sulfitocobinamide (N = 6); Group 5—intramuscular (IM) sulfitocobinamide (N = 6); and Group 6—IM dinitrocobinamide (N = 8). Blood was sampled intermittently, and systemic blood pressure and deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin were measured continuously in peripheral muscle and over the brain region; the latter were measured by diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS). Results Compared with the saline controls, all cobinamide derivatives significantly increased survival time and the amount of NaHS that was tolerated. Aquohydroxocobinamide was most effective (261.5 ± 2.4 mg NaHS tolerated vs. 93.8 ± 6.2 mg in controls, p < 0.0001). Dinitrocobinamide was more effective than sulfitocobinamide. Hydroxocobalamin was not significantly more effective than the saline control. Conclusions Cobinamide is an effective agent for inhibiting lethal sulfide exposure in this rabbit model. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal dose and form of cobinamide and route of administration. PMID:24716792

  7. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus on metformin: A case control study from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, Raheel; Kamran, Sultan Mehmood; Qadir, Adnan; Iqbal, Zohaib; Usman, Hassan bin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes Mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder and metformin is the most commonly prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent. Metformin is well known to cause viamin B12 deficiency due to effect on calcium-dependent membrane action in the terminal ileum leading to malabsorption of vitamin B12. The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence and associations of Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with metformin. Methods This case control study was carried out in department of medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Kharian from 1st Jan 2012 to 30 december 2012. We enrolled 114 outdoor patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus currently on metformin for atleast 12 months, by consecutive sampling, and 105 age and sex matched patients taken as control. Patients with vitamin B12 levels of less than 150 pg/ml were said to be B12 deficient. The results were analyzed on SPSS version 16. Results Serum B12 levels were low in 35 patients (31%) on metformin as compared to only 9 patients (8.6%) among controls,(p value 0.002). Mean B12 levels were significantly low in metformin group 311 pg/ml (±194.4), p value 0.03. Dose of metformin had inverse correlation with B12 levels and the difference was statistically significant with p-value < 0.001. Conclusion Our study demonstrated significantly high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients treated with metformin with significant effect of dose and duration of metformin use on B12 levels. Physicians must recognize this important fact and screen diabetics on metformin therapy for underlying B12 deficiency. PMID:24711867

  8. The entropic contributions in vitamin B12 enzymes still reflect the electrostatic paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schopf, Patrick; Mills, Matthew J L; Warshel, Arieh

    2015-04-01

    The catalytic power of enzymes containing coenzyme B12 has been, in some respects, the "last bastion" for the strain hypothesis. Our previous study of this system established by a careful sampling that the major part of the catalytic effect is due to the electrostatic interaction between the ribose of the ado group and the protein and that the strain contribution is very small. This finding has not been sufficiently appreciated due to misunderstandings of the power of the empirical valence bond (EVB) calculations and the need of sufficient sampling. Furthermore, some interesting new experiments point toward entropic effects as the source of the catalytic power, casting doubt on the validity of the electrostatic idea, at least, in the case of B12 enzymes. Here, we focus on the observation of the entropic effects and on analyzing their origin. We clarify that our EVB approach evaluates free energies rather than enthalpies and demonstrate by using the restraint release (RR) approach that the observed entropic contribution to the activation barrier is of electrostatic origin. Our study illustrates the power of the RR approach by evaluating the entropic contributions to catalysis and provides further support to our paradigm for the origin of the catalytic power of B12 enzymes. Overall, our study provides major support to our electrostatic preorganization idea and also highlights the basic requirements from ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations of activation free energies of enzymatic reactions. PMID:25805820

  9. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    PubMed Central

    Rajdl, Daniel; Racek, Jaroslav; Trefil, Ladislav; Stehlik, Pavel; Dobra, Jana; Babuska, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1) to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2) to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117) were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month) and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6). Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration. PMID:26771632

  10. Serum levels of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in patients with vitiligo before and after treatment with narrow band ultraviolet B phototherapy and in a group of controls.

    PubMed

    Ataş, Hatice; Cemil, Bengü Çevirgen; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Baştürk, Eda; Çiçek, Emel

    2015-07-01

    The association between vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and vitiligo were studied in several studies, but the results are contradictory. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NBUVB) phototherapy is now considered as a gold standard for the treatment of diffuse vitiligo. The effects of NBUVB phototherapy on both vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels have not been studied in vitiligo patients yet. Serum levels of vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine were measured in vitiligo patients and control group and also both before and after NBUVB phototherapy in vitiligo patients. While levels of homocysteine in patients with vitiligo were significantly higher than controls (16.9±8.4 vs. 10. 9±3.4 μmol/L; p<0,001) vitamin B12 and folate levels were not different (p>0.05). NBUVB phototherapy led to a 33.7±21.9% (0-75%) response in patients with vitiligo after 80 seccions. Treatment with NBUVB improved vitiligo and decreased serum levels of vitamin B12 (375±151 vs. 346±119 pg/ml, p=0.024), while serum levels of folate and homocysteine did not change significantly after treatment (p=0.914, p=0.127). Further studies are needed to clarify the influence of NBUVB phototherapy on folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in patients with vitiligo. Furthermore, studies with the analysis of skin levels of homocysteine rather than circulating levels may be useful to elucidate the effects of phototherapy on homocysteine levels. PMID:25941975

  11. Continuous methane fermentation and the production of vitamin B12 in a fixed-bed reactor packed with loofah.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingnan; Zhang, Zhenya; Lu, Jun; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2004-05-01

    A fixed-bed reactor with acclimated methanogens immobilized on a loofah support was studied on a laboratory scale to evaluate the system producing methane from the mixture of CO(2) and H(2) gas, with the production of vitamin B(12) as a by-product. Fermentation using CO(2)/H(2) acclimated methanogens was conducted in a jar fermentor with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of three and six days. The performance of the reactor was mainly dependent on the HRT. With an HRT of three days, the methane production rate and the vitamin B(12) concentration in the culture broth were 6.18 l/l-reactor/h and 2.88 mg/l-culture liquid; these values were 11.96 l/l-reactor/h and 37.54 mg/l-culture liquid for an HRT of six days. A higher total cell mass of methanogens retained 42.5 g dry cell/l-culture liquid was achieved in the HRT of six days. The loofah carrier immobilized almost 95% of the methanogens, which led to a more effective bio-reaction. It was also observed that the fermentation system had a better ability to buffer pH, especially for an HRT of six days. PMID:14766162

  12. Maternal dietary intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 during pregnancy and risk of childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Miller, Margaret; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Ashton, Lesley J; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano; Bower, Carol; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the second most common childhood cancers, yet their etiology is largely unknown. We investigated whether maternal gestational intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with CBT risk in a nationwide case-control study conducted 2005-2010. Case children 0-14 years were recruited from all 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers. Control children were recruited by national random digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on age, sex, and state of residence. Dietary intake was ascertained using food frequency questionnaires and adjusted for total energy intake. Data from 293 case and 726 control mothers were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest tertile of folate intake was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48, 1.02]. The ORs appeared lower in mothers who drank alcohol during pregnancy (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.93), mothers who took folic acid (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.42, 1.06) or B6/B12 supplements (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.06) and in children younger than 5 years (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.93). These findings are consistent with folate's crucial role in maintenance of genomic integrity and DNA methylation. Dietary intake of B6 and B12 was not associated with risk of CBT. PMID:24897174

  13. Biological variability and impact of oral contraceptives on vitamins B(6), B(12) and folate status in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Jennifer O; Tang, HoMan; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2013-09-01

    Vitamins B(6), B(12) and folate play crucial metabolic roles especially during the reproductive years for women. There is limited reporting of within-subject variability of these vitamins. This study aimed to determine the within and between subject variability in serum vitamins B(6), B(12), folate and erythrocyte folate concentrations in young women; identify factors that contribute to variability; and determine dietary intakes and sources of these vitamins. Data were obtained from the control group of a trial aimed at investigating the effect of iron on the nutritional status of young women (age 25.2 ± 4.2 year; BMI 21.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2). The coefficients of variability within-subject (CVI) and between-subject (CVG) for serum vitamins B(6), B(12)and folate, and erythrocyte folate were calculated. Food frequency questionnaires provided dietary data. CVI and CVG were in the range 16.1%-25.7% and 31.7%-62.2%, respectively. Oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use was associated (P = 0.042) with lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. Initial values were 172 ± 16 pmol/L and 318 ± 51 pmol/L for OCP and non-OCP users, respectively; with differences maintained at four time points over 12 weeks. BMI, age, physical activity, alcohol intake and haematological variables did not affect serum or erythrocyte vitamin concentrations. Vitamin B12 intakes were derived from traditional and unexpected sources including commercial energy drinks. Young women using OCP had significantly lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations. This should be considered in clinical decision making and requires further investigation. PMID:24067390

  14. Effects of folate and vitamin B12 on cognitive function in adult and elderly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related neurocognitive disorders, primarily Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD), have a major impact on health and well-being. Separate lines of evidence have suggested that B vitamin status may be associated with risk and progression of AD and PD. This report summarizes the ev...

  15. Hypomethylation of Serum Blood Clot DNA, but Not Plasma EDTA-Blood Cell Pellet DNA, from Vitamin B12-Deficient Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiang-Hui; Maneval, David R.; Hao, Ling; Li, Zhu; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Berry, R. J.; Bailey, Lynn B.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B12, a co-factor in methyl-group transfer, is important in maintaining DNA (deoxycytidine) methylation. Using two independent assays we examined the effect of vitamin B12-deficiency (plasma vitamin B12<148 pmol/L) on DNA methylation in women of childbearing age. Coagulated blood clot DNA from vitamin B12-deficient women had significantly (p<0.001) lower percentage deoxycytidine methylation (3.23±0.66%; n = 248) and greater [3 H]methyl-acceptance (42,859±9,699 cpm; n = 17) than DNA from B12-replete women (4.44±0.18%; n = 128 and 26,049±2,814 cpm; n = 11) [correlation between assays: r = –0.8538; p<0.001; n = 28]. In contrast, uncoagulated EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA from vitamin B12-deficient and B12-replete women exhibited similar percentage methylation (4.45±0.15%; n = 77 vs. 4.47±0.15%; n = 47) and [3 H]methyl-acceptance (27,378±4,094 cpm; n = 17 vs. 26,610±2,292 cpm; n = 11). Therefore, in simultaneously collected paired blood samples, vitamin B12-deficiency was associated with decreased DNA methylation only in coagulated samples. These findings highlight the importance of sample collection methods in epigenetic studies, and the potential impact biological processes can have on DNA methylation during collection. PMID:23785415

  16. Net flux of nutrients across splanchnic tissues of lactating dairy cows as influenced by dietary supplements of biotin and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Girard, C L; Desrochers, A

    2010-04-01

    Biotin and vitamin B(12) are coenzymes in reactions that are essential to propionate metabolism in dairy cows. The objective of the present studies was to determine whether an increased dietary supply of these vitamins would change the net flux of nutrients through the rumen, the portal-drained viscera (PDV), the total splanchnic tissues (TSP), and the liver. Four lactating cows equipped with ultrasonic flow probes around the right ruminal artery and the portal vein and catheters in the right ruminal vein, the portal vein, one hepatic vein, and one mesenteric artery were fed 12 times per day a mixed ration at 95% of ad libitum dry matter intake. Daily supplements of 500 mg of vitamin B(12)+20mg of biotin or no vitamin supplement (study 1) or 500 mg of vitamin B(12) alone or with 20mg of biotin (study 2) were fed according to a crossover design with two 4-wk periods in each study. On the last day of each period, blood flow was recorded and blood samples were collected every 30 min for 4h. In study 1, biotin and vitamin B(12) given together increased milk production and milk protein yields compared with the control diet. The supplement increased appearance of the 2 vitamins across the PDV and TSP. It also reduced the net portal appearance of ammonia and total volatile fatty acids across the PDV. In study 2, compared with the 2 vitamins together, vitamin B(12) alone increased glucose flux across PDV and TSP as well as its arterial concentration and PDV flux of ammonia. With the diet used in the present experiment, the major effects of the vitamin supplements seem to be mediated through changes in ruminal fermentation and gastrointestinal tract metabolism rather than by effects on hepatic metabolism. PMID:20338442

  17. Vitamin B12 Grafted Layer-by-Layer Liposomes Bearing HBsAg Facilitate Oral Immunization: Effect of Modulated Biomechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ashwni Kumar; Sharma, Shweta; Gupta, Pramod; Singodia, Deepak; Kansal, Shaswat; Sharma, Veena; Mishra, Prabhat Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    Adhesion forces of nanoparticulate materials toward biological membrane are crucial for designing a delivery system for therapeutic molecules and vaccines. The present study aims to investigate the impact of surface roughness of the nanoparticulate system in oral delivery of antigen and its targeting to toward intestinal antigen presenting cells. To evaluate this hypothesis, layer-by-layer coated liposomes (LBL-Lipo) were fabricated using sodium alginate and Vitamin B12 conjugated Chitosan (VitB12-Chi) as anionic and cationic polyelectrolyte, respectively. Change in surface roughness was observed on changes in pH from gastric to intestinal conditions attributed to increase and decrease in charge density on VitB12-Chi. Surface roughness was measured in terms of root-mean-square measured by topographical analysis using atomic force microscopy. LBL-Lipo were further characterized for their size, zeta potential, and release behavior to evaluate the potential for oral vaccine delivery. In vitro cell uptake in macrophage cells (J-744) shows about 2- and 3.1-fold increased uptake of rough LBL-Lipo over smooth LBL-Lipo at 37 °C (endocytosis) and 4 °C (endocytosis inhibition) indicating improved biological interaction. Further in vivo immunization study revealed that prototype formulations were able to produce 4.8- and 3.3-fold higher IgG and IgA levels in serum and feces, respectively, in comparison to smooth LBL-Lipo. PMID:27215337

  18. Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9-10 year old children in South-India1-3

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Muthayya, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B-12 (B-12) are essential for normal brain development. Few studies have examined the relationship of maternal folate and B-12 status during pregnancy to offspring cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that lower maternal plasma folate and B-12 concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy, are associated with poorer neurodevelopment, cognitive function was assessed during 2007-2008 among 536 children (aged 9-10 y) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort. Maternal folate, B-12 and homocysteine concentrations were measured in stored plasma samples taken at 30±2 wk gestation. The children’s cognitive function was measured using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery and additional tests measuring learning ability, long-term storage/retrieval, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. During pregnancy 4% of mothers had low folate concentrations (<7 nmol/L), 42.5% had low B-12 concentrations (<150 pmol/L) and 3% had hyperhomocysteinemia (>10 μmol/L). There was a 0.1-0.2 SD increase in the children’s cognitive scores per SD increase in maternal folate concentration (p<0.001 for all tests). The associations with learning ability and long-term storage/retrieval, visuo-spatial ability, attention and concentration were independent of maternal age, BMI, parity, the parents’ education, socio-economic status, rural/urban residence, religion, the child’s gestational age, birth size, sex and the children’s size, educational level and folate and B-12 concentrations at 9.5 y. There were no consistent associations of maternal B-12 and homocysteine concentrations with childhood cognitive performance. Conclusions In this Indian population higher maternal folate, but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy, predicted better childhood cognitive ability. PMID:20335637

  19. Immunohistochemical Quantification of the Vitamin B12 Transport Protein (TCII), Cell Surface Receptor (TCII-R) and Ki-67 in Human Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Sysel, Annette M.; Valli, Victor E.; Nagle, Ray B.; Bauer, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Cancer cells have an essential demand for vitamin B12 (cobalamin) to enable cellular replication. The present pilot study quantified the immunohistochemical expression of vitamin B12 transport protein (Transcobalamin II; TCII), cell surface receptor (Transcobalamin II-R; TCII-R) and proliferation protein (Ki-67) in human tumor xenografts. Materials and Methods Tissue microarray slides containing 34 xenograft tumor tissues were immunohistochemically stained using TCN2 (anti-TCII), CD320 (anti-TCII-R) and MIB-1 (anti-Ki-67) antibodies. Representatively stained areas of all slides were digitally imaged and protein expression was quantified using ImageJ software plugins. Results All xenograft tumor tissues stained positively for TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 proteins; expression varied both within and between tumor types. Correlation between TCII/TCII-R and Ki-67 expression was not significant in xenograft tissues. Conclusion Proliferating cancer cells express measurable levels of TCII and TCII-R. Immunohistochemical quantification of these markers may be useful as a tool for detection of tumors, tailored selection of anti-tumor therapies and surveillance for evidence of recurrent disease. PMID:24122983

  20. Influence of methionine supply on the response of lactational performance of dairy cows to supplementary folic acid and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Preynat, A; Lapierre, H; Thivierge, M C; Palin, M F; Matte, J J; Desrochers, A; Girard, C L

    2009-04-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine if the effects of supplementary folic acid on lactational performance were caused by improved methylneogenesis and if the supply in vitamin B(12) could affect this metabolic pathway. In this eventuality, supplementary Met, a major source of preformed methyl groups, should reduce the requirements for these vitamins. Sixty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 10 blocks of 6 cows each according to their previous milk production. Within each block, 3 cows were fed a diet estimated to supply Met as 1.83% metabolizable protein and 3 cows were fed the same diet supplemented with 18 g of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) to supply Met as 2.23% of metabolizable protein. Within each level of Met, cows received no vitamin supplement or weekly intramuscular injections of 160 mg of folic acid alone or combined with 10 mg of vitamin B(12) from 3 wk before to 16 wk after calving. There was no treatment effect on dry matter intake during pre- and postcalving periods: 13.4 +/- 0.4 and 21.8 +/- 0.4 kg/d, respectively. Milk production was not affected by RPM supplementation. Folic acid and vitamin B(12) given together tended to increase milk production during the 16 wk of lactation. This effect was more pronounced during the first 4 wk of lactation: 37.5, 37.7, and 40.3 +/- 0.9 kg/d for cows receiving no vitamin supplement, folic acid alone, or folic acid combined with vitamin B(12), respectively. Milk fat yield was not affected by treatments. Lactose, crude protein, and total solid yields were greater, in early lactation, in cows injected with folic acid and vitamin B(12) together but this effect diminished as lactation progressed. Intramuscular injections of folic acid alone or combined with vitamin B(12) tended to decrease plasma concentrations of homocysteine from 5.51 microM with no vitamin supplement to 4.54 and 4.77 +/- 0.37 microM, respectively. Results of the present experiment suggest that the effects of the combined

  1. Maternal dietary folate and/or vitamin B12 restrictions alter body composition (adiposity) and lipid metabolism in Wistar rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Pavithra, Dhandapani; Padmavathi, Inagadapa J N; Ganeshan, Manisha; Rao, Kalashikam Rajender; Venu, Lagishetty; Balakrishna, Nagala; Shanker, Nemani Hari; Reddy, Singi Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2013-01-01

    Maternal vitamin deficiencies are associated with low birth weight and increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that maternal folate and/or vitamin B(12) restrictions alter body composition and fat metabolism in the offspring. Female weaning Wistar rats received ad libitum for 12 weeks a control diet (American Institute of Nutrition-76A) or the same with restriction of folate, vitamin B(12) or both (dual deficient) and, after confirming vitamin deficiency, were mated with control males. The pregnant/lactating mothers and their offspring received their respective diets throughout. Biochemical and body composition parameters were determined in mothers before mating and in offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. Vitamin restriction increased body weight and fat and altered lipid profile in female Wistar rats, albeit differences were significant with only B(12) restriction. Offspring born to vitamin-B(12)-restricted dams had lower birth weight, while offspring of all vitamin-restricted dams weighed higher at/from weaning. They had higher body fat (specially visceral fat) from 3 months and were dyslipidemic at 12 months, when they had high circulating and adipose tissue levels of tumor necrosis factor α, leptin and interleukin 6 and low levels of adiponectin and interleukin 1β. Vitamin-restricted offspring had higher activities of hepatic fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase and higher plasma cortisol levels. In conclusion, maternal and peri-/postnatal folate and/or vitamin B(12) restriction increased visceral adiposity (due to increased corticosteroid stress), altered lipid metabolism in rat offspring perhaps by modulating adipocyte function and may thus predispose them to high morbidity later. PMID:22703962

  2. Improved vitamin B(12) production by step-wise reduction of oxygen uptake rate under dissolved oxygen limiting level during fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze-Jian; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Li, Yong-Liang; Chu, Ju; Huang, Ming-Zhi; Zhuang, Ying-Ping; Zhang, Si-Liang

    2010-04-01

    Effects of different oxygen transfer rates (OTR) on the cell growth and vitamin B(12) biosynthesis of Pseudomonas denitrificans were first investigated under dissolved oxygen limiting conditions. The results demonstrated that high OTR accelerated cell growth and initial vitamin B(12) biosynthesis rate, while lower OTR was critical for higher productivity in the late fermentation process. The oxygen uptake rates (OUR) corresponded well with OTR. Based on the metabolic intermediate analysis, a step-wise OUR control strategy was proposed. The strategy was successfully implemented in scale-up to an industrial fermenter (120,000 l). A stable maximum vitamin B(12) production of 208 + or - 2.5 mg/l was achieved, which was increased by 17.3% compared with the control. Furthermore, the glucose consumption coefficient to vitamin B(12) was 34.4% lower than that of the control. An efficient and economical fermentation process based on OUR criterion was established for industrial vitamin B(12) fermentation by P. denitrificans. PMID:20022743

  3. Study on solvent extraction of propionic acid from simulated discharged water in vitamin B12 production by anaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang; Chang, Zhidong; Ma, Yinchen; Lei, Chao; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Tingyu; Liu, Huizhou; Zuo, Yanjun; Li, Xin

    2009-06-01

    The potential of recovering propionic acid from discharged water in vitamin B(12) production by anaerobic fermentation was investigated in this paper. A primary amine, N(1923), was used as the extractant, kerosene as diluter and n-octanol as modifier. The influences of the content of N(1923) in the organic phase, the phase ratio and the pH of aqueous phase on the extraction yield of propionic acid were studied. The organic phase composition with the volume ratio was proposed of N(1923):kerosene:n-octanol as 45:35:20. Under conditions of the phase ratio (o/w) as 1:4, the pH of aqueous phase of 3.0 and after 5 min extraction, the extraction yield of propionic acid can be over 97%. PMID:19201188

  4. Conformational Cycle of the Vitamin B12 ABC Importer in Liposomes Detected by Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER)*

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Benesh; Korkhov, Vladimir M.; Yulikov, Maxim; Jeschke, Gunnar; Bordignon, Enrica

    2014-01-01

    Double electron-electron resonance is used here to investigate intermediates of the transport cycle of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 ATP-binding cassette importer BtuCD-F. Previously, we showed the ATP-induced opening of the cytoplasmic gate I in TM5 helices, later confirmed by the AMP-PNP-bound BtuCD-F crystal structure. Here, other key residues are analyzed in TM10 helices (positions 307 and 322) and in the cytoplasmic gate II, i.e. the loop between TM2 and TM3 (positions 82 and 85). Without BtuF, binding of ATP induces detectable changes at positions 307 and 85 in BtuCD in liposomes. Together with BtuF, ATP triggers the closure of the cytoplasmic gate II in liposomes (reported by both positions 82 and 85). This forms a sealed cavity in the translocation channel in agreement with the AMP-PNP·BtuCD-F x-ray structure. When vitamin B12 and AMP-PNP are simultaneously present, the extent of complex formation is reduced, but the short 82–82 interspin distance detected indicates that the substrate does not affect the closed conformation of this gate. The existence of the BtuCD-F complex under these conditions is verified with spectroscopically orthogonal nitroxide and Gd(III)-based labels. The cytoplasmic gate II remains closed also in the vanadate-trapped state, but it reopens in the ADP-bound state of the complex. Therefore, we suggest that the substrate likely trapped in ATP·BtuCD-F can be released after ATP hydrolysis but before the occluded ADP-bound conformation is reached. PMID:24362024

  5. Genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 metabolism: a common pathway in neural tube defect and Down syndrome?

    PubMed

    Guéant, Jean-Louis; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria; Anello, Guido; Bosco, Paolo; Brunaud, Laurent; Romano, Corrado; Ferri, Rafaele; Romano, Antonino; Candito, Mirande; Namour, Bernard

    2003-11-01

    One-carbon metabolism is under the influence of folate, vitamin B12 and genetic polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677 C --> T and 1298 A --> C), of methionine synthase (MTR 2756 C --> G), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR 66 A --> G) and transcobalamin (TCN 776 C --> G). The pathogenesis of neural tube defect (NTD) may be related to this metabolism. The influence of the MTHFR 677 C --> T polymorphism reported in The Netherlands and Ireland can be questioned in southern Italy, France and Great Britain. MTRR, combined with a low level of vitamin B12, increases the risk of NTD and of having a child with NTD in Canada, while TCN 776 GG and MTRR 66 GG mutated genotypes associated with the MTHFR 677 CC wild-type are predictors of NTD cases in Sicily. Down syndrome (DS) is due to a failure of normal chromosomal segregation during meiosis, possibly related to one-carbon metabolism. MTHFR 677 C --> T and MTRR 66 A --> G polymorphisms are associated with a greater risk of having a child with DS in North America, Ireland and The Netherlands. In contrast, MTHFR 677 C --> T has no influence on DS risk in France and Sicily, while homocysteine and MTR 2756 AG/GG genotypes are predictors of DS risk in Sicily. In conclusion, NTD and DS are influenced by the same genetic determinants of one-carbon metabolism. The distinct data produced in different geographical areas may be explained by differences in the nutritional environment and genetic characteristics of the populations. PMID:14656028

  6. Long-term garlic or micronutrient supplementation, but not anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy, increases serum folate or glutathione without affecting serum vitamin B-12 or homocysteine in a rural Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujue; Zhang, Lian; Moslehi, Roxana; Ma, Junling; Pan, Kaifeng; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Weidong; Brown, Linda Morris; Hu, Yuangreng; Pee, David; Gail, Mitchell H; You, Weicheng

    2009-01-01

    The effects of a 7.3-y supplementation with garlic and micronutrients and of anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment with amoxicillin (1 g twice daily) and omeprazole (20 mg twice daily) on serum folate, vitamin B-12, homocysteine, and glutathione concentrations were assessed in a rural Chinese population. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial trial was conducted to compare the ability of 3 treatments to retard the development of precancerous gastric lesions in 3411 subjects. The treatments were: 1) anti-H. pylori treatment with amoxicillin and omeprazole; 2) 7.3-y supplementation with aged garlic and steam-distilled garlic oil; and 3) 7.3-y supplementation with vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium. All 3 treatments were given in a 2(3) factorial design to subjects seropositive for H. pylori infection; only the garlic supplement and vitamin and selenium supplement were given in a 2(2) factorial design to the other subjects. Thirty-four subjects were randomly selected from each of the 12 treatment strata. Sera were analyzed after 7.3 y to measure effects on folate, vitamin B-12, homocysteine, and glutathione concentrations. Regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, and smoking indica